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Sample records for direct-injection stratified-charge rotary

  1. Performance of a supercharged direct-injection stratified-charge rotary combustion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartrand, Timothy A.; Willis, Edward A.

    1990-01-01

    A zero-dimensional thermodynamic performance computer model for direct-injection stratified-charge rotary combustion engines was modified and run for a single rotor supercharged engine. Operating conditions for the computer runs were a single boost pressure and a matrix of speeds, loads and engine materials. A representative engine map is presented showing the predicted range of efficient operation. After discussion of the engine map, a number of engine features are analyzed individually. These features are: heat transfer and the influence insulating materials have on engine performance and exhaust energy; intake manifold pressure oscillations and interactions with the combustion chamber; and performance losses and seal friction. Finally, code running times and convergence data are presented.

  2. Regressed relations for forced convection heat transfer in a direct injection stratified charge rotary engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chi M.; Schock, Harold J.

    1988-01-01

    Currently, the heat transfer equation used in the rotary combustion engine (RCE) simulation model is taken from piston engine studies. These relations have been empirically developed by the experimental input coming from piston engines whose geometry differs considerably from that of the RCE. The objective of this work was to derive equations to estimate heat transfer coefficients in the combustion chamber of an RCE. This was accomplished by making detailed temperature and pressure measurements in a direct injection stratified charge (DISC) RCE under a range of conditions. For each specific measurement point, the local gas velocity was assumed equal to the local rotor tip speed. Local physical properties of the fluids were then calculated. Two types of correlation equations were derived and are described in this paper. The first correlation expresses the Nusselt number as a function of the Prandtl number, Reynolds number, and characteristic temperature ratio; the second correlation expresses the forced convection heat transfer coefficient as a function of fluid temperature, pressure and velocity.

  3. Stratified charge rotary engine for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, R. E.; Parente, A. M.; Hady, W. F.

    1986-01-01

    A development history, a current development status assessment, and a design feature and performance capabilities account are given for stratified-charge rotary engines applicable to aircraft propulsion. Such engines are capable of operating on Jet-A fuel with substantial cost savings, improved altitude capability, and lower fuel consumption by comparison with gas turbine powerplants. Attention is given to the current development program of a 400-hp engine scheduled for initial operations in early 1990. Stratified charge rotary engines are also applicable to ground power units, airborne APUs, shipboard generators, and vehicular engines.

  4. Stratified charge rotary engine combustion studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shock, H.; Hamady, F.; Somerton, C.; Stuecken, T.; Chouinard, E.; Rachal, T.; Kosterman, J.; Lambeth, M.; Olbrich, C.

    1989-01-01

    Analytical and experimental studies of the combustion process in a stratified charge rotary engine (SCRE) continue to be the subject of active research in recent years. Specifically to meet the demand for more sophisticated products, a detailed understanding of the engine system of interest is warranted. With this in mind the objective of this work is to develop an understanding of the controlling factors that affect the SCRE combustion process so that an efficient power dense rotary engine can be designed. The influence of the induction-exhaust systems and the rotor geometry are believed to have a significant effect on combustion chamber flow characteristics. In this report, emphasis is centered on Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) measurements and on qualitative flow visualizations in the combustion chamber of the motored rotary engine assembly. This will provide a basic understanding of the flow process in the RCE and serve as a data base for verification of numerical simulations. Understanding fuel injection provisions is also important to the successful operation of the stratified charge rotary engine. Toward this end, flow visualizations depicting the development of high speed, high pressure fuel jets are described. Friction is an important consideration in an engine from the standpoint of lost work, durability and reliability. MSU Engine Research Laboratory efforts in accessing the frictional losses associated with the rotary engine are described. This includes work which describes losses in bearing, seal and auxillary components. Finally, a computer controlled mapping system under development is described. This system can be used to map shapes such as combustion chamber, intake manifolds or turbine blades accurately.

  5. Advanced stratified charge rotary aircraft engine design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badgley, P.; Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.; Norwood, E.; Pratt, W. B.; Ellis, D. R.; Huggins, G.; Mueller, A.; Hembrey, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    A technology base of new developments which offered potential benefits to a general aviation engine was compiled and ranked. Using design approaches selected from the ranked list, conceptual design studies were performed of an advanced and a highly advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft Kw/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft altitude. These are turbocharged, direct-injected stratified charge engines intended for commercial introduction in the early 1990's. The engine descriptive data includes tables, curves, and drawings depicting configuration, performance, weights and sizes, heat rejection, ignition and fuel injection system descriptions, maintenance requirements, and scaling data for varying power. An engine-airframe integration study of the resulting engines in advanced airframes was performed on a comparative basis with current production type engines. The results show airplane performance, costs, noise & installation factors. The rotary-engined airplanes display substantial improvements over the baseline, including 30 to 35% lower fuel usage.

  6. Dual Spark Plugs For Stratified-Charge Rotary Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, John; Bracco, Frediano V.

    1996-01-01

    Fuel efficiency of stratified-charge, rotary, internal-combustion engine increased by improved design featuring dual spark plugs. Second spark plug ignites fuel on upstream side of main fuel injector; enabling faster burning and more nearly complete utilization of fuel.

  7. Stratified charge rotary aircraft engine technology enablement program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badgley, P. R.; Irion, C. E.; Myers, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    The multifuel stratified charge rotary engine is discussed. A single rotor, 0.7L/40 cu in displacement, research rig engine was tested. The research rig engine was designed for operation at high speeds and pressures, combustion chamber peak pressure providing margin for speed and load excursions above the design requirement for a high is advanced aircraft engine. It is indicated that the single rotor research rig engine is capable of meeting the established design requirements of 120 kW, 8,000 RPM, 1,379 KPA BMEP. The research rig engine, when fully developed, will be a valuable tool for investigating, advanced and highly advanced technology components, and provide an understanding of the stratified charge rotary engine combustion process.

  8. Stratified charge rotary engine critical technology enablement. Volume 2: Appendixes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irion, C. E.; Mount, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    This second volume of appendixes is a companion to Volume 1 of this report which summarizes results of a critical technology enablement effort with the stratified charge rotary engine (SCRE) focusing on a power section of 0.67 liters (40 cu. in.) per rotor in single and two rotor versions. The work is a continuation of prior NASA Contracts NAS3-23056 and NAS3-24628. Technical objectives are multi-fuel capability, including civil and military jet fuel and DF-2, fuel efficiency of 0.355 Lbs/BHP-Hr. at best cruise condition above 50 percent power, altitude capability of up to 10Km (33,000 ft.) cruise, 2000 hour TBO and reduced coolant heat rejection. Critical technologies for SCRE's that have the potential for competitive performance and cost in a representative light-aircraft environment were examined. Objectives were: the development and utilization of advanced analytical tools, i.e. higher speed and enhanced three dimensional combustion modeling; identification of critical technologies; development of improved instrumentation; and to isolate and quantitatively identify the contribution to performance and efficiency of critical components or subsystems. A family of four-stage third-order explicit Runge-Kutta schemes is derived that required only two locations and has desirable stability characteristics. Error control is achieved by embedding a second-order scheme within the four-stage procedure. Certain schemes are identified that are as efficient and accurate as conventional embedded schemes of comparable order and require fewer storage locations.

  9. Stratified Charge Rotary Engine Critical Technology Enablement, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irion, C. E.; Mount, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes results of a critical technology enablement effort with the stratified charge rotary engine (SCRE) focusing on a power section of 0.67 liters (40 cu. in.) per rotor in single and two rotor versions. The work is a continuation of prior NASA Contracts NAS3-23056 and NAS3-24628. Technical objectives are multi-fuel capability, including civil and military jet fuel and DF-2, fuel efficiency of 0.355 Lbs/BHP-Hr. at best cruise condition above 50 percent power, altitude capability of up to 10Km (33,000 ft.) cruise, 2000 hour TBO and reduced coolant heat rejection. Critical technologies for SCRE's that have the potential for competitive performance and cost in a representative light-aircraft environment were examined. Objectives were: the development and utilization of advanced analytical tools, i.e. higher speed and enhanced three dimensional combustion modeling; identification of critical technologies; development of improved instrumentation, and to isolate and quantitatively identify the contribution to performance and efficiency of critical components or subsystems.

  10. Advanced liquid-cooled, turbocharged and intercooled stratified charge rotary engines for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, Robert E.; Bartel, John; Hady, William F.

    1987-01-01

    Developments concerning stratified-charge rotary (SCR) engines over the past 10 years are reviewed. Aircraft engines being developed using SCR technology are shown and described, and the ability of such technology to meet general aviation engine needs is considered. Production timing and availability of SCR technology for the development of aviation rotary engines are discussed, and continuing efforts toward improving this technology, including NASA efforts, are described.

  11. Effects of piston surface treatments on performance and emissions of a methanol-fueled, direct injection, stratified charge engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, B.; Green, J. B.

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of thermal barrier coatings and/or surface treatments on the performance and emissions of a methanol-fueled, direct-injection, stratified-charge (DISC) engine. A Ricardo Hydra Mark III engine was used for this work and in previous experiments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The primary focus of the study was to examine the effects of various piston insert surface treatments on hydrocarbon (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) emissions. Previous studies have shown that engines of this class have a tendency to perform poorly at low loads and have high unburned fuel emissions. A blank aluminum piston was modified to employ removable piston bowl inserts. Four different inserts were tested in the experiment: aluminum, stainless steel with a 1.27-mm (0.050-in.) air gap (to act as a thermal barrier), and two stainless steel/air-gap inserts with coatings. Two stainless steel inserts were dimensionally modified to account for the coating thickness (1.27-mm) and coated identically with partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ). One of the coated inserts then had an additional seal-coat applied. The coated inserts were otherwise identical to the stainless steel/air-gap insert (i.e., they employed the same 1.27-mm air gap). Thermal barrier coatings were employed in an attempt to increase combustion chamber surface temperatures, thereby reducing wall quenching and promoting more complete combustion of the fuel in the quench zone. The seal-coat was applied to the zirconia to reduce the surface porosity; previous research suggested that despite the possibly higher surface temperatures obtainable with a ceramic coating, the high surface area of a plasma-sprayed coating may actually allow fuel to adhere to the surface and increase the unburned fuel emissions and fuel consumption.

  12. Design of a high-performance rotary stratified-charge research aircraft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.; Mount, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The power section for an advanced rotary stratified-charge general aviation engine has been designed under contract to NASA. The single-rotor research engine of 40 cubic-inches displacement (RCI-40), now being procured for test initiation this summer, is targeted for 320 T.O. horse-power in a two-rotor production engine. The research engine is designed for operating on jet-fuel, gasoline or diesel fuel and will be used to explore applicable advanced technologies and to optimize high output performance variables. Design of major components of the engine is described in this paper.

  13. Two Rotor Stratified Charge Rotary Engine (SCRE) Engine System Technology Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, T.; Mack, J.; Mount, R.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes results of an evaluation of technology enablement component technologies as integrated into a two rotor Stratified Charge Rotary Engine (SCRE). The work constitutes a demonstration of two rotor engine system technology, utilizing upgraded and refined component technologies derived from prior NASA Contracts NAS3-25945, NAS3-24628 and NAS-23056. Technical objectives included definition of, procurement and assembly of an advanced two rotor core aircraft engine, operation with Jet-A fuel at Take-Off rating of 340 BHP (254kW) and operation at a maximum cruise condition of 255 BHP (190kW), 75% cruise. A fuel consumption objective of 0.435 LBS/BHP-Hr (265 GRS/kW-Hr) was identified for the maximum cruise condition. A critical technology component item, a high speed, unit injector fuel injection system with electronic control was defined, procured and tested in conjunction with this effort. The two rotor engine configuration established herein defines an affordable, advanced, Jet-A fuel capability core engine (not including reduction gear, propeller shaft and some aircraft accessories) for General Aviation of the mid-1990's and beyond.

  14. A review of Curtiss-Wright rotary engine developments with respect to general aviation potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.

    1979-01-01

    Aviation related rotary (Wankel-type) engine tests, possible growth directions and relevant developments at Curtiss-Wright have been reviewed. Automotive rotary engines including stratified charge are described and flight test results of rotary aircraft engines are presented. The current 300 HP engine prototype shows basic durability and competitive performance potential. Recent parallel developments have separately confirmed the geometric advantages of the rotary engine for direct injected unthrottled stratified charge. Specific fuel consumption equal to or better than pre- or swirl-chamber diesels, low emission and multi-fuel capability have been shown by rig tests of similar rotary engine.

  15. Adiabatic Wankel type rotary engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamo, R.; Badgley, P.; Doup, D.

    1988-01-01

    This SBIR Phase program accomplished the objective of advancing the technology of the Wankel type rotary engine for aircraft applications through the use of adiabatic engine technology. Based on the results of this program, technology is in place to provide a rotor and side and intermediate housings with thermal barrier coatings. A detailed cycle analysis of the NASA 1007R Direct Injection Stratified Charge (DISC) rotary engine was performed which concluded that applying thermal barrier coatings to the rotor should be successful and that it was unlikely that the rotor housing could be successfully run with thermal barrier coatings as the thermal stresses were extensive.

  16. Laminar flame propagation in a stratified charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ra, Youngchul

    The propagation of laminar flame from a rich or stoichiometric mixture to a lean mixture in a stratified methane-air charge was investigated experimentally and numerically. Emphasis was on the understanding of the flame behavior in the transition region; in particular, on the mechanism of burning velocity enhancement in this region. In the experimental setup, mixtures of two different equivalence ratios were separated by a soap bubble in a spherical constant volume combustion vessel. The richer mixture inside the bubble was ignited by a focused laser beam. The flame development was observed by Schlieren technique and flame speeds were measured by heat release analysis of the pressure data. An one-dimensional, time- dependant numerical simulation of the flame propagation in a charge with step-stratification was used to interpret the experimental results. Both the experimental and numerical studies showed that the instantaneous flame speed depended on the previous flame history. Thus a `strong' (with mixture equivalence ratio close to stoichiometric) flame can sustain propagation into finite regions of substantially lean equivalence ratio. Both thermal and chemical effects were crucial for explaining the mechanism of the flame speed enhancement in the transition period. Because of the presence of this `back- support' effect, the usual concept of specifying the burning velocity as a function of the end gas state is inadequate for a stratified charge. A simple correlation for instantaneous flame velocity based on the local burned gas temperature is developed. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253- 1690.)

  17. Numerical Study of Stratified Charge Combustion in Wave Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalim, M. Razi

    1997-01-01

    A wave rotor may be used as a pressure-gain combustor effecting non-steady flow, and intermittent, confined combustion to enhance gas turbine engine performance. It will be more compact and probably lighter than an equivalent pressure-exchange wave rotor, yet will have similar thermodynamic and mechanical characteristics. Because the allowable turbine blade temperature limits overall fuel/air ratio to sub-flammable values, premixed stratification techniques are necessary to burn hydrocarbon fuels in small engines with compressor discharge temperature well below autoignition conditions. One-dimensional, unsteady numerical simulations of stratified-charge combustion are performed using an eddy-diffusivity turbulence model and a simple reaction model incorporating a flammability limit temperature. For good combustion efficiency, a stratification strategy is developed which concentrates fuel at the leading and trailing edges of the inlet port. Rotor and exhaust temperature profiles and performance predictions are presented at three representative operating conditions of the engine: full design load, 40% load, and idle. The results indicate that peak local gas temperatures will result in excessive temperatures within the rotor housing unless additional cooling methods are used. The rotor itself will have acceptable temperatures, but the pattern factor presented to the turbine may be of concern, depending on exhaust duct design and duct-rotor interaction.

  18. Study of advanced rotary combustion engines for commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.

    1983-01-01

    Performance, weight, size, and maintenance data for advanced rotary aircraft engines suitable for comparative commuter aircraft system evaluation studies of alternate engine candidates are provided. These are turbocharged, turbocompounded, direct injected, stratified charge rotary engines. Hypothetical engines were defined (an RC4-74 at 895 kW and an RC6-87 at 1490 kW) based on the technologies and design approaches used in the highly advanced engine of a study of advanced general aviation rotary engines. The data covers the size range of shaft power from 597 kW (800 hp) to 1865 kW (2500 hp) and is in the form of drawings, tables, curves and written text. These include data on internal geometry and configuration, installation information, turbocharging and turbocompounding arrangements, design features and technologies, engine cooling, fuels, scaling for weight size BSFC and heat rejection for varying horsepower, engine operating and performance data, and TBO and maintenance requirements. The basic combustion system was developed and demonstrated; however the projected power densities and performance efficiencies require increases in engine internal pressures, thermal loading, and rotative speed.

  19. Multi-fuel rotary engine for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.; Ellis, D. R.; Meng, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Design studies of advanced multifuel general aviation and commuter aircraft rotary stratified charge engines are summarized. Conceptual design studies were performed at two levels of technology, on advanced general aviation engines sized to provide 186/250 shaft kW/hp under cruise conditions at 7620 (25000 m/ft) altitude. A follow on study extended the results to larger (2500 hp max.) engine sizes suitable for applications such as commuter transports and helicopters. The study engine designs were derived from relevant engine development background including both prior and recent engine test results using direct injected unthrottled rotary engine technology. Aircraft studies, using these resultant growth engines, define anticipated system effects of the performance and power density improvements for both single engine and twin engine airplanes. The calculated results indicate superior system performance and 27 to 33 percent fuel economy improvement for the rotary engine airplanes as compared to equivalent airframe concept designs with current baseline engines. The research and technology activities required to attain the projected engine performance levels are also discussed.

  20. Multi-Fuel Rotary Engine for General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.; Ellis, D. R.; Meng, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Design studies, conducted for NASA, of Advanced Multi-fuel General Aviation and Commuter Aircraft Rotary Stratified Charge Engines are summarized. Conceptual design studies of an advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft KW/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft. altitude were performed. Relevant engine development background covering both prior and recent engine test results of the direct injected unthrottled rotary engine technology, including the capability to interchangeably operate on gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene, or aviation jet fuel, are presented and related to growth predictions. Aircraft studies, using these resultant growth engines, define anticipated system effects of the performance and power density improvements for both single engine and twin engine airplanes. The calculated results indicate superior system performance and 30 to 35% fuel economy improvement for the Rotary-engine airplanes as compared to equivalent airframe concept designs with current baseline engines. The research and technology activities required to attain the projected engine performance levels are also discussed.

  1. Enhancement of Stratified Charge for DISI Engines through Split Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tie; Nishida, Keiya; Zhang, Yuyin; Onoe, Tuyoshi; Hiroyau, Hiroyuki

    The effect of split injection on the mixture characteristics of DISI (Direct Injection Spark Ignition) engines was investigated firstly by the Laser Absorption Scattering (LAS) technique. Through splitting the fuel injection process, two possible benefits were found: 1) High density liquid droplets piling up at the leading edge of the spray can be circumvented, subsequently the reduction of the spray tip penetration; 2) The quantity of “over lean” (φv<0.7, φv: equivalence ratio of vapor) mixture in the spray can be significantly reduced. These are believed to contribute to the reduction of the engine-out smoke and HC emissions. In order to clarify the mechanism behind the effect of the split injection, the spray-induced ambient air motion was investigated by the LIF-PIV technique. The strong ambient air entrainment into the tail region of the spray and a counter-vortex structure were found in both the single and split injections. In the case of the single injection, the spray develops in extending its length, subsequently a larger volume results and thus it is diluted to “over lean” by the ambient air entrainment. In contrast, in the case of split injection, the second spray is injected into the tail region of the first spray and its evaporation is promoted by the ambient air motion induced by the first spray. Hence the replenishment of the liquid fuel into the leading edge of the first spray is reduced. As a consequence, the high density liquid droplets piling up at the leading edge is avoided. Furthermore, a more compact spray results so that the ambient air motion plays a positive role on evaporating the spray into “more combustible” (0.7<φv<1.3). This is especially true in the tail region of the spray and the region where the counter-vortex motion is occurring.

  2. Rotary engine performance limits predicted by a zero-dimensional model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartrand, Timothy A.; Willis, Edward A.

    1992-01-01

    A parametric study was performed to determine the performance limits of a rotary combustion engine. This study shows how well increasing the combustion rate, insulating, and turbocharging increase brake power and decrease fuel consumption. Several generalizations can be made from the findings. First, it was shown that the fastest combustion rate is not necessarily the best combustion rate. Second, several engine insulation schemes were employed for a turbocharged engine. Performance improved only for a highly insulated engine. Finally, the variability of turbocompounding and the influence of exhaust port shape were calculated. Rotary engines performance was predicted by an improved zero-dimensional computer model based on a model developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the 1980's. Independent variables in the study include turbocharging, manifold pressures, wall thermal properties, leakage area, and exhaust port geometry. Additions to the computer programs since its results were last published include turbocharging, manifold modeling, and improved friction power loss calculation. The baseline engine for this study is a single rotor 650 cc direct-injection stratified-charge engine with aluminum housings and a stainless steel rotor. Engine maps are provided for the baseline and turbocharged versions of the engine.

  3. The role of spray-enhanced swirl flow for combustion stabilization in a stratified-charge DISI engine

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Wei; Sjöberg, Magnus; Reuss, David L.; Hu, Zongjie

    2016-06-01

    Implementing spray-guided stratified-charge direct-injection spark-ignited (DISI) engines is inhibited by the occurrence of misfire and partial burns. Engine-performance tests demonstrate that increasing engine speed induces combustion instability, but this deterioration can be prevented by generating swirling flow during the intake stroke. In-cylinder pressure-based heat-release analysis reveals that the appearance of poor-burn cycles is not solely dependent on the variability of early flame-kernel growth. Moreover, cycles can experience burning-rate regression during later combustion stages and may or may not recover before the end of the cycle. Thermodynamic analysis and optical diagnostics are used here to clarify why swirl improves the combustion repeatability from cycle to cycle. The fluid dynamics of swirl/spray interaction was previously demonstrated using high-speed PIV measurements of in-cylinder motored flow. It was found that the sprays of the multi-hole injector redistribute the intake-generated swirl flow momentum, thereby creating a better-centered higher angular-momentum vortex with reduced variability. The engine operation with high swirl was found to have significant improvement in cycle-to-cycle variations of both flow pattern and flow momentum. This paper is an extension of the previous work. Here, PIV measurements and flame imaging are applied to fired operation for studying how the swirl flow affects variability of ignition and subsequent combustion phases. PIV results for fired operation are consistent with the measurements made of motored flow. They demonstrate that the spark-plasma motion is highly correlated with the direction of the gas flow in the vicinity of the spark-plug gap. Without swirl, the plasma is randomly stretched towards either side of the spark plug, causing variability in the ignition of the two spray plumes that are straddling the spark plug. Conversely, swirl flow always convects the spark plasma towards one spray plume

  4. The role of spray-enhanced swirl flow for combustion stabilization in a stratified-charge DISI engine

    DOE PAGES

    Zeng, Wei; Sjöberg, Magnus; Reuss, David L.; ...

    2016-06-01

    Implementing spray-guided stratified-charge direct-injection spark-ignited (DISI) engines is inhibited by the occurrence of misfire and partial burns. Engine-performance tests demonstrate that increasing engine speed induces combustion instability, but this deterioration can be prevented by generating swirling flow during the intake stroke. In-cylinder pressure-based heat-release analysis reveals that the appearance of poor-burn cycles is not solely dependent on the variability of early flame-kernel growth. Moreover, cycles can experience burning-rate regression during later combustion stages and may or may not recover before the end of the cycle. Thermodynamic analysis and optical diagnostics are used here to clarify why swirl improves the combustionmore » repeatability from cycle to cycle. The fluid dynamics of swirl/spray interaction was previously demonstrated using high-speed PIV measurements of in-cylinder motored flow. It was found that the sprays of the multi-hole injector redistribute the intake-generated swirl flow momentum, thereby creating a better-centered higher angular-momentum vortex with reduced variability. The engine operation with high swirl was found to have significant improvement in cycle-to-cycle variations of both flow pattern and flow momentum. This paper is an extension of the previous work. Here, PIV measurements and flame imaging are applied to fired operation for studying how the swirl flow affects variability of ignition and subsequent combustion phases. PIV results for fired operation are consistent with the measurements made of motored flow. They demonstrate that the spark-plasma motion is highly correlated with the direction of the gas flow in the vicinity of the spark-plug gap. Without swirl, the plasma is randomly stretched towards either side of the spark plug, causing variability in the ignition of the two spray plumes that are straddling the spark plug. Conversely, swirl flow always convects the spark plasma towards one

  5. Invited Review. Combustion instability in spray-guided stratified-charge engines. A review

    SciTech Connect

    Fansler, Todd D.; Reuss, D. L.; Sick, V.; Dahms, R. N.

    2015-02-02

    Our article reviews systematic research on combustion instabilities (principally rare, random misfires and partial burns) in spray-guided stratified-charge (SGSC) engines operated at part load with highly stratified fuel -air -residual mixtures. Results from high-speed optical imaging diagnostics and numerical simulation provide a conceptual framework and quantify the sensitivity of ignition and flame propagation to strong, cyclically varying temporal and spatial gradients in the flow field and in the fuel -air -residual distribution. For SGSC engines using multi-hole injectors, spark stretching and locally rich ignition are beneficial. Moreover, combustion instability is dominated by convective flow fluctuations that impede motion of the spark or flame kernel toward the bulk of the fuel, coupled with low flame speeds due to locally lean mixtures surrounding the kernel. In SGSC engines using outwardly opening piezo-electric injectors, ignition and early flame growth are strongly influenced by the spray's characteristic recirculation vortex. For both injection systems, the spray and the intake/compression-generated flow field influence each other. Factors underlying the benefits of multi-pulse injection are identified. Finally, some unresolved questions include (1) the extent to which piezo-SGSC misfires are caused by failure to form a flame kernel rather than by flame-kernel extinction (as in multi-hole SGSC engines); (2) the relative contributions of partially premixed flame propagation and mixing-controlled combustion under the exceptionally late-injection conditions that permit SGSC operation on E85-like fuels with very low NOx and soot emissions; and (3) the effects of flow-field variability on later combustion, where fuel-air-residual mixing within the piston bowl becomes important.

  6. Stratified charge combustion system and method for gaseous fuel internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoades, W.A. Jr.

    1986-03-11

    This patent describes a stratified charge combustion system for use in a gaseous fuel internal combustion engine. This system consists of: (a) a combustion chamber; (b) an ignition; (c) a gaseous fuel injection valve assembly in communication with the combustion chamber and in spaced relationship from the ignition source with a portion of the inside surfaces extending between the fuel injection valve assembly and the ignition source. The fuel valve assembly defines an entry port for the entrance of gaseous fuel, the entry port is recessed outside of a fixed inside surface. (d) means for pressuring the gaseous fuel prior to injection; and (e) a curved transitional surface extending from the entry port toward the portion of the inside surfaces extending between the fuel injection valve assembly and the ignition source. The curved transitional surface curves away from the direction of the entry port. The curved transitional surface has a curvature for the particular direction and configuration of the entry port. The particular configuration of the portion of the inside surfaces extends between the injection valve assembly and the ignition source. The particular arrangment of the fuel injection valve assembly in the combustion chamber, and for the particular pressure of the gaseous fuel is to produce the Coanda Effect in the injected gaseous fuel flow after it passes through the entry port and follows the curved transitional surface under the Coanda Effect. As the curved transitional surface curves away from the direction of the entry port, a flow is produced of the gaseous fuel that clings to and follows the particular configuration of the inside surfaces to the ignition source.

  7. European Lean Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Chambon, Paul H; Huff, Shean P; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Norman, Kevin M; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Thomas, John F

    2011-01-01

    Lean Gasoline Direct Injection (LGDI) combustion is a promising technical path for achieving significant improvements in fuel efficiency while meeting future emissions requirements. Though Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) technology is commercially available in a few vehicles on the American market, LGDI vehicles are not, but can be found in Europe. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) obtained a European BMW 1-series fitted with a 2.0l LGDI engine. The vehicle was instrumented and commissioned on a chassis dynamometer. The engine and after-treatment performance and emissions were characterized over US drive cycles (Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06)) and steady state mappings. The vehicle micro hybrid features (engine stop-start and intelligent alternator) were benchmarked as well during the course of that study. The data was analyzed to quantify the benefits and drawbacks of the lean gasoline direct injection and micro hybrid technologies from a fuel economy and emissions perspectives with respect to the US market. Additionally that data will be formatted to develop, substantiate, and exercise vehicle simulations with conventional and advanced powertrains.

  8. An overview of the NASA Rotary Engine Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, P.R.; Hady, W.F.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview and technical highlights of the research efforts and studies on rotary engines over the last several years at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The review covers the test results obtained from turbocharged rotary engines and preliminary results from a high performance single-rotor engine. Combustion modeling studies of the rotary engine and the use of a laser doppler velocimeter to confirm the studies are discussed. An in-house program in which a turbocharged rotary engine was installed in a Cessna Skymaster for ground test studies is also covered. Details are presented on single-rotor stratified-charge rotary engine research efforts, both in-house and on contract.

  9. Rotary engine

    SciTech Connect

    Brownfield, L.A.

    1980-12-02

    The major components of this rotary engine are two equal sized rotary units, the housing containing them along with associated ignition and cooling systems. Each of the rotary units consists of a shaft, gear, two outer compressor wheels, and one center power wheel which has twice the axial thickness as the compressor wheel. All the wheels are cylindrical in shape with a lobe section comprising a 180/sup 0/ arc on the periphery of each wheel which forms an expanding and contracting volumetric chamber by means of leading and trailing lips. The lobes of the first rotary unit are situated 180/sup 0/ opposite the lobes of the second adjacent mating rotary unit, thus lobes can intermesh with its corresponding wheel.

  10. Effect of cavitation in high-pressure direct injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboulhasanzadeh, Bahman; Johnsen, Eric

    2015-11-01

    As we move toward higher pressures for Gasoline Direct Injection and Diesel Direct Injection, cavitation has become an important issue. To better understand the effect of cavitation on the nozzle flow and primary atomization, we use a high-order accurate Discontinuous Galerkin approach using multi-GPU parallelism to simulate the compressible flow inside and outside the nozzle. Phase change is included using the six-equations model. We investigate the effect of nozzle geometry on cavitation inside the injector and on primary atomization outside the nozzle.

  11. Rotary Transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLyman, Colonel Wm. T.

    1996-01-01

    None given. From first Par: Many spacecraft (S/C) and surface rovers require the transfer of signals and power across rotating interfaces. Science instruments, antennas and solar arrays are elements needing rotary power transfer for certain (S/C) configurations. Delivery of signal and power has mainly been done by using the simplest means, the slip ring approach. This approach, although simple, leaves debris generating noise over a period of time...The rotary transformer is a good alternative to slip rings for signal and power transfer.

  12. Rotary ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Alastair G.; Sobti, Meghna; Harvey, Richard P.; Stock, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Rotary ATPases are molecular rotary motors involved in biological energy conversion. They either synthesize or hydrolyze the universal biological energy carrier adenosine triphosphate. Recent work has elucidated the general architecture and subunit compositions of all three sub-types of rotary ATPases. Composite models of the intact F-, V- and A-type ATPases have been constructed by fitting high-resolution X-ray structures of individual subunits or sub-complexes into low-resolution electron densities of the intact enzymes derived from electron cryo-microscopy. Electron cryo-tomography has provided new insights into the supra-molecular arrangement of eukaryotic ATP synthases within mitochondria and mass-spectrometry has started to identify specifically bound lipids presumed to be essential for function. Taken together these molecular snapshots show that nano-scale rotary engines have much in common with basic design principles of man made machines from the function of individual “machine elements” to the requirement of the right “fuel” and “oil” for different types of motors. PMID:23369889

  13. Sunflower methyl esters for direct injected diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, K.R.; Ziejewski, M.

    1984-11-01

    A methyl ester of sunflower oil was durability tested in direct injected, turbocharged and intercooled diesel engine. A test cycle recommended by the Alternate Fuels Committee of the Engine Manufacturer's Assocation was used. The results are compared to a baseline test using diesel fuel. Based on the results, the methyl ester fuel successfully completed the 200-hour durability test. Field tests and engine manufacturers evaluations are needed to further quantify the long term effect of the fuel on engine durability. 14 references.

  14. ROTARY SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Watterberg, J.P.E.

    1960-03-15

    BS>A compact rotary-type switoh was designed wherein an insulating shell carries circumferentially spaced contacts exposed to its interior and also carries, on a re-entrant portion, resilient contact arms having contact portions aligned wth and biased toward the spaced contacts. A dielectric rotor with a movable wall between the contacts and contact arms has an aperture that may be turned into or out of registry with the contacts so as to establish or interrupt circuits.

  15. Direct Injection Compression Ignition Diesel Automotive Technology Education GATE Program

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Carl L

    2006-09-25

    The underlying goal of this prqject was to provide multi-disciplinary engineering training for graduate students in the area of internal combustion engines, specifically in direct injection compression ignition engines. The program was designed to educate highly qualified engineers and scientists that will seek to overcome teclmological barriers preventing the development and production of cost-effective high-efficiency vehicles for the U.S. market. Fu1iher, these highly qualified engineers and scientists will foster an educational process to train a future workforce of automotive engineering professionals who are knowledgeable about and have experience in developing and commercializing critical advanced automotive teclmologies. Eight objectives were defmed to accomplish this goal: 1. Develop an interdisciplinary internal co1nbustion engine curriculum emphasizing direct injected combustion ignited diesel engines. 2. Encourage and promote interdisciplinary interaction of the faculty. 3. Offer a Ph.D. degree in internal combustion engines based upon an interdisciplinary cuniculum. 4. Promote strong interaction with indusuy, develop a sense of responsibility with industry and pursue a self sustaining program. 5. Establish collaborative arrangements and network universities active in internal combustion engine study. 6. Further Enhance a First Class educational facility. 7. Establish 'off-campus' M.S. and Ph.D. engine programs of study at various indusuial sites. 8. Extend and Enhance the Graduate Experience.

  16. A buffer direct injection and direct injection readout circuit with mode selection design for infrared focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tai-Ping; Lu, Yi-Chuan; Kang, Lai-Li; Shieh, Hsiu-Li

    2014-03-01

    This paper proposes a solution to the excessive area penalty associated with traditional buffer direct injection (BDI) for single pixel. The proposed solution reduces the area and power consumption of BDI to combine the direct injection (DI) within a shared architecture, while a dual-mode readout circuit expands the functionality and performance of the array readout circuit of infrared sensor. An experimental array of 10 × 8 readout circuits was fabricated using TSMC 2P4M 0.35 μm 5 V technology. Measurements were obtained using a main clock with a frequency of 3 MHz and power consumption of 9.94 mW. The minimum input current was 119 pA in BDI and 1.85 pA in DI. The signal swing was 2 V, the root mean square noise voltage was 1.84 mV, and the signal-to-noise ratio was 60 dB. This approach is applicable to mid- and long-band sensors to increase injection efficiency and resolution.

  17. Laser-induced ignition of gasoline direct-injection engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liedl, Gerhard; Schuoecker, Dieter; Geringer, B.; Graf, J.; Klawatsch, D.; Lenz, H. P.; Piock, W. F.; Jetzinger, M.; Kapus, P.

    2005-03-01

    A q-switched Nd:YAG laser as well as an excimer laser with an unstable resonator have been used for ignition of combustion processes. Following first experiments with a combustion bomb a gasoline direct injection engine has been modified for laser ignition by installation of a focusing element and a beam entrance window. It was possible with the q-switched Nd:YAG laser which delivers short pulses with a duration of lesss than 6 ns to ignite the engine for several 100 hours without problems. Compared to conventional spark ignition, laser ignition allows a more flexible choice of the ignition location inside the combustion chamber with the possibility to ignite even inside the fuel spray. Measurements of fuel consumption and emissions prove that laser ignition has important advantages compared to conventional spark ignition systems. Experiments with the direct injection engine have been carried out at the fundamental wavelength of the Nd:YAG laser as well as with a frequency doubled system. No differences in the minimal pulse energy needed for ignition could be found, since the minimal pulse energy for ignition is mainly determined by the ablation thresholds of combustion deposits at the surface of the window to the combustion chamber. Such combustion deposits reduce the transparency of the window where the laser beam enters the combustion chamber and a "self-cleaning" mechanism of the window by ablation is essential for successful operation. Experiments show that above a certain threshold intensity of the laser beam at the window even highly polluted surfaces could be cleaned with teh first laser pulse which is important for operation in real-world engines. Theoretically calculated energy values for laser ignition are much lower since such mechanisms are usually not considered. Power and space requirements on possible future development of laser ignition systems are discussed briefly. Several concepts for laser ignition, like diode-pumped solid state lasers (DPSS

  18. Rotary latch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Joel M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A rotary latch is disclosed, including a hollow, cylindrical outer member and a concentrically arranged inner rotor. The rotor is rotatable within the outer cylindrical member. The outer cylindrical member includes a pair of aligned openings as a cylinder first end facing a latch pin. The rotor includes a pair of aligned slots at a rotor first end facing the latch pin. Slot extensions are provided in the rotor, the slot extensions extending generally perpendicularly to the slots and generally parallel to the rotor first end. In a first position, the outer cylindrical member openings and the rotor slots are aligned to allow receipt of the latch pin. In a second position, the openings and the slot extensions are aligned thereby engaging the latch pin within a closed area defined by the rotor slot extensions and the outer cylinder openings.

  19. Rotary engine

    SciTech Connect

    Meyman, U.

    1987-02-03

    A rotary engine is described comprising: two covers spaced from one another; rotors located between the covers and rotating and planetating in different phases; the rotors interengaging to form working chambers therebetween; means to supply fluid to the working chambers and means to exhaust fluid from the working chambers during the operating cycle of the engine; gearing for synchronizing rotation and planetation of the rotors and each including first and second gears arranged so that one of the gears is connected with the rotors while the other of the gears is connected with an immovable part of the engine and the gears engage with one another; carriers interconnecting the rotors and planetating in the same phase with the planetation of the rotors for synchronizing the rotation and planetation of the rotors; shafts arranged to support the carriers during their planetations; and elements for connecting the covers with one another.

  20. Performance of CO2 enrich CNG in direct injection engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firmansyah, W. B.; Ayandotun, E. Z.; Zainal, A.; Aziz, A. R. A.; Heika, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the potential of utilizing the undeveloped natural gas fields in Malaysia with high carbon dioxide (CO2) content ranging from 28% to 87%. For this experiment, various CO2 proportions by volume were added to pure natural gas as a way of simulating raw natural gas compositions in these fields. The experimental tests were carried out using a 4-stroke single cylinder spark ignition (SI) direct injection (DI) compressed natural gas (CNG) engine. The tests were carried out at 180° and 300° before top dead centre (BTDC) injection timing at 3000 rpm, to establish the effects on the engine performance. The results show that CO2 is suppressing the combustion of CNG while on the other hand CNG combustion is causing CO2 dissociation shown by decreasing CO2 emission with the increase in CO2 content. Results for 180° BTDC injection timing shows higher performance compared to 300° BTDC because of two possible reasons, higher volumetric efficiency and higher stratification level. The results also showed the possibility of increasing the CO2 content by injection strategy.

  1. Computational experience with a three-dimensional rotary engine combustion model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.; Willis, E. A.

    1990-01-01

    A new computer code was developed to analyze the chemically reactive flow and spray combustion processes occurring inside a stratified-charge rotary engine. Mathematical and numerical details of the new code were recently described by the present authors. The results are presented of limited, initial computational trials as a first step in a long-term assessment/validation process. The engine configuration studied was chosen to approximate existing rotary engine flow visualization and hot firing test rigs. Typical results include: (1) pressure and temperature histories, (2) torque generated by the nonuniform pressure distribution within the chamber, (3) energy release rates, and (4) various flow-related phenomena. These are discussed and compared with other predictions reported in the literature. The adequacy or need for improvement in the spray/combustion models and the need for incorporating an appropriate turbulence model are also discussed.

  2. Rotary engine

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, R.L.

    1987-03-31

    An internal combustion four cycle rotary engine is described comprising: a generally cylindrical having one or more accurately spaced cylinders, each carrying a piston therein extending radially of a central rotational axis of the rotor; stationary bearings support shaft means disposed coaxially of the rotor, unitary combustion chamber means carrying main bearing means for rotatably supporting the same on the shaft means and providing one or more individual combustion chambers, each independently communicating with one of the cylinders; the chamber means being mounted concentrically of the rotor and rotatably moveable therewith about the shaft means; cam means comprising a pair of registeringly aligned, axially spaced, continuously curvilinear cam track means which are formed radially assymmetrical about a central axis coincident with the rotational axis of the rotor; the pair of cam track means being located axially outwardly of the cylinders in parallel planes lying formal to the rotational axis and adjacent opposite axial ends of the rotor; cam rider assembly means, each having follower means engaged with the track means for following the contour thereof; and means coupling a rider assembly means to the piston in each cylinder whereby to effect reciprocal strokes of each piston coaxially of its associated cylinder and radially of the rotor in response to the movements of the follower means along the track means; the track means being constructed and arranged to produce distinctly dissimilar movements of the pistons, to produce strokes of unequal duration and length during the respective intake, compression, combustion and exhaust strokes thereof.

  3. Dry low NOx combustion system with pre-mixed direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas; Ziminsky, Willy; Khan, Abdul

    2013-12-17

    A combustion system includes a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber. The second combustion chamber is positioned downstream of the first combustion chamber. The combustion system also includes a pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle. The pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle extends through the first combustion chamber into the second combustion chamber.

  4. Cyclic variations of fuel-droplet distribution during the early intake stroke of a lean-burn stratified-charge spark-ignition engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleiferis, P. G.; Hardalupas, Y.; Taylor, A. M. K. P.; Ishii, K.; Urata, Y.

    2005-11-01

    Lean-burn spark-ignition engines exhibit higher efficiency and lower specific emissions in comparison with stoichiometrically charged engines. However, as the air-to-fuel (A/F) ratio of the mixture is made leaner than stoichiometric, cycle-by-cycle variations in the early stages of in-cylinder combustion, and subsequent indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), become more pronounced and limit the range of lean-burn operation. Viable lean-burn engines promote charge stratification, the mixture near the spark plug being richer than the cylinder volume averaged value. Recent work has shown that cycle-by-cycle variations in the early stages of combustion in a stratified-charge engine can be associated with variations in both the local value of A/F ratio near the spark plug around ignition timing, as well as in the volume averaged value of the A/F ratio. The objective of the current work was to identify possible sources of such variability in A/F ratio by studying the in-cylinder field of fuel-droplet distribution during the early intake stroke. This field was visualised in an optical single-cylinder 4-valve pentroof-type spark-ignition engine by means of laser-sheet illumination in planes parallel to the cylinder head gasket 6 and 10 mm below the spark plug. The engine was run with port-injected isooctane at 1500 rpm with 30% volumetric efficiency and air-to-fuel ratio corresponding to both stoichiometric firing (A/F=15, Φ =1.0) and mixture strength close to the lean limit of stable operation (A/F=22, Φ =0.68). Images of Mie intensity scattered by the cloud of fuel droplets were acquired on a cycle-by-cycle basis. These were studied in order to establish possible correlations between the cyclic variations in size, location and scattered-light intensity of the cloud of droplets with the respective variations in IMEP. Because of the low level of Mie intensity scattered by the droplets and because of problems related to elastic scattering on the walls of the combustion

  5. Rotary drive mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Kenderdine, Eugene W.

    1991-01-01

    A rotary drive mechanism includes a rotary solenoid having a stator and multi-poled rotor. A moving member rotates with the rotor and is biased by a biasing device. The biasing device causes a further rotational movement after rotation by the rotary solenoid. Thus, energization of the rotary solenoid moves the member in one direction to one position and biases the biasing device against the member. Subsequently, de-energization of the rotary solenoid causes the biasing device to move the member in the same direction to another position from where the moving member is again movable by energization and de-energization of the rotary solenoid. Preferably, the moving member is a multi-lobed cam having the same number of lobes as the rotor has poles. An anti-overdrive device is also preferably provided for preventing overdrive in the forward direction or a reverse rotation of the moving member and for precisely aligning the moving member.

  6. Rotary drill bit with rotary cutters

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenstein, M.; Ernst, H.M.; Kunkel, H.; Olschewski, A.; Walter, L.

    1981-03-31

    A rotary drill bit is described that has a drill bit body and at least one trunnion projecting from the drill bit body and a rotary cutter supported on at least one pair of radial rolling bearings on the trunnion. The rolling elements of at least one bearing are guided on at last one axial end facing the drill bit body in an outer bearing race groove incorporated in the bore of the rotary cutter. The inner bearing groove is formed on the trunnion for the rolling elements of the radial roller bearing. A filling opening is provided for assembly of the rolling elements comprising a channel which extends through the drill bit body and trunnion and is essentially axially oriented having one terminal end adjacent the inner bearing race groove and at least one filler piece for sealing the opening. The filling opening is arranged to provide a common filling means for each radial bearing.

  7. Rotary drill bit with rotary cutters

    SciTech Connect

    Lachonius, L.

    1981-04-28

    A rotary drill bit is described having a drill bit body and at least one trunnion projecting from the drill bit body and a rotary cutter supported on at least one radial roller bearing on the trunnion. The rolling elements of the bearing are guided on at least one axial end facing the drill bit body in an outer bearing race groove incorporated in the bore of the rotary cutter. The inner bearing race groove is formed on the trunnion for the rolling elements of the radial roller bearing. At least one filling opening is provided which extends through the drill bit body and trunnion and is essentially axially oriented having one terminal end adjacent the inner bearing race groove and at least one pair of filler piece for sealing the opening. One of the filler pieces is made of an elastically compressible material.

  8. Rotary drill bit with rotary cutter

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenstein, M.; Kunkel, H.; Olschewski, A.; Walter, L.

    1981-03-17

    A rotary drill bit having a drill bit body and at least one trunnion projecting from the drill bit body and a rotary cutter supported on at least one radial roller bearing on the trunnion. The rolling elements of the bearing are guided on at least one axial end facing the drill bit body in an outer bearing race groove incorporated in the bore of the rotary cutter. The inner bearing race groove is formed on the trunnion for the rolling elements of the radial roller bearing. At least one filling opening is provided which extends through the drill bit body and trunnion and is essentially axially oriented having one terminal end adjacent the inner bearing race groove and at least one filler piece for sealing the opening.

  9. Rotary filtration system

    DOEpatents

    Herman, David T.; Maxwell, David N.

    2011-04-19

    A rotary filtration apparatus for filtering a feed fluid into permeate is provided. The rotary filtration apparatus includes a container that has a feed fluid inlet. A shaft is at least partially disposed in the container and has a passageway for the transport of permeate. A disk stack made of a plurality of filtration disks is mounted onto the shaft so that rotation of the shaft causes rotation of the filtration disks. The filtration disks may be made of steel components and may be welded together. The shaft may penetrate a filtering section of the container at a single location. The rotary filtration apparatus may also incorporate a bellows seal to prevent leakage along the shaft, and an around the shaft union rotary joint to allow for removal of permeate. Various components of the rotary filtration apparatus may be removed as a single assembly.

  10. Analysis of rotary engine combustion processes based on unsteady, three-dimensional computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.; Willis, E. A.

    1989-01-01

    A new computer code was developed for predicting the turbulent, and chemically reacting flows with sprays occurring inside of a stratified charge rotary engine. The solution procedure is based on an Eulerian Lagrangian approach where the unsteady, 3-D Navier-Stokes equations for a perfect gas mixture with variable properties are solved in generalized, Eulerian coordinates on a moving grid by making use of an implicit finite volume, Steger-Warming flux vector splitting scheme, and the liquid phase equations are solved in Lagrangian coordinates. Both the details of the numerical algorithm and the finite difference predictions of the combustor flow field during the opening of exhaust and/or intake, and also during fuel vaporization and combustion, are presented.

  11. An experimental study of the combustion characteristics in SCCI and CAI based on direct-injection gasoline engine

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.

    2007-08-15

    Emissions remain a critical issue affecting engine design and operation, while energy conservation is becoming increasingly important. One approach to favorably address these issues is to achieve homogeneous charge combustion and stratified charge combustion at lower peak temperatures with a variable compression ratio, a variable intake temperature and a trapped rate of the EGR using NVO (negative valve overlap). This experiment was attempted to investigate the origins of these lower temperature auto-ignition phenomena with SCCI and CAI using gasoline fuel. In case of SCCI, the combustion and emission characteristics of gasoline-fueled stratified-charge compression ignition (SCCI) engine according to intake temperature and compression ratio was examined. We investigated the effects of air-fuel ratio, residual EGR rate and injection timing on the CAI combustion area. In addition, the effect of injection timing on combustion factors such as the start of combustion, its duration and its heat release rate was also investigated. (author)

  12. Equations For Rotary Transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomon, Phil M.; Wiktor, Peter J.; Marchetto, Carl A.

    1988-01-01

    Equations derived for input impedance, input power, and ratio of secondary current to primary current of rotary transformer. Used for quick analysis of transformer designs. Circuit model commonly used in textbooks on theory of ac circuits.

  13. Compact rotary sequencer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleberry, W. T.

    1980-01-01

    Rotary sequencer is assembled from conventional planetary differential gearset and latching mechanism utilizing inputs and outputs which are coaxial. Applications include automated production-line equipment in home appliances and in vehicles.

  14. Push-through direct injection NMR: an optimized automation method applied to metabolomics

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a pressing need to increase the throughput of NMR analysis in fields such as metabolomics and drug discovery. Direct injection (DI) NMR automation is recognized to have the potential to meet this need due to its suitability for integration with the 96-well plate format. ...

  15. Rotary Series Elastic Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S. (Inventor); Parsons, Adam H. (Inventor); Griffith, Bryan Kristian (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A rotary actuator assembly is provided for actuation of an upper arm assembly for a dexterous humanoid robot. The upper arm assembly for the humanoid robot includes a plurality of arm support frames each defining an axis. A plurality of rotary actuator assemblies are each mounted to one of the plurality of arm support frames about the respective axes. Each rotary actuator assembly includes a motor mounted about the respective axis, a gear drive rotatably connected to the motor, and a torsion spring. The torsion spring has a spring input that is rotatably connected to an output of the gear drive and a spring output that is connected to an output for the joint.

  16. Rotary series elastic actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S. (Inventor); Parsons, Adam H. (Inventor); Griffith, Bryan Kristian (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A rotary actuator assembly is provided for actuation of an upper arm assembly for a dexterous humanoid robot. The upper arm assembly for the humanoid robot includes a plurality of arm support frames each defining an axis. A plurality of rotary actuator assemblies are each mounted to one of the plurality of arm support frames about the respective axes. Each rotary actuator assembly includes a motor mounted about the respective axis, a gear drive rotatably connected to the motor, and a torsion spring. The torsion spring has a spring input that is rotatably connected to an output of the gear drive and a spring output that is connected to an output for the joint.

  17. Smart hybrid rotary damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C. S. Walter; DesRoches, Reginald

    2014-03-01

    This paper develops a smart hybrid rotary damper using a re-centering smart shape memory alloy (SMA) material as well as conventional energy-dissipating metallic plates that are easy to be replaced. The ends of the SMA and steel plates are inserted in the hinge. When the damper rotates, all the plates bend, providing energy dissipating and recentering characteristics. Such smart hybrid rotary dampers can be installed in structures to mitigate structural responses and to re-center automatically. The damaged energy-dissipating plates can be easily replaced promptly after an external excitation, reducing repair time and costs. An OpenSEES model of a smart hybrid rotary was established and calibrated to reproduce the realistic behavior measured from a full-scale experimental test. Furthermore, the seismic performance of a 3-story moment resisting model building with smart hybrid rotary dampers designed for downtown Los Angeles was also evaluated in the OpenSEES structural analysis software. Such a smart moment resisting frame exhibits perfect residual roof displacement, 0.006", extremely smaller than 18.04" for the conventional moment resisting frame subjected to a 2500 year return period ground motion for the downtown LA area (an amplified factor of 1.15 on Kobe earthquake). The smart hybrid rotary dampers are also applied into an eccentric braced steel frame, which combines a moment frame system and a bracing system. The results illustrate that adding smart hybrid rotaries in this braced system not only completely restores the building after an external excitation, but also significantly reduces peak interstory drifts.

  18. Solar heated rotary kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Shell, Pamela K.

    1984-01-01

    A solar heated rotary kiln utilized for decomposition of materials, such as zinc sulfate. The rotary kiln has an open end and is enclosed in a sealed container having a window positioned for directing solar energy into the open end of the kiln. The material to be decomposed is directed through the container into the kiln by a feed tube. The container is also provided with an outlet for exhaust gases and an outlet for spent solids, and rests on a tiltable base. The window may be cooled and kept clear of debris by coolant gases.

  19. Solar heated rotary kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Shell, P.K.

    1984-04-17

    A solar heated rotary kiln utilized for decomposition of materials, such as zinc sulfate. The rotary kiln has an open end and is enclosed in a sealed container having a window positioned for directing solar energy into the open end of the kiln. The material to be decomposed is directed through the container into the kiln by a feed tube. The container is also provided with an outlet for exhaust gases and an outlet for spent solids, and rests on a tiltable base. The window may be cooled and kept clear of debris by coolant gases.

  20. Rotary mechanical latch

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Martinez, Michael A.; Marron, Lisa C.

    2012-11-13

    A rotary mechanical latch for positive latching and unlatching of a rotary device with a latchable rotating assembly having a latching gear that can be driven to latched and unlatched states by a drive mechanism such as an electric motor. A cam arm affixed to the latching gear interfaces with leading and trailing latch cams affixed to a flange within the drive mechanism. The interaction of the cam arm with leading and trailing latch cams prevents rotation of the rotating assembly by external forces such as those due to vibration or tampering.

  1. Rotary blasthole drilling update

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-02-15

    Blasthole drilling rigs are the unsung heroes of open-pit mining. Recently manufacturers have announced new tools. Original equipment manufactures (OEMs) are making safer and more efficient drills. Technology and GPS navigation systems are increasing drilling accuracy. The article describes features of new pieces of equipment: Sandvik's DR460 rotary blasthole drill, P & H's C-Series drills and Atlas Copco's Pit Viper PV275 multiphase rotary blasthole drill rig. DrillNav Plus is a blasthole navigation system developed by Leica Geosystems. 5 photos.

  2. Contactless Rotary Electrical Couplings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumagai, Hiroyuki

    2003-01-01

    Rotary electrical couplings based on induction (transformer action) rather than conduction between rotating and stationary circuitry have been invented. These couplings provide an alternative to slip rings and contact brushes. Mechanical imperfections of slip-ring and brush contact surfaces and/or dust particles trapped between these surfaces tend to cause momentary interruptions in electrical contact and thereby give rise to electrical noise. This source of noise can be eliminated in the inductive rotary couplings because no direct contact is necessary for transformer action.

  3. Determination of hexazinone in groundwater by direct-injection high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Perkins, L B; Bushway, R J; Katz, L E

    1999-01-01

    Hexazinone has been detected at levels ranging from 0.2 to 50 micrograms/L in many groundwater samples from eastern Maine over the past decade. A rapid and inexpensive direct-injection high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed to monitor contamination levels of the herbicide. The method is sensitive (limit of quantitation = 0.33 microgram/L) and is linear to 33.0 micrograms/L (R2 = 0.9995). Direct injection results from 50 field samples compared well (R2 = 0.98) with an HPLC method using solid-phase extraction for concentration and cleanup. The technique is very reproducible (coefficients of variation of 0-8.4% within day and 3.0-13.2% between day) and eliminates loss of analyte because of fewer steps in the procedure.

  4. Direct injection of indicators for calcium imaging at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Macleod, Gregory T

    2012-07-01

    Calcium imaging is a technique in which Ca(2+)-binding molecules are loaded into live cells and as they bind Ca(2+) they "indicate" the concentration of free calcium through a change in either the intensity or the wavelength of light emitted (fluorescence or bioluminescence). There are several possible methods for loading synthetic Ca(2+) indicators into subcellular compartments, including topical application of membrane-permeant Ca(2+) indicators, forward-filling of dextran conjugates, and direct injection. Calcium imaging is a highly informative technique in neurobiology because Ca(2+) is involved in many neuronal signaling pathways and serves as the trigger for neurotransmitter release. This article describes the direct injection of Ca(2+) indicators at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ). This technique allows rapid loading of most Ca(2+) indicators, but there are drawbacks in that it is a difficult technique to master and requires additional electrophysiological equipment. Also, Ca(2+) indicators that are easily injected are usually susceptible to compartmentalization.

  5. The influence of thermal regime on gasoline direct injection engine performance and emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahu, C. I.; Tarulescu, S.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the experimental research regarding to the effects of a low thermal regime on fuel consumption and pollutant emissions from a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. During the experimental researches, the temperature of the coolant and oil used by the engine were modified 4 times (55, 65, 75 and 85 oC), monitoring the effects over the fuel consumption and emissions (CO2, CO and NOx). The variations in temperature of the coolant and oil have been achieved through AVL coolant and oil conditioning unit, integrated in the test bed. The obtained experimental results reveals the poor quality of exhaust gases and increases of fuel consumption for the gasoline direct injection engines that runs outside the optimal ranges for coolant and oil temperatures.

  6. Combustion Dynamics Behavior in a Single-Element Lean Direct Injection (LDI) Gas Turbine Combustor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Technical Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) June 2014- July 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House Combustion Dynamics Behavior in a...excited combustion dynamics in a model configuration of a lean direct injection (LDI) gas turbine combustor is described. Incoming air temperature and...detailed study of the underlying combustion dynamics mechanisms. First, hydrodynamic modes are investigated by conducting the simulation with an

  7. Method for operating a spark-ignition, direct-injection internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Koch, Calvin K.; Najt, Paul M.; Szekely, Jr., Gerald A.; Toner, Joel G.

    2015-06-02

    A spark-ignition, direct-injection internal combustion engine is coupled to an exhaust aftertreatment system including a three-way catalytic converter upstream of an NH3-SCR catalyst. A method for operating the engine includes operating the engine in a fuel cutoff mode and coincidentally executing a second fuel injection control scheme upon detecting an engine load that permits operation in the fuel cutoff mode.

  8. Direct injection GC method for measuring light hydrocarbon emissions from cooling-tower water.

    PubMed

    Lee, Max M; Logan, Tim D; Sun, Kefu; Hurley, N Spencer; Swatloski, Robert A; Gluck, Steve J

    2003-12-15

    A Direct Injection GC method for quantifying low levels of light hydrocarbons (C6 and below) in cooling water has been developed. It is intended to overcome the limitations of the currently available technology. The principle of this method is to use a stripper column in a GC to strip waterfrom the hydrocarbons prior to entering the separation column. No sample preparation is required since the water sample is introduced directly into the GC. Method validation indicates that the Direct Injection GC method offers approximately 15 min analysis time with excellent precision and recovery. The calibration studies with ethylene and propylene show that both liquid and gas standards are suitable for routine calibration and calibration verification. The sampling method using zero headspace traditional VOA (Volatile Organic Analysis) vials and a sample chiller has also been validated. It is apparent that the sampling method is sufficient to minimize the potential for losses of light hydrocarbons, and samples can be held at 4 degrees C for up to 7 days with more than 93% recovery. The Direct Injection GC method also offers <1 ppb (w/v) level method detection limits for ethylene, propylene, and benzene. It is superior to the existing El Paso stripper method. In addition to lower detection limits for ethylene and propylene, the Direct Injection GC method quantifies individual light hydrocarbons in cooling water, provides better recoveries, and requires less maintenance and setup costs. Since the instrumentation and supplies are readily available, this technique could easily be established as a standard or alternative method for routine emission monitoring and leak detection of light hydrocarbons in cooling-tower water.

  9. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Kirol, L.D.

    1987-02-11

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation. 5 figs.

  10. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Kirol, Lance D.

    1988-01-01

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation.

  11. Rotary pneumatic valve

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.

    1991-01-01

    A rotary pneumatic valve which is thrust balanced and the pneumatic pressure developed produces only radial loads on the valve cylinder producing negligible resistance and thus minimal torque on the bearings of the valve. The valve is multiplexed such that at least two complete switching cycles occur for each revolution of the cylinder spindle.

  12. Rotary echo nutation NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, R.; Tijink, G. A. H.; Veeman, W. S.

    1988-01-01

    A two-dimensional solid state NMR experiment which combines rotary echoes and nutation NMR is investigated and used to study different sodium sites in zeolite NaA. It is shown that with this technique sodium ions with different relaxation rates in the rotating frame can be distinguished.

  13. Rotary shaft sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie L; Schroeder, John E; Kalsi, Manmohan S; Alvarez, Patricio D

    2013-08-13

    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

  14. Rotary shaft sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie L.; Schroeder, John E.; Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Alvarez, Patricio D.

    2010-09-21

    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

  15. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOEpatents

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1992-02-25

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor is described which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing, where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor. 12 figs.

  16. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOEpatents

    Weinbrecht, John F.

    1992-01-01

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits (24 and 26) which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing (14), where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers (10 and 12) and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor.

  17. Piezoelectric Rotary Tube Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Badescu, Mircea; Braun, David F.; Culhane, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A custom rotary SQUIGGLE(Registered TradeMark) motor has been developed that sets new benchmarks for small motor size, high position resolution, and high torque without gear reduction. Its capabilities cannot be achieved with conventional electromagnetic motors. It consists of piezoelectric plates mounted on a square flexible tube. The plates are actuated via voltage waveforms 90 out of phase at the resonant frequency of the device to create rotary motion. The motors were incorporated into a two-axis postioner that was designed for fiber-fed spectroscopy for ground-based and space-based projects. The positioner enables large-scale celestial object surveys to take place in a practical amount of time.

  18. Sequenced drive for rotary valves

    DOEpatents

    Mittell, Larry C.

    1981-01-01

    A sequenced drive for rotary valves which provides the benefits of applying rotary and linear motions to the movable sealing element of the valve. The sequenced drive provides a close approximation of linear motion while engaging or disengaging the movable element with the seat minimizing wear and damage due to scrubbing action. The rotary motion of the drive swings the movable element out of the flowpath thus eliminating obstruction to flow through the valve.

  19. DESIGN OF A HIGH COMPRESSION, DIRECT INJECTION, SPARK-IGNITION, METHANOL FUELED RESEARCH ENGINE WITH AN INTEGRAL INJECTOR-IGNITION SOURCE INSERT, SAE PAPER 2001-01-3651

    EPA Science Inventory

    A stratified charge research engine and test stand were designed and built for this work. The primary goal of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of using a removal integral injector ignition source insert which allows a convenient method of charging the relative locat...

  20. Predicting and Evaluating the Effectiveness of Ocean Carbon Sequestration by Direct Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Caldeira, K; Herzog, H J; Wickett, M E

    2001-04-24

    Direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the ocean is a potentially effective carbon sequestration strategy. Therefore, we want to understand the effectiveness of oceanic injection and develop the appropriate analytic framework to allow us to compare the effectiveness of this strategy with other carbon management options. Here, after a brief review of direct oceanic injection, we estimate the effectiveness of ocean carbon sequestration using one dimensional and three dimensional ocean models. We discuss a new measure of effectiveness of carbon sequestration in a leaky reservoir, which we denote sequestration potential. The sequestration potential is the fraction of global warning cost avoided by sequestration in a reservoir. We show how these measures apply to permanent sequestration and sequestration in leaky reservoirs, such as the oceans, terrestrial biosphere, and some geologic formations. Under the assumptions of a constant cost of carbon emission and a 4% discount rate, injecting 900 m deep in the ocean avoids {approx}90% of the global warming cost associated with atmospheric emission; an injection 1700 m deep would avoid > 99 % of the global warming cost. Hence, for discount rates in the range commonly used by commercial enterprises, oceanic direct injection may be nearly as economically effective as permanent sequestration at avoiding global warming costs.

  1. Experimental Combustion Dynamics Behavior of a Multi-Element Lean Direct Injection (LDI) Gas Turbine Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, Waldo A.; Chang, Clarence T.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the combustion dynamic characteristics of a research multi-element lean direct injection (LDI) combustor under simulated gas turbine conditions was conducted. The objective was to gain a better understanding of the physical phenomena inside a pressurized flametube combustion chamber under acoustically isolated conditions. A nine-point swirl venturi lean direct injection (SV-LDI) geometry was evaluated at inlet pressures up to 2,413 kPa and non-vitiated air temperatures up to 867 K. The equivalence ratio was varied to obtain adiabatic flame temperatures between 1388 K and 1905 K. Dynamic pressure measurements were taken upstream of the SV-LDI, in the combustion zone and downstream of the exit nozzle. The measurements showed that combustion dynamics were fairly small when the fuel was distributed uniformly and mostly due to fluid dynamics effects. Dynamic pressure fluctuations larger than 40 kPa at low frequencies were measured at 653 K inlet temperature and 1117 kPa inlet pressure when fuel was shifted and the pilot fuel injector equivalence ratio was increased to 0.72.

  2. Buffer direct injection readout integrated circuit design for dual band infrared focal plane array detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tai-Ping; Lu, Yi-Chuan; Shieh, Hsiu-Li; Tang, Shiang-Feng; Lin, Wen-Jen

    2013-05-01

    This paper proposes dual-mode buffer direct injection (BDI) and direct injection (DI) readout circuit design. The DI readout circuit has the advantage of being a simple circuit, requiring a small layout area, and low power consumption. The internal resistance of the photodetector will affect the photocurrent injection efficiency. We used a buffer amplifier to design the BDI readout circuit since it would reduce the input impedance and raise the injection efficiency. This paper will discuss and analyze the power consumption, injection efficiency, layout area, and circuit noise. The circuit is simulated using a TSMC 0.35 um Mixed Signal 2P4M CMOS 5 V process. The dimension of the pixel area is 30×30 μm. We have designed a 10×8 array for the readout circuit of the interlaced columns. The input current ranges from 1 nA to 10 nA, when the measurement current is 10 pA to 10 nA. The integration time was varied. The circuit output swing was 2 V. The total root mean square noise voltage was 4.84 mV. The signal to noise ratio was 52 dB, and the full chip circuit power consumption was 9.94 mW.

  3. Characterization of Swirl-Venturi Lean Direct Injection Designs for Aviation Gas-Turbine Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Injector geometry, physical mixing, chemical processes, and engine cycle conditions together govern performance, operability and emission characteristics of aviation gas-turbine combustion systems. The present investigation explores swirl-venturi lean direct injection combustor fundamentals, characterizing the influence of key geometric injector parameters on reacting flow physics and emission production trends. In this computational study, a design space exploration was performed using a parameterized swirl-venturi lean direct injector model. From the parametric geometry, 20 three-element lean direct injection combustor sectors were produced and simulated using steady-state, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes reacting computations. Species concentrations were solved directly using a reduced 18-step reaction mechanism for Jet-A. Turbulence closure was obtained using a nonlinear ?-e model. Results demonstrate sensitivities of the geometric perturbations on axially averaged flow field responses. Output variables include axial velocity, turbulent kinetic energy, static temperature, fuel patternation and minor species mass fractions. Significant trends have been reduced to surrogate model approximations, intended to guide future injector design trade studies and advance aviation gas-turbine combustion research.

  4. Development of CNG direct injection (CNGDI) clean fuel system for extra power in small engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Yusoff; Shamsudeen, Azhari; Abdullah, Shahrir; Mahmood, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan

    2012-06-01

    A new design of fuel system for CNG engine with direct injection (CNGDI) was developed for a demonstration project. The development of the fuel system was done on the engine with cylinder head modifications, for fuel injector and spark plug openings included in the new cylinder head. The piston was also redesigned for higher compression ratio. The fuel rails and the regulators are also designed for the direct injection system operating at higher pressure about 2.0 MPa. The control of the injection timing for the direct injectors are also controlled by the Electronic Control Unit specially designed for DI by another group project. The injectors are selected after testing with the various injection pressures and spray angles. For the best performance of the high-pressure system, selection is made from the tests on single cylinder research engine (SCRE). The components in the fuel system have to be of higher quality and complied with codes and standards to secure the safety of engine for high-pressure operation. The results of the CNGDI have shown that better power output is produced and better emissions were achieved compared to the aspirated CNG engine.

  5. Push-through direct injection NMR: an optimized automation method applied to metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Teng, Quincy; Ekman, Drew R; Huang, Wenlin; Collette, Timothy W

    2012-05-07

    There is a pressing need to increase the throughput of NMR analysis in fields such as metabolomics and drug discovery. Direct injection (DI) NMR automation is recognized to have the potential to meet this need due to its suitability for integration with the 96-well plate format. However, DI NMR has not been widely used as a result of some insurmountable technical problems; namely: carryover contamination, sample diffusion (causing reduction of spectral sensitivity), and line broadening caused by entrapped air bubbles. Several variants of DI NMR, such as flow injection analysis (FIA) and microflow NMR, have been proposed to address one or more of these issues, but not all of them. The push-through direct injection technique reported here overcomes all of these problems. The method recovers samples after NMR analysis, uses a "brush-wash" routine to eliminate carryover, includes a procedure to push wash solvent out of the flow cell via the outlet to prevent sample diffusion, and employs an injection valve to avoid air bubbles. Herein, we demonstrate the robustness, efficiency, and lack of carryover characteristics of this new method, which is ideally suited for relatively high throughput analysis of the complex biological tissue extracts used in metabolomics, as well as many other sample types. While simple in concept and setup, this new method provides a substantial improvement over current approaches.

  6. Exploring a direct injection method for microfluidic generation of polymer microgels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yihe; Tumarkin, Ethan; Velasco, Diego; Abolhasani, Milad; Lau, Willie; Kumacheva, Eugenia

    2013-07-07

    Microfluidics (MFs) offers a promising method for the preparation of polymer microgels with exquisite control over their dimensions, shapes and morphologies. A challenging task in this process is the generation of droplets (precursors for microgels) from highly viscous polymer solutions. Spatial separation of MF emulsification and gelation of the precursor droplets on chip can address this challenge. In the present work, we explored the application of the "direct injection" method for the preparation of microgels by adding a highly concentrated polymer solution or a gelling agent directly into the precursor droplets. In the first system, primary droplets were generated from a dilute aqueous solution of agarose, followed by the injection of the concentrated agarose solution directly in the primary droplets. The secondary droplets served as precursors for microgels. In the second system, primary droplets were generated from the low-viscous solution of methyl-β-cyclodextrin and poly(ethylene glycol) end-terminated with octadecyl hydrophobic groups. Addition of surfactant directly into the primary droplets led to the binding of methyl-β-cyclodextrin to the surfactant, thereby releasing hydrophobized poly(ethylene glycol) to form polymer microgels. Our results show that, when optimized, the direct injection method can be used for microgel preparation from highly viscous liquids and thus this method expands the range of polymers used for MF generation of microgels.

  7. Rotary and Magnus balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malcolm, G. N.

    1981-01-01

    Two wind tunnel techniques for determining part of the aerodynamic information required to describe the dynamic bahavior of various types of vehicles in flight are described. Force and moment measurements are determined with a rotary-balance apparatus in a coning motion and with a Magnus balance in a high-speed spinning motion. Coning motion is pertinent to both aircraft and missiles, and spinning is important for spin stabilized missiles. Basic principles of both techniques are described, and specific examples of each type of apparatus are presented. Typical experimental results are also discussed.

  8. Quantitative Analysis of Mixture Preparation Processes in New Direct-Injection Spark Ignition Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Teruyuki; Kakuho, Akihiko; Hiraya, Koji; Takahashi, Eiji; Urushihara, Tomonori

    Visualization plays an effective role in the establishment of a new combustion concept by helping to find the optimal results quickly among many different parameters and contributing to a shorter development period. Laser-induced fluorescence, Raman scattering and infrared absorption were used to measure the air/fuel ratio quantitatively in a third-generation direct-injection gasoline (DIG) engine with a spray-guided mixture formation process and comparisons were made with the mixture formation concepts of the first- and second-generation DIG engines. The optimum combination of fuel spray, gas flow and combustion chamber configuration was found to be different for the three generations of DIG engines. The characteristics of the stable combustion region for obtaining higher thermal efficiency and cleaner exhaust emissions differed among the three mixture formation concepts.

  9. Determination of meropenem by capillary electrophoresis using direct injection of serum.

    PubMed

    Kitahashi, Toshihiro; Furuta, Itaru

    2005-09-01

    Concentration determination of meropenem, a carbapenem antibiotic, using a capillary electrophoresis method by direct injection of serum samples without any pretreatment is described herein. Sodium tetraborate (25 mM)-sodium hydroxide (0.1 M) containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (90 mM) is used as a run buffer (pH 10.0). Meropenem is detected at its absorption maximum at 297 nm. Migration time of meropenem is approximately 7.2 min, and the detection limit of the assay is 2.0 mg/L at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3.0. The relative standard deviations of intra- and interassay accuracies are 3.43-8.87% and 4.28-8.54%, respectively, at a nominal concentration of 6.3-100.0 mg/L, and their recovery rates are 94-111% and 92-105%, respectively.

  10. Application of an EGR system in a direct injection diesel engine to reduce NOx emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Serio, D.; De Oliveira, A.; Sodré, J. R.

    2016-09-01

    This work presents the application of an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system in a direct injection diesel engine operating with diesel oil containing 7% biodiesel (B7). EGR rates of up to 10% were applied with the primary aim to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions. The experiments were conducted in a 44 kW diesel power generator to evaluate engine performance and emissions for different load settings. The use of EGR caused a peak pressure reduction during the combustion process and a decrease in thermal efficiency, mainly at high engine loads. A reduction of NOx emissions of up to 26% was achieved, though penalizing carbon monoxide (CO) and total hydrocarbons (THC) emissions.

  11. Baseline performance and emissions data for a single-cylinder, direct-injected diesel engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dezelick, R. A.; Mcfadden, J. J.; Ream, L. W.; Barrows, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Comprehensive fuel consumption, mean effective cylinder pressure, and emission test results for a supercharged, single-cylinder, direct-injected, four-stroke-cycle, diesel test engine are documented. Inlet air-to-exhaust pressure ratios were varied from 1.25 to 3.35 in order to establish the potential effects of turbocharging techniques on engine performance. Inlet air temperatures and pressures were adjusted from 34 to 107 C and from 193 to 414 kPa to determine the effects on engine performance and emissions. Engine output ranged from 300 to 2100 kPa (brake mean effective pressure) in the speed range of 1000 to 3000 rpm. Gaseous and particulate emission rates were measured. Real-time values of engine friction and pumping loop losses were measured independently and compared with motored engine values.

  12. Spatially resolved measurements of size and velocity distributions of aerosol droplets from a direct injection nebulizer

    SciTech Connect

    Shum, S.C.K.; Johnson, S.K.; Pang, H.M.; Houk, R.S. )

    1993-05-01

    Aerosol droplet sizes and velocities from a direct injection nebulizer (DIN) are measured with radial and axial spatial resolution by phase Doppler particle analysis (PDPA). The droplets on the central axis of the spray become finer and their size becomes more uniform when [approx]20% methanol is added to the usual aqueous solvent. This could explain why the analyte signal is a maximum at this solvent composition when the DIN is used for inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Mean droplet velocities are 12 to 22 m s[sup [minus]1] with standard deviations of [plus minus]4 to [plus minus]7 m s[sup [minus]1]. The outer fringes of the aerosol plume tend to be enriched in large droplets. The Sauter mean diameter (D[sub 3,2]) and velocity of the droplets also vary substantially with axial position in the aerosol plume. 35 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  13. An Idealized, Single Radial Swirler, Lean-Direct-Injection (LDI) Concept Meshing Script

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iannetti, Anthony C.; Thompson, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    To easily study combustor design parameters using computational fluid dynamics codes (CFD), a Gridgen Glyph-based macro (based on the Tcl scripting language) dubbed BladeMaker has been developed for the meshing of an idealized, single radial swirler, lean-direct-injection (LDI) combustor. BladeMaker is capable of taking in a number of parameters, such as blade width, blade tilt with respect to the perpendicular, swirler cup radius, and grid densities, and producing a three-dimensional meshed radial swirler with a can-annular (canned) combustor. This complex script produces a data format suitable for but not specific to the National Combustion Code (NCC), a state-of-the-art CFD code developed for reacting flow processes.

  14. Gas chromatographic quantification of major volatile compounds and polyols in wine by direct injection.

    PubMed

    Peinado, Rafael A; Moreno, Jose A; Muñoz, David; Medina, Manuel; Moreno, Juan

    2004-10-20

    Methanol, propanol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, acetaldehyde, 1,1-diethoxyethane, acetoin, ethyl acetate, ethyl lactate, and ethyl succinate and the polyols 2,3-butanediol (levo and meso forms) and glycerol were quantified by direct injection of wine samples. Linear responses over the usual concentration ranges for these compounds and r2 values from 0.9932 to 0.9998 were obtained. The confidence limits for the mean values ranged from 2.34% for diethyl succinate to 8.52% for 1,1-diethoxyethane, both at a probability level of 0.05. Relative errors ranged from 8 to 10% for the polyols and 1,1-diethoxyethane and were all less than 5% for alcohols and acetaldehyde. The proposed method is useful with a view to identifying relationships between alcoholic fermentation byproducts and controlling biological or chemical aging in wines.

  15. Effects of Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Operating Parameters on Particle Number Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    He, X.; Ratcliff, M. A.; Zigler, B. T.

    2012-04-19

    A single-cylinder, wall-guided, spark ignition direct injection engine was used to study the impact of engine operating parameters on engine-out particle number (PN) emissions. Experiments were conducted with certification gasoline and a splash blend of 20% fuel grade ethanol in gasoline (E20), at four steady-state engine operating conditions. Independent engine control parameter sweeps were conducted including start of injection, injection pressure, spark timing, exhaust cam phasing, intake cam phasing, and air-fuel ratio. The results show that fuel injection timing is the dominant factor impacting PN emissions from this wall-guided gasoline direct injection engine. The major factor causing high PN emissions is fuel liquid impingement on the piston bowl. By avoiding fuel impingement, more than an order of magnitude reduction in PN emission was observed. Increasing fuel injection pressure reduces PN emissions because of smaller fuel droplet size and faster fuel-air mixing. PN emissions are insensitive to cam phasing and spark timing, especially at high engine load. Cold engine conditions produce higher PN emissions than hot engine conditions due to slower fuel vaporization and thus less fuel-air homogeneity during the combustion process. E20 produces lower PN emissions at low and medium loads if fuel liquid impingement on piston bowl is avoided. At high load or if there is fuel liquid impingement on piston bowl and/or cylinder wall, E20 tends to produce higher PN emissions. This is probably a function of the higher heat of vaporization of ethanol, which slows the vaporization of other fuel components from surfaces and may create local fuel-rich combustion or even pool-fires.

  16. Measurement of elemental speciation by liquid chromatography -- inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS) with the direct injection nebulizer (DIN)

    SciTech Connect

    Shum, Sam

    1993-05-01

    This thesis is divided into 4 parts: elemental speciation, speciation of mercury and lead compounds by microbore column LC-ICP-MS with direct injection nebulization, spatially resolved measurements of size and velocity distributions of aerosol droplets from a direct injection nebulizer, and elemental speciation by anion exchange and size exclusion chromatography with detection by ICP-MS with direct injection nebulization.

  17. Rotary multiposition valve

    DOEpatents

    Barclay, John A.; Dyson, Jack E.

    1985-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a rotary multiposition valve for selectively directing the flow of a fluid through a plurality of paths. The valve comprises an inner member and a hollow housing with a row of ducts on its outer surface. The ducts are in fluid communication with the housing. An engaging section of the inner member is received in the housing. A seal divides the engaging section into a hollow inlet segment and a hollow outlet segment. A plurality of inlet apertures are disposed in the inlet segment and a plurality of outlet apertures are disposed in the outlet segment. The inlet apertures are disposed in a longitudinally and radially spaced-apart pattern that can be a helix. The outlet apertures are disposed in a corresponding pattern. As the inner member is rotated, whenever an inlet aperture overlaps one of the ducts, the corresponding outlet aperture overlaps a different duct, thus forming a fluid pathway.

  18. Rotary shaft seal

    DOEpatents

    Langebrake, C.O.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a novel rotary shaft seal assembly which provides positive-contact sealing when the shaft is not rotated and which operates with its sealing surfaces separated by a film of compressed ambient gas whose width is independent of the speed of shaft rotation. In a preferred embodiment, the assembly includes a disc affixed to the shaft for rotation therewith. Axially movable, non-rotatable plates respectively supported by sealing bellows are positioned on either side of the disc to be in sealing engagement therewith. Each plate carries piezoelectric transucer elements which are electrically energized at startup to produce films of compressed ambient gas between the confronting surfaces of the plates and the disc. Following shutdown of the shaft, the transducer elements are de-energized. A control circuit responds to incipient rubbing between the plate and either disc by altering the electrical input to the transducer elements to eliminate rubbing.

  19. Rotary shaft seal

    DOEpatents

    Langebrake, Clair O.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a novel rotary shaft seal assembly which provides positive-contact sealing when the shaft is not rotated and which operates with its sealing surfaces separated by a film of compressed ambient gas whose width is independent of the speed of shaft rotation. In a preferred embodiment, the assembly includes a disc affixed to the shaft for rotation therewith. Axially movable, non-rotatable plates respectively supported by sealing bellows are positioned on either side of the disc to be in sealing engagement therewith. Each plate carries piezoelectric transducer elements which are electrically energized at startup to produce films of compressed ambient gas between the confronting surfaces of the plates and the disc. Following shutdown of the shaft, the transducer elements are de-energized. A control circuit responds to incipient rubbing between the plate and either disc by altering the electrical input to the transducer elements to eliminate rubbing.

  20. Rotary multiposition valve

    DOEpatents

    Barclay, J.A.; Dyson, J.E.

    1984-04-06

    The disclosure is directed to a rotary multiposition valve for selectively directing the flow of a fluid through a plurality of paths. The valve comprises an inner member and a hollow housing with a row of ducts on its outer surface. The ducts are in fluid communication with the housing. An engaging section of the inner member is received in the housing. A seal divides the engaging section into a hollow inlet segment and a hollow outlet segment. A plurality of inlet apertures are disposed in the inlet sgegment and a plurality of outlet apertures are disposed in the outlet segment. The inlet apertures are disposed in a longitudinally and radially spaced-apart pattern that can be a helix. The outlet apertures are disposed in a corresponding pattern. As the inner member is rotated, whenever an inlet aperture overlaps one of the ducts, the corresponding outlet aperture overlaps a different duct, thus forming a fluid pathway.

  1. Rotary Blood Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor); Akkerman, James W. (Inventor); Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor); VanDamm, George A. (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Svejkovsky, Paul A. (Inventor); Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A rotary blood pump includes a pump housing for receiving a flow straightener, a rotor mounted on rotor bearings and having an inducer portion and an impeller portion, and a diffuser. The entrance angle, outlet angle, axial and radial clearances of blades associated with the flow straightener, inducer portion, impeller portion and diffuser are optimized to minimize hemolysis while maintaining pump efficiency. The rotor bearing includes a bearing chamber that is filled with cross-linked blood or other bio-compatible material. A back emf integrated circuit regulates rotor operation and a microcomputer may be used to control one or more back emf integrated circuits. A plurality of magnets are disposed in each of a plurality of impeller blades with a small air gap. A stator may be axially adjusted on the pump housing to absorb bearing load and maximize pump efficiency.

  2. Rotary blood pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J. (Inventor); Akkerman, James W. (Inventor); Aber, Greg S. (Inventor); Vandamm, George A. (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Svejkovsky, Paul A. (Inventor); Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A rotary blood pump is presented. The pump includes a pump housing for receiving a flow straightener, a rotor mounted on rotor bearings and having an inducer portion and an impeller portion, and a diffuser. The entrance angle, outlet angle, axial, and radial clearances of the blades associated with the flow straightener, inducer portion, impeller portion, and diffuser are optimized to minimize hemolysis while maintaining pump efficiency. The rotor bearing includes a bearing chamber that is filled with crosslinked blood or other bio-compatible material. A back emf integrated circuit regulates rotor operation and a microcomputer may be used to control one or more back emf integrated circuits. A plurality of magnets are disposed in each of a plurality of impeller blades with a small air gap. A stator may be axially adjusted on the pump housing to absorb bearing load and maximize pump efficiency.

  3. Seals cap rotary kiln emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Gunkle, D.W. )

    1993-09-01

    The possibility of producing fugitive emissions is one of the most critical aspects of an incineration system. Whether such a system processes hazardous, medical, mixed or municipal waste, fugitive emissions are of special concern to system operators and the public alike. Effectively designed rotary-kiln seals can reduce fugitive emissions to acceptable, minimal levels. Modern air monitoring systems track incineration site emissions. Possible emissions sources include excavation and transfer sites, storage areas, material-feed systems, rotary kiln seals, and exhaust stacks. Several options are available for rotary-kiln seals. Six are discussed here: labyrinth; overlapping spring plate; graphite block; pneumatic; shrouded; and overpressure. Kiln seals are used to prevent process gases from escaping or ambient air from entering a rotary kiln uncontrolled. They are not designed to function as material seals, or prevent spills of solids or liquids. Seal design involves considering differential pressure produced by a kiln's internal-to-external temperature, pressure excursions (explosions) and material spills.

  4. Assessing the Climate Trade-Offs of Gasoline Direct Injection Engines.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Naomi; Wang, Jonathan M; Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Wallace, James S; Evans, Greg J

    2016-08-02

    Compared to port fuel injection (PFI) engine exhaust, gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine exhaust has higher emissions of black carbon (BC), a climate-warming pollutant. However, the relative increase in BC emissions and climate trade-offs of replacing PFI vehicles with more fuel efficient GDI vehicles remain uncertain. In this study, BC emissions from GDI and PFI vehicles were compiled and BC emissions scenarios were developed to evaluate the climate impact of GDI vehicles using global warming potential (GWP) and global temperature potential (GTP) metrics. From a 20 year time horizon GWP analysis, average fuel economy improvements ranging from 0.14 to 14% with GDI vehicles are required to offset BC-induced warming. For all but the lowest BC scenario, installing a gasoline particulate filter with an 80% BC removal efficiency and <1% fuel penalty is climate beneficial. From the GTP-based analysis, it was also determined that GDI vehicles are climate beneficial within <1-20 years; longer time horizons were associated with higher BC scenarios. The GDI BC emissions spanned 2 orders of magnitude and varied by ambient temperature, engine operation, and fuel composition. More work is needed to understand BC formation mechanisms in GDI engines to ensure that the climate impacts of this engine technology are minimal.

  5. Low Emission Hydrogen Combustors for Gas Turbines Using Lean Direct Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marek, C. John; Smith, Timothy D.; Kundu, Krishna

    2005-01-01

    One of the key technology challenges for the use of hydrogen in gas turbine engines is the performance of the combustion system, in particular the fuel injectors. To investigate the combustion performance of gaseous hydrogen fuel injectors flame tube combustor experiments were performed. Tests were conducted to measure the nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions and combustion performance at inlet conditions of 600 to 1000 deg F, 60 to 200 pounds per square inch absolute (psia), and equivalence ratios up to 0.48. All the injectors were based on Lean Direct Injection (LDI) technology with multiple injection points and quick mixing. One challenge to hydrogen based premixing combustion systems is flashback since hydrogen has a reaction rate over seven times that of Jet-A. To reduce the risk, design mixing times were kept short and velocities high to minimize flashback. Five fuel injector designs were tested in 2.5 and 3.5-in. diameter flame tubes with non-vitiated heated air and gaseous hydrogen. Data is presented on measurements of NOx emissions and combustion efficiency for the hydrogen injectors at 1.0, 3.125, and 5.375 in. from the injector face. Results show that for some configurations, NOx emissions are comparable to that of state of the art Jet-A LDI combustor concepts.

  6. Low-Emission Hydrogen Combustors for Gas Turbines Using Lean Direct Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marek, C. John; Smith, Timothy D.; Kundu, Krishna

    2007-01-01

    One of the key technology challenges for the use of hydrogen in gas turbine engines is the performance of the combustion system, in particular the fuel injectors. To investigate the combustion performance of gaseous hydrogen fuel injectors flame tube combustor experiments were performed. Tests were conducted to measure the nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) emissions and combustion performance at inlet conditions of 588 to 811 K, 0.4 to 1.4 MPa, and equivalence ratios up to 0.48. All the injectors were based on Lean Direct Injection (LDI) technology with multiple injection points and quick mixing. One challenge to hydrogen-based premixing combustion systems is flashback since hydrogen has a reaction rate over 7 times that of Jet-A. To reduce the risk, design mixing times were kept short and velocities high to minimize flashback. Five fuel injector designs were tested in 6.35- and 8.9-cm-diameter flame tubes with non-vitiated heated air and gaseous hydrogen. Data is presented on measurements of NO(x) emissions and combustion efficiency for the hydrogen injectors at 2.540, 7.937, and 13.652 cm from the injector face. Results show that for some configurations, NO(x) emissions are comparable to that of state of the art Jet-A LDI combustor concepts.

  7. Direct-injection chemiluminescence detector. Properties and potential applications in flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Koronkiewicz, Stanislawa; Kalinowski, Slawomir

    2015-02-01

    We present a novel chemiluminescence detector, with a cone-shaped detection chamber where the analytical reaction takes place. The sample and appropriate reagents are injected directly into the chamber in countercurrent using solenoid-operated pulse micro-pumps. The proposed detector allows for fast measurement of the chemiluminescence signal in stop-flow conditions from the moment of reagents mixing. To evaluate potential applications of the detector the Fenton-like reaction with a luminol-H2O2 system and several transition metal ions (Co(2+), Cu(2+), Cr(3+), Fe(3+)) as a catalyst were investigated. The results demonstrate suitability of the proposed detector for quantitative analysis and for investigations of reaction kinetics, particularly rapid reactions. A multi-pumping flow system was designed and optimized. The developed methodology demonstrated that the shape of the analytical signals strongly depends on the type and concentration of the metal ions. The application of the detector in quantitative analysis was assessed for determination of Fe(III). The direct-injection chemiluminescence detector allows for a sensitive and repeatable (R.S.D. 2%) determination. The intensity of chemiluminescence increased linearly in the range from about 0.5 to 10 mg L(-1) Fe(III) with the detection limit of 0.025 mg L(-1). The time of analysis depended mainly on reaction kinetics. It is possible to achieve the high sampling rate of 144 samples per hour.

  8. A Comparison of Three Second-generation Swirl-Venturi Lean Direct Injection Combustor Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, Kathleen M.; Podboy, Derek P.; He, Zhuohui Joe; Lee, Phil; Dam, Bidhan; Mongia, Hukam

    2016-01-01

    Three variations of a low emissions aircraft gas turbine engine combustion concept were developed and tested. The concept is a second generation swirl-venturi lean direct injection (SV-LDI) concept. LDI is a lean-burn combustion concept in which the fuel is injected directly into the flame zone. All three variations were based on the baseline 9- point SV-LDI configuration reported previously. The three second generation SV-LDI variations are called the 5-recess configuration, the flat dome configuration, and the 9- recess configuration. These three configurations were tested in a NASA Glenn Research Center medium pressure flametube. All three second generation variations had better low power operability than the baseline 9-point configuration. All three configurations had low NO(sub x) emissions, with the 5-recess configuration generally having slightly lower NO(x) than the flat dome or 9-recess configurations. Due to the limitations of the flametube that prevented testing at pressures above 20 atm, correlation equations were developed for the at dome and 9-recess configurations so that the landing-takeoff NO(sub x) emissions could be estimated. The flat dome and 9-recess landing-takeoff NO(x) emissions are estimated to be 81-88% below the CAEP/6 standards, exceeding the project goal of 75% reduction.

  9. A Second Generation Swirl-Venturi Lean Direct Injection Combustion Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, Kathleen M.; Chang, Clarence T.; He, Zhuohui Joe; Lee, Phil; Dam, Bidhan; Mongia, Hukam

    2014-01-01

    A low-NO (sub x) aircraft gas turbine engine combustion concept was developed and tested. The concept is a second generation swirl-venturi lean direct injection (SV-LDI) concept. LDI is a lean-burn combustion concept in which the fuel is injected directly into the flame zone. Three second generation SV-LDI configurations were developed. All three were based on the baseline 9-point SV-LDI configuration reported previously. These second generation configurations had better low power operability than the baseline 9-point configuration. Two of these second generation configurations were tested in a NASA Glenn Research Center flametube; these two configurations are called the at dome and 5-recess configurations. Results show that the 5-recess configuration generally had lower NO (sub x) emissions than the flat dome configuration. Correlation equations were developed for the flat dome configuration so that the landing-takeoff NO (sub x) emissions could be estimated. The flat dome landing-takeoff NO (sub x) is estimated to be 87-88 percent below the CAEP/6 standards, exceeding the ERA project goal of 75 percent reduction.

  10. Numerical simulation of internal and near-nozzle flow of a gasoline direct injection fuel injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Kaushik; Som, Sibendu; Battistoni, Michele; Li, Yanheng; Quan, Shaoping; Senecal, Peter Kelly

    2015-12-01

    A numerical study of two-phase flow inside the nozzle holes and the issuing spray jets for a multi-hole direct injection gasoline injector has been presented in this work. The injector geometry is representative of the Spray G nozzle, an eight-hole counterbore injector, from, the Engine Combustion Network (ECN). Simulations have been carried out for the fixed needle lift. Effects of turbulence, compressibility and, non-condensable gases have been considered in this work. Standard k—ɛ turbulence model has been used to model the turbulence. Homogeneous Relaxation Model (HRM) coupled with Volume of Fluid (VOF) approach has been utilized to capture the phase change phenomena inside and outside the injector nozzle. Three different boundary conditions for the outlet domain have been imposed to examine non-flashing and evaporative, non-flashing and non-evaporative, and flashing conditions. Inside the nozzle holes mild cavitation-like and in the near-nozzle region flash boiling phenomena have been predicted in this study when liquid fuel is subjected to superheated ambiance. Noticeable hole to hole variation has been also observed in terms of mass flow rates for all the holes under both flashing and non-flashing conditions.

  11. A Design Methodology for Rapid Implementation of Active Control Systems Across Lean Direct Injection Combustor Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, William T.; Saunders, William R.; Vandsburger, Uri; Saus, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The VACCG team is comprised of engineers at Virginia Tech who specialize in the subject areas of combustion physics, chemical kinetics, dynamics and controls, and signal processing. Currently, the team's work on this NRA research grant is designed to determine key factors that influence combustion control performance through a blend of theoretical and experimental investigations targeting design and demonstration of active control for three different combustors. To validiate the accuracy of conclusions about control effectiveness, a sequence of experimental verifications on increasingly complex lean, direct injection combustors is underway. During the work period January 1, 2002 through October 15, 2002, work has focused on two different laboratory-scale combustors that allow access for a wide variety of measurements. As the grant work proceeds, one key goal will be to obtain certain knowledge about a particular combustor process using a minimum of sophisticated measurements, due to the practical limitations of measurements on full-scale combustors. In the second year, results obtained in the first year will be validated on test combustors to be identified in the first quarter of that year. In the third year, it is proposed to validate the results at more realistic pressure and power levels by utilizing the facilities at the Glenn Research Center.

  12. Comparison of Propane and Methane Performance and Emissions in a Turbocharged Direct Injection Dual Fuel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, C. M.; Polk, A. C.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    With increasingly restrictive NO x and particulate matter emissions standards, the recent discovery of new natural gas reserves, and the possibility of producing propane efficiently from biomass sources, dual fueling strategies have become more attractive. This paper presents experimental results from dual fuel operation of a four-cylinder turbocharged direct injection (DI) diesel engine with propane or methane (a natural gas surrogate) as the primary fuel and diesel as the ignition source. Experiments were performed with the stock engine control unit at a constant speed of 1800 rpm, and a wide range of brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs) (2.7-11.6 bars) and percent energy substitutions (PESs) of C 3 H 8 and CH 4. Brake thermal efficiencies (BTEs) and emissions (NO x, smoke, total hydrocarbons (THCs), CO, and CO 2) were measured. Maximum PES levels of about 80-95% with CH 4 and 40-92% with C 3 H 8 were achieved. Maximum PES was limited by poor combustion efficiencies and engine misfire at low loads for both C 3 H 8 and CH 4, and the onset of knock above 9 bar BMEP for C 3 H 8. While dual fuel BTEs were lower than straight diesel BTEs at low loads, they approached diesel BTE values at high loads. For dual fuel operation, NO x and smoke reductions (from diesel values) were as high as 66-68% and 97%, respectively, but CO and THC emissions were significantly higher with increasing PES at all engine loads

  13. National Combustion Code Validated Against Lean Direct Injection Flow Field Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iannetti, Anthony C.

    2003-01-01

    Most combustion processes have, in some way or another, a recirculating flow field. This recirculation stabilizes the reaction zone, or flame, but an unnecessarily large recirculation zone can result in high nitrogen oxide (NOx) values for combustion systems. The size of this recirculation zone is crucial to the performance of state-of-the-art, low-emissions hardware. If this is a large-scale combustion process, the flow field will probably be turbulent and, therefore, three-dimensional. This research dealt primarily with flow fields resulting from lean direct injection (LDI) concepts, as described in Research & Technology 2001. LDI is a concept that depends heavily on the design of the swirler. The LDI concept has the potential to reduce NOx values from 50 to 70 percent of current values, with good flame stability characteristics. It is cost effective and (hopefully) beneficial to do most of the design work for an LDI swirler using computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes are CAE tools that can calculate three-dimensional flows in complex geometries. However, CFD codes are only beginning to correctly calculate the flow fields for complex devices, and the related combustion models usually remove a large portion of the flow physics.

  14. Rotary kiln seal

    SciTech Connect

    Drexler, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    A rotary seal used to prevent the escape of contaminates from a rotating kiln incinerator. The rotating seal combines a rotating disc plate which is attached to the rotating kiln shell and four sets of non-rotating carbon seal bars housed in a primary and secondary housing and which rub on the sides of the disc. A seal air system is used to create a positive pressure in a chamber between the primary and secondary seals to create a positive air flow into the contaminated gas chamber. The seal air system also employs an air inlet located between the secondary and tertiary seals to further insure that no contaminates pass the seal and enter the external environment and to provide makeup air for the air which flows into the contaminated gas chamber. The pressure exerted by the seal bars on the rotating disc is controlled by means of a preload spring. The seal is capable of operating in a thermally changing environment where the both radial expansion and axial movement of the rotating kiln do not result in the failure of the seal.

  15. Direct injection isocratic high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of mitomycin C in plasma.

    PubMed

    Song, D; Au, J L

    1996-02-09

    A direct injection high-performance liquid chromatography method is described for the determination of mitomycin C (MMC) in human plasma. The stationary phase consisted of hydrophilic and hydrophobic functional groups covalently bound to silicone-coated silica beads (CAPCELL PAK MF Ph-1, 150x4.6 mm I.D., 5 microns). A mobile phase using 100% water gave a better separation of MMC from endogenous interferences as compared to a mobile phase with 12.5% acetonitrile and 2.5 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.9). Using water as the eluent (1 ml/min) and UV detection at 365 nm, MMC was found to elute at 5.0 min with a peak width of 0.3 min, whereas endogenous interferences eluted before 3 min. Total assay time per sample was 6 min. Internal standard was not required because the recovery of MMC was nearly complete, about 90% from 20 to 5000 ng/ml. The standard curve was linear from 20 to 5000 ng/ml in plasma, and the intra-and inter-day variation was between 3 to 6%. The lower detection limit was 5 ng/ml with a 25 microliters sample, which represents a two- to four-fold improvement over the 10 ng/ml detection limit by previous methods using liquid-liquid extraction and comparable sample size. The simplicity of this method, i.e., no sample extraction, no internal standard, 100% aqueous mobile phase, isocratic elution and short analysis time (6 min/sample), makes it suitable for large scale routine sample analysis, whereas its small sample volume requirement and high sensitivity are useful for pharmacokinetic studies in small animals where limited sample is available.

  16. Asymptotic analysis soot model and experiment for a directed injection engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongfeng; Pei, Pucheng; Xiong, Qinghui; Lu, Yong

    2012-09-01

    The existing soot models are either too complex and can not be applied to the internal combustion engine, or too simple to make calculation errors. Exploring the soot model becomes the pursuit of the goal of many researchers within the error range in the current computer speed. On the basis of the latest experimental results, TP (temperature phases) model is presented as a new soot model to carry out optimization calculation for a high-pressure common rail diesel engine. Temperature and excess air factor are the most important two parameters in this model. When zone temperature T<1 500 K and excess air factor Φ>0.6, only the soot precursors—polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAH) is created and there is no soot emission. When zone temperature T ⩾ 1 500 K and excess air factor Φ<0.6, PAHs and soot source terms (particle inception, surface growth, oxidation, coagulation) are calculated. The TP model is then implemented in KIVA code instead of original model to carry out optimizing. KIVA standard model and experimental data are analyzed for the results of cylinder pressures, the corresponding heat release rates, and soot with variation of injection time, variation of rail pressure and variation of speed among TP models. The experimental results indicate that the TP model can carry out optimization and computational fluid dynamics can be a tool to calculate for a high-pressure common rail directed injection diesel engine. The TP model result is closer than the use of the original KIVA-3V results of soot model accuracy by about 50% and TP model gives a new method for engine researchers.

  17. Filter-based control of particulate matter from a lean gasoline direct injection engine

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, II, James E; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; DeBusk, Melanie Moses; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Storey, John Morse

    2016-01-01

    New regulations requiring increases in vehicle fuel economy are challenging automotive manufacturers to identify fuel-efficient engines for future vehicles. Lean gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines offer significant increases in fuel efficiency over the more common stoichiometric GDI engines already in the marketplace. However, particulate matter (PM) emissions from lean GDI engines, particularly during stratified combustion modes, are problematic for lean GDI technology to meet U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Tier 3 and other future emission regulations. As such, the control of lean GDI PM with wall-flow filters, referred to as gasoline particulate filter (GPF) technology, is of interest. Since lean GDI PM chemistry and morphology differ from diesel PM (where more filtration experience exists), the functionality of GPFs needs to be studied to determine the operating conditions suitable for efficient PM removal. In addition, lean GDI engine exhaust temperatures are generally higher than diesel engines which results in more continuous regeneration of the GPF and less presence of the soot cake layer common to diesel particulate filters. Since the soot layer improves filtration efficiency, this distinction is important to consider. Research on the emission control of PM from a lean GDI engine with a GPF was conducted on an engine dynamometer. PM, after dilution, was characterized with membrane filters, organic vs. elemental carbon characterization, and size distribution techniques at various steady state engine speed and load points. The engine was operated in three primary combustion modes: stoichiometric, lean homogeneous, and lean stratified. In addition, rich combustion was utilized to simulate PM from engine operation during active regeneration of lean NOx control technologies. High (>95%) PM filtration efficiencies were observed over a wide range of conditions; however, some PM was observed to slip through the GPF at high speed and load conditions. The

  18. Repulsive force actuated rotary micromirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Siyuan; Ben Mrad, Ridha

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, a novel repulsive force based rotary micromirror is proposed. A repulsive force is produced in the rotary micromirror and the mirror plate is pushed up and away from the substrate. Therefore the rotation angle of the micromirror is not limited to the space underneath the mirror plate and thus the "pull-in" effect is completely circumvented. The novel rotary micromirror can achieve a large rotation angle with a large mirror plate. In addition the novel micromirror has a very simple structure and can be fabricated by standard surface micromachining technology. Numerical simulation is used to verify the working principle of the novel micromirror. A prototype of the novel rotary micromirror is fabricated by a commercially available surface microfabrication process called MUMPs. The prototype has a mirror size of 300μm x 300μm. The experimental measurements show that the prototype can achieve a mechanical rotation of 2.25 degrees (an optical angle of 4.5 degrees) at a driving voltage of 170 volts. A conventional surface micromachined attractive force based rotary micromirror of the same size can only achieve an angle of 0.1~0.2 degree.

  19. Rotary Power Transformer and Inverter Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W. T.; Bridgeforth, A. O.

    1985-01-01

    Noise lower than with sliprings. Rotary transformer transfers electric power across rotary joint. No wearing contacts, no contact noise, and no contamination from lubricants or wear debris. Because additional inductor not required, size and complexity of circuit reduced considerably.

  20. Ethanol Blend Effects On Direct Injection Spark-Ignition Gasoline Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Barone, Teresa L

    2010-01-01

    Direct injection spark-ignition (DISI) gasoline engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected counterparts, and are now appearing increasingly in more U.S. vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged DISI engines are likely to be used in lieu of large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, to meet fuel economy standards for 2016. In addition to changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the 10% allowed by current law due to the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA). In this study, we present the results of an emissions analysis of a U.S.-legal stoichiometric, turbocharged DISI vehicle, operating on ethanol blends, with an emphasis on detailed particulate matter (PM) characterization. Gaseous species, particle mass, and particle number concentration emissions were measured for the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle (FTP 75) and the more aggressive US06 cycle. Particle number-size distributions and organic to elemental carbon ratios (OC/EC) were measured for 30 MPH and 80 MPH steady-state operation. In addition, particle number concentration was measured during wide open throttle accelerations (WOTs) and gradual accelerations representative of the FTP 75. For the gaseous species and particle mass measurements, dilution was carried out using a full flow constant volume sampling system (CVS). For the particle number concentration and size distribution measurements, a micro-tunnel dilution system was employed. The vehicles were fueled by a standard test gasoline and 10% (E10) and 20% (E20) ethanol blends from the same supplier. The particle mass emissions were approximately 3 and 7 mg/mile for the FTP75 and US06, respectively, with lower emissions for the ethanol blends. During steady-state operation, the geometric mean diameter of the particle-number size

  1. Revisiting ocean carbon sequestration by direct injection: a global carbon budget perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reith, Fabian; Keller, David P.; Oschlies, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    In this study we look beyond the previously studied effects of oceanic CO2 injections on atmospheric and oceanic reservoirs and also account for carbon cycle and climate feedbacks between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere. Considering these additional feedbacks is important since backfluxes from the terrestrial biosphere to the atmosphere in response to reducing atmospheric CO2 can further offset the targeted reduction. To quantify these dynamics we use an Earth system model of intermediate complexity to simulate direct injection of CO2 into the deep ocean as a means of emissions mitigation during a high CO2 emission scenario. In three sets of experiments with different injection depths, we simulate a 100-year injection period of a total of 70 GtC and follow global carbon cycle dynamics over another 900 years. In additional parameter perturbation runs, we varied the default terrestrial photosynthesis CO2 fertilization parameterization by ±50 % in order to test the sensitivity of this uncertain carbon cycle feedback to the targeted atmospheric carbon reduction through direct CO2 injections. Simulated seawater chemistry changes and marine carbon storage effectiveness are similar to previous studies. As expected, by the end of the injection period avoided emissions fall short of the targeted 70 GtC by 16-30 % as a result of carbon cycle feedbacks and backfluxes in both land and ocean reservoirs. The target emissions reduction in the parameter perturbation simulations is about 0.2 and 2 % more at the end of the injection period and about 9 % less to 1 % more at the end of the simulations when compared to the unperturbed injection runs. An unexpected feature is the effect of the model's internal variability of deep-water formation in the Southern Ocean, which, in some model runs, causes additional oceanic carbon uptake after injection

  2. Insights on postinjection-associated soot emissions in direct injection diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Arregle, Jean; Pastor, Jose V.; Lopez, J. Javier; Garcia, Antonio

    2008-08-15

    A comprehensive study was carried out in order to better understand combustion behavior in a direct injection diesel engine when using postinjections. More specifically, the aim of the study is twofold: (1) to better understand the mechanism of a postinjection to reduce soot and (2) to improve the understanding of the contribution of the postinjection combustion on the total soot emissions by looking at the effect of the postinjection timing variation and the postinjection mass variation on the soot emissions associated with the postinjection. The study is focused only on far postinjections, and the explored operating conditions include the use of EGR. The first objective was fulfilled analyzing some results from a previous work adding only a few complementary results. Concerning the second objective, the basic idea behind the analysis performed is the search of appropriate parameters physically linked to the processes under analysis. These parameters are found based on the state-of-the-art of diesel combustion. For the effect of the postinjection timing, the physical parameter found was the temperature of the unburned gases at the end of injection, T{sub ug{sub E}}{sub oI}. It was checked that a threshold level of T{sub ug{sub E}}{sub oI} ({proportional_to}700 K for the cases explored here) exists below which soot is unable to be formed, independently of the postinjection size, and the amount of soot increases as the temperature increases beyond this threshold. For the effect of the postinjection size, the physical parameter that was found was DoI/ACT (the ratio between the actual duration of injection and the time necessary for mixing - the apparent combustion time). This parameter can quantify when the postinjection is able to produce soot (the threshold value is {proportional_to}0.37 for the cases explored here), and the amount of soot produced increases as this parameter increases beyond this threshold value. A function containing these two parameters has been

  3. Solar-heated rotary kiln

    DOEpatents

    Shell, P.K.

    1982-04-14

    A solar heated rotary kiln utilized for decomposition of materials, such as zinc sulfate is disclosed. The rotary kiln has an open end and is enclosed in a sealed container having a window positioned for directing solar energy into the open end of the kiln. The material to be decomposed is directed through the container into the kiln by a feed tube. The container is also provided with an outlet for exhaust gases and an outlet for spent solids, and rests on a tiltable base. The window may be cooled and kept clear of debris by coolant gases.

  4. Rotary head type reproducing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Takayama, Nobutoshi; Edakubo, Hiroo; Kozuki, Susumu; Takei, Masahiro; Nagasawa, Kenichi

    1986-01-01

    In an apparatus of the kind arranged to reproduce, with a plurality of rotary heads, an information signal from a record bearing medium having many recording tracks which are parallel to each other with the information signal recorded therein and with a plurality of different pilot signals of different frequencies also recorded one by one, one in each of the recording tracks, a plurality of different reference signals of different frequencies are simultaneously generated. A tracking error is detected by using the different reference signals together with the pilot signals which are included in signals reproduced from the plurality of rotary heads.

  5. Flow, spray and combustion analysis by laser techniques in the combustion chamber of a direct-injection diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, W.; Schindler, K.-P.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how the analysis of in -cylinder flow, fuel injection, and combustion by means of state-of-the-art optical techniques, as laser light-sheet, laser doppler anemometry and laser shadowgraphy, can help to support the understanding of the interaction of swirl flow development, spray formation, auto-ignition and combustion in near production-line direct-injection diesel engines and thus advances the development of engines with lower fuel consumption and emissions.

  6. Effects of thermoacoustic oscillations on spray combustion dynamics with implications for lean direct injection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chishty, Wajid Ali

    Thermoacoustic instabilities in modern high-performance, low-emission gas turbine engines are often observable as large amplitude pressure oscillations and can result in serious performance and structural degradations. These acoustic oscillations can cause oscillations in combustor through-flows and given the right phase conditions, can also drive unsteady heat release. To curb the potential harms caused by the existence of thermoacoustic instabilities, recent efforts have focused on the active suppression of these instabilities. Intuitively, development of effective active combustion control methodologies is strongly dependent on the knowledge of the onset and sustenance of thermoacoustic instabilities. Specially, non-premixed spray combustion environment pose additional challenges due to the inherent unstable dynamics of sprays. The understanding of the manner in which the combustor acoustics affect the spray characteristics, which in turn result in heat release oscillation, is therefore, of paramount importance. The experimental investigations and the modeling studies conducted towards achieving this knowledge have been presented in this dissertation. Experimental efforts comprise both reacting and non-reacting flow studies. Reacting flow experiments were conducted on a overall lean direct injection, swirl-stabilized combustor rig. The investigations spanned combustor characterization and stability mapping over the operating regime. The onset of thermoacoustic instability and the transition of the combustor to two unstable regimes were investigated via phase-locked chemiluminescence imaging and measurement and phase-locked acoustic characterization. It was found that the onset of the thermoacoustic instability is a function of the energy gain of the system, while the sustenance of instability is due to the in-phase relationship between combustor acoustics and unsteady heat release driven by acoustic oscillations. The presence of non-linearities in the system

  7. Regenerative rotary displacer Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Isshiki, Naotsugu; Watanabe, Hiroichi; Raggi, L.; Isshiki, Seita; Hirata, Koichi

    1996-12-31

    A few rotary displacer Stirling engines in which the displacer has one gas pocket space at one side and rotates in a main enclosed cylinder, which is heated from one side and cooled from opposite side without any regenerator, have been studied for some time by the authors. The authors tried to improve this engine by equipping it with a regenerator, because without a regenerator, pressure oscillation and efficiency are too small. Here, several types of regenerative rotary displacer piston Stirling engines are proposed. One is the contra-rotating tandem two disc type displacer engine using axial heat conduction through side walls or by heat pipes and another is a single disc type with circulating fluid regenerator or heat pipes. Stirling engines of this new rotary displacer type are thought to attain high speed. Here, experimental results of the original rotary displacer Stirling engine without a regenerator, and one contra-rotating tandem displacer engine with side wall regenerator by axial heat conduction are reported accompanied with a discussion of the results.

  8. Large hole rotary drill performance

    SciTech Connect

    Workman, J.L.; Calder, P.N.

    1996-12-31

    Large hole rotary drilling is one of the most common methods of producing blastholes in open pit mining. Large hole drilling generally refers to diameters from 9 to 17 inch (229 to 432 mm), however a considerable amount of rotary drilling is done in diameters from 6{1/2} to 9 inch (165 to 229 mm). These smaller diameters are especially prevalent in gold mining and quarrying. Rotary drills are major mining machines having substantial capital cost. Drill bit costs can also be high, depending on the bit type and formation being drilled. To keep unit costs low the drills must perform at a high productivity level. The most important factor in rotary drilling is the penetration rate. This paper discusses the factors affecting penetration rate. An empirical factor in rotary drilling is the penetration rate. This paper discusses the factors affecting penetration rate. An empirical factor is given for calculating the penetration rate based on rock strength, pulldown weight and the RPM. The importance of using modern drill performance monitoring systems to calibrate the penetration equation for specific rock formations is discussed. Adequate air delivered to the bottom of the hole is very important to achieving maximum penetration rates. If there is insufficient bailing velocity cuttings will not be transported from the bottom of the hole rapidly enough and the penetration rate is very likely to decrease. An expression for the balancing air velocity is given. The amount by which the air velocity must exceed the balancing velocity for effective operation is discussed. The effect of altitude on compressor size is also provided.

  9. High torque miniature rotary actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalbandian, Ruben

    2005-07-01

    This paper summarizes the design and the development of a miniature rotary actuator (36 mm diameter by 100 mm length) used in spacecraft mechanisms requiring high torques and/or ultra-fine step resolution. This actuator lends itself to applications requiring high torque but with strict volume limitations which challenge the use of conventional rotary actuators. The design challenge was to develop a lightweight (less than 500 grams), very compact, high bandwidth, low power, thermally stable rotary actuator capable of producing torques in excess of 50 N.m and step resolutions as fine as 0.003 degrees. To achieve a relatively high torsional stiffness in excess of 1000 Nm/radian, the design utilizes a combination of harmonic drive and multistage planetary gearing. The unique design feature of this actuator that contributes to its light weight and extremely precise motion capability is a redundant stepper motor driving the output through a multistage reducing gearbox. The rotary actuator is powered by a high reliability space-rated stepper motor designed and constructed by Moog, Inc. The motor is a three-phase stepper motor of 15 degree step angle, producing twenty-four full steps per revolution. Since micro-stepping is not used in the design, and un-powered holding torque is exhibited at every commanded step, the rotary actuator is capable of reacting to torques as high as 35 Nm by holding position with the power off. The output is driven through a gear transmission having a total train ratio of 5120:1, resulting in a resolution of 0.003 degrees output rotation per motor step. The modular design of the multi-stage output transmission makes possible the addition of designs having different output parameters, such as lower torque and higher output speed capability. Some examples of an actuator family based on this growth capability will be presented in the paper.

  10. Rotary Transformer Seals Power In

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A.; Paulkovich, J.

    1982-01-01

    Rotary transformer originally developed for spacecraft transfers electrical power from stationary primary winding to rotating secondary without sliding contacts and very little leakage of electromagnetic radiation. Transformer has two stationary primary windings connected in parallel. Secondary, mounted on a shaft that extends out of housing, rotates between two windings of primary. Shaft of secondary is composed of electrically conducting inner and outer parts separated by an insulator. Electrical contact is made from secondary winding, through shaft, to external leads.

  11. Improved Superconducting Magnetic Rotary Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flom, Yury; Royston, James

    1992-01-01

    Improved magnetic rotary bearings designed by exploiting properties of type-II superconducting materials. Depending on design and application, bearing provides fixed or adjustable compensation for lateral vector component of weight or other lateral load on rotor. Allows applied magnetic field to penetrate partially in clusters of field lines, with concomitant establishment of undamped circulating electrical currents within material. Type-II superconductors have critical magnetic fields and critical temperatures greater than type-I superconductors.

  12. Rotary balances: A selected, annotated bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, Marie H.; Kilgore, Robert A.; Sych, Karen L.

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography on rotary balances contains 102 entries. It is part of NASA's support of the AGARD Fluid Dynamics Panel Working Group 11 on Rotary Balances. This bibliography includes works that might be useful to anyone interested in building or using rotor balances. Emphasis is on the rotary balance rigs and testing techniques rather than the aerodynamic data. Also included are some publications of historical interest which relate to key events in the development and use of rotary balances. The arrangement is chronological by date of publication in the case of reports and by presentation in the case of papers.

  13. Rotary kilns - transport phenomena and transport processes

    SciTech Connect

    Boateng, A.

    2008-01-15

    Rotary kilns and rotating industrial drying ovens are used for a wide variety of applications including processing raw minerals and feedstocks as well as heat-treating hazardous wastes. They are particularly critical in the manufacture of Portland cement. Their design and operation is critical to their efficient usage, which if done incorrectly can result in improperly treated materials and excessive, high fuel costs. This book treats all engineering aspects of rotary kilns, including thermal and fluid principles involved in their operation, as well as how to properly design an engineering process that uses rotary kilns. Chapter 1: The Rotary Kiln Evolution and Phenomenon Chapter 2: Basic Description of Rotary Kiln Operation Chapter 3: Freeboard Aerodynamic Phenomena Chapter 4: Granular Flows in Rotary Kilns Chapter 5: Mixing and Segregation Chapter 6: Combustion and Flame - includes section on types of fuels used in rotary kilns, coal types, ranking and analysis, petroleum coke combustion, scrap tire combustion, pulverized fuel (coal/coke) firing in kilns, pulverized fuel delivery and firing systems. Chapter 7: Freeboard Heat Transfer Chapter 8: Heat Transfer Processes in the Rotary Kiln Bed Chapter 9: Mass and Energy Balance Chapter 10: Rotary Kiln Minerals Process Applications.

  14. Rotary mode system initial instrument calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, B.R.

    1994-10-01

    The attached report contains the vendor calibration procedures used for the initial instrument calibration of the rotary core sampling equipment. The procedures are from approved vendor information files.

  15. Quantitative determination of cyclic polylactic acid oligomers in serum by direct injection liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Osaka, Issey; Yoshimoto, Arihumi; Watanabe, Mikio; Takama, Masashi; Murakami, Masahiro; Kawasaki, Hideya; Arakawa, Ryuichi

    2008-07-15

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biodegradable polymer, currently used in pharmaceutical and surgical devices. There is a concern that cyclic polylactic acid (CPLA), which is a by-product of PLA synthesis, may be introduced into the human body as an undesirable contaminant. We carried out a quantitation investigation of the CPLA heptamer (CPLA-7) by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). We found that CPLA-7 binds strongly with serum proteins and that only 62% of CPLA-7 was recovered after routine deproteination; therefore, we directly injected serum into the LC-MS/MS system after passage through a bovine serum albumin (BSA)-coated chromatographic column and found the recovery of CPLA-7 was improved to 84%, and that the detection (S/N=3) and quantitation limit (S/N=10 and below 15% relative standard deviation) were 1.5 and 2.5 ng/mL, respectively. We conclude that direct injection LC-MS/MS, using a BSA column, is a simple and effective quantitative analysis method for CPLA in serum.

  16. Fluoxetine and norfluoxetine analysis by direct injection of human plasma in a column switching liquid chromatographic system.

    PubMed

    Santos-Neto, Alvaro J; Fernandes, Christian; Rodrigues, José C; Alves, Claudete; Lanças, Fernando M

    2008-01-01

    A column switching LC method is presented for the analysis of fluoxetine (FLU) and norfluoxetine (NFLU) by direct injection of human plasma using a lab-made restricted access media (RAM) column. A RAM-BSA-octadecyl silica (C-18) column (40 mm x 4.6 mm, 10 microm) is evaluated in both backflush and foreflush elution modes and coupled with a C-18 lab-made (50 mm x 4.6 mm, 3 microm) analytical column in order to perform online sample preparation. Direct injection of 100 microL of plasma samples is possible with the developed approach. In addition, reduction of sample handling is obtained when compared with traditional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and SPE. The total analysis time is around 20 min. A LOQ of 15 ng/mL is achieved in a concentration range of 15-500 ng/mL, allowing the therapeutic drug monitoring of clinical samples. The precision values achieved are lower than 15% for all the evaluated points with adequate recovery and accuracy. Furthermore, no matrix interferences are found in the analysis and the proposed method shows to be an adequate alternative for analysis of FLU in plasma.

  17. Effects of Fuel Spray Modeling on Combustion Instability Predictions in a Single-Element Lean Direct Injection (LDI) Gas Turbine Combustor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Modeling on Combustion Instability Predictions in a Single- Element Lean Direct Injection (LDI) Gas Turbine Combustor 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...injection (LDI) gas turbine combustor were performed to assess the effects of fuel spray modeling in predicting combustion instability. Concurrently...239.18 Effects of Fuel Spray Modeling on Combustion Instability Predictions in a Single-Element Lean Direct Injection (LDI) Gas Turbine

  18. Rotary high power transfer apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Peter E. (Inventor); Porter, Ryan S. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus for reducing terminal-to-terminal circuit resistance and enhancing heat transfer in a rotary power transfer apparatus of the roll ring type comprising a connecting thimble for attaching an external power cable to a cone shaped terminal which is attached to a tab integral to an outer ring. An inner ring having a spherical recess mates with the spherical end of a tie connector. A cone shaped terminal is fitted to a second connecting thimble for attaching a second external power cable.

  19. Split Coil Forms for Rotary Transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W. T.

    1982-01-01

    Split cores for rotor and stator windings of rotary transformer mounted around their respective coils (which are in bobbins) and cemented together. This arrangement simplifies winding of stator coil to go in a slot in inner diameter of stator coil. One practical application of rotary transformers fabricated according to this technique is for centrifuges, in which conventional sliprings are of uncertain reliability.

  20. Torque-balanced vibrationless rotary coupling

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Donald M.

    1980-01-01

    This disclosure describes a torque-balanced vibrationless rotary coupling for transmitting rotary motion without unwanted vibration into the spindle of a machine tool. A drive member drives a driven member using flexible connecting loops which are connected tangentially and at diametrically opposite connecting points through a free floating ring.

  1. A multifunctional rotary photoelectric encoder management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zunzhong; Ying, Yibin

    2005-11-01

    The rotary photoelectric encoder can be used in many fields, such as robot research, fruit assembly lines, and so on. If there have many photoelectric encoders in one system, it's difficult to manage them and acquire the right pulse number. So it's important to design a multifunctional management system. It includes a powerful microchip with high processing speed, assuring the acquisition precision of rotary pulse. It uses a special method to judge the rotary direction and will be competent for many occasions which rotary direction changes quickly. Considering encoder data transmission, the management system provides a serial port using RS-485 protocol to transmit current pulse data and rotary direction. It allows linking a maximum of 100 management systems using only two communication lines to up-systems and also configing the encoder counting pattern locally (using the keyboard) or remotely (through the computer).

  2. Numerical Simulations of Two-Phase Reacting Flow in a Single-Element Lean Direct Injection (LDI) Combustor Using NCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Nan-Suey; Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Wey, C. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A series of numerical simulations of Jet-A spray reacting flow in a single-element lean direct injection (LDI) combustor have been conducted by using the National Combustion Code (NCC). The simulations have been carried out using the time filtered Navier-Stokes (TFNS) approach ranging from the steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS), unsteady RANS (URANS), to the dynamic flow structure simulation (DFS). The sub-grid model employed for turbulent mixing and combustion includes the well-mixed model, the linear eddy mixing (LEM) model, and the filtered mass density function (FDF/PDF) model. The starting condition of the injected liquid spray is specified via empirical droplet size correlation, and a five-species single-step global reduced mechanism is employed for fuel chemistry. All the calculations use the same grid whose resolution is of the RANS type. Comparisons of results from various models are presented.

  3. Studies of the Combustion Process with Simultaneous Formaldehyde and OH PLIF in a Direct-Injected HCCI Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Mattias; Collin, Robert; Nygren, Jenny; Aldén, Marcus; Hildingsson, Leif; Johansson, Bengt

    This paper presents simultaneous laser based measurements of formaldehyde and OH-radical distributions in a 0.5 liter optical HCCI engine with direct injection. Formaldehyde is formed as an intermediate species when combusting hydrocarbons. The formation occurs through low temperature reactions in an early phase of the combustion process. Later in the process formaldehyde is being consumed. Formaldehyde is, therefore, used as indicator of the first stage of combustion and a marker of zones with low-temperature reactions. The OH radical is formed as an intermediate during the high temperature reactions, and is used as a marker of zones where the combustion is ongoing. The purpose of the investigation was to study how the combustion process is affected by the change in homogeneity that arises from early and late injection, respectively. The measurement technique used was planar laser-induced fluorescence where formaldehyde was excited at 355nm and OH at 283nm.

  4. Identification of wood between Phoebe zhennan and Machilus pingii using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry direct injection technique.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Zhu, Tao; Li, Jingya; Liu, Shuai

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the technique of direct injection gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) was employed to discriminate between two batches of wood (Phoebe zhennan and Machilus pingii) with characteristic smells. Based on the GC-MS fingerprints obtained, similarities between samples were evaluated via correlation coefficient, hierarchical clustering and characteristic constituents analysis. The results showed that distinct differences in total ion chromatograms existed between the two species of wood and their correlation coefficients were low; however, the relationship between the same species of different batches showed the opposite; meanwhile, the analysis of hierarchical clustering and characteristic constituents also demonstrated an interrelationship. All the analytical methods achieved the goal of identification between the two species of wood, which verified that the technique can be used to identify different species of wood with characteristic smells.

  5. The effect of insulated combustion chamber surfaces on direct-injected diesel engine performance, emissions, and combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, Daniel W.; Vinyard, Shannon; Keribar, Rifat

    1988-01-01

    The combustion chamber of a single-cylinder, direct-injected diesel engine was insulated with ceramic coatings to determine the effect of low heat rejection (LHR) operation on engine performance, emissions, and combustion. In comparison to the baseline cooled engine, the LHR engine had lower thermal efficiency, with higher smoke, particulate, and full load carbon monoxide emissions. The unburned hydrocarbon emissions were reduced across the load range. The nitrous oxide emissions increased at some part-load conditions and were reduced slightly at full loads. The poor LHR engine performance was attributed to degraded combustion characterized by less premixed burning, lower heat release rates, and longer combustion duration compared to the baseline cooled engine.

  6. Trace level haloacetic acids in drinking water by direct injection ion chromatography and single quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Johnson; McMillin, Rick; Gandhi, Jay; Mohsin, Sheher; Czyborra, Stefanie

    2009-08-01

    Chlorine has been widely used to kill disease-causing microbes in drinking water. During the disinfection process, organic and inorganic material in source waters can combine with chlorine and certain other chemical disinfectants to form disinfection by-products. The kind of disinfectant used can produce different types and levels of disinfectant byproducts in the drinking water, such as trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids (5HAAs). Currently, USEPA Method 552 utilizes a methyl tert-butyl ether extraction and diazomethane derivatization of HAAs and phenolic disinfectant by-products, and a gas chromatograph equipped with a capillary column to perform the separation of methyl-haloacetates and anisoles. To detect, gas chromatography and electron capture detector are used. This article demonstrates a simple method using direct injection ion chromatography hyphenated with mass spectrometry for the analysis of 5HAAs.

  7. Determining ultraviolet absorbents in sunscreen products by combining direct injection with micelle collapse on-line preconcentration capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Wen-Yao; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Feng, Chia-Hsien; Wang, Shih-Wei; Chen, Yen-Ling

    2015-02-27

    The on-line preconcentration technique of analyte focusing by micelle collapse-micellar electrokinetic chromatography (AFMC-MEKC) was combined with direct injection without extraction to determine ultraviolet absorbents in sunscreen products. The stacking mechanism is based on the transport, release, and accumulation of analytes bound to micelle carriers that are collapsed into the micelle dilution zone. The following optimized conditions were determined: the running buffer was 10mM Tris buffer (pH 9.5) containing 60mM SDS, 7mM γ-CD and 20% ethanol; the SDS concentration was required to be slightly above the critical micelle concentration (cmc) value (7.4mM) in the sample matrix, which allowed the micelle dilution zone to form when voltage was applied; and finally, the sample was prepared in 100mM Tris buffer (pH 9.0) containing 7.5mM SDS and 20% (v/v) ethanol to provide sufficient resolution and to improve the sensitivity. Samples were injected at 0.5psi for 40s, and the separation voltage was set at 15kV for first 15min and then increased to 23kV to decrease the analysis time. The detection sensitivity for ultraviolet absorbents was enhanced by approximately 41-fold using AFMC-MEKC compared to conventional MEKC. The limit of detection (S/N=3) was 98nM for benzophenone-2 and benzophenone-4. The correlation of the regression curve was greater than 0.995. The relative error and relative standard deviation were lower than 9.94% with high precision and accuracy. The recoveries of nine ultraviolet absorbents in a homemade emulsion were between 95.08% and 104.57%. After optimization and validation, this AFMC-MEKC method combined with direct injection is considered to be established and successfully applicable to commercial sunscreen products.

  8. Monte Carlo calculations of dose distribution for intramural delivery of radioisotopes using a direct injection balloon catheter

    SciTech Connect

    Kassing, William M.; McGoron, Anthony J.; Thomas, Stephen R.; Elson, Howard R.; Pipes, David W

    2002-03-01

    Purpose: A unique method of delivering radiation dose to the coronary vessel wall to prevent restenosis is by direct injection of radioactive compounds into the vessel wall using a specially designed angioplasty balloon catheter. The radiation dose distribution resulting from such intramural delivery was investigated using Monte Carlo simulations. Materials and methods: The radioisotope source distribution was modeled for two configurations within the vessel wall: (1) uniform to a depth of 0.5 mm and (2) confined to discrete pools surrounding the delivery injection ports. Monte Carlo MCNP4B computer simulations were utilized to estimate the associated radiation dose distribution for the following radioisotopes: {sup 188}Re, {sup 186}Re, {sup 32}P, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 111}In, {sup 123}I, and {sup 99m}Tc. Results: For the uniform case where the radioisotopes are distributed uniformly to the depth of 0.5 mm into the vessel wall, an essentially constant radiation dose is delivered within the source distribution. Outside of the source volume, the dose falls off at a rate depending on the emission properties of the particular radioisotope. The nonuniform case involving discrete pools of activity showed the dose distribution being confined largely to the regions surrounding the delivery ports with significant regions between these ports receiving very little dose. Conclusions: Direct injection of selected radioisotopes into the arterial wall appears to represent a potentially effective method for delivering radiation dose for the prevention of restenosis. Sufficiently high doses may be obtained from relatively low activity and the dose falls off rapidly outside of the target area for certain radioisotopes.

  9. Floating seal system for rotary devices

    DOEpatents

    Banasiuk, Hubert A.

    1983-01-01

    This invention relates to a floating seal system for rotary devices to reduce gas leakage around the rotary device in a duct and across the face of the rotary device to an adjacent duct. The peripheral seal bodies are made of resilient material having a generally U-shaped cross section wherein one of the legs is secured to a support member and the other of the legs forms a contacting seal against the rotary device. The legs of the peripheral seal form an extended angle of intersection of about 10.degree. to about 30.degree. in the unloaded condition to provide even sealing forces around the periphery of the rotary device. The peripheral seal extends around the periphery of the support member except where intersected by radial seals which reduce gas leakage across the face of the rotary device and between adjacent duct portions. The radial seal assembly is fabricated from channel bars, the smaller channel bar being secured to the divider of the support member and a larger inverted rigid floating channel bar having its legs freely movable over the legs of the smaller channel bar forming therewith a tubular channel. A resilient flexible tube is positioned within the tubular channel for substantially its full length to reduce gas leakage across the tubular channel. A spacer extends beyond the face of the floating channel near each end of the floating channel a distance to provide desired clearance between the floating channel and the face of the rotary device.

  10. Floating seal system for rotary devices

    DOEpatents

    Banasiuk, H.A.

    1983-08-23

    This invention relates to a floating seal system for rotary devices to reduce gas leakage around the rotary device in a duct and across the face of the rotary device to an adjacent duct. The peripheral seal bodies are made of resilient material having a generally U-shaped cross section wherein one of the legs is secured to a support member and the other of the legs forms a contacting seal against the rotary device. The legs of the peripheral seal form an extended angle of intersection of about 10[degree] to about 30[degree] in the unloaded condition to provide even sealing forces around the periphery of the rotary device. The peripheral seal extends around the periphery of the support member except where intersected by radial seals which reduce gas leakage across the face of the rotary device and between adjacent duct portions. The radial seal assembly is fabricated from channel bars, the smaller channel bar being secured to the divider of the support member and a larger inverted rigid floating channel bar having its legs freely movable over the legs of the smaller channel bar forming therewith a tubular channel. A resilient flexible tube is positioned within the tubular channel for substantially its full length to reduce gas leakage across the tubular channel. A spacer extends beyond the face of the floating channel near each end of the floating channel a distance to provide desired clearance between the floating channel and the face of the rotary device. 5 figs.

  11. Premixed direct injection disk

    SciTech Connect

    York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2013-04-23

    A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  12. Rotary Valve FY 2016 Highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Fitsos, P.

    2016-12-07

    The fiscal year started with the Rotary Valve (RV) being reassembled after having crashed in June of 2015. The crash occurred when the RV inner surface contacted the housing. The cause of the crash was never confirmed. No particles were found in the 2.5 thousandths of an inch gap and the filters the helium gas passed through were all clean. There were marks on the bearings that looked like electrostatic discharge as shown below in Figure 1. These marks hadn’t been seen before and there were similar discharge marks on some of the ball bearings. Examples of this were found in a literature search of bearing failures. This leads to a possible cause due to this arcing affecting the rotational accuracy of the bearings driving the RV into the housing.

  13. Rotary recuperative magnetic heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirol, Lance D.; Dacus, Michael W.

    A bench scale rotary magnetic heat pump now being built is described. The unique design feature of this heat pump is the method for achieving recuperator fluid flow, which relies simply on parallel flow paths; the primary flow leg allows heat transfer between external load and sink and magnetic working material, while parallel flow accomplishes recuperation. The bench scale test is intended to demonstrate feasibility of the concept and to verify that all significant loss mechanisms are identified and treated properly in performance models, but is not a scaled down version of a practical heat pump. Working material is gadolinium foil 76 microns thick with 127-micron spaces for fluid flow. Magnetic fields are created by neodymium-iron-boron-permanent magnets with an air gap field of about 0.9 Tesla. Due to the low field (practical heat pumps will use superconducting magnets with field strength around 9 T); temperature lift is limited to 11 K.

  14. Enclosed rotary disc air pulser

    DOEpatents

    Olson, A. L.; Batcheller, Tom A.; Rindfleisch, J. A.; Morgan, John M.

    1989-01-01

    An enclosed rotary disc air pulser for use with a solvent extraction pulse olumn includes a housing having inlet, exhaust and pulse leg ports, a shaft mounted in the housing and adapted for axial rotation therein, first and second disc members secured to the shaft within the housing in spaced relation to each other to define a chamber therebetween, the chamber being in communication with the pulse leg port, the first disc member located adjacent the inlet port, the second disc member being located adjacent the exhaust port, each disc member having a milled out portion, the disc members positioned on the shaft so that as the shaft rotates, the milled out portions permit alternative cyclical communication between the inlet port and the chamber and the exhaust port and the chamber.

  15. Ultrasonic rotary-hammer drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Kassab, Steve (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A mechanism for drilling or coring by a combination of sonic hammering and rotation. The drill includes a hammering section with a set of preload weights mounted atop a hammering actuator and an axial passage through the hammering section. In addition, a rotary section includes a motor coupled to a drive shaft that traverses the axial passage through the hammering section. A drill bit is coupled to the drive shaft for drilling by a combination of sonic hammering and rotation. The drill bit includes a fluted shaft leading to a distal crown cutter with teeth. The bit penetrates sampled media by repeated hammering action. In addition, the bit is rotated. As it rotates the fluted bit carries powdered cuttings helically upward along the side of the bit to the surface.

  16. Aerodynamic seals for rotary machine

    DOEpatents

    Bidkar, Rahul Anil; Cirri, Massimiliano; Thatte, Azam Mihir; Williams, John Robert

    2016-02-09

    An aerodynamic seal assembly for a rotary machine includes multiple sealing device segments disposed circumferentially intermediate to a stationary housing and a rotor. Each of the segments includes a shoe plate with a forward-shoe section and an aft-shoe section having multiple labyrinth teeth therebetween facing the rotor. The sealing device segment also includes multiple flexures connected to the shoe plate and to a top interface element, wherein the multiple flexures are configured to allow the high pressure fluid to occupy a forward cavity and the low pressure fluid to occupy an aft cavity. Further, the sealing device segments include a secondary seal attached to the top interface element at one first end and positioned about the flexures and the shoe plate at one second end.

  17. Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal for Characterization of Spark Ignited Direct Injection Engine Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Matthias, Nick; Farron, Carrie; Foster, David E.; Andrie, Mike; Krieger, Roger; Najt, Paul; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Solomon, Arun; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2012-01-01

    More stringent emissions regulations are continually being proposed to mitigate adverse human health and environmental impacts of internal combustion. With that in mind, it has been proposed that vehicular particulate matter (PM) emissions should be regulated based on particle number in addition to particle mass. One aspect of this project is to study different sample handling methods for number based aerosol measurements, specifically, two different methods for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from an aerosol sample. One method is a Dekati Thermodenuder (TD) and the other is an evaporative chamber/diluter (EvCh). These sample handling methods have been implemented for this project in an engine test cell built around a direct injection spark ignited (DISI) engine. The engine was designed for stoichiometric, homogeneous combustion. Direct injection is of particular interest for improved fuel efficiency but this comes with the production of a significant amount of (PM) and may therefore be subject to the proposed number based regulation. Another aspect of this project is to characterize PM from this engine in terms of particle number and composition. The first interesting observation is that PM number distributions, acquired using a TSI SMPS, have a large accumulation mode (30-294 nm) but a very small nuclei mode (8-30 nm). This is understood to represent a lack of condensation particles meaning that neither the exhaust conditions nor the sample handling conditions are conducive to condensation. This lack of nuclei mode does not, however, represent a lack of VOCs in the sample. It has been observed, using mass spectral analysis (limited to PM>50 nm), that PM from the DISI engine has approximately 40% organic content through varying operating conditions. This begs the question of how effective different sample handling methods are at removing these VOCs. For one specific operating condition, called Cold Start, the un-treated PM was 40% organic. The TD

  18. Rotary adsorbers for continuous bulk separations

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Frederick S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2011-11-08

    A rotary adsorber for continuous bulk separations is disclosed. The rotary adsorber includes an adsorption zone in fluid communication with an influent adsorption fluid stream, and a desorption zone in fluid communication with a desorption fluid stream. The fluid streams may be gas streams or liquid streams. The rotary adsorber includes one or more adsorption blocks including adsorbent structure(s). The adsorbent structure adsorbs the target species that is to be separated from the influent fluid stream. The apparatus includes a rotary wheel for moving each adsorption block through the adsorption zone and the desorption zone. A desorption circuit passes an electrical current through the adsorbent structure in the desorption zone to desorb the species from the adsorbent structure. The adsorbent structure may include porous activated carbon fibers aligned with their longitudinal axis essentially parallel to the flow direction of the desorption fluid stream. The adsorbent structure may be an inherently electrically-conductive honeycomb structure.

  19. Unidirectional rotary motion in achiral molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Kistemaker, Jos C M; Štacko, Peter; Visser, Johan; Feringa, Ben L

    2015-11-01

    Control of the direction of motion is an essential feature of biological rotary motors and results from the intrinsic chirality of the amino acids from which the motors are made. In synthetic autonomous light-driven rotary motors, point chirality is transferred to helical chirality, and this governs their unidirectional rotation. However, achieving directional rotary motion in an achiral molecular system in an autonomous fashion remains a fundamental challenge. Here, we report an achiral molecular motor in which the presence of a pseudo-asymmetric carbon atom proved to be sufficient for exclusive autonomous disrotary motion of two appended rotor moieties. Isomerization around the two double bonds enables both rotors to move in the same direction with respect to their surroundings--like wheels on an axle--demonstrating that autonomous unidirectional rotary motion can be achieved in a symmetric system.

  20. Unidirectional rotary motion in achiral molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistemaker, Jos C. M.; Štacko, Peter; Visser, Johan; Feringa, Ben L.

    2015-11-01

    Control of the direction of motion is an essential feature of biological rotary motors and results from the intrinsic chirality of the amino acids from which the motors are made. In synthetic autonomous light-driven rotary motors, point chirality is transferred to helical chirality, and this governs their unidirectional rotation. However, achieving directional rotary motion in an achiral molecular system in an autonomous fashion remains a fundamental challenge. Here, we report an achiral molecular motor in which the presence of a pseudo-asymmetric carbon atom proved to be sufficient for exclusive autonomous disrotary motion of two appended rotor moieties. Isomerization around the two double bonds enables both rotors to move in the same direction with respect to their surroundings—like wheels on an axle—demonstrating that autonomous unidirectional rotary motion can be achieved in a symmetric system.

  1. Rotary stripper for shielded and unshielded FCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.; Chambers, C. M.

    1971-01-01

    Rotary stripper removes narrow strips of insulation and shielding to any desired depth. Unshielded cables are stripped on both sides with one stroke, shielded cables are stripped in steps of different depths.

  2. Characterization of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Premixed Gasoline and Direct-Injected Gasoline with a Cetane Improver on a Multi-Cylinder Engine

    DOE PAGES

    Dempsey, Adam B.; Curran, Scott; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2015-04-14

    The focus of the present paper was to characterize Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) using a single-fuel approach of gasoline and gasoline mixed with a commercially available cetane improver on a multi-cylinder engine. RCCI was achieved by port-injecting a certification grade 96 research octane gasoline and direct-injecting the same gasoline mixed with various levels of a cetane improver, 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN). The EHN volume percentages investigated in the direct-injected fuel were 10, 5, and 2.5%. The combustion phasing controllability and emissions of the different fueling combinations were characterized at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure over amore » variety of parametric investigations including direct injection timing, premixed gasoline percentage, and intake temperature. Comparisons were made to gasoline/diesel RCCI operation on the same engine platform at nominally the same operating condition. The experiments were conducted on a modern four cylinder light-duty diesel engine that was modified with a port-fuel injection system while maintaining the stock direct injection fuel system. The pistons were modified for highly premixed operation and feature an open shallow bowl design. The results indicate that the authority to control the combustion phasing through the fuel delivery strategy (e.g., direct injection timing or premixed gasoline percentage) is not a strong function of the EHN concentration in the direct-injected fuel. It was also observed that NOx emissions are a strong function of the global EHN concentration in-cylinder and the combustion phasing. Finally, in general, NOx emissions are significantly elevated for gasoline/gasoline+EHN operation compared with gasoline/diesel RCCI operation at a given operating condition.« less

  3. Characterization of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Premixed Gasoline and Direct-Injected Gasoline with a Cetane Improver on a Multi-Cylinder Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Dempsey, Adam B.; Curran, Scott; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2015-04-14

    The focus of the present paper was to characterize Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) using a single-fuel approach of gasoline and gasoline mixed with a commercially available cetane improver on a multi-cylinder engine. RCCI was achieved by port-injecting a certification grade 96 research octane gasoline and direct-injecting the same gasoline mixed with various levels of a cetane improver, 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN). The EHN volume percentages investigated in the direct-injected fuel were 10, 5, and 2.5%. The combustion phasing controllability and emissions of the different fueling combinations were characterized at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure over a variety of parametric investigations including direct injection timing, premixed gasoline percentage, and intake temperature. Comparisons were made to gasoline/diesel RCCI operation on the same engine platform at nominally the same operating condition. The experiments were conducted on a modern four cylinder light-duty diesel engine that was modified with a port-fuel injection system while maintaining the stock direct injection fuel system. The pistons were modified for highly premixed operation and feature an open shallow bowl design. The results indicate that the authority to control the combustion phasing through the fuel delivery strategy (e.g., direct injection timing or premixed gasoline percentage) is not a strong function of the EHN concentration in the direct-injected fuel. It was also observed that NOx emissions are a strong function of the global EHN concentration in-cylinder and the combustion phasing. Finally, in general, NOx emissions are significantly elevated for gasoline/gasoline+EHN operation compared with gasoline/diesel RCCI operation at a given operating condition.

  4. Determination of acrylamide in drinking water by large-volume direct injection and ion-exclusion chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cavalli, S; Polesello, S; Saccani, G

    2004-06-11

    Acrylamide, a known neurotoxin and putative human carcinogen, has been included among the substances to be monitored in drinking water according to the European Union Directive 98/83 on potable water. This paper reports a new method based on the combination of ion-exclusion chromatographic separation and MS detection. Samples of drinking water have been directly injected in the microbore ICE-AS1 column and detected in the selected-ion monitoring mode by a single quadrupole system with electrospray ionization. Chromatographic conditions, such as eluent composition and flow rate, have been optimized by a central composite design experiment. Statistical analysis of data showed that the amount of acetonitrile fraction in the eluent mixture, composed by acetonitrile and formic acid solution, is the variable that most influences retention of the acrylamide peak. After optimization of MS detection parameters, this method has been validated for spiked drinking water samples. The effect of large-volume injection (up to 500 microl) has been also explored. Linearity was evaluated from 0.5 to 5 microg l(-1). Repeatability, expressed as R.S.D., was 16 and 12% at 0.5 and 1 microg l(-1) respectively. The limit of detection was 0.20 ppb with 500 microl injection volume.

  5. Detection of s-triazine pesticides in natural waters by modified large-volume direct injection HPLC.

    PubMed

    Beale, David J; Kaserzon, Sarit L; Porter, Nichola A; Roddick, Felicity A; Carpenter, Peter D

    2010-07-15

    There is a need for simple and inexpensive methods to quantify potentially harmful persistent pesticides often found in our water-ways and water distribution systems. This paper presents a simple, relatively inexpensive method for the detection of a group of commonly used pesticides (atrazine, simazine and hexazinone) in natural waters using large-volume direct injection high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) utilizing a monolithic column and a single wavelength ultraviolet-visible light (UV-vis) detector. The best results for this system were obtained with a mobile phase made up of acetonitrile and water in a 30:70 ratio, a flow rate of 2.0 mL min(-1), and a detector wavelength of 230 nm. Using this method, we achieved retention times of less than three minutes, and detection limits of 5.7 microg L(-1) for atrazine, 4.7 microg L(-1) for simazine and 4.0 microg L(-1) for hexazinone. The performance of this method was validated with an inter-laboratory trial against a National Association of Testing Authorities (NATA) accredited liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method commonly used in commercial laboratories.

  6. Rapid determination of piracetam in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid by micellar electrokinetic chromatography with sample direct injection.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Hsin-Hua; Yang, Yuan-Han; Ko, Ju-Yun; Chen, Su-Hwei

    2006-07-07

    A simple micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method with UV detection at 200 nm for analysis of piracetam in plasma and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by direct injection without any sample pretreatment is described. The separation of piracetam from biological matrix was performed at 25 degrees C using a background electrolyte consisting of Tris buffer with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as the electrolyte solution. Several parameters affecting the separation of the drug from biological matrix were studied, including the pH and concentrations of the Tris buffer and SDS. Under optimal MEKC condition, good separation with high efficiency and short analyses time is achieved. Using imidazole as an internal standard (IS), the linear ranges of the method for the determination of piracetam in plasma and in CSF were all between 5 and 500 microg/mL; the detection limit of the drug in plasma and in CSF (signal-to-noise ratio=3; injection 0.5 psi, 5s) was 1.0 microg/mL. The applicability of the proposed method for determination of piracetam in plasma and CSF collected after intravenous administration of 3g piracetam every 6h and oral administration 1.2g every 6h in encephalopathy patients with aphasia was demonstrated.

  7. High-speed fuel tracer fluorescence and OH radical chemiluminescence imaging in a spark-ignition direct-injection engine.

    PubMed

    Smith, James D; Sick, Volker

    2005-11-01

    An innovative technique has been demonstrated to achieve crank-angle-resolved planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of fuel followed by OH* chemiluminescence imaging in a firing direct-injected spark-ignition engine. This study used two standard KrF excimer lasers to excite toluene for tracking fuel distribution. The intensified camera system was operated at single crank-angle resolution at 2000 revolutions per minute (RPM) for 500 consecutive cycles. Through this work, it has been demonstrated that toluene and OH* can be imaged through the same optical setup while similar signal levels are obtained from both species, even at these high rates. The technique is useful for studying correlations between fuel distribution and subsequent ignition and flame propagation without the limitations of phase-averaging imaging approaches. This technique is illustrated for the effect of exhaust gas recirculation on combustion and will be useful for studies of misfire causes. Finally, a few general observations are presented as to the effect of preignition fuel distribution on subsequent combustion.

  8. Effects of fresh lubricant oils on particle emissions emitted by a modern gasoline direct injection passenger car.

    PubMed

    Pirjola, Liisa; Karjalainen, Panu; Heikkilä, Juha; Saari, Sampo; Tzamkiozis, Theodoros; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Kulmala, Kari; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

    2015-03-17

    Particle emissions from a modern turbocharged gasoline direct injection passenger car equipped with a three-way catalyst and an exhaust gas recirculation system were studied while the vehicle was running on low-sulfur gasoline and, consecutively, with five different lubrication oils. Exhaust particle number concentration, size distribution, and volatility were determined both at laboratory and on-road conditions. The results indicated that the choice of lubricant affected particle emissions both during the cold start and warm driving cycles. However, the contribution of engine oil depended on driving conditions being higher during acceleration and steady state driving than during deceleration. The highest emission factors were found with two oils that had the highest metal content. The results indicate that a 10% decrease in the Zn content of engine oils is linked with an 11-13% decrease to the nonvolatile particle number emissions in steady driving conditions and a 5% decrease over the New European Driving Cycle. The effect of lubricant on volatile particles was even higher, on the order of 20%.

  9. Influence of mileage accumulation on the particle mass and number emissions of two gasoline direct injection vehicles.

    PubMed

    Maricq, M Matti; Szente, Joseph J; Adams, Jack; Tennison, Paul; Rumpsa, Todd

    2013-10-15

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) is a new engine technology intended to improve fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions as required by recently enacted legislative and environmental regulations. The development of this technology must also ensure that these vehicles meet new LEV III and Tier 3 emissions standards as they phase in between 2017 and 2021. The aim of the present paper is to examine, at least for a small set, how the PM emissions from GDI vehicles change over their lifetime. The paper reports particle mass and number emissions of two GDI vehicles as a function of mileage up to 150K miles. These vehicles exhibit PM emissions that are near or below the upcoming 3 mg/mi FTP and 10 mg/mi US06 mass standards with little, if any, deterioration over 150K miles. Particle number emissions roughly follow the previously observed 2 × 10(12) particles/mg correlation between solid particle number and PM mass. They remained between the interim and final EU stage 6 solid particle count standard for gasoline vehicles throughout the mileage accumulation study. These examples demonstrate feasibility to meet near-term 3 mg/mi and interim EU solid particle number standards, but continued development is needed to ensure that this continues as further fuel economy improvements are made.

  10. Analysis of Ignition Behavior in a Turbocharged Direct Injection Dual Fuel Engine Using Propane and Methane as Primary Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Polk, A. C.; Gibson, C. M.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2013-05-24

    This paper presents experimental analyses of the ignition delay (ID) behavior for diesel-ignited propane and diesel-ignited methane dual fuel combustion. Two sets of experiments were performed at a constant speed (1800 rev/min) using a 4-cylinder direct injection diesel engine with the stock ECU and a wastegated turbocharger. First, the effects of fuel-air equivalence ratios (© pilot ¼ 0.2-0.6 and © overall ¼ 0.2-0.9) on IDs were quantified. Second, the effects of gaseous fuel percent energy substitution (PES) and brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) (from 2.5 to 10 bar) on IDs were investigated. With constant © pilot (> 0.5), increasing © overall with propane initially decreased ID but eventually led to premature propane autoignition; however, the corresponding effects with methane were relatively minor. Cyclic variations in the start of combustion (SOC) increased with increasing © overall (at constant © pilot), more significantly for propane than for methane. With increasing PES at constant BMEP, the ID showed a nonlinear (initially increasing and later decreasing) trend at low BMEPs for propane but a linearly decreasing trend at high BMEPs. For methane, increasing PES only increased IDs at all BMEPs. At low BMEPs, increasing PES led to significantly higher cyclic SOC variations and SOC advancement for both propane and methane. Finally, the engine ignition delay (EID) was also shown to be a useful metric to understand the influence of ID on dual fuel combustion.

  11. Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal for Characterization of Spark Ignited Direct Injection Engine Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Matthias, Nicholas; Farron, Carolyn; Foster, David E.; Andrie, Michael; Krieger, Roger; Najt, Paul; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Solomon, Arun; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2011-08-30

    More stringent emissions regulations are continually being proposed to mitigate adverse human health and environmental impacts of internal combustion engines. With that in mind, it has been proposed that vehicular particulate matter (PM) emissions should be regulated based on particle number in addition to particle mass. One aspect of this project is to study different sample handling methods for number based aerosol measurements, specifically, two different methods for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). One method is a thermodenuder (TD) and the other is an evaporative chamber/diluter (EvCh). These sample handling methods have been implemented in an engine test cell with a spark ignited direct injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was designed for stoichiometric, homogeneous combustion. SIDI is of particular interest for improved fuel efficiency compared to other SI engines, however, the efficiency benefit comes with greater PM emissions and may therefore be subject to the proposed number based PM regulation. Another aspect of this project is to characterize PM from this engine in terms of particle number and composition

  12. Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal for Characterization of Spark Ignited Direct Injection Engine Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Matthias, Nicholas; Farron, Carrie; Foster, David E.; Andrie, Michael; Krieger, Roger; Najt, Paul M.; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Solomon, Arun S.; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2012-01-01

    More stringent emissions regulations are continually being proposed to mitigate adverse human health and environmental impacts of internal combustion engines. With that in mind, it has been proposed that vehicular particulate matter (PM) emissions should be regulated based on particle number in addition to particle mass. One aspect of this project is to study different sample handling methods for number based aerosol measurements, specifically, two different methods for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). One method is a thermodenuder (TD) and the other is an evaporative chamber/diluter (EvCh). These sample handling methods have been implemented in an engine test cell with a spark ignited direct injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was designed for stoichiometric, homogeneous combustion. SIDI is of particular interest for improved fuel efficiency compared to other SI engines, however, the efficiency benefit comes with greater PM emissions and may therefore be subject to the proposed number based PM regulation. Another aspect of this project is to characterize PM from this engine in terms of particle number and composition.

  13. Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to Methanol by Direct Injection of Electrons into Immobilized Enzymes on a Modified Electrode.

    PubMed

    Schlager, Stefanie; Dumitru, Liviu Mihai; Haberbauer, Marianne; Fuchsbauer, Anita; Neugebauer, Helmut; Hiemetsberger, Daniela; Wagner, Annika; Portenkirchner, Engelbert; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar

    2016-03-21

    We present results for direct bio-electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 to C1 products using electrodes with immobilized enzymes. Enzymatic reduction reactions are well known from biological systems where CO2 is selectively reduced to formate, formaldehyde, or methanol at room temperature and ambient pressure. In the past, the use of such enzymatic reductions for CO2 was limited due to the necessity of a sacrificial co-enzyme, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), to supply electrons and the hydrogen equivalent. The method reported here in this paper operates without the co-enzyme NADH by directly injecting electrons from electrodes into immobilized enzymes. We demonstrate the immobilization of formate, formaldehyde, and alcohol dehydrogenases on one-and-the-same electrode for direct CO2 reduction. Carbon felt is used as working electrode material. An alginate-silicate hybrid gel matrix is used for the immobilization of the enzymes on the electrode. Generation of methanol is observed for the six-electron reduction with Faradaic efficiencies of around 10%. This method of immobilization of enzymes on electrodes offers the opportunity for electrochemical application of enzymatic electrodes to many reactions in which a substitution of the expensive sacrificial co-enzyme NADH is desired.

  14. Direct injection method for HPLC/MS/MS analysis of acrylamide in aqueous solutions: application to adsorption experiments.

    PubMed

    Mnif, Ines; Hurel, Charlotte; Marmier, Nicolas

    2015-05-01

    Polyacrylamides are polymers used in many fields and represent the main source of release of the highly toxic acrylamide in the environment. In this work, a simple, rapid, and sensitive analytical method was developed with HPLC/MS/MS and direct injection for acrylamide analysis in water and adsorption samples. AFNOR standards NF T90-210 and NF T90-220 were used for the analytical method validation and uncertainty estimation. Limit of quantification (LOQ) for acrylamide was 1 μg/L, and accuracy was checked at three acrylamide levels (1, 6, and 10 μg/L). Uncertainties were estimated at 34.2, 22, and 12.4 % for acrylamide concentrations at LOQ, 6 μg/L, and 10 μg/L, respectively. Acrylamide adsorption on clays (kaolinite, illite) and sludge was then studied as a function of pH, time, and acrylamide concentrations. Acrylamide adsorption on kaolinite, illite, and sludge was found to be very weak since adsorption percentages were inferior to 10 %, whatever the pH value and the initial acrylamide concentration. The low affinity of acrylamide for clays and sludge is likely due to its hydrophilic property, small size, and charge neutrality.

  15. New methodology for in-cylinder pressure analysis in direct injection diesel engines—application to combustion noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payri, F.; Broatch, A.; Tormos, B.; Marant, V.

    2005-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a new methodology for the analysis of in-cylinder pressure in direct injection (DI) diesel engines. Indeed, for some applications, the traditional study of total pressure is shown to be insufficient and the proposed technique is intended to be an alternative and more efficient tool, since it may provide a better understanding of the physical mechanisms. The main idea is to decompose the in-cylinder pressure evolution according to three phenomena taking place during diesel engine operation: pseudo-motored, combustion and resonance excitation. In order to validate this new method, it is applied to combustion noise analysis. Actually, the combustion process in DI diesel engines may be considered as an important source of noise, and the traditional approach is mainly based on the interpretation of objective overall spectral levels of both in-cylinder pressure and radiated noise, obtained from Fourier analysis. However, this approach has been shown unable to describe all the relevant aspects of the problem, whereas the results obtained from the proposed decomposition technique exhibit a fair qualitative correlation between in-cylinder pressure and combustion noise issues. Further development of this approach could provide a useful tool for the development of optimal injection strategies fulfilling not only performance considerations but also sound quality requirements for combustion noise in DI diesel engines.

  16. High-speed fuel tracer fluorescence and OH radical chemiluminescence imaging in a spark-ignition direct-injection engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, James D.; Sick, Volker

    2005-11-01

    An innovative technique has been demonstrated to achieve crank-angle-resolved planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of fuel followed by OH* chemiluminescence imaging in a firing direct-injected spark-ignition engine. This study used two standard KrF excimer lasers to excite toluene for tracking fuel distribution. The intensified camera system was operated at single crank-angle resolution at 2000 revolutions per minute (RPM) for 500 consecutive cycles. Through this work, it has been demonstrated that toluene and OH* can be imaged through the same optical setup while similar signal levels are obtained from both species, even at these high rates. The technique is useful for studying correlations between fuel distribution and subsequent ignition and flame propagation without the limitations of phase-averaging imaging approaches. This technique is illustrated for the effect of exhaust gas recirculation on combustion and will be useful for studies of misfire causes. Finally, a few general observations are presented as to the effect of preignition fuel distribution on subsequent combustion.

  17. A Low NO(x) Lean-Direct Injection, Multipoint Integrated Module Combuster Concept for Advanced Aircraft Gas Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, Robert; Wey, Changlie; Laing, Peter; Mansour, Adel

    2002-01-01

    A low NO(x) emissions combustor has been demonstrated in flame-tube tests. A multipoint, lean-direct injection concept was used. Configurations were tested that had 25- and 36- fuel injectors in the size of a conventional single fuel injector. An integrated-module approach was used for the construction where chemically etched laminates, diffusion bonded together, combine the fuel injectors, air swirlers and fuel manifold into a single element. Test conditions were inlet temperatures up to 810 K, inlet pressures up to 2760 kPa, and flame temperatures up to 2100 K. A correlation was developed relating the NO(x) emissions with the inlet temperature, inlet pressure, fuel-air ratio and pressure drop. Assuming that 10 percent of the combustion air would be used for liner cooling and using a hypothetical engine cycle, the NO(x) emissions using the correlation from flame-tube tests were estimated to be less than 20 percent of the 1996 ICAO standard.

  18. Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to Methanol by Direct Injection of Electrons into Immobilized Enzymes on a Modified Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Dumitru, Liviu Mihai; Haberbauer, Marianne; Fuchsbauer, Anita; Neugebauer, Helmut; Hiemetsberger, Daniela; Wagner, Annika; Portenkirchner, Engelbert; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We present results for direct bio‐electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 to C1 products using electrodes with immobilized enzymes. Enzymatic reduction reactions are well known from biological systems where CO2 is selectively reduced to formate, formaldehyde, or methanol at room temperature and ambient pressure. In the past, the use of such enzymatic reductions for CO2 was limited due to the necessity of a sacrificial co‐enzyme, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), to supply electrons and the hydrogen equivalent. The method reported here in this paper operates without the co‐enzyme NADH by directly injecting electrons from electrodes into immobilized enzymes. We demonstrate the immobilization of formate, formaldehyde, and alcohol dehydrogenases on one‐and‐the‐same electrode for direct CO2 reduction. Carbon felt is used as working electrode material. An alginate–silicate hybrid gel matrix is used for the immobilization of the enzymes on the electrode. Generation of methanol is observed for the six‐electron reduction with Faradaic efficiencies of around 10 %. This method of immobilization of enzymes on electrodes offers the opportunity for electrochemical application of enzymatic electrodes to many reactions in which a substitution of the expensive sacrificial co‐enzyme NADH is desired. PMID:26890322

  19. High Bandwidth Rotary Fast Tool Servos and a Hybrid Rotary/Linear Electromagnetic Actuator

    SciTech Connect

    Montesanti, Richard Clement

    2005-09-01

    This thesis describes the development of two high bandwidth short-stroke rotary fast tool servos and the hybrid rotary/linear electromagnetic actuator developed for one of them. Design insights, trade-o® methodologies, and analytical tools are developed for precision mechanical systems, power and signal electronic systems, control systems, normal-stress electromagnetic actuators, and the dynamics of the combined systems.

  20. Man-made rotary nanomotors: a review of recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwanoh; Guo, Jianhe; Liang, Z. X.; Zhu, F. Q.; Fan, D. L.

    2016-05-01

    The development of rotary nanomotors is an essential step towards intelligent nanomachines and nanorobots. In this article, we review the concept, design, working mechanisms, and applications of state-of-the-art rotary nanomotors made from synthetic nanoentities. The rotary nanomotors are categorized according to the energy sources employed to drive the rotary motion, including biochemical, optical, magnetic, and electric fields. The unique advantages and limitations for each type of rotary nanomachines are discussed. The advances of rotary nanomotors is pivotal for realizing dream nanomachines for myriad applications including microfluidics, biodiagnosis, nano-surgery, and biosubstance delivery.

  1. Airborne rotary air separator study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acharya, A.; Gottzmann, C. F.; Nowobilski, J. J.

    1990-01-01

    Several air breathing propulsion concepts for future earth-to-orbit transport vehicles utilize air collection and enrichment, and subsequent storage of liquid oxygen for later use in the vehicle emission. Work performed during the 1960's established the feasibility of substantially reducing weight and volume of a distillation type air separator system by operating the distillation elements in high 'g' fields obtained by rotating the separator assembly. This contract studied the capability test and hydraulic behavior of a novel structured or ordered distillation packing in a rotating device using air and water. Pressure drop and flood points were measured for different air and water flow rates in gravitational fields of up to 700 g. Behavior of the packing follows the correlations previously derived from tests at normal gravity. The novel ordered packing can take the place of trays in a rotating air separation column with the promise of substantial reduction in pressure drop, volume, and system weight. The results obtained in the program are used to predict design and performance of rotary separators for air collection and enrichment systems of interest for past and present concepts of air breathing propulsion (single or two-stage to orbit) systems.

  2. Internal combustion engine using premixed combustion of stratified charges

    DOEpatents

    Marriott, Craig D.; Reitz, Rolf D. (Madison, WI

    2003-12-30

    During a combustion cycle, a first stoichiometrically lean fuel charge is injected well prior to top dead center, preferably during the intake stroke. This first fuel charge is substantially mixed with the combustion chamber air during subsequent motion of the piston towards top dead center. A subsequent fuel charge is then injected prior to top dead center to create a stratified, locally richer mixture (but still leaner than stoichiometric) within the combustion chamber. The locally rich region within the combustion chamber has sufficient fuel density to autoignite, and its self-ignition serves to activate ignition for the lean mixture existing within the remainder of the combustion chamber. Because the mixture within the combustion chamber is overall premixed and relatively lean, NO.sub.x and soot production are significantly diminished.

  3. Development and Validation of a Fast Procedure to Analyze Amoxicillin in River Waters by Direct-Injection LC-MS/MS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homem, Vera; Alves, Arminda; Santos, Lu´cia

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory application with a strong component in analytical chemistry was designed for undergraduate students, in order to introduce a current problem in the environmental science field, the water contamination by antibiotics. Therefore, a simple and rapid method based on direct injection and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass…

  4. THE DEVELOPMENT OF IODINE BASED IMPINGER SOLUTIONS FOR THE EFFICIENT CAPTURE OF HG USING DIRECT INJECTION NEBULIZATION - INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) with direct injection nebulization (DIN) was used to evaluate novel impinger solution compositions capable of capturing elemental mercury (Hgo) in EPA Method 5 type sampling. An iodine based impinger solutoin proved to be ver...

  5. Simulation of a Single-Element Lean-Direct Injection Combustor Using a Polyhedral Mesh Derived from Hanging-Node Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wey, Thomas; Liu, Nan-Suey

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the procedures of generating a polyhedral mesh derived from hanging-node elements as well as presents sample results from its application to the numerical solution of a single element lean direct injection (LDI) combustor using an open-source version of the National Combustion Code (NCC).

  6. Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.

    1992-09-11

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the combustion of coal and coal wastes in a rotary kiln reactor with limestone addition for sulfur control. The rationale for the project was the perception that rotary systems could bring several advantages to combustion of these fuels, and may thus offer an alternative to fluid-bed boilers. Towards this end, an existing wood pyrolysis kiln (the Humphrey Charcoal kiln) was to be suitably refurbished and retrofitted with a specially designed version of a patented air distributor provided by Universal Energy, Inc. (UEI). As the project progressed beyond the initial stages, a number of issues were raised regarding the feasibility and the possible advantages of burning coals in a rotary kiln combustor and, in particular, the suitability of the Humphrey Charcoal kiln as a combustor. Instead, an opportunity arose to conduct combustion tests in the PEDCO Rotary Cascading-Bed Boiler (RCBB) commercial demonstration unit at the North American Rayon CO. (NARCO) in Elizabethton, TN. The tests focused on anthracite culm and had two objectives: (a) determine the feasibility of burning anthracite culms in a rotary kiln boiler and (b) obtain input for any further work involving the Humphrey Charcoal kiln combustor. A number of tests were conducted at the PEDCO unit. The last one was conducted on anthracite culm procured directly from the feed bin of a commercial circulating fluid-bed boiler. The results were disappointing; it was difficult to maintain sustained combustion even when large quantities of supplemental fuel were used. Combustion efficiency was poor, around 60 percent. The results suggest that the rotary kiln boiler, as designed, is ill-suited with respect to low-grade, hard to burn solid fuels, such as anthracite culm. Indeed, data from combustion of bituminous coal in the PEDCO unit suggest that with respect to coal in general, the rotary kiln boiler appears inferior to the circulating fluid bed boiler.

  7. Determination of phosphodiesterase type V inhibitors in wastewater by direct injection followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Causanilles, Ana; Emke, Erik; de Voogt, Pim

    2016-09-15

    A simple, fast and reliable analytical method for the determination of phosphodiesterase type V inhibitors in wastewater was developed and validated. The method was based on direct injection followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with triple quadrupole as mass analyzer. Transformation products and analogues were included in the target list besides the three active pharmaceutical ingredients (sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil). The method performance was thoroughly investigated, including the analyte stability in wastewater and matrix effect. All target compounds presented linear fits between their LOD and 500ng/L. The quantification limits ranged from 1.6 to 30ng/L for all compounds except for n-octylnortadalafil (LOQ: 100ng/L); precision calculated as intraday repeatability was lower than 30%; accuracy calculated as procedural recovery ranged successfully between 85 and 105% in all cases. The method was applied to samples collected during three week-long monitoring campaigns performed in 2013, 2014 and 2015 in three Dutch cities. Only sildenafil and its two metabolites, desmethyl- and desethylsildenafil, were present with normalized loads ranging from LOQ to 8.3, 11.8 and 21.6mg/day/1000 inh, respectively. Two additional week-long sets of samples were collected in Amsterdam at the time that a festival event took place, bringing around 350,000 visitors to the city. The difference in drug usage patterns was statistically studied: "weekday" versus "weekend", "normal" versus "atypical" week; and results discussed. The metabolite to parent drug concentration ratio evolution during consecutive years was discussed, leading to several possible explanations that should be further investigated. Finally, wastewater-based epidemiology approach was applied to back-calculate sildenafil consumption.

  8. Murine precision-cut lung slices exhibit acute responses following exposure to gasoline direct injection engine emissions.

    PubMed

    Maikawa, Caitlin L; Zimmerman, Naomi; Rais, Khaled; Shah, Mittal; Hawley, Brie; Pant, Pallavi; Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Delgado-Saborit, Juana Maria; Volckens, John; Evans, Greg; Wallace, James S; Godri Pollitt, Krystal J

    2016-10-15

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are increasingly prevalent in the global vehicle fleet. Particulate matter emissions from GDI engines are elevated compared to conventional gasoline engines. The pulmonary effects of these higher particulate emissions are unclear. This study investigated the pulmonary responses induced by GDI engine exhaust using an ex vivo model. The physiochemical properties of GDI engine exhaust were assessed. Precision cut lung slices were prepared using Balb/c mice to evaluate the pulmonary response induced by one-hour exposure to engine-out exhaust from a laboratory GDI engine operated at conditions equivalent to vehicle highway cruise conditions. Lung slices were exposed at an air-liquid interface using an electrostatic aerosol in vitro exposure system. Particulate and gaseous exhaust was fractionated to contrast mRNA production related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolism and oxidative stress. Exposure to GDI engine exhaust upregulated genes involved in PAH metabolism, including Cyp1a1 (2.71, SE=0.22), and Cyp1b1 (3.24, SE=0.12) compared to HEPA filtered air (p<0.05). GDI engine exhaust further increased Cyp1b1 expression compared to filtered GDI engine exhaust (i.e., gas fraction only), suggesting this response was associated with the particulate fraction. Exhaust particulate was dominated by high molecular weight PAHs. Hmox1, an oxidative stress marker, exhibited increased expression after exposure to GDI (1.63, SE=0.03) and filtered GDI (1.55, SE=0.04) engine exhaust compared to HEPA filtered air (p<0.05), likely attributable to a combination of the gas and particulate fractions. Exposure to GDI engine exhaust contributes to upregulation of genes related to the metabolism of PAHs and oxidative stress.

  9. Trace analysis of isothiazolinones in water samples by large-volume direct injection liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Speksnijder, P; van Ravestijn, J; de Voogt, P

    2010-08-06

    Isothiazolinones are used as preservatives, biocides and disinfectants in a variety of industrial and domestic applications. Some of the isothiazolinones are difficult to isolate from water due their high polarity. A sensitive and selective analytical method was developed and optimized for the determination of sub-microg/L levels of three isothiazolinones in water samples. Three isothiazolinones are described in this paper: 2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone, 5-chloro-2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone and 4,5-dichloro-2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone. The analytical method involves a robust large-volume direct on-column loop injection of 2 mL on an Aqua ODS HPLC column and tandem MS detection (HPLC-MS/MS). After filtration, samples are directly injected without further pretreatment. Detection limits of the individual target compounds were between 0.03 and 0.1 microg/L employing Multi-Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry. Based on the constant ratio of two selected product-ions together with the retention time, the identification is very selective and quantification is reliable. The method was successfully applied to real samples of membrane flushings, drinking water, surface waters and waste water. Additional investigations showed the instability of the isothiazolinones in river- and waste water. Preservation of river water and waste water samples with sodium azide (NaN(3)) promotes the stability of the isothiazolines in solution. In membrane flushings, waste water, surface waters and drinking water, levels of the three isothiazolinones were all below the limit of detection. In effluents of households containing washings from normal shampoo use, isothiazolinones could be detected.

  10. Lube oil-dependent ash chemistry on soot oxidation reactivity in a gasoline direct-injection engine

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Seungmok; Seong, Heeje

    2016-09-30

    Gasoline particulate filters (GPF) are considered an enabling technology to meet stringent particulate matter (PM) regulations for gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engines, which are known to produce significant PM emissions. While ash loading in filters has been recognized to be detrimental in filter performance by increasing back pressure, increased ash fractions in soot were observed to enhance soot oxidation. In this study, GDI soot samples derived from different gasoline/lube oil blends were evaluated to identify potential promoting factors when formulated lube oils were dosed into gasoline fuel. Ca-derived ash enhanced soot oxidation remarkably, while P- and ZDDP-derived ash deteriorated soot oxidation. It is apparent that the promoting effect of lube oil-derived ash is due mainly to the Ca component that is the most abundant among additive components in lube oil. Bulk and surface analyses of these ash compounds indicate that Ca-derived ash would be complex compounds, while the contribution of CaSO4, which is one of the most abundant ash compounds from diesel engines, is almost negligible. For the validation of the ash promoting impact in filters, the regeneration experiments were compared for a TWC-coated GPF in a GDI engine before and after ash loading was performed. The pressure drop of the ash-loaded GPF decreased noticeably in the initial regeneration stage and it increased gradually, whereas that of no ash-loaded GPF increased gradually without any reduction. So, it is concluded that the ash layer in the GPF assisted soot oxidation in the early regeneration stage when it was in close contact with soot.

  11. Development of a direct-injected natural gas engine system for heavy-duty vehicles: Final report phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, G.B.; DelVecchio, K.A.; Hays, W.J.; Hiltner, J.D.; Nagaraj, R.; Emmer, C.

    2000-03-02

    This report summarizes the results of Phase 2 of this contract. The authors completed four tasks under this phase of the subcontract. (1) They developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a 3500 direct injected natural gas (DING) engine gas injection/combustion system and used it to identify DING ignition/combustion system improvements. The results were a 20% improvement in efficiency compared to Phase 1 testing. (2) The authors designed and procured the components for a 3126 DING engine (300 hp) and finished assembling it. During preliminary testing, the engine ran successfully at low loads for approximately 2 hours before injector tip and check failures terminated the test. The problems are solvable; however, this phase of the program was terminated. (3) They developed a Decision & Risk Analysis model to compare DING engine technology with various other engine technologies in a number of commercial applications. The model shows the most likely commercial applications for DING technology and can also be used to identify the sensitivity of variables that impact commercial viability. (4) MVE, Inc., completed a preliminary design concept study that examines the major design issues involved in making a reliable and durable 3,000 psi LNG pump. A primary concern is the life of pump seals and piston rings. Plans for the next phase of this program (Phase 3) have been put on indefinite hold. Caterpillar has decided not to fund further DING work at this time due to limited current market potential for the DING engine. However, based on results from this program, the authors believe that DI natural gas technology is viable for allowing a natural gas-fueled engine to achieve diesel power density and thermal efficiency for both the near and long terms.

  12. Development of a direct-injected natural gas engine system for heavy-duty vehicles: Final report phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    2000-03-02

    The transportation sector accounts for approximately 65% of US petroleum consumption. Consumption for light-duty vehicles has stabilized in the last 10--15 years; however, consumption in the heavy-duty sector has continued to increase. For various reasons, the US must reduce its dependence on petroleum. One significant way is to substitute alternative fuels (natural gas, propane, alcohols, and others) in place of petroleum fuels in heavy-duty applications. Most alternative fuels have the additional benefit of reduced exhaust emissions relative to petroleum fuels, thus providing a cleaner environment. The best long-term technology for heavy-duty alternative fuel engines is the 4-stroke cycle, direct injected (DI) engine using a single fuel. This DI, single fuel approach maximizes the substitution of alternative fuel for diesel and retains the thermal efficiency and power density of the diesel engine. This report summarizes the results of the first year (Phase 1) of this contract. Phase 1 focused on developing a 4-stroke cycle, DI single fuel, alternative fuel technology that will duplicate or exceed diesel power density and thermal efficiency, while having exhaust emissions equal to or less than the diesel. Although the work is currently on a 3500 Series DING engine, the work is viewed as a basic technology development that can be applied to any engine. Phase 1 concentrated on DING engine component durability, exhaust emissions, and fuel handling system durability. Task 1 focused on identifying primary areas (e.g., ignition assist and gas injector systems) for future durability testing. In Task 2, eight mode-cycle-averaged NO{sub x} emissions were reduced from 11.8 gm/hp-hr (baseline conditions) to 2.5 gm/hp-hr (modified conditions) on a 3501 DING engine. In Task 3, a state-of-the-art fuel handling system was identified.

  13. Lube oil-dependent ash chemistry on soot oxidation reactivity in a gasoline direct-injection engine

    DOE PAGES

    Choi, Seungmok; Seong, Heeje

    2016-09-30

    Gasoline particulate filters (GPF) are considered an enabling technology to meet stringent particulate matter (PM) regulations for gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engines, which are known to produce significant PM emissions. While ash loading in filters has been recognized to be detrimental in filter performance by increasing back pressure, increased ash fractions in soot were observed to enhance soot oxidation. In this study, GDI soot samples derived from different gasoline/lube oil blends were evaluated to identify potential promoting factors when formulated lube oils were dosed into gasoline fuel. Ca-derived ash enhanced soot oxidation remarkably, while P- and ZDDP-derived ash deteriorated soot oxidation.more » It is apparent that the promoting effect of lube oil-derived ash is due mainly to the Ca component that is the most abundant among additive components in lube oil. Bulk and surface analyses of these ash compounds indicate that Ca-derived ash would be complex compounds, while the contribution of CaSO4, which is one of the most abundant ash compounds from diesel engines, is almost negligible. For the validation of the ash promoting impact in filters, the regeneration experiments were compared for a TWC-coated GPF in a GDI engine before and after ash loading was performed. The pressure drop of the ash-loaded GPF decreased noticeably in the initial regeneration stage and it increased gradually, whereas that of no ash-loaded GPF increased gradually without any reduction. So, it is concluded that the ash layer in the GPF assisted soot oxidation in the early regeneration stage when it was in close contact with soot.« less

  14. Coal gasification: New challenge for the Beaumont rotary feeder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stelian, J.

    1977-01-01

    The use of rotary feeders in the coal gasification process is described with emphasis on the efficient conversion of coal to clean gaseous fuels. Commercial applications of the rotary feeder system are summarized.

  15. System and method for calibrating a rotary absolute position sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A system includes a rotary device, a rotary absolute position (RAP) sensor generating encoded pairs of voltage signals describing positional data of the rotary device, a host machine, and an algorithm. The algorithm calculates calibration parameters usable to determine an absolute position of the rotary device using the encoded pairs, and is adapted for linearly-mapping an ellipse defined by the encoded pairs to thereby calculate the calibration parameters. A method of calibrating the RAP sensor includes measuring the rotary position as encoded pairs of voltage signals, linearly-mapping an ellipse defined by the encoded pairs to thereby calculate the calibration parameters, and calculating an absolute position of the rotary device using the calibration parameters. The calibration parameters include a positive definite matrix (A) and a center point (q) of the ellipse. The voltage signals may include an encoded sine and cosine of a rotary angle of the rotary device.

  16. A bistable electromagnetically actuated rotary gate microvalve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luharuka, Rajesh; Hesketh, Peter J.

    2008-03-01

    Two types of rotary gate microvalves are developed for flow modulation in microfluidic systems. These microvalves have been tested for an open flow rate of up to 100 sccm and operate under a differential pressure of 6 psig with flow modulation of up to 100. The microvalve consists of a suspended gate that rotates in the plane of the chip to regulate flow through the orifice. The gate is suspended by a novel fully compliant in-plane rotary bistable micromechanism (IPRBM) that advantageously constrains the gate in all degrees of freedom except for in-plane rotational motion. Multiple inlet/outlet orifices provide flexibility of operating the microvalve in three different flow configurations. The rotary gate microvalve is switched with an external electromagnetic actuator. The suspended gate is made of a soft magnetic material and its electromagnetic actuation is based on the operating principle of a variable-reluctance stepper motor.

  17. Sector Tests of a Low-NO(sub x), Lean, Direct- Injection, Multipoint Integrated Module Combustor Concept Conducted

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, Robert R.; Wey, Chang-Lie; Laing, Peter; Mansour, Adel

    2002-01-01

    The low-emissions combustor development described is directed toward advanced high pressure aircraft gas-turbine applications. The emphasis of this research is to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) at high-power conditions and to maintain carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons at their current low levels at low power conditions. Low-NOx combustors can be classified into rich-burn and lean-burn concepts. Lean-burn combustors can be further classified into lean-premixed-prevaporized (LPP) and lean direct injection (LDI) concepts. In both concepts, all the combustor air, except for liner cooling flow, enters through the combustor dome so that the combustion occurs at the lowest possible flame temperature. The LPP concept has been shown to have the lowest NOx emissions, but for advanced high-pressure-ratio engines, the possibility of autoignition or flashback precludes its use. LDI differs from LPP in that the fuel is injected directly into the flame zone, and thus, it does not have the potential for autoignition or flashback and should have greater stability. However, since it is not premixed and prevaporized, good atomization is necessary and the fuel must be mixed quickly and uniformly so that flame temperatures are low and NOx formation levels are comparable to those of LPP. The LDI concept described is a multipoint fuel injection/multiburning zone concept. Each of the multiple fuel injectors has an air swirler associated with it to provide quick mixing and a small recirculation zone for burning. The multipoint fuel injection provides quick, uniform mixing and the small multiburning zones provide for reduced burning residence time, resulting in low NOx formation. An integrated-module approach was used for the construction where chemically etched laminates, diffusion bonded together, combine the fuel injectors, air swirlers, and fuel manifold into a single element. The multipoint concept combustor was demonstrated in a 15 sector test. The configuration tested had 36

  18. Rapid determination of benzodiazepines, zolpidem and their metabolites in urine using direct injection liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yu-Dong; Kim, Min Kyung; Suh, Sung Ill; In, Moon Kyo; Kim, Jin Young; Paeng, Ki-Jung

    2015-12-01

    Benzodiazepines and zolpidem are generally prescribed as sedative, hypnotics, anxiolytics or anticonvulsants. These drugs, however, are frequently misused in drug-facilitated crime. Therefore, a rapid and simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for identification and quantification of benzodiazepines, zolpidem and their metabolites in urine using deuterium labeled internal standards (IS). Urine samples (120 μL) mixed with 80 μL of the IS solution were centrifuged. An aliquot (5 μL) of the sample solution was directly injected into the LC-MS/MS system for analysis. The mobile phases consisted of water and acetonitrile containing 2mM ammonium trifluoroacetate and 0.2% acetic acid. The analytical column was a Zorbax SB-C18 (100 mm × 2.1 mm i.d., 3.5 μm, Agilent). The separation and detection of 18 analytes were achieved within 10 min. Calibration curves were linear over the concentration ranges of 0.5-20 ng/mL (zolpidem), 1.0-40 ng/mL (flurazepam and temazepam), 2.5-100 ng/mL (7-aminoclonazepam, 1-hydroxymidazolam, midazolam, flunitrazepam and alprazolam), 5.0-200 ng/mL (zolpidem phenyl-4-carboxylic acid, α-hydroxyalprazolam, oxazepam, nordiazepam, triazolam, diazepam and α-hydroxytriazolam), 10-400 ng/mL (lorazepam and desalkylflurazepam) and 10-100 ng/mL (N-desmethylflunitrazepam) with the coefficients of determination (r(2)) above 0.9971. The dilution integrity of the analytes was examined for supplementation of short linear range. Dilution precision and accuracy were tested using two, four and ten-folds dilutions and they ranged from 3.7 to 14.4% and -12.8 to 12.5%, respectively. The process efficiency for this method was 63.0-104.6%. Intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 11.8% and 9.1%, while intra- and inter-day accuracies were less than -10.0 to 8.2%, respectively. The lower limits of quantification were lower than 10 ng/mL for each analyte. The applicability of the developed method was successfully

  19. 21 CFR 886.1665 - Ophthalmic rotary prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic rotary prism. 886.1665 Section 886.1665...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1665 Ophthalmic rotary prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic rotary prism is a device with various prismatic powers intended to be handheld...

  20. 21 CFR 886.1665 - Ophthalmic rotary prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic rotary prism. 886.1665 Section 886.1665...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1665 Ophthalmic rotary prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic rotary prism is a device with various prismatic powers intended to be handheld...

  1. 21 CFR 886.1665 - Ophthalmic rotary prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic rotary prism. 886.1665 Section 886.1665...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1665 Ophthalmic rotary prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic rotary prism is a device with various prismatic powers intended to be handheld...

  2. 21 CFR 886.1665 - Ophthalmic rotary prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic rotary prism. 886.1665 Section 886.1665...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1665 Ophthalmic rotary prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic rotary prism is a device with various prismatic powers intended to be handheld...

  3. 21 CFR 886.1665 - Ophthalmic rotary prism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic rotary prism. 886.1665 Section 886.1665...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1665 Ophthalmic rotary prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic rotary prism is a device with various prismatic powers intended to be handheld...

  4. Methods and apparatus for controlling rotary machines

    DOEpatents

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Jansen, Patrick Lee; Barnes, Gary R.; Fric, Thomas Frank; Lyons, James Patrick Francis; Pierce, Kirk Gee; Holley, William Edwin; Barbu, Corneliu

    2009-09-01

    A control system for a rotary machine is provided. The rotary machine has at least one rotating member and at least one substantially stationary member positioned such that a clearance gap is defined between a portion of the rotating member and a portion of the substantially stationary member. The control system includes at least one clearance gap dimension measurement apparatus and at least one clearance gap adjustment assembly. The adjustment assembly is coupled in electronic data communication with the measurement apparatus. The control system is configured to process a clearance gap dimension signal and modulate the clearance gap dimension.

  5. An Experimental Investigation of Self-Excited Combustion Dynamics in a Single Element Lean Direct Injection (LDI) Combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gejji, Rohan M.

    The management of combustion dynamics in gas turbine combustors has become more challenging as strict NOx/CO emission standards have led to engine operation in a narrow, lean regime. While premixed or partially premixed combustor configurations such as the Lean Premixed Pre-vaporized (LPP), Rich Quench Lean burn (RQL), and Lean Direct Injection (LDI) have shown a potential for reduced NOx emissions, they promote a coupling between acoustics, hydrodynamics and combustion that can lead to combustion instabilities. These couplings can be quite complex, and their detailed understanding is a pre-requisite to any engine development program and for the development of predictive capability for combustion instabilities through high-fidelity models. The overarching goal of this project is to assess the capability of high-fidelity simulation to predict combustion dynamics in low-emissions gas turbine combustors. A prototypical lean-direct-inject combustor was designed in a modular configuration so that a suitable geometry could be found by test. The combustor comprised a variable length air plenum and combustion chamber, air swirler, and fuel nozzle located inside a subsonic venturi. The venturi cross section and the fuel nozzle were consistent with previous studies. Test pressure was 1 MPa and variables included geometry and acoustic resonance, inlet temperatures, equivalence ratio, and type of liquid fuel. High-frequency pressure measurements in a well-instrumented metal chamber yielded frequencies and mode shapes as a function of inlet air temperature, equivalence ratio, fuel nozzle placement, and combustor acoustic resonances. The parametric survey was a significant effort, with over 105 tests on eight geometric configurations. A good dataset was obtained that could be used for both operating-point-dependent quantitative comparisons, and testing the ability of the simulation to predict more global trends. Results showed a very strong dependence of instability amplitude on

  6. Rotary machine having back to back turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgy, N. Frank (Inventor); Palgon, Alfred M. (Inventor); Branstrom, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A rotary machine having a pair of back to back turbines in serial flow relationship is disclosed. Various construction details are developed which permit for a compact design. In one detailed embodiment the turbine has a housing having an inlet manifold and an exit manifold which are disposed between the outlet manifold for an associated turbopump.

  7. Deformation analysis of rotary combustion engine housings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilmann, Carl

    1991-01-01

    This analysis of the deformation of rotary combustion engine housings targeted the following objectives: (1) the development and verification of a finite element model of the trochoid housing, (2) the prediction of the stress and deformation fields present within the trochoid housing during operating conditions, and (3) the development of a specialized preprocessor which would shorten the time necessary for mesh generation of a trochoid housing's FEM model from roughly one month to approximately two man hours. Executable finite element models were developed for both the Mazda and the Outboard Marine Corporation trochoid housings. It was also demonstrated that a preprocessor which would hasten the generation of finite element models of a rotary engine was possible to develop. The above objectives are treated in detail in the attached appendices. The first deals with finite element modeling of a Wankel engine center housing, and the second with the development of a preprocessor that generates finite element models of rotary combustion engine center housings. A computer program, designed to generate finite element models of user defined rotary combustion engine center housing geometries, is also included.

  8. 21 CFR 872.4840 - Rotary scaler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rotary scaler. 872.4840 Section 872.4840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... during dental cleaning and periodontal (gum) therapy. (b) Classification. Class II....

  9. Automated Welding of Rotary Forge Hammers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    NUMBER OF PAGES Plasma Transferred Arc (PTA) Welding. Metal Inert Gas (MIG) Welding, 34 Metal Powder, Rotary Forge Hammers. Hardfacing 16. PRICE CODE 17...filled with required hardfacing materials ............................................... 26 8. Top and side schematic views, respectively, of forging...superalloy hardfacing deposit. In addition to the hardfacing layer, an underlying layer of buffer material must first be deposited to minimize cracking

  10. Benefits of the rotary diaphragm pump.

    PubMed

    Borstell, D

    2005-03-01

    The huge variety of applications in the medical field represents a challenge for the design of miniature pumps. There are well-known designs such as piston pumps, eccenter diaphragm pumps and peristaltic pumps. There are lesser-known types such as the rotary diaphragm pump, the subject of this article. Its design features, variants, and advantages and disadvantages are examined.

  11. 21 CFR 872.4840 - Rotary scaler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rotary scaler. 872.4840 Section 872.4840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... abrasive device intended to be attached to a powered handpiece to remove calculus deposits from...

  12. 21 CFR 872.4840 - Rotary scaler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rotary scaler. 872.4840 Section 872.4840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... abrasive device intended to be attached to a powered handpiece to remove calculus deposits from...

  13. 21 CFR 872.4840 - Rotary scaler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rotary scaler. 872.4840 Section 872.4840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... abrasive device intended to be attached to a powered handpiece to remove calculus deposits from...

  14. 21 CFR 872.4840 - Rotary scaler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rotary scaler. 872.4840 Section 872.4840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... abrasive device intended to be attached to a powered handpiece to remove calculus deposits from...

  15. Compact fast analyzer of rotary cuvette type

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1976-01-01

    A compact fast analyzer of the rotary cuvette type is provided for simultaneously determining concentrations in a multiplicity of discrete samples using either absorbance or fluorescence measurement techniques. A rigid, generally rectangular frame defines optical passageways for the absorbance and fluorescence measurement systems. The frame also serves as a mounting structure for various optical components as well as for the cuvette rotor mount and drive system. A single light source and photodetector are used in making both absorbance and fluorescence measurements. Rotor removal and insertion are facilitated by a swing-out drive motor and rotor mount. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The invention relates generally to concentration measuring instruments and more specifically to a compact fast analyzer of the rotary cuvette type which is suitable for making either absorbance or fluorescence measurements. It was made in the course of, or under, a contract with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.

  16. Rotary-scanning optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Weizhi; Xi, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy (ORPAM) is currently one of the fastest evolving photoacoustic imaging modalities. It has a comparable spatial resolution to pure optical microscopic techniques such as epifluorescence microscopy, confocal microscopy, and two-photon microscopy, but also owns a deeper penetration depth. In this paper, we report a rotary-scanning (RS)-ORPAM that utilizes a galvanometer scanner integrated with objective to achieve rotary laser scanning. A 15 MHz cylindrically focused ultrasonic transducer is mounted onto a motorized rotation stage to follow optical scanning traces synchronously. To minimize the loss of signal to noise ratio, the acoustic focus is precisely adjusted to reach confocal with optical focus. Black tapes and carbon fibers are firstly imaged to evaluate the performance of the system, and then in vivo imaging of vasculature networks inside the ears and brains of mice is demonstrated using this system.

  17. Transient phenomena in rotary-kiln incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Linak, W.P.; Kilgroe, J.D.; McSorley, J.A.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Dunn, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes results of an ongoing experimental investigation at the U.S. EPA into the waste properties and kiln parameters that determine both the instantaneous intensity and the total magnitude of transient puffs leaving the kiln. (NOTE: The batch introduction of waste-filled drums or containers into practical rotary-kiln incinerators can lead to transient overcharging conditions which, for brevity, are here denoted as 'puffs.') The experimental apparatus utilized was a 73-kW laboratory rotary-kiln simulator. Surrogate solid wastes (plastic rods) and surrogate liquid wastes (on corncob sorbent in cardboard containers) were investigated. A statistically designed parametric study was used to determine the extent to which waste and kiln variables (e.g., charge mass, charge surface area, charge composition, kiln temperature, and kiln rotation speed) affected the intensity (hydrocarbon peak height) and magnitude (hydrocarbon peak area) of puffs.

  18. Design considerations for bearingless rotary pumps.

    PubMed

    Kung, R T; Hart, R M

    1997-07-01

    The designs of rotary blood pumps have shown substantial technical progress over recent years, especially contact bearing designs. However, the concern for potential thromboembolism remains and can only be eliminated by the use of bearingless pumps. Bearingless designs can be achieved through the application of magnetic, hydrodynamic, and hydrostatic forces or a proper combination of these forces. Although a purely magnetically suspended, actively controlled system can be designed, judicious use of hydraulic forces can allow simplification of device configuration and control. In this study, bearingless designs were evaluated for both axial and centrifugal pump configurations. Trade-offs between shear rates and bearing leak rates were considered based upon constraints imposed by hemolysis and residence time. These principles were used for determining the design feasibility of a rotary pump using combined magnetic and hydraulic stabilizing forces.

  19. Equivalent dynamic model of DEMES rotary joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianwen; Wang, Shu; Xing, Zhiguang; McCoul, David; Niu, Junyang; Huang, Bo; Liu, Liwu; Leng, Jinsong

    2016-07-01

    The dielectric elastomer minimum energy structure (DEMES) can realize large angular deformations by a small voltage-induced strain of the dielectric elastomer (DE), so it is a suitable candidate to make a rotary joint for a soft robot. Dynamic analysis is necessary for some applications, but the dynamic response of DEMESs is difficult to model because of the complicated morphology and viscoelasticity of the DE film. In this paper, a method composed of theoretical analysis and experimental measurement is presented to model the dynamic response of a DEMES rotary joint under an alternating voltage. Based on measurements of equivalent driving force and damping of the DEMES, the model can be derived. Some experiments were carried out to validate the equivalent dynamic model. The maximum angle error between model and experiment is greater than ten degrees, but it is acceptable to predict angular velocity of the DEMES, therefore, it can be applied in feedforward-feedback compound control.

  20. Rotary Mode Core Sample System availability improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, W.W.; Bennett, K.L.; Potter, J.D.; Cross, B.T.; Burkes, J.M.; Rogers, A.C.

    1995-02-28

    The Rotary Mode Core Sample System (RMCSS) is used to obtain stratified samples of the waste deposits in single-shell and double-shell waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The samples are used to characterize the waste in support of ongoing and future waste remediation efforts. Four sampling trucks have been developed to obtain these samples. Truck I was the first in operation and is currently being used to obtain samples where the push mode is appropriate (i.e., no rotation of drill). Truck 2 is similar to truck 1, except for added safety features, and is in operation to obtain samples using either a push mode or rotary drill mode. Trucks 3 and 4 are now being fabricated to be essentially identical to truck 2.

  1. Dental Diamond Rotary Instruments. Test and Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    Service, USAF School of Aerospace Med- icine. 17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of the ebetract entered In Block 20, it different from Report) 13...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse ide iI neceseay and identify by block number) Dental diamond rotary instruments Diamond instrument cutting...performance Diamond instrument quality ABS.TLRACT fConi on, revere aide It neceeary aid Identify by block number) -’In this test and evaluation of the

  2. Helical rotary screw expander power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, R. A.; Sprankle, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    An energy converter for the development of wet steam geothermal fields is described. A project to evaluate and characterize a helical rotary screw expander for geothermal applications is discussed. The helical screw expander is a positive displacement machine which can accept untreated corrosive mineralized water of any quality from a geothermal well. The subjects of corrosion, mineral deposition, the expansion process, and experience with prototype devices are reported.

  3. High pressure rotary piston coal feeder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, J. F.; Gencsoy, H. T.; Strimbeck, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    This feeder concept uniquely combines the functions of solids feeding, metering, and pressurization into one compact system. Success with the rotary-piston concept would provide a lower-cost alternative to lock-hopper systems. The design of the feeder is presented, with special emphasis on the difficult problem of seal design. Initial tests will be to check seal performance. Subsequent tests will evaluate solids-feeding ability.

  4. Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.

    1990-08-15

    BCR National Laboratory (BCRNL) has initiated a project aimed at evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of using a rotary kiln, suitably modified, to burn Pennsylvania anthracite wastes, co-fired with high-sulfur bituminous coal. Limestone will be injected into the kiln for sulfur control, to determine whether high sulfur capture levels can be achieved with high sorbent utilization. The principal objectives of this work are: (1) to prove the feasibility of burning anthracite refuse, with co-firing of high-sulfur bituminous coal and with limestone injection for sulfur emissions control, in a rotary kiln fitted with a Universal Energy International (UEI) air injector system; (2) to determine the emissions levels of SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} and specifically to identify the Ca/S ratios that are required to meet New Source Performance Standards; (3) to evaluate the technical and economic merits of a commercial rotary kiln combustor in comparison to fluidized bed combustors; and, (4) to ascertain the need for further work, including additional combustion tests, prior to commercial application, and to recommend accordingly a detailed program towards this end.

  5. Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.

    1991-04-22

    The focus of our work during the first quarter of 1991 was on combustion tests at the PEDCO rotary kiln reactor at North American Rayon (NARCO) plant in Elizabethton, TN. The tests had essentially tow related objectives: (a) to obtain basic data on the combustion of anthracite culm in a rotary kiln reactor, and (b) upon the test results, determine how best to proceed with our own planned program at the Humphrey Charcoal kiln in Brookville, PA. The rationale for the tests at PEDCO arose from process analysis which posted red flags on the feasibility of burning low-grade, hard-to-burn fuels like anthracite culms, in the rotary kiln. The PEDCO unit afforded a unique opportunity to obtain some quick answers at low cost. Two different anthracite culm fuels were tested: a so-called Jeddo culm with an average heating value of 7000 Btu/lb, and a relatively poorer culm, and Emerald'' culm, with an average heating value of 5000 Btu/lb. An attempt was also made to burn a blend of the Emerald culm with bituminous coal in 75/25 percent proportions. This report describes the tests, their chronology, and preliminary results. As it turned out, the PEDCO unit is not configured properly for the combustion of anthracite culm. As a result, it proved difficult to achieve a sustained period of steady-state combustion operation, and combustion efficiencies were low even when supplemental fuel was used to aid combustion of the culm. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. High Pressure Rotary Shaft Sealing Mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie; Gobeli, Jeffrey D.

    2001-05-08

    A laterally translatable pressure staged rotary shaft sealing mechanism having a seal housing with a shaft passage therein being exposed to a fluid pressure P1 and with a rotary shaft being located within the shaft passage. At least one annular laterally translatable seal carrier is provided. First and second annular resilient sealing elements are supported in axially spaced relation by the annular seal carriers and have sealing relation with the rotary shaft. The seal housing and at least one seal carrier define a first pressure staging chamber exposed to the first annular resilient sealing element and a second pressure staging chamber located between and exposed to the first and second annular resilient sealing elements. A first fluid is circulated to the first pressure chamber at a pressure P1, and a second staging pressure fluid is circulated to the second pressure chamber at a fraction of pressure P1 to achieve pressure staging, cooling of the seals. Seal placement provides hydraulic force balancing of the annular seal carriers.

  7. Time-domain measurement of terahertz frequency magnetoplasmon resonances in a two-dimensional electron system by the direct injection of picosecond pulsed currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jingbo; Sydoruk, Oleksiy; Mayorov, Alexander S.; Wood, Christopher D.; Mistry, Divyang; Li, Lianhe; Linfield, Edmund H.; Giles Davies, A.; Cunningham, John E.

    2016-02-01

    We have investigated terahertz (THz) frequency magnetoplasmon resonances in a two-dimensional electron system through the direct injection of picosecond duration current pulses. The evolution of the time-domain signals was measured as a function of magnetic field, and the results were found to be in agreement with calculations using a mode-matching approach for four modes observed in the frequency range above 0.1 THz. This introduces a generic technique suitable for sampling ultrafast carrier dynamics in low-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures at THz frequencies.

  8. Analysis of Apex Seal Friction Power Loss in Rotary Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Owen, A. Karl

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of the frictional losses from the apex seals in a rotary engine was developed. The modeling was initiated with a kinematic analysis of the rotary engine. Next a modern internal combustion engine analysis code was altered for use in a rotary engine to allow the calculation of the internal combustion pressure as a function of rotor rotation. Finally the forces from the spring, inertial, and combustion pressure on the seal were combined to provide the frictional horsepower assessment.

  9. Study on the Oil Supply System for Rotary Compressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Takahide; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Fujitani, Makoto; Murata, Nobuo

    Research has been undertaken to clarify the shaft oil pump mechanisms and oil supply network systems for rotary compressors. Numerical expressions were developed for each part of the rotary compressor,(such as drive shaft,oil pump and journal bearing grooves)in order to confirm that the calculated values agree with the experimental results. Finally,a computer program has been developed to evaluate the oil supply system performance under steady conditions for rotary compressors.

  10. Forebody flow physics due to rotary motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwanski, Kenneth Paul

    An experimental investigation of the aerodynamic behavior of an isolated forebody undergoing rotary motion was conducted in a small-scale wind tunnel. Force balance, surface pressure, and flow visualization data was acquired over a range of AOA, for a round and chined configuration of a generic tangent ogive shape. The nature of the fixed location of separation of the chined forebody develops a strong, symmetrical leeward side flowfield. In comparison, the round forebody develops a lateral asymmetry, as a function of AOA, from the naturally occurring separated flow. Quantifying the side force behavior due to the rotary motion of the two distinctively different forebody configurations will lead to a better understanding of the flowfield which plays a primary role in the overall stability and control of an air vehicle. For the round forebody, the side force behavior due to the rotary motion ( CYW ) is dependent upon flow speed (ReD), AOA, as well as the direction and magnitude of rotation ( W=wLV ). In the low AOA range, the rotary-induced flowfield is insufficient in promoting a side force development. In the high AOA range a damping in side force behavior is a result of the "moving wall" effect where the flow along the windward region of the forebody is the predominant influence. In the AOA range where an asymmetrical flowfield is established in a static environment, the rotary motion does not disrupt the natural asymmetric state of the vortices. Additionally, neither the presence of a static side force nor its direction is apparently sufficient in determining the CYW behavior from the axially-varying flowfield. The CYW behavior of the chined forebody is related to the leeward side vortices' vertical trajectory, which is a function of AOA. A slight propelling side force behavior develops in an AOA range where an increased suction develops from the upwind vortex. In the high AOA range there is a diminishing influence from the leeward side vortex suction resulting

  11. The Rotary Combustion Engine: a Candidate for General Aviation. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The state of development of the rotary combustion engine is discussed. The nonturbine engine research programs for general aviation and future requirements for general aviation powerplants are emphasized.

  12. Functional Genomics Via Metabolic Footprinting: Monitoring Metabolite Secretion by Escherichia Coli Tryptophan Metabolism Mutants Using FT–IR and Direct Injection Electrospray Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Kaderbhai, Naheed N.; Broadhurst, David I.; Ellis, David I.; Goodacre, Royston

    2003-01-01

    We sought to test the hypothesis that mutant bacterial strains could be discriminated from each other on the basis of the metabolites they secrete into the medium (their ‘metabolic footprint’), using two methods of ‘global’ metabolite analysis (FT–IR and direct injection electrospray mass spectrometry). The biological system used was based on a published study of Escherichia coli tryptophan mutants that had been analysed and discriminated by Yanofsky and colleagues using transcriptome analysis. Wild-type strains supplemented with tryptophan or analogues could be discriminated from controls using FT–IR of 24 h broths, as could each of the mutant strains in both minimal and supplemented media. Direct injection electrospray mass spectrometry with unit mass resolution could also be used to discriminate the strains from each other, and had the advantage that the discrimination required the use of just two or three masses in each case. These were determined via a genetic algorithm. Both methods are rapid, reagentless, reproducible and cheap, and might beneficially be extended to the analysis of gene knockout libraries. PMID:18629082

  13. Ultra trace determination of 31 pesticides in water samples by direct injection-rapid resolution liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Laura; Llorca-Pórcel, Julio; Valor, Ignacio

    2008-08-22

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based method for the detection of pesticides in tap and treated wastewater was developed and validated according to the ISO/IEC 17025:1999. Key features of this method include direct injection of 100 microL of sample, an 11 min separation by means of a rapid resolution liquid chromatography system with a 4.6 mm x 50 mm, 1.8 microm particle size reverse phase column and detection by electrospray ionization (ESI) MS-MS. The limits of detection were below 15 ng L(-1) and correlation coefficients for the calibration curves in the range of 30-2000 ng L(-1) were higher than 0.99. Precision was always below 20% and accuracy was confirmed by external evaluation. The main advantages of this method are direct injection of sample without preparative procedures and low limits of detection that fulfill the requirements established by the current European regulations governing pesticide detection.

  14. Rotary Wing Deceleration Use on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Steiner, Ted J.

    2011-01-01

    Rotary wing decelerator (RWD) systems were compared against other methods of atmospheric deceleration and were determined to show significant potential for application to a system requiring controlled descent, low-velocity landing, and atmospheric research capability on Titan. Design space exploration and down-selection results in a system with a single rotor utilizing cyclic pitch control. Models were developed for selection of a RWD descent system for use on Titan and to determine the relationships between the key design parameters of such a system and the time of descent. The possibility of extracting power from the system during descent was also investigated.

  15. Strain measurements in a rotary engine housing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. M.; Bond, T. H.; Addy, H. E.; Chun, K. S.; Lu, C. Y.

    1989-01-01

    The development of structural design tools for Rotary Combustion Engines (RCE) using Finite Element Modeling (FEM) requires knowledge about the response of engine materials to various service conditions. This paper describes experimental work that studied housing deformation as a result of thermal, pressure and mechanical loads. The measurement of thermal loads, clamping pressure, and deformation was accomplished by use of high-temperature strain gauges, thermocouples, and a high speed data acquisition system. FEM models for heat transfer stress analysis of the rotor housing will be verified and refined based on these experimental results.

  16. Modelling and optimization of rotary parking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzyniowski, A.

    2016-09-01

    The increasing number of vehicles in cities is a cause of traffic congestion which interrupts the smooth traffic flow. The established EU policy underlines the importance of restoring spaces for pedestrian traffic and public communication. The overall vehicle parking process in some parts of a city takes so much time that it has a negative impact on the environment. This article presents different kinds of solution with special focus on the rotary parking system (PO). This article is based on a project realized at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of Cracow University of Technology.

  17. 38. DETAIL OF VIVIANNA WORKS ROTARY KILN FIREBOX ABOVE CHANNEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. DETAIL OF VIVIANNA WORKS ROTARY KILN FIREBOX ABOVE CHANNEL FOR THE REMOVAL OF TAILINGS FROM THE ROTARY KILN LOOKING NORTHWEST. CONDENSER TO THE RIGHT, TWO STORY OFFICE AND STOREROOM STRUCTURE BEHIND. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  18. Determination of As, Cd, Pb, and Hg in urine using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with the direct injection high efficiency nebulizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnich, Michael G.; Miller, Derek C.; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2008-03-01

    The application of the large-bore direct injection high efficiency nebulizer (LB-DIHEN) for the determination of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) in urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is described. The LB-DIHEN is compared with the standard method using a concentric pneumatic nebulizer and cyclonic spray chamber. In addition to the toxicological significance of As, Cd, Pb, and Hg, these elements represent a cross-section of analytical issues including spectral interferences (e.g., 40Ar 35Cl + on 75As + and 98Mo 16O + on 114Cd +) and memory effects (Hg). In this study, the low sample consumption of the LB-DIHEN is used to reduce the volume of urine needed for analysis, and to reduce the volume of final diluted sample required for analysis. Eliminating the spray chamber and reducing the dead volume of the nebulizer reduces memory effects, especially for analytes such as Hg. The Dynamic Reaction Cell (DRC) is used in this study to attenuate the background level of ArCl + in spite of the increase in the solvent load and, in turn, the urine matrix (chloride) delivered to the plasma by the LB-DIHEN. This is the first report on coupling the LB-DIHEN to a standard autosampler for unattended sample analysis. The robustness of direct injection nebulization for routine analysis and the issues associated with automation of the sample introduction process are discussed. Although the figures of merit (sensitivity, limit of detection, and precision) determined for both nebulizers are slightly poorer for the LB-DIHEN than for the concentric pneumatic nebulizer, there is not a clinically significant difference between the results for both sample introduction systems. The accuracy of results is assessed using archived urine materials that are circulated by several different proficiency testing (PT) programs and external quality assessment schemes (EQAS). Results obtained using the LB-DIHEN were within the acceptable range

  19. Preliminary design development of 100 KW rotary power transfer device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberger, S. M.

    1981-01-01

    Contactless power transfer devices for transferring electrical power across a rotating spacecraft interface were studied. A power level of 100 KW was of primary interest and the study was limited to alternating current devices. Rotary transformers and rotary capacitors together with the required dc to ac power conditioning electronics were examined. Microwave devices were addressed. The rotary transformer with resonant circuit power conditioning was selected as the most feasible approach. The rotary capacitor would be larger while microwave devices would be less efficient. A design analysis was made of a 100 KW, 20 kHz power transfer device consisting of a rotary transformer, power conditioning electronics, drive mechanism and heat rejection system. The size, weight and efficiency of the device were determined. The characteristics of a baseline slip ring were presented. Aspects of testing the 100 KW power transfer device were examined. The power transfer device is a feasible concept which can be implemented using presently available technologies.

  20. Modeling of pulverized coal combustion in cement rotary kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Shijie Wang; Jidong Lu; Weijie Li; Jie Li; Zhijuan Hu

    2006-12-15

    In this paper, based on analysis of the chemical and physical processes of clinker formation, a heat flux function was introduced to take account of the thermal effect of clinker formation. Combining the models of gas-solid flow, heat and mass transfer, and pulverized coal combustion, a set of mathematical models for a full-scale cement rotary kiln were established. In terms of commercial CFD code (FLUENT), the distributions of gas velocity, gas temperature, and gas components in a cement rotary kiln were obtained by numerical simulation of a 3000 t/d rotary kiln with a four-channel burner. The predicted results indicated that the improved model accounts for the thermal enthalpy of the clinker formation process and can give more insight (such as fluid flow, temperature, etc,) from within the cement rotary kiln, which is a benefit to better understanding of combustion behavior and an improvement of burner and rotary kiln technology. 25 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Comparisons of Laser-Saturated, Laser-Induced, and Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence Measurements of Nitric Oxide in a Lean Direct-Injection Spray Flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Clayton S.; Ravikrishna, Rayavarapu V.; Laurendeau, Normand M.

    1998-07-01

    We report quantitative, spatially resolved laser-saturated fluorescence (LSF), linear laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), and planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) measurements of nitric oxide (NO) concentration in a preheated, lean direct-injection spray flame at atmospheric pressure. The spray is produced by a hollow-cone, pressure-atomized nozzle supplied with liquid heptane, and the overall equivalence ratio is unity. NO is excited by means of the Q 2 ( 26 . 5 ) transition of the (0, 0) band. LSF and LIF detection are performed in a 2-nm region centered on the (0, 1) band. PLIF detection is performed in a broad 70-nm region with a peak transmission at 270 nm. Quantitative radial NO profiles obtained by LSF are presented and analyzed so as to correct similar LIF and PLIF profiles. Excellent agreement is achieved among the three fluorescence methodologies.

  2. Quantification of the evaporative cooling in an ethanol spray created by a gasoline direct-injection system measured by multiline NO-LIF gas-temperature imaging.

    PubMed

    Kronemayer, Helmut; Omerbegovic, Kemal; Schulz, Christof

    2007-12-01

    Two-dimensional gas-phase temperature fields were quantitatively measured in an evaporating ethanol spray with multiline excitation thermometry based on laser-induced fluorescence of nitric oxide (NO-LIF). This technique yields absolute temperature fields without calibration and simultaneously detects the spray position. The accuracy of the presented temperature measurements is +/-1 K. Systematic errors of the scanned multiline thermometry approach due to time averaging in turbulent systems were investigated and found to be negligible. The pulsed spray was generated by a gasoline direct-injection nozzle with swirl injecting ethanol into air in a flow cell at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The gas temperature inside the spray cloud was found to decrease by 10 K at approximately 5-10 ms after injection. Different injection pressures influence the evaporation behavior.

  3. 3-D simulation of soot formation in a direct-injection diesel engine based on a comprehensive chemical mechanism and method of moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Bei-Jing; Dang, Shuai; Song, Ya-Na; Gong, Jing-Song

    2012-02-01

    Here, we propose both a comprehensive chemical mechanism and a reduced mechanism for a three-dimensional combustion simulation, describing the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in a direct-injection diesel engine. A soot model based on the reduced mechanism and a method of moments is also presented. The turbulent diffusion flame and PAH formation in the diesel engine were modelled using the reduced mechanism based on the detailed mechanism using a fixed wall temperature as a boundary condition. The spatial distribution of PAH concentrations and the characteristic parameters for soot formation in the engine cylinder were obtained by coupling a detailed chemical kinetic model with the three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model. Comparison of the simulated results with limited experimental data shows that the chemical mechanisms and soot model are realistic and correctly describe the basic physics of diesel combustion but require further development to improve their accuracy.

  4. A Comparative Study of Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions Characteristics of Linseed Oil Biodiesel Blends with Diesel Fuel in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvi, B. L.; Jindal, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is aimed at study of the performance and emissions characteristics of direct injection diesel engine fueled with linseed oil biodiesel blends and diesel fuel. The comparison was done with base fuel as diesel and linseed oil biodiesel blends. The experiments were conducted with various blends of linseed biodiesel at different engine loads. It was found that comparable mass fraction burnt, better rate of pressure rise and BMEP, improved indicated thermal efficiency (8-11 %) and lower specific fuel consumption (3.5-6 %) were obtained with LB10 blend at full load. The emissions of CO, un-burnt hydrocarbon and smoke were less as compared to base fuel, but with slight increase in the emission of NOx. Since, linseed biodiesel is renewable in nature, so practically negligible CO2 is added to the environment. The linseed biodiesel can be one of the renewable alternative fuels for transportation vehicles and blend LB10 is preferable for better efficiency.

  5. Development of a Piezoelectric Rotary Hammer Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domm, Lukas N.

    2011-01-01

    The Piezoelectric Rotary Hammer Drill is designed to core through rock using a combination of rotation and high frequency hammering powered by a single piezoelectric actuator. It is designed as a low axial preload, low mass, and low power device for sample acquisition on future missions to extraterrestrial bodies. The purpose of this internship is to develop and test a prototype of the Piezoelectric Rotary Hammer Drill in order to verify the use of a horn with helical or angled cuts as a hammering and torque inducing mechanism. Through an iterative design process using models in ANSYS Finite Element software and a Mason's Equivalent Circuit model in MATLAB, a horn design was chosen for fabrication based on the predicted horn tip motion, electromechanical coupling, and neutral plane location. The design was then machined and a test bed assembled. The completed prototype has proven that a single piezoelectric actuator can be used to produce both rotation and hammering in a drill string through the use of a torque inducing horn. Final data results include bit rotation produced versus input power, and best drilling rate achieved with the prototype.

  6. Modeling of a rotary blood pump.

    PubMed

    Nestler, Frank; Bradley, Andrew P; Wilson, Stephen J; Timms, Daniel L

    2014-03-01

    The accurate representation of rotary blood pumps in a numerical environment is important for meaningful investigation of pump-cardiovascular system interactions. Although numerous models for ventricular assist devices (VADs) have been developed, modeling methods for rotary total artificial hearts (rTAHs) are still required. Therefore, an rTAH prototype was characterized in a steady flow, hydraulic test bench over a wide operational range for pump and hydraulic parameters. In order to develop a generic modeling method, a data-driven modeling approach was chosen. k-Nearest-neighbors, artificial neural networks, and support vector machines (SVMs) were the machine learning approaches evaluated. The best performing parameters for each algorithm were determined via optimization. The resulting multiple-input-multiple-output models were subsequently assessed under identical conditions, and a SVM with a radial basis function kernel was identified as the best performing. The achieved root mean squared errors were 0.03 L/min, 0.06 L/min, and 0.18 W for left and right flow and motor power consumption, respectively. In comparison with existing models for VADs, the flow errors are more than 70% lower. Further advantages of the SVM model are the robustness to measurement noise and the capability to operate outside of the trained parameter range. This proposed modeling method will accelerate further device refinements by providing a more appropriate numerical environment in which to evaluate the pump-cardiovascular system interaction.

  7. Rotary sequencing valve with flexible port plate

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Glenn Paul

    2005-05-10

    Rotary sequencing valve comprising a rotor having a rotor face rotatable about an axis perpendicular to the rotor face, wherein the rotor face has a plurality of openings, one or more of which are disposed at a selected radial distance from the axis, and wherein the rotor includes at least one passage connecting at least one pair of the plurality of openings. The valve includes a flexible port plate having a first side and a second side, wherein the first side faces the rotor and engages the rotor such that the flexible port plate can be rotated coaxially by the rotor and can move axially with respect to the rotor, wherein the flexible port plate has a plurality of ports between the first and second sides, which ports are aligned with the openings in the rotor face. The valve also includes a stator having a stator face disposed coaxially with the rotor and the flexible port plate, wherein the second side of the flexible port plate is in sealable, slidable rotary contact with the stator face, wherein the stator face has a plurality of openings, some of which are disposed at the selected radial distance from the axis, and wherein the plurality of openings extend as passages through the stator. The valve may be used in pressure or temperature swing adsorption systems.

  8. A metering rotary nanopump for microfluidic systems.

    PubMed

    Darby, Scott G; Moore, Matthew R; Friedlander, Troy A; Schaffer, David K; Reiserer, Ron S; Wikswo, John P; Seale, Kevin T

    2010-12-07

    We describe the design, fabrication, and testing of a microfabricated metering rotary nanopump for the purpose of driving fluid flow in microfluidic devices. The miniature peristaltic pump is composed of a set of microfluidic channels wrapped in a helix around a central camshaft in which a non-cylindrical cam rotates. The cam compresses the helical channels to induce peristaltic flow as it is rotated. The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanopump design is able to produce intermittent delivery or removal of several nanolitres of fluid per revolution as well as consistent continuous flow rates ranging from as low as 15 nL min(-1) to above 1.0 µL min(-1). At back pressures encountered in typical microfluidic devices, the pump acts as a high impedance flow source. The durability, biocompatibility, ease of integration with soft-lithographic fabrication, the use of a simple rotary motor instead of multiple synchronized pneumatic or mechanical actuators, and the absence of power consumption or fluidic conductance in the resting state all contribute to a compact pump with a low cost of fabrication and versatile implementation. This suggests that the pump design may be useful for a wide variety of biological experiments and point of care devices.

  9. A metering rotary nanopump for microfluidic systems

    PubMed Central

    Darby, Scott G.; Moore, Matthew R.; Friedlander, Troy A.; Schaffer, David K.; Reiserer, Ron S.; Wikswo, John P.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the design, fabrication, and testing of a microfabricated metering rotary nanopump for the purpose of driving fluid flow in microfluidic devices. The miniature peristaltic pump is composed of a set of microfluidic channels wrapped in a helix around a central cam shaft in which a non-cylindrical cam rotates. The cam compresses the helical channels to induce peristaltic flow as it is rotated. The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanopump design is able to produce intermittent delivery or removal of several nanoliters of fluid per revolution as well as consistent continuous flow rates ranging from as low as 15 nL/min to above 1.0 µL/min. At back pressures encountered in typical microfluidic devices, the pump acts as a high impedance flow source. The durability, biocompatibility, ease of integration with soft-lithographic fabrication, the use of a simple rotary motor instead of multiple synchronized pneumatic or mechanical actuators, and the absence of power consumption or fluidic conductance in the resting state all contribute to a compact pump with a low cost of fabrication and versatile implementation. This suggests that the pump design may be useful for a wide variety of biological experiments and point of care devices. PMID:20959938

  10. Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.

    1991-08-29

    Several issues that could have an impact on the capability to burn anthracite culm in a rotary bed boiler were identified; specifically, questions were raised concerning the specifications of the anthracite culm itself and some relating to the equipment. The anthracite culm delivered was wet, (with more than 10 percent moisture), and coarser than feed material for fluidized boilers. It was felt that using finer fuel, ensuring that it is largely dry, would aid the combustion of anthracite culm. It also appeared that if provisions were made for more efficient internal and external recycle of ash, this would also enhance the combustion of this fuel. Accordingly, the decision was made to conduct an additional campaign of tests that would incorporate these changes. The tests, conducted on July 15 and 16, 1991, involved an anthracite culm that was, in fact, obtained from a fluidized bed a heating value of 3,000 Btu/lb and came with a top size of 1/4-inch. Despite these changes, sustained combustion could not be achieved without the use of large quantities of supplemental fuel. Based on these tests, we tend to conclude that the rotary kiln is ill suited for the combustion of hard-to-burn, low-grade solid fuels like anthracite culm.

  11. Fluid Dynamics in Rotary Piston Blood Pumps.

    PubMed

    Wappenschmidt, Johannes; Sonntag, Simon J; Buesen, Martin; Gross-Hardt, Sascha; Kaufmann, Tim; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Autschbach, Ruediger; Goetzenich, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Mechanical circulatory support can maintain a sufficient blood circulation if the native heart is failing. The first implantable devices were displacement pumps with membranes. They were able to provide a sufficient blood flow, yet, were limited because of size and low durability. Rotary pumps have resolved these technical drawbacks, enabled a growing number of mechanical circulatory support therapy and a safer application. However, clinical complications like gastrointestinal bleeding, aortic insufficiency, thromboembolic complications, and impaired renal function are observed with their application. This is traced back to their working principle with attenuated or non-pulsatile flow and high shear stress. Rotary piston pumps potentially merge the benefits of available pump types and seem to avoid their complications. However, a profound assessment and their development requires the knowledge of the flow characteristics. This study aimed at their investigation. A functional model was manufactured and investigated with particle image velocimetry. Furthermore, a fluid-structure interaction computational simulation was established to extend the laboratory capabilities. The numerical results precisely converged with the laboratory measurements. Thus, the in silico model enabled the investigation of relevant areas like gap flows that were hardly feasible with laboratory means. Moreover, an economic method for the investigation of design variations was established.

  12. Rotary spectra analysis applied to static stabilometry.

    PubMed

    Chiaramello, E; Knaflitz, M; Agostini, V

    2011-01-01

    Static stabilometry is a technique aimed at quantifying postural sway during quiet standing in the upright position. Many different models and many different techniques to analyze the trajectories of the Centre of Pressure (CoP) have been proposed. Most of the parameters calculated according to these different approaches are affected by a relevant intra- and inter-subject variability or do not have a clear physiological interpretation. In this study we hypothesize that CoP trajectories have rotational characteristics, therefore we decompose them in clockwise and counter-clockwise components, using the rotary spectra analysis. Rotary spectra obtained studying a population of healthy subjects are described through the group average of spectral parameters, i.e., 95% spectral bandwidth, mean frequency, median frequency, and skewness. Results are reported for the clockwise and the counter-clockwise components and refer to the upright position maintained with eyes open or closed. This study demonstrates that the approach is feasible and that some of the spectral parameters are statistically different between the open and closed eyes conditions. More research is needed to demonstrate the clinical applicability of this approach, but results so far obtained are promising.

  13. [Pulsatile rotary pumps with low hemolysis].

    PubMed

    Qian, K; Zeng, P; Ru, W; Yuan, H; Feng, Z; Li, L

    2001-09-01

    As is well known, a pulsatile flow is important in assisted-circulation but it is difficult to produce a pulsatile flow with rotary pump, because excessive hemolysis will be generated. The authors have found that the turbulent shear is the main factor for red cell damage and therefore the key point of pulsatile rotary pumps is to reduce the turbulence by producing a pulsatile flow. In the authors' pulsatile axial pump, the pulsatile flow is obtained by axial reciprocation of constant rotating impeller; the rotation and reciprocation of the impeller are driven separately by a DC motor and a pneumatic device. Though a physiological pulsatile flow could be achieved and turbulence would not increase remarkably because the impeller rotates constantly, a second driver except a DC motor is nevertheless necessary, thus the system will become complicated. In the authors' pulsatile radial pump, a pulsatile flow is achieved by changing the rotating speed of the impeller periodically. Turbulence is minimized by a special design of twisted vanes which enable the blood flow to change its direction rather than its dimension during periodic change of rotating speed. Hemolysis tests demonstrated that the index of hemolysis(IH) of the author's pulsatile radial pump is 0.020, with is slightly more than that of the author's nonpulsatile radial pump(IH = 0.015). Animal experiments indicated that the pulsatile radial pump can assist the circulation of calves for several months without harm to blood elements and organ functions of the recipients.

  14. Direct Injection LC-MS-MS Analysis of Opiates, Methamphetamine, Buprenorphine, Methadone and Their Metabolites in Oral Fluid from Substitution Therapy Patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hsiu-Chuan; Lee, Hsi-Tzu; Hsu, Ya-Ching; Huang, Mei-Han; Liu, Ray H; Chen, Tai-Jui; Lin, Dong-Liang

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method was developed, validated and applied to simultaneous analysis of oral fluid samples for the following 10 analytes: methadone, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, morphine, codeine, 6-acetylmorphine, 6-acetylcodeine, amphetamine, and methamphetamine. The oral fluid sample was briefly centrifuged and the supernatant was directly injected into the LC-MS-MS system operated under reverse-phase chromatography and electrospray ionization (ESI). Deuterated analogs of the analytes were adopted as the internal standards and found to be effective (except for buprenorphine) to compensate for potential matrix effects. Each analytical run took <10 min. Linearity range (r(2) > 0.99) established for buprenorphine and the other nine analytes were 5-100 and 1-100 ng/mL. Intra- and interday precision (% CV) ranges for the 10 analytes were 0.87-12.2% and 1.27-12.8%, while the corresponding accuracy (%) ranges were 91.8-113% and 91.9-111%. Limits of detection and quantitation established for these 10 analytes were in the ranges of 0.1-1.0 and 0.25-1.0 ng/mL (5 ng/mL for buprenorphine). The method was successfully applied to the analysis of 62 oral fluid specimens collected from patients participating in methadone and buprenorphine substitution therapy programs. Analytical results of methadone and buprenorphine were compared with data derived from GC-MS analysis and found to be compatible. Overall, the direct injection LC-MS-MS method performed well, permitting rapid analysis of oral fluid samples for simultaneous quantification of methadone, buprenorphine, opiate and amphetamine drug categories without extensive sample preparation steps.

  15. Characterization of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care products in hospital effluent and waste water influent/effluent by direct-injection LC-MS-MS.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Tiago S; Murphy, Mark; Mendola, Nicholas; Wong, Virginia; Carlson, Doreen; Waring, Linda

    2015-06-15

    Two USEPA Regional Laboratories developed direct-injection LC/MS/MS methods to measure Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) in water matrices. Combined, the laboratories were prepared to analyze 185 PPCPs (with 74 overlapping) belonging to more than 20 therapeutical categories with reporting limits at low part-per-trillion. In partnership with Suffolk County in NY, the laboratories conducted PPCP analysis on 72 samples belonging to 4 Water Systems (WS). Samples were collected at different stages of the WS (hospital effluents, WWTP influents/effluents) to assess PPCP relevance in hospital discharges, impact on WWTP performance and potential ecological risk posed by analytes not eliminated during treatment. Major findings include: a) acceptable accuracy between the two laboratories for most overlapping PPCPs with better agreement for higher concentrations; b) the measurement of PPCPs throughout all investigated WS with total PPCP concentrations ranging between 324 and 965 μg L(-1) for hospital effluent, 259 and 573 μg L(-1) for WWTP influent and 19 and 118 μg L(-1) for WWTP effluent; c) the variable contribution of hospital effluents to the PPCP loads into the WWTP influents (contribution ranging between 1% (WS-2) and 59% (WS-3); d) the PPCP load reduction after treatment for all WS reaching more than 95% for WS using activated sludge processes (WS-2 and WS-4), with inflow above 6500 m(3) d(-1), and having a lower percentage of hospital effluent in the WWTP influent; e) the relevance of four therapeutical categories for the PPCP load in WWTP effluents (analgesics, antidiabetics, antiepileptics and psychoanaleptics); and f) the risk quotients calculated using screening-level Predicted Non Effect Concentration indicate that WWTP effluents contain 33 PPCPs with potential medium to high ecological risk. To our knowledge no other monitoring investigation published in the scientific literature uses direct-injection methods to cover as many PPCPs and

  16. Studies on the mixing of liquid jets and pre-atomized sprays in confined swirling air flows for lean direct injection combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Jun-Young

    A lean direct injection (LDI) combustion concept was introduced recently to obtain both low NOsbx emissions and high performance for advanced aircraft gas turbine engines. It was reported that pollutant emissions, especially NOsbx, in a lean combustion mode depend significantly on the degree of mixing (mixedness) of supplied air and liquid fuel droplets. From a viewpoint of environmental protection, therefore, uniform mixing of fuel and air in a very short period of time, i.e., well-stirred mixing, is crucially important in the LDI combustion mode. In the present study, as the first stage toward understanding the combustion phenomena in a lean direct injection (LDI) mode, the hydrodynamic behavior of liquid jets and pre-atomized sprays in confined swirling air flows is investigated. Laser-based flow visualization and image analysis techniques are applied to analyze the instantaneous motion of the mixing process of the jets and pre-atomized sprays. Statistical analysis system (SAS) software is utilized to analyze the experimental data, and correlate experimental parameters. Statistical parameters, such as centrality, degree of spread, and total area ratio of particles, are defined in this study, and used to quantify the mixedness (degree of mixing) of liquid particles in confined geometry. Two empirical equations are obtained to predict jet intact lengths and spray angles, respectively, in confined swirling air flows. It is found that initial jet characteristics, such as intact length and spray angle, determine the mixing of the liquid particles resulting from the jet. It is verified that image analysis is feasible in quantitative determination of the mixedness of liquid particles. Even though substantial improvements in liquid fuel injector systems are required before they can be considered adequate for LDI combustion at high pressure and high temperature, the results and ideas obtained from the present study will help engineers find better mixing methods for LDI

  17. Quantitative determination of pioglitazone in human serum by direct-injection high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and its application to a bioequivalence study.

    PubMed

    Xue, Y-J; Turner, Kenneth C; Meeker, Jeff B; Pursley, Janice; Arnold, Mark; Unger, Steve

    2003-10-05

    A simple, high throughput, direct-injection high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method (LC/MS/MS) has been developed and validated for the quantitation of pioglitazone in human serum. After mixing the internal standard with a sample, a 10 microl portion of the mixture was directly injected into a high-flow LC/MS/MS system, which included an extraction column, an analytical column and a six-port switching valve. The on-line extraction was achieved on an Oasis HLB column (1 mm x 50 mm, 30 microm) with a 100% aqueous loading mobile phase containing 5 mM ammonium acetate (pH 4.0) at a flow rate of 4 ml/min. The extracted analyte was eluted by a mobile phase which contained 5 mM ammonium acetate and acetonitrile. The analytical column was a Luna C18 column (4.6 mm x 50 mm, 5 microm). Detection was achieved by positive ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The lower limit of quantitation of the method was 9 ng/ml. The standard curve, which ranged from 9 to 1350 ng/ml, was fitted by a weighted (1/x2) quadratic regression model. The validation results demonstrated that this method had satisfactory precision and accuracy across the calibration range. There was no evidence of instability of the analyte in human serum following three freeze-thaw cycles, and samples could be stored for at least 2 weeks at -30 degrees C. This method was used to analyze pioglitazone concentrations in human serum samples from a bioequivalence study of a blinded Actos formulation (encapsulated 15 mg tablet) and an Actos 15 mg tablet. The blinded formulation was shown to be bioequivalent to an Actos 15 mg tablet.

  18. Qualitative detection of diuretics and acidic metabolites of other doping agents in human urine by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: comparison between liquid-liquid extraction and direct injection.

    PubMed

    Deventer, K; Pozo, O J; Van Eenoo, P; Delbeke, F T

    2009-07-31

    Direct injection of urine has gained interest in the field of analytical toxicology, including doping control analysis. However, implementation of a direct urinalysis method for the LC-MS/MS detection of 34 diuretics and 9 other doping agents yielded several analytical problems, which were not observed using a traditional liquid-liquid extraction. Therefore a comparative study was made between liquid-liquid extraction and direct injection. Comparison of validation results showed that the liquid-liquid extraction at pH 7 allows to analyze samples without major drawbacks regarding matrix effects. Hence, good sensitivity was observed and detection limits ranged between 1 and 250 ng/mL for all compounds. In the direct injection approach shifted retention times were observed for several acidic and basic compounds due to unwanted matrix effects. This shift was reduced by a 25-fold dilution of the urine samples. Besides the improved retention time stability the diluted samples also exhibited lower ion suppression than the undiluted ones. After 25-fold dilution, detection limits ranged between 10 and 250 ng/mL for all compounds. Since these detection limits are at or below the minimum required performance level, imposed by the World Anti-Doping Agency, the method could be applied to routine anti-doping analysis. Samples, previously declared positive, were reanalysed using both the liquid-liquid extraction and direct injection. With both techniques all 26 samples were found to be positive, showing the applicability of direct injection for the analysis of diuretics.

  19. Radial lean direct injection burner

    DOEpatents

    Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2012-09-04

    A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

  20. Staged direct injection diesel engine

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Quentin A.

    1985-01-01

    A diesel engine having staged injection for using lower cetane number fuels than No. 2 diesel fuel. The engine includes a main fuel injector and a pilot fuel injector. Pilot and main fuel may be the same fuel. The pilot injector injects from five to fifteen percent of the total fuel at timings from 20.degree. to 180.degree. BTDC depending upon the quantity of pilot fuel injected, the fuel cetane number and speed and load. The pilot fuel injector is directed toward the centerline of the diesel cylinder and at an angle toward the top of the piston, avoiding the walls of the cylinder. Stratification of the early injected pilot fuel is needed to reduce the fuel-air mixing rate, prevent loss of pilot fuel to quench zones, and keep the fuel-air mixture from becoming too fuel lean to become effective. In one embodiment, the pilot fuel injector includes a single hole for injection of the fuel and is directed at approximately 48.degree. below the head of the cylinder.

  1. Formation of technical requirements for flexible rotary machine nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulenkov, Y.; Mikhaylov, A.

    2016-11-01

    The method of parameters determining for the flexible rotary machines and lines and its individual components is described in this article. The method is based on the analysis of the fail safe performance probability. It allows determining the fail safe performance probability for tools, transportation and tool changing device nodes, elements of flexible rotary machine and is based on the analysis of flexible rotor line structure. The relationships between rational flexible rotary line structure and parameters of the individual nodes are shown on the flexible rotor line for the screws processing.

  2. Measurement and evaluation of static characteristics of rotary hydraulic motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hružík, Lumír; Vašina, Martin; Bureček, Adam

    2014-03-01

    The paper describes experimental equipment for measurement of static characteristics of rotary hydraulic motor. It is possible to measure flow, pressure, temperature, speed and torque by means of this equipment. It deals with measurement of static characteristics of a gear rotary hydraulic motor. Mineral oil is used as hydraulic liquid in this case. Flow, torque and speed characteristics are evaluated from measured parameters. Measured mechanical-hydraulic, flow and total efficiencies of the rotary hydraulic motor are adduced in the paper. It is possible to diagnose technical conditions of the hydraulic motor (eventually to recommend its exchange) from the experimental measurements.

  3. Rotary fast tool servo system and methods

    DOEpatents

    Montesanti, Richard C.; Trumper, David L.

    2007-10-02

    A high bandwidth rotary fast tool servo provides tool motion in a direction nominally parallel to the surface-normal of a workpiece at the point of contact between the cutting tool and workpiece. Three or more flexure blades having all ends fixed are used to form an axis of rotation for a swing arm that carries a cutting tool at a set radius from the axis of rotation. An actuator rotates a swing arm assembly such that a cutting tool is moved in and away from the lathe-mounted, rotating workpiece in a rapid and controlled manner in order to machine the workpiece. A pair of position sensors provides rotation and position information for a swing arm to a control system. A control system commands and coordinates motion of the fast tool servo with the motion of a spindle, rotating table, cross-feed slide, and in-feed slide of a precision lathe.

  4. The Rotary Mechanism of the ATP Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Nakamoto, Robert K.; Scanlon, Joanne A. Baylis; Al-Shawi, Marwan K.

    2008-01-01

    The FOF1 ATP synthase is a large complex of at least 22 subunits, more than half of which are in the membranous FO sector. This nearly ubiquitous transporter is responsible for the majority of ATP synthesis in oxidative and photo-phosphorylation, and its overall structure and mechanism have remained conserved throughout evolution. Most examples utilize the proton motive force to drive ATP synthesis except for a few bacteria, which use a sodium motive force. A remarkable feature of the complex is the rotary movement of an assembly of subunits that plays essential roles in both transport and catalytic mechanisms. This review addresses the role of rotation in catalysis of ATP synthesis/hydrolysis and the transport of protons or sodium. PMID:18515057

  5. Rotary plant growth accelerating apparatus. [weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dedolph, R. D. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    Rotary plant growth accelerating apparatus for increasing plant yields by effectively removing the growing plants from the constraints of gravity and increasing the plant yield per unit of space is described. The apparatus is comprised of cylindrical plant beds supported radially removed from a primary axis of rotation, with each plant bed being driven about its own secondary axis of rotation and simultaneously moved in a planetary path about the primary axis of rotation. Each plant bed is formed by an apertured outer cylinder, a perforated inner cylinder positioned coaxially, and rooting media disposed in the space between. A rotatable manifold distributes liquid nutrients and water to the rooting media through the perforations in the inner cylinders as the plant beds are continuously rotated by suitable drive means.

  6. Torque for an Inertial Piezoelectric Rotary Motor

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Jichun

    2013-01-01

    For a novel inertial piezoelectric rotary motor, the equation of the strain energy in the piezoceramic bimorph and the equations of the strain energy and the kinetic energy in the rotor are given. Based on them, the dynamic equation of the motor is obtained. Using these equations, the inertial driving torque of the motor is investigated. The results show that the impulsive driving torque changes with changing peak voltage of the excitation signal, the piezoelectric stress constant, the thickness of the piezoceramic bimorph, and the rotor radius obviously. Tests about the motor torque are completed which verifies the theory analysis here in. The results can be used to design the operating performance of the motor. PMID:24470794

  7. Rotary seal with improved film distribution

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie Laroy; Schroeder, John Erick

    2013-10-08

    The present invention is a generally circular rotary seal that establishes sealing between relatively rotatable machine components for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion, and incorporates seal geometry that interacts with the lubricant during relative rotation to distribute a lubricant film within the dynamic sealing interface. The features of a variable inlet size, a variable dynamic lip flank slope, and a reduction in the magnitude and circumferentially oriented portion of the lubricant side interfacial contact pressure zone at the narrowest part of the lip, individually or in combination thereof, serve to maximize interfacial lubrication in severe operating conditions, and also serve to minimize lubricant shear area, seal torque, seal volume, and wear, while ensuring retrofitability into the seal grooves of existing equipment.

  8. Rotary seal with improved film distribution

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie Laroy; Schroeder, John Erick

    2015-09-01

    The present invention is a generally circular rotary seal that establishes sealing between relatively rotatable machine components for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion, and incorporates seal geometry that interacts with the lubricant during relative rotation to distribute a lubricant film within the dynamic sealing interface. The features of a variable inlet size, a variable dynamic lip flank slope, and a reduction in the magnitude and circumferentially oriented portion of the lubricant side interfacial contact pressure zone at the narrowest part of the lip, individually or in combination thereof, serve to maximize interfacial lubrication in severe operating conditions, and also serve to minimize lubricant shear area, seal torque, seal volume, and wear, while ensuring retrofitability into the seal grooves of existing equipment.

  9. Miniature linear-to-rotary motion actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorokach, Michael R., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A miniature hydraulic actuation system capable of converting linear actuator motion to control surface rotary motion has been designed for application to active controls on dynamic wind tunnel models. Due to space constraints and the torque requirements of an oscillating control surface at frequencies up to 50 Hertz, a new actuation system was developed to meet research objectives. This new actuation system was designed and developed to overcome the output torque limitations and fluid loss/sealing difficulties associated with an existing vane type actuator. Static control surface deflections and dynamic control surface oscillations through a given angle are provided by the actuation system. The actuator design has been incorporated into a transonic flutter model with an active trailing edge flap and two active spoilers. The model is scheduled for testing in the LaRC 16 Foot Transonic Dynamics Tunnel during Summer 1993. This paper will discuss the actuation system, its design, development difficulties, test results, and application to aerospace vehicles.

  10. Film riding seals for rotary machines

    DOEpatents

    Bidkar, Rahul Anil; Sarawate, Neelesh Nandkumar; Wolfe, Christopher Edward; Ruggiero, Eric John; Raj Mohan, Vivek Raja

    2017-03-07

    A seal assembly for a rotary machine is provided. The seal assembly includes multiple sealing device segments disposed circumferentially intermediate to a stationary housing and a rotor. Each of the segments includes a shoe plate with a forward-shoe section and an aft-shoe section having one or more labyrinth teeth therebetween facing the rotor. The sealing device includes a stator interface element having a groove or slot for allowing disposal of a spline seal for preventing segment leakages. The sealing device segment also includes multiple bellow springs or flexures connected to the shoe plate and to the stator interface element. Further, the sealing device segments include a secondary seal integrated with the stator interface element at one end and positioned about the multiple bellow springs or flexures and the shoe plate at the other end.

  11. A rotary motor drives Flavobacterium gliding.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Abhishek; Lele, Pushkar P; Berg, Howard C

    2015-02-02

    Cells of Flavobacterium johnsoniae, a rod-shaped bacterium devoid of pili or flagella, glide over glass at speeds of 2-4 μm/s [1]. Gliding is powered by a protonmotive force [2], but the machinery required for this motion is not known. Usually, cells move along straight paths, but sometimes they exhibit a reciprocal motion, attach near one pole and flip end over end, or rotate. This behavior is similar to that of a Cytophaga species described earlier [3]. Development of genetic tools for F. johnsoniae led to discovery of proteins involved in gliding [4]. These include the surface adhesin SprB that forms filaments about 160 nm long by 6 nm in diameter, which, when labeled with a fluorescent antibody [2] or a latex bead [5], are seen to move longitudinally down the length of a cell, occasionally shifting positions to the right or the left. Evidently, interaction of these filaments with a surface produces gliding. To learn more about the gliding motor, we sheared cells to reduce the number and size of SprB filaments and tethered cells to glass by adding anti-SprB antibody. Cells spun about fixed points, mostly counterclockwise, rotating at speeds of 1 Hz or more. The torques required to sustain such speeds were large, comparable to those generated by the flagellar rotary motor. However, we found that a gliding motor runs at constant speed rather than at constant torque. Now, there are three rotary motors powered by protonmotive force: the bacterial flagellar motor, the Fo ATP synthase, and the gliding motor.

  12. Tank 241-TY-103 rotary core sampling and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, J.

    1995-10-30

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for two rotary-mode core samples from tank 241-TY-103

  13. 2. INTERIOR OF THE TIPPLE LOOKING SOUTH THROUGHT THE ROTARY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR OF THE TIPPLE LOOKING SOUTH THROUGHT THE ROTARY TIPPLE MECHANISM USED TO UNLOAD MINE COAL CARS. - Smith Mine, Tipple, Bear Creek 1.5 miles West of Town of Bear Creek, Red Lodge, Carbon County, MT

  14. Rotary endodontics in primary teeth – A review

    PubMed Central

    George, Sageena; Anandaraj, S.; Issac, Jyoti S.; John, Sheen A.; Harris, Anoop

    2015-01-01

    Endodontic treatment in primary teeth can be challenging and time consuming, especially during canal preparation, which is considered one of the most important steps in root canal therapy. The conventional instrumentation technique for primary teeth remains the “gold-standard” over hand instrumentation, which makes procedures much more time consuming and adversely affects both clinicians and patients. Recently nickel–titanium (Ni–Ti) rotary files have been developed for use in pediatric endodontics. Using rotary instruments for primary tooth pulpectomies is cost effective and results in fills that are consistently uniform and predictable. This article reviews the use of nickel–titanium rotary files as root canal instrumentation in primary teeth. The pulpectomy technique is described here according to different authors and the advantages and disadvantages of using rotary files are discussed. PMID:26792964

  15. Aircraft icing instrumentation: Unfilled needs. [rotary wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitchens, P. F.

    1980-01-01

    A list of icing instrumentation requirements are presented. Because of the Army's helicopter orientation, many of the suggestions are specific to rotary wing aircraft; however, some of the instrumentation are also suitable for general aviation aircraft.

  16. Capillary array electrophoresis with confocal fluorescence rotary scanner.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Sun, Guangming; Bai, Jiling; Wang, Li

    2003-12-01

    A capillary array electrophoresis system with a rotary confocal fluorescence scanner is reported. A high speed direct current rotary motor, combined with a rotary encoder and a reflection mirror, has been designed to direct the excitation laser beam precisely to a round array of capillaries which are symmetrically distributed around the motor. The rotary encoder is introduced to accurately orientate the position of each capillary and its output signal triggers the data acquisition system to record the fluorescence signal corresponding to each capillary. Separation of enantiomers of glutamic acid, methionine and tryptophan with different additives are demonstrated by this system. The experimental results indicate that this setup can be used to optimize separation methods for capillary electrophoresis as quickly as possible.

  17. Rotary roller of no. 2 seamless line in bays 19 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rotary roller of no. 2 seamless line in bays 19 and 20 of the main pipe mill building looking north. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  18. Rotary-To-Axial Motion Converter For Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinicke, Robert H.; Mohtar, Rafic

    1991-01-01

    Nearly frictionless mechanism converts rotary motion into axial motion. Designed for use in electronically variable pressure-regulator valve. Changes rotary motion imparted by motor into translation that opens and closes valve poppet. Cables spaced equidistantly around edge of fixed disk support movable disk. As movable disk rotated, cables twist, lifting it. When rotated in opposite direction, cables untwist, lowering it. Spider disk helps to prevent cables from tangling. Requires no lubrication and insensitive to contamination in fluid flowing through valve.

  19. Heat exchange apparatus and process for rotary kilns

    SciTech Connect

    De Beus, A.J.

    1987-06-30

    This patent describes a heat exchange apparatus for use in a rotary kiln, the heat exchange apparatus comprising: refractory means for transferring heat from an upper heated portion of a rotary kiln above a bed disposed in a lower portion to within the bed as the rotary kiln is rotated. The refractory means comprises: tubular refractory members; means for attaching the refractory means in a spaced apart relationship with an interior wall of the rotary kiln in order to cause the refractory means to pass through the bed with a portion of the bed passing under the refractory means. A portion of the bed passes over the refractory means in order to enhance heat transfer as the rotary kiln is rotated. The means for attaching the refractory means comprises rods supported by stanchions and tubular refractory member disposed on the rods; the means for attaching the refractory means and the refractory means is configured and operative for stirring the bed as the refractory means pass through the bed without significant lifting of the bed to the heated upper portions of the rotary kiln as the rotary kiln is rotated; and compressible refractory spacer means disposed between each tubular refractory member for accommodating heat expansion and compressible refractory sleeve means dispersed between the rods and the tubular refractory members for accommodating heat expansion of the rods. Compressible refractory sleeve means and tubular refractory member sized so that the tubular refractory members are tightly held against the tubular refractory spacer means when the rotary kiln is at operating temperatures in order to inhibit fracture of the tubular refractory member as they pass through the bed.

  20. Effect of palm methyl ester-diesel blends performance and emission of a single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, Mazlan; Aziz, Azhar Abdul; Said, Mohd Farid Muhamad

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate engine performance and exhaust emission when using several blends of neat palm oil methyl ester (POME) with conventional diesel (D2) in a small direct injection diesel engine, and to compare the outcomes to that of the D2 fuel. Engine performances, exhaust emissions, and some other important parameters were observed as a function of engine load and speed. In addition, the effect of modifying compression ratio was also carried out in this study. From the engine experimental work, neat and blended fuels behaved comparably to diesel (D2) in terms of fuel consumption, thermal efficiency and rate of heat released. Smoke density showed better results than that emitted by D2, operating under similar conditions due to the presence of inherited oxygen and lower sulphur content in the biofuel and its blends. The emissions of CO, CO2, and HC were also lower using blended mixtures and in its neat form. However, NOx concentrations were found to be slight higher for POME and its blends and this was largely due to higher viscosity of POME and possibly the presence of nitrogen in the palm methyl ester. General observation indicates that biofuel blends can be use without many difficulties in this type of engine but for optimized operation minor modifications to the engine and its auxiliaries are required.

  1. Preservation and analytical procedures for the analysis of chloro-s-triazines and their chlorodegradate products in drinking waters using direct injection liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Smith, Glynda A; Pepich, Barry V; Munch, David J

    2008-08-22

    A direct injection, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed for the analysis of the chloro-s-triazine herbicides and their degradates in finished drinking water. The target compounds in the method were selected based on their inclusion in a common mechanism group (CMG) because of their ability to induce a similar toxic effect through a common mechanism of toxicity. The target list includes the chloro-s-triazines (atrazine, simazine, cyanazine, and propazine) and their dealkylated degradates (desethylatrazine, desisopropylatrazine, and diaminochlorotriazine). Potential matrix effects are minimized by the use of individual isotopically enriched internal standards. Analyte stability in finished chlorinated drinking water samples is ensured through careful selection of proper dechlorinating and antimicrobial reagents and through buffering sample pH. In the absence of proper dechlorination, the target analytes were found to degrade over a short period of time, even under refrigerated storage conditions. The final method has adequate sensitivity to accurately detect all target analytes at or below 0.1 microg/L and displays sufficient precision and robustness to warrant publication as EPA Method 536.

  2. A Very Large Eddy Simulation of the Nonreacting Flow in a Single-Element Lean Direct Injection Combustor Using PRNS with a Nonlinear Subscale Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, Nan-Suey

    2009-01-01

    Very large eddy simulation (VLES) of the nonreacting turbulent flow in a single-element lean direct injection (LDI) combustor has been successfully performed via the approach known as the partially resolved numerical simulation (PRNS/VLES) using a nonlinear subscale model. The grid is the same as the one used in a previous RANS simulation, which was considered as too coarse for a traditional LES simulation. In this study, we first carry out a steady RANS simulation to provide the initial flow field for the subsequent PRNS/VLES simulation. We have also carried out an unsteady RANS (URANS) simulation for the purpose of comparing its results with that of the PRNS/VLES simulation. In addition, these calculated results are compared with the experimental data. The present effort has demonstrated that the PRNS/VLES approach, while using a RANS type of grid, is able to reveal the dynamically important, unsteady large-scale turbulent structures occurring in the flow field of a single-element LDI combustor. The interactions of these coherent structures play a critical role in the dispersion of the fuel, hence, the mixing between the fuel and the oxidizer in a combustor.

  3. Analysis of the injection process in direct injected natural gas engines. Part 1: Study of unconfined and in-cylinder plume behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, M.J.; Jeske, F.R. )

    1994-10-01

    A study of natural gas (NG) direct injection (DI) processes has been performed using multidimensional computational fluid dynamics analysis. The purpose was to improve the understanding of mixing in DI NG engines. Calculations of injection into a constant-volume chamber were performed to document unconfined plume behavior. A full three-dimensional calculation of injection into a medium heavy-duty diesel engine cylinder was also performed to study plume behavior in engine geometries. The structure of the NG plume is characterized by a core of unmixed fuel confined to the near-field of the jet. This core contains the bulk of the unmixed fuel and is mixed by the turbulence generated by the jet shear layer. The NG plume development in the engine is dominated by combustion chamber surface interactions. A Coanda effect causes plume attachment to the cylinder head, which has a detrimental impact on mixing. Unconfined plume calculations with different nozzle hole sizes demonstrate that smaller nozzle holes are more effective at mixing the fuel and air.

  4. The gas chromatographic determination of volatile fatty acids in wastewater samples: evaluation of experimental biases in direct injection method against thermal desorption method.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Md Ahsan; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Szulejko, Jan E; Cho, Jinwoo

    2014-04-11

    The production of short-chained volatile fatty acids (VFAs) by the anaerobic bacterial digestion of sewage (wastewater) affords an excellent opportunity to alternative greener viable bio-energy fuels (i.e., microbial fuel cell). VFAs in wastewater (sewage) samples are commonly quantified through direct injection (DI) into a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). In this study, the reliability of VFA analysis by the DI-GC method has been examined against a thermal desorption (TD-GC) method. The results indicate that the VFA concentrations determined from an aliquot from each wastewater sample by the DI-GC method were generally underestimated, e.g., reductions of 7% (acetic acid) to 93.4% (hexanoic acid) relative to the TD-GC method. The observed differences between the two methods suggest the possibly important role of the matrix effect to give rise to the negative biases in DI-GC analysis. To further explore this possibility, an ancillary experiment was performed to examine bias patterns of three DI-GC approaches. For instance, the results of the standard addition (SA) method confirm the definite role of matrix effect when analyzing wastewater samples by DI-GC. More importantly, their biases tend to increase systematically with increasing molecular weight and decreasing VFA concentrations. As such, the use of DI-GC method, if applied for the analysis of samples with a complicated matrix, needs a thorough validation to improve the reliability in data acquisition.

  5. Bioethanol Blending Reduces Nanoparticle, PAH, and Alkyl- and Nitro-PAH Emissions and the Genotoxic Potential of Exhaust from a Gasoline Direct Injection Flex-Fuel Vehicle.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Maria; Heeb, Norbert V; Haag, Regula; Honegger, Peter; Zeyer, Kerstin; Mohn, Joachim; Comte, Pierre; Czerwinski, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Bioethanol as an alternative fuel is widely used as a substitute for gasoline and also in gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles, which are quickly replacing traditional port-fuel injection (PFI) vehicles. Better fuel efficiency and increased engine power are reported advantages of GDI vehicles. However, increased emissions of soot-like nanoparticles are also associated with GDI technology with yet unknown health impacts. In this study, we compare emissions of a flex-fuel Euro-5 GDI vehicle operated with gasoline (E0) and two ethanol/gasoline blends (E10 and E85) under transient and steady driving conditions and report effects on particle, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), and alkyl- and nitro-PAH emissions and assess their genotoxic potential. Particle number emissions when operating the vehicle in the hWLTC (hot started worldwide harmonized light-duty vehicle test cycle) with E10 and E85 were lowered by 97 and 96% compared with that of E0. CO emissions dropped by 81 and 87%, while CO2 emissions were reduced by 13 and 17%. Emissions of selected PAHs were lowered by 67-96% with E10 and by 82-96% with E85, and the genotoxic potentials dropped by 72 and 83%, respectively. Ethanol blending appears to reduce genotoxic emissions on this specific flex-fuel GDI vehicle; however, other GDI vehicle types should be analyzed.

  6. Application of direct-injection detector integrated with the multi-pumping flow system to chemiluminescence determination of the total polyphenol index.

    PubMed

    Nalewajko-Sieliwoniuk, Edyta; Iwanowicz, Magdalena; Kalinowski, Sławomir; Kojło, Anatol

    2016-03-10

    In this work, we present a novel chemiluminescence (CL) method based on direct-injection detector (DID) integrated with the multi-pumping flow system (MPFS) to chemiluminescence determination of the total polyphenol index. In this flow system, the sample and the reagents are injected directly into the cone-shaped detection cell placed in front of the photomultiplier window. Such construction of the detection chamber allows for fast measurement of the CL signal in stopped-flow conditions immediately after mixing the reagents. The proposed DID-CL-MPFS method is based on the chemiluminescence of nanocolloidal manganese(IV)-hexametaphosphate-ethanol system. The application of ethanol as a sensitizer, eliminated the use of carcinogenic formaldehyde. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the chemiluminescence intensities are proportional to the concentration of gallic acid in the range from 5 to 350 ng mL(-1). The DID-CL-MPFS method offers a number of advantages, including low limit of detection (0.80 ng mL(-1)), high precision (RSD = 3.3%) and high sample throughput (144 samples h(-1)) as well as low consumption of reagents, energy and low waste generation. The proposed method has been successfully applied to determine the total polyphenol index (expressed as gallic acid equivalent) in a variety of plant-derived food samples (wine, tea, coffee, fruit and vegetable juices, herbs, spices).

  7. Effect of the level of unsaturation and of alcohol modifications of plant oil fuels on the long-term performance of a direct injected diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.

    1985-01-01

    A 200-hour durability screening test recommended by the Engine Manufacturers Association was adopted to study the effects of four alternate fuels on the long-term performance of a four cylinder, direct injected diesel engine. Tested fuels included diesel fuel (control), a 25-75 blend by volume of alkali-refined sunflower oil and diesel fuel, a 25-75 blend by volume of high oleic safflower oil and diesel fuel, a nonionic sunflower oil-aqueous ethanol microemulsion, and a methyl ester of sunflower oil. Least squares regression procedures were used to analyze the long term effects of the test fuels on engine performance and to compare the test fuels. Time of the engine operation had a significant effect only on exhaust temperature. For all other response variables, time was not a factor. However, significant differences between tested fuels were observed. An analysis of variance was employed to compare CRC carbon and lacquer ratings, as well as wear of engine parts. The carbon deposits produced by the microemulsion and the 25-75 sunflower oil blend were significantly heavier than those generated by the other tested fuels. None of the fuels produced excessive engine wear. The 25-75 sunflower oil blend and the microemulsion caused problems with the fuel injection system.

  8. An Eco-Friendly Direct Injection HPLC Method for Methyldopa Determination in Serum by Mixed-Mode Chromatography Using a Single Protein-Coated Column.

    PubMed

    Emara, Samy; Masujima, Tsutomu; Zarad, Walaa; Kamal, Maha; Fouad, Marwa; El-Bagary, Ramzia

    2015-09-01

    A simple, rapid and environment-friendly direct injection HPLC method for the determination of methyldopa (MTD) in human serum has been developed and validated. The method was based on cleanup and separation of MTD from serum by mixed-mode liquid chromatography using a single protein-coated TSK gel ODS-80 TM analytical column (50 × 4.0 mm i.d., 5 µm). The protein-coated column exhibited excellent resolution, selectivity and functioned in two chromatographic modes: size-exclusion chromatography [i.e., solid-phase extraction (SPE) for serum proteins] and reversed-phase chromatography for the final separation of MTD. SPE and HPLC separation were carried out simultaneously with a green mobile phase consisting of acetate buffer (0.1 M, pH 2.4) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min and at room temperature (23 ± 1°C). The eluent was monitored at emission and excitation wavelengths of 320 and 270 nm, respectively. A calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.1-30 µg/mL with a detection limit of 0.027 µg/mL. This online SPE method was successfully applied to real samples obtained from patients receiving MTD therapy.

  9. An Assessment of Combustion Dynamics in a Low-Nox, Second-Generation Swirl-Venturi Lean Direct Injection Combustion Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, K. M.; Chang, C. T.; Lee, P.; Mongia, H.; Podboy, D. P.; Dam, B.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic pressure measurements were taken during flame-tube emissions testing of three second-generation swirl-venturi lean direct injection (SV-LDI) combustor configurations. These measurements show that combustion dynamics were typically small. However, a small number of points showed high combustion dynamics, with peak-to-peak dynamic pressure fluctuations above 0.5 psi. High combustion dynamics occurred at low inlet temperatures in all three SV-LDI configurations, so combustion dynamics were explored further at low temperature conditions. A point with greater than 1.5 psi peak-to-peak dynamic pressure fluctuations was identified at an inlet temperature of 450!F, a pressure of 100 psia, an air pressure drop of 3%, and an overall equivalence ratio of 0.35. This is an off design condition: the temperature and pressure are typical of 7% power conditions, but the equivalence ratio is high. At this condition, the combustion dynamics depended strongly on the fuel staging. Combustion dynamics could be reduced significantly without changing the overall equivalence ratio by shifting the fuel distribution between stages. Shifting the fuel distribution also decreased NOx emissions.

  10. Evaluation of a direct injection nebulizer interface for flow injection analysis and high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopic detection

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, K.E.

    1986-06-01

    A direct injection nebulizer (DIN) was designed, developed, and evaluated to determine its potential utilization as an effective interface for flow injection analysis (FIA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopic detection. The analytical figures of merit for the DIN when used as an interface for FIA-ICP-AES were found to be comparable to or better than those obtained with conventional pneumatic nebulization in terms of limits of detection (LODs), reproducibility, linearity, and interelement effects. Stable plasma operation was maintained for the DIN sample introduction of a variety of pure organic solvents, including acetonitrile, methanol, methylisobutylketone, and pyridine. The HPLC-DIN-ICP-AES facility was specifically applied for the speciation of inorganic and organometallic species contained in synthetic mixtures, vanilla extracts, and a variety of energy-related materials, such as shale oil process water, coal extracts, shale oil, crude oil, and an SRC II. Suggestions for future research are also considered. 227 refs., 44 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. A comparison of continuous pneumatic nebulization and flow injection-direct injection nebulization for sample introduction in inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Crain, J.S.; Kiely, J.T.

    1995-08-01

    Dilute nitric acid blanks and solutions containing Ni, Cd, Pb, and U (including two laboratory waste samples) were analyzed eighteen times over a two-month period using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Two different sample introduction techniques were employed: flow injection-direct injection nebulization (FI-DIN) and continuous pneumatic nebulization (CPN). Using comparable instrumental measurement procedures, FI-DIN analyses were 33% faster and generated 52% less waste than CPN analyses. Instrumental limits of detection obtained with FI-DIN and CPN were comparable but not equivalent (except in the case of Pb) because of nebulizer-related differences in sensitivity (i.e., signal per unit analyte concentration) and background. Substantial and statistically significant differences were found between FI-DIN and CPN Ni determinations, and in the case of the laboratory waste samples, there were also small but statistically significant differences between Cd determinations. These small (2 to 3%) differences were not related to polyatomic ion interference (e.g., {sup 95}Mo{sup 16}O{sup +}), but in light of the time savings and waste reduction to be realized, they should not preclude the use of FI-DIN in place of CPN for determination of Cd, Pb, U and chemically.

  12. A comparison of continuous pneumatic nebulization and flow injection-direction injection nebulization for sample introduction in inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Crain, J.S.; Kiely, J.T.

    1997-08-01

    Samples containing Ni, Cd, Pb, and U were analyzed eighteen times over a two-month period using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Sample introduction was accomplished by either flow injection-direct injection nebulization (FI-DIN) or continuous pneumatic nebulization (CPN). Using comparable instrumental measurement procedures, FI-DIN analyses were 33% faster and generated 52% less waste than CPN analyses. Instrumental limits of detection obtained with FI-DIN and CPN were comparable but not equivalent (except in the case of Pb) because of nebulizer-related differences in sensitivity (i.e., signal per unit analyte concentration) and background. Substantial and statistically significant differences were found between FI-DIN and CPN Ni determinations, and in the case of laboratory waste samples, there were also small but statistically significant differences between Cd determinations. These small (2 to 3%) differences were not related to polyatomic ion interference (e.g., {sup 95}Mo{sup 16}O{sup +}), but in light of the time and waste savings to be realized, they should not preclude the use of FI-DIN in place of CPN for determination of Cd, Pb, U, and similar elements present at trace concentrations.

  13. Impact of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the particulate morphology and soot nanostructures from a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Peng; Vander Wal, Randy; Boehman, Andre L.; Toops, Todd J.; Daw, C. Stuart; Sun, Chenxi; Lapuerta, Magin; Agudelo, John

    2014-12-26

    The effect of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the morphology of exhaust particulate agglomerates and the nanostructure of primary particles (soot) was investigated with a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine. The engine was operated at steady state on a dynamometer running at moderate speed with both low (30%) and medium–high (60%) fixed loads, and exhaust particulate was sampled for analysis. Ultra-low sulfur diesel and its 20% v/v blends with soybean methyl ester biodiesel were used. Fuel injection occurred in a single event around top dead center at three different injection pressures. Exhaust particulate samples were characterized with TEM imaging, scanning mobility particle sizing, thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and XRD analysis. Particulate morphology and oxidative reactivity were found to vary significantly with rail pressure and with biodiesel blend level. Higher biodiesel content led to increases in the primary particle size and oxidative reactivity but did not affect nanoscale disorder in the as-received samples. For particulates generated with higher injection pressures, the initial oxidative reactivity increased, but there was no detectable correlation with primary particle size or nanoscale disorder.

  14. Impact of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the particulate morphology and soot nanostructures from a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine

    DOE PAGES

    Ye, Peng; Vander Wal, Randy; Boehman, Andre L.; ...

    2014-12-26

    The effect of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the morphology of exhaust particulate agglomerates and the nanostructure of primary particles (soot) was investigated with a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine. The engine was operated at steady state on a dynamometer running at moderate speed with both low (30%) and medium–high (60%) fixed loads, and exhaust particulate was sampled for analysis. Ultra-low sulfur diesel and its 20% v/v blends with soybean methyl ester biodiesel were used. Fuel injection occurred in a single event around top dead center at three different injection pressures. Exhaust particulate samples were characterized with TEMmore » imaging, scanning mobility particle sizing, thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and XRD analysis. Particulate morphology and oxidative reactivity were found to vary significantly with rail pressure and with biodiesel blend level. Higher biodiesel content led to increases in the primary particle size and oxidative reactivity but did not affect nanoscale disorder in the as-received samples. For particulates generated with higher injection pressures, the initial oxidative reactivity increased, but there was no detectable correlation with primary particle size or nanoscale disorder.« less

  15. A review on development of analytical methods to determine monitorable drugs in serum and urine by micellar liquid chromatography using direct injection.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Romero, Josep; Albiol-Chiva, Jaume; Peris-Vicente, Juan

    2016-07-05

    Therapeutic drug monitoring is a common practice in clinical studies. It requires the quantification of drugs in biological fluids. Micellar liquid chromatography (MLC), a well-established branch of Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC), has been proven by many researchers as a useful tool for the analysis of these matrices. This review presents several analytical methods, taken from the literature, devoted to the determination of several monitorable drugs in serum and urine by micellar liquid chromatography. The studied groups are: anticonvulsants, antiarrhythmics, tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, analgesics and bronchodilators. We detail the optimization strategy of the sample preparation and the main chromatographic conditions, such as the type of column, mobile phase composition (surfactant, organic solvent and pH), and detection. The finally selected experimental parameters, the validation, and some applications have also been described. In addition, their performances and advantages have been discussed. The main ones were the possibility of direct injection, and the efficient chromatographic elution, in spite of the complexity of the biological fluids. For each substance, the measured concentrations were accurate and precise at their respective therapeutic range. It was found that the MLC-procedures are fast, simple, inexpensive, ecofriendly, safe, selective, enough sensitive and reliable. Therefore, they represent an excellent alternative for the determination of drugs in serum and urine for monitoring purposes.

  16. Ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction for the determination of ephedrines in human urine by capillary electrophoresis with direct injection. Comparison with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Alshana, Usama; Göğer, Nilgün G; Ertaş, Nusret

    2012-08-01

    Ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction were compared for extraction of ephedrine, norephedrine, and pseudoephedrine from human urine samples prior to their determination by capillary electrophoresis. Formation of a microemulsion of the organic extract with an aqueous solution (at pH 3.2) containing 10% methanol facilitated the direct injection of the final extract into the capillary. Influential parameters affecting extraction efficiency were systematically studied and optimized. In order to enhance the sensitivity further, field-amplified sample injection was applied. Under optimum extraction and stacking conditions, enrichment factors of up to 140 and 1750 as compared to conventional capillary zone electrophoresis were obtained resulting in limits of detection of 12-33 μg/L and 1.0-2.8 μg/L with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction when combined with field-amplified sample injection. Calibration graphs showed good linearity for urine samples by both methods with coefficients of determination higher than 0.9973 and percent relative standard deviations of the analyses in the range of 3.4-8.2% for (n = 5). The results showed that the use of ultrasound to assist microextraction provided higher extraction efficiencies than disperser solvents, regarding the hydrophilic nature of the investigated analytes.

  17. Direct injection of protamine-protected mRNA: results of a phase 1/2 vaccination trial in metastatic melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Weide, Benjamin; Pascolo, Steve; Scheel, Birgit; Derhovanessian, Evelyna; Pflugfelder, Annette; Eigentler, Thomas K; Pawelec, Graham; Hoerr, Ingmar; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Garbe, Claus

    2009-06-01

    In mice, injection of messenger RNA (mRNA) coding for tumor-associated antigens can induce antitumor immune responses and therefore offers a broadly applicable immunotherapy approach. We injected intradermally protamine-stabilized mRNAs coding for Melan-A, Tyrosinase, gp100, Mage-A1, Mage-A3, and Survivin in 21 metastatic melanoma patients. In 10 patients keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) was added to the vaccine. Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor was applied as an adjuvant. Endpoints were toxicity and immune responses. No adverse events more than grade II have been observed. During treatment the frequency of Foxp3+/CD4+ regulatory T cells was significantly decreased upon mRNA vaccination in peripheral blood of the patients in the KLH arm, whereas myeloid suppressor cells (CD11b+HLA-DR lo monocytes) were reduced in the patients not receiving KLH. A reproducible increase of vaccine-directed T cells was observed in 2 of 4 immunologically evaluable patients. One of 7 patients with measurable disease showed a complete response. In conclusion, we show here that direct injection of protamine-protected mRNA is feasible and safe. The significant influence of the treatment on the frequency of immunosuppressive cells, the increase of vaccine-directed T cells upon treatment in a subset of patients together with the demonstration of a complete clinical response encourage further clinical investigation of the protamine-mRNA vaccine.

  18. Design study of a high power rotary transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberger, S. M.

    1982-01-01

    A design study was made on a rotary transformer for transferring electrical power across a rotating spacecraft interface. The analysis was performed for a 100 KW, 20 KHz unit having a ""pancake'' geometry. The rotary transformer had a radial (vertical) gap and consisted of 4-25 KW modules. It was assumed that the power conditioning comprised of a Schwarz resonant circuit with a 20 KHz switching frequency. The rotary transformer, mechanical and structural design, heat rejection system and drive mechanism which provide a complete power transfer device were examined. The rotary transformer losses, efficiency, weight and size were compared with an axial (axial symmetric) gap transformer having the same performance requirements and input characteristics which was designed as part of a previous program. The ""pancake'' geometry results in a heavier rotary transformer primarily because of inefficient use of the core material. It is shown that the radial gap rotary transformer is a feasible approach for the transfer of electrical power across a rotating interface and can be implemented using presently available technology.

  19. TESTING OF THE DUAL ROTARY FILTER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, D.; Fowley, M.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-08-29

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) installed and tested two hydraulically connected SpinTek rotary microfilter (RMF) units to determine the behavior of a multiple filter system. Both units were successfully controlled by a control scheme written in DELTA-V architecture by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Process Control Engineering personnel. The control system was tuned to provide satisfactory response to changing conditions during the operation of the multi-filter system. Stability was maintained through the startup and shutdown of one of the filter units while the second was still in operation. The installation configuration originally proposed by the Small Colum Ion Exchange (SCIX) project of independent filter and motor mountings may be susceptible to vibration. Significant stiffening of the filter and motor mounts was required to minimize the vibration. Alignment of the motor to the filter was a challenge in this test configuration. The deployment configuration must be easy to manipulate and allow for fine adjustment. An analysis of the vibration signature of the test system identified critical speeds. Whether it corresponds to the resonance frequency of a rotor radial vibration mode that was excited by rotor unbalance is uncertain based upon the measurements. A relative motion series should be completed on the filter with the final shaft configuration to determine if the resonances exist in the final filter design. The instrumentation selected for deployment, including the concentrate discharge control valve and flow meters, performed well. Automation of the valve control integrated well with the control scheme and when used in concert with the other control variables, allowed automated control of the dual RMF system. The one area of concern with the instrumentation was the condition resulting when the filtrate flow meter operated with less than three gpm. This low flow was at the lower range of performance for the flow meter. This should not be

  20. Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills for Operating as a Rotary-Hammer Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, Jack Barron (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Scott, James Samson (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A percussive augmenter bit includes a connection shaft for mounting the bit onto a rotary drill. In a first modality, an actuator percussively drives the bit, and an electric slip-ring provides power to the actuator while being rotated by the drill. Hammering action from the actuator and rotation from the drill are applied directly to material being drilled. In a second modality, a percussive augmenter includes an actuator that operates as a hammering mechanism that drives a free mass into the bit creating stress pulses that fracture material that is in contact with the bit.

  1. Futuristic concepts in engines and components

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This publication includes papers on two-stroke engines and components, Brayton Stirling and Otto Cycles, alternative cycles, advanced combustion, and other related topics. Contents include: Paving the way to controlled combustion engines (CCE); A new class of stratified-charge internal combustion engine; Internal combustion (IC) engine with minimum number of moving parts; New type of heat engine -- externally heated air engine; A porous media burner for reforming methanol for fuel cell powered electric vehicles; Using a Stirling engine simulation program as a regenerator design aid; In-cylinder regenerated engines; High speed electronic fuel injection for direct injected rotary engine; and The characteristics of fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of the side exhaust port rotary engine.

  2. A MRI rotary phased array head coil.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing Keong; Weber, Ewald; Crozier, Stuart

    2013-08-01

    A new rotary phased array (RPA) head coil that can provide homogenous brain images comparable to volumetric radiofrequency coils is proposed for magnetic resonance brain imaging applications. The design of the RPA head coil is a departure from conventional circumferential array design method, as coil elements of the RPA head coil have a "paddle-like" structure consisting of a pair of main conductors located on opposite sides, inserted equi-angularly around and over the head. A prototype 2T receive-only 4-element RPA head coil was constructed and experimentally tested against a conventional receive-only 4-element phased array head coil and a commercial receive-only quadrature birdcage head coil. Homogenous phantom images acquired by the RPA head coil show that signal intensity deep at the center of the phantom was improved as compared to the conventional phased array head coil and this improvement allow the RPA head coil to acquire homogenous brain images similar to brain images acquired with the birdcage head coil. In addition, partial parallel imaging was used in conjunction with the RPA head coil to enable rapid imaging.

  3. Dynamics of complex fluids in rotary atomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavarz, Bavand; McKinley, Gareth; MIT, Mechanical Engineering Department Team

    2016-11-01

    We study the dynamics of fragmentation for different Newtonian and viscoelastic liquids in rotary atomization. In this process, at the rim of a spinning cup, the centripetal acceleration destabilizes the formed liquid torus due to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The resulting ligaments leave the liquid torus with a remarkably repeatable spacing that scales linearly with the inverse of the rotation rate. Filaments then follow a well-defined geometrical path-line that is described by the involute of the circle. Knowing the geometry of this phenomenon we derive the detailed kinematics of this process and compare it with the experimental observations. We show that the ligaments elongate tangentially to the involute of the circle and thin radially as they separate from the cup. A theoretical form is derived for the spatial variation of the filament deformation rate. Once the ligaments are far from the cup they breakup into droplets since they are not stretched fast enough (compared to the critical rate of capillary thinning). We couple these derivations with the known properties of Newtonian and viscoelastic liquids to provide a physical analysis for this fragmentation process that is compared in detail with our experiments.

  4. Transient phenomena in rotary kiln incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Linak, W.P.; Kilgroe, J.D.; Wendt, J.O.; Mc Sorley, J.A.; Dunn, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes results of an ongoing experimental investigation at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency into the waste properties and kiln parameters that determine both the instantaneous intensity and the total magnitude of transient puffs leaving the kiln. The experimental apparatus utilized was a 73 kW (250,000 Btu/hr) laboratory rotary kiln simulator. Surrogate solid wastes in the form of plastic rods and surrogate liquid wastes on corncob sorbent in cardboard containers were investigated. A statistically designed parametric study was used to determine the extent to which waste and kiln variables (such as charge mass, charge surface area, charge composition, kiln temperature, and kiln rotation speed) affected the intensity (hydrocarbon peak height) and magnitude (hydrocarbon peak area) of puffs. Results demonstrate the relative ease with which failure conditions are achieved, even at high excess air values and high kiln temperatures. Transient puffs arising from even innocuous surrogate wastes can contain a number of hazardous compounds. Increasing kiln temperature and kiln rotation speed can cause an adverse effect on puff intensity, probably due to increased devolatilization rates.

  5. Orienting members in a preselected rotary alignment

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Ray E.

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus for orienting members and for maintaining their rotary alignment during orienting members. The apparatus comprises first and second cylindrical elements, a rotation prevention element, a collar and a retainer. Each element has an outside wall, and first and second ends, each end having an outside edge. The first element has portions defining a first plurality of notches located at the outside edge of its first end. An external threaded portion is on the outside wall of the first element and next to the first plurality of notches. The second element has portions defining a second plurality of notches located at the outside edge of its first end. The first plurality has a different number than the second plurality. The first ends of the first and second tubes have substantially the same outside diameter and are abutted during connection so that a cavity is formed whenever first and second tube notches substantially overlap. A rotation prevention element is placed in the cavity to prevent rotation of the first and second elements. A collar with an internal threaded portion is slidably disposed about the second element. The internal threaded portion engages the external threaded portion of the first element to connect the elements. A lip connected to the collar prevents separation of the collar from the second element.

  6. Rotacor: a new rotary blood pump.

    PubMed

    Margreiter, R; Schwab, W; Klima, G; Koller, J; Baum, M; Dietrich, H; Hager, J; Königsrainer, A

    1990-01-01

    A new rotary blood pump was tested in calves for 6 hr. The pump consists of a rigid housing with a trochoidal internal surface, an inlet and outlet, and two lateral walls. A two-corner piston rotates on an eccentric shaft in a trochoidal path, thus creating a gap seal. The pump is driven by a water-cooled DC motor. For right ventricular assist, a cannula was inserted into the right ventricle through the right atrium, and into the left ventricle for left ventricular assist. From a total of 10 experiments, two left ventricular assists, two right ventricular assists, and three biventricular assists were evaluated. The pump produced a pulsatile flow of 3 L at 70 rpm. Energy requirements were 2.19 watts for left, 2.06 for right, and 7.26 for biventricular assists. Plasma hemoglobin remained as low as 10 mg/dl during monoventricular, and increased during biventricular assists to 20 mg/dl after 3 hr, when it started to chop again; after 6 hr it was 16 mg/dl. From these preliminary results it is concluded that this new type of blood pump may be suitable as a circulatory assist device.

  7. Analysis of thiabendazole, 4-tert-octylphenol and chlorpyrifos in waste and sewage water by direct injection – micellar liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Romero-Cano, Ricard; Kassuha, Diego; Peris-Vicente, Juan; Roca-Genovés, Pasqual; Carda-Broch, Samuel; Esteve-Romero, Josep

    2015-03-07

    A micellar liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of the pesticides thiabendazole and chlorpyrifos, as well as an alkylphenol, which is included in pesticide formulations, i.e., 4-tert-octylphenol, in water. A sample was filtered and directly injected, avoiding large extraction steps using toxic solvents, thus expediting the experimental procedure. The contaminants were eluted without interferences in <17 min, using a mobile phase of 0.15 M sodium dodecyl sulfate – 6% 1-pentanol buffered at pH 3, running through a C18 column at 1 mL min(-1) under the isocratic mode. This optimal mobile phase was selected using a statistical approach, which considers the retention factor, efficiency and peak shape of the analytes measured in only a few mobile phases. The detection was carried out by measuring absorbance at 220 nm. The method was successfully validated in terms of specificity, calibration range (0.5-10 mg L(-1)), linearity (r(2) > 0.994), limit of detection and quantification (0.2-0.3; and 0.5-0.8 mg L(-1), respectively), intra- and interday accuracy (95.2-102.9%), precision (<8.3%), and ruggedness (<9.3%). The stability in storage conditions (at least 14 days) was studied. The method was safe, inexpensive, produced little pollutant and has a short analysis time, thus it is useful for the routine analysis of samples. Finally, the method was applied to analyse wastewater from the fruit-processing industry, wastewater treatment plants, and in sewage water belonging to the Castelló area (Spain). The results were similar to those obtained by an already reliable method.

  8. High-throughput quantitation of nefazodone and its metabolites in human plasma by high flow direct-injection LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yan; Huang, Mike-Qingtao; Xia, Yuan-Qing; Jemal, Mohammed

    2007-04-11

    A rapid, selective and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method coupled with high flow direct-injection on-line extraction has been developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitation of nefazodone and its three active metabolites, hydroxynefazodone, triazole-dione (BMS-180492) and m-chlorophyenylpiperazine (mCPP) in human plasma. The method utilized d7-nefazodone, d7-hydroxynefazodone, d4-BMS-180492 and d4-mCPP as internal standards (IS). The plasma samples were injected into the LC-MS/MS system after simply adding the internal standard solution and centrifuging. The required extraction and chromatographic separation of the analytes were achieved on an Oasis HLB column (on-line extraction column, 1 mm x 50 mm, 30 microm) and a conventional Luna C8 column (analytical column, 4.6 mm x 50 mm, 5 microm). Detection was by positive ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The total analysis run time for each sample was 2 min, which included the time needed for on-line extraction, chromatographic separation and LC-MS/MS analysis. The assay was validated for each analyte and the concentrations ranged from 2.0 to 500 ng/ml for nefazodone, hydroxynefazodone and mCPP and from 4.0 to 1000 ng/ml for BMS-180492, respectively. The assay was used for the high-throughput sample analysis of thousands of pharmacokinetic study samples and was proven to be rapid, accurate, precise, sensitive, specific and rugged.

  9. Early direct-injection, low-temperature combustion of diesel fuel in an optical engine utilizing a 15-hole, dual-row, narrow-included-angle nozzle.

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, Christopher R.; Radovanovic, Michael S.; Milam, David M.; Martin, Glen C.; Mueller, Charles J.

    2008-04-01

    Low-temperature combustion of diesel fuel was studied in a heavy-duty, single-cylinder optical engine employing a 15-hole, dual-row, narrow-included-angle nozzle (10 holes x 70/mD and 5 holes x 35/mD) with 103-/gmm-diameter orifices. This nozzle configuration provided the spray targeting necessary to contain the direct-injected diesel fuel within the piston bowl for injection timings as early as 70/mD before top dead center. Spray-visualization movies, acquired using a high-speed camera, show that impingement of liquid fuel on the piston surface can result when the in-cylinder temperature and density at the time of injection are sufficiently low. Seven single- and two-parameter sweeps around a 4.82-bar gross indicated mean effective pressure load point were performed to map the sensitivity of the combustion and emissions to variations in injection timing, injection pressure, equivalence ratio, simulated exhaust-gas recirculation, intake temperature, intake boost pressure, and load. High-speed movies of natural luminosity were acquired by viewing through a window in the cylinder wall and through a window in the piston to provide quasi-3D information about the combustion process. These movies revealed that advanced combustion phasing resulted in intense pool fires within the piston bowl, after the end of significant heat release. These pool fires are a result of fuel-films created when the injected fuel impinged on the piston surface. The emissions results showed a strong correlation with pool-fire activity. Smoke and NO/dx emissions rose steadily as pool-fire intensity increased, whereas HC and CO showed a dramatic increase with near-zero pool-fire activity.

  10. Knock Resistance and Fine Particle Emissions for Several Biomass-Derived Oxygenates in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Burton, Jonathan; Sindler, Petr; Christensen, Earl; Fouts, Lisa; Chupka, Gina M.; McCormick, Robert L.

    2016-04-01

    Several high octane number oxygenates that could be derived from biomass were blended with gasoline and examined for performance properties and their impact on knock resistance and fine particle emissions in a single cylinder direct-injection spark-ignition engine. The oxygenates included ethanol, isobutanol, anisole, 4-methylanisole, 2-phenylethanol, 2,5-dimethyl furan, and 2,4-xylenol. These were blended into a summertime blendstock for oxygenate blending at levels ranging from 10 to 50 percent by volume. The base gasoline, its blends with p-xylene and p-cymene, and high-octane racing gasoline were tested as controls. Relevant gasoline properties including research octane number (RON), motor octane number, distillation curve, and vapor pressure were measured. Detailed hydrocarbon analysis was used to estimate heat of vaporization and particulate matter index (PMI). Experiments were conducted to measure knock-limited spark advance and particulate matter (PM) emissions. The results show a range of knock resistances that correlate well with RON. Molecules with relatively low boiling point and high vapor pressure had little effect on PM emissions. In contrast, the aromatic oxygenates caused significant increases in PM emissions (factors of 2 to 5) relative to the base gasoline. Thus, any effect of their oxygen atom on increasing local air-fuel ratio was outweighed by their low vapor pressure and high double-bond equivalent values. For most fuels and oxygenate blend components, PMI was a good predictor of PM emissions. However, the high boiling point, low vapor pressure oxygenates 2-phenylethanol and 2,4-xylenol produced lower PM emissions than predicted by PMI. This was likely because they did not fully evaporate and combust, and instead were swept into the lube oil.

  11. High-throughput method for the analysis of ethylenethiourea with direct injection of hydrolysed urine using online on-column extraction liquid chromatography and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Eva; Maxe, Margaretha; Littorin, Margareta; Jönsson, Bo A G; Lindh, Christian H

    2013-09-01

    Ethylenethiourea (ETU) is of major toxicological concern, since in experimental animal studies, ETU has shown a large spectrum of adverse effects. High occupational exposure can be found among agricultural workers or during manufacturing of ethylenbisdithiocarbamates (EBDC). For the general public, sources of environmental exposure may be residues of ETU in commercial products, food and beverages. For the determination of ETU in human urine we present a high-throughput online on-column extraction liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method using direct injection of hydrolysed urine samples. This method is simple, user- and environmentally friendly and all sample preparation is performed in 96-well plates. A labelled ETU internal standard was used for quantification. The method showed a good sensitivity with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.5ng ETU/mL urine and the calibration curve was linear in the range 0.25-200ng ETU/mL urine. The within-run, between-run and between-batch precision was between 6% and 13%. Alkaline hydrolysis considerably increased the levels of ETU indicating a potential conjugate. The method was applied in an experimental dermal exposure study in humans, with sample concentrations ranging from 0.4 to 5.0ng ETU/mL urine. The excretion in urine was 10% of the applied dose. The elimination profile seemed to differ between the two individuals. The results show an estimated half-life of ETU between 34 and 72h. Although the experiment is limited to two individuals, the data provide valuable and new information regarding the toxicokinetics of ETU after dermal exposure.

  12. Ultra-trace level determination of diquat and paraquat residues in surface and drinking water using ion-pair liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry: a comparison of direct injection and solid-phase extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jin-Aa; Lee, Jun-Bae; Lee, Soo-Hyung; Shin, Ho-Sang

    2014-10-01

    Direct injection and solid-phase extraction methods for the determination of diquat and paraquat in surface and drinking water were developed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The signal intensities of analytes based on six ion-pairing reagents were compared with each other, and 12.5 mM nonafluoropentanoic acid was selected as the best suited amongst them. A clean-up method was developed using Oasis hydrophilic-lipophilic balance; this was compared to the direct injection method, with respect to limits of detection, interference, precision, and accuracy. Limits of quantification of diquat and paraquat were 0.03 and 0.01 μg/L using the direct injection method, and 0.002 and 0.001 μg/L using the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance method. When the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance method was used to analyze target compounds in 114 surface water and 30 drinking water samples, paraquat and diquat were detected within a concentration range of 0.001-0.12 and 0.002-0.038 μg/L in surface water, respectively. When the direct injection method was used to analyze target compounds in the same samples, the detected concentrations of paraquat and diquat were within 25% in samples being >0.015 μg/L using the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance method. The liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method using direct injection can thus be used for routine monitoring of paraquat and diquat in surface and drinking water.

  13. Hazardous-waste incineration in a rotary kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, W.D. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A rotary-kiln simulator was used to develop a better understanding of how hazardous materials are removed from sorbent clays. Experimental results and associated numerical modeling on the combustion and desorption of toluene from a montmorillonite clay sorbent are presented. The purpose of these tests was to understand the mass and heat transfer characteristics of the material in a rotary kiln environment. The experiments were done in a batch mode, simulating a control volume of solids moving down the length of a full-scale rotary kiln, exchanging time for distance as the independent variable. Studies investigating the effect of oxygen concentration, charge size, rotational velocity, and kiln cavity temperature on the desorption rate were completed. Also, effects of water in the montmorillonite were examined. Two comprehensive models were developed to predict the thermal and mass desorption characteristics of the bed, respectively. Another series of studies in the rotary kiln simulator was focused on NO, formation from nitrogenous waste constituents. These tests were performed to simulate materials (plastics, nylons, dyes, and process waste) usually destroyed in hazardous-waste incinerators. Four surrogate wastes, Aniline, Pyridine, Malononitrile, and Ethylenediamine, were absorbed onto the montmorillonite clay sorbent. A detailed discussion regarding the design, construction and operation of the rotary-kiln simulator for research on the destruction of hazardous waste materials is presented in the Appendices. All facility calibration techniques and calculations in addition to data acquisition and reduction algorithms are also discussed there.

  14. Planar Rotary Piezoelectric Motor Using Ultrasonic Horns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Geiyer, Daniel; Ostlund, Patrick N.; Allen, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    A motor involves a simple design that can be embedded into a plate structure by incorporating ultrasonic horn actuators into the plate. The piezoelectric material that is integrated into the horns is pre-stressed with flexures. Piezoelectric actuators are attractive for their ability to generate precision high strokes, torques, and forces while operating under relatively harsh conditions (temperatures at single-digit K to as high as 1,273 K). Electromagnetic motors (EM) typically have high rotational speed and low torque. In order to produce a useful torque, these motors are geared down to reduce the speed and increase the torque. This gearing adds mass and reduces the efficiency of the EM. Piezoelectric motors can be designed with high torques and lower speeds directly without the need for gears. Designs were developed for producing rotary motion based on the Barth concept of an ultrasonic horn driving a rotor. This idea was extended to a linear motor design by having the horns drive a slider. The unique feature of these motors is that they can be designed in a monolithic planar structure. The design is a unidirectional motor, which is driven by eight horn actuators, that rotates in the clockwise direction. There are two sets of flexures. The flexures around the piezoelectric material are pre-stress flexures and they pre-load the piezoelectric disks to maintain their being operated under compression when electric field is applied. The other set of flexures is a mounting flexure that attaches to the horn at the nodal point and can be designed to generate a normal force between the horn tip and the rotor so that to first order it operates independently and compensates for the wear between the horn and the rotor.

  15. Assessing Rates of Global Warming Emissions from Port- Fuel Injection and Gasoline Direct Injection Engines in Light-Duty Passenger Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, D.; , D., Vi; Durbin, T.; Karavalakis, G.; Asa-Awuku, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Passenger vehicles are known emitters of climate warming pollutants. CO2 from automobile emissions are an anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) and a large contributor to global warming. Worldwide, CO2 emissions from passenger vehicles are responsible for 11% of the total CO2 emissions inventory. Black Carbon (BC), another common vehicular emission, may be the second largest contributor to global warming (after CO2). Currently, 52% of BC emissions in the U.S are from the transportation sector, with ~10% originating from passenger vehicles. The share of pollutants from passenger gasoline vehicles is becoming larger due to the reduction of BC from diesel vehicles. Currently, the majority of gasoline passenger vehicles in the United States have port- fuel injection (PFI) engines. Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have increased fuel economy compared to the PFI engine. GDI vehicles are predicted to dominate the U.S. passenger vehicle market in the coming years. The method of gasoline injection into the combustion chamber is the primary difference between these two technologies, which can significantly impact primary emissions from light-duty vehicles (LDV). Our study will measure LDV climate warming emissions and assess the impact on climate due to the change in U.S vehicle technologies. Vehicles were tested on a light- duty chassis dynamometer for emissions of CO2, methane (CH4), and BC. These emissions were measured on F3ederal and California transient test cycles and at steady-state speeds. Vehicles used a gasoline blend of 10% by volume ethanol (E10). E10 fuel is now found in 95% of gasoline stations in the U.S. Data is presented from one GDI and one PFI vehicle. The 2012 Kia Optima utilizes GDI technology and has a large market share of the total GDI vehicles produced in the U.S. In addition, The 2012 Toyota Camry, equipped with a PFI engine, was the most popular vehicle model sold in the U.S. in 2012. Methane emissions were ~50% lower for the GDI technology

  16. Effect of Drive Cycle and Gasoline Particulate Filter on the Size and Morphology of Soot Particles Emitted from a Gasoline-Direct-Injection Vehicle.

    PubMed

    Saffaripour, Meghdad; Chan, Tak W; Liu, Fengshan; Thomson, Kevin A; Smallwood, Gregory J; Kubsh, Joseph; Brezny, Rasto

    2015-10-06

    The size and morphology of particulate matter emitted from a light-duty gasoline-direct-injection (GDI) vehicle, over the FTP-75 and US06 transient drive cycles, have been characterized by transmission-electron-microscope (TEM) image analysis. To investigate the impact of gasoline particulate filters on particulate-matter emission, the results for the stock-GDI vehicle, that is, the vehicle in its original configuration, have been compared to the results for the same vehicle equipped with a catalyzed gasoline particulate filter (GPF). The stock-GDI vehicle emits graphitized fractal-like aggregates over all driving conditions. The mean projected area-equivalent diameter of these aggregates is in the 78.4-88.4 nm range and the mean diameter of primary particles varies between 24.6 and 26.6 nm. Post-GPF particles emitted over the US06 cycle appear to have an amorphous structure, and a large number of nucleation-mode particles, depicted as low-contrast ultrafine droplets, are observed in TEM images. This indicates the emission of a substantial amount of semivolatile material during the US06 cycle, most likely generated by the incomplete combustion of accumulated soot in the GPF during regeneration. The size of primary particles and soot aggregates does not vary significantly by implementing the GPF over the FTP-75 cycle; however, particles emitted by the GPF-equipped vehicle over the US06 cycle are about 20% larger than those emitted by the stock-GDI vehicle. This may be attributed to condensation of large amounts of organic material on soot aggregates. High-contrast spots, most likely solid nonvolatile cores, are observed within many of the nucleation-mode particles emitted over the US06 cycle by the GPF-equipped vehicle. These cores are either generated inside the engine or depict incipient soot particles which are partially carbonized in the exhaust line. The effect of drive cycle and the GPF on the fractal parameters of particles, such as fractal dimension and

  17. Operator in-the-loop control of rotary cranes

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G.G.; Robinett, R.D.; Driessen, B.J.; Dohrmann, C.R.

    1996-03-01

    An open-loop control method is presented for reducing the oscillatory motion of rotary crane payloads during operator commanded maneuvers. A typical rotary crane consists of a multiple degree-of-freedom platform for positioning a spherical pendulum with an attached payload. The crane operator positions the Payload by issuing a combination of translational and rotational commands to the platform as well as load-line length changes. Frequently, these pendulum modes are time-varying and exhibit low natural frequencies. Maneuvers are therefore performed at rates sufficiently slow so as not to excite oscillation. The strategy presented here generates crane commands which suppress vibration of the payload without a priori knowledge of the desired maneuver. Results are presented for operator in-the-loop positioning using a real-time dynamics simulation of a three-axis rotary crane where the residual sway magnitude is reduced in excess of 4OdB.

  18. A case study of air enrichment in rotary kiln incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Melo, G.F.; Lacava, P.T.; Carvalho, J.A. Jr.

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents a case study of air enrichment in an industrial rotary kiln type incineration unit. The study is based on mass and energy balances, considering the combustion reaction of a mixture composed by the residue and the auxiliary fuel with air enriched with oxygen. The steps are shown for the primary chamber (rotary kiln) and secondary chamber (afterburner). The residence times in the primary and secondary chamber are 2.0 and 3.2 sec, respectively. The pressure is atmospheric in both chambers. Based on constant chamber gas residence time and gas temperature, it is shown that the residue input rates can be increased by one order of magnitude as air is substituted by pure oxygen. As the residue consumption rate in the rotary kiln is also dependent on residue physical characteristics (mainly size), the study was also carried out for different percentages of oxygen in the oxidizer gas.

  19. Performance of rotary kiln reactor for the elephant grass pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    De Conto, D; Silvestre, W P; Baldasso, C; Godinho, M

    2016-10-01

    The influence of process conditions (rotary speed/temperature) on the performance of a rotary kiln reactor for non-catalytic pyrolysis of a perennial grass (elephant grass) was investigated. The product yields, the production of non-condensable gases as well as the biochar properties were evaluated. The maximum H2 yield was close to that observed for catalytic pyrolysis processes, while the bio-oil yield was higher than reported for pyrolysis of other biomass in rotary kiln reactors. A H2/CO ratio suitable for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) was obtained. The biochars presented an alkaline pH (above 10) and interesting contents of nutrients, as well as low electrical conductivity, indicating a high potential as soil amendment.

  20. Design and performance of a piezoelectric actuated precise rotary positioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. C.; Chang, S. H.

    2006-10-01

    Industries including semiconductor, biotechnology, and nanotechnology are seeking compact and reliable nanometer resolution positioning techniques. To address this demand, this article presents a friction-drive rotary stage driven by a piezoelectric transducer (PZT) actuator. This stage includes a multilayer PZT actuator, the Scott-Russell mechanism, an actuation stage, a preload spring, and an output shaft. Its rotary positioning is accomplished by the stick-slip effect between the wire electrodischarge-machining rotary stage and the output shaft. Finite element analysis and Taguchi optimization method were extensively conducted to analyze the displacement, stress, and vibration behavior for optimum design. As shown by the experimental results, the stage achieved a resolution of 0.13μrad and a speed of 0.15°/h by tuning of the preload spring.

  1. Rotary components, random ellipses and polarization: a statistical perspective.

    PubMed

    Walden, A T

    2013-02-13

    Rotary analysis decomposes vector motions on the plane into counter-rotating components, which have proved particularly useful in the study of geophysical flows influenced by the rotation of the Earth. For stationary random signals, the motion at any frequency takes the form of a random ellipse. Although there are numerous applications of rotary analysis, relatively little attention has been paid to the statistical properties of the random ellipses or to the estimated rotary coefficient, which measures the tendency to rotate counterclockwise or clockwise. The precise statistical structure of the ellipses is reviewed, including the random behaviour of the ellipse orientation, aspect ratio and intensity. Special attention is then paid to spectral matrix estimation from physical data and to hypothesis testing and confidence intervals computed using the estimated matrices.

  2. Application of a magnetic fluid seal to rotary blood pumps.

    PubMed

    Mitamura, Y; Arioka, S; Sakota, D; Sekine, K; Azegami, M

    2008-05-21

    A magnetic fluid seal enables mechanical contact-free rotation of a shaft without frictional heat and material wear and hence has excellent durability. However, the durability of a magnetic fluid seal decreases in liquid. The life of a seal applied to a rotary blood pump is not known. We have developed a magnetic fluid seal that has a shield mechanism minimizing the influence of the rotary pump on the magnetic fluid. The developed magnetic fluid seal worked for over 286 days in a continuous flow condition, for 24 days (on-going) in a pulsatile flow condition and for 24 h (electively terminated) in blood flow. The magnetic fluid seal is promising as a shaft seal for rotary blood pumps.

  3. 16 CFR 1205.5 - Walk-behind rotary power mower controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Walk-behind rotary power mower controls... rotary power mower controls. (a) Blade control systems—(1) Requirements for blade control. A walk-behind rotary power mower shall have a blade control system that will perform the following functions:...

  4. 16 CFR 1205.5 - Walk-behind rotary power mower controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Walk-behind rotary power mower controls... rotary power mower controls. (a) Blade control systems—(1) Requirements for blade control. A walk-behind rotary power mower shall have a blade control system that will perform the following functions:...

  5. How to select and apply positive-displacement rotary pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Neerken, R.F.

    1980-04-07

    The advantages of rotary pumps for process applications are promoted by these practical guidelines concerning the types available, facts about their operation and performance, and the fluid systems in which they can be used. Basic types of rotary pumps discussed include internal gear, sliding vane, single-screw (progressing cavity), cam and piston, flexible tube, flexible liner, external gear, circumferential piston, twin screw, triple screw, single lobe, and 3 lobe. Factors which are examined to make pump selection include suction requirements, viscosity of fluids, temperature at which process fluid is handled, working and allowable pressures, pump capacity, pump horsepower, materials of construction, and intended applications.

  6. Development of a ferromagnetic rotary vacuum sealed spacecraft spin fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, M. B.

    1977-01-01

    A number of successful spacecraft tests were conducted on an environmental spin fixture which utilizes a ferrofluidic rotary vacuum seal. The 27 cm (10.5 inch) diameter fixture drive shaft supports and spins communications satellites during flight acceptance testing in a thermal vacuum chamber. The drive shaft rotary seal serves to maintain the canned drive system electro-mechanical components at ambient pressure within the space simulator. The ferromagnetic fluid seal was chosen over conventional mechanical sealing devices for its zero-leakage, zero-wear, and minimum friction drag characteristics, as well as its high reliability potential.

  7. Microwave lamp with multi-purpose rotary motor

    DOEpatents

    Ury, Michael G.; Turner, Brian; Wooten, Robert D.

    1999-01-01

    In a microwave powered electrodeless lamp, a single rotary motor is used to a) rotate the bulb and b) provide rotary motion to a blower or pump means for providing cooling fluid to the magnetron and/or to a forced gas cooling for providing cooler gas to the bulb. The blower may consist of only of an impeller without the usual blower housing. The motor, bulb stem and bulb, or motor, bulb stem, bulb and blower may be formed as an integral unit so as to facilitate replacement.

  8. Microwave lamp with multi-purpose rotary motor

    DOEpatents

    Ury, M.G.; Turner, B.; Wooten, R.D.

    1999-02-02

    In a microwave powered electrodeless lamp, a single rotary motor is used to (a) rotate the bulb and (b) provide rotary motion to a blower or pump means for providing cooling fluid to the magnetron and/or to a forced gas cooler for providing cooling gas to the bulb. The blower may consist of only of an impeller without the usual blower housing. The motor, bulb stem and bulb, or motor, bulb stem, bulb and blower may be formed as an integral unit so as to facilitate replacement. 8 figs.

  9. BACKPRESSURE TESTING OF ROTARY MICROFILTER DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Fowley, M.; Herman, D.

    2011-04-14

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), under the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM), is modifying and testing the SpinTek{trademark} rotary microfilter (RMF) for radioactive filtration service in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The RMF has been shown to improve filtration throughput when compared to other conventional methods such as cross-flow filtration. A concern with the RMF was that backpressure, or reverse flow through the disk, would damage the filter membranes. Reverse flow might happen as a result of an inadvertent valve alignment during flushing. Testing was completed in the Engineering Development Laboratory (EDL) located in SRNL to study the physical effects of backpressure as well as to determine the maximum allowable back-pressure for RMF disks. The RMF disks tested at the EDL were manufactured by SpinTek{trademark} Filtration and used a Pall Corporation PMM050 filter membrane (0.5 micron nominal pore size) made from 316L stainless steel. Early versions of the RMF disks were made from synthetic materials that were incompatible with caustic solutions and radioactive service as well as being susceptible to delaminating when subjected to backpressure. Figure 1-1 shows the essential components of the RMF; 3 rotating disks and 3 stationary turbulence promoters (or shear elements) are shown. Figure 1-2 show the assembly view of a 25 disk RMF proposed for use at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and at the Hanford Facility. The purpose of the testing discussed in this report was to determine the allowable backpressure for RMF disks as well as study the physical effects of backpressure on RMF disks made with the Pall PMM050 membrane. This was accomplished by pressurizing the disks in the reverse flow direction (backpressure) until the test limit was reached or until membrane failure occurred. Backpressure was applied to the disks with air while submerged in deionized (DI) water. This method provided a visual

  10. Note: A novel rotary actuator driven by only one piezoelectric actuator.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hu; Fu, Lu; Zhao, Hongwei; Shi, Chengli; Ren, Luquan; Li, Jianping; Qu, Han

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a novel piezo-driven rotary actuator based on the parasitic motion principle. Output performances of the rotary actuator were tested and discussed. Experiment results indicate that using only one piezoelectric actuator and simple sawtooth wave control, the rotary actuator reaches the rotation velocity of about 20,097 μrad/s when the driving voltage is 100 V and the driving frequency is 90 Hz. The actuator can rotate stably with the minimum resolution of 0.7 μrad. This paper verifies feasibility of the parasitic motion principle for applications of rotary actuators, providing new design ideas for precision piezoelectric rotary actuators.

  11. Direct injection, simple and robust analysis of trace-level bromate and bromide in drinking water by IC with suppressed conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Lawal, Wasiu; Gandhi, Jay; Zhang, Chunlong Carl

    2010-08-01

    Bromide is ubiquitously found in drinking water. It is introduced into source water primarily by contact with bromide-containing soils or seawater having high bromide content. Bromide is converted into carcinogenic bromate during ozonation processes employed in some drinking water and wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, monitoring of bromate in drinking water and its precursor bromide in source water is required. The purpose of this study was to survey bromide and bromate concentrations in randomly selected bottle waters of various brands and several tap water samples in the coastal Houston area using a direct-injection ion chromatography (IC) and a suppressed conductivity system. The method employs a simple isocratic IC with loop injection with calculated detection limit of 0.009 microg/L for bromate and 0.028 microg/L for bromide (250-microL sample volume). Allowing the detection of both species at the microg/L level in drinking water, this method does not require specialized instrumentation such as two-dimensional IC, expensive sample preparation, or post-column reactions. The results show that, whereas bromate remains undetected in all five tap water samples, there are significant high concentrations of bromide in the coastal Houston area (294.79 +/- 56.97 microg/L). Its link to potential seawater intrusion need to be further investigated. For bottle water samples randomly collected, 18.2% (2 out of 11) showed detectable amount of both bromide and bromate. The detection of bromate coincides with those bottle water samples that underwent ozonation treatment. Further sample campaign with exclusively ozonated bottle water samples (n = 19) showed 100% detection rate for both bromide and bromate. The 99% confidence intervals were 14.45-37.97 microg/L and 0.32-2.58 microg/L for bromide and bromate, respectively. The highest level of bromate among all ozonated bottle water samples was 7.57 microg/L, a concentration close to the U.S. EPA prescribed limit for

  12. Micro rotary machine and methods for using same

    DOEpatents

    Stalford, Harold L [Norman, OK

    2012-04-17

    A micro rotary machine may include a micro actuator and a micro shaft coupled to the micro actuator. The micro shaft comprises a horizontal shaft and is operable to be rotated by the micro actuator. A micro tool is coupled to the micro shaft and is operable to perform work in response to motion of the micro shaft.

  13. Improved Rotary Transformer For Shaft-Position Indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1991-01-01

    Improved rotary transformer for Inductosyn (or equivalent) shaft-position-indicating circuit has pair of ferrite cores instead of the solid-iron cores. Designed with view toward decreasing excitation power (to maximum allowable 2 W) supplied to shaft-position-indicating circuit to increase its output signal and make tracking system less vulnerable to electromagnetic interference.

  14. Engineering study of the rotary-vee engine concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Edward A.; Bartrand, Timothy A.; Beard, John E.

    1989-01-01

    The applicable thermodynamic cycle and performance considerations when the rotary-vee mechanism is used as an internal combustion (I.C.) heat engine are reviewed. Included is a simplified kinematic analysis and studies of the effects of design parameters on the critical pressures, torques and parasitic losses. A discussion of the principal findings is presented.

  15. INTERIOR OF SHT (ROTARY DRYER FOR SODA) BUILDING OR DRYSIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF SHT (ROTARY DRYER FOR SODA) BUILDING OR DRYSIDE DRYERS WHICH REMOVED TRACES OF LIQUID FROM STD FILTRATE. HEAT CONVERTED SODIUM BICARBONATE TO SODIUM CARBONATE OR SODA ASH, THE PRINCIPAL PRODUCT OF THE WORKS. - Solvay Process Company, SHT Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  16. MINIMIZATION OF TRANSIENT EMISSIONS FROM ROTARY KILN INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Transient emissions of organics can occur from rotary kiln incinerators when drums containing liquid wastes bound on sorbents are introduced in a batch-wise fashion. Physical processes controlling the release of waste from the sorbent material are greatly affected by the rotation...

  17. 37. VIEW OF SIX GAP ROTARY RECTIFIER FOR MAINTAINING CORONA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. VIEW OF SIX GAP ROTARY RECTIFIER FOR MAINTAINING CORONA DISCHARGE IN THE COTTRELL ELECTROSTATIC GENERATORS. THE SYSTEM WAS CAPABLE OF PROVIDING 88,000 VOLTS TO THE ELECTRODES WITHIN THE PRECIPITATOR CHAMBER THE UNIT WAS LOCATED TO THE REAR OF BOILER 904 IN AN ENCLOSED ROOM. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  18. Micro rotary machine and methods for using same

    DOEpatents

    Stalford, Harold

    2015-01-13

    A micro rotary machine may include a micro actuator and a micro shaft coupled to the micro actuator. The micro shaft comprises a horizontal shaft and is operable to be rotated by the micro actuator. A micro tool is coupled to the micro shaft and is operable to perform work in response to motion of the micro shaft.

  19. Multigrid convergence of inviscid fixed- and rotary-wing flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, C. B.

    2002-05-01

    The affect of multigrid acceleration implemented within an upwind-biased Euler method is presented, and applied to fixed-wing and rotary-wing flows. The convergence of fixed- and rotary-wing computations is shown to be vastly different, and multigrid is shown to be less effective for rotary-wing flows. The flow about a hovering rotor suffers from very slow convergence of the inner blade region, where the flow is effectively incompressible. Furthermore, the vortical wake must develop over several turns before convergence is achieved, whereas for fixed-wing computations the far-field grid and solution have little significance. Results are presented for single mesh and two, three, four, and five level multigrid, and using five levels a reduction in required CPU time of over 80 per cent is demonstrated for rotary-wing computations, but 94 per cent for fixed-wing computations. It is found that a simple V-cycle is the most effective, smoothing in the decreasing mesh density direction only, with a relaxed trilinear prolongation operator. Copyright

  20. TRANSIENT SUPPRESSION PACKAGING FOR REDUCED EMISSIONS FROM ROTARY KILN INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were performed on a 73 kW rotary kiln incinerator simulator to determine whether innovative waste packaging designs might reduce transient emissions of products of incomplete combustion due to batch charging of containerized liquid surrogate waste compounds bound on g...

  1. A unidirectional rotary solenoid as applied to stronglinks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenderdine, Eugene W.

    1989-01-01

    The design goals and results of an advanced development stronglink are discussed. Special emphasis is placed on a new rotary solenoid concept to provide improved security during the handling, storage, transporting, and deployment of weapons to prevent accidental detonation of the weapons in the event of abnormal environments, such as impact, fire, crush, etc.

  2. Solar Alpha Rotary Joint Anomaly: The Materials and Processes Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basta, Erin A.; Dasgupta, Rijib; Figert, John; Jerman, Greg; Wright, Clara; Petrakis, Dennis; Golden, Johnny L.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the anomaly discovered on the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ). This anomaly was discovered when the SARJ mechanism produced anomalous telemetry and noticeable vibrations. Metallic debris was discovered throughout the vicinity of the mechanism. Samples were taken from the SARJ, and the findings of the analysis are discussed.

  3. Northwest view of rotary hearth furnace of the no. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northwest view of rotary hearth furnace of the no. 2 seamless line in bays 17 and 18 of the main pipe mill building. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Skelp Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  4. Rotary roller mandrel of no. 2 seamless line in bays ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rotary roller mandrel of no. 2 seamless line in bays 19 and 20 of the main pipe mill building looking south. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  5. Northwest view of rotary hearth furnace of the no. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northwest view of rotary hearth furnace of the no. 2 seamless line in bays 17 and 18 of the main pipe mill building. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  6. Southwest view of rotary hearth furnace of the no. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southwest view of rotary hearth furnace of the no. 2 seamless line in bays 17 and 18 of the main pipe mill building. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  7. Southwest view of rotary hearth furnace of the no. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southwest view of rotary hearth furnace of the no. 2 seamless line in bays 17 and 18 of the main pipe mill building. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Skelp Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  8. Ultrasonic/Sonic Rotary-Hammer Drills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Kassab, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonic/sonic rotary-hammer drill (USRoHD) is a recent addition to the collection of apparatuses based on ultrasonic/sonic drill corer (USDC). As described below, the USRoHD has several features, not present in a basic USDC, that increase efficiency and provide some redundancy against partial failure. USDCs and related apparatuses were conceived for boring into, and/or acquiring samples of, rock or other hard, brittle materials of geological interest. They have been described in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. To recapitulate: A USDC can be characterized as a lightweight, lowpower, piezoelectrically driven jackhammer in which ultrasonic and sonic vibrations are generated and coupled to a tool bit. A basic USDC includes a piezoelectric stack, an ultrasonic transducer horn connected to the stack, a free mass ( free in the sense that it can bounce axially a short distance between hard stops on the horn and the bit), and a tool bit. The piezoelectric stack creates ultrasonic vibrations that are mechanically amplified by the horn. The bouncing of the free mass between the hard stops generates the sonic vibrations. The combination of ultrasonic and sonic vibrations gives rise to a hammering action (and a resulting chiseling action at the tip of the tool bit) that is more effective for drilling than is the microhammering action of ultrasonic vibrations alone. The hammering and chiseling actions are so effective that unlike in conventional twist drilling, little applied axial force is needed to make the apparatus advance into the material of interest. There are numerous potential applications for USDCs and related apparatuses in geological exploration on Earth and on remote planets. In early USDC experiments, it was observed that accumulation of cuttings in a drilled hole causes the rate of penetration of the USDC to decrease steeply with depth, and that the rate of penetration can be increased by removing the cuttings. The USRoHD concept provides for

  9. EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE FILTER MEDIA FOR THE ROTARY MICROFILTER

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Herman, D.; Bhave, R.

    2011-09-13

    SRS is currently developing and testing several processes to treat high level radioactive liquid waste. These processes include the Integrated Salt Disposition Process (ISDP), the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), and the Small Column Ion Exchange Process (SCIX). Each of these processes has a solid-liquid separation process that limits its throughput. SRNL researchers identified and tested the rotary microfilter as a technology to increase solid-liquid separation throughput. The testing showed significant improvement in filter flux with the rotary microfilter over the baseline crossflow filter (i.e., 2.5-6.5X during scoping tests, as much as 10X in actual waste tests, and approximately 3X in pilot-scale tests). SRNL received funding from DOE EM-21, and subsequently DOE EM-31 to develop the rotary microfilter for high level radioactive service. The work has included upgrading the rotary microfilter for radioactive service, testing with simulated SRS waste streams, and testing it with simulated Hanford waste streams. While the filtration rate is better than that obtained during testing of crossflow filters, the authors believe the rotary microfilter throughput can be improved by using a better filter membrane. The rotary microfilter membrane is made of stainless steel (Pall PMM050). Previous testing, funded by DOE EM-21, showed that asymmetric filters composed of a ceramic membrane on top of a stainless steel support produced higher filter flux than 100% stainless steel symmetric filters in crossflow filter tests. In that testing, the Pall Accusep and Graver filters produced 13-21% larger filter flux than the baseline 0.1 {micro}m Mott filter. While the improvement in flux is not as dramatic as the improvement of the rotary filter over a crossflow filter, a 13-21% increase could reduce the lifetime of a 30 year process by 4-6 years, with significant cost savings. Subsequent rotary filter testing showed the Pall PMM050 stainless steel filter membrane produced

  10. New Rotary Table Providing Improved Mass Property Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messing, R.; Appolloni, M.; Sablerolle, S.; Tavares, A.; Hervieu, M.

    2014-06-01

    ESA Test Centre at ESTEC, Noordwijk is a unique place in Europe, which is geared to perform environmental tests on large spacecraft at system level. The Test Centre includes the whole environmental facilities family: shakers, acoustic chamber, mass properties measurement facilities, electro-magnetic compatibility facilities and thermal vacuum chambers.Center of gravity (CoG) measurements require at least two force measurements in combination with a mass measurement to determine the CoG in the horizontal x-y plane. To achieve more quickly two or more orientations of the specimen with respect to the force cell the Test Centre implemented a rotary table on top of its W50/M6 mass property machine. This paper focuses on the acceptance and implementation of the rotary table and how by its use the CoG measurements could be improved in terms of measurement time, measurement uncertainty and measurement reliability.

  11. A rotary nano ion pump: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Lohrasebi, A; Feshanjerdi, M

    2012-09-01

    The dynamics of a rotary nano ion pump, inspired by the F (0) part of the F(0)F(1)-ATP synthase biomolecular motor, were investigated. This nanopump is composed of a rotor, which is constructed of two carbon nanotubes with benzene rings, and a stator, which is made of six graphene sheets. The molecular dynamics (MD) method was used to simulate the dynamics of the ion nanopump. When the rotor of the nanopump rotates mechanically, an ion gradient will be generated between the two sides of the nanopump. It is shown that the ion gradient generated by the nanopump is dependant on parameters such as the rotary frequency of the rotor, temperature and the amounts and locations of the positive and negative charges of the stator part of the nanopump. Also, an electrical potential difference is generated between the two sides of the pump as a result of its operation.

  12. Rotary molecular motion at the nanoscale: motors, propellers, wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukovic, Lela; Wang, Boyang; Kral, Petr

    2009-03-01

    We describe by molecular dynamics simulations nanoscale systems that could realize rotary motion. First, we study molecular propellers formed by carbon nanotube rotors with attached aromatic blades [1]. We show that these propellers could pump different types of liquids, and their pumping efficiency strongly depends on the chemistry of the (hydrophobic or hydrophilic) liquid-blade interface. We also investigate nanoscopic wheels with hydrophobic surfaces that show rolling activity on water when driven. Finally, we model efficient molecular motors driven by electron tunneling, which could drive rotary molecular systems [2]. [3pt] [1] B. Wang and P. Kr'al, . Rev. Lett. 98, 266102 (2007).[0pt] [2] B. Wang, L. Vukovic and P. Kr'al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 186808 (2008).

  13. Incidence of instrument separation using LightSpeed rotary instruments.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Kenneth I; Hammond, Nathan B; Biggs, Stephen G; Ibarrola, Jose L

    2006-01-01

    The use of nickel-titanium rotary instrument systems has gained popularity over the past 10 years. One of these instrument systems is the LightSpeed (LightSpeed Technology, Inc, San Antonio, TX). One drawback for all nickel-titanium rotary instruments is the incidence of instrument separation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of nonretrievable instrument separation using the LightSpeed system in a clinical setting. A total of 3543 canals were treated over a 24 month period and during that time, 46 LightSpeed instruments were separated and found to be nonretrievable, resulting in a separation rate of 1.30%. This rate was lower than previous reported studies.

  14. Recent developments in rotary-wing aerodynamic theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W.

    1986-01-01

    Current progress in the computational analysis of rotary-wing flowfields is surveyed, and some typical results are presented in graphs. Topics examined include potential theory, rotating coordinate systems, lifting-surface theory (moving singularity, fixed wing, and rotary wing), panel methods (surface singularity representations, integral equations, and compressible flows), transonic theory (the small-disturbance equation), wake analysis (hovering rotor-wake models and transonic blade-vortex interaction), limitations on computational aerodynamics, and viscous-flow methods (dynamic-stall theories and lifting-line theory). It is suggested that the present algorithms and advanced computers make it possible to begin working toward the ultimate goal of turbulent Navier-Stokes calculations for an entire rotorcraft.

  15. Rotary wave-ejector enhanced pulse detonation engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalim, M. R.; Izzy, Z. A.; Akbari, P.

    2012-01-01

    The use of a non-steady ejector based on wave rotor technology is modeled for pulse detonation engine performance improvement and for compatibility with turbomachinery components in hybrid propulsion systems. The rotary wave ejector device integrates a pulse detonation process with an efficient momentum transfer process in specially shaped channels of a single wave-rotor component. In this paper, a quasi-one-dimensional numerical model is developed to help design the basic geometry and operating parameters of the device. The unsteady combustion and flow processes are simulated and compared with a baseline PDE without ejector enhancement. A preliminary performance assessment is presented for the wave ejector configuration, considering the effect of key geometric parameters, which are selected for high specific impulse. It is shown that the rotary wave ejector concept has significant potential for thrust augmentation relative to a basic pulse detonation engine.

  16. Bearing And Power Transfer Assembly (BAPTA) with rotary transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auer, W.

    1980-06-01

    The utilization of rotary transformers as an alternative to slip rings for the power transfer from solar panels to a satellite's main body could be advantageous, especially if an ac bus system is taken into consideration. Different approaches for bearing and power transfer assembly (BAPTA's) with rotary transformers were investigated with main emphasis on the electromagnetic design. Test results show that a 1.5 kW transformer can be operated with a 98% efficiency. A furhter increase to the specified 99% efficiency seems to be possible. In the present configuration, two 1.5 kW transformers are mounted with in one housing. A preloaded ball bearing arrangement assures proper air gaps and a relatively constant torque over temperature. The BAPTA is driven by a TELDIX stepper motor.

  17. High Bandwidth Short Stroke Rotary Fast Tool Servo

    SciTech Connect

    Montesanti, R C; Trumper, D L

    2003-08-22

    This paper presents the design and performance of a new rotary fast tool servo (FTS) capable of developing the 40 g's tool tip acceleration required to follow a 5 micron PV sinusoidal surface at 2 kHz with a planned accuracy of 50 nm, and having a full stroke of 50 micron PV at lower frequencies. Tests with de-rated power supplies have demonstrated a closed-loop unity-gain bandwidth of 2 kHz with 20 g's tool acceleration, and we expect to achieve 40 g's with supplies providing {+-} 16 Amp to the Lorentz force actuator. The use of a fast tool servo with a diamond turning machine for producing non-axisymmetric or textured surfaces on a workpiece is well known. Our new rotary FTS was designed to specifically accommodate fabricating prescription textured surfaces on 5 mm diameter spherical target components for High Energy Density Physics experiments on the National Ignition Facility Laser (NIF).

  18. Multiple quantum magic-angle spinning using rotary resonance excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vosegaard, Thomas; Florian, Pierre; Massiot, Dominique; Grandinetti, Philip J.

    2001-03-01

    We have discovered rotary resonances between rf field strength, ω1, and magic-angle spinning (MAS) frequency, ωR, which dramatically enhance the sensitivity of triple quantum preparation and mixing in the multiple-quantum MAS experiment, particularly for quadrupolar nuclei having low gyromagnetic ratios or experiencing strong quadrupole couplings. Triple quantum excitation efficiency minima occur when 2ω1=nωR, where n is an integer, with significant maxima occurring between these minima. For triple quantum mixing we observe maxima when ω1=nωR. In both preparation and mixing the pulse lengths required to reach maxima exceed one rotor period. We have combined these rotary resonance conditions into a new experiment called FASTER MQ-MAS, and have experimentally demonstrated a factor of 3 enhancement in sensitivity in comparison to conventional MQ-MAS.

  19. Electrical rotary joint apparatus for large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belew, R. R.; Boehme, R. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A structural array and electrical rotary joint for transmitting an electrical power between large space structures having relative rotational movement is disclosed which includes large support framework structures which rotate relative to one another about a common axis of rotation. A rotary interface joint is defined between the structures. A cylindrical hub member is carried by one structure and a cylindrical hub member is carried by a support structure with a third hub member being concentrically within a fourth hub member for relative rotation. Tension connecting cables connect hub members with their associated outer structures whereby relative rotational movement between the structures is transmitted to the cylindrical hub members for unitary motion therewith. Electrical conductor brush members are carried by one hub and electrical contact rings are carried by another hub member in sliding electrical contact with the brushes for transmission of electrical power during relative rotational movement between the two support structures.

  20. Error correction of photoelectric rotary and angle encoder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Liang; She, Wen-ji; Huang, Jing

    2014-02-01

    The photoelectric rotary and angle encoder is a digital angle measuring device, which is integrated with optics, mechanics and electrics. Because of its simple structure, high resolution, and high accuracy, it has been widely used in precision measurement of angle, digital control and digital display system. With the needs of fast tracking and accurate orientation on the horizon and air targets, putting forward higher requirements on accuracy of angle measurement and resolution of photoelectric rotary and angle encoder. Influences of manufacturing, electronics segmentation, optical and mechanical structure and eccentric shaft to photoelectric encoder precision and reducing methods are introduced. Focusing on the eccentricity error, building up an error correction model to improve the resolution of angle encoder and the model was verified by test.

  1. Rotary engine performance computer program (RCEMAP and RCEMAPPC): User's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartrand, Timothy A.; Willis, Edward A.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a user's guide for a computer code that simulates the performance of several rotary combustion engine configurations. It is intended to assist prospective users in getting started with RCEMAP and/or RCEMAPPC. RCEMAP (Rotary Combustion Engine performance MAP generating code) is the mainframe version, while RCEMAPPC is a simplified subset designed for the personal computer, or PC, environment. Both versions are based on an open, zero-dimensional combustion system model for the prediction of instantaneous pressures, temperature, chemical composition and other in-chamber thermodynamic properties. Both versions predict overall engine performance and thermal characteristics, including bmep, bsfc, exhaust gas temperature, average material temperatures, and turbocharger operating conditions. Required inputs include engine geometry, materials, constants for use in the combustion heat release model, and turbomachinery maps. Illustrative examples and sample input files for both versions are included.

  2. Development of a rotary instrumentation system, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, A.; Skidmore, W.

    1982-01-01

    A rotary instrumentation system which consists of ruggedized miniature telemetry transmitters installed on the rotating shaft of a gas turbine engine to telemeter the outputs of sensors (strain gages, thermocouples, etc.) on rotating engine components was designed. A small prototype system, which demonstrates the capabilities of performing in the intended environment and demonstrates that the system is expandable to handle about 100 data channels was developed.

  3. Zink rotary kiln seal: Cam followers. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.L.

    1994-12-09

    The CIF will treat hazardous and mixed low-level radioactive waste in a rotary kiln and secondary combustion chamber. A high efficiency air pollution control system follows the secondary chamber. The rotary kiln is designed with a gas seal at each end of its rotating barrel which provides a barrier between the interior of the kiln and outside air. The internal pressure of the rotary kiln will be maintained below atmospheric pressure, so exterior air passing the seals is forced into the kiln`s interior. Positive pressure may be applied in the seal labyrinth, adding a barrier to flow. Both CIF seals will be covered entirely with exhaust hoods, drawing air over the outside of the seal and into a HEPA filtered exhaust system. Cam follower misalignment on a John Zink rotary kiln seal caused damage to the seal`s rotor. The misalignment was quantified, corrected, and checked to verify straightness. The primary purpose of the correction was to allow seal testing 1 to continue, but the information is applicable to the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) since two large seals of similar design will be installed there. Cam follower straightness was off as much as 3.5{degrees}, causing followers to run untrue on the rotor. High contact forces resulted, removing flakes of metal from the rotor surface. The misalignment caused weight bearing followers on one side of the seal to back out of their threaded mounts. The root cause was poor machining of the follower mounting holes. Correction was accomplished by relieving the holes and installing machined spacers and retaining nuts. Cam followers on the CIF`s Zink seals should be inspected for straightness before the seals are installed.

  4. Development of a rotary instrumentation system, phase 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, A.; Skidmore, W.

    1982-12-01

    A rotary instrumentation system which consists of ruggedized miniature telemetry transmitters installed on the rotating shaft of a gas turbine engine to telemeter the outputs of sensors (strain gages, thermocouples, etc.) on rotating engine components was designed. A small prototype system, which demonstrates the capabilities of performing in the intended environment and demonstrates that the system is expandable to handle about 100 data channels was developed.

  5. 5. Photocopied August 1978. FRONT OF A HORRY ROTARY FURNACE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopied August 1978. FRONT OF A HORRY ROTARY FURNACE, SHOWING INTERIOR ELECTRODES. THE RAW MATERIALS FOR CALCIUM CARBIDE PRODUCTION--LIMESTONE AND COKE--WERE FED BY HOPPERS PLACED BETWEEN THESE ELECTRODES INTO THE ELECTRIC ARC. THE REMOVABLE PLATES ON THE EXTERNAL CIRCUMSTANCE OF THE HORRY FURNACE ARE SHOWN ON THE FIRST THREE FURNACES. (M) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  6. STANDBY TOP AND BOTTOM ROTARY MILLING CUTTERS FOR TORIN LINE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STANDBY TOP AND BOTTOM ROTARY MILLING CUTTERS FOR TORIN LINE. SOME PRODUCT FROM THE #43 HOT ROLL IS PROCESSED ON THE TORIN LINE TO REMOVE OXIDIZED SURFACE MATERIAL. IN PRACTICE 15-20/1000 IS CUT FROM THE UPPER AND LOWER SURFACES OF THE STRIP AND RECYCLED TO THE CASTING SHOP. TORIN LINE ADDED AS PART OF 1981 EXPANSION PROGRAM. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  7. Skew and twist resistant hydrodynamic rotary shaft seal

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, L.; Kalsi, M.S.

    1999-02-23

    A hydrodynamically lubricated squeeze packing type rotary shaft seal suitable for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion which incorporates one or more resilient protuberances which cooperate with the gland walls to hold the seal straight in its installation groove in unpressurized and low pressure lubricant retention applications thereby preventing skew-induced wear caused by impingement of abrasive contaminants present in the environment, and which also serve as radial bearings to prevent tipping of the seal within its installation gland. 14 figs.

  8. Skew and twist resistant hydrodynamic rotary shaft seal

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie; Kalsi, Manmohan Singh

    1999-01-01

    A hydrodynamically lubricated squeeze packing type rotary shaft seal suitable for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion which incorporates one or more resilient protuberances which and cooperate with the gland walls to hold the seal straight in its installation groove in unpressurized and low pressure lubricant retention applications thereby preventing skew-induced wear caused by impingement of abrasive contaminants present in the environment, and which also serve as radial bearings to prevent tipping of the seal within its installation gland.

  9. A novel incubation direct injection LC/MS/MS technique for in vitro drug metabolism screening studies involving the CYP 2D6 and the CYP 3A4 isozymes.

    PubMed

    Bhoopathy, S; Xin, B; Unger, S E; Karnes, H T

    2005-04-01

    A direct injection LC/MS/MS method involving a novel incubation technique was developed for the inhibition screening of CYP 2D6 and CYP 3A4 isoenzymes using dextromethorphan and midazolam as probe substrates. Both assays were performed using an electrospray ionization source in the positive ion mode. Direct injection was possible by using a short C 18, LC column (2 mm x 20 mm) with large particle diameter packing (10 microm). Analytical characteristics of the direct injection technique were studied by examining matrix effects, which showed suppression of the ESI signal between 0.20 and 0.65 min. The retention times for analytes were adjusted to approximately 0.8 min (k'>3), resulting in no matrix effect. Column lifetime was evaluated and determined to be approximately 160 direct injections of the matrix. The precision and accuracy of the control samples for the quantitation of dextromethorphan was between -0.53 and -12.80, and 3.73 and 6.69% respectively. Unlike conventional incubation techniques, incubations were carried out in an autosampler equipped with a heating accessory. This novel incubation method, which involved no stirring of the incubation mixture, estimated the Cl(int in vitro) for dextromethorphan and midazolam in human liver microsomes to be 1.65+/-0.22 ml/(hmg) and 0.861 ml/(min mg) respectively. The autosampler tray maintained uniform temperature and was sensitive to changes in temperature between 33 and 41 degrees C. High-throughput screening was performed using known inhibitors of the CYP 2D6 isozyme, and the system was evaluated for its ability to differentiate between these inhibitors. The strong inhibitor quinidine resulted in a 25.6% increase in t(1/2), the medium potency inhibitor chlorpromazine resulted in an increase of 6.14% and the weak inhibitor primaquine had no significant effect on half-life. This technique involves no sample preparation, demonstrated run times of 2 min per injection and can be fully automated. The method should

  10. FLIR systems submicro rotary stirling cycle IDCA for imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin-Nun, Uri

    2011-05-01

    The advantages of the common Rotary Stirling cycle coolers over the Split Stirling Linear are the overall size, light weight, low cooler input power and high efficiency. The main disadvantage has always been self induced vibration. Self induced vibration is a major consideration in the design of stabilized IR imaging systems/(GIMBALS) due to the effect it has on image quality i.e. Jitter. The "irregular shape" of the Rotary cooling engine attached to the payload and optics is also a problem in terms of the limits it has on optical system size. To address these issues, FLIR Systems Inc in Boston MA, developed a new rotary Stirling cycle cooling engine known as the FLIR Submicro Cooler. The Submicro is now in production and has been applied in a few products especially in FLIR"S smallest GIMBAL which measures 7.0 inch in spherical diameter. In this paper we discuss the improvements made in terms of IDCA implementation in stabilized imaging systems.

  11. FLIR systems submicro rotary stirling cycle IDCA for imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uri, Bin-Nun

    2011-06-01

    The advantages of the common Rotary Stirling cycle coolers over the Split Stirling Linear are the overall size, light weight, low cooler input power and high efficiency. The main disadvantage has always been self induced vibration. Self induced vibration is a major consideration in the design of stabilized IR imaging systems/(GIMBALS) due to the effect it has on image quality i.e. Jitter. The "irregular shape" of the Rotary cooling engine attached to the payload and optics is also a problem in terms of the limits it has on optical system size. To address these issues, FLIR Systems Inc in Boston MA, developed a new rotary Stirling cycle cooling engine known as the FLIR Submicro Cooler. The Submicro is now in production and has been applied in a few products especially in FLIR"S smallest GIMBAL which measures 7.0 inch in spherical diameter. In this paper we discuss the improvements made in terms of IDCA implementation in stabilized imaging systems.

  12. Evaluation of different rotary devices on bone repair in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro Junior, Paulo Domingos; Barleto, Christiane Vespasiano; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Matsumoto, Mariza Akemi

    2007-01-01

    In oral surgery, the quality of bone repair may be influenced by several factors that can increase the morbidity of the procedure. The type of equipment used for ostectomy can directly affect bone healing. The aim of this study was to evaluate bone repair of mandible bone defects prepared in rabbits using three different rotary devices. Fifteen New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n=5) according to type of rotary device used to create bone defects: I--pneumatic low-speed rotation engine, II--pneumatic high-speed rotation engine, and III--electric low-speed rotation engine. The anatomic pieces were surgically obtained after 2, 7 and 30 days and submitted to histological and morphometric analysis. The morphometric results were expressed as the total area of bone remodeling matrix using an image analysis system. Increases in the bone remodeling matrix were noticed with time along the course of the experiment. No statistically significant differences (p>0.05) were observed among the groups at the three sacrificing time points considering the total area of bone mineralized matrix, although the histological analysis showed a slightly advanced bone repair in group III compared to the other two groups. The findings of the present study suggest that the type of rotary device used in oral and maxillofacial surgery does not interfere with the bone repair process.

  13. Rotation of artificial rotor axles in rotary molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Baba, Mihori; Iwamoto, Kousuke; Iino, Ryota; Ueno, Hiroshi; Hara, Mayu; Nakanishi, Atsuko; Kishikawa, Jun-Ichi; Noji, Hiroyuki; Yokoyama, Ken

    2016-10-04

    F1- and V1-ATPase are rotary molecular motors that convert chemical energy released upon ATP hydrolysis into torque to rotate a central rotor axle against the surrounding catalytic stator cylinder with high efficiency. How conformational change occurring in the stator is coupled to the rotary motion of the axle is the key unknown in the mechanism of rotary motors. Here, we generated chimeric motor proteins by inserting an exogenous rod protein, FliJ, into the stator ring of F1 or of V1 and tested the rotation properties of these chimeric motors. Both motors showed unidirectional and continuous rotation, despite no obvious homology in amino acid sequence between FliJ and the intrinsic rotor subunit of F1 or V1 These results showed that any residue-specific interactions between the stator and rotor are not a prerequisite for unidirectional rotation of both F1 and V1 The torque of chimeric motors estimated from viscous friction of the rotation probe against medium revealed that whereas the F1-FliJ chimera generates only 10% of WT F1, the V1-FliJ chimera generates torque comparable to that of V1 with the native axle protein that is structurally more similar to FliJ than the native rotor of F1 This suggests that the gross structural mismatch hinders smooth rotation of FliJ accompanied with the stator ring of F1.

  14. Testing and Development of a Percussive Augmenter for Rotary Drills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnelly, Christopher; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    Hammering drills are effective in fracturing the drilled medium while rotary drills remove cuttings. The combination provides a highly effective penetration mechanism. Piezoelectric actuators were integrated into an adapter to produce ultrasonic percussion; augmenting rotary drilling. The drill is capable of operating at low power, low applied force and, with proper tuning, low noise. These characteristics are of great interest for future NASA missions and the construction/remodeling industry. The developed augmenter connects a commercially available drill and bit and was tested to demonstrate its capability. Input power to the drill was read using a multimeter and the augmenter received a separate input voltage. The drive frequency of the piezoelectric actuator was controlled by a hill climb algorithm that optimizes and records average power usage to operate the drill at resonating frequency. Testing the rotary drill and augmenter across a range of combinations with total power constant at 160 Watts has shown results in concrete and limestone samples that are as good as or better than the commercial drill. The drill rate was increased 1.5 to over 10 times when compared to rotation alone.

  15. Rotary union for use with ultrasonic thickness measuring probe

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, H.D.

    1992-09-15

    A rotary union for rotatably supporting an ultrasonic probe operable to nondestructively measure the thickness of steam generator tubes to determine the amount of corrosion experienced by the tubes includes a stationary body having a bore therethrough and an outlet drain, and a fitting rotatably mounted within the upper end of the body. The fitting has a bore aligned with the bore of the body. An electrical cable positioned within a water supply tube in an annular arrangement passes through the bore of the body and the bore of the fitting. This annular arrangement, in turn, is positioned within a connector element which extends outwardly from the fitting bore and is connected to the ultrasonic probe. An elastomeric lower bushing seals the annular arrangement to the lower end of the rotary union body and an elastomeric upper bushing seals the connector element to the fitting to permit the connector element and the ultrasonic probe connected thereto to rotate with the fitting relative to the body. The lower and upper bushings permit water to be passed through the annular arrangement and into the ultrasonic probe and thereafter discharged between the annular arrangement and the connector element to the outlet drain of the rotary union body. 5 figs.

  16. Thermal treatment of medical waste in a rotary kiln.

    PubMed

    Bujak, J

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of an experimental system with thermal treatment (incineration) of medical waste conducted at a large complex of hospital facilities. The studies were conducted for a period of one month. The processing system was analysed in terms of the energy, environmental and economic aspects. A rotary combustion chamber was designed and built with the strictly assumed length to inner diameter ratio of 4:1. In terms of energy, the temperature distribution was tested in the rotary kiln, secondary combustion (afterburner) chamber and heat recovery system. Calorific value of medical waste was 25.0 MJ/kg and the thermal efficiency of the entire system equalled 66.8%. Next, measurements of the pollutant emissions into the atmosphere were performed. Due to the nature of the disposed waste, particular attention was paid to the one-minute average values of carbon oxide and volatile organic compounds as well as hydrochloride, hydrogen fluoride, sulphur dioxide and total dust. Maximum content of non-oxidized organic compounds in slag and bottom ash were also verified during the analyses. The best rotary speed for the combustion chamber was selected to obtain proper afterburning of the bottom slag. Total organic carbon content was 2.9%. The test results were used to determine the basic economic indicators of the test system for evaluating the profitability of its construction. Simple payback time (SPB) for capital expenditures on the implementation of the project was 4 years.

  17. Rotary union for use with ultrasonic thickness measuring probe

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    A rotary union for rotatably supporting an ultrasonic probe operable to nondestructively measure the thickness of steam generator tubes to determine the amount of corrosion experienced by the tubes includes a stationary body having a bore therethrough and an outlet drain, and a fitting rotatably mounted within the upper end of the body. The fitting has a bore aligned with the bore of the body. An electrical cable positioned within a water supply tube in an annular arrangement passes through the bore of the body and the bore of the fitting. This annular arrangement, in turn, is positioned within a connector element which extends outwardly from the fitting bore and is connected to the ultrasonic probe. An elastomeric lower bushing seals the annular arrangement to the lower end of the rotary union body and an elastomeric upper bushing seals the connector element to the fitting to permit the connector element and the ultrasonic probe connected thereto to rotate with the fitting relative to the body. The lower and upper bushings permit water to be passed through the annular arrangement and into the ultrasonic probe and thereafter discharged between the annular arrangement and the connector element to the outlet drain of the rotary union body.

  18. Evaluation of Alternative Filter Media for the Rotary Microfilter

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M. R.; Herman, D. T.; Bhave, R.

    2011-11-09

    The Savannah River Site is currently developing and testing several processes to treat high level radioactive liquid waste. Each of these processes has a solid-liquid separation process that limits its throughput. Savannah River National Laboratory researchers identified and tested the rotary microfilter as a technology to increase solid-liquid separation throughput. The authors believe the rotary microfilter throughput can be improved by using a better filter membrane. Previous testing showed that asymmetric filters composed of a ceramic membrane on top of a stainless steel support produced higher filter flux than 100% stainless steel symmetric filters in crossflow filter tests. Savannah River National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working together to develop asymmetric ceramic ? stainless steel composite filters and asymmetric 100% stainless steel filters to improve the throughput of the rotary microfilter. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Inorganic Membrane Group fabricated samples of alternative filter membranes. In addition, Savannah River National Laboratory obtained samples of filter membranes from Pall, Porvair, and SpinTek. They tested these samples in a static test cell with feed slurries containing monosodium titanate and simulated sludge.

  19. Rotary device for removing particulates from a gas stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Jr., Earl R. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A rotary particulate separator for removing particulates from a pressurized gas stream such as that emanating from a reactor vessel is disclosed which precharges the particles in the gas stream, and then utilizes the charge on the particles to induce them from the main flow path through an airblock and into the rotary particulate separator. The rotor of the rotary particulate separator has polarized plates which use a first charge opposite that on the charged particles to attract the particles as they enter the rotation chamber, and then use a second charge of the same polarity as the charge on the charged particles to release the particles into a control gas flow vortex which draws the particles radially inwardly into an exit aperture contained in the center of one of the rotor segments and out from the device. Pressure letdown devices are used to drop the pressure of both the control gas flow exiting the separator with the particles and the cleaned gas stream.

  20. Robustness of the rotary catalysis mechanism of F1-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Rikiya; Matsukage, Yuki; Yukawa, Ayako; Tabata, Kazuhito V; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2014-07-11

    F1-ATPase (F1) is the rotary motor protein fueled by ATP hydrolysis. Previous studies have suggested that three charged residues are indispensable for catalysis of F1 as follows: the P-loop lysine in the phosphate-binding loop, GXXXXGK(T/S); a glutamic acid that activates water molecules for nucleophilic attack on the γ-phosphate of ATP (general base); and an arginine directly contacting the γ-phosphate (arginine finger). These residues are well conserved among P-loop NTPases. In this study, we investigated the role of these charged residues in catalysis and torque generation by analyzing alanine-substituted mutants in the single-molecule rotation assay. Surprisingly, all mutants continuously drove rotary motion, even though the rotational velocity was at least 100,000 times slower than that of wild type. Thus, although these charged residues contribute to highly efficient catalysis, they are not indispensable to chemo-mechanical energy coupling, and the rotary catalysis mechanism of F1 is far more robust than previously thought.

  1. Rotation of artificial rotor axles in rotary molecular motors

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Mihori; Iwamoto, Kousuke; Ueno, Hiroshi; Hara, Mayu; Nakanishi, Atsuko; Kishikawa, Jun-ichi; Noji, Hiroyuki; Yokoyama, Ken

    2016-01-01

    F1- and V1-ATPase are rotary molecular motors that convert chemical energy released upon ATP hydrolysis into torque to rotate a central rotor axle against the surrounding catalytic stator cylinder with high efficiency. How conformational change occurring in the stator is coupled to the rotary motion of the axle is the key unknown in the mechanism of rotary motors. Here, we generated chimeric motor proteins by inserting an exogenous rod protein, FliJ, into the stator ring of F1 or of V1 and tested the rotation properties of these chimeric motors. Both motors showed unidirectional and continuous rotation, despite no obvious homology in amino acid sequence between FliJ and the intrinsic rotor subunit of F1 or V1. These results showed that any residue-specific interactions between the stator and rotor are not a prerequisite for unidirectional rotation of both F1 and V1. The torque of chimeric motors estimated from viscous friction of the rotation probe against medium revealed that whereas the F1-FliJ chimera generates only 10% of WT F1, the V1-FliJ chimera generates torque comparable to that of V1 with the native axle protein that is structurally more similar to FliJ than the native rotor of F1. This suggests that the gross structural mismatch hinders smooth rotation of FliJ accompanied with the stator ring of F1. PMID:27647891

  2. Fragmentation of Newtonian and viscoelastic liquids during rotary atomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavarz, Bavand; Moore, John; Houze, Eric; Koerner, Michael; McKinley, Gareth; MIT Collaboration; Axalta Coating Systems Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Animals drying their wet fur by rapidly shaking their body and rotary atomization in paint coating are just a few examples in which centripetal acceleration is used to disintegrate liquid films into smaller fragments. Narrower size distributions and well-defined geometrical fluid pathlines (similar to the involute of a circle) are the main advantages of this type of atomization as compared to air-assisted atomization. Despite these inherent advantages there is a paucity of fundamental knowledge about the roles of fluid rheology in this process. We study the effects of viscosity by performing rotary atomization tests on silicone oils with a wide range of viscosities (1-1000 mPa.s). Viscoelastic effects are also probed by spraying solutions of polyethylene oxide (PEO) dissolved in water at different concentrations. Our results show that understanding the effects of liquid properties on the instabilities that control rotary atomization (primarily Rayleigh-Taylor instability during the ligament formation followed by Rayleigh-Plateau instability during droplet pinch-off) can help us understand the resulting fragment size distributions.

  3. Robustness of the Rotary Catalysis Mechanism of F1-ATPase*

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Rikiya; Matsukage, Yuki; Yukawa, Ayako; Tabata, Kazuhito V.; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    F1-ATPase (F1) is the rotary motor protein fueled by ATP hydrolysis. Previous studies have suggested that three charged residues are indispensable for catalysis of F1 as follows: the P-loop lysine in the phosphate-binding loop, GXXXXGK(T/S); a glutamic acid that activates water molecules for nucleophilic attack on the γ-phosphate of ATP (general base); and an arginine directly contacting the γ-phosphate (arginine finger). These residues are well conserved among P-loop NTPases. In this study, we investigated the role of these charged residues in catalysis and torque generation by analyzing alanine-substituted mutants in the single-molecule rotation assay. Surprisingly, all mutants continuously drove rotary motion, even though the rotational velocity was at least 100,000 times slower than that of wild type. Thus, although these charged residues contribute to highly efficient catalysis, they are not indispensable to chemo-mechanical energy coupling, and the rotary catalysis mechanism of F1 is far more robust than previously thought. PMID:24876384

  4. Comparing solid phase extraction and direct injection for the analysis of ultra-trace levels of relevant explosives in lake water and tributaries using liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ochsenbein, Ueli; Zeh, Markus; Berset, Jean-Daniel

    2008-06-01

    Off-line solid phase extraction and direct injection analysis were evaluated for the determination of traces of explosives such as TNT and its mono and diamino metabolites, HMX, RDX, nitroglycerin and PETN in lake water and tributaries applying liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Improved chromatographic separation was achieved on a phenyl based stationary phase with baseline resolution of the mono- and diamino metabolites of TNT. Identification and quantification of the target compounds was performed by multiple reaction monitoring applying electrospray ionization in either the positive mode for the diaminometabolites of TNT or the negative mode for all other compounds. An extensive method validation was performed and limits of quantification were obtained for the explosives in preconcentrated lake water samples from 0.03 to 1 ng l(-1) and 0.1 to 5 ng l(-1) in river water. Direct injection analysis revealed comparable results to preconcentrated water samples for the most persistent explosives. Analysis of lake water samples collected at different depths showed the presence of HMX, RDX and PETN at concentrations from 0.1 to 0.4 ng l(-1). The analysis of main tributaries revealed concentrations from 0.1 to 0.9 ng l(-1) of the same compounds. They seem to be responsible for the contamination of the explosives in the lakes.

  5. Direct injection of solid-phase extraction eluents onto silica columns for the analysis of polar compounds isoniazid and cetirizine in plasma using hydrophilic interaction chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Austin C; Junga, Heiko; Shou, Wilson Z; Bryant, Matthew S; Jiang, Xiang-yu; Naidong, Weng

    2004-01-01

    Isoniazid and cetirizine do not retain well on reversed-phase columns due to their high polarity. Silica columns, when operated under hydrophilic interaction conditions, do provide excellent retention of these compounds. We have developed simple and proof of concept analytical methods for the analysis of isoniazid and cetirizine in animal and human plasma, respectively. Both methods employed the approach of direct injection of solid-phase extraction (SPE) organic eluents onto silica columns for analysis, thus eliminating evaporation and reconstitution steps that are typically needed for reversed-phase liquid chromatographic analysis. Isoniazid was extracted from animal plasma samples using a Waters Oasis HLB 96-well plate and then eluted with acetonitrile, while cetirizine was extracted from human plasma with a Waters MCX mu-Elute plate and then eluted with acetonitrile containing 5% concentrated ammonium hydroxide. The direct injection of the SPE eluent onto the analytical column was necessary since significant loss of isoniazid was found during the evaporation and reconstitution steps. The method for isoniazid also enabled ultra-fast analysis due to the relatively low back-pressure exhibited by silica columns even under high flow conditions. Both methods show good linearity, accuracy and precision covering the range of 10-2000 ng/mL of isoniazid, and 1-1000 ng/mL of cetirizine in plasma. Substantial time savings were realized as a result of both the elimination of the evaporation and reconstitution steps and the fast chromatographic analysis.

  6. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of an Axial Rotary Blood Pump.

    PubMed

    Schüle, Chan Yong; Thamsen, Bente; Blümel, Bastian; Lommel, Michael; Karakaya, Tamer; Paschereit, Christian Oliver; Affeld, Klaus; Kertzscher, Ulrich

    2016-04-18

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have become a standard therapy for patients with severe heart failure. As low blood trauma in LVADs is important for a good clinical outcome, the assessment of the fluid loads inside the pump is critical. More specifically, the flow features on the surfaces where the interaction between blood and artificial material happens is of great importance. Therefore, experimental data for the near-wall flows in an axial rotary blood pump were collected and directly compared to computational fluid dynamic results. For this, the flow fields based on unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations-computational fluid dynamics (URANS-CFD) of an axial rotary blood pump were calculated and compared with experimental flow data at one typical state of operation in an enlarged model of the pump. The focus was set on the assessment of wall shear stresses (WSS) at the housing wall and rotor gap region by means of the wall-particle image velocimetry technique, and the visualization of near-wall flow structures on the inner pump surfaces by a paint erosion method. Additionally, maximum WSS and tip leakage volume flows were measured for 13 different states of operation. Good agreement between CFD and experimental data was found, which includes the location, magnitude, and direction of the maximum and minimum WSS and the presence of recirculation zones on the pump stators. The maximum WSS increased linearly with pressure head. They occurred at the upstream third of the impeller blades and exceeded the critical values with respect to hemolysis. Regions of very high shear stresses and recirculation zones could be identified and were in good agreement with simulations. URANS-CFD, which is often used for pump performance and blood damage prediction, seems to be, therefore, a valid tool for the assessment of flow fields in axial rotary blood pumps. The magnitude of maximum WSS could be confirmed and were in the order of several hundred Pascal.

  7. System and method for cooling a superconducting rotary machine

    DOEpatents

    Ackermann, Robert Adolf; Laskaris, Evangelos Trifon; Huang, Xianrui; Bray, James William

    2011-08-09

    A system for cooling a superconducting rotary machine includes a plurality of sealed siphon tubes disposed in balanced locations around a rotor adjacent to a superconducting coil. Each of the sealed siphon tubes includes a tubular body and a heat transfer medium disposed in the tubular body that undergoes a phase change during operation of the machine to extract heat from the superconducting coil. A siphon heat exchanger is thermally coupled to the siphon tubes for extracting heat from the siphon tubes during operation of the machine.

  8. ROPEC - ROtary PErcussive Coring Drill for Mars Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Philip; Spring, Justin; Zacny, Kris

    2014-01-01

    The ROtary Percussive Coring Drill is a light weight, flight-like, five-actuator drilling system prototype designed to acquire core material from rock targets for the purposes of Mars Sample Return. In addition to producing rock cores for sample caching, the ROPEC drill can be integrated with a number of end effectors to perform functions such as rock surface abrasion, dust and debris removal, powder and regolith acquisition, and viewing of potential cores prior to caching. The ROPEC drill and its suite of end effectors have been demonstrated with a five degree of freedom Robotic Arm mounted to a mobility system with a prototype sample cache and bit storage station.

  9. Shear stress transmission model for the flagellar rotary motor.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Toshio; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2008-09-01

    Most bacteria that swim are propelled by flagellar filaments, which are driven by a rotary motor powered by proton flux. The mechanism of the flagellar motor is discussed by reforming the model proposed by the present authors in 2005. It is shown that the mean strength of Coulomb field produced by a proton passing the channel is very strong in the Mot assembly so that the Mot assembly can be a shear force generator and induce the flagellar rotation. The model gives clear calculation results in agreement with experimental observations, e g., for the characteristic torque-velocity relationship of the flagellar rotation.

  10. Rotary Percussive Auto-Gopher for Deep Drilling and Sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart

    2009-01-01

    The term "rotary percussive auto-gopher" denotes a proposed addition to a family of apparatuses, based on ultrasonic/ sonic drill corers (USDCs), that have been described in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. These apparatuses have been designed, variously, for boring into, and/or acquiring samples of, rock or other hard, brittle materials of geological interest. In the case of the rotary percussive autogopher, the emphasis would be on developing an apparatus capable of penetrating to, and acquiring samples at, depths that could otherwise be reached only by use of much longer, heavier, conventional drilling-and-sampling apparatuses. To recapitulate from the prior articles about USDCs: A USDC can be characterized as a lightweight, low-power jackhammer in which a piezoelectrically driven actuator generates ultrasonic vibrations and is coupled to a tool bit through a free mass. The bouncing of the free mass between the actuator horn and the drill bit converts the actuator ultrasonic vibrations into sonic hammering of the drill bit. The combination of ultrasonic and sonic vibrations gives rise to a hammering action (and a resulting chiseling action at the tip of the tool bit) that is more effective for drilling than is the microhammering action of ultrasonic vibrations alone. The hammering and chiseling actions are so effective that the size of the axial force needed to make the tool bit advance into soil, rock, or another material of interest is much smaller than in ordinary rotary drilling, ordinary hammering, or ordinary steady pushing. The predecessor of the rotary percussive auto-gopher is an apparatus, now denoted an ultrasonic/sonic gopher and previously denoted an ultrasonic gopher, described in "Ultrasonic/ Sonic Mechanism for Drilling and Coring" (NPO-30291), NASA Tech Briefs Vol. 27, No. 9 (September 2003), page 65. The ultrasonic/sonic gopher is intended for use mainly in acquiring cores. The name of the apparatus reflects the fact that, like a

  11. A comparison of rotary- and stationary-head tape recorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkinson, John R.

    1994-01-01

    Digital recording may take advantage of many types of media, but usually a preferred type of drive or transport emerges for each. In magnetic tape recording, two approaches have emerged in which essentially the same medium is tracked in two radically different ways. This paper compares the characteristics of Rotary- and Stationary-Head transports in an attempt to establish which approach might be considered for a given application. The conclusion is that in many cases there is no obvious choice based on recording physics and that often the choice will be made on the experimental knowledge of the designer.

  12. NASA Subsonic Rotary Wing Project - Structures and Materials Discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbig, Michael C.; Johnson, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    The Structures & Materials Discipline within the NASA Subsonic Rotary Wing Project is focused on developing rotorcraft technologies. The technologies being developed are within the task areas of: 5.1.1 Life Prediction Methods for Engine Structures & Components 5.1.2 Erosion Resistant Coatings for Improved Turbine Blade Life 5.2.1 Crashworthiness 5.2.2 Methods for Prediction of Fatigue Damage & Self Healing 5.3.1 Propulsion High Temperature Materials 5.3.2 Lightweight Structures and Noise Integration The presentation will discuss rotorcraft specific technical challenges and needs as well as details of the work being conducted in the six task areas.

  13. Testing thread compounds for rotary-shouldered connections

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, E.I. ); Smith, J.E. )

    1993-09-01

    Trouble-free rotary-shouldered-connection performance depends on proper joint makeup. Joints must be tight enough to prevent shoulder separation under bending and tensile loads but not so tight that their tensile capacity decreases or the pin or box is damaged. The preload in a connection from tightening depends on the makeup torque and frictional properties of the thread compound. In 1957, Farr developed and published a simplified torque formula to calculate makeup torque: T[sub mu] = ([sigma]A/12)[(p/2[pi])+(r[sub t]K[sub f]/cos [Theta])+r[sub s]K[sub f

  14. The IRAC Shutter Mechanism: Residual Magnetism and the Rotary Solenoid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwinger, Scott; Hakun, Claef; Brown, Gary; Blumenstock, Ken

    2002-01-01

    The Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) Shutter mechanism was originally presented in the paper, 'A Low Power Cryogenic Shutter Mechanism for Use on Infrared Imagers' at the 34th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, May 2000. At that time, the shutter was believed to be performing flawlessly and there was every indication it would continue to do so. In early spring of 2001, the calibration shutter, a rotary solenoid designed to be fail-safe open, remained in a closed state with no power to the electromagnetic coils. The ensuing investigation, subsequent testing, proposed remedy, and lessons learned are the focus of this paper.

  15. 6. Photocopied August 1978. LINEUP OF HORRY ROTARY FURNACES ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopied August 1978. LINE-UP OF HORRY ROTARY FURNACES ON THE SECOND FLOOR OF THE MICHIGAN LAKE SUPERIOR POWER COMPANY POWER HOUSE. THE HOPPERS WHICH FED THE RAW MATERIALS INTO THE FURNACES ARE SHOWN ABOVE THE FURNACES. AS THE 'SPOOL' OF THE FURNACE ROTATED PAST THE ELECTRODES PLATES WERE ADDED TO HOLD THE FINISHED PRODUCT AND THE DESCENDING RAW MATERIALS IN PLACE. THE DIRECTION OF ROTATION OF THE FURNACES SHOWN IN THIS PHOTO IS CLOCKWISE, (M). - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  16. Piezoelectric Versus Conventional Rotary Techniques for Impacted Third Molar Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qian; Qiu, Yating; Yang, Chi; Yang, Jingyun; Chen, Minjie; Zhang, Zhiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Impacted third molars are frequently encountered in clinical work. Surgical removal of impacted third molars is often required to prevent clinical symptoms. Traditional rotary cutting instruments are potentially injurious, and piezosurgery, as a new osteotomy technique, has been introduced in oral and maxillofacial surgery. No consistent conclusion has been reached regarding whether this new technique is associated with fewer or less severe postoperative sequelae after third molar extraction. The aim of this study was to compare piezosurgery with rotary osteotomy techniques, with regard to surgery time and the severity of postoperative sequelae, including pain, swelling, and trismus. We conducted a systematic literature search in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar. The eligibility criteria of this study included the following: the patients were clearly diagnosed as having impacted mandibular third molars; the patients underwent piezosurgery osteotomy, and in the control group rotary osteotomy techniques, for removing impacted third molars; the outcomes of interest include surgery time, trismus, swelling or pain; the studies are randomized controlled trials. We used random-effects models to calculate the difference in the outcomes, and the corresponding 95% confidence interval. We calculated the weighted mean difference if the trials used the same measurement, and a standardized mean difference if otherwise. A total of seven studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in our analysis. Compared with rotary osteotomy, patients undergoing piezosurgery experienced longer surgery time (mean difference 4.13 minutes, 95% confidence interval 2.75–5.52, P < 0.0001). Patients receiving the piezoelectric technique had less swelling at postoperative days 1, 3, 5, and 7 (all Ps ≤0.023). Additionally, there was a trend of less postoperative pain and trismus in the piezosurgery groups. The number of included randomized controlled

  17. Multilayer growth in the APS rotary deposition system.

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, R.; Liu, C.; Kewish, C.M.; Macrander, A.T.; Morawe, C.; X-Ray Science Division; European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    2007-01-01

    We report our progress in the growth of periodic and depth-graded multilayers in the APS rotary deposition system, a machine designed for fabrication of films tens of microns thick with thousands of layers. A computational method was employed to design depth-graded multilayers for use as wide-angular bandpass reflective optics. We present experimental results for a 154-layer WSi{sub 2}/Si multilayer system with bilayer thickness ranging from 2.2 nm to 5.5 nm that closely match theoretical flat-top reflectivity predictions of 9.8% from 15.6 mrad to 23.3 mrad at 8 keV.

  18. Skew And Twist Resistant Hydrodynamic Rotary Shaft Seal

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie; Kalsi, Manmohan Singh

    2000-03-14

    A hydrodynamically lubricated squeeze packing type rotary shaft seal suitable for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion which incorporates one or more resilient protuberances which and cooperate with the gland walls to hold the seal straight in its installation groove in unpressurized and low pressure lubricant retention applications thereby preventing skew-induced wear caused by impingement of abrasive contaminants present in the environment, and which also serve as radial bearings to prevent tipping of the seal within its installation gland. Compared to prior art, this invention provides a dramatic reduction of seal and shaft wear in abrasive environments and provides a significant increase in seal life.

  19. Preliminary Assessment of a Rotary Detonation Engine Concept.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    S3RSUYIN STATEMENT W 4 s~u do""d to afo 8% of mftsew= kenamoe) IL. 31uiP901111TAINY WOME Detonation Combustion Rotary Engine Intermittent Detonation Engine...There are several features to be noted. Mixture com- ponents entered separately from the right via valves 1, 2, and 3, entering the horizontally mounted...Mixing chamber pressure was indicated on the right . Both gages indicated in terms of absolute pressures with a range of zero to thirty psia. The mixed

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF A ROTARY MICROFILTER FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M; David Herman, D; Samuel Fink, S

    2008-02-25

    The processing rate of Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste decontamination processes are limited by the flow rate of the solid-liquid separation. The baseline process, using a 0.1 micron cross-flow filter, produces {approx}0.02 gpm/sq. ft. of filtrate under expected operating conditions. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) demonstrated significantly higher filter flux for actual waste samples using a small-scale rotary filter. With funding from the U. S. Department of Energy Office of Cleanup Technology, SRNL personnel are evaluating and developing the rotary microfilter for radioactive service at SRS. The authors improved the design for the disks and filter unit to make them suitable for high-level radioactive service. They procured two units using the new design, tested them with simulated SRS wastes, and evaluated the operation of the units. Work to date provides the following conclusions and program status: (1) The authors modified the design of the filter disks to remove epoxy and Ryton{reg_sign}. The new design includes welding both stainless steel and ceramic coated stainless steel filter media to a stainless steel support plate. The welded disks were tested in the full-scale unit. They showed good reliability and met filtrate quality requirements. (2) The authors modified the design of the unit, making installation and removal easier. The new design uses a modular, one-piece filter stack that is removed simply by disassembly of a flange on the upper (inlet) side of the filter housing. All seals and rotary unions are contained within the removable stack. (3) While it is extremely difficult to predict the life of the seal, the vendor representative indicates a minimum of one year in present service conditions is reasonable. Changing the seal face material from silicon-carbide to a graphite-impregnated silicon-carbide is expected to double the life of the seal. Replacement of the current seal with an air seal could increase the lifetime to 5 years

  1. Estimation of drying parameters in rotary dryers using differential evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobato, F. S.; Steffen, V., Jr.; Arruda, E. B.; Barrozo, M. A. S.

    2008-11-01

    Inverse problems arise from the necessity of obtaining parameters of theoretical models to simulate the behavior of the system for different operating conditions. Several heuristics that mimic different phenomena found in nature have been proposed for the solution of this kind of problem. In this work, the Differential Evolution Technique is used for the estimation of drying parameters in realistic rotary dryers, which is formulated as an optimization problem by using experimental data. Test case results demonstrate both the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  2. 16 CFR 1205.5 - Walk-behind rotary power mower controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Walk-behind rotary power mower controls... ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR WALK-BEHIND POWER LAWN MOWERS The Standard § 1205.5 Walk-behind rotary power mower controls. (a) Blade control systems—(1) Requirements for blade control. A...

  3. 16 CFR 1205.6 - Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR WALK-BEHIND POWER LAWN MOWERS The Standard § 1205.6 Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers. (a) General. Walk-behind power lawn mowers shall be labeled... size relation to each other and to the label as shown in Fig. 7. EC03OC91.016 (b) Rotary mowers....

  4. 16 CFR 1205.5 - Walk-behind rotary power mower controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Walk-behind rotary power mower controls... ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR WALK-BEHIND POWER LAWN MOWERS The Standard § 1205.5 Walk-behind rotary power mower controls. (a) Blade control systems—(1) Requirements for blade control. A...

  5. 16 CFR 1205.6 - Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR WALK-BEHIND POWER LAWN MOWERS The Standard § 1205.6 Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers. (a) General. Walk-behind power lawn mowers shall be labeled... size relation to each other and to the label as shown in Fig. 7. EC03OC91.016 (b) Rotary mowers....

  6. 16 CFR 1205.5 - Walk-behind rotary power mower controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Walk-behind rotary power mower controls... ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR WALK-BEHIND POWER LAWN MOWERS The Standard § 1205.5 Walk-behind rotary power mower controls. (a) Blade control systems—(1) Requirements for blade control. A...

  7. 16 CFR 1205.6 - Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR WALK-BEHIND POWER LAWN MOWERS The Standard § 1205.6 Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers. (a) General. Walk-behind power lawn mowers shall be labeled... size relation to each other and to the label as shown in Fig. 7. EC03OC91.016 (b) Rotary mowers....

  8. Math modeling and computer mechanization for real time simulation of rotary-wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, R. M.

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical modeling and computer mechanization for real time simulation of rotary wing aircraft is discussed. Error analysis in the digital simulation of dynamic systems, such as rotary wing aircraft is described. The method for digital simulation of nonlinearities with discontinuities, such as exist in typical flight control systems and rotor blade hinges, is discussed.

  9. Blast-free mining of coal seams by excavators equipped with rotary dynamic buckets

    SciTech Connect

    Labutin, V.N.; Mattis, A.R.; Zaitseva, A.A.

    2005-04-01

    The necessity to equip cable excavators with rotary buckets is substantiated. The results of graphic-analytical analysis of the rotary bucket operation are presented, and its main advantages are determined in comparison with conventional buckets in mining coal seams of complex structure.

  10. 16 CFR 1205.6 - Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... adjacent supporting structure or assembly, with the warning label shown in Fig. 7. The label shall be at... size relation to each other and to the label as shown in Fig. 7. EC03OC91.016 (b) Rotary mowers. Walk-behind rotary mowers shall have one label as shown in Fig. 7, on the blade housing. The label shall...

  11. 16 CFR 1205.6 - Warning label for reel-type and rotary power mowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... adjacent supporting structure or assembly, with the warning label shown in Fig. 7. The label shall be at... size relation to each other and to the label as shown in Fig. 7. EC03OC91.016 (b) Rotary mowers. Walk-behind rotary mowers shall have one label as shown in Fig. 7, on the blade housing. The label shall...

  12. Carbon reactivation by externally-fired rotary kiln furnace. Final report Oct 75-Jan 78

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.; Directo, L.S.

    1980-08-01

    An externally-fired rotary kiln furnace system has been evaluated for cost-effectiveness in carbon reactivation at the Pomona Advanced Wastewater Treatment Research Facility. The pilot scale rotary kiln furnace was operated within the range of 682 kg/day (1,500 lb/day) to 909 kg/day (2,000 lb/day). The rotary kiln furnace was found to be as effective as the multiple hearth furnace in reactivating the exhausted granular activated carbon. The operating and maintenance of the rotary kiln system required less operator skill than the multiple hearth furnace system. However, the corrosion rate was higher in the rotary tube than in the multiple hearth furnace. Cost estimates based on a typical regeneration capacity of 182 kg/hr (400 lb/hr) have been made for both rotary kiln and multiple hearth furnace systems. These indicate that the capital cost for the multiple hearth furnace is about two times that of the rotary kiln furnace. The operation and maintenance costs for both furnace systems are similar. The overall process costs for the multiple hearth and rotary kiln furnace systems are estimated to be 33.2 cents/kg (15.1 cents/lb) of carbon regenerated and 29.2 cents/kg (13.3 cents/lb) of carbon regenerated, respectively.

  13. Rotary-Percussive Drill for Planetary Exploration and a 3.5 m Vacuum Chamber Enabling Full Scale Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacny, K.; Paulsen, G.; Szczesiak, M.; Glass, B.; McKay, C.; Santoro, C.; Wilson, J.; Craft, J.

    2010-03-01

    We present a 1-meter-class rotary-percussive drill and test results comparing rotary and rotary-percussive drilling in various formations. A 3.5-m large vacuum chamber build for testing drill systems to a depth of >1 m is also presented.

  14. Development of a rotary power transformer and inverter drive for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.; Bridgeforth, A. O.

    1983-01-01

    Many future satellites and spacecraft with spun and despun configurations will require the transfer of power across rotating interfaces in lieu of slip-rings and/or flexures. This is particularly true of spacecraft that have to demonstrate a long life expectancy. The rotary transformer has the desirable characteristics of high reliability and low noise, which qualify it as a potential replacement for slip rings. Development of a rotary power transformer follows the successful completion of a task to develop rotary signal-level transformers for the Galileo Spacecraft Project. The physical configuration of a rotary power transformer has a significant effect on its magnetic and electrical characteristics and therefore impacts the design of the dc/ac inverter driver. Important characteristics addressed during this development effort include: operating frequency, efficiency, transformer gap size, leakage inductance, and leakage flux. A breadboard inverter and rotary transformer were designed, fabricated and tested.

  15. In vitro investigation of thrombogenesis in rotary blood pumps.

    PubMed

    Schima, H; Siegl, H; Mohammad, S F; Huber, L; Müller, M R; Losert, U; Thoma, H; Wolner, E

    1993-07-01

    Thrombus formation at sealing and stagnation areas remains a major problem in the development of rotary blood pumps. Until now, the complex phenomena could only be studied in vivo. In this study, an in vitro mock circulation previously used for hemolysis studies was adapted for thrombosis evaluation. Blood was collected in the slaughterhouse with strict avoidance of air contact and was heparinized (1.5 U heparin/ml blood; activated coagulation time [ACT]: initially, 140-180 s; after collection, 400-600 s). During the test, the ACT decreased gradually. The tests were stopped after 90 to 180 min at an ACT of 1.5 times the initial value. Thrombus formation was observed at the same locations as observed in left-heart assist devices (sealing area, connecting bolts, and stagnant water areas at connectors). The thrombi were similar in shape, color, and histology to those found after 2 to 4 days in vivo. This test provides a valuable tool for evaluating thrombus formation in prototypes and screening tests of different rotary pump designs.

  16. Cora valveless pulsatile rotary pump: new design and control.

    PubMed

    Monties, J R; Trinkl, J; Mesana, T; Havlik, P J; Demunck, J L

    1996-01-01

    For decades, research for developing a totally implantable artificial ventricle has been carried on. For 4 to 5 years, two devices have been investigated clinically. For many years, we have studied a rotary (but not centrifugal) pump that furnishes pulsatile flow without a valve and does not need external venting or a compliance chamber. It is a hypocycloidal pump based on the principle of the Maillard-Wankel rotary compressor. Currently made of titanium, it is activated by an electrical brushless direct-current motor. The motor-pump unit is totally sealed and implantable, without noise or vibration. This pump was implanted as a left ventricular assist device in calves. The midterm experiments showed good hemodynamic function. The hemolysis was low, but serious problems were encountered: blood components collecting on the gear mechanism inside the rotor jammed the pump. We therefore redesigned the pump to seal the gear mechanism. We used a double system to seal the open end of the rotor cavity with components polished to superfine optical quality. In addition, we developed a control system based on the study of the predicted shape of the motor current. The new design is now underway. We hope to start chronic experiments again in a few months. If the problem of sealing the bearing could be solved, the Cora ventricle could be used as permanent totally implantable left ventricular assist device.

  17. Results from Testing of Two Rotary Percussive Drilling Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriechbaum, Kristopher; Brown, Kyle; Cady, Ian; von der Heydt, Max; Klein, Kerry; Kulczycki, Eric; Okon, Avi

    2010-01-01

    The developmental test program for the MSL (Mars Science Laboratory) rotary percussive drill examined the e ect of various drill input parameters on the drill pene- tration rate. Some of the input parameters tested were drill angle with respect to gravity and percussive impact energy. The suite of rocks tested ranged from a high strength basalt to soft Kaolinite clay. We developed a hole start routine to reduce high sideloads from bit walk. The ongoing development test program for the IMSAH (Integrated Mars Sample Acquisition and Handling) rotary percussive corer uses many of the same rocks as the MSL suite. An additional performance parameter is core integrity. The MSL development test drill and the IMSAH test drill use similar hardware to provide rotation and percussion. However, the MSL test drill uses external stabilizers, while the IMSAH test drill does not have external stabilization. In addition the IMSAH drill is a core drill, while the MSL drill uses a solid powdering bit. Results from the testing of these two related drilling systems is examined.

  18. Constraints on models for the flagellar rotary motor.

    PubMed Central

    Berg, H C

    2000-01-01

    Most bacteria that swim are propelled by flagellar filaments, each driven at its base by a rotary motor embedded in the cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane. A motor is about 45 nm in diameter and made up of about 20 different kinds of parts. It is assembled from the inside out. It is powered by a proton (or in some species, a sodium-ion) flux. It steps at least 400 times per revolution. At low speeds and high torques, about 1000 protons are required per revolution, speed is proportional to protonmotive force, and torque varies little with temperature or hydrogen isotope. At high speeds and low torques, torque increases with temperature and is sensitive to hydrogen isotope. At room temperature, torque varies remarkably little with speed from about -100 Hz (the present limit of measurement) to about 200 Hz, and then it declines rapidly reaching zero at about 300 Hz. These are facts that motor models should explain. None of the existing models for the flagellar rotary motor completely do so. PMID:10836502

  19. A rotary arc furnace for aluminum dross processing

    SciTech Connect

    Drouet, M.G.; Meunier, J.; Laflamme, C.B.; Handfield, M.D.; Biscaro, A.; Lemire, C.

    1995-12-31

    Dross, a major by-product of all processes involving molten aluminum, forms at the surface of the molten metal as the latter reacts with the furnace atmosphere. It generally represents 1 to 5 wt% of the melt, depending on the process, and contains on average about 50% free aluminum dispersed in an oxide layer. Since aluminum production is highly energy-intensive, dross recycling is very attractive from both the energy and the economic standpoints. The conventional recycling process using salt rotary furnaces is thermally inefficient and environmentally non-acceptable because of the production of salt slags. Hydro-Quebec has developed and patented a new salt-free technology using a rotary furnace heated by an electric arc between two graphite electrodes, called DROSCAR{reg_sign}. A 600-kW pilot plant in operation at LTEE is in use to demonstrate the process. This process provides aluminum recovery rates over 90%, using a highly energy efficient, environmentally sound production method. In 1994, 400 tonnes of aluminum dross were treated in this facility and several tests on various types of dross have also been conducted in early 1995. A report on the results will be presented.

  20. Rotary ultrasonic motors actuated by traveling flexural waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Grandia, Willem

    1999-06-01

    Efficient miniature actuators that are compact and consume low power are needed to drive space and planetary mechanisms in future NASA missions. Ultrasonic rotary motors have the potential to meet this NASA need and they are developed as actuators for miniature telerobotic applications. These motors have emerged in commercial products but they need to be adapted for operation at the harsh space environments that include cryogenic temperatures and vacuum and also require effective analytical tools for the design of efficient motors. A finite element analytical model was developed to examine the excitation of flexural plate wave traveling in a piezoelectrically actuated rotary motor. The model uses 3D finite element and equivalent circuit models that are applied to predict the excitation frequency and modal response of the stator. This model incorporates the details of the stator including the teeth, piezoelectric ceramic, geometry, bonding layer, etc. The theoretical predictions were corroborated experimentally for the stator. In parallel, efforts have been made to determine the thermal and vacuum performance of these motors. Experiments have shown that the motor can sustain at least 230 temperature cycles from 0 degree(s)C to -90 degree(s)C at 7 Torr pressure significant performance change. Also, in an earlier study the motor lasted over 334 hours at -150 degree(s)C and vacuum. To explore telerobotic applications for USMs a robotic arm was constructed with such motors.

  1. Rotary ultrasonic motors actuated by traveling flexural waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Grandia, Willem

    1998-07-01

    Efficient miniature actuators that are compact and consume low power are needed to drive telerobotic devices and space mechanisms in future NASA missions. Ultrasonic rotary motors have the potential to meet this NASA need and they are developed as actuators for miniature telerobotic applications. The technology that has emerged in commercial products requires rigorous analytical tools for effective design of such motors. A finite element analytical model was developed to examine the excitation of flexural plate wave traveling in a rotary piezoelectrically actuated motor. The model uses annular finite elements that are applied to predict the excitation frequency and modal response of an annular stator. This model is being developed to enable the design of efficient ultrasonic motors (USMs) and it incorporates the details of the stator which include the teeth, piezoelectric crystals, stator geometry, etc. The theoretical predictions were corroborated experimentally for the stator. Parallel to this effect, USMs are made and incorporated into a robotic arm and their capability to operate at the environment of Mars is being studied. Motors with two different actuators layout were tested at cryovac conditions and were shown to operate down to -150 degree(s)C and 16-mTorr when the activation starts at ambient conditions.

  2. Electro thermal analysis of rotary type micro thermal actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, M. Arefin; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran; Ahmed, A. K. Waiz

    2005-09-01

    In micro domain, thermal actuators are favored because it provides higher force and deflection than others. This paper presents a new type of micro thermal actuator that provides rotary motion of the circular disc shaped cold arm, which can be used in various optical applications, such as, switching, attenuation, diffraction, etc. The device has been fabricated in MUMPS technology. In this new design, the hot arms are arranged with the cold disc in such a way that thermal expansion of the hot arms due to Joule heating, will make the cold disc to rotate and the rotation is unidirectional on loading. The dominant heat transfer modes in the operating temperature zone are through the anchor and the air between the structure and the substrate because of the very low gap provided by MUMPS. A mathematical model was used for predicting steady state temperature profile along the actuator length and rotational behavior of the cold disc under different applied voltages. A 3-D coupled field finite element analysis (FEM) for the device is also presented. A FEM analysis was done by defining an air volume around the structure and substrate below the structure. Results obtained from the mathematical model, was compared with that of the finite element analysis. The presented results confirm the applicability of this novel rotary type thermal actuator for many optical MEMS applications.

  3. Miniature electrically tunable rotary dual-focus lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yongchao; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Tong; Chau, Fook Siong; Zhou, Guangya

    2016-03-01

    The emerging dual-focus lenses are drawing increasing attention recently due to their wide applications in both academia and industries, including laser cutting systems, microscopy systems, and interferometer-based surface profilers. In this paper, a miniature electrically tunable rotary dual-focus lens is developed. Such a lens consists of two optical elements, each having an optical flat surface and one freeform surface. The two freeform surfaces are initialized with the governing equation Ar2θ (A is the constant to be determined, r and θ denote the radii and angles in the polar coordinate system) and then optimized by ray tracing technique with additional Zernike polynomial terms for aberration correction. The freeform surfaces are achieved by a single-point diamond turning technique and then a PDMS-based replication process is utilized to materialize the final lens elements. To drive the two coaxial elements to rotate independently, two MEMS thermal rotary actuators are developed and fabricated by a standard MUMPs process. The experimental results show that the MEMS thermal actuator provides a maximum rotation angle of about 8.2 degrees with an input DC voltage of 6.5 V, leading to a wide tuning range for both the two focal lengths of the lens. Specifically, one focal length can be tuned from about 30 mm to 20 mm while the other one can be adjusted from about 30 mm to 60 mm.

  4. Minimization of transient emissions from rotary-kiln incinerators, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, P.M.; Linak, W.P.; McSorley, J.A.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Dunn, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    The paper discusses combining experimental results from a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator simulator with a theoretical model in order to explore the potential of minimizing transient emissions through changes in kiln rotation speed and temperature, steady state oxygen enrichment, and oxygen enrichment in a dynamic mode. Results indicate that transient organic emissions can indeed be minimized by changes in these kiln operating parameters but, because of the complex interactions of physical and chemical processes controlling emissions, the appropriate abatement procedures must be implemented carefully. Transient emissions of organics occur from rotary kiln incinerators when drums containing liquid wastes bound on sorbents are introduced in batches. Physical processes controlling the release of waste from the sorbent material are greatly affected by the rotation speed and temperature of the kiln. Local partial pressure of oxygen influences the rate of oxidation of the puff formed inside the kiln. These physical and chemical phenomena can be used to control transient emissions by oxygen enrichment, where it is done in either a steady or a dynamic mode.

  5. Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills (PARoD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Chang, Zensheu; Donnelly, Chris; Aldrich, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, NASA exploration mission objectives include sample acquisition tasks for in-situ analysis or for potential sample return to Earth. To address the requirements for samplers that could be operated at the conditions of the various bodies in the solar system, a piezoelectric actuated percussive sampling device was developed that requires low preload (as low as 10N) which is important for operation at low gravity. This device can be made as light as 400g, can be operated using low average power, and can drill rocks as hard as basalt. Significant improvement of the penetration rate was achieved by augmenting the hammering action by rotation and use of a fluted bit to provide effective cuttings removal. Generally, hammering is effective in fracturing drilled media while rotation of fluted bits is effective in cuttings removal. To benefit from these two actions, a novel configuration of a percussive mechanism was developed to produce an augmenter of rotary drills. The device was called Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills (PARoD). A breadboard PARoD was developed with a 6.4 mm (0.25 in) diameter bit and was demonstrated to increase the drilling rate of rotation alone by 1.5 to over 10 times. Further, a large PARoD breadboard with 50.8 mm diameter bit was developed and its tests are currently underway. This paper presents the design, analysis and preliminary test results of the percussive augmenter.

  6. Percussive augmenter of rotary drills (PARoD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Chang, Zensheu; Donnelly, Chris; Aldrich, Jack

    2012-04-01

    Increasingly, NASA exploration mission objectives include sample acquisition tasks for in-situ analysis or for potential sample return to Earth. To address the requirements for samplers that could be operated at the conditions of the various bodies in the solar system, a piezoelectric actuated percussive sampling device was developed that requires low preload (as low as 10N) which is important for operation at low gravity. This device can be made as light as 400g, can be operated using low average power, and can drill rocks as hard as basalt. Significant improvement of the penetration rate was achieved by augmenting the hammering action by rotation and use of a fluted bit to provide effective cuttings removal. Generally, hammering is effective in fracturing drilled media while rotation of fluted bits is effective in cuttings removal. To benefit from these two actions, a novel configuration of a percussive mechanism was developed to produce an augmenter of rotary drills. The device was called Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills (PARoD). A breadboard PARoD was developed with a 6.4 mm (0.25 in) diameter bit and was demonstrated to increase the drilling rate of rotation alone by 1.5 to over 10 times. Further, a large PARoD breadboard with 50.8 mm diameter bit was developed and its tests are currently underway. This paper presents the design, analysis and preliminary test results of the percussive augmenter.

  7. UV imprint fabrication of polymeric scales for optical rotary encoders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jucius, D.; Grybas, I.; Grigaliūnas, V.; Mikolajūnas, M.; Lazauskas, A.

    2014-03-01

    Optical encoders are one of the most common displacement sensors. Scale gratings for such sensors are usually made of glass. However, polymers can offer several advantages such as lightweight, low cost fabrication and versatility in structures and grades. In this paper application of UV imprint technique to fabricate polymeric scale gratings for rotary encoders is reported. Experiments are performed by imprinting 3 μm layer of UV sensitive photopolymer coated on the substrate made of 200 μm PET film. Process of UV imprinting caused no problems concerned with mould contamination or sticking to the polymer. Optical microscopy and AFM measurements of replicated polymeric scales have demonstrated the absence of macro-defects and good reproducibility of Si mould features with lateral dimensions down to the order of hundreds of nanometers. Measurements of intensity distribution in transmitted diffraction pattern have showed an effective diffraction with most of the diffracted light intensity concentrated in the zero and first diffraction order as it is required for the application in optical rotary encoders employing interferential scanning principle. Commercialization of UV imprint technology would allow replacement of conventional glass scales at least in those applications where lightweight and low price of encoders are of great importance.

  8. Rotary Motors Actuated by Traveling Ultrasonic Flexural Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Grandia, Willem

    1999-01-01

    Efficient miniature actuators that are compact and consume low power are needed to drive space and planetary mechanisms in future NASA missions. Ultrasonic rotary motors have the potential to meet this NASA need and they are developed as actuators for miniature telerobotic applications. These motors have emerged in commercial products but they need to be adapted for operation at the harsh space environments that include cryogenic temperatures and vacuum and also require effective analytical tools for the design of efficient motors. A finite element analytical model was developed to examine the excitation of flexural plate wave traveling in a piezoelectrically actuated rotary motor. The model uses 3D finite element and equivalent circuit models that are applied to predict the excitation frequency and modal response of the stator. This model incorporates the details of the stator including the teeth, piezoelectric ceramic, geometry, bonding layer, etc. The theoretical predictions were corroborated experimentally for the stator. In parallel, efforts have been made to determine the thermal and vacuum performance of these motors. Experiments have shown that the motor can sustain at least 230 temperature cycles from 0 C to -90 C at 7 Torr pressure significant performance change. Also, in an earlier study the motor lasted over 334 hours at -150 C and vacuum. To explore telerobotic applications for USMs a robotic arm was constructed with such motors.

  9. Comparison of residence time models for cascading rotary dryers

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, W.F.; Langrish, T.A.G.

    1999-04-01

    The predictions of the models of Matchett and Baker (1988), Saeman and Mitchell (1954) and Friedman and Marshall (1949) for the solids residence time in rotary dryers have been compared with both pilot-scale and industrial-scale data. A countercurrent pilot-scale dryer of 0.2m diameter and 2m long has been used with air velocities up to 1.5 m to measure the residence times of sorghum grain. The average discrepancy for the solids residence time between the predictions and the experiments that were carried out in the pilot-scale rotary dryer is {minus}10.4%. Compared with the models of Friedman and Marshall (1949) and Saeman and Mitchell (1954) for the pilot-scale data obtained here, the Matchett and Baker model is more satisfactory for predicting the solids residence time in this pilot-scale dryer. It has also been found that the model of Matchett and Baker describes the industrial data of Saeman and Mitchell (1954) than the correlation of Friedman and Marshall (1949).

  10. Wear compensating seal means for rotary piston coal feeder

    DOEpatents

    Gencsoy, Hasan T.; Gardner, John F.

    1979-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a wear compensating seal arrangement for use in a rotary piston feeder utilized for feeding pulverized coal into a gasifier operating at relatively high pressures and elevated temperatures. The rotary piston feeder has a circular casing with a coal loading opening therein diametrically opposed from a coal discharge and contains a rotatable disoidal rotor having a cylinder in which a reciprocatable piston is disposed. The reciprocation of the piston within the cylinder is provided by a stationary conjugate cam whereby pulverized coal from a coal hopper at atmospheric pressure can be introduced into the cylinder and then discharged therefrom into the high pressure gasifier while maintaining minimal losses of producer gas and the expenditure of minimal energy which would detract from the efficiency of the gasification. The seal arrangement of the present invention is disposed between the rotor and the casing about the coal discharge and prevents the high pressure gases from within the gasifier from escaping between these relatively movable parts during operation of the coal feeder. The seal utilizes a primary seal in contact with the rotor and a secondary seal supporting the primary seal. The primary seal is continuously urged towards the rotor by springs and the high pressure producer gas.

  11. Positive displacement type general-aviation engines: Summary and concluding remarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The activities of programs investigating various aspects of aircraft internal combustion engines are briefly described including developments in fuel injection technology, cooling systems and drag reduction, turbocharger technology, and stratified-charge rotary engines.

  12. Development of a Low-Cost Rotary Steerable Drilling System

    SciTech Connect

    Roney Nazarian

    2012-01-31

    The project had the goal to develop and commercialize a low-cost rotary steerable system (LCRSS) capable of operating downhole at conventional pressures and temperatures to reduce operating costs by a minimum of 50% and lost-in-hole charges by at least 50% over the currently offered systems. The LCRSS system developed under this project does reduce operating costs by 55% and lost-in-hole charges by at least 50%. The developed product is not commercializable in its current form. The overall objective was to develop and commercialize a low cost rotary steerable system (LCRSS) capable of operating downhole at conventional pressures and temperatures (20,000 psi/150 C) while reducing the operating costs by 50% and the lost-in-hole charges by 50% over the currently available systems. The proposed reduction in costs were to be realized through the significant reduction in tool complexity, a corresponding increase in tool reliability as expressed in the mean-time between failure (MTBF), and a reduction in the time and costs required to service tools after each field operation. Ultimately, the LCRSS system was to be capable of drilling 7 7/8 in. to 9 5/8 in. borehole diameters. The project was divided into three Phases, of which Phases I & II were previously completed and reported on, and are part of the case file. Therefore, the previously reported information is not repeated herein. Phase III included the fabrication of two field ready prototypes that were to be subjected to a series of drilling tests at GTI Catoosa, DOE RMOTC, and at customer partnering wells, if possible, as appropriate in the timing of the field test objectives to fully exercise all elements of the LCRSS. These tests were conducted in an iterative process based on a performance/reliability improvement cycle with the goal of demonstrating the system met all aspects required for commercial viability. These tests were conducted to achieve continuous runs of 100+ hours with well trajectories that fully

  13. Mechanically Induced g-Jitter from Space Station Rotary Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boucher, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    The mission of the International Space Station is to provide a working laboratory in orbit for research in engineering, life sciences, and microgravity. Among the microgravity disciplines that are preparing to utilize this international resource are materials processing, combustion, fluid dynamics, biotechnology, and fundamental physics. The Station promises to enable significant advances in each of these areas by making available a research facility in which gravitational and other accelerations, and their corresponding buoyancy and diffusion effects on various physical processes, are orders of magnitude lower than they are on Earth. In order to fulfill this promise, it is not enough for the Space Station to simply replicate a typical terrestrial scientific laboratory in orbit. Although an orbiting laboratory is free of most of the effects of gravitational acceleration by virtue of its free fall condition, it also produces structural vibration or jitter that can interfere with the processes under study. To ensure the quality of the acceleration environment and enable a successful mission, the Space Station Program has limited potential disturbances in two ways: first, by isolating the most sensitive payloads from the vehicle structure, and second, by quieting major disturbances at their sources. The first area, payload isolation, is implemented inside the pressurized modules at the rack level. Sub-rack level isolators have also been developed. This paper addresses the second area, disturbance source limits, for one of the major sources of mechanical noise on the Space Station: the Solar Alpha Rotary Joints. Due to the potential for large disturbances to the microgravity environment, an initial analytical prediction of rotary joint vibration output was made. Key components were identified and tested to validate the analytical predictions. Based on the component test results, the final vibration output of the joints was verified by a test on each fully assembled

  14. Ejector device for direct injection fuel jet

    DOEpatents

    Upatnieks, Ansis

    2006-05-30

    Disclosed is a device for increasing entrainment and mixing in an air/fuel zone of a direct fuel injection system. The device comprises an ejector nozzle in the form of an inverted funnel whose central axis is aligned along the central axis of a fuel injector jet and whose narrow end is placed just above the jet outlet. It is found that effective ejector performance is achieved when the ejector geometry is adjusted such that it comprises a funnel whose interior surface diverges about 7.degree. to about 9.degree. away from the funnel central axis, wherein the funnel inlet diameter is about 2 to about 3 times the diameter of the injected fuel plume as the fuel plume reaches the ejector inlet, and wherein the funnel length equal to about 1 to about 4 times the ejector inlet diameter. Moreover, the ejector is most effectively disposed at a separation distance away from the fuel jet equal to about 1 to about 2 time the ejector inlet diameter.

  15. NOx Sensor for Direct Injection Emission Control

    SciTech Connect

    Betteridge, William J

    2006-02-28

    The Electricore/Delphi team continues to leverage the electrochemical planar sensor technology that has produced stoichiometric planar and wide range oxygen sensors as the basis for development of a NOx sensor. Zirconia cell technology with an integrated heater will provide the foundation for the sensor structure. Proven materials and packaging technology will help to ensure a cost-effective approach to the manufacture of this sensor. The electronics technique and interface is considered to be an area where new strategies need to be employed to produce higher S/N ratios of the NOx signal with emphasis on signal stability over time for robustness and durability Both continuous mode and pulse mode control techniques are being evaluated. Packaging the electronics requires careful design and circuit partitioning so that only the necessary signal conditioning electronics are coupled directly in the wiring harness, while the remainder is situated within the ECM for durability and costs reasons. This task continues to be on hold due to the limitation that the definition of the interface electronics was unavailable until very late in the project. The sense element is based on the amperometric method utilizing integrated alumina and zirconia ceramics. Precious metal electrodes are used to form the integrated heater, the cell electrodes and leads. Inside the actual sense cell structure, it is first necessary to separate NOx from the remaining oxygen constituents of the exhaust, without reducing the NOx. Once separated, the NOx will be measured using a measurement cell. Development or test coupons have been used to facilitate material selection and refinement, cell, diffusion barrier, and chamber development. The sense element currently requires elaborate interconnections. To facilitate a robust durable connection, mechanical and metallurgical connections are under investigation. Materials and process refinements continue to play an important role in the development of the sensor.

  16. Compressibility of tungsten and molybdenum bars during rotary swaging and rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkov, L. A.; Mymrin, S. A.; Samodurova, M. N.; Dzhigun, N. S.; Latfulina, Yu. S.

    2015-05-01

    The compressibility of bars and hydraulically forged workpieces made of tungsten and molybdenum is studied during rotary swaging and rolling in mills with two-, three-, and four-roll passes. The compressibility of molybdenum MCh bars and hydraulically forged molybdenum M-MP workpieces is investigated during rotary swaging and rolling in three- and four-roll passes. The compressibility of tungsten VA and VL bars and hydraulically forged tungsten V-MP workpieces is investigated during rotary swaging and rolling in three- and four-roll passes. The compressibility of the hydraulically forged tungsten V-MP workpieces is analyzed under two- and four-roll pass rolling conditions.

  17. A ferrofluidic seal specially designed for rotary blood pumps.

    PubMed

    Mitamura, Y; Fujiyoshi, M; Yoshida, T; Yozu, R; Okamoto, E; Tanaka, T; Kawada, S

    1996-06-01

    One of the key technologies required for rotary blood pumps is sealing of the motor shaft. A ferrofluidic seal was developed for an axial flow pump. The seal body was composed of a plastic magnet and two pole pieces. This seal was formed by injecting ferrofluid into the gap between the pole pieces and the motor shaft. To contain the ferrofluid in the seal and to minimize the possibility of ferrofluid making contact with blood, a shield with a small cavity was provided on the pole piece. Sealing pressure of the seal was measured. The sealing pressure was maintained at more than 23.3 kPa (175 mm Hg) for a motor speed up to 11,000 rpm. The specially designed ferrofluidic seal for sealing out liquids is useful for axial flow blood pumps.

  18. Low torque hydrodynamic lip geometry for rotary seals

    SciTech Connect

    Dietle, Lannie L.; Schroeder, John E.

    2015-07-21

    A hydrodynamically lubricating geometry for the generally circular dynamic sealing lip of rotary seals that are employed to partition a lubricant from an environment. The dynamic sealing lip is provided for establishing compressed sealing engagement with a relatively rotatable surface, and for wedging a film of lubricating fluid into the interface between the dynamic sealing lip and the relatively rotatable surface in response to relative rotation that may occur in the clockwise or the counter-clockwise direction. A wave form incorporating an elongated dimple provides the gradual convergence, efficient impingement angle, and gradual interfacial contact pressure rise that are conducive to efficient hydrodynamic wedging. Skewed elevated contact pressure zones produced by compression edge effects provide for controlled lubricant movement within the dynamic sealing interface between the seal and the relatively rotatable surface, producing enhanced lubrication and low running torque.

  19. Adaptive structures for fixed and rotary wing aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Willi; Jänker, Peter; Siemetzki, Markus; Lorkowski, Thomas; Grohmann, Boris; Maier, Rudolf; Maucher, Christoph; Klöppel, Valentin; Enenkl, Bernhard; Roth, Dieter; Hansen, Heinz

    2007-07-01

    Since more than 10 years EADS Innovation Works, which is the corporate research centre of EADS (European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company), is investigating smart materials and adaptive structures for aircraft in cooperation with EADS business units. Focus of research efforts are adaptive systems for shape control, noise reduction and vibration control of both fixed and rotary wing aircraft as well as for lift optimisation of fixed wing aircraft. Two outstanding adaptive systems which have been pushed ahead in cooperation with Airbus Germany and Eurocopter Germany are adaptive servo flaps for helicopter rotor blades and innovative high lift devices for fixed wing aircraft which both were tested in flight for the first time representing world premieres. In this paper various examples of adaptive systems are presented which were developed and realized by EADS in recent years.

  20. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Two Rotary Wing UAV Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Henry E.; Wong, Oliver D.; Noonan, Kevin W.; Reis, Deane G.; Malovrh, Brendon D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of two rotary-wing UAV designs. The primary goal of the investigation was to provide a set of interactional aerodynamic data for an emerging class of rotorcraft. The present paper provides an overview of the test and an introduction to the test articles, and instrumentation. Sample data in the form of a parametric study of fixed system lift and drag coefficient response to changes in configuration and flight condition for both rotor off and on conditions are presented. The presence of the rotor is seen to greatly affect both the character and magnitude of the response. The affect of scaled stores on body drag is observed to be dependent on body shape.

  1. AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO ROTARY WING UAV DESIGNS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Henry E.; Wong, Oliver D.; Noonan, Kevin W.; Reis, Deane G.; Malovrh, Brendon D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of two rotary-wing UAV designs. The primary goal of the investigation was to provide a set of interactional aerodynamic data for an emerging class of rotorcraft. The present paper provides an overview of the test and an introduction to the test articles, and instrumentation. Sample data in the form of a parametric study of fixed system lift and drag coefficient response to changes in configuration and flight condition for both rotor off and on conditions are presented. The presence of the rotor is seen to greatly affect both the character and magnitude of the response. The affect of scaled stores on body drag is observed to be dependent on body shape.

  2. Tritium test of a ferro-fluidic rotary seal

    SciTech Connect

    Antipenkov, A.; Day, C.; Adami, H. D.

    2008-07-15

    The ferro-fluidic seal is being investigated as an internal rotary seal for tritium compatible mechanical roots type vacuum pumps. After its successful testing with helium and integration into a small (250 m{sup 3}/h) test roots pump, the seal, made as a cartridge, has been integrated into a special test unit and is currently being tested with tritium in order to define the leak rates and the possible degradation of the ferro-fluid under long term exposure to tritium radiation. The tritium pressure from one side of the seal is 0.125 MPa, the nitrogen pressure from the other side is 0.075 MPa, the rotation speed is maintained at 1500 rpm. The tritium leak through the cartridge contributes to the tritium concentration in the nitrogen, which is continuously measured by an ionisation chamber; the pressure in both chambers is continuously registered by precise pressure gauges. The experimental program is discussed. (authors)

  3. Design of a rotary passive viscoelastic joint for wearable robots.

    PubMed

    Carpino, Giorgio; Accoto, Dino; Di Palo, Michelangelo; Tagliamonte, Nevio Luigi; Sergi, Fabrizio; Guglielmelli, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    In the design of wearable robots that strictly interact with the human body and, in general, in any robotics application that involves the human component, the possibility of having modular joints able to produce a viscoelastic behaviour is very useful to achieve an efficient and safe human-robot interaction and to give rise to emergent dynamical behaviors. In this paper we propose the design of a compact, passive, rotary viscoelastic joint for assistive wearable robotics applications. The system integrates two functionally distinct sub-modules: one to render a desired torsional stiffness profile and the other to provide a desired torsional damping. Concepts and design choices regarding the overall architecture and the single components are presented and discussed. A viscoelastic model of the system has been developed and the design of the joint is presented.

  4. Classification of Implantable Rotary Blood Pump States With Class Noise.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Hui-Lee; Seera, Manjeevan; Ng, Siew-Cheok; Lim, Chee Peng; Loo, Chu Kiong; Lovell, Nigel H; Redmond, Stephen J; Lim, Einly

    2016-05-01

    A medical case study related to implantable rotary blood pumps is examined. Five classifiers and two ensemble classifiers are applied to process the signals collected from the pumps for the identification of the aortic valve nonopening pump state. In addition to the noise-free datasets, up to 40% class noise has been added to the signals to evaluate the classification performance when mislabeling is present in the classifier training set. In order to ensure a reliable diagnostic model for the identification of the pump states, classifications performed with and without class noise are evaluated. The multilayer perceptron emerged as the best performing classifier for pump state detection due to its high accuracy as well as robustness against class noise.

  5. TESTING OF THE SECOND GENERATION SPINTEK ROTARY FILTER -11357

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, D.; Poirier, M.; Fowley, M.; Keefer, M.; Huff, T.

    2011-02-02

    The SpinTek rotary microfilter has been developed under the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) for the purpose of deployment in radioactive service in the DOE complex. The unit that was fabricated and tested is the second generation of the filter that incorporates recommended improvements from previous testing. The completion of this test satisfied a key milestone for the EM technology development program and technology readiness for deployment by Savannah River Remediation in the Small Column Ion Exchange and Sludge Washing processes at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) contracted SpinTek Filtration to fabricate a full scale 25 disk rotary filter and perform a 1000 hour endurance test with a simulated SRS sludge. Over 1500 hours of operation have been completed with the filter. SpinTek Filtration fabricated a prototypic 25 disk rotary filter including updates to manufacturing tolerances, an updated design to the rotary joint, improved cooling to the bottom journal, decreases in disk and filter shaft hydraulic resistances. The filter disks were fabricated with 0.5 {micro} pore size, sintered-metal filter media manufactured by Pall Corporation (M050). After fabrication was complete, the filter passed acceptance tests demonstrating rejection of solids and clean water flux with a 50% improvement over the previous filters. Once the acceptance test was complete, a 1000 hour endurance test was initiated simulating a sludge washing process. The test used a simulated SRS Sludge Batch 6 recipe. The insoluble solids started at 5 wt% and were raised to 10 and 15 wt% insoluble solids to simulate the concentration of a large volume tank. The filter system was automated and set up for 24 hour unattended operation. To facilitate this, process control logic was written to operate the filter. During the development it was demonstrated that the method of starting and stopping the filter can affect the build

  6. A dynamic analysis of rotary combustion engine seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, J.; Vilmann, C. R.; Schock, H. J.; Stumpf, R. P.

    1984-01-01

    Real time work cell pressures are incorporated into a dynamic analysis of the gas sealing grid in Rotary Combustion Engines. The analysis which utilizes only first principal concepts accounts for apex seal separation from the crochoidal bore, apex seal shifting between the sides of its restraining channel, and apex seal rotation within the restraining channel. The results predict that apex seals do separate from the trochoidal bore and shift between the sides of their channels. The results also show that these two motions are regularly initiated by a seal rotation. The predicted motion of the apex seals compares favorably with experimental results. Frictional losses associated with the sealing grid are also calculated and compare well with measurements obtained in a similar engine. A comparison of frictional losses when using steel and carbon apex seals has also been made as well as friction losses for single and dual side sealing.

  7. Application of the Finite Element Method to Rotary Wing Aeroelasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straub, F. K.; Friedmann, P. P.

    1982-01-01

    A finite element method for the spatial discretization of the dynamic equations of equilibrium governing rotary-wing aeroelastic problems is presented. Formulation of the finite element equations is based on weighted Galerkin residuals. This Galerkin finite element method reduces algebraic manipulative labor significantly, when compared to the application of the global Galerkin method in similar problems. The coupled flap-lag aeroelastic stability boundaries of hingeless helicopter rotor blades in hover are calculated. The linearized dynamic equations are reduced to the standard eigenvalue problem from which the aeroelastic stability boundaries are obtained. The convergence properties of the Galerkin finite element method are studied numerically by refining the discretization process. Results indicate that four or five elements suffice to capture the dynamics of the blade with the same accuracy as the global Galerkin method.

  8. Synthetic aggregates from combustion ashes using an innovative rotary kiln.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, P J; Cresswell, D J

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a number of different combustion ashes to manufacture synthetic aggregates using an innovative rotary 'Trefoil' kiln. Three types of combustion ash were used, namely: incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA); municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWIBA-- referred to here as BA); and pulverised fuel ash (Pfa). The fine waste ash fractions listed above were combined with a binder to create a plastic mix that was capable of being formed into 'green pellets'. These pellets were then fired in a Trefoil kiln to sinter the ashes into hard fused aggregates that were then tested for use as a replacement for the natural coarse aggregate in concrete. Results up to 28 days showed that these synthetic aggregates were capable of producing concretes with compressive strengths ranging from 33 to 51 MPa, equivalent to between 73 and 112% of that of the control concrete made with natural aggregates.

  9. Real-Time Prognostics of a Rotary Valve Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Valves are used in many domains and often have system-critical functions. As such, it is important to monitor the health of valves and their actuators and predict remaining useful life. In this work, we develop a model-based prognostics approach for a rotary valve actuator. Due to limited observability of the component with multiple failure modes, a lumped damage approach is proposed for estimation and prediction of damage progression. In order to support the goal of real-time prognostics, an approach to prediction is developed that does not require online simulation to compute remaining life, rather, a function mapping the damage state to remaining useful life is found offline so that predictions can be made quickly online with a single function evaluation. Simulation results demonstrate the overall methodology, validating the lumped damage approach and demonstrating real-time prognostics.

  10. Solid state lighting devices and methods with rotary cooling structures

    DOEpatents

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2017-03-21

    Solid state lighting devices and methods for heat dissipation with rotary cooling structures are described. An example solid state lighting device includes a solid state light source, a rotating heat transfer structure in thermal contact with the solid state light source, and a mounting assembly having a stationary portion. The mounting assembly may be rotatably coupled to the heat transfer structure such that at least a portion of the mounting assembly remains stationary while the heat transfer structure is rotating. Examples of methods for dissipating heat from electrical devices, such as solid state lighting sources are also described. Heat dissipation methods may include providing electrical power to a solid state light source mounted to and in thermal contact with a heat transfer structure, and rotating the heat transfer structure through a surrounding medium.

  11. Maintenance cost study of rotary wing aircraft, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The Navy's maintenance and materials management data base was used in a study to determine the feasibility of predicting unscheduled maintenance costs for the dynamic systems of military rotary wing aircraft. The major operational and design variables were identified and the direct maintenance man hours per flight hour were obtained by step-wise multiple regression analysis. Five nonmilitary helicopter users were contacted to supply data on which variables were important factors in civil applications. These uses included offshore oil exploration and support, police and fire department rescue and enforcement, logging and heavy equipment movement, and U.S. Army military operations. The equations developed were highly effective in predicting unscheduled direct maintenance man hours per flying hours for military aircraft, but less effective for commercial or public service helicopters, probably because of the longer mission durations and the much higher utilization of civil users.

  12. Design and experiment performances of an inchworm type rotary actuator.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianping; Zhao, Hongwei; Shao, Mingkun; Zhou, Xiaoqin; Huang, Hu; Fan, Zunqiang

    2014-08-01

    A piezo-driven rotary actuator by means of inchworm principle is proposed in this paper. Six piezo-stacks and flexure hinges are used to realize large rotation ranges with high accuracy both in the forward and backward motions. Four right-angle flexure hinges and two right-circular flexure hinges are applied in the stator. The motion principle and theoretical analysis of the designed actuator are discussed. In order to investigate the working characteristics, a prototype actuator was manufactured and a series of experiment tests were carried out. The test results indicate that the maximum rotation velocity is 71,300 μrad/s; the maximum output torque is 19.6 N mm. The experiment results confirm that the designed actuator can obtain large rotation motion ranges with relatively high output torques and different rotation speeds on the condition of different driving voltages and frequencies.

  13. History, a projection of the future: A rotary wing perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    The success and failure of past vehicle concepts is reviewed in an attempt to highlight some of the advanced vehicle concepts attempted in the past failed because of a lack of appreciation, by both the sponsors and the developer, for the technical and societal requirements critical to their success. This paper will review the history of some attempts to provide both good hover and forward flight efficiency and will point out some of the technical and societal obstacles encountered. Two examples, that of the tiltrotor and tiltwing vehicles. will be highlighted show the different paths followed by a successful and an unsuccessful concept. The outlook for future VTOL/rotary wing concepts will be evaluated.

  14. Rim for rotary inertial energy storage device and method

    DOEpatents

    Knight, Jr., Charles E.; Pollard, Roy E.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved rim or a high-performance rotary inertial energy storage device (flywheel). The improved rim is fabricated from resin impregnated filamentary material which is circumferentially wound in a side-by-side relationship to form a plurality of discretely and sequentially formed concentric layers of filamentary material that are bound together in a resin matrix. The improved rim is provided by prestressing the filamentary material in each successive layer to a prescribed tension loading in accordance with a predetermined schedule during the winding thereof and then curing the resin in each layer prior to forming the next layer for providing a prestress distribution within the rim to effect a self-equilibrating compressive prestress within the windings which counterbalances the transverse or radial tensile stresses generated during rotation of the rim for inhibiting deleterious delamination problems.

  15. Estimation of Rotary Stability Derivatives at Subsonic and Transonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobak, Murray; Lessing, Henry C.

    1961-01-01

    The first part of this paper pertains to the estimation of subsonic rotary stability derivatives of wings. The unsteady potential flow problem is solved by a superposition of steady flow solutions. Numerical results for the damping coefficients of triangular wings are presented as functions of aspect ratio and Mach number, and are compared with experimental results over the Mach number range 0 to 1. In the second part, experimental results are used. to point out a close correlation between the nonlinear variations with angle of attack of the static pitching-moment curve slope and the damping-in-pitch coefficient. The underlying basis for the correlation is found as a result of an analysis in which the indicial function concept and. the principle of super-position are adapted to apply to the nonlinear problem. The form of the result suggests a method of estimating nonlinear damping coefficients from results of static wind-tunnel measurements.

  16. Connecting apparatus for limited rotary or rectilinear motion

    DOEpatents

    Hardin, Jr., Roy T.

    1981-11-10

    Apparatus for providing connection between two members movable in a horizontal plane with respect to each other in a rotary or linear fashion. The apparatus includes a set of horizontal shelves affixed to each of the two members, vertically aligned across a selected gap. A number of cables or hoses, for electrical, hydraulic or pneumatic connection are arranged on the aligned shelves in a U-shaped loop, connected through their extremities to the two members, so that through a sliding motion portions of the cable are transferred from one shelf to the other, across the gap, upon relative motion of the members. The apparatus is particularly adaptable to the rotating plugs of the reactor vessel head of a nuclear reactor.

  17. Rotary Percussive Sample Acquisition Tool (SAT): Hardware Development and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Kerry; Badescu, Mircea; Haddad, Nicolas; Shiraishi, Lori; Walkemeyer, Phillip

    2012-01-01

    In support of a potential Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission an Integrated Mars Sample Acquisition and Handling (IMSAH) architecture has been proposed to provide a means for Rover-based end-to-end sample capture and caching. A key enabling feature of the architecture is the use of a low mass sample Acquisition Tool (SAT) that is capable of drilling and capturing rock cores directly within a sample tube in order to maintain sample integrity and prevent contamination across the sample chain. As such, this paper will describe the development and testing of a low mass rotary percussive SAT that has been shown to provide a means for core generation, fracture, and capture.

  18. Rotary forcespun styrofoam fibers as a soilless growing medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauzi, Ahmad; Edikresnha, Dhewa; Munir, Muhammad Miftahul; Khairurrijal

    2016-04-01

    To make styrofoam fibers from used styrofoam, rotary forcespinning technique was used because it offers high production rate and affordable production cost. The used styrofoam was dissolved in acetone to obtain styrofoam solution as a precursor of syrofoam fibers. Since the technique utilizes centrifugal force, the precursor was thrown out and its phase changed to be solid following acetone solvent evaporation. Long, clean and light styrofoam fibers were then produced. To determine if the styrofoam fibers is a good soilless growing medium, physico-chemical properties including pH and electrical conductivity, bulk density, water retention and wettability were measured. Rockwool, which is the most popular soilless growing medium and easily obtained from local farm suppliers, was selected as a benchmark to evaluate the styrofoam fibers.

  19. High pressure rotary piston coal feeder for coal gasification applications

    DOEpatents

    Gencsoy, Hasan T.

    1977-05-24

    The subject development is directed to an apparatus for feeding pulverized coal into a coal gasifier operating at relatively high pressures and elevated temperatures. This apparatus is a rotary piston feeder which comprises a circular casing having a coal loading opening therein diametrically opposed from a coal discharge and contains a rotatable discoid rotor having a cylinder in which a reciprocateable piston is disposed. The reciprocation of the piston within the cylinder is provided by a stationary conjugate cam arrangement whereby the pulverized coal from a coal hopper at atmospheric pressure can be introduced into the cylinder cavity and then discharged therefrom into the high-pressure gasifier without the loss of high pressure gases from within the latter.

  20. Experimental Study on Doubly-fed Rotary Frequency Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemoto, Yasutoshi; Fujita, Goro; Yokoyama, Ryuichi; Koyanagi, Kaoru; Funabashi, Toshihisa

    Wind power generation using an unlimited, natural energy is getting an attention regarding environment issues in recent years, and the installed capacity of wind power generation system is increasing at a rapid pace, resulting in deterioration of power quality especially in frequency and voltage. This fact will be a big problem to restrict large capacity of wind farm. This paper proposes a new frequency converter: rotary frequency converter (RFC) to moderate the electric output from wind generation, which is to be installed between a set of wind generators and a grid, providing a smoothed electric output, promoting the wind power generation introduction. This mainly consists of a synchronous machine and the adjustable-speed machine. Independent controls of input/output voltage, active power, and reactive power offer electrical separation between the two networks. Experimental study of prototype model and its characteristics, especially dynamic control is discussed in this paper.

  1. Theoretical and experimental study on regenerative rotary displacer Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Raggi, L.; Katsuta, Masafumi; Isshiki, Naotsugu; Isshiki, Seita

    1997-12-31

    Recently a quite new type of hot air engine called rotary displacer engine, in which the displacer is a rotating disk enclosed in a cylinder, has been conceived and developed. The working gas, contained in a notch excavated in the disk, is heated and cooled alternately, on account of the heat transferred through the enclosing cylinder that is heated at one side and cooled at the opposite one. The gas temperature oscillations cause the pressure fluctuations that get out mechanical power acting on a power piston. In order to attempt to increase the performances for this kind of engine, the authors propose three different regeneration methods. The first one comprises two coaxial disks that, revolving in opposite ways, cause a temperature gradient on the cylinder wall and a regenerative axial heat conduction through fins shaped on the cylinder inner wall. The other two methods are based on the heat transferred by a proper closed circuit that in one case has a circulating liquid inside and in the other one is formed by several heat pipes working each one for different temperatures. An engine based on the first principle, the Regenerative Tandem Contra-Rotary Displacer Stirling Engine, has been realized and experimented. In this paper experimental results with and without regeneration are reported comparatively with a detailed description of the unity. A basic explanation of the working principle of this engine and a theoretical analysis investigating the main influential parameters for the regenerative effect are done. This new rotating displacer Stirling engines, for their simplicity, are expected to attain high rotational speed especially for applications as demonstration and hobby unities.

  2. Rotary Steerable Horizontal Directional Drilling: Red River Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherukupally, A.; Bergevin, M.; Jones, J.

    2011-12-01

    Sperry-Sun Drilling, a Halliburton company provides engineering solutions and sets new records for Horizontal and Vertical Displacement Drilling (HVDD). Halliburton Sperry Drilling, Casper, WY, allowed one student to participate in 12-week experiential learning program this summer as HVDD engineer. HVDD is the science of drilling non-vertical wells and can be differentiated into three main groups; Oilfield Directional Drilling (ODD), Utility Installation Directional Drilling (UIDD) and in-seam directional Drilling. Sperry-Sun prior experience with rotary drilling established a number of principles for the configuration of Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) that would be prone to drilling crooked hole [1]. Combining Measurement While Drilling survey tools (MWD tools) and BHA designs made HVDD possible. Geologists use the MWD survey data to determine the well placement in the stratigraphic sequence. Through the analysis of this data, an apparent dip of the formation can be calculated, and the bit is directed to stay in the target zone of production. Geological modeling assists in directing the well by creating a map of the target zone surface, an Isopach map. The Isopach map provides contour intervals and changes in formation dip. When the inclination of the formation changes the geologist informs the directional drillers to adjust the drill bits. HVDD provides Halliburton the opportunity to reach more production intervals in a given formation sequence [1]. The Down hole motors powered by fluid flow through the drill string create horsepower and rotation of the bit which enables the use of a bend element in the BHA to create the tilt necessary to deviate the wellbore from vertical displacement drilling path. The rotation of Down hole motors is influenced by temperature and aromatics found in water, oil and diesel based mud. The development of HVDD Rotary Steerable tools hold promise to have almost a complete automated process for drilling highly deviated production well

  3. Development of rotary blood pump technology: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Nosé, Y; Yoshikawa, M; Murabayashi, S; Takano, T

    2000-06-01

    Even though clinical acceptance of a nonpulsatile blood flow was demonstrated almost 45 years ago, the development of a nonpulsatile blood pump was completely ignored until 20 years ago. In 1979, the first author's group demonstrated that completely pulseless animals did not exhibit any abnormal physiology if 20% higher blood flows were provided to them. However, during the next 10 years (1979-1988), minimum efforts were provided for the development of a nonpulsatile, permanently implantable cardiac prosthesis. In 1989, the first author and his team at Baylor College of Medicine initiated a developmental strategy of various types of nonpulsatile rotary blood pumps, including a 2-day rotary blood pump for cardiopulmonary bypass application, a 2 week pump for ECMO and short-term circulatory assistance, a 2 year pump as a bridge to transplantation, and a permanently implantable cardiac prosthesis. Following the design and developmental strategy established in 1989, successful development of a 2-day pump (the Nikkiso-Fairway cardiopulmonary bypass pump) in 4 years (1989-1993), a 2 week pump (Kyocera gyro G1E3 pump) in 6 years (1992-1998), and a bridge to transplant pump (DeBakey LVAD-an axial flow blood pump) in 10 years (1988-1998) was made. Currently, a permanently implantable centrifugal blood pump development program is successfully completing its initial Phase 1 program of 5 years (1995-2000). Implantation exceeded 9 months without any negative findings. An additional 5 year Phase II program (2000-2005) is expected to complete such a device that will be clinically available.

  4. Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills (PARoD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Hasenoehrl, Jennifer; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Chang, Zensheu; Ostlund, Patrick; Aldrich, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, NASA exploration mission objectives include sample acquisition tasks for in-situ analysis or for potential sample return to Earth. To address the requirements for samplers that could be operated at the conditions of the various bodies in the solar system, a piezoelectric actuated percussive sampling device was developed that requires low preload (as low as 10 N) which is important for operation at low gravity. This device can be made as light as 400 g, can be operated using low average power, and can drill rocks as hard as basalt. Significant improvement of the penetration rate was achieved by augmenting the hammering action by rotation and use of a fluted bit to provide effective cuttings removal. Generally, hammering is effective in fracturing drilled media while rotation of fluted bits is effective in cuttings removal. To benefit from these two actions, a novel configuration of a percussive mechanism was developed to produce an augmenter of rotary drills. The device was called Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills (PARoD). A breadboard PARoD was developed with a 6.4 mm (0.25 in) diameter bit and was demonstrated to increase the drilling rate of rotation alone by 1.5 to over 10 times. The test results of this configuration were published in a previous publication. Further, a larger PARoD breadboard with a 50.8 mm (2.0 in) diameter bit was developed and tested. This paper presents the design, analysis and test results of the large diameter bit percussive augmenter.

  5. Percussive augmenter of rotary drills (PARoD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Hasenoehrl, Jennifer; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Chang, Zensheu; Ostlund, Patrick; Aldrich, Jack

    2013-04-01

    Increasingly, NASA exploration mission objectives include sample acquisition tasks for in-situ analysis or for potential sample return to Earth. To address the requirements for samplers that could be operated at the conditions of the various bodies in the solar system, a piezoelectric actuated percussive sampling device was developed that requires low preload (as low as 10N) which is important for operation at low gravity. This device can be made as light as 400g, can be operated using low average power, and can drill rocks as hard as basalt. Significant improvement of the penetration rate was achieved by augmenting the hammering action by rotation and use of a fluted bit to provide effective cuttings removal. Generally, hammering is effective in fracturing drilled media while rotation of fluted bits is effective in cuttings removal. To benefit from these two actions, a novel configuration of a percussive mechanism was developed to produce an augmenter of rotary drills. The device was called Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills (PARoD). A breadboard PARoD was developed with a 6.4 mm (0.25 in) diameter bit and was demonstrated to increase the drilling rate of rotation alone by 1.5 to over 10 times. The test results of this configuration were published in a previous publication. Further, a larger PARoD breadboard with a 50.8 mm (2.0 in) diameter bit was developed and tested. This paper presents the design, analysis and test results of the large diameter bit percussive augmenter.

  6. Evaluation of single-use rotary nickel-titanium instruments.

    PubMed

    Arens, F Charles; Hoen, Michael M; Steiman, H Robert; Dietz, Gerald C

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the number and types of defects observed in single-use, rotary nickel-titanium instruments. Every ProFile Series 29.04 taper nickel-titanium instrument used during a 4-week period in an endodontic specialty practice was collected. All instruments were new and were used by experienced clinicians during a single patient visit. The instruments were routinely used in a crown-down manner with RC Prep lubrication and copious irrigation. The instruments were used in a MicroMega 324 air motor in a 6:1 gear reduction contra-angle at 333 rpm. The instruments were collected, ultrasonically cleaned, sterilized, and inspected at x16 magnification. Torsional, flexural, and fracture defects were recorded and statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance. A total of 786 ProFile Series 29 nickel-titanium rotary instruments were evaluated; 115 (14.63%) showed some type of defect after one clinical use. Size 3 instruments had the highest defect rate (22.66%) followed by size 5 (17.30%), size 2 (17.24%), and size 4 instruments (16.10%). However, there was no statistically significant difference. The size 6 and size 7 instruments showed minimal defects (2.38% and 4.76%, respectfully). Seven of 786 files had fractured (0.891%). There was no statistically significant difference in the type of failure seen within each file size. This study does show that defects can occur even with new files in the hands of experienced endodontists, and for absolute safety a single-use approach should be followed.

  7. Determination of three-dimensional movement for rotary blades using digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Rong; Chen, Yue; Pan, Yanting; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2015-02-01

    Non-contact and accurate motion measurement of the rotary objects is crucial in engineering applications. A modified Newton-Raphson algorithm, which is capable of positioning marks with large rotation, has been proposed. A stereo imaging system with a pair of synchronized digital high-speed cameras was developed and achieved full-field displacement measurement based on 3D image correlation photogrammetry for rotary objects. This system has been applied to measuring the 3D motion of a wind turbine blade model. The displacement components of the rotary blade were presented, and the corresponding frequency spectra were investigated. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed system could measure the 3D motion of rotary blades precisely, and it also provided an alternative potential non-contact diagnosis means for large wind turbine blades.

  8. A chemically powered unidirectional rotary molecular motor based on a palladium redox cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Beatrice S. L.; Kistemaker, Jos C. M.; Otten, Edwin; Feringa, Ben L.

    2016-09-01

    The conversion of chemical energy to drive directional motion at the molecular level allows biological systems, ranging from subcellular components to whole organisms, to perform a myriad of dynamic functions and respond to changes in the environment. Directional movement has been demonstrated in artificial molecular systems, but the fundamental motif of unidirectional rotary motion along a single-bond rotary axle induced by metal-catalysed transformation of chemical fuels has not been realized, and the challenge is to couple the metal-centred redox processes to stepwise changes in conformation to arrive at a full unidirectional rotary cycle. Here, we present the design of an organopalladium-based motor and the experimental demonstration of a 360° unidirectional rotary cycle using simple chemical fuels. Exploiting fundamental reactivity principles in organometallic chemistry enables control of directional rotation and offers the potential of harnessing the wealth of opportunities offered by transition-metal-based catalytic conversions to drive motion and dynamic functions.

  9. A COMPARISON OF IN-SITU VITRIFICATION AND ROTARY KILN INCINERATION FOR SOILS TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the hazardous waste community, the term "thermal destruction" is a catch-all phrase that broadly refers to high temperature destruction of hazardous contaminants. ncluded in the thermal destruction category are treatment technologies such as rotary kiln incineration, fluidized...

  10. Design and simulation of a novel impact piezoelectric linear-rotary motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Liling; Zhao, Yahui; Pan, Chengliang; Yu, Liandong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel impact piezoelectric linear-rotary motor which is driven by a single piezoceramic tube with two parts of electrodes. From the inner and outer electrodes, longitudinal displacement of the tube is generated and used to actuate the shaft with linear motion ability. From the grooved helical interdigitated electrodes, torsional displacement is generated and used to actuate the shaft with rotary motion ability. Working principle and structural design of the motor are introduced and quasi-static longitudinal and torsional displacements of the tube are estimated. With established kinematics model of the motor, the working behaviors of the motor are investigated numerically with MATLAB/Simulink software. The stepping characteristics of the linear and rotary motions are analyzed, compared, and discussed. With optimized material selection, structural design, and driving parameters, the proposed linear-rotary motor will provide remarkable performances as a miniaturized multi-degree driving device for complex positioning and manipulation applications.

  11. Micro-optical rotary joint for multichannel communication via a rotating surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Markus; Rank, Matthias; Schmidt, Michael; Popp, Gregor; Poisel, Hans

    2005-04-01

    Data transmission between rotating and stationary systems, e.g. required for radar antennas or for undersea cable installation ships can be realized with so called rotary joints. For the transmission of several high bit rate optical data channels a micro optical rotary joint is now available which guarantees a dead reliable, low loss transmission for up to 21 parallel single mode channels. The free space transmission in the rotary joint implicates a highly precise collimation of the parallel channels. For this purpose compact two dimensional fiber collimator arrays based on micro lens arrays have been developed. These arrays and the complete opto-mechanical system are designed with the help of tolerance analysis using Monte Carlo simulations. Besides these results also some more information on the behavior and the characteristics of the micro optical rotary joint under real conditions which demonstrate the excellent characteristics of this novel system will be given.

  12. Structure of the vacuolar H+-ATPase rotary motor reveals new mechanistic insights.

    PubMed

    Rawson, Shaun; Phillips, Clair; Huss, Markus; Tiburcy, Felix; Wieczorek, Helmut; Trinick, John; Harrison, Michael A; Muench, Stephen P

    2015-03-03

    Vacuolar H(+)-ATPases are multisubunit complexes that operate with rotary mechanics and are essential for membrane proton transport throughout eukaryotes. Here we report a ∼ 1 nm resolution reconstruction of a V-ATPase in a different conformational state from that previously reported for a lower-resolution yeast model. The stator network of the V-ATPase (and by implication that of other rotary ATPases) does not change conformation in different catalytic states, and hence must be relatively rigid. We also demonstrate that a conserved bearing in the catalytic domain is electrostatic, contributing to the extraordinarily high efficiency of rotary ATPases. Analysis of the rotor axle/membrane pump interface suggests how rotary ATPases accommodate different c ring stoichiometries while maintaining high efficiency. The model provides evidence for a half channel in the proton pump, supporting theoretical models of ion translocation. Our refined model therefore provides new insights into the structure and mechanics of the V-ATPases.

  13. Oscillating Electric Field Measures the Rotation Rate in a Native Rotary Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Ferencz, Csilla-Maria; Petrovszki, Pál; Dér, András; Sebők-Nagy, Krisztina; Kóta, Zoltán; Páli, Tibor

    2017-01-01

    Rotary enzymes are complex, highly challenging biomolecular machines whose biochemical working mechanism involves intersubunit rotation. The true intrinsic rate of rotation of any rotary enzyme is not known in a native, unmodified state. Here we use the effect of an oscillating electric (AC) field on the biochemical activity of a rotary enzyme, the vacuolar proton-ATPase (V-ATPase), to directly measure its mean rate of rotation in its native membrane environment, without any genetic, chemical or mechanical modification of the enzyme, for the first time. The results suggest that a transmembrane AC field is able to synchronise the steps of ion-pumping in individual enzymes via a hold-and-release mechanism, which opens up the possibility of biotechnological exploitation. Our approach is likely to work for other transmembrane ion-transporting assemblies, not only rotary enzymes, to determine intrinsic in situ rates of ion pumping. PMID:28345665

  14. 33 CFR 100.914 - Trenton Rotary Roar on the River, Trenton, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.914 Trenton Rotary Roar on... the Detroit River, Trenton, Michigan, bounded by an east/west line beginning at a point of land at...

  15. Direct injection ion chromatography for the control of chlorinated drinking water: simultaneous estimation of nine haloacetic acids and quantitation of bromate, chlorite and chlorate along with the major inorganic anions.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Villanova, Rafael J; Raposo Funcia, César; Oliveira Dantas Leite, M Vilani; Toruño Fonseca, Ivania M; Espinosa Nieto, Miguel; Espuelas India, Javier

    2014-09-01

    Most methods for the analysis of haloacetic acids published in recent years are based on ion chromatography with direct injection, employing a gradient elution with potassium hydroxide (KOH). This work reports the exploration of an alternative eluent, a buffer of sodium carbonate/sodium hydrogen carbonate, aimed at the simultaneous analysis of nine haloacetic acids along with bromate, chlorite and chlorate. The alternative of both a less alkaline eluent and a lower temperature of operation may prevent the partial decomposition of some of the haloacetic acids during the analytical process, especially the more vulnerable brominated ones. Gradient elution at temperature of 7 °C yielded the best results, with an acceptable separation of 17 analytes (which includes the major natural inorganic anions) and a good linearity. Precision ranges from 0.3 to 23.4 (% V.C.), and detection limits are within units of μg L⁻¹, except for tribromoacetic acid - somewhat high in comparison with those of the official methods. Nonetheless, with the basic instrumentation setup herein described, this method may be suitable for monitoring when the drinking water treatments are to be optimized. This is especially interesting for small communities or for developing/developed countries in which regulations on disinfection by-products others than trihalomethanes are being addressed.

  16. A Rotary Microactuator Supported on Encapsulated Microball Bearings using an Electro-Pneumatic Thrust Balance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    c) Figure 1. Application examples of bottom-drive variable-capacitance microactuators: (a) rotary micropumps , (b) directional transceivers and (c...Figure 1(a) shows an electrically actuated micropump based on a spiral groove viscous pumping principle, while figure 1(b) shows a rotary stage capable...without thrust balances [11]. For applications requiring continuous rotation (micromotors and micropumps ) this hydrostatic balancing force can be

  17. Mechanical design of a rotary balance system for NASA. Langley Research Center's vertical spin tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allred, J. W.; Fleck, V. J.

    1992-01-01

    A new lightweight Rotary Balance System is presently being fabricated and installed as part of a major upgrade to the existing 20 Foot Vertical Spin Tunnel. This upgrade to improve model testing productivity of the only free spinning vertical wind tunnel includes a modern fan/drive and tunnel control system, an updated video recording system, and the new rotary balance system. The rotary balance is a mechanical apparatus which enables the measurement of aerodynamic force and moment data under spinning conditions (100 rpm). This data is used in spin analysis and is vital to the implementation of large amplitude maneuvering simulations required for all new high performance aircraft. The new rotary balance system described in this report will permit greater test efficiency and improved data accuracy. Rotary Balance testing with the model enclosed in a tare bag can also be performed to obtain resulting model forces from the spinning operation. The rotary balance system will be stored against the tunnel sidewall during free flight model testing.

  18. Rotary drum composting of different organic waste mixtures.

    PubMed

    Kalamdhad, Ajay S; Kazmi, Absar A

    2009-03-01

    The effects of three different mixtures of organic waste on composting in a rotary drum were examined by measuring changes in physico-chemical and biological parameters. It was observed that the time courses of the three mixtures: run A (grass cuttings, vegetable waste and food waste), run B (cattle manure, vegetable waste and sawdust) and run C (cattle manure, food waste, vegetable waste, paper waste and sawdust) were quite diverse. Run B, with initial C/N ratio 22 and containing a large proportion of cattle manure produced high quality and mature compost within 20 days. It showed a final total nitrogen (2.1%), final total phosphorus 3.52 g kg(-1), final total organic carbon (TOC) (24.8%) and final moisture content (44%). At the end of 20 days, higher degradation led to final chemical oxygen demand (COD) (454 mg L(- 1)), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (107 mg L(- 1)), fecal coliform (1.2 x 10(2) bacteria g(- 1)), fecal streptococci (85 bacteria g(-1)) and low electrical conductivity (1.658 dS m(-1)), respectively. Furthermore, run C with initial C/N ratio of 30 and containing a larger amount of food and vegetable waste produced good quality compost and resulted in 4.34% total nitrogen and 2.42% total phosphorus after 20 days, but, it had higher final fecal coliform 2.5 x 10(4) bacteria g( -1), fecal streptococci 2.1 x 10(4) bacteria g(-1), high TOC and NH(4)-N and a BOD/COD ratio of 0.63, which rendered it hygienically unsafe and immature. Finally, run A with initial C/N ratio of 15 showed a higher amount of EC (4.84 dS m(-1)), NH(4)-N, BOD/COD ratio of 0.4 with 15% nitrogen loss, which indicated an unstable product even after 20 days of composting. Therefore, it was found that rotary drum composting of a combination of cattle manure, vegetable waste and sawdust resulted in a primary stabilized compost within 20 days of composting.

  19. High-Compression-Ratio; Atkinson-Cycle Engine Using Low-Pressure Direct Injection and Pneumatic-Electronic Valve Actuation Enabled by Ionization Current and Foward-Backward Mass Air Flow Sensor Feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Harold Schock; Farhad Jaberi; Ahmed Naguib; Guoming Zhu; David Hung

    2007-12-31

    This report describes the work completed over a two and one half year effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The goal was to demonstrate the technology needed to produce a highly efficient engine enabled by several technologies which were to be developed in the course of the work. The technologies included: (1) A low-pressure direct injection system; (2) A mass air flow sensor which would measure the net airflow into the engine on a per cycle basis; (3) A feedback control system enabled by measuring ionization current signals from the spark plug gap; and (4) An infinitely variable cam actuation system based on a pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation These developments were supplemented by the use of advanced large eddy simulations as well as evaluations of fuel air mixing using the KIVA and WAVE models. The simulations were accompanied by experimental verification when possible. In this effort a solid base has been established for continued development of the advanced engine concepts originally proposed. Due to problems with the valve actuation system a complete demonstration of the engine concept originally proposed was not possible. Some of the highlights that were accomplished during this effort are: (1) A forward-backward mass air flow sensor has been developed and a patent application for the device has been submitted. We are optimistic that this technology will have a particular application in variable valve timing direct injection systems for IC engines. (2) The biggest effort on this project has involved the development of the pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation system. This system was originally purchased from Cargine, a Swedish supplier and is in the development stage. To date we have not been able to use the actuators to control the exhaust valves, although the actuators have been successfully employed to control the intake valves. The reason for this is the additional complication associated with variable back pressure on the exhaust valves when

  20. Rotary ultrasonic machining of CFRP: A comparison with grinding.

    PubMed

    Ning, F D; Cong, W L; Pei, Z J; Treadwell, C

    2016-03-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites have been intensively used in various industries due to their superior properties. In aircraft and aerospace industry, a large number of holes are required to be drilled into CFRP components at final stage for aircraft assembling. There are two major types of methods for hole making of CFRP composites in industry, twist drilling and its derived multi-points machining methods, and grinding and its related methods. The first type of methods are commonly used in hole making of CFRP composites. However, in recent years, rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM), a hybrid machining process combining ultrasonic machining and grinding, has also been successfully used in drilling of CFRP composites. It has been shown that RUM is superior to twist drilling in many aspects. However, there are no reported investigations on comparisons between RUM and grinding in drilling of CFRP. In this paper, these two drilling methods are compared in five aspects, including cutting force, torque, surface roughness, hole diameter, and material removal rate.

  1. Development of a novel centrifugal pump: magnetic rotary pump.

    PubMed

    Naganuma, S; Yambe, T; Sonobe, T; Kobayashi, S; Nitta, S

    1997-07-01

    The rotational axis of the centrifugal pump has some associated problems such as blood destruction and sealing between the axis and pump housing. To improve upon these deficits we have developed a new type of blood pump, the magnetic rotary pump (MRP). The MRP has an original design with no rotational axis and no impellers. We made a prototype MRP and examined its hemodynamics in mock circulation. The prototype MRP flow rate is only 1.0 L/min with an afterload of 30 mm Hg, and we have made some modifications in the size and drive mechanisms from these results. The modified MRP can achieve high flow rates and rotational speeds (6.0 L/min with an afterload of 100 mm Hg, 2,000 rpm) in a mock circuit, and the modified MRP was used for left heart assistance in an acute animal experiment. The MRP could maintain the hemodynamics of an anesthetized adult goat. These results suggest that the MRP needs to be improved in several areas, but the MRP may be useful as a blood pump.

  2. Design of a new type of rotary Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Abenavoli, R.I.; Dong, W.; Fedele, L.; Sciaboni, A.

    1996-12-31

    The Stirling machine has had wide diffusion only in cold or cryogenic applications (Philips) while the engine, despite big efforts of large Companies (Philips, Westinghouse, General Motors, etc.), never definitively reached the market; today new interest is raised correlated with environmental and energy related considerations. Thus, researchers efforts are addressed towards the design of innovative and more competitive Stirling engine configurations, like the one here proposed. This paper describes the configuration of a new, rotary Stirling engine. In the cold part of the engine, the working fluid is compressed by a rotating element, then it passes through the regenerator from the cold to the hot end, where it absorbs the heat and expands in the high pressure and temperature area. The high pressure working fluid pushes on the rotating element (the so called rotator) and the engine outputs power. In the design, compression and expansion volumes change with the rotation. Two rotators are connected with a set of gears: therefore, the engine transmission system is simplified and dimensions are reduced.

  3. Noninvasive pulsatile flow estimation for an implantable rotary blood pump.

    PubMed

    Karantonis, Dean M; Cloherty, Shaun L; Mason, David G; Ayre, Peter J; Lovell, Nigel H

    2007-01-01

    A noninvasive approach to the task of pulsatile flow estimation in an implantable rotary blood pump (iRBP) has been proposed. Employing six fluid solutions representing a range of viscosities equivalent to 20-50% blood hematocrit (HCT), pulsatile flow data was acquired from an in vitro mock circulatory loop. The entire operating range of the pump was examined, including flows from -2 to 12 L/min. Taking the pump feedback signals of speed and power, together with the HCT level, as input parameters, several flow estimate models were developed via system identification methods. Three autoregressive with exogenous input (ARX) model structures were evaluated: structures I and II used the input parameters directly; structure II incorporated additional terms for HCT; and the third structure employed as input a non-pulsatile flow estimate equation. Optimal model orders were determined, and the associated models yielded minimum mean flow errors of 5.49% and 0.258 L/min for structure II, and 5.77% and 0.270 L/min for structure III, when validated on unseen data. The models developed in this study present a practical method of accurately estimating iRBP flow in a pulsatile environment.

  4. Rotary ultrasonic bone drilling: Improved pullout strength and reduced damage.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vishal; Pandey, Pulak M; Silberschmidt, Vadim V

    2017-03-01

    Bone drilling is one of the most common operations used to repair fractured parts of bones. During a bone drilling process, microcracks are generated on the inner surface of the drilled holes that can detrimentally affect osteosynthesis and healing. This study focuses on the investigation of microcracks and pullout strength of cortical-bone screws in drilled holes. It compares conventional surgical bone drilling (CSBD) with rotary ultrasonic bone drilling (RUBD), a novel approach employing ultrasonic vibration with a diamond-coated hollow tool. Both techniques were used to drill holes in porcine bones in an in-vitro study. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe microcracks and surface morphology. The results obtained showed a significant decrease in the number and dimensions of microcracks generated on the inner surface of drilled holes with the RUBD process in comparison to CSBD. It was also observed that a higher rotational speed and a lower feed rate resulted in lower damage, i.e. fewer microcracks. Biomechanical axial pullout strength of a cortical bone screw inserted into a hole drilled with RUBD was found to be much higher (55-385%) than that for CSBD.

  5. PEDCO rotary cascading bed boiler may have synfuels applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    A PEDCO Rotary Cascading Bed Boiler (RCBB) has been installed at Hudepohl Brewing Company in Cincinnati, Ohio. The PEDCO RCBB is designed to burn high-sulfur coal in an economical and environmentally acceptable manner in the industrial-size range. Tests to date have realistically demonstrated the capability of the RCBB to effectively and adequately remove the sulfur emissions resulting from the combustion of Ohio high-sulfur coal. No significant difficulty is expected in meeting the EPA Best Available Technology limit of 0.83 pounds of SO/sub 2/ per one million BTU of actual heat input. The limit has also demonstrated its ability to burn very low-grade coal. The ash content of the coal used in the test protocols has ranged up to 30%, with sulfur content up to 6%. Earlier patents on the PEDCO apparatus describe it as a method for retorting hydrocarbon-containing materials such as oil shale, oil sands, tar sands, coal shale, coal tailings, and the like, for the recovery of a volatile constituent such as oil or gas. 2 figures.

  6. Rotary drum composting of vegetable waste and tree leaves.

    PubMed

    Kalamdhad, Ajay S; Singh, Yatish K; Ali, Muntjeer; Khwairakpam, Meena; Kazmi, A A

    2009-12-01

    High rate composting studies on institutional waste, i.e. vegetable wastes, tree leaves, etc., were conducted on a demonstration-scale (3.5 m(3)) rotary drum composter by evaluating changes in some physico-chemical and biological parameters. During composting, higher temperature (60-70 degrees C) at inlet zone and (50-60 degrees C) at middle zone were achieved which resulted in high degradation in the drum. As a result, all parameters including TOC, C/N ratio, CO(2) evolution and coliforms were decreased significantly within few days of composting. Within a week period, quality compost with total nitrogen (2.6%) and final total phosphorus (6 g/kg) was achieved; but relatively higher final values of fecal coliforms and CO(2) evolution, suggested further maturation. Thus, two conventional composting methods namely windrow (M1) and vermicomposting (M2) tried for maturation of primary stabilized compost. By examining these methods, it was suggested that M2 was found suitable in delivering fine grained, better quality matured compost within 20 days of maturation period.

  7. Development of the pulsation device for rotary blood pumps.

    PubMed

    Yambe, Tomoyuki; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Sekine, Kazumitsu; Shibata, Mune-ichi; Yamaguchi, Tasuku; Jian, Liu Hong; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Tanaka, Akira; Matsuki, Hidetoshi; Sato, Fumihiro; Haga, You-ichi; Esashi, Masayoshi; Tabayashi, Kouichi; Mitamura, Yoshinori; Sasada, Hiroshi; Nitta, Shin-ichi

    2005-11-01

    A rotary blood pump (RP) is desirable as a small ventricular assist device (VAD). However, an RP is nonpulsatile. We tried to develop a device that attaches a pulse to the RP. We also tried to develop a pulse-generating equipment that was not air-pressure driven. The ball screw motor was considered a candidate. The application of a small-sized shape memory alloy was also attempted. An electrohydraulic system was adopted, and actuator power was connected to the diaphragm. The diaphragm was placed on the outer side of the ventricle. Most RPs that have been developed all over the world drain blood from the ventricle. The wave of a pulse should be generated if a pulse is added by the drawn part. The output assistance from the outer side of the ventricle was attempted in animal experiments, and the device operated effectively. This device can be used during implantable operation of RP. This may serve as an effective device in patients experiencing problems in peripheral circulation and in the function of internal organs.

  8. Rotary bistable and Parametrically Excited Vibration Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurmann, L.; Jia, Y.; Hoffmann, D.; Manoli, Y.; Woias, P.

    2016-11-01

    Parametric resonance is a type of nonlinear vibration phenomenon [1], [2] induced from the periodic modulation of at least one of the system parameters and has the potential to exhibit interesting higher order nonlinear behaviour [3]. Parametrically excited vibration energy harvesters have been previously shown to enhance both the power amplitude [4] and the frequency bandwidth [5] when compared to the conventional direct resonant approach. However, to practically activate the more profitable regions of parametric resonance, additional design mechanisms [6], [7] are required to overcome a critical initiation threshold amplitude. One route is to establish an autoparametric system where external direct excitation is internally coupled to parametric excitation [8]. For a coupled two degrees of freedom (DoF) oscillatory system, principal autoparametric resonance can be achieved when the natural frequency of the first DoF f1 is twice that of the second DoF f2 and the external excitation is in the vicinity of f1. This paper looks at combining rotary and translatory motion and use autoparametric resonance phenomena.

  9. A Novel Rotary Pulsatile Flow Pump for Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Teman, Nicholas R.; Mazur, Daniel E.; Toomasian, John; Jahangir, Emilia; Alghanem, Fares; Goudie, Marcus; Rojas-Peña, Alvaro; Haft, Jonathan W.

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that pulsatile blood flow is superior to continuous flow in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). However, adoption of pulsatile flow (PF) technology has been limited due to practically and complexity of creating a consistent physiologic pulse. A pediatric pulsatile rotary ventricular pump (PRVP) was designed to address this problem. We evaluated the PRVP in an animal model, and determined its ability to generate PF during CPB. The PRVP (modified peristaltic pump, with tapering of the outlet of the pump chamber) was tested in 4 piglets (10-12kg). Cannulation was performed with right atrial and aortic cannulae, and pressure sensors were inserted into the femoral arteries. Pressure curves were obtained at different levels of flow and compared with both the animal's baseline physiologic function and a continuous flow (CF) roller pump. Pressure and flow waveforms demonstrated significant pulsatility in the PRVP setup compared to CF at all tested conditions. Measurement of hemodynamic energy data, including the percent pulsatile energy and the surplus hydraulic energy, also revealed a significant increase in pulsatility with the PRVP (p <0.001). PRVP creates physiologically significant PF, similar to the pulsatility of a native heart, and has the potential to be easily implemented in pediatric CPB. PMID:24625536

  10. Bi-flow rotary kiln coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Garside, P.G.

    1983-02-22

    A process is disclosed for gasifying solid coal particles in a rotary kiln that produces simultaneously and continuously two distinctly different fuel gas streams from the opposite ends of a single kiln. A relatively low temperature gas is discharged from the solids inlet end of the kiln, which contains substantially all tars produced by the process. A second of the gas streams is discharged from the solids discharge end of the kiln at approximately 1,900* F. And substantially tar-free. Heat is recovered from this tar-free gas after only a simple cleaning of particulate matter, as may be provided by a cyclone separator. The discharge of gas out the solids inlet end of the kiln and the gas discharged out the solids discharge end of the kiln, is adjustably proportioned relative to each other so that at least some high temperature tar-free gas will mix inside the kiln with the lower temperature tar-containing gas, in an amount sufficient to keep such mixed gases at a temperature high enough to avoid the tars condensing on equipment surfaces. Several process parameters are disclosed for adjusting the proportion of the gas flows out each end of the kiln to maintain the aforesaid condition of both gas streams.

  11. Device for charging combustible solids to rotary kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Tutt, J.R.; Benoit, M.R.

    1993-07-13

    An apparatus is described for controlling the entry of combustible solids through a port formed in a wall of a rotary kiln cylinder of an operating cement kiln at a location between an upper end and a lower fired end thereof, the kiln containing hot mineral material for combustion of said solids in contact with said mineral material, the apparatus comprising a port closure assembly comprising a closure movable between a port-opened and port-closed position and means for moving the closure between the port-opened and port-closed positions at predetermined times during rotation of the kiln cylinder; a staging assembly including a support projecting therefrom in alignment with the port for supporting combustible solids; and, a transfer assembly mounted on the kiln wall at a point in alignment with the port for transferring combustible solids from the staging assembly to the port, said transfer assembly being formed to include at least one slot sized to allow said support to pass there through so that combustible solids on the support are lifted from said support by the kiln wall mounted transfer assembly as it sweeps past the staging assembly during kiln cylinder rotation.

  12. Cutting efficiency of four different rotary nickel: Titanium instruments

    PubMed Central

    Cecchin, Doglas; de Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião; Pécora, Jesus Djalma; Gariba-Silva, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cutting efficiency of rotary nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments K3, NiTi Tee, Profile, and Quantec with taper size 04/25. Materials and Methods: The number of samples was 10 for each group (n = 10). The cutting efficiency was measured by the mass loss from each acrylic resin block after instrumentation of a simulated canal using the Crown-down technique. Results: The analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there was a statistically significant difference among the studied groups. The Tukey's test showed that the acrylic resin blocks prepared with instruments K3 (0.00369 ± 0.00022), NiTi Tee (0.00368 ± 0.00023), and Profile (0.00351 ± 0.00026) presented the greatest mass loss, showing no statistically significant difference among them (P < 0.05). The lowest mass loss was found in the blocks prepared with Quantec instruments (0.00311 ± 0.0003) (P < 0.05). Conclusions: It could be concluded that the K3, NiTi Tee, and Profile instruments presented a greater cutting efficiency than the Quantec instruments. PMID:21814349

  13. Spherical rotary piston machine as an artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Wipf, S L

    1991-01-01

    A positive displacement pump with six rotary pistons was proposed as an artificial heart. The pump's design was characterized by high symmetry and compactness. Thus, a spherical volume of 4 1/4 inch diameter sufficed for a pump delivering 10 L/min at 120 pulses/min with the pistons turning at 30 rpm. The pistons and four connecting gears were the only moving parts. The pump functions in two separate halves as left and right ventricles, with two of the six pistons each having inlet and outlet passages, and one of them replacing mitral and pulmonary valves with the other, tricuspid and aortic valves. The function of the intraventricular septum was provided by the other four pistons whose interiors also accommodated driving motors each capable of 0.4 Nm torque for a combined power of 5 watts. There were no stagnant regions in the pumping volume, and at all internal surfaces in contact with blood, there was periodic shear stress not exceeding approximately 300 Pa.

  14. Lightweight Low Force Rotary Percussive Coring Tool for Planetary Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hironaka, Ross; Stanley, Scott

    2010-01-01

    A prototype low-force rotary-percussive rock coring tool for use in acquiring samples for geological surveys in future planetary missions was developed. The coring tool could eventually enable a lightweight robotic system to operate from a relatively small (less than 200 kg) mobile or fixed platform to acquire and cache Mars or other planetary rock samples for eventual return to Earth for analysis. To gain insight needed to design an integrated coring tool, the coring ability of commercially available coring bits was evaluated for effectiveness of varying key parameters: weight-on-bit, rotation speed, percussive rate and force. Trade studies were performed for different methods of breaking a core at its base and for retaining the core in a sleeve to facilitate sample transfer. This led to a custom coring tool design which incorporated coring, core breakage, core retention, and core extraction functions. The coring tool was tested on several types of rock and demonstrated the overall feasibility of this approach for robotic rock sample acquisition.

  15. Resolving Two Dimensional Angular Velocity within a Rotary Tumbler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helminiak, Nathaniel; Helminiak, David; Cariapa, Vikram; Borg, John

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a horizontally oriented cylindrical tumbler, filled at variable depth with cylindrical media, was rotated at various constant speeds. A monoplane layer of media was photographed with a high-speed camera and images were post processed with Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) algorithms in order to resolve both the translational and rotational flow fields. Although the translational velocity fields have been well characterized, contemporary resources enabled the ability to expand upon and refine data regarding rotational characteristics of particles within a rotary tumbler. The results indicate that particles rotate according to intermittent no-slip interactions between the particles and solid body rotation. Particles within the bed, not confined to solid body rotation, exhibited behavior indicative of gearing between particles; each reacting to the tangential component of contact forming rotation chains. Furthermore, it was observed that solid body interactions corresponded to areas of confined motion, as areas of high interaction dissuaded no-slip rotation, while areas of developing flow tended towards no-slip rotation. Special thanks to: NASA Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium Program as well as Marquette University OPUS College of Engineering.

  16. Roadside IED detection using subsurface imaging radar and rotary UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yexian; Twumasi, Jones O.; Le, Viet Q.; Ren, Yu-Jiun; Lai, C. P.; Yu, Tzuyang

    2016-05-01

    Modern improvised explosive device (IED) and mine detection sensors using microwave technology are based on ground penetrating radar operated by a ground vehicle. Vehicle size, road conditions, and obstacles along the troop marching direction limit operation of such sensors. This paper presents a new conceptual design using a rotary unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to carry subsurface imaging radar for roadside IED detection. We have built a UAV flight simulator with the subsurface imaging radar running in a laboratory environment and tested it with non-metallic and metallic IED-like targets. From the initial lab results, we can detect the IED-like target 10-cm below road surface while carried by a UAV platform. One of the challenges is to design the radar and antenna system for a very small payload (less than 3 lb). The motion compensation algorithm is also critical to the imaging quality. In this paper, we also demonstrated the algorithm simulation and experimental imaging results with different IED target materials, sizes, and clutters.

  17. Design of a rotary stepped auger for a lunar environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dardet, Eduardo; Hart, Derek; Herod, Chris; Homiller, Stephen; Meeks, Mickey; Platt, Kirsten

    1988-01-01

    A lunar outpost will have need for deep drilling operations for both explorative and practical purposes. As in any drilling operation, the cuttings must be cleared from the hole. The hard vacuum of the lunar environment renders conventional flushing methods of cutting removal unfeasible, and requires a new system of removal. A rotary stepped auger (RSA) is a simple mechanical method of removing dry cuttings from a deep hole, and is ideally suited to the lunar environment. The RSA consists of a helical auger with stepped ramps which allow cuttings to slide up the helix, but will prevent them from sliding back down. The auger is driven in a pulsed manner by applying a periodic function of acceleration to the auger shaft. These pulses will compel the cuttings to slide up the auger's helix while the stepped ramps prevent the cuttings from backsliding while the auger accelerates. A mathematical model of the RSA was developed and experimentally evaluated. The math model produced a good baseline design, but the experimental model required some tuning to account for the approximations made in the math model. This design is suited for lunar drilling because it is mechanically simple, integral to the drill string, requires no fluids, is suited to the dry soil, and has relatively low weight and power requirements.

  18. A dielectric elastomer actuator thin membrane rotary motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Iain A.; Calius, Emilio P.; Gisby, Todd; Hale, Thom; McKay, Thomas; O'Brien, Benjamin; Walbran, Scott

    2009-03-01

    We describe a low profile and lightweight membrane rotary motor based on the dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA). In this motor phased actuation of electroded sectors of the motor membrane imparts orbital motion to a central gear that meshes with the rotor. Two motors were fabricated: a three phase and four phase with three electroded sectors (120°/sector) and four sectors (90°/sector) respectively. Square segments of 3M VHB4905 tape were stretched equibiaxially to 16 times their original area and each was attached to a rigid circular frame. Electroded sectors were actuated with square wave voltages up to 2.5kV. Torque/power characteristics were measured. Contactless orbiter displacements, measured with the rotor removed, were compared with simulation data calculated using a finite element model. A measured specific power of approximately 8mW/g (based on the DEA membrane weight), on one motor compares well with another motor technology. When the mass of the frame was included a peak specific power of 0.022mW/g was calculated. We expect that motor performance can be substantially improved by using a multilayer DEA configuration, enabling the delivery of direct drive high torques at low speeds for a range of applications. The motor is inherently scalable, flexible, flat, silent in operation, amenable to deposition-based manufacturing approaches, and uses relatively inexpensive materials.

  19. Performance Estimation for Two-Dimensional Brownian Rotary Ratchet Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutu, Hiroki; Horita, Takehiko; Ouchi, Katsuya

    2015-04-01

    Within the context of the Brownian ratchet model, a molecular rotary system that can perform unidirectional rotations induced by linearly polarized ac fields and produce positive work under loads was studied. The model is based on the Langevin equation for a particle in a two-dimensional (2D) three-tooth ratchet potential of threefold symmetry. The performance of the system is characterized by the coercive torque, i.e., the strength of the load competing with the torque induced by the ac driving field, and the energy efficiency in force conversion from the driving field to the torque. We propose a master equation for coarse-grained states, which takes into account the boundary motion between states, and develop a kinetic description to estimate the mean angular momentum (MAM) and powers relevant to the energy balance equation. The framework of analysis incorporates several 2D characteristics and is applicable to a wide class of models of smooth 2D ratchet potential. We confirm that the obtained expressions for MAM, power, and efficiency of the model can enable us to predict qualitative behaviors. We also discuss the usefulness of the torque/power relationship for experimental analyses, and propose a characteristic for 2D ratchet systems.

  20. Treatment of oily wastes using high-shear rotary ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, B.E.; Viadero, R. Jr.; Young, J.; Lin, W.

    1997-12-01

    The high-shear rotary ultrafiltration (UF) system uses membrane rotation to provide the turbulence required to minimize concentration polarization and flux decline. The high-shear UF system was effective in concentrating oily wastes from about 5% to as high as 65%. The decoupling of turbulence promotion from feed pressurization/recirculation by rotating the membrane was the primary reason for the improvement in performance over that observed with conventional UF systems. Transitional and gel layer oil concentrations (20% and 50--59%, respectively) were higher than values reported in the literature. Permeate flux was dependent on the temperature and rotational speed. Flux increased by about 45% when the temperature was increased from 43 to 60 C. A larger decrease in waste viscosity, over that predicted for water alone, and increased oil droplet diffusivity were hypothesized as reasons for the stronger than expected flux-temperature relationship. The flux-rotational speed ({omega}) relationship was described by J = f({omega}){sup 0.90}; however, the gel layer exhibited stability with increasing {omega}. The ceramic membrane was superior to the polymeric membrane in regards to permeate flux and quality as well as cleaning and durability.