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Sample records for directed green liquor

  1. HIGHLY ENERGY EFFICIENT D-GLU (DIRECTED-GREEN LIQ-UOR UTILIZATION) PULPING

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia, Lucian A

    2013-04-19

    Purpose: The purpose of the project was to retrofit the front end (pulp house) of a commercial kraft pulping mill to accommodate a mill green liquor (GL) impregna-tion/soak/exposure and accrue downstream physical and chemical benefits while prin-cipally reducing the energy footprint of the mill. A major player in the mill contrib-uting to excessive energy costs is the lime kiln. The project was intended to offload the energy (oil or natural gas) demands of the kiln by by-passing the causticization/slaking site in the recovery area and directly using green liquor as a pulping medium for wood. Scope: The project was run in two distinct, yet mutually compatible, phases: Phase 1 was the pre-commercial or laboratory phase in which NC State University and the Insti-tute of Paper Science and Technology (at the Georgia Institute of Technology) ran the pulping and associated experiments, while Phase 2 was the mill scale trial. The first tri-al was run at the now defunct Evergreen Pulp Mill in Samoa, CA and lead to a partial retrofit of the mill that was not completed because it went bankrupt and the work was no longer the low-hanging fruit on the tree for the new management. The second trial was run at the MeadWestvaco Pulp Mill in Evedale, TX which for all intents and pur-poses was a success. They were able to fully retrofit the mill, ran the trial, studied the pulp properties, and gave us conclusions.

  2. Novel Pulping Technology: Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping

    SciTech Connect

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    The general objectives of this new project are the same as those described in the original proposal. Conventional kraft pulping technologies will be modified for significant improvements in pulp production, such as strength, bleachability, and yield by using green liquor, a naturally high, kraft mill-derived sulfidity source. Although split white liquor sulfidity and other high sulfidity procedures have the promise of addressing several of the latter important economic needs of pulp mills, they require considerable engineering/capital retrofits, redesigned production methods, and thus add to overall mill expenditures. Green liquor use, however, possesses the required high sulfidity to obtain in general the benefits attributable to higher sulfidity cooking, without the required capital constraints for implementation. Before introduction of green liquor in our industrial operations, a stronger understanding of its fundamental chemical interaction with the lignin and carbohydrates in US hardwood and softwoods must be obtained. In addition, its effect on bleachability, enhancement of pulp properties, and influence on the overall energy and recovery of the mill requires further exploration before the process witnesses widespread mill use in North America. Thus, proof of principle will be accomplished in this work and the consequent effect of green liquor and other high sulfide sources on the pulping and bleaching operations will be explored for US kraft mills. The first year of this project will generate the pertinent information to validate its ability for implementation in US pulping operations, whereas year two will continue this work while proceeding to analyze pulp bleachability and final pulp/paper properties and develop a general economic and feasibility analysis for its eventual implementation in North America.

  3. Device for recovering sodium chemicals from green liquor and flue gases

    SciTech Connect

    Rimpi, P. K.

    1980-02-05

    A device is disclosed for recovering chemicals from flue gases and green liquor obtained from burning the waste liquor of sodium-based pulping processes. The device comprises a precarbonation reactor, a H/sub 2/S-stripping column, a carbonation reactor, a washing tower for flue gases and a cooling tower for washed flue gases. The carbonation reactor, the cooling tower and the washing tower are arranged on top of each other in the same column which is provided with trays so that means for feeding flue gases from the washing tower into the cooling tower and further into the carbonation reactor are openings made in the trays to allow the washed flue gases to rise from the washing tower into the cooling tower above it and further into the carbonation reactor above the cooling tower. A common blower means is provided for feeding flue gases into the washing tower for blowing flue gases through the washing tower, the cooling tower, the carbonation reactor and the precarbonation reactor and means for discharging a solution containing sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate from the stripping column being connected with means for feeding this solution directly into the carbonation reactor and the washing tower.

  4. Chemical and physical properties of high-yield alkaline sulfite green liquor

    SciTech Connect

    Sell, N.J.; Norman, J.C. . Natural and Applied Sciences)

    1993-11-01

    The majority of sodium sulfite pulping liquor recovery systems are based on the reductive burning of the spent liquor, followed by acidification of the resulting smelt solution by CO[sub 2]. This study investigated a number of the physical and chemical properties of the resulting green liquor which might be relevant to the optimum design of this type of sulfite and carbonate recovery system for an alkaline sulfite high-yield process. CO[sub 2] gas does generate H[sub 2]S when bubbled through green liquor; however, a large amount of solid soon is formed. Continuing the flow leads to increased amounts of H[sub 2]S, but the ratio of H[sub 2]S to CO[sub 2] remains less than 1.0. Solutions more highly concentrated in Na[sub 2]S absorb relatively more CO[sub 2], regardless of the ratios of H[sub 2]S to CO[sub 2] in the initial gas stream. The percentage of H[sub 2]S released increases with increasing Na[sub 2]S concentration. Stripping the green liquor with inert gas, steam, or vacuum does not improve the H[sub 2]S removal efficiency. The maximum CO[sub 2] pressure can be generated by decomposing pure 6 M NaHCO[sub 3]. If the starting material is a bicarbonate/carbonate mixture, conversion is incomplete and a portion of the NaHCO[sub 3] forms a dead load.

  5. Mill Integration-Pulping, Stream Reforming and Direct Causticization for Black Liquor Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adriaan van Heiningen

    2007-06-30

    MTCI/StoneChem developed a steam reforming, fluidized bed gasification technology for biomass. DOE supported the demonstration of this technology for gasification of spent wood pulping liquor (or 'black liquor') at Georgia-Pacific's Big Island, Virginia mill. The present pre-commercial R&D project addressed the opportunities as well as identified negative aspects when the MTCI/StoneChem gasification technology is integrated in a pulp mill production facility. The opportunities arise because black liquor gasification produces sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) and sodium (as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in separate streams which may be used beneficially for improved pulp yield and properties. The negative aspect of kraft black liquor gasification is that the amount of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} which must be converted to NaOH (the so called causticizing requirement) is increased. This arises because sulfur is released as Na{sub 2}S during conventional kraft black liquor recovery, while during gasification the sodium associated Na{sub 2}S is partly or fully converted to Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The causticizing requirement can be eliminated by including a TiO{sub 2} based cyclic process called direct causticization. In this process black liquor is gasified in the presence of (low sodium content) titanates which convert Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium content) titanates. NaOH is formed when contacting the latter titanates with water, thereby eliminating the causticizing requirement entirely. The leached and low sodium titanates are returned to the gasification process. The project team comprised the University of Maine (UM), North Carolina State University (NCSU) and MTCI/ThermoChem. NCSU and MTCI are subcontractors to UM. The principal organization for the contract is UM. NCSU investigated the techno-economics of using advanced pulping techniques which fully utilize the unique cooking liquors produced by steam reforming of black liquor (Task 1). UM studied the kinetics and agglomeration problems of

  6. Mass balance on green liquor pre-pulping extraction of northeast mixed hardwood.

    PubMed

    Um, Byung-Hwan; van Walsum, G Peter

    2010-08-01

    A forest biorefinery configuration employing a hemicellulose pre-pulping extraction is being investigated that will retain pulp yields, reduce the organic and inorganic load for liquor recovery, and create a hemicellulose feed stream for the generation of biofuels and biomaterials. Current efforts are focused on developing extract production and conditioning processes that will result in fermentable sugars suitable for conversion to fuel alcohols or organic acid chemical products. As efforts move the process closer to commercial demonstration, it is apparent that a high level of confidence is needed in the analysis of the partitioning of fresh wood into its extracted wood and liquid extract fractions. Of particular interest is the partitioning of the carbohydrates, as these constitute the feedstock for bioconversion to fuels and chemicals. The extraction method employed utilizes green liquor derived from the kraft pulping process for pretreatment of the woodchips. To enable analysis, green liquor extraction was followed by 4% sulfuric acid hydrolysis to complete hydrolysis of the oligomers that were still present. High performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC-PAD) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods were used to analyze the carbohydrates in northern hardwood and its extract fractions. The Bio-Rad Aminex HPX-87H column did not separate mannose, xylose, and galactose, but the area of the collective peak corresponds well to the sum of these components as measured by HPAEC. In addition to sugars, standard methods were employed for quantification of the individual components (e.g., lignin, ash, nitrogen, carbon, extractives, uronic and acetic acid). The analytical mass balance closure was 102.2% and 103.6% for raw wood, 99.3% and 102.3% for extracted wood, and 94.7% and 95.6% for hemicellulose extract from the HPAEC and HPLC, respectively. The extraction mass balance was 96.9% and 98.2% for HPAEC and HPLC, respectively. The data generated

  7. Test plan for non-radioactive testing of vertical calciner for development of direct denitration conversion of Pu-bearing liquors to stable, storage solids

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, F.D.

    1995-03-30

    Plutonium-bearing liquors, including ANL scrap liquors, will be used for development and demonstration of a vertical calciner direct denitration process for conversion of those liquors to stable, storable PuO{sub 2}-rich solids. This test plan is to test with non-radioactive stand-in materials to demonstrate adequate performance of the vertical calciner and ancillary equipment.

  8. Green chemicals from pulp production black liquor by partial wet oxidation.

    PubMed

    Muddassar, Hassan Raja; Melin, Kristian; de Villalba Kokkonen, Daniela; Riera, Gerard Viader; Golam, Sarwar; Koskinen, Jukka

    2015-11-01

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, more sustainable sources of energy, fuel and chemicals are needed. Biomass side streams such as black liquor, which is a by-product of pulp production, has the potential to be used for this purpose. The aim of the study was the production of carboxylic acids, such as lactic acid, formic acid and acetic acid, from kraft and non-wood black liquor. The processes studied were partial wet oxidation (PWO) and catalytic partial wet oxidation (CPWO). The results show that the yield of carboxylic acid is higher when treated by PWO than the results from CPWO at temperatures of 170 °C and 230 °C. The results shows that the PWO process can increase the yield of carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids in black liquor, reduce lignin content and decrease pH, which makes further separation of the acids more favourable. The hydroxy acids are valuable raw materials for biopolymers, and acetic acid and formic acid are commonly used chemicals conventionally produced from fossil feedstock. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Comparison of the substrate enzymatic digestibility and lignin structure of wheat straw stems and leaves pretreated by green liquor.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bo; Wang, Wangxia; Gu, Feng; Cao, Tingyue; Jin, Yongcan

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the substrate enzymatic digestibility (SED) and the lignin structure of green liquor (GL) pretreated wheat straw stems and leaves were investigated. Compared with wheat straw stems, leaves showed higher delignification selectivity in GL pretreatment and higher SED in enzymatic hydrolysis. Wet chemical analysis indicated that, characterized with lower content of syringyl units and less β-O-4 linkages, leaf lignin is structurally different from stem lignin. After GL pretreatment, the drops of both nitrobenzene oxidation and ozonation products yield of leaves were obviously higher than those of stems, which means that more β-O-4 linkages of leaf lignin were broken than that of stem lignin. The SED of total sugar in GL-pretreated leaves was about 50% higher than that in GL-pretreated stems. The less content and lower S/G ratio of lignin are suggested to be the important factors for the better SED of GL-pretreated leaves.

  10. Mineral phases of green liquor dregs, slaker grits, lime mud and wood ash of a Kraft pulp and paper mill.

    PubMed

    Martins, Fernanda Machado; Martins, Joaniel Munhoz; Ferracin, Luiz Carlos; da Cunha, Carlos Jorge

    2007-08-17

    Four residues generated in a Kraft, pulp and paper plant, were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XFA), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimmetric analysis (TG) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). A quantitative phase composition model, that accounts for the observed data and for the physico-chemical conditions of formation, was postulated for each material. Emphasis was given on the identification of the mineral components of each material. The green liquor dregs and the lime mud contain Calcite and Gipsite. The slaker grits contains Calcite, Portlandite, Pirssonite, Larnite and Brucite. The Calcite phase, present in the dregs and in the lime mud, has small amounts of magnesium replacing calcium. The wood ash contains Quartz as the major crystalline mineral phase.

  11. Direct Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasification in a Circulating Fluidized Bed

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Sinquefield; Xiaoyan Zeng, Alan Ball

    2010-03-02

    Gasification of black liquor (BLG) has distinct advantages over direct combustion in Tomlinson recovery boilers. In this project we seek to resolve causticizing issues in order to make pressurized BLG even more efficient and cost-effective. One advantage of BLG is that the inherent partial separation of sulfur and sodium during gasification lends itself to the use of proven high yield variants to conventional kraft pulping which require just such a separation. Processes such as polysulfide, split sulfidity, ASAQ, and MSSAQ can increase pulp yield from 1% to 10% over conventional kraft but require varying degrees of sulfur/sodium separation, which requires additional [and costly] processing in a conventional Tomlinson recovery process. However during gasification, the sulfur is partitioned between the gas and smelt phases, while the sodium all leaves in the smelt; thus creating the opportunity to produce sulfur-rich and sulfur-lean white liquors for specialty pulping processes. A second major incentive of BLG is the production of a combustible product gas, rich in H2 and CO. This product gas (a.k.a. “syngas”) can be used in gas turbines for combined cycle power generation (which is twice as efficient as the steam cycle alone), or it can be used as a precursor to form liquid fuels, such as dimethyl ether or Fischer Tropsh diesel. There is drawback to BLG, which has the potential to become a third major incentive if this work is successful. The causticizing load is greater for gasification of black liquor than for combustion in a Tomlinson boiler. So implementing BLG in an existing mill would require costly increases to the causticizing capacity. In situ causticizing [within the gasifier] would handle the entire causticizing load and therefore eliminate the lime cycle entirely. Previous work by the author and others has shown that titanate direct causticizing (i.e. in situ) works quite well for high-temperature BLG (950°C), but was limited to pressures below

  12. Treatment of waste liquor

    SciTech Connect

    Jablin, R.

    1980-02-12

    The design is disclosed for liquor treatment system comprising an evaporator in combination with a gas cooler, the evaporator providing fractional distillation of waste liquor, thereby separating the liquor into its several components of gaseous vapors, purified water, and concentrated brine. Condensed liquor from the gas cooler or flushing liquor used to spray an industrial process gas in the collecting mains of the gas-producing plant provides thermal energy from its waste heat to run the evaporator. The evaporator consists of a boiler section, a condenser section, a vacuum pump, a liquor circulating pump, and nozzles for extracting the products. The gas cooler may be one or two stages. In the one-stage cooler, the hot liquor which condenses in the gas cooling process or flushing liquor from the collecting mains of the gas-producing plant provides energy for the evaporator through means of a heat exchanger. In the two stage gas cooler, the hot liquor in the first stage is circulated directly to the boiler section of the evaporator. The hot liquor from the second stage is circulated through a separate heat exhanger.

  13. Green synthesis of bacterial cellulose via acetic acid pre-hydrolysis liquor of agricultural corn stalk used as carbon source.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zheng; Yang, Rendang; Liu, Xu; Liu, Xiao; Chen, Hua

    2017-06-01

    Herein, bacterial cellulose (BC) was synthesized by acetobacter xylinum via organic acid pre-hydrolysis liquor of agricultural corn stalk used as carbon source. Acetic acid was applied to pretreat the corn stalk, then, the prehydrolysate was detoxified by sequential steps of activated carbon and ion exchange resin treatment prior to use as carbon source to cultivate acetobacter xylinum. Moreover, the recovery of acetic acid was achieved for facilitating the reduction of cost. The results revealed that the combination method of detoxification treatment was very effective for synthesis of BC, yield could be up to 2.86g/L. SEM analysis showed that the diameter size of BC between 20 and 70mm. In summary, the process that bacterial cellulose was biosynthesized via prehydrolysate from agricultural corn stalk used as carbon source is feasible, and the ability to recover organic acid make it economical, sustainable and green, which fits well into the biorefinery concept. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pulsed combustion process for black liquor gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Durai-Swamy, K.; Mansour, M.N.; Warren, D.W.

    1991-02-01

    The objective of this project is to test an energy efficient, innovative black liquor recovery system on an industrial scale. In the MTCI recovery process, black liquor is sprayed directly onto a bed of sodium carbonate solids which is fluidized by steam. Direct contact of the black liquor with hot bed solids promotes high rates of heating and pyrolysis. Residual carbon, which forms as a deposit on the particle surface, is then gasified by reaction with steam. Heat is supplied from pulse combustor resonance tubes which are immersed within the fluid bed. A portion of the gasifier product gas is returned to the pulse combustors to provide the energy requirements of the reactor. Oxidized sulfur species are partially reduced by reaction with the gasifier products, principally carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The reduced sulfur decomposed to solid sodium carbonate and gaseous hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S). Sodium values are recovered by discharging a dry sodium carbonate product from the gasifier. MTCI's indirectly heated gasification technology for black liquor recovery also relies on the scrubbing of H{sub 2}S for product gases to regenerate green liquor for reuse in the mill circuit. Due to concerns relative to the efficiency of sulfur recovery in the MTCI integrated process, an experimental investigation was undertaken to establish performance and design data for this portion of the system.

  15. Energy conversion performance of black liquor gasification to hydrogen production using direct causticization with CO(2) capture.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, M; Yan, J; Dahlquist, E

    2012-04-01

    This paper estimates potential hydrogen production via dry black liquor gasification system with direct causticization integrated with a reference pulp mill. The advantage of using direct causticization is elimination of energy intensive lime kiln. Pressure swing adsorption is integrated in the carbon capture process for hydrogen upgrading. The energy conversion performance of the integrated system is compared with other bio-fuel alternatives and evaluated based on system performance indicators. The results indicated a significant hydrogen production potential (about 141MW) with an energy ratio of about 0.74 from the reference black liquor capacity (about 243.5MW) and extra biomass import (about 50MW) to compensate total energy deficit. About 867,000tonnes of CO(2) abatement per year is estimated i.e. combining CO(2) capture and CO(2) offset from hydrogen replacing motor gasoline. The hydrogen production offers a substantial motor fuel replacement especially in regions with large pulp and paper industry e.g. about 63% of domestic gasoline replacement in Sweden.

  16. The use of a sequential leaching procedure for heavy metal fractionation in green liquor dregs from a causticizing process at a pulp mill.

    PubMed

    Nurmesniemi, Hannu; Pöykiö, Risto; Perämäki, Paavo; Kuokkanen, Toivo

    2005-12-01

    A five-stage sequential leaching procedure was used to fractionate heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn, Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, As, V, Ba and Ti) in green liquor dregs into the following fractions: (1) water-soluble fraction (H2O), (2) exchangeable fraction (CH3COOH), (3) easily reduced fraction (HONH3Cl), (4) oxidizable fraction (H2O2 + CH3COONH4), and (5) residual fraction (HF + HNO3 + HCl). The green liquor dregs were derived from a causticizing process at a pulp mill at Kemi, Northern Finland. According to the leaching studies, the leachability of heavy metals in the water-soluble fraction varied between 0.5 and 2 mg kg(-1) expressed on a dry weight (d.w.) basis, indicating relatively low bioavailability of the metals. However, the concentration of Mn (2065 mg kg(-1); d.w.) showed a strong and of Zn (17.6 mg kg(-1); d.w.), Ni (39.7 mg kg(-1); d.w.) and Ba (32.0 mg kg(-1); d.w.) slightly tendency to be extracted in the exchangeable fraction. In addition, Zn, Mn, Ni, Co, V and Ba showed clear leachability in the easily reduced fraction, as well as Cd, Cu, Cr, Zn, Mn, As and Ba in the oxidizable fraction. For Cd, Cu, Cr, Zn, Mn, Ni, Co, Ba and Ti, the sum of leachable heavy metal concentrations in fractions 1-5 agreed relatively well with the "total" heavy metal concentrations. Recoveries of the sum of fractions 1-5 were 84-56% of those obtained by the US EPA method 3052 (i.e. concentrations obtained after microwave oven digestion with a mixture of HF and HNO3).

  17. Highly Energy Efficient Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    This factsheet describes a project that seeks to develop feasible chemical modifications during kraft pulping operations to obtain significant energy and product benefits for U.S. kraft pulp and paper mills.

  18. Reutilization of green liquor chemicals for pretreatment of whole rice waste biomass and its application to 2,3-butanediol production.

    PubMed

    Saratale, Ganesh D; Jung, Moo-Young; Oh, Min-Kyu

    2016-04-01

    The performance of green liquor pretreatment using Na2CO3 and Na2SO3 and its optimization for whole rice waste biomass (RWB) was investigated. Incubation of Na2CO3-Na2SO3 at a 1:1 ratio (chemical charge 10%) for 12% RWB at 100°C for 6h resulted in maximum delignification (58.2%) with significant glucan yield (88%) and total sugar recovery (545mg/g of RWB) after enzymatic hydrolysis. Recovery and reusability of the resulting chemical spent wash were evaluated to treat RWB along with its compatibility for enzymatic digestibility. Significant hydrolysis and lignin removal were observed for up to three cycles; however, further reuse of Na2CO3 and Na2SO3 lowered their performance. Significant 2,3-butanediol (BDO) was produced by Klebsiella pneumoniae KMK-05 with the RWB enzymatic hydrolysate from each pretreatment cycle. BDO yield achieved using RWB-derived sugars was similar to those using laboratory-grade sugars. This pretreatment strategy constitutes an ecofriendly, cost-effective, and practical method for utilizing lignocellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Brown; Ingvar Landalv; Ragnar Stare; Jerry Yuan; Nikolai DeMartini; Nasser Ashgriz

    2008-03-31

    Weyerhaeuser operates the world's only commercial high-temperature black liquor gasifier at its pulp mill in New Bern, NC. The unit was started-up in December 1996 and currently processes about 15% of the mill's black liquor. Weyerhaeuser, Chemrec AB (the gasifier technology developer), and the U.S. Department of Energy recognized that the long-term, continuous operation of the New Bern gasifier offered a unique opportunity to advance the state of high temperature black liquor gasification toward the commercial-scale pressurized O2-blown gasification technology needed as a foundation for the Forest Products Bio-Refinery of the future. Weyerhaeuser along with its subcontracting partners submitted a proposal in response to the 2004 joint USDOE and USDA solicitation - 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative'. The Weyerhaeuser project 'Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification' was awarded USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42259 in November 2004. The overall goal of the DOE sponsored project was to utilize the Chemrec{trademark} black liquor gasification facility at New Bern as a test bed for advancing the development status of molten phase black liquor gasification. In particular, project tasks were directed at improvements to process performance and reliability. The effort featured the development and validation of advanced CFD modeling tools and the application of these tools to direct burner technology modifications. The project also focused on gaining a fundamental understanding and developing practical solutions to address condensate and green liquor scaling issues, and process integration issues related to gasifier dregs and product gas scrubbing. The Project was conducted in two phases with a review point between the phases. Weyerhaeuser pulled together a team of collaborators to undertake these tasks. Chemrec AB, the technology supplier, was intimately involved in most tasks, and focused primarily on the design, specification and

  20. Detection of irradiated liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shengchu, Qi; Jilan, Wu; Rongyao, Yuan

    D-2,3-butanediol is formed by irradiation processes in irradiated liquors. This radiolytic product is not formed in unirradiated liquors and its presence can therefore be used to identify whether a liquor has been irradiated or not. The relation meso/dl≈1 for 2,3-butanediol and the amount present in irradiated liquors may therefore be used as an indication of the dose used in the irradiation.

  1. Research on Producing Green Dimension Directly From Hardwood Logs

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman

    1995-01-01

    Because of rising timber costs and an increasing demand for high-grade timber, suppliers of solid wood products need additional material options. We feel that European and Japanese processing concepts of producing green dimension and other clear material directly from logs could provide an answer. In this paper we present a brief overview of our research results on...

  2. Direct Gallbladder Indocyanine Green Injection Fluorescence Cholangiography During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Graves, Claire; Ely, Sora; Idowu, Olajire; Newton, Christopher; Kim, Sunghoon

    2017-06-02

    Intravenous injection of indocyanine green (ICG) is used to illuminate extrahepatic biliary anatomy. Fluorescence of biliary structures may lower surgical complications that can arise due to inadvertent injury to the common bile duct. We describe a method of injecting ICG directly into the gallbladder to define the cystic duct and common bile duct anatomy. A standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed using a laparoscope with near-infrared imaging capability. Before dissection, the gallbladder was punctured with a cholangiogram catheter or a pigtail catheter to aspirate the bile within the gallbladder. The aspirated bile is mixed with ICG solution, which is reinjected into the gallbladder to fluoresce the gallbladder, cystic duct, and common bile duct structures. Eleven patients underwent direct gallbladder ICG injection for fluorescence cholangiography during cholecystectomy. Direct gallbladder ICG injection clearly defined the extrahepatic biliary anatomy, including the cystic duct-common bile duct junction, by fluorescence. In addition, the dissection plane between the gallbladder and the liver is highlighted with the gallbladder ICG fluorescence. Direct gallbladder ICG injection provides immediate visualization of extrahepatic biliary structures and clarifies the dissection plane between the gallbladder and the liver bed.

  3. Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Sinquefeld; James Cantrell; Xiaoyan Zeng; Alan Ball; Jeff Empie

    2009-01-07

    The cost-benefit outlook of black liquor gasification (BLG) could be greatly improved if the smelt causticization step could be achieved in situ during the gasification step. Or, at a minimum, the increase in causticizing load associated with BLG could be mitigated. A number of chemistries have been proven successful during black liquor combustion. In this project, three in situ causticizing processes (titanate, manganate, and borate) were evaluated under conditions suitable for high temperature entrained flow BLG, and low temperature steam reforming of black liquor. The evaluation included both thermodynamic modeling and lab experimentation. Titanate and manganate were tested for complete direct causticizing (to thus eliminate the lime cycle), and borates were evaluated for partial causticizing (to mitigate the load increase associated with BLG). Criteria included high carbonate conversion, corresponding hydroxide recovery upon hydrolysis, non process element (NPE) removal, and economics. Of the six cases (three chemistries at two BLG conditions), only two were found to be industrially viable: titanates for complete causticizing during high temperature BLG, and borates for partial causticizing during high temperature BLG. These two cases were evaluated for integration into a gasification-based recovery island. The Larsen [28] BLG cost-benefit study was used as a reference case for economic forecasting (i.e. a 1500 tpd pulp mill using BLG and upgrading the lime cycle). By comparison, using the titanate direct causticizing process yielded a net present value (NPV) of $25M over the NPV of BLG with conventional lime cycle. Using the existing lime cycle plus borate autocausticizing for extra capacity yielded a NPV of $16M.

  4. Gasification of black liquor

    DOEpatents

    Kohl, Arthur L.

    1987-07-28

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediatley above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone.

  5. Gasification of black liquor

    DOEpatents

    Kohl, A.L.

    1987-07-28

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediately above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone. 2 figs.

  6. Recovering gallium from residual bayer process liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso de Magalhães, Maria Elizabeth; Tubino, Matthieu

    1991-06-01

    Gallium is normally obtained by direct electrolysis as a by-product from Bayer process residual liquor at an aluminum processing plant. However, to permit any net accumulation of the metal, the gallium concentration must be at least about 0.3 g/l in the liquor. This article describes a continuous process of extraction with organic solvents and rhodamine-B, followed by a re-extraction step into aqueous media. The final product is a solid containing up to 18 wt.% Ga in a solid mixture of hydroxides and oxides of gallium and aluminum. This final product can then be electrolyzed to recover the gallium more efficiently.

  7. Kraft black liquor delivery systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Empie, J.; Lien, J.

    1995-02-01

    An improved spray nozzle for black liquor injection into kraft recovery boilers has been sought which is expected to result in obtaining a controlled, well-defined droplet size distribution. An environmentally sound experimental spray facility capable of delivering black liquor at normal firing temperatures has been operated at the Institute of Paper Science and Technology to help achieve that goal. Previous work showed that black liquor sprays have a characteristic size distribution which is determined by the fluid mechanical forces breaking up the spray sheet issuing from the nozzle. Recent work has centered on applying vibratory assist as an independently-controlled force on the sheet breakup process in an attempt to change the drop size distribution. Results are presented which feature vibratory assist applied in the axial direction.

  8. Scrubbing liquors for nitrogen tetroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Once it was determined that the wet scrubbing concept was the most practical solution to the N2O4 emission problem, it became important to optimize the composition of the scrubbing liquor. Several reagents were cited in the literature as being advantageous in scrubbing NO2. Experiments were conducted on a model wet scrubber in order to verify and rank the performances of these scrubbing liquors. The most efficient scrubbing liquor found experimentally was a 10% sodium sulfite solution.

  9. Calculation of the liquor system pliability using the mathematical simulation method.

    PubMed

    Koshurnikov, D S; Petraikin, A V; Martynov, A K; Sergienko, V I

    2011-10-01

    Liquor circulation is a directed flow of the liquor from sites of its secretion to sites of resorption. This slow flow is modulated by pulsation caused by heart work. Phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging is a method for noninvasive measurements of the linear velocity of these pulses in the cerebral aqueduct. A mathematical model reproducing pulsed flow of the liquor in the cerebral aqueduct is proposed and the procedure of evaluation of these parameters is presented. The pliability liquor system can be calculated from the values of liquor flow linear velocity in the cerebral aqueduct, measured by noninvasive method.

  10. EPA’s Village Green Project: New Directions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA’s Village Green Project (VGP) is an example of using innovative technology to enable community-level, real-time air pollution measurements using low-cost sensor technologies. The VGP is an air monitoring system configured as a park bench located outside of a public lib...

  11. EPA’s Village Green Project: New Directions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA’s Village Green Project (VGP) is an example of using innovative technology to enable community-level, real-time air pollution measurements using low-cost sensor technologies. The VGP is an air monitoring system configured as a park bench located outside of a public lib...

  12. Structural analysis of the bright monomeric yellow-green fluorescent protein mNeonGreen obtained by directed evolution.

    PubMed

    Clavel, Damien; Gotthard, Guillaume; von Stetten, David; De Sanctis, Daniele; Pasquier, Hélène; Lambert, Gerard G; Shaner, Nathan C; Royant, Antoine

    2016-12-01

    Until recently, genes coding for homologues of the autofluorescent protein GFP had only been identified in marine organisms from the phyla Cnidaria and Arthropoda. New fluorescent-protein genes have now been found in the phylum Chordata, coding for particularly bright oligomeric fluorescent proteins such as the tetrameric yellow fluorescent protein lanYFP from Branchiostoma lanceolatum. A successful monomerization attempt led to the development of the bright yellow-green fluorescent protein mNeonGreen. The structures of lanYFP and mNeonGreen have been determined and compared in order to rationalize the directed evolution process leading from a bright, tetrameric to a still bright, monomeric fluorescent protein. An unusual discolouration of crystals of mNeonGreen was observed after X-ray data collection, which was investigated using a combination of X-ray crystallography and UV-visible absorption and Raman spectroscopies, revealing the effects of specific radiation damage in the chromophore cavity. It is shown that X-rays rapidly lead to the protonation of the phenolate O atom of the chromophore and to the loss of its planarity at the methylene bridge.

  13. Chemical composition and flavor of ecuadorian cocoa liquor.

    PubMed

    Luna, Fabienne; Crouzillat, Dominique; Cirou, Loïc; Bucheli, Peter

    2002-06-05

    The contribution of the chemical composition to the flavor of cocoa liquor from an Ecuadorian selfed population of clone EET 95 was investigated. Polyphenols, purine alkaloids, organic acids, and sugars were quantified, and the key sensory characteristics of cocoa were scored by a trained panel. Despite the short bean fermentation (2 days) commonly used for Arriba cocoa, acetic acid content was closely correlated to liquor pH, demonstrating its essential role in cocoa liquor acidification. Polyphenols were positively correlated to astringency, bitterness, and the green note and negatively correlated to the fruity character. Alkaloid and polyphenol levels fluctuated significantly within the selfed progeny and tended to be lower than those of the heterozygous clone EET 95 (inbreeding effect). These results support the idea that polyphenols might be essential to the overall perception of cocoa liquor characteristics and indicate that the composition and the sensory quality of cocoa liquor are the result of both a genotypic contribution and the conditions of fermentation and roasting.

  14. Kraft black liquor delivery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, T.N.; Empie, H.L.; Obuskovic, N.; Spielbauer, T.M.

    1990-02-01

    Improvement of spray nozzles for black liquor injection into kraft recovery furnaces is expected to result from obtaining a controlled, well-defined droplet size distribution. Work this year has centered on defining the capabilities of commercial black liquor nozzles currently in use. Considerations of the observed mechanism of droplet formation suggest a major revision is needed in the theory of how droplets form from these nozzles. High resolution, high sensitivity video has been shown to be superior to flash x-ray as a technique for measuring the droplet size distribution as well as the formation history. An environmentally sound spray facility capable of spraying black liquor at temperatures up to normal firing conditions is being constructed before data acquisition continues. Preliminary correlations have been developed between liquor properties, nozzle design, and droplet size. Three aspects of nozzle design have been investigated: droplet size distribution, fluid sheet thickness, and flow and pressure drop characteristics. The standard deviation about the median droplet size for black liquor is nearly the same as the for a wide variety of other fluids and nozzle types. Preliminary correlation for fluid sheet thickness on the plate of a splashplate nozzle show the strong similarities of black liquor to other fluids. The flow and pressure drop characteristic of black liquor nozzle, follow a simple two-term relationship similar to other flow devices. This means that in routine mill operation of black liquor nozzles only the fluid acceleration in the nozzle is important, viscous losses are quiet small. 21 refs., 53 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Proceedings of the black liquor research program review fifth meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    On June 14--17, 1988 the participants and invited guests of the Cooperative Program in Kraft Recovery gathered in Charleston, South Carolina, to review progress on four major black liquor research programs being executed at the Institute of Paper Chemistry, the University of Maine, the National Bureau of Standards, and the University of Florida. These programs include: (1) Black Liquor Properties; (2) Black Liquor Droplet Formation; (3) Black Liquor Nozzle Evaluation; and (4) Black Liquor Combustion. In addition to the objectives of previous meetings, this meeting made a direct attempt to gather ideas on how to improve our ability to move from new technology concepts to commercial implementation. Also attached is the agenda for the Charleston meeting. The first two days were involved with updates and reviews of the four major black liquor programs. A half day was spent discussing pathways to implementation and developing thoughts on what industry, DOE and academia could do to facilitate commercial implementation of the research results. This publication is a summary of the presentations made in Charleston and the industry responses to the research work. Readers are cautioned that the contents are in-progress updates on the status of the research and do not represent referred technical papers. Any questions regarding the content should be referred to the principal investigators of the project.

  16. Antioxidant capacity of Kraft black liquor from the pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Perez-Perez, Elizabeth; Rodríguez-Malaver, Antonio J

    2005-07-01

    The effect of Kraft black liquor on the lipid peroxidation of rat homogenates was examined. The lipid peroxidation of homogenates from different organs (kidney, brain, lung, and liver) was induced by Fenton's reagent. The products of lipid peroxidation, lipid hydroperoxides and TBARS were measured by FOX method and TBA assay, respectively. It was found that black liquor significantly reduced the concentration of TBARS, but not the concentration of lipid hydroperoxides. This inhibition was directly proportional to the concentration of Kraft black liquor and the incubation temperature. Conclusively, the black liquor from pulp and paper industry exhibited an antioxidant activity.

  17. Two-photon directed evolution of green fluorescent proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoltzfus, Caleb R.; Barnett, Lauren M.; Drobizhev, Mikhail; Wicks, Geoffrey; Mikhaylov, Alexander; Hughes, Thomas E.; Rebane, Aleksander

    2015-07-01

    Directed evolution has been used extensively to improve the properties of a variety of fluorescent proteins (FPs). Evolutionary strategies, however, have not yet been used to improve the two-photon absorption (2PA) properties of a fluorescent protein, properties that are important for two-photon imaging in living tissues, including the brain. Here we demonstrate a technique for quantitatively screening the two-photon excited fluorescence (2PEF) efficiency and 2PA cross section of tens of thousands of mutant FPs expressed in E. coli colonies. We use this procedure to move EGFP through three rounds of two-photon directed evolution leading to new variants showing up to a 50% enhancement in peak 2PA cross section and brightness within the near-IR tissue transparency wavelength range.

  18. The activation of directional stem cell motility by green light-emitting diode irradiation.

    PubMed

    Ong, Wei-Kee; Chen, How-Foo; Tsai, Cheng-Ting; Fu, Yun-Ju; Wong, Yi-Shan; Yen, Da-Jen; Chang, Tzu-Hao; Huang, Hsien-Da; Lee, Oscar Kuang-Sheng; Chien, Shu; Ho, Jennifer Hui-Chun

    2013-03-01

    Light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation is potentially a photostimulator to manipulate cell behavior by opsin-triggered phototransduction and thermal energy supply in living cells. Directional stem cell motility is critical for the efficiency and specificity of stem cells in tissue repair. We explored that green LED (530 nm) irradiation directed the human orbital fat stem cells (OFSCs) to migrate away from the LED light source through activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)/MAP kinase/p38 signaling pathway. ERK inhibitor selectively abrogated light-driven OFSC migration. Phosphorylation of these kinases as well as green LED irradiation-induced cell migration was facilitated by increasing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production in OFSCs after green LED exposure, and which was thermal stress-independent mechanism. OFSCs, which are multi-potent mesenchymal stem cells isolated from human orbital fat tissue, constitutionally express three opsins, i.e. retinal pigment epithelium-derived rhodopsin homolog (RRH), encephalopsin (OPN3) and short-wave-sensitive opsin 1 (OPN1SW). However, only two non-visual opsins, i.e. RRH and OPN3, served as photoreceptors response to green LED irradiation-induced OFSC migration. In conclusion, stem cells are sensitive to green LED irradiation-induced directional cell migration through activation of ERK signaling pathway via a wavelength-dependent phototransduction.

  19. From green to blue: site-directed mutagenesis of the green fluorescent protein to teach protein structure-function relationships.

    PubMed

    Girón, María D; Salto, Rafael

    2011-07-01

    Structure-function relationship studies in proteins are essential in modern Cell Biology. Laboratory exercises that allow students to familiarize themselves with basic mutagenesis techniques are essential in all Genetic Engineering courses to teach the relevance of protein structure. We have implemented a laboratory course based on the site-directed mutagenesis of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria. The GFP is ideal because the students are able to correlate the changes introduced into the structure of the protein with the observable modification of its fluorescence properties. By using noncommercial kits, we set up a non PCR-thermocycling reaction using mutagenic primers, followed by removal of the original plasmid template by DpnI digestion. By introducing only one (Y66H) or two mutations (Y66H/Y145F) in the "cycle 3" variant of GFP (F99S, M153T, and V163A) or GFPuv, students are able to analyze the changes from green to blue in the fluorescence emission of the mutated proteins and to correlate these differences in fluorescence with the structural changes using three-dimensional structure visualization software. This inexpensive laboratory course familiarizes the students with the design of mutagenic oligonucleotides, site-directed mutagenesis, bacterial transformation, restriction analysis of the mutated plasmids, and protein characterization by SDS-PAGE and fluorescence spectroscopy.

  20. Sunday Liquor Laws and Crime

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Many jurisdictions have considered relaxing Sunday alcohol sales restrictions, yet such restrictions' effects on public health remain poorly understood. This paper analyzes the effects of legalization of Sunday packaged liquor sales on crime, focusing on the phased introduction of such sales in Virginia beginning in 2004. Differences-in-differences and triple-differences estimates indicate the liberalization increased minor crime by 5% and alcohol-involved serious crime by 10%. The law change did not affect domestic crime or induce significant geographic or inter-temporal crime displacement. The costs of this additional crime are comparable to the state's revenues from increased liquor sales. PMID:22125348

  1. 21 CFR 163.111 - Chocolate liquor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chocolate liquor. 163.111 Section 163.111 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.111 Chocolate liquor. (a) Description. (1) Chocolate liquor is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by finely grinding...

  2. 21 CFR 163.111 - Chocolate liquor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chocolate liquor. 163.111 Section 163.111 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.111 Chocolate liquor. (a) Description. (1) Chocolate liquor is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by finely grinding...

  3. 21 CFR 163.111 - Chocolate liquor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chocolate liquor. 163.111 Section 163.111 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.111 Chocolate liquor. (a) Description. (1) Chocolate liquor is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by finely grinding...

  4. 21 CFR 163.111 - Chocolate liquor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chocolate liquor. 163.111 Section 163.111 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.111 Chocolate liquor. (a) Description. (1) Chocolate liquor is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by finely grinding...

  5. Ultrafiltration of kraft black liquor: Final report, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, M.K.

    1988-04-01

    Since 1981, a research program has been in progress to determine the physical properties of kraft black liquors and to develop methods for reduction of data and correlation of properties with pumping conditions. The basic premise that has been used to direct the research program is that kraft black liquor behaves as a polymer solution, particularly at high solids, and that the behavior is dominated by the characteristics of the lignin present. This premise is proving to be correct, and the principles that follow from this premise are proving to be successful for data reduction and correlation. The research has been a complex program involving experimental pulping, chemical analysis, lignin separation and characterization, thermal analysis, rheological measurements, and considerable equipment and methods development. Due to the complexity of the program, the unforeseen need to expend a great deal of effort in development of experimental techniques for analysis, and the fact that our liquors proved to be unstable at high temperatures and solids, all of the original objectives could not be accomplished. However, our program has added substantially to the body of knowledge of physical properties of black liquor. Our results indicate that the goal of developing correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor is practical and can be realized through extension of the present work. 21 refs., 32 figs.

  6. DIRECT SPECTROSCOPIC IDENTIFICATION OF THE ORIGIN OF 'GREEN FUZZY' EMISSION IN STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    De Buizer, James M.; Vacca, William D.

    2010-07-15

    'Green fuzzies' or 'extended green objects' were discovered in the recent Spitzer GLIMPSE survey data. These extended sources have enhanced emission in the 4.5 {mu}m IRAC channel images (which are generally assigned to be green when making three-color RGB images from Spitzer data). Green fuzzies are frequently found in the vicinities of massive young stellar objects (MYSO), and it has been established that they are in some cases associated with outflows. Nevertheless, the spectral carrier(s) of this enhanced emission is (are) still uncertain. Although it has been suggested that Br {alpha}, H{sub 2}, [Fe II], and/or broad CO emission may be contributing to and enhancing the 4.5 {mu}m flux from these objects, to date there have been no direct observations of the 4-5 {mu}m spectra of these objects. Here we report on the first direct spectroscopic identification of the origin of the green fuzzy emission. We obtained spatially resolved L- and M-band spectra for two green fuzzy sources using NIRI on the Gemini North telescope. In the case of one source, G19.88 - 0.53, we detect three individual knots of green fuzzy emission around the source. The knots exhibit a pure molecular hydrogen line emission spectrum, with the 4.695 {mu}m {nu} = 0-0 S(9) line dominating the emission in the 4-5 {mu}m wavelength range, and no detected continuum component. Our data for G19.88 - 0.53 prove that green fuzzy emission can be due primarily to emission lines of molecular hydrogen within the bandpass of the IRAC 4.5 {mu}m channel. However, the other target observed, G49.27 - 0.34, does not exhibit any line emission and appears to be an embedded MYSO with a cometary UC H II region. We suggest that the effects of extinction in the 3-8 {mu}m wavelength range and an exaggeration in the color stretch of the 4.5 {mu}m filter in IRAC RGB images could lead to embedded sources such as this one falsely appearing 'green'.

  7. Laser Excited Fluorescence Studies Of Black Liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, J. J.; Semerjian, H. G.

    1986-10-01

    Laser excited fluorescence of black liquor was investigated as a possible monitoring technique for pulping processes. A nitrogen pumped dye laser was used to examine the fluorescence spectrum of black liquor solutions. Various excitation wavelengths were used between 290 and 403 nm. Black liquor fluorescence spectra were found to vary with both excitation wavelength and black liquor concentration. Laser excited fluorescence was found to be a sensitive technique for measurement of black liquor with good detection limits and linear response over a large dynamic range.

  8. Microcavity organic light-emitting diodes for strongly directed pure red, green, and blue emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokito, Shizuo; Tsutsui, Tetsuo; Taga, Yasunori

    1999-09-01

    In this article we demonstrate strongly directed pure red, green, and blue emissions in the organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with a planar microcavity defined by a pair of dielectric mirror and a metal mirror. By careful control of the cavity mode and the position of the resonance wavelength, the strong directionality in the forward direction as well as the spectral narrowing and the intensity enhancement are realized in the microcavity OLEDs. The intensity enhancements at the resonance wavelength are 1.5-5 compared to the noncavity OLEDs, and the chromaticity coordinates of the emission colors are the ideal primary colors. The experimental results are compared to theoretically calculated ones.

  9. Simultaneous and rapid determination of multiple component concentrations in a Kraft liquor process stream

    DOEpatents

    Li, Jian; Chai, Xin Sheng; Zhu, Junyoung

    2008-06-24

    The present invention is a rapid method of determining the concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. The present invention is also a simple, low cost, device of determining the in-situ concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. In particular, the present invention provides a useful method for simultaneously determining the concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate in aqueous kraft pulping liquors through use of an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) tunnel flow cell or optical probe capable of producing a ultraviolet absorbency spectrum over a wavelength of 190 to 300 nm. In addition, the present invention eliminates the need for manual sampling and dilution previously required to generate analyzable samples. The inventive method can be used in Kraft pulping operations to control white liquor causticizing efficiency, sulfate reduction efficiency in green liquor, oxidation efficiency for oxidized white liquor and the active and effective alkali charge to kraft pulping operations.

  10. Synergistic effects of multiple treatments, and both DNA and RNA direct bindings on, green tea catechins.

    PubMed

    Kuzuhara, Takashi; Tanabe, Akitoshi; Sei, Yoshihisa; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Suganuma, Masami; Fujiki, Hirota

    2007-08-01

    This article reviews two main topics: (1) the synergistic effects of multiple treatments with green tea catechin and (2) the direct binding of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) to both DNA and RNA molecules. Japanese drink green tea throughout the day, so we studied whether multiple treatments of cells with EGCG would enhance the expression of apoptosis-related genes, such as growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene (GADD153) and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor gene (p21(waf1)): The results suggest that the synergistic enhancement of both GADD153 and p21(waf1) gene expressions by multiple treatments plays a significant role in human cancer prevention with green tea beverage. Our previous observation-that nucleic acids extracted from catechin-treated cells are colored-allowed us to speculate that catechins directly interact with nucleic acids. Surface plasmon resonance assay (Biacore) indicated that four catechins, EGCG, (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (+)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG), and (+)-catechin gallate (CG), bound to DNA oligomers. Cold spray ionization mass spectrometry (CSI-MS) analysis showed that one to three EGCG molecules bound to single-stranded 18 mers of DNA and RNA. Moreover, one or two molecules of EGCG bound to double-stranded AG:CT oligomers of various nucleotide lengths. Double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) oligomers were detected only as EGCG-bound forms at high temperature, whereas at low temperature both the free and bound forms were detected, suggesting that EGCG protects double-stranded DNA oligomers from double-stranded melting into single-stranded DNA. We assume that catechins accumulate in both double-stranded DNA and RNA molecules through multiple administrations of green tea beverage in in vivo, and that the accumulated green tea catechins play a significant role for human cancer prevention.

  11. Combustion properties of Kraft Black Liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Hupa, M. )

    1993-04-01

    In a previous study of the phenomena involved in the combustion of black liquor droplets a numerical model was developed. The model required certain black liquor specific combustion information which was then not currently available, and additional data were needed for evaluating the model. The overall objectives of the project reported here was to provide experimental data on key aspects of black liquor combustion, to interpret the data, and to put it into a form which would be useful for computational models for recovery boilers. The specific topics to be investigated were the volatiles and char carbon yields from pyrolysis of single black liquor droplets; a criterion for the onset of devolatilization and the accompanying rapid swelling; and the surface temperature of black liquor droplets during pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification. Additional information on the swelling characteristics of black liquor droplets was also obtained as part of the experiments conducted.

  12. 27 CFR 26.50 - Formulas for liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for... outside of Puerto Rico, the country of origin for each such liquor shall be stated on the formula. These.... If any wine contains liquors made outside of Puerto Rico, the country of origin for each such liquor...

  13. Recycling paper-pulp waste liquors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarbolouki, M. N.

    1981-01-01

    Papermills in U.S. annually produce 3 million tons of sulfite waste liquor solids; other fractions of waste liquor are monomeric sugars and lignosulfonates in solution. Recovery of lignosulfonates involves precipitation and cross-linking of sulfonates to form useful solid ion-exchange resin. Contamination of sugars recovered from liquor is avoided by first converting them to ethanol, then removing ethanol by distillation.

  14. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

    2005-03-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  15. Fuel nitrogen release during black liquor pyrolysis; Part 2: Comparisons between different liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Aho, K.; Nikkanen, S. ); Hupa, M. . Chemical Engineering Dept.)

    1994-08-01

    This continuation of earlier work reports fuel nitrogen release for black liquors at two temperatures during pyrolysis of single droplets in an oxygen-free environment. Approximately half of the 20--60% fuel nitrogen released was ammonia and half was molecular nitrogen. The total amount of fixed nitrogen released during pyrolysis was almost linearly proportional to the liquor nitrogen content. The yield of fixed nitrogen for birch liquors was significantly higher than for pine liquors, and the yield for bagasse liquor was extremely high.

  16. Big Island Demonstration Project - Black Liquor

    SciTech Connect

    2006-08-01

    Black liquor is a papermaking byproduct that also serves as a fuel for pulp and paper mills. This project involves the design, construction, and operation of a black liquor gasifier that will be integrated into Georgia-Pacific's Big Island facility in Virginia, a mill that has been in operation for more than 100 years.

  17. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr.; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  18. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie; Xiaoting Liang; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

    2005-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected or developed that reacted with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; and

  19. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

    2005-01-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  20. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

    2005-04-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  1. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Robert E. Moore; William L. Headrick; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-03-31

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  2. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  3. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-08-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  4. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  5. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

    2005-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; and

  6. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

    2005-07-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  7. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-07-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  8. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick; Musa Karakus; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-03-30

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  9. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr.; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-04-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  10. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Laing

    2005-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  11. The potential for human exposure, direct and indirect, to the suspected carcinogenic triphenylmethane dye Brilliant Green from green paper towels.

    PubMed

    Oplatowska, Michalina; Donnelly, Ryan F; Majithiya, Rita J; Glenn Kennedy, D; Elliott, Christopher T

    2011-08-01

    Triphenylmethanes - Malachite Green (MG), Crystal Violet (CV) and Brilliant Green (BG) are dyes with known genotoxic and carcinogenic properties. Apart from being illegally used in aquaculture for treatment of fish diseases they are also applied in industry such as paper production to colour paper towels widely used in hospitals, factories and other locations for hand drying after washing. The present study provides evidence that the triphenylmethane dye (BG) present in green paper towels can migrate through the skin even when the exposure time is short (30-300 s). The transfer of the dye from the towel to food (fish) was also studied and a high amount of colour was found to migrate during overnight exposure. The risk to humans associated with these two dye transfer studies was assessed using a 'margin of exposure approach' on the basis of the toxicological data available for the closely related dye MG and its metabolite Leucomalachite Green. The data indicated that the risk associated with the use of triphenylmethane containing paper towels is of a similar proportion to the risk associated with consumption of fish contaminated with these dyes due to the illegal application in aquaculture. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Design and characterization of a direct ELISA for the detection and quantification of leucomalachite green.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurmit; Koerner, Terence; Gelinas, Jean-Marc; Abbott, Michael; Brady, Beth; Huet, Anne-Catherine; Charlier, Caroline; Delahaut, Philippe; Godefroy, Samuel Benrejeb

    2011-06-01

    Malachite green (MG), a member of the N-methylated triphenylmethane class of dyes, has long been used to control fungal and protozoan infections in fish. MG is easily absorbed by fish during waterborne exposure and is rapidly metabolized into leucomalachite green (LMG), which is known for its long residence time in edible fish tissue. This paper describes the development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection and quantification of LMG in fish tissue. This development includes a simple and versatile method for the conversion of LMG to monodesmethyl-LMG, which is then conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA) to produce an immunogenic material. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies are generated against this immunogen, purified and used to develop a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the screening and quantification of LMG in fish tissue. The assay performed well, with a limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.1 and 0.3 ng g(-1) of fish tissue, respectively. The average extraction efficiency from a matrix of tilapia fillets was approximately 73% and the day-to-day reproducibility for these extractions in the assay was between 5 and 10%.

  13. Design and characterization of a direct ELISA for the detection and quantification of leucomalachite green

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gurmit; Koerner, Terence; Gelinas, Jean-Marc; Abbott, Michael; Brady, Beth; Huet, Anne-Catherine; Charlier, Caroline; Delahaut, Philippe; Godefroy, Samuel Benrejeb

    2011-01-01

    Malachite green (MG), a member of the N-methylated triphenylmethane class of dyes, has long been used to control fungal and protozoan infections in fish. MG is easily absorbed by fish during waterborne exposure and is rapidly metabolized into leucomalachite green (LMG), which is known for its long residence time in edible fish tissue. This paper describes the development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection and quantification of LMG in fish tissue. This development includes a simple and versatile method for the conversion of LMG to monodesmethyl-LMG, which is then conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA) to produce an immunogenic material. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies are generated against this immunogen, purified and used to develop a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the screening and quantification of LMG in fish tissue. The assay performed well, with a limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.1 and 0.3 ng g−1 of fish tissue, respectively. The average extraction efficiency from a matrix of tilapia fillets was approximately 73% and the day-to-day reproducibility for these extractions in the assay was between 5 and 10%. PMID:21623496

  14. 27 CFR 26.50 - Formulas for liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for... outside of Puerto Rico, the country of origin for each such liquor shall be stated on the formula. These... chapter. If any wine contains liquors made outside of Puerto Rico, the country of origin for each such...

  15. 27 CFR 26.50 - Formulas for liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for... outside of Puerto Rico, the country of origin for each such liquor shall be stated on the formula. These... chapter. If any wine contains liquors made outside of Puerto Rico, the country of origin for each such...

  16. 27 CFR 26.110 - Release of articles or liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Release of articles or... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Articles § 26.110 Release of articles or liquors....

  17. 27 CFR 26.110 - Release of articles or liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Release of articles or... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Articles § 26.110 Release of articles or liquors....

  18. 27 CFR 26.110 - Release of articles or liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Release of articles or... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Articles § 26.110 Release of articles or liquors....

  19. 19 CFR 122.132 - Sealing of aircraft liquor kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. 122.132 Section... OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.132 Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. (a) Sealing required. Aircraft liquor kits shall be sealed on board the aircraft by crewmembers...

  20. Direct calculation of modal contributions to thermal conductivity via Green-Kubo modal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Wei; Henry, Asegun

    2016-01-01

    We derived a new method for direct calculation of the modal contributions to thermal conductivity, which is termed Green-Kubo modal analysis (GKMA). The GKMA method combines the lattice dynamics formalism with the Green-Kubo formula for thermal conductivity, such that the thermal conductivity becomes a direct summation of modal contributions, where one need not define the phonon velocity. As a result, the GKMA method can be applied to any material/group of atoms, where the atoms vibrate around stable equilibrium positions, which includes non-stoichiometric compounds, random alloys, amorphous materials and even rigid molecules. By using molecular dynamics simulations to obtain the time history of each mode’s contribution to the heat current, one naturally includes anharmonicity to full order and can obtain insight into the interactions between different modes through the cross-correlations. As an example, we applied the GMKA method to crystalline and amorphous silicon. The modal contributions at each frequency result from the analysis and thereby allow one to apply a quantum correction to the mode heat capacity to determine the temperature dependence of thermal conductivity. The predicted temperature dependent thermal conductivity for amorphous silicon shows the best agreement with experiments to date. The GKMA method provides new insight into the nature of phonon transport, as it casts the problem in terms of mode-mode correlation instead of scattering, and provides a general unified formalism that can be used to understand phonon-phonon interactions in essentially any class of materials or structures where the atoms vibrate around stable equilibrium sites.

  1. Black liquor gasifier/gas turbine cogeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Consonni, S.; Larson, E.D.; Keutz, T.G.; Berglin, N.

    1998-07-01

    The kraft process dominates pulp and paper production worldwide. Black liquor, a mixture of lignin and inorganic chemicals, is generated in this process as fiber is extracted from wood. At most kraft mills today, black liquor is burned in Tomlinson boilers to produce steam for on-site heat and power and to recover the inorganic chemicals for reuse in the process. Globally, the black liquor generation rate is about 85,000 MW{sub fuel} (or 0.5 million tonnes of dry solids per day), with nearly 50% of this in North America. The majority of presently installed Tomlinson boilers will reach the end of their useful lives during the next 5 to 20 years. As a replacement for Tomlinson-based cogeneration, black liquor-gasifier/gas turbine cogeneration promises higher electrical efficiency, with prospective environmental, safety, and capital cost benefits for kraft mills. Several companies are pursuing commercialization of black liquor gasification for gas turbine applications. This paper presents results of detailed performance modeling of gasifier/gas turbine cogeneration systems using different black liquor gasifiers modeled on proposed commercial designs.

  2. Physical and chemical effects of direct aqueous advanced oxidation processing on green sand foundry mold materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clobes, Jason Kenneth

    Iron foundries using the common green sand molding process have increasingly been incorporating aqueous advanced oxidation (AO) systems to reduce the consumption of sand system bentonite clay and coal raw materials by and to decrease their volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. These AO systems typically use a combination of sonication, ozone aeration, and hydrogen peroxide to treat and recycle slurries of sand system baghouse dust, which is rich in clay and coal. While the overall effects of AO on raw material consumption and organic emissions are known, the mechanisms behind these effects are not well understood. This research examined the effects of bench-scale direct aqueous AO processing on green sand mold materials at the micro level. Bench-scale AO processing, including acoustic sonication, ozone/oxygen aeration, and hydrogen peroxide dramatically decreased the particle sizes of both western bentonite and foundry sand system baghouse dust. Bench-scale AO processing was shown to effectively separate the clay material from the larger silica and coal particles and to extensively break up the larger clay agglomerates. The acoustic sonication component of AO processing was the key contributor to enhanced clay recovery. Acoustic sonication alone was slightly more effective than combined component AO in reducing the particle sizes of the baghouse dust and in the recovery of clay yields in the supernatant during sedimentation experiments. Sedimentation separation results correlated well with the increase in small particle concentrations due to AO processing. Clay suspension viscosity decreased with AO processing due to enhanced dispersion of the particles. X-ray diffraction of freeze-dried baghouse dust indicated that AO processing does not rehydrate calcined montmorillonite and does not increase the level of interlayer water hydration in the dry clays. Zeta potential measurements indicated that AO processing also does not produce any large changes in the

  3. Wing Scale Orientation Alters Reflection Directions in the Green Hairstreak Chrysozephyrus smaragdinus (Lycaenidae; Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Imafuku, Michio; Ogihara, Naomichi

    2016-12-01

    There have been only a few reports on the directional reflection of light by butterfly wings. Here, we systematically investigated this phenomenon in a lycaenid butterfly, Chrysozephyrus smaragdinus,in which males have bright green wings based on structural coloration. We used a device that measures intensities of light in hemispherical space by vertical shifting of a sensor and horizontal rotation of the stage carrying the wing, which is illuminated from the top, to determine the direction of light reflected by the fore- and hindwings. The orientation and curvature of wing scales were also examined microscopically. The forewing of this species reflected light shone from the top largely forward, whereas the hindwing reflected it slightly forward. This difference was attributed to the tilt angles of the wing scales. Light reflection by the forewing was relatively weak, and widely scattered, whereas that by the hindwing was rather concentrated, resulting in higher reflectance. This difference was attributed to difference in the curvature of the wing scales on the two wings.

  4. Direct-Drive Green Light Designs for the National Ignition Facility.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Town, R. P. J.; Kruer, W. L.; Marinak, M. M.; Perkins, L. J.; Suter, L. J.; Tabak, M.

    2003-10-01

    The baseline direct-drive ignition design for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is driven by a 1.5MJ shaped ultra-violet (λ = 0.35 μm) laser pulse [1]. In order to produce this wavelength light the 1-μm NIF laser is frequency tripled with a consequent reduction in on-target laser energy. Recent work suggests that the NIF might deliver 3.0 to 4.0 MJ of frequency doubled (λ = 0.53 μm) light, which has motivated this design study. We have developed a green-light direct-drive ignition design. We will present results from Hydra [2] simulations of this design and compare them to the baseline design, in particular the hydrodynamic efficiency, and stability and the sensitivity to laser-plasma instability will be described. The implications for inertial fusion energy production will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract W-7405-ENG-48. [1] C. P. Verdon, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 38, 2010 (1993). [2] M. M. Marinak et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 1125 (1998).

  5. Factors affecting the corrosivity of pulping liquors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazlewood, Patrick Evan

    Increased equipment failures and the resultant increase in unplanned downtime as the result of process optimization programs continue to plague pulp mills. The failures are a result of a lack of understanding of corrosion in the different pulping liquors, specifically the parameters responsible for its adjustment such as the role and identification of inorganic and organic species. The current work investigates the role of inorganic species, namely sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide, on liquor corrosivity at a range of process conditions beyond those currently experienced in literature. The role of sulfur species, in the activation of corrosion and the ability of hydroxide to passivate carbon steel A516-Gr70, is evaluated with gravimetric and electrochemical methods. The impact of wood chip weathering on process corrosion was also evaluated. Results were used to identify black liquor components, depending on the wood species, which play a significant role in the activation and inhibition of corrosion for carbon steel A516-Gr70 process equipment. Further, the effect of black liquor oxidation on liquor corrosivity was evaluated. Corrosion and stress corrosion cracking performance of selected materials provided information on classes of materials that may be reliably used in aggressive pulping environments.

  6. Improved recovery of tall oil from black liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Zucker, J.

    1980-12-09

    Applying a d.c. of less than 15 V to acidified black liquor separates a significant amount of tall oil remaining in the black liquor sludge. An apparatus with graphite electrodes for this process is described.

  7. Red-Green Versus Blue Tactical Light: A Direct, Objective Comparison.

    PubMed

    Pedler, Michelle; Ruiz, Frank; Lamari, Micaela; Hutchinson, Charles; Noyes, Brandon; Petrash, Mark; Calvano, Christopher J; La Porta, Anthony; Enzenauer, Robert W

    Success in Special Operations Forces medicine (SOFMED) depends on maximizing visual capability without compromising the provider or casualty when under fire. There is no single light that has been deemed "ideal" for all SOFMED environments. We used the Farnsworth-Munsell (FM) hue test to determine color vision of normal subjects under white, red-green, and blue flashlights to determine color discrimination. Then we used a timed color-determination visual test to determine how quickly normal subjects can identify color correctly. We had subjects perform a simulated surgery illuminated by a normal white-light source, then by red-green or blue light-emitting diode (LED) tactical light. The total error score for white light was 49.714, 272.923 for red/green light, and 531.4 for blue light. The subjective perception of simulated trauma wounds was not substantially different with red-green LED tactical light when compared with white LED light. However, simulated surgery under the blue LED was more difficult compared with simulated surgery under the red-green LED light. Red-green was a superior light source for SOFMED and military first responders in this study, especially, where light was required to allow accurate and efficient application of Tactical Combat Casualty Care to injured personnel. 2016.

  8. Method for Improving Separation of Carbohydrates from Wood Pulping Liquors and Wood or Biomass Hydrolysis Liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A L; Marcoccia, B S; Elliott, J

    2012-08-31

    Work with industrial partners to perform the studies needed to commercialize U.S. patent 7,699,958 for separation of carbohydrates from wood pulping liquors and wood or biomass hydrolysis liquors. These include: 1) selection of the best pulp mill liquor withdrawal sites, 2) additional purification or enzyme hydrolysis required to obtain acceptable sugar feedstocks, 3) and work with partners to optimize the stream and purification methods to provide acceptable feedstocks for algal fuels and industrial chemicals production, and 4) preparation of samples large enough for testing by downstream partners.

  9. 27 CFR 26.220 - Formulas for liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands § 26.220 Formulas for liquors. (a) Distilled spirits products. Persons in the Virgin Islands who ship distilled spirits beverage products to the United States shall comply with...

  10. 27 CFR 26.220 - Formulas for liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands § 26.220 Formulas for liquors. (a) Distilled spirits products. Persons in the Virgin Islands who ship distilled spirits beverage products to the United States shall comply with...

  11. 27 CFR 26.220 - Formulas for liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands § 26.220 Formulas for liquors. (a) Distilled spirits products. Persons in the Virgin Islands who ship distilled spirits beverage products to the United States shall comply with...

  12. 27 CFR 26.50 - Formulas for liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for... outside of Puerto Rico, the country of origin for each such liquor shall be stated on the formula. These... chapter. If any wine contains liquors made outside of Puerto Rico, the country of origin for each such...

  13. 27 CFR 26.50 - Formulas for liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for... outside of Puerto Rico, the country of origin for each such liquor shall be stated on the formula. These... chapter. If any wine contains liquors made outside of Puerto Rico, the country of origin for each such...

  14. 75 FR 75694 - Klamath Tribes Liquor Control Ordinance Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Klamath Tribes Liquor Control Ordinance Correction AGENCY: Bureau of Indian... the Federal Register of October 22, 2010, concerning the Liquor Control Ordinance of the Klamath... publishes the Secretary's certification of the Klamath Tribes Liquor Control Ordinance. The first...

  15. 19 CFR 122.132 - Sealing of aircraft liquor kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... protection. (c) Seals to be used. Aircraft liquor kits shall be sealed with serially numbered, Customs... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. 122.132 Section... OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.132 Sealing of aircraft...

  16. 19 CFR 122.132 - Sealing of aircraft liquor kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... protection. (c) Seals to be used. Aircraft liquor kits shall be sealed with serially numbered, Customs... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. 122.132 Section... OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.132 Sealing of aircraft...

  17. 19 CFR 122.132 - Sealing of aircraft liquor kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... protection. (c) Seals to be used. Aircraft liquor kits shall be sealed with serially numbered, Customs... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. 122.132 Section... OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.132 Sealing of aircraft...

  18. 19 CFR 122.132 - Sealing of aircraft liquor kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... protection. (c) Seals to be used. Aircraft liquor kits shall be sealed with serially numbered, Customs... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. 122.132 Section... OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.132 Sealing of aircraft...

  19. 27 CFR 26.110 - Release of articles or liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Release of articles or... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Articles § 26.110 Release of articles or liquors....

  20. 27 CFR 26.110 - Release of articles or liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Release of articles or... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Articles § 26.110 Release of articles or liquors....

  1. 27 CFR 26.44 - Liquor dealer registration and recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Products Coming Into the United States From Puerto Rico Dealer Registration and... United States from Puerto Rico who sells, or offers for sale, such liquors must register and keep records...

  2. 27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... recycling or reclaiming the glass or other approved liquor bottle material. (26 U.S.C. 5301) ... bottles. 31.203 Section 31.203 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Bottles § 31.203 Possession of used liquor bottles. The possession of used liquor bottles by any...

  3. 27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... recycling or reclaiming the glass or other approved liquor bottle material. (26 U.S.C. 5301) ... bottles. 31.203 Section 31.203 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Bottles § 31.203 Possession of used liquor bottles. The possession of used liquor bottles by any...

  4. 27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... recycling or reclaiming the glass or other approved liquor bottle material. (26 U.S.C. 5301) ... bottles. 31.203 Section 31.203 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Bottles § 31.203 Possession of used liquor bottles. The possession of used liquor bottles by any...

  5. 27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... recycling or reclaiming the glass or other approved liquor bottle material. (26 U.S.C. 5301) ... bottles. 31.203 Section 31.203 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Bottles § 31.203 Possession of used liquor bottles. The possession of used liquor bottles by any...

  6. 27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... recycling or reclaiming the glass or other approved liquor bottle material. (26 U.S.C. 5301) ... bottles. 31.203 Section 31.203 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Bottles § 31.203 Possession of used liquor bottles. The possession of used liquor bottles by any...

  7. 27 CFR 31.31 - Retail dealer in liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retail dealer in liquors... Classified § 31.31 Retail dealer in liquors. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of... other than a dealer is a retail dealer in liquors for purposes of this part. Every retail dealer in...

  8. 27 CFR 31.31 - Retail dealer in liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer in liquors... Classified § 31.31 Retail dealer in liquors. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of... other than a dealer is a retail dealer in liquors for purposes of this part. Every retail dealer in...

  9. 27 CFR 31.31 - Retail dealer in liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retail dealer in liquors... Classified § 31.31 Retail dealer in liquors. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of... other than a dealer is a retail dealer in liquors for purposes of this part. Every retail dealer in...

  10. 27 CFR 31.31 - Retail dealer in liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retail dealer in liquors... Classified § 31.31 Retail dealer in liquors. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of... other than a dealer is a retail dealer in liquors for purposes of this part. Every retail dealer in...

  11. 27 CFR 31.31 - Retail dealer in liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retail dealer in liquors... Classified § 31.31 Retail dealer in liquors. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of... other than a dealer is a retail dealer in liquors for purposes of this part. Every retail dealer in...

  12. Physical properties of kraft black liquor: Summary report, Phases 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, A.L.

    1987-09-01

    Since 1981, a research program has been in progress to determine the physical properties of kraft black liquors and to develop methods for reduction of data and correlation of properties with pumping conditions. The basic premise that has been used to direct the research program is that kraft black liquor behaves as a polymer solution, particularly at high solids, and that the behavior is dominated by the characteristics of the lignin present. This premise is proving to be correct, and the principles that follow from this premise are proving to be successful for data reduction and correlation. The research has been a complex program involving experimental pulping, chemical analysis, lignin separation and characterization, thermal analysis, rheological measurements, and considerable equipment and methods development. Due to the complexity of the program, the unforeseen need to expend a great deal of effort in development of experimental techniques for analysis, and the fact that our liquors proved to be unstable at high temperatures and solids, all of the original objectives could not be accomplished. However, our program has added substantially to the body of knowledge of physical properties of black liquor. Our results indicate that the goal of developing correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor is practical and can be realized through extension of the present work.

  13. The Impact of Single-Container Malt Liquor Sales Restrictions on Urban Crime.

    PubMed

    McKee, Patricia; Erickson, Darin J; Toomey, Traci; Nelson, Toben; Less, Elyse Levine; Joshi, Spruha; Jones-Webb, Rhonda

    2017-03-07

    Many US cities have adopted legal restrictions on high-alcohol malt liquor sales in response to reports of crime and nuisance behaviors around retail alcohol outlets. We assessed whether these policies are effective in reducing crime in urban areas. We used a rigorous interrupted time-series design with comparison groups to examine monthly crime rates in areas surrounding alcohol outlets in the 3 years before and after adoption of malt liquor sales restrictions in two US cities. Crime rates in matched comparison areas not subject to restrictions served as covariates. Novel methods for matching target and comparison areas using virtual neighborhood audits conducted in Google Street View are described. In Minneapolis, Minnesota, sales of single containers of 16 oz or less were prohibited in individual liquor stores (n = 6). In Washington, D.C., the sale of single containers of any size were prohibited in all retail alcohol outlets within full or partial wards (n = 6). Policy adoption was associated with modest reductions in crime, particularly assaults and vandalism, in both cities. All significant outcomes were in the hypothesized direction. Our results provide evidence that retail malt liquor sales restrictions, even relatively weak ones, can have modest effects on a range of crimes. Policy success may depend on community support and concurrent restrictions on malt liquor substitutes.

  14. Clear Liquor Scrubbing with Anhydrite Production

    SciTech Connect

    Hargrove, O. W.; Carey, T. R.; Lowell, P. S.; Meserole, F. B.; Rhudy, R. G.; Feeley, Thomas J.

    1997-07-01

    The objective of this project to develop an advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process that has decreased capital and operating costs, higher SO{sub 2} removal efficiency, and better by-product solids quality than existing, commercially available technology. A clear liquor process (which uses a scrubbing liquid with no solids) will be used to accomplish this objective rather than a slurry liquor process (which contains solids). This clear liquor scrubbing (CLS) project is focused on three research areas: (1) Development of a clear liquor scrubbing process that uses a clear solution to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas and can be operated under inhibited-oxidation conditions; (2) Development of an anhydrite process that converts precipitated calcium sulfite to anhydrous calcium sulfate (anhydrite); and (3) Development of an alkali/humidification process to remove HCl from flue gas upstream of the FGD system. The anhydrite process also can be retrofit into existing FGD systems to produce a valuable by-product as an alternative to gypsum. This fits well into another of FETC's PRDA objectives of developing an advanced byproduct recovery subsystem capable of transforming SO{sub 2} into a useable byproduct or high-volume valuable commodities of interest. This paper describes the proposed processes, outlines the test approach, and preliminary Phase I test results.

  15. Direct calculation of the lattice Green function with arbitrary interactions for general crystals.

    PubMed

    Yasi, Joseph A; Trinkle, Dallas R

    2012-06-01

    Efficient computation of lattice defect geometries such as point defects, dislocations, disconnections, grain boundaries, interfaces, and free surfaces requires accurate coupling of displacements near the defect to the long-range elastic strain. Flexible boundary condition methods embed a defect in infinite harmonic bulk through the lattice Green function. We demonstrate an efficient and accurate calculation of the lattice Green function from the force-constant matrix for general crystals with an arbitrary basis by extending a method for Bravais lattices. New terms appear due to the presence of optical modes and the possible loss of inversion symmetry. By separately treating poles and discontinuities in reciprocal space, numerical accuracy is controlled at all distances. We compute the lattice Green function for a two-dimensional model with broken symmetry to elucidate the role of different coupling terms. The algorithm is generally applicable in two and three dimensions to crystals with arbitrary number of atoms in the unit cell, symmetry, and interactions.

  16. Rapid determination of ethanol in fermentation liquor by full evaporation headspace gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Hailong; Chai, Xin-Sheng; Deng, Yulin; Zhan, Huaiyu; Fu, Shiyu

    2009-01-02

    This paper reports a full evaporation (FE) headspace gas chromatographic (GC) method for rapid determination of ethanol in fermentation liquor. The data show that ethanol in the fermentation liquor was transferred to the vapor phase (headspace) almost completely within 3 min at a temperature of 105 degrees C when a very small volume (< 50 microL) of sample was directly added to a sealed headspace sample vial (20 mL). The ethanol in the vapor phase was then measured by headspace GC using a flame ionization detector. The results show that the present method has an excellent measurement precision (RSD=1.62%) and accuracy (recovery=98.1 (+/-1.76%)) for the ethanol quantification in fermentation liquors. The method requires no sample pretreatment and is very simple and rapid.

  17. Acidification of prehydrolysis liquor and spent liquor of neutral sulfite semichemical pulping process.

    PubMed

    Fatehi, Pedram; Gao, Weijiue; Sun, Yonghui; Dashtban, Mehdi

    2016-10-01

    Acidification has been commercialized for producing kraft lignin from black liquor of kraft pulping process. This work intended to evaluate the effectiveness of acidification in extracting lignocelluloses from the spent liquor of neutral sulfite semichemical pulping (NSSC) process and from prehydrolysis liquor (PHL) of kraft-based dissolving pulp production process. The results showed that the NSSC and PHL spent liquors had some lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCC), and that the square weighted counts of particles with a chord length of 50-150μm in the spent liquors were significantly increased as pH dropped to 1.5. Interestingly, the acidification reduced the lignosulfonate/lignin content of NSSC and PHL by 13% or 20%, while dropped their oligosugars content by 75% and 38%, respectively. On a dry basis, the precipitates had more carbon, hydrogen and a high heating value of 18-22MJ/kg, but less oxygen, than spent liquors. The precipitates of PHL could be used as fuel.

  18. A Practical Teaching Course in Directed Protein Evolution Using the Green Fluorescent Protein as a Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruller, Roberto; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Silva, Artur; Schneider, Maria Paula Cruz; Ward, Richard John

    2011-01-01

    Protein engineering is a powerful tool, which correlates protein structure with specific functions, both in applied biotechnology and in basic research. Here, we present a practical teaching course for engineering the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from "Aequorea victoria" by a random mutagenesis strategy using error-prone polymerase…

  19. A Practical Teaching Course in Directed Protein Evolution Using the Green Fluorescent Protein as a Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruller, Roberto; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Silva, Artur; Schneider, Maria Paula Cruz; Ward, Richard John

    2011-01-01

    Protein engineering is a powerful tool, which correlates protein structure with specific functions, both in applied biotechnology and in basic research. Here, we present a practical teaching course for engineering the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from "Aequorea victoria" by a random mutagenesis strategy using error-prone polymerase…

  20. Impact of site-directed mutant luciferase on quantitative green and orange/red emission intensities in firefly bioluminescence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Terakado, Kanako; Nakatsu, Toru

    2013-01-01

    Firefly bioluminescence has attracted great interest because of its high quantum yield and intriguing modifiable colours. Modifications to the structure of the enzyme luciferase can change the emission colour of firefly bioluminescence, and the mechanism of the colour change has been intensively studied by biochemists, structural biologists, optical physicists, and quantum-chemistry theorists. Here, we report on the quantitative spectra of firefly bioluminescence catalysed by wild-type and four site-directed mutant luciferases. While the mutation caused different emission spectra, the spectra differed only in the intensity of the green component (λmax ~ 560 nm). In contrast, the orange (λmax ~ 610 nm) and red (λmax ~ 650 nm) components present in all the spectra were almost unaffected by the modifications to the luciferases and changes in pH. Our results reveal that the intensity of the green component is the unique factor that is influenced by the luciferase structure and other reaction conditions.

  1. Indocyanine green fluorescence imaging in colorectal surgery: overview, applications, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Keller, Deborah S; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Cohen, Richard; Chand, Manish

    2017-10-01

    Indocyanine green fluorescence imaging is a surgical tool with increasing applications in colorectal surgery. This tool has received acceptance in various surgical disciplines as a potential method to enhance surgical field visualisation, improve lymph node retrieval, and decrease the incidence of anastomotic leaks. In colorectal surgery specifically, small studies have shown that intraoperative fluorescence imaging is a safe and feasible method to assess anastomotic perfusion, and its use might affect the incidence of anastomotic leaks. Controlled trials are ongoing to validate these conclusions. The number of new indications for indocyanine green continues to increase, including innovative options for detecting and guiding management of colorectal metastasis to the liver. These advances could offer great value for surgeons and patients, by improving the accuracy and outcomes of oncological resections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bacterial and fungal diversity in the starter production process of Fen liquor, a traditional Chinese liquor.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Ran; Ma, En-Bo; Yan, Liang-Zhen; Meng, Han; Du, Xiao-Wei; Quan, Zhe-Xue

    2013-08-01

    Fermented foods and beverages are important parts of human diet. Fen liquor, a Chinese liquor is a fermented beverage that uses a traditional fermentation process. Starters are the main microbial source and also provide nutrients for microorganisms during fermentation. In this study, starters of Fen liquor were produced through a complex traditional fermentation process. To investigate the community structure and the composition of microorganisms in the starter production process, bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were sequenced using clone libraries and pyrosequencing, respectively. There was much higher diversity among the bacteria than among the fungi in the starter production process. Bacteria on the surface of the starters belonged mostly to the Lactobacillaceae family, while members of the Bacillacae family were dominant in the interior of the samples that lacked access to air and water. In the fungi population, diversity was high only in the raw material. In all other samples, nearly all of the fungal sequences were from Pichia kudriavzevii, a member of the Saccharomycetaceae family. Nearly all samples showed similar fungal community structures, indicating that there was little change in the fungal community. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to reveal the whole process of the starter production of Chinese traditional liquor. The findings obtained in this study provide new insights into understanding the composition of the microbial community during the traditional Chinese liquor starter production process and information about the production process control and monitoring.

  3. Convenient detection of the citrus greening (huanglongbing) bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' by direct PCR from the midrib extract.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, Takashi; Miyata, Shin-Ichi; Iwanami, Toru

    2013-01-01

    A phloem-limited bacterium, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las) is a major pathogen of citrus greening (huanglongbing), one of the most destructive citrus diseases worldwide. The rapid identification and culling of infected trees and budwoods in quarantine are the most important control measures. DNA amplification including conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has commonly been used for rapid detection and identification. However, long and laborious procedures for DNA extraction have greatly reduced the applicability of this method. In this study, we found that the Las bacterial cells in the midribs of infected leaves were extracted rapidly and easily by pulverization and centrifugation with mini homogenization tubes. We also found that the Las bacterial cells in the midrib extract were suitable for highly sensitive direct PCR. The performance of direct PCR using this extraction method was not inferior to that of conventional PCR. Thus, the direct PCR method described herein is characterized by its simplicity, sensitivity, and robustness, and is applicable to quarantine testing.

  4. Partial desalination and concentration of glyphosate liquor by nanofiltration.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ming; Xu, Yanhua

    2011-02-15

    Partial desalination and concentration of glyphosate liquor by nanofiltration under different operation modes were investigated experimentally in this study. These operation modes were direct nanofiltration, diafiltration, dilute-diafiltration and interval washing-nanofiltration. The four different operation modes were evaluated and compared in terms of glyphosate recovery and NaCl removal. Diafiltration and dilute-diafiltration performed better than direct nanofiltration. The glyphosate loss was between 11.5% and 18.8% when the dilution factor varied from 0.4 to 0.8. Interval washing-nanofiltration alleviated the concentration polarization and membrane fouling to a certain extent. Dilute-diafiltration may be the best operation mode in terms of glyphosate recovery, salt removal and cost.

  5. Pyrolysis of Large Black Liquor Droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartkus, Tadas P.; T'ien, James S.; Dietrich, Daniel L.; Wessel, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experiments involving the pyrolysis of large black liquor droplets in the NASA KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft. The reduced gravity environment facilitated the study of droplets up to 9 mm in diameter extending the results of previous studies to droplet sizes that are similar to those encountered in recovery boilers. Single black liquor droplets were rapidly inserted into a 923 K oven. The primary independent variables were the initial droplet diameter (0.5 mm to 9 mm), the black liquor solids content (66.12% - 72.9% by mass), and the ambient oxygen mole fraction (0.0 - 0.21). Video records of the experiments provided size and shape of the droplets as a function of time. The results show that the particle diameter at the end of the drying stage (D(sub DRY) ) increases linearly with the initial particle diameter (D(sub O)). The results further show that the ratio of the maximum swollen diameter (D(sub MAX)) to D(sub O) decreases with increasing D(sub O) for droplets with D(sub O) less than 4 mm. This ratio was independent of D(sub O) for droplets with D(sub O) greater than 4 mm. The particle is most spherical at the end of drying, and least spherical at maximum swollen size, regardless of initial sphericity and droplet size.

  6. Pyrolysis of Large Black Liquor Droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartkus, Tadas P.; Dietrich, Daniel L.; T'ien, James S.; Wessel, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experiments involving the pyrolysis of large black liquor droplets in the NASA KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft. The reduced gravity environment facilitated the study of droplets up to 9 mm in diameter extending the results of previous studies to droplet sizes that are similar to those encountered in recovery boilers. Single black liquor droplets were rapidly inserted into a 923 K oven. The primary independent variables were the initial droplet diameter (0.5 mm to 9 mm), the black liquor solids content (66.12% - 72.9% by mass), and the ambient oxygen mole fraction (0.0 - 0.21). Video records of the experiments provided size and shape of the droplets as a function of time. The results show that the particle diameter at the end of the drying stage (D(sub DRY)) increases linearly with the initial particle diameter (D(sub O)). The results further show that the ratio of the maximum swollen diameter (D(sub MAX)) to D(sub O) decreases with increasing D(sub O) for droplets with D(sub O) less than 4 mm. This ratio was independent of D(sub O) for droplets with D(sub O) greater than 4 mm. The particle is most spherical at the end of drying, and least spherical at maximum swollen size, regardless of initial sphericity and droplet size.

  7. Determining silica solubility in bayer process liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Steinhagen, H.

    1998-11-01

    The efficient precipitation of dissolved silica from Bayer process liquor is essential for the production of high-quality alumina and the reduction of excessive scaling in the heat exchangers in the evaporation building of Bayer processes. The accurate prediction of silica solubility in Bayer liquor is one of the key parameters in improving the design and operation of the desilication process. Previous findings, particularly with respect to the influence of temperature and concentrations of caustic soda and alumina on the solubility of silica, are inconclusive. In this article, experimental results are presented over a wide range of temperature and alumina and caustic soda concentrations. Attempts are made to utilize artificial neural networks for identifying the process variables and modeling. The radial basis function neural network architecture was used successfully to generate a nonlinear correlation for the prediction of the solubility of silica in Bayer process liquor. The resulting correlation can predict the present data and the control data of other investigators with good accuracy.

  8. In Situ Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Alan Sinquefield

    2005-10-01

    Black liquor gasification offers a number of attractive incentives to replace Tomlinson boilers but it also leads to an increase in the causticizing load. Reasons for this have been described in previous reports (FY04 ERC, et.al.). The chemistries have also been covered but will be reviewed here briefly. Experimental results of the causticizing reactions with black liquor are presented here. Results of the modeling work were presented in detail in the Phase 1 report. They are included in Table 2 for comparison but will not be discussed in detail. The causticizing agents were added to black liquor in the ratios shown in Table 1, mixed, and then spray-dried. The mixture ratios (doping levels) reflect amount calculated from the stoichiometry above to achieve specified conversions shown in the table. The solids were sieved to 63-90 microns for use in the entrained flow reactors. The firing conditions are shown in Table 2. Pictures and descriptions of the reactors can be found in the Phase 1 annual report. Following gasification, the solids (char) was collected and analyzed by coulometric titration (for carbonate and total carbon), and by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP) for a wide array of metals.

  9. A practical teaching course in directed protein evolution using the green fluorescent protein as a model.

    PubMed

    Ruller, Roberto; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Silva, Artur; Cruz Schneider, Maria Paula; Ward, Richard John

    2011-01-01

    Protein engineering is a powerful tool, which correlates protein structure with specific functions, both in applied biotechnology and in basic research. Here, we present a practical teaching course for engineering the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from Aequorea victoria by a random mutagenesis strategy using error-prone polymerase chain reaction. Screening of bacterial colonies transformed with random mutant libraries identified GFP variants with increased fluorescence yields. Mapping the three-dimensional structure of these mutants demonstrated how alterations in structural features such as the environment around the fluorophore and properties of the protein surface can influence functional properties such as the intensity of fluorescence and protein solubility.

  10. 27 CFR 70.605 - Claims relating to imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors. 70.605 Section 70.605 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... Claims Procedures § 70.605 Claims relating to imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors. (a) Claims involving taxes on domestic liquors, imported liquors, and liquors manufactured in the Virgin Islands must...

  11. 27 CFR 70.605 - Claims relating to imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors. 70.605 Section 70.605 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... Claims Procedures § 70.605 Claims relating to imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors. (a) Claims involving taxes on domestic liquors, imported liquors, and liquors manufactured in the Virgin Islands must...

  12. 27 CFR 70.605 - Claims relating to imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors. 70.605 Section 70.605 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... Claims Procedures § 70.605 Claims relating to imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors. (a) Claims involving taxes on domestic liquors, imported liquors, and liquors manufactured in the Virgin Islands must...

  13. 27 CFR 70.605 - Claims relating to imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors. 70.605 Section 70.605 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... Procedures § 70.605 Claims relating to imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors. (a) Claims involving taxes on domestic liquors, imported liquors, and liquors manufactured in the Virgin Islands must show...

  14. 27 CFR 70.605 - Claims relating to imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors. 70.605 Section 70.605 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... Claims Procedures § 70.605 Claims relating to imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors. (a) Claims involving taxes on domestic liquors, imported liquors, and liquors manufactured in the Virgin Islands must...

  15. The Conversion of Waste Scrubbing Liquor into Fertilizer,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-02-01

    disposed of as a hazardous waste. However, this waste liquor can be converted into nitrate fertilizer by oxidizing the nitrite to nitrate with ozone and...necessary for converting unwanted, partially depleted scrubbing liquor into nitrate fertilizer . It is concluded that the Hydrazine Waste Water...Treatment System at Vandenberg Air Force Base can be used, with only slight modification, to both oxidize and neutralize waste liquor and thereby convert it to fertilizer .

  16. Organic thermoelectric materials: emerging green energy materials converting heat to electricity directly and efficiently.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Sun, Yimeng; Xu, Wei; Zhu, Daoben

    2014-10-29

    The abundance of solar thermal energy and the widespread demands for waste heat recovery make thermoelectric generators (TEGs) very attractive in harvesting low-cost energy resources. Meanwhile, thermoelectric refrigeration is promising for local cooling and niche applications. In this context there is currently a growing interest in developing organic thermoelectric materials which are flexible, cost-effective, eco-friendly and potentially energy-efficient. In particular, the past several years have witnessed remarkable progress in organic thermoelectric materials and devices. In this review, thermoelectric properties of conducting polymers and small molecules are summarized, with recent progresses in materials, measurements and devices highlighted. Prospects and suggestions for future research efforts are also presented. The organic thermoelectric materials are emerging candidates for green energy conversion.

  17. Triacylglycerol profile in cocoa liquors using MALDI-TOF and LC-ESI tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bono, Luca; Seraglia, Roberta; Roverso, Marco; Di Carro, Marina; Magi, Emanuele

    2014-09-01

    Triacylglycerols are responsible for chocolate's peculiar melting behavior: the type and position of fatty acids on the glycerol molecule strongly affect the melting range of cocoa butter. For this reason, the characterization of triglyceride composition in cocoa products is particularly important. In this work, triacylglycerols extracted from cocoa liquor samples were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (TOF) and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) coupled to liquid chromatography. Extracted samples were initially analyzed by direct injection in MS to obtain information on triglyceride molecular weights; relevant MS parameters were optimized, and the possible formation of the adducts [M + Na](+) and [M + NH(4)](+) was studied. Tandem mass experiments (both with triple quadrupole and TOF/TOF) were performed to study the fragmentation pathways (in particular, the loss of palmitic, stearic and oleic acid) and identify the triacylglycerols in cocoa liquors. Some signals of the spectra obtained with both MS techniques could indicate the presence of diacylglycerols in the cocoa extract, but different experimental evidences demonstrated that they were generated by the in-source fragmentation of triglycerides. A nonaqueous reversed-phase chromatographic separation was also developed and used to support the identification of the analytes; nine triacylglycerols were recognized in the cocoa liquor extracts. The three different batches of Ecuador cocoa liquor did not show significant differences in the triacylglycerol profile.

  18. Integrating black liquor gasification with pulping - Process simulation, economics and potential benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrom, Erik Vilhelm Mathias

    Gasification of black liquor could drastically increase the flexibility and improve the profit potential of a mature industry. The completed work was focused on research around the economics and benefits of its implementation, utilizing laboratory pulping experiments and process simulation. The separation of sodium and sulfur achieved through gasification of recovered black liquor, can be utilized in processes like modified continuous cooking, split sulfidity and green liquor pretreatment pulping, and polysulfide-anthraquinone pulping, to improve pulp yield and properties. Laboratory pulping protocols have been developed for these modified pulping technologies and different process options evaluated. The process simulation work around BLG has led to the development of a WinGEMS module for the low temperature MTCI steam reforming process, and case studies comparing a simulated conventional kraft process to different process options built around the implementation of a BLG unit operation into the kraft recovery cycle. Pulp yield increases of 1-3% points with improved product quality, and the potential for capital and operating cost savings relative to the conventional kraft process have been demonstrated. Process simulation work has shown that the net variable operating cost for a pulping process using BLGCC is highly dependent on the cost of lime kiln fuel and the selling price of green power to the grid. Under the assumptions taken in the performed case study, the BLGCC process combined with split sulfidity or PSAQ pulping operations had net variable operating cost 2-4% greater than the kraft reference. The influence of the sales price of power to the grid is the most significant cost factor. If a sales price increase to 6 ¢/KWh for green power could be achieved, cost savings of about $40/ODtP could be realized in all investigated BLG processes. Other alternatives to improve the process economics around BLG would be to modify or eliminate the lime kiln unit

  19. Black liquor decolorization by selected white-rot fungi.

    PubMed

    Da Re, Verónica; Papinutti, Leandro

    2011-09-01

    Five different strains of white-rot fungi have been tested for their ability to decolorize black liquor on plates and on solid-state fermentation using vermiculite as the solid inert support. Since the high salt concentration inhibited the growth of all fungi, the black liquor was dialyzed against distilled water prior to use. A preliminary step on plates was carried out to qualitatively determine the capacity of the fungal strains for black liquor decolorization. Out of the five fungi studied, Phanerochaete sordida, Pycnoporus sanguineus, and Trametes elegans exhibited the more conspicuous decolorization halos in malt extract medium, while the decolorization by all the strains was not evident when a defined culture medium was used. Cultures on solid-state fermentation using vermiculite as solid support were also tested, the liquid phase was malt extract or glucose-based medium and supplemented with different black liquor concentrations. Decolorization of black liquor was largely affected by the fungal strain, the concentration of black liquor, and the carbon source. The percentage of color removal ranged from 6.14% to 91.86% depending on the fungal strain and culture conditions. Maximal decolorization was observed in malt extract cultures after 60 cultivation days. Interestingly, decolorization in malt extract medium increased with increasing black liquor concentration. The highest decolorization value was achieved by Steccherinum sp. which reduced up to 91.86% the color of the black liquor in malt extract medium; this percentage is equivalent to 5.2 g L(-1) of decolorized black liquor, the highest value reported to date. Traditional technologies used for the treatment of black liquor are not always effective and may not to be an environmentally friendly process. Vermiculite-white-rot fungi systems are presented in this work as a promising efficient alternative for the treatment of black liquor.

  20. Green direct determination of mineral elements in artichokes by infrared spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Mir-Marqués, Alba; Martínez-García, Maria; Garrigues, Salvador; Cervera, M Luisa; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Near infrared (NIR) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy were investigated to predict the concentration of calcium, potassium, iron, magnesium, manganese and zinc in artichoke samples. Sixty artichokes were purchased from different Spanish areas (Benicarló, Valencia and Murcia). NIR and XRF spectra, combined with partial least squares (PLS) data treatment, were used to develop chemometric models for the prediction of mineral concentration. To obtain reference data, samples were mineralised and analysed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Coefficients of determination obtained for the regression between predicted values and reference ones for calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, manganese and zinc were 0.61, 0.79, 0.53, 0.77, 0.54 and 0.60 for NIR and 0.96, 0.93, 0.80, 0.79, 0.76 and 0.90 for XRF, respectively. Both assayed methodologies, offer green alternatives to classical mineral analysis, but XRF provided the best results in order to be used as a quantitative screening method.

  1. Application of green chemistry techniques to prepare electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Kenichi; Wang, Joanna S; Wai, Chien M

    2010-03-25

    A series of green techniques for synthesizing carbon nanotube-supported platinum nanoparticles and their high electrocatalytic activity toward methanol fuel cell applications are reported. The techniques utilize either the supercritical fluid carbon dioxide or water as a medium for depositing platinum nanoparticles on surfaces of multiwalled or single-walled carbon nanotubes. The catalytic properties of the carbon nanotubes-supported Pt nanoparticle catalysts prepared by four different techniques are compared for anodic oxidation of methanol and cathodic reduction of oxygen using cyclic voltammetry. One technique using galvanic exchange of Pt(2+) in water with zerovalent iron present on the surfaces of as-grown single-walled carbon nanotubes produces a Pt catalyst that shows an unusually high catalytic activity for reduction of oxygen but a negligible activity for oxidation of methanol. This fuel-selective catalyst may have a unique application as a cathode catalyst in methanol fuel cells to alleviate the problems caused by crossover of methanol through the polymer electrolyte membrane.

  2. 27 CFR 26.220 - Formulas for liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands § 26.220 Formulas for liquors. (a) Distilled spirits products. Persons in the Virgin Islands who ship distilled spirits beverage products to the United States shall comply with...

  3. 27 CFR 26.220 - Formulas for liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands § 26.220 Formulas for liquors. (a) Distilled spirits products. Persons in the Virgin Islands who ship distilled spirits beverage products to the United States shall comply with...

  4. 75 FR 65373 - Klamath Tribes Liquor Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    .... Accept any gratuity, compensation or other thing of value from any liquor wholesaler, retailer, or... taxes collected. 7.5. Audit. As a condition of obtaining a license, the licensee must agree to the review or audit of its book and records relating to the sale of liquor on the Reservation. Said review...

  5. 27 CFR 31.42 - Restaurants serving liquors with meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restaurants serving... Part Certain Organizations, Agencies, and Persons § 31.42 Restaurants serving liquors with meals. Proprietors of restaurants and other persons who serve liquors with meals to paying customers, even if no...

  6. 27 CFR 31.201 - Refilling of liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Refilling of liquor bottles. 31.201 Section 31.201 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used...

  7. 27 CFR 31.201 - Refilling of liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Refilling of liquor bottles. 31.201 Section 31.201 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used...

  8. 27 CFR 31.32 - Wholesale dealer in liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... liquors. 31.32 Section 31.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Dealers Classified § 31.32 Wholesale dealer in liquors. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in... offers for sale distilled spirits, wines, or beer only as provided in §§ 31.61 through 31.64, § 31.65(a...

  9. Viscoelastic properties of high solids softwood kraft black liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Zaman, A.A.; Fricke, A.L. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1995-01-01

    The linear viscoelastic functions of several softwood slash pine kraft black liquors from a two level, four variable factorially designed pulping experiment were determined for solids concentrations from 65% to 81% and temperatures from 40 to 85 C. At high solids and lower temperatures, black liquors behave like un-cross-linked polymers.The exact level of dynamic viscosity and storage modulus at any given condition is dependent upon the solids composition which will vary from liquor to liquor. The linear viscoelastic functions were described using Cross and Carreau-Yasuda models. Superposition principles developed for polymer melts and concentrated polymer solutions were applied to obtain reduced correlations for dynamic viscosity and storage modulus. The data for dynamic viscosity were shifted over the whole range of temperature, solids concentrations, and frequency, and a single curve for dynamic viscosity behavior of every liquor was obtained. The data for storage modulus did not superimpose into a single curve for the effects of solids concentration. The reduced correlations were used to estimate the viscoelasticity of the liquors near normal firing conditions and found that black liquors will not have any problem in droplet formation for concentrations up to 81% solids and temperatures above 120 C. The viscometric and linear viscoelastic functions of black liquors were compared (Cox-Merz rule), and it was shown that at sufficiently low shear rates and frequencies both shear viscosity and the magnitude of the complex viscosity approach zero shear rate viscosity.

  10. 27 CFR 5.46 - Standard liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Standard liquor bottles. 5.46 Section 5.46 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Standards of Fill...

  11. 27 CFR 10.603 - Liquor bottle records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Liquor bottle records. 10.603 Section 10.603 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Processing Records §...

  12. 27 CFR 19.603 - Liquor bottle records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Liquor bottle records. 19.603 Section 19.603 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Processing Records §...

  13. Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-01

    In the pulp and paper industry, black liquor gasification (BLG) can enable the recovery of pulping chemicals and production of syngas from the spent liquor accumulated in the pulping process. The syngas can be converted to value-added fuels, chemicals, and electricity, helping to boost the economics of the pulp mill.

  14. Liquor Activity Reduction (LAR) Programme - 12397

    SciTech Connect

    Pether, Colin; Carrol, Phil; Birkett, Eddie; Kibble, Matthew

    2012-07-01

    Waste material from the reprocessing of irradiated fuel has been stored under water for several decades leading to the water becoming highly radioactive. As a critical enabler to the decommissioning strategy for the Sellafield site, the Liquor Activity Reduction (LAR) programme has been established to provide a processing route for this highly radioactive liquor. This paper reviews the progress that has been made since the start of routine LAR transfer cycles (July 2010) and follows on from the earlier paper presented at WM2011. The paper focuses on the learning from the first full year of routine LAR transfer cycles and the application of this learning to the wider strategies for the treatment of further radioactive liquid effluents on the Sellafield site. During this period over 100,000 Curies of radioactivity has been safely removed and treated. The past year has witnessed the very successful introduction of the LAR programme. This has lead to hazard reduction at MSSS and demonstration that the SIXEP facility can meet the significantly increased challenge that the LAR programme represents. Part of the success has been the ability to predict and deliver a realistic production schedule with the availability of the MSSS, EDT and SIXEP facilities being central to this. Most importantly, the LAR programme has been successful in bringing together key stakeholders to deliver this work while integrating with the existing, day to day, demands of the Sellafield site. (authors)

  15. The antioxidative substances in cacao liquor.

    PubMed

    Osakabe, N; Yamagishi, M; Sanbongi, C; Natsume, M; Takizawa, T; Osawa, T

    1998-04-01

    The antioxidative substances contained in cacao liquor, which is one of the major ingredients of chocolate, were separated by column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. Three major compounds were purified and two of them were identified by 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectra as (-)-epicatechin (EC) and (+)-catechin (CA). Their antioxidative activity was measured by monitoring the peroxide value of linoleic acid and the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance values of erythrocyte ghost membranes and microsomes. EC and CA had strong antioxidative effects in all three methods, but one unidentified peak was found to be less effective. Additionally, we analyzed the polyphenol concentration of cacao liquor extractions produced in several countries. The total polyphenol concentration was 7.0 to 13.0%, catechin concentration was 0.31 to 0.49%, and epicatechin concentration was 0.35 to 1.68% in the extractions. It is believed that chocolate is stable against oxidative deterioration on account of the presence of these polyphenolic compounds, and it is also expected to have a protective role against lipid peroxidation in living systems.

  16. Reversible light-directed red, green, and blue reflection with thermal stability enabled by a self-organized helical superstructure.

    PubMed

    Li, Yannian; Urbas, Augustine; Li, Quan

    2012-06-13

    Adding external, remote, and dynamic control to self-organized superstructures with desired properties is an important leap necessary in leveraging the fascinating molecular subsystems for employment in applications. Here two novel light-driven dithienylethene chiral molecular switches possessing remarkable changes in helical twisting power during photoisomerization as well as very high helical twisting powers were found to experience photochemically reversible isomerization with thermal stability in both isotropic organic solvents and anisotropic liquid crystal media. When doped into a commercially available achiral liquid crystal host, the chiral switch was able to either immediately induce an optically tunable helical superstructure or retain an achiral photoresponsive liquid crystal phase whose helical superstructure was induced and tuned reversibly upon light irradiation. Moreover, reversible light-directed red, green, and blue reflection colors with thermal stability in a single thin film were demonstrated.

  17. Organic light-emitting diodes with direct contact-printed red, green, blue, and white light-emitting layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sun-Zen; Peng, Shiang-Hau; Ting, Tzu-Yu; Wu, Po-Shien; Lin, Chun-Hao; Chang, Chin-Yeh; Shyue, Jing-Jong; Jou, Jwo-Huei

    2012-10-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of using direct contact-printing in the fabrication of monochromatic and polychromatic organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Bright devices with red, green, blue, and white contact-printed light-emitting layers with a respective maximum luminance of 29 000, 29 000, 4000, and 18 000 cd/m2 were obtained with sound film integrity by blending a polymeric host into a molecular host. For the red OLED as example, the maximum luminance was decreased from 29 000 to 5000 cd/m2 as only the polymeric host was used, or decreased to 7000 cd/m2 as only the molecular host was used. The markedly improved device performance achieved in the devices with blended hosts may be attributed to the employed polymeric host that contributed a good film-forming character, and the molecular host that contributed a good electroluminescence character.

  18. Ionic liquid as a promising biobased green solvent in combination with microwave irradiation for direct biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Wahidin, Suzana; Idris, Ani; Shaleh, Sitti Raehanah Muhamad

    2016-04-01

    The wet biomass microalgae of Nannochloropsis sp. was converted to biodiesel using direct transesterification (DT) by microwave technique and ionic liquid (IL) as the green solvent. Three different ionic liquids; 1-butyl-3-metyhlimidazolium chloride ([BMIM][Cl], 1-ethyl-3-methylimmidazolium methyl sulphate [EMIM][MeSO4] and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethane sulfonate [BMIM][CF3SO3]) and organic solvents (hexane and methanol) were used as co-solvents under microwave irradiation and their performances in terms of percentage disruption, cell walls ruptured and biodiesel yields were compared at different reaction times (5, 10 and 15 min). [EMIM][MeSO4] showed highest percentage cell disruption (99.73%) and biodiesel yield (36.79% per dried biomass) after 15 min of simultaneous reaction. The results demonstrated that simultaneous extraction-transesterification using ILs and microwave irradiation is a potential alternative method for biodiesel production.

  19. Regioselective desymmetrization of diaryltetrahydrofurans via directed ortho-lithiation: an unexpected help from green chemistry.

    PubMed

    Mallardo, Valentina; Rizzi, Ruggiero; Sassone, Francesca C; Mansueto, Rosmara; Perna, Filippo M; Salomone, Antonio; Capriati, Vito

    2014-08-14

    An efficient functionalization of diaryltetrahydrofurans via a regioselective THF-directed ortho-lithiation is first described. This reaction can be successfully carried out in cyclopentyl methyl ether as a "greener" alternative to Et2O, with better results in terms of yield and selectivity and, surprisingly, also in protic eutectic mixtures competitively with protonolysis.

  20. Horizontal directional drilling: a green and sustainable technology for site remediation.

    PubMed

    Lubrecht, Michael D

    2012-03-06

    Sustainability has become an important factor in the selection of remedies to clean up contaminated sites. Horizontal directional drilling (HDD) is a relatively new drilling technology that has been successfully adapted to site remediation. In addition to the benefits that HDD provides for the logistics of site cleanup, it also delivers sustainability advantages, compared to alternative construction methods.

  1. Effects of spent liquor recirculation in hydrothermal carbonization.

    PubMed

    Kabadayi Catalkopru, Arzu; Kantarli, Ismail Cem; Yanik, Jale

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the effect of the recirculation of spent liquor from hydrothermal carbonization was investigated depending on the biomass type (grape pomace, orange pomace and poultry litter). The yield and fuel properties of hydrochars and spent liquor characteristics were determined for each recirculation step. By recirculation, mass and energy yields of the hydrochar increased, but their combustion characteristics changed: the ignition temperature and combustion reactivity decreased. The organic and inorganic load of liquor was increased with recirculation number, but not as much as would be expected after the first recycle. It was concluded that the load of organic and inorganic species in spent liquor decreased the leaching of some inorganics and diffusion of the degraded soluble fragments from biomass in the subsequent hydrothermal carbonization. Overall, this study showed that spent liquor recirculation makes the overall hydrothermal carbonization process environmentally friendly.

  2. Characteristics of Gouda cheese supplemented with fruit liquors.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hee Young; Yang, Chul Ju; Choi, Kap Seong; Bae, Inhyu

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the quality characteristics of Gouda cheeses supplemented with fruit liquor (Prunusmume or Cornus officinalis). Fruit liquor was supplemented to Gouda cheeses during preparation. Changes in chemical composition, lactic acid bacterial population, pH, water-soluble nitrogen, sensory characteristics, and proteolysis were monitored in the prepared ripened cheese. The electrophoresis patterns of cheese proteins, fruit liquor functional component concentrations, and the flavonoid content of the cheeses were also determined. The addition of fruit liquor did not affect (p> 0.05) the appearance or sensory characteristics of the cheeses. Higher amounts of crude ash, mineral, and flavonoids (p< 0.05) were observed in the liquor supplemented cheese than in the control cheese. Findings from this study suggest that wine supplemented Gouda could provide additional nutrients while maintaining flavor and quality.

  3. Convenient Detection of the Citrus Greening (Huanglongbing) Bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ by Direct PCR from the Midrib Extract

    PubMed Central

    Fujikawa, Takashi; Miyata, Shin-Ichi; Iwanami, Toru

    2013-01-01

    A phloem-limited bacterium, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las) is a major pathogen of citrus greening (huanglongbing), one of the most destructive citrus diseases worldwide. The rapid identification and culling of infected trees and budwoods in quarantine are the most important control measures. DNA amplification including conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has commonly been used for rapid detection and identification. However, long and laborious procedures for DNA extraction have greatly reduced the applicability of this method. In this study, we found that the Las bacterial cells in the midribs of infected leaves were extracted rapidly and easily by pulverization and centrifugation with mini homogenization tubes. We also found that the Las bacterial cells in the midrib extract were suitable for highly sensitive direct PCR. The performance of direct PCR using this extraction method was not inferior to that of conventional PCR. Thus, the direct PCR method described herein is characterized by its simplicity, sensitivity, and robustness, and is applicable to quarantine testing. PMID:23437295

  4. Direct green waste land application: How to reduce its impacts on greenhouse gas and volatile organic compound emissions?

    PubMed

    Zhu-Barker, Xia; Burger, Martin; Horwath, William R; Green, Peter G

    2016-06-01

    Direct land application as an alternative to green waste (GW) disposal in landfills or composting requires an understanding of its impacts on greenhouse gas (GHG) and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. We investigated the effects of two approaches of GW direct land application, surface application and soil incorporation, on carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4), and VOC emissions for a 12month period. Five treatments were applied in fall 2013 on fallow land under a Mediterranean climate in California: 30cm height GW on surface; 15cm height GW on surface; 15cm height GW tilled into soil; control+till; control+no till. In addition, a laboratory experiment was conducted to develop a mechanistic understanding of the influence of GW application on soil O2 consumption and GHG emission. The annual cumulative N2O, CO2 and VOC emissions ranged from 1.6 to 5.5kgN2O-Nha(-1), 5.3 to 40.6MgCO2-Cha(-1) and 0.6 to 9.9kgVOCha(-1), respectively, and were greatly reduced by GW soil incorporation compared to surface application. Application of GW quickly consumed soil O2 within one day in the lab incubation. These results indicate that to reduce GHG and VOC emissions of GW direct land application, GW incorporation into soil is recommended.

  5. Effect of pulping conditions and black liquor composition on Newtonian viscosity of high solids kraft black liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Zaman, A.A.; Fricke, A.L.

    1996-02-01

    The influence of black liquor composition and solids concentrations on the Newtonian viscosity of slash pine black liquors over wide ranges of temperature (up to 140 C) and solids concentrations (between 50% and 83% solids) has been studied. It was found that the zero shear rate viscosity of high solids black liquors depends strongly on the cooking conditions and/or black liquor composition. Not only is high solids viscosity affected by lignin molecular weight and lignin concentration in the liquor but other organic and inorganic constituents of black liquor also make a significant contribution to viscosity. The dependency of zero shear rate viscosity on solids concentrations, and temperature is defined. The Newtonian viscosities vary over a wide range depending on temperature, solids concentrations and solids composition. The results indicate that, at fixed levels of effective alkali and sulfidity, the zero shear rate viscosities can be described as a function of both lignin concentration and lignin molecular weight. The viscosity of black liquor is an increasing function of the organics-to-inorganics ratio and is a decreasing function of the concentration of sodium and chloride ions and pH of the liquor.

  6. Broccoli: rapid selection of an RNA mimic of green fluorescent protein by fluorescence-based selection and directed evolution.

    PubMed

    Filonov, Grigory S; Moon, Jared D; Svensen, Nina; Jaffrey, Samie R

    2014-11-19

    Genetically encoded fluorescent ribonucleic acids (RNAs) have diverse applications, including imaging RNA trafficking and as a component of RNA-based sensors that exhibit fluorescence upon binding small molecules in live cells. These RNAs include the Spinach and Spinach2 aptamers, which bind and activate the fluorescence of fluorophores similar to that found in green fluorescent protein. Although additional highly fluorescent RNA-fluorophore complexes would extend the utility of this technology, the identification of novel RNA-fluorophore complexes is difficult. Current approaches select aptamers on the basis of their ability to bind fluorophores, even though fluorophore binding alone is not sufficient to activate fluorescence. Additionally, aptamers require extensive mutagenesis to efficiently fold and exhibit fluorescence in living cells. Here we describe a platform for rapid generation of highly fluorescent RNA-fluorophore complexes that are optimized for function in cells. This procedure involves selection of aptamers on the basis of their binding to fluorophores, coupled with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) of millions of aptamers expressed in Escherichia coli. Promising aptamers are then further optimized using a FACS-based directed evolution approach. Using this approach, we identified several novel aptamers, including a 49-nt aptamer, Broccoli. Broccoli binds and activates the fluorescence of (Z)-4-(3,5-difluoro-4-hydroxybenzylidene)-1,2-dimethyl-1H-imidazol-5(4H)-one. Broccoli shows robust folding and green fluorescence in cells, and increased fluorescence relative to Spinach2. This reflects, in part, improved folding in the presence of low cytosolic magnesium concentrations. Thus, this novel fluorescence-based selection approach simplifies the generation of aptamers that are optimized for expression and performance in living cells.

  7. Direct and indirect toxic effects of cotton-derived cellulose nanofibres on filamentous green algae.

    PubMed

    Munk, Michele; Brandão, Humberto M; Nowak, Sophie; Mouton, Ludovic; Gern, Juliana C; Guimaraes, Alessandro S; Yéprémian, Claude; Couté, Alain; Raposo, Nádia R B; Marconcini, José M; Brayner, Roberta

    2015-12-01

    Recently, cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) have attracted considerable attention as natural, abundant polymers with excellent mechanical properties and biodegradability. CNFs provide a new materials platform for the sustainable production of high-performance nano-enable products for various applications. Given the increasing rates of CNF production, the potential for their release to the environment and the subsequent impact on ecosystem is becoming an increasing concern that needs to be addressed. Here, we used the Klebsormidium flaccidum as a bioindicator organism of terrestrial and freshwater habitats pollution using a battery of biomarkers. Our results show that cotton CNFs inhibit the proliferation of algae and induce morphological changes in them. The two main toxicity mechanisms induced by cotton CNFs are: (i) a direct contact of CNFs with the cell wall and cellular membrane and (ii) an indirect effect through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  8. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Terminalia cuneata and its catalytic action in reduction of direct yellow-12 dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Lee, Yong Rok; Sethuraman, Mathur Gopalakrishnan

    2016-05-01

    Facile green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous bark extract of Terminalia cuneata has been reported in this article. The effects of concentration of the extract, reaction time and pH were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Appearance of yellow color with λmax around ~ 420 nm suggested the formation of AgNPs. The stable AgNPs were further characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) with zeta potential and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were in the size range of 25-50 nm with a distorted spherical shape identified from HR-TEM analysis. The catalytic activity of AgNPs on the reduction of direct yellow-12 using NaBH4 was analyzed using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. This study showed the efficacy of biogenic AgNPs in catalyzing the reduction of direct yellow-12.

  9. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Terminalia cuneata and its catalytic action in reduction of direct yellow-12 dye.

    PubMed

    Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Lee, Yong Rok; Sethuraman, Mathur Gopalakrishnan

    2016-05-15

    Facile green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous bark extract of Terminalia cuneata has been reported in this article. The effects of concentration of the extract, reaction time and pH were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Appearance of yellow color with λmax around ~420 nm suggested the formation of AgNPs. The stable AgNPs were further characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) with zeta potential and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were in the size range of 25-50 nm with a distorted spherical shape identified from HR-TEM analysis. The catalytic activity of AgNPs on the reduction of direct yellow-12 using NaBH4 was analyzed using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. This study showed the efficacy of biogenic AgNPs in catalyzing the reduction of direct yellow-12.

  10. Directly modulated green-light diode-pumped solid-state laser for underwater wireless optical communication.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Kong, Meiwei; Lin, Aobo; Song, Yuhang; Han, Jun; Xu, Zhiwei; Wu, Bo; Gao, Shiming; Deng, Ning

    2017-05-01

    It is widely known that a diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) has very limited modulation bandwidth. Recently, we directed our attention toward the opportunities for directly modulating a DPSSL to generate high-speed green-light signals, with high power and superior beam quality, which are highly desirable in underwater wireless optical communication. The constraint imposed by the limited modulation bandwidth of a DPSSL is circumvented with the strategy of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing and power loading. With a compact DPSSL dismantled from a low-cost laser pointer, we achieve net bit rates of 108.55 Mb/s for the 64 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signal at a bit error rate (BER) of 6.42×10-4 and 89.55 Mb/s for the 32 QAM signal at a BER of 4.81×10-4, respectively, over a 2 m underwater channel. When the underwater transmission distance is increased to 6 m, the BERs are still below the forward error correction (FEC) limit of 3.8×10-3.

  11. 77 FR 10547 - Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas-First Amended Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... among other things, beer, ale, stout, lager beer, porter and other malt or brewed liquors. (8) ``Liquor... Bureau of Indian Affairs Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas--First Amended Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance... to the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas' Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance. The Ordinance regulates...

  12. 19 CFR 122.134 - When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.134 When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom. (a) Handling of liquor kits. An aircraft may land at an airport... liquor kits, under any supervision found necessary by the port director, may be: (1) Kept on board...

  13. 19 CFR 122.134 - When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.134 When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom. (a) Handling of liquor kits. An aircraft may land at an airport... liquor kits, under any supervision found necessary by the port director, may be: (1) Kept on board...

  14. 19 CFR 122.134 - When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.134 When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom. (a) Handling of liquor kits. An aircraft may land at an airport... liquor kits, under any supervision found necessary by the port director, may be: (1) Kept on board...

  15. 19 CFR 122.134 - When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.134 When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom. (a) Handling of liquor kits. An aircraft may land at an airport... liquor kits, under any supervision found necessary by the port director, may be: (1) Kept on board...

  16. 19 CFR 122.135 - When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.135 When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom. (a) Restocking. Liquor kits on board an aircraft landing at an airport where the... use of all aircraft liquor and tobacco stores on which duty and/or tax has not been paid. (c)...

  17. 19 CFR 122.134 - When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.134 When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom. (a) Handling of liquor kits. An aircraft may land at an airport... liquor kits, under any supervision found necessary by the port director, may be: (1) Kept on board...

  18. 19 CFR 122.135 - When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.135 When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom. (a) Restocking. Liquor kits on board an aircraft landing at an airport where the... use of all aircraft liquor and tobacco stores on which duty and/or tax has not been paid. (c)...

  19. 19 CFR 122.135 - When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.135 When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom. (a) Restocking. Liquor kits on board an aircraft landing at an airport where the... use of all aircraft liquor and tobacco stores on which duty and/or tax has not been paid. (c)...

  20. 19 CFR 122.135 - When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.135 When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom. (a) Restocking. Liquor kits on board an aircraft landing at an airport where the... use of all aircraft liquor and tobacco stores on which duty and/or tax has not been paid. (c)...

  1. 19 CFR 122.135 - When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.135 When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom. (a) Restocking. Liquor kits on board an aircraft landing at an airport where the... use of all aircraft liquor and tobacco stores on which duty and/or tax has not been paid. (c)...

  2. Relationship Between Liquor Yield, Plant Capacity Increases, and Energy Savings in Alumina Refining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ter Weer, Peter-Hans

    2014-09-01

    The mechanisms of alumina trihydrate precipitation and controlling parameters, and the methods and technologies affecting liquor yield/productivity in alumina refining, have been described in several publications [e.g., Refs. Alamdari et al. ( Light Metals 1998, pp. 133-137, 1998), Moretto and Power ( Proc. 1990 Alumina Quality Workshop, Perth, Australia, pp. 154-165, 1990)]. However, the relationship between increasing liquor yield, on the one hand, and plant production capacity increases and related energy savings, on the other, has been under-emphasized. This article addresses this issue and provides estimates of plant production capacity increases and steam and power energy savings as a function of precipitation yield increases resulting from the implementation of plant adaptations. Conclusions are that increasing precipitation yield in an alumina refinery results overall in a significant improvement of project economics and interestingly improves a refinery's direct and indirect environmental performance, thus, addressing two of the three "pillars" of sustainable development (economic, environmental, and social).

  3. Effects of solids content, settling temperature, and liquor source on tall oil solubilities

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseau, R.W.; Kassebi, A.; Zinkel, D.F.

    1984-01-01

    Tall oil soap solubility in black liquors obtained from cooking pine and sweet gum, and in mixture of these liquors, was studied. As expected, solids content had a significant effect on the amount of soap remaining in settled liquors obtained from pine. Concentrating these liquors to about 30% solids reduced the soap concentration to approximately 0.8% of solids. Increasing the temperature at which the liquors were settled also increased residual tall oil soap content. Although mass balance calculations on mixtures of black liquors obtained from pine and gum show that the percentage recovery (solids basis) varies little with the inclusion of 12 to 50% hardwood black liquor, absolute recovery is increased with increased proportions of hardwood liquor. This is the result of decreased soap solubility with increased proportions of hardwood liquor. No discernable effect was observed on the proportion and composition of the acids and neutrals of the dissolved tall oil with respect to the solids content of the liquors.

  4. Proceedings of the black liquor research program review fourth meeting held July 28--30, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Emerson, D. B.; Whitworth, B. A.

    1987-10-01

    Research programs, presented at the black liquor review meeting are described. Research topics include the following: Cooperative Program in Kraft Recovery; Black Liquor Physical Properties; Viscosity of Strong Black Liquor; Ultrafiltration of Kraft Black Liquor; Molecular Weight Distribution of Kraft Lignin; Black Liquor Droplet Formation Project; Fundamental Studies of Black Liquor Combustion; Black Liquor Combustion Sensors; Flash X-ray Imagining of Black Liquor Sprays; Laser Induced Fluorescence For Process Control In The Pulp and Paper Industry; Recovery Boiler Optimization; Black Liquor Gasification and Use of the Products in Combined-Cycle Cogeneration; Black Liquor Steam Plasma Automization; The B and W Pyrosonic 2000R System; Monsteras Boiler Control System; and Cooperative Program Project Reviews. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  5. Can the fluorescence of green fluorescent protein chromophore be related directly to the nativity of protein structure?

    PubMed

    Melnik, B S; Povarnitsyna, T V; Melnik, T N

    2009-12-25

    In studies of green fluorescence protein (GFP) or other proteins with the use of GFP as a marker, the fluorescence of GFP is for the most part related directly to the nativity of its structure. Naturally, such a relation does exist since the chromophore of this protein is formed autocatalytically only just after GFP acquires its native structure. However, the fluorescence method may not yield reliable information on protein structure when studying renaturation and denaturation of this protein (with the formed chromophore). Using proteolysis, denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis and circular dichroism, we demonstrate herein that at major disturbances of the native structure of protein GFP-cycle3 the intensity of fluorescence of its chromophore can change insignificantly. In other words, the chromophore fluorescence does not reliably mirror alterations in protein structure. Since the main conclusions of this study are especially qualitative, it can be suggested that during renaturation/denaturation of wild-type GFP and its "multicolored" mutants their fluorescence is also not always associated with the changes in the structure of these proteins.

  6. Effect-directed analysis of contaminated sediments with partition-based dosing using green algae cell multiplication inhibition.

    PubMed

    Bandow, Nicole; Altenburger, Rolf; Streck, Georg; Brack, Werner

    2009-10-01

    Effect-directed analysis (EDA) has been frequently and successfully used to identify key toxicants in sediment extracts. However, by disregarding bioavailability this approach may lead to a biased prioritisation of fractions and toxicants with respect to hazards and risks. To overcome this problem the present EDA of sediment components from the Bílina river (Most Czech Republic), that inhibit growth of the green algae Scenedesmus vacuolatus, applies a novel partition-based dosing technique to prioritize and identify major toxic fractions and compounds in comparison to conventional solvent dosing. The novel dosing technique is based on partitioning from loaded silicone rods to the aqueous phase similar to partition processes that determine exposure in native sediment-water systems. In the present study the application of partition-based dosing had a big influence suggesting polar compounds such as triclosan as key toxicants while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) fractions did not exhibit significant effects. In contrast, conventional dosing prioritized mainly PAHs in agreement with previous studies. For both approaches individual toxicants could be confirmed quantitatively based on the index of confirmation quality (ICQ), which compares the effect of fractions and artificial mixtures of identified and quantified toxicants over the full range of effect levels.

  7. A green approach toward antibody purification: a sustainable biomimetic ligand for direct immobilization on (bio)polymeric supports.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Telma; Lourenço, Anita; Araújo, Marco; Bonifácio, Vasco D B; Roque, Ana C A; Aguiar-Ricardo, Ana

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a sustainable strategy for improving the capture of antibodies by affinity chromatography. A novel biomimetic ligand (4-((4-chloro-6-(3-hydroxyphenoxy)-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)oxy)naphthalen-1-ol) (TPN-BM) was synthesized using a greener and simple protocol to overcome solubility limitations associated with ligand 22/8, known as artificial protein A. Furthermore, its subsequent immobilization on chitosan-based monoliths induced by plasma surface activation allowed the design of a fast and efficient chromatographic platform for immunoglobulin G (IgG) purification. The TPN-BM functionalized monoliths exhibited high-binding capacity (160 ± 10 mg IgG per gram of support), and a selective capture of monoclonal antibodies directly from mammalian crude extracts in 85 ± 5% yield and 98% of purity. The synthesis of ligand TPN-BM and the routes followed for monoliths preparation and functionalization were inspired in the green chemistry principles allowing the reduction of processing time, solvents and purification steps involved, turning the integrated system attractive from an economical and chemical point of view.

  8. Facile and Green Production of Impurity-Free Aqueous Solutions of WS2 Nanosheets by Direct Exfoliation in Water.

    PubMed

    Pan, Long; Liu, Yi-Tao; Xie, Xu-Ming; Ye, Xiong-Ying

    2016-12-01

    To obtain 2D materials with large quantity, low cost, and little pollution, liquid-phase exfoliation of their bulk form in water is a particularly fascinating concept. However, the current strategies for water-borne exfoliation exclusively employ stabilizers, such as surfactants, polymers, or inorganic salts, to minimize the extremely high surface energy of these nanosheets and stabilize them by steric repulsion. It is worth noting, however, that the remaining impurities inevitably bring about adverse effects to the ultimate performances of 2D materials. Here, a facile and green route to large-scale production of impurity-free aqueous solutions of WS2 nanosheets is reported by direct exfoliation in water. Crucial parameters such as initial concentration, sonication time, centrifugation speed, and centrifugation time are systematically evaluated to screen out an optimized condition for scaling up. Statistics based on morphological characterization prove that substantial fraction (66%) of the obtained WS2 nanosheets are one to five layers. X-ray diffraction and Raman characterizations reveal a high quality with few, if any, structural distortions. The water-borne exfoliation route opens up new opportunities for easy, clean processing of WS2 -based film devices that may shine in the fields of, e.g., energy storage and functional nanocomposites owing to their excellent electrochemical, mechanical, and thermal properties.

  9. Ice as a Green-Structure-Directing Agent in the Synthesis of Macroporous MWCNTs and Chondroitin Sulphate Composites

    PubMed Central

    Nardecchia, Stefania; Serrano, María Concepción; García-Argüelles, Sara; Maia Da Costa, Marcelo E. H.; Ferrer, María Luisa; Gutiérrez, María C.

    2017-01-01

    The incorporation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) into chondroitin sulphate-based scaffolds and the effect on the structural, mechanical, conductive, and thermal properties of the resulting scaffolds is investigated. Three-dimensional hierarchical materials are prepared upon the application of the ice segregation-induced self-assembly (ISISA) process. The use of ice as structure-directing agents avoids chemicals typically used for this purpose (e.g., surfactants, block copolymers, etc.), hence, emphasising the green features of this soft-templating approach. We determine the critical parameters that control the morphology of the scaffolds formed upon ice-templating (i.e., MWCNTs type, freezing conditions, polymer and MWCNT concentration). MWCNTs are surface functionalized by acidic treatment. MWCNT functionalization is characterized by Raman, Fourier transfer infrared (FTIR) and X-ray Photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and porosity studies reveal that MWCNT content modifies the morphology of the macroporous structure, which decreases by increasing MWCNT concentration. Differences in scaffold morphology should be translated into their conductivity and mechanical properties. As a general trend, the Young’s modulus and the electrical conductivity of the scaffolds increase with the MWCNT content. Preliminary biocompatibility tests with human osteoblast-like cells also reveal the capability of these structures to support cell growth. PMID:28772715

  10. Ice as a Green-Structure-Directing Agent in the Synthesis of Macroporous MWCNTs and Chondroitin Sulphate Composites.

    PubMed

    Nardecchia, Stefania; Serrano, María Concepción; García-Argüelles, Sara; Maia Da Costa, Marcelo E H; Ferrer, María Luisa; Gutiérrez, María C

    2017-03-28

    The incorporation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) into chondroitin sulphate-based scaffolds and the effect on the structural, mechanical, conductive, and thermal properties of the resulting scaffolds is investigated. Three-dimensional hierarchical materials are prepared upon the application of the ice segregation-induced self-assembly (ISISA) process. The use of ice as structure-directing agents avoids chemicals typically used for this purpose (e.g., surfactants, block copolymers, etc.), hence, emphasising the green features of this soft-templating approach. We determine the critical parameters that control the morphology of the scaffolds formed upon ice-templating (i.e., MWCNTs type, freezing conditions, polymer and MWCNT concentration). MWCNTs are surface functionalized by acidic treatment. MWCNT functionalization is characterized by Raman, Fourier transfer infrared (FTIR) and X-ray Photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and porosity studies reveal that MWCNT content modifies the morphology of the macroporous structure, which decreases by increasing MWCNT concentration. Differences in scaffold morphology should be translated into their conductivity and mechanical properties. As a general trend, the Young's modulus and the electrical conductivity of the scaffolds increase with the MWCNT content. Preliminary biocompatibility tests with human osteoblast-like cells also reveal the capability of these structures to support cell growth.

  11. 27 CFR 26.210 - Liquor dealer registration and recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... VIRGIN ISLANDS Products Coming Into the United States From the Virgin Islands Dealer Registration and... United States from the Virgin Islands who sells, or offers for sale, such liquors must register and keep...

  12. 27 CFR 26.210 - Liquor dealer registration and recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... VIRGIN ISLANDS Products Coming Into the United States From the Virgin Islands Dealer Registration and... United States from the Virgin Islands who sells, or offers for sale, such liquors must register and keep...

  13. Demonstration of Black Liquor Gasification at Big Island

    SciTech Connect

    Robert DeCarrera

    2007-04-14

    This Final Technical Report provides an account of the project for the demonstration of Black Liquor Gasification at Georgia-Pacific LLC's Big Island, VA facility. This report covers the period from May 5, 2000 through November 30, 2006.

  14. 27 CFR 5.46 - Standard liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Standards of Fill for... appeal procedures, see part 13 of this chapter. (Sec. 5, 49 Stat. 981, as amended (27 U.S.C. 205); 26...

  15. 27 CFR 5.46 - Standard liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Standards of Fill for... appeal procedures, see part 13 of this chapter. (Sec. 5, 49 Stat. 981, as amended (27 U.S.C. 205); 26...

  16. Biosorption of synthetic dyes (Direct Red 89 and Reactive Green 12) as an ecological refining step in textile effluent treatment.

    PubMed

    Guendouz, Samira; Khellaf, Nabila; Zerdaoui, Mostefa; Ouchefoun, Moussa

    2013-06-01

    With the use of cost-effective natural materials, biosorption is considered as an ecological tool that is applied worldwide for the remediation of pollution. In this study, we proposed Lemna gibba biomass (LGB), a lignocellulosic sorbent material, for the removal of two textile dyes, Direct Red 89 (DR-89) and Reactive Green 12 (RG-12). These azo dyes commonly used in dying operations of natural and synthetic fibres are the most important pollutants produced in textile industry effluents. For this purpose, batch biosorption experiments were carried out to assess the efficacy of LGB on dye treatment by evaluating the effect of contact time, biomass dosage, and initial dye concentration. The results indicated that the bioremoval efficiency of 5 mg L(-1) DR-89 and RG-12 reached approximately 100 % after 20 min of the exposure time; however, the maximum biosorption of 50 mg L(-1) DR-89 and 15 mg L(-1) RG-12 was determined to be about 60 and 47 %, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy used to explain the sorption mechanism showed that the functional groups of carboxylic acid and hydroxyl played a major role in the retention of these pollutants on the biomass surface. The modelling results using Freundlich, Langmuir, Temkin, Elovich, and Dubini Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms demonstrated that the DR-89 biosorption process was better described with the Langmuir theory (R (2) =0.992) while the RG-12 biosorption process fitted well by the D-R isotherm equation (R (2) =0.988). The maximum biosorption capacity was found to be 20.0 and 115.5 mg g(-1) for DR-89 and RG-12, respectively, showing a higher ability of duckweed biomass for the bioremoval of the green dye. The thermodynamic study showed that the dye biosorption was a spontaneous and endothermic process. The efficacy of using duckweed biomass for the bioremoval of the two dyes was limited to concentrations ≤50 mg L(-1), indicating that L. gibba biomass may be suitable in the refining step

  17. Determination of the microbial origin of geosmin in Chinese liquor.

    PubMed

    Du, Hai; Xu, Yan

    2012-03-07

    Geosmin is the major cause of the common earthy off-flavor in light-aroma type Chinese liquor and, thus, highly detrimental to the aromatic quality. To find out its origin, the evolving process of geosmin in light-aroma type liquor making was monitored, and microbial analysis of Daqu containing geosmin was carried out. The results showed that geosmin appeared in all the fermented sorghums at different fermentation periods. About 57% geosmin in the fermented sorghums was distilled into liquor. During the distillation process, the peak of geosmin concentration appeared when alcohol content was 50-60% vol. More importantly, high geosmin content was observed during the Daqu-making process. Furthermore, five Streptomyces strains were isolated from different types of Daqu used for the fermentation of light-aroma type liquor. All of them produced only geosmin as the main volatile metabolite but no 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB). It appears that microorganisms developing in Daqu are responsible for the presence of geosmin in liquor. Because of the relatively low detection threshold estimated at 110 ng/L in 46 vol % hydroalcoholic solution, the presence of geosmin in Daqu may pose a risk for Chinese liquor producers.

  18. Controlled black liquor viscosity reduction through salting-in

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J.E.; Khan, S.A.; Spontak, R.J.

    1996-08-01

    Black liquor viscosity increases exponentially with solids content and therefore causes processing problems for the paper industry by being a limiting factor in the Kraft pulp process. This study investigates a new approach for achieving viscosity reduction by salting-in black liquor through the addition of thiocyanate salts. These salts generally increase the solubility of the polymer constituents in black liquor, leading to a decrease in its viscosity. Several thiocyanate salts capable of reducing liquor viscosity by more than two orders of magnitude have been identified, with viscosity reduction greatest at high solids content. Salting-in of black liquor depends on the cation paired with the thiocyanate anion, as well as on solution pH and temperature. Comparative studies reveal the most effective viscosity-reducing agent of the series examined and that lignin plays an important role in the viscosity behavior of both unmodified and salted-in black liquor at high solids concentrations. These experimental findings are interpreted in terms of the underlying principles that describe salting-in and how it affects aqueous solution structure.

  19. Nitrogen removal from the saline sludge liquor by electrochemical denitrification.

    PubMed

    Xie, Z M; Li, X Y; Chan, K Y

    2006-01-01

    Sludge liquor from the sludge dewatering process has a high ammonia content. In the present study, a lab-scale electrochemical (EC) system with a pair of Ti electrode plates was used for treating the sludge centrate liquor of digested wastewater sludge with a NH4(+) - N content of around 500 mg/L. The sludge liquor had a high salinity due to seawater being used for toilet flushing in Hong Kong. The results show that the EC process is highly effective for denitrification of the saline sludge liquor. Complete nitrogen removal could be achieved within 1 hr or so. The rate of EC denitrification increased with the current intensity applied. The best current efficiency for nitrogen removal was obtained for a gap distance between the electrodes at 8 mm. Electro-chlorination was considered to be the major mechanism of EC denitrification. The formation of chlorination by-products (CBPs) appeared to be minimal with the total trihalomethanes (THM) detected at a level of 300 microg/L or lower. The power consumption for EC denitrification was around 23 kWh/kg N. Additional electro-flocculation with a pair of iron needle electrodes could enhance the flocculation and subsequent sedimentation of colloidal organics in the sludge liquor, increasing the organic removal from less than 30% to more than 70%. Therefore, the EC process including both electro-denitrification and electro-flocculation can be developed as the most cost-effective method for treatment of the saline sludge liquor.

  20. Fundamental studies of black liquor combustion: Report No. 2, Phase 1 (October 1984-November 1986)

    SciTech Connect

    Clay, D. T.; Lien, S. J.; Grace, T. M.; Macek, A.; Semerjian, H. G.; Amin, N.; Charagundla, S. R.

    1987-01-01

    The fundamentals of kraft black liquor combustion are being studied in a five year project. This report covers the second and third years of work by The Institute of Paper Chemistry (IPC) and the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) for the US Department of Energy. The burning processes are being studied in two continuous flow reactor systems designed to both study overall process and single particle phenomena. Black liquor burning is divided into four distinct phases: drying, volatiles burning, char burning, and smelt coalescence. Phase 1, In-flight Processes, is the main focus of this report. In-flight processes include mainly the stages of drying and volatiles burning. Testing results in both flow reactors and in two specially designed single particle reactors are presented. Dynamic droplet velocity and swelling have been measured for the first time. A direct link between initial liquor viscosity and burning behavior in the early stages has also been identified. During the fourth year Phase 1 will be completed and Phases 2 (Char Burning) and 3 (Fume Processes) will begin.

  1. Vanillin: Synthetic Flavoring from Spent Sulfite Liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocking, Martin B.

    1997-09-01

    Separation of the lignin component of wood from the cellulose presents an opportunity to access various interesting products from the lignin fragments. The lignin represents availability of a sizable renewable resource. Vanillin, or 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, is one of a series of related substituted aromatic flavor constituents, and represents one of the potentially profitable possibilities. Vanillin production from the lignin-containing waste liquor obtained from acid sulfite pulping of wood began in North America in the mid 1930's. By 1981 one plant at Thorold, Ontario produced 60% of the contemporary world supply of vanillin. The process also simultaneously decreased the organic loading of the aqueous waste streams of the pulping process. Today, however, whilst vanillin production from lignin is still practiced in Norway and a few other areas, all North American facilities using this process have closed, primarily for environmental reasons. New North American vanillin plants use petrochemical raw materials. An innovation is needed to help overcome the environmental problems of this process before vanillin production from lignin is likely to resume here. Current interest in the promotion of chemicals production from renewable raw materials reinforces the incentive to do this.

  2. Characterization of Chinese liquor aroma components during aging process and liquor age discrimination using gas chromatography combined with multivariable statistics

    PubMed Central

    Xu, M. L.; Yu, Y.; Ramaswamy, H. S.; Zhu, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    Chinese liquor aroma components were characterized during the aging process using gas chromatography (GC). Principal component and cluster analysis (PCA, CA) were used to discriminate the Chinese liquor age which has a great economic value. Of a total of 21 major aroma components identified and quantified, 13 components which included several acids, alcohols, esters, aldehydes and furans decreased significantly in the first year of aging, maintained the same levels (p > 0.05) for next three years and decreased again (p < 0.05) in the fifth year. On the contrary, a significant increase was observed in propionic acid, furfural and phenylethanol. Ethyl lactate was found to be the most stable aroma component during aging process. Results of PCA and CA demonstrated that young liquor (fresh) and aged liquors were well separated from each other, which is in consistent with the evolution of aroma components along with the aging process. These findings provide a quantitative basis for discriminating the Chinese liquor age and a scientific basis for further research on elucidating the liquor aging process, and a possible tool to guard against counterfeit and defective products. PMID:28059090

  3. Characterization of Chinese liquor aroma components during aging process and liquor age discrimination using gas chromatography combined with multivariable statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, M. L.; Yu, Y.; Ramaswamy, H. S.; Zhu, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    Chinese liquor aroma components were characterized during the aging process using gas chromatography (GC). Principal component and cluster analysis (PCA, CA) were used to discriminate the Chinese liquor age which has a great economic value. Of a total of 21 major aroma components identified and quantified, 13 components which included several acids, alcohols, esters, aldehydes and furans decreased significantly in the first year of aging, maintained the same levels (p > 0.05) for next three years and decreased again (p < 0.05) in the fifth year. On the contrary, a significant increase was observed in propionic acid, furfural and phenylethanol. Ethyl lactate was found to be the most stable aroma component during aging process. Results of PCA and CA demonstrated that young liquor (fresh) and aged liquors were well separated from each other, which is in consistent with the evolution of aroma components along with the aging process. These findings provide a quantitative basis for discriminating the Chinese liquor age and a scientific basis for further research on elucidating the liquor aging process, and a possible tool to guard against counterfeit and defective products.

  4. Characterization of Chinese liquor aroma components during aging process and liquor age discrimination using gas chromatography combined with multivariable statistics.

    PubMed

    Xu, M L; Yu, Y; Ramaswamy, H S; Zhu, S M

    2017-01-06

    Chinese liquor aroma components were characterized during the aging process using gas chromatography (GC). Principal component and cluster analysis (PCA, CA) were used to discriminate the Chinese liquor age which has a great economic value. Of a total of 21 major aroma components identified and quantified, 13 components which included several acids, alcohols, esters, aldehydes and furans decreased significantly in the first year of aging, maintained the same levels (p > 0.05) for next three years and decreased again (p < 0.05) in the fifth year. On the contrary, a significant increase was observed in propionic acid, furfural and phenylethanol. Ethyl lactate was found to be the most stable aroma component during aging process. Results of PCA and CA demonstrated that young liquor (fresh) and aged liquors were well separated from each other, which is in consistent with the evolution of aroma components along with the aging process. These findings provide a quantitative basis for discriminating the Chinese liquor age and a scientific basis for further research on elucidating the liquor aging process, and a possible tool to guard against counterfeit and defective products.

  5. Microbial Community Composition Associated with Maotai Liquor Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Hongxun; Liu, Xiu

    2016-06-01

    The solid-state fermentation state of Chinese Maotai liquor involves the interaction of several complex microbial communities leading to the generation of the most complex liquor fermentation system in the world and contributes to the unique flavor and aroma of the liquor. In this study, total DNA was extracted from 3 fermented grain samples (FG1, FG2, and FG3) and 12 environmental samples, including Daqu (DA1, DA2, DA3, and DA4), cellar mud (CS1, CS2, and CS3), soil (SL1 and SL2), air (A1 and A2), and sorghum (SH), and the 16S and 18S rRNA genes were amplified. The distribution of typical microorganisms in the samples was analyzed using nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, while quantitative PCR amplification of 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer genes was performed to estimate the microbial abundance present in each sample. The results indicated that Daqu was the primary source of bacteria, followed by the air, soil, and sorghum samples, while the majority of the fungi responsible for Maotai liquor fermentation were from Daqu and sorghum. Highest bacterial concentrations were found in fermented grains, followed by Daqu and sorghum, while the highest fungal concentrations were found in Daqu, followed by sorghum and an air sample from outside the liquor production area. The findings of this study may provide information regarding the mechanisms responsible for flavor development in Maotai liquor, and may be used to further optimize the traditional art of making liquor. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Improved Materials for High-Temperature Black Liquor Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, J.R.; Hemrick, J.G.; Gorog, J.P.; Leary, R.

    2006-06-29

    with fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinel refractory, which appears to be the most resistant to degradation found to date, exhibiting over a year of service life and expected to be capable of over two years of service life. Regarding the use of refractory mortar, it was found that expansion of the current chrome-alumina mortar when subjected to black liquor smelt is likely contributing to the strains seen on the vessel shell. Additionally, the candidate high-alumina mortar that was originally proposed as a replacement for the current chrome-alumina mortar also showed a large amount of expansion when subjected to molten smelt. A UMR experimental mortar, composed of a phosphate bonded system specifically designed for use with fusion-cast magnesium-aluminum spinel, was found to perform well in the molten smelt environment. Strain gauges installed on the gasifier vessel shell provided valuable information about the expansion of the refractory, and a new set of strain gauges and thermocouples has been installed in order to monitor the loading caused by the currently installed spinel refractory. These results provide information for a direct comparison of the expansion of the two refractories. Measurements to date suggest that the fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinel is expanding less than the fusion-cast {alpha}/{beta}-alumina used previously. A modified liquor nozzle was designed and constructed to test a number of materials that should be more resistant to erosion and corrosion than the material currently used. Inserts made of three erosion-resistant metallic materials were fabricated, along with inserts made of three ceramic materials. The assembled system was sent to the New Bern mill for installation in the gasifer in 2005. Following operation of the gasifier using the modified nozzle, inserts should be removed and analyzed for wear by erosion/corrosion. Although no materials have been directly identified for sensor/thermocouple protection tubes, several of the

  7. Influence of pressure on pyrolysis of black liquor: 1. Swelling.

    PubMed

    Whitty, Kevin; Backman, Rainer; Hupa, Mikko

    2008-02-01

    This is the first of two papers concerning the behavior of black liquor during pyrolysis under pressurized conditions. Two industrial kraft liquors were pyrolyzed in a laboratory-scale pressurized single particle reactor and a pressurized grid heater at temperatures ranging from 650 to 1100 degrees C and at pressures between 1 and 20 bar. The dimensions of the chars produced were measured and the specific swollen volume was calculated. Swelling decreased roughly logarithmically over the pressure range 1-20 r. An expression is developed to predict the specific swollen volume at elevated pressure when the volume at 1 bar is known. The bulk density of the char increased with pressure, indicating that liquors will be entrained less easily at higher pressures.

  8. 27 CFR 9.44 - Solano County Green Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Solano County Green Valley. 9.44 Section 9.44 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas §...

  9. Chromatic signatures of broadband optical spectra for liquor discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, G. R.; Deakin, A. G.; Spencer, J. W.

    2009-02-01

    Methods based upon chromatic analysis are described for quantifying broadband optical absorption spectra in discriminating between different types of liquors. The absorption spectra are quantified by three chromaticity coordinates, which can be represented by two points, one on each of two chromatic diagrams. Various types of liquors may then be distinguished on such chromatic maps and groups of similar samples conveniently identified. Examples of the deployment of the approach are given for distinguishing between and classifying various types, brands and mixtures of alcoholic beverages and for identifying an authentic brand. The method provides a high level of traceability and is not restricted to a particular type of optical spectrum.

  10. Black liquor gasification phase 2D final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kohl, A.L.; Stewart, A.E.

    1988-06-01

    This report covers work conducted by Rockwell International under Amendment 5 to Subcontract STR/DOE-12 of Cooperative Agreement DE-AC-05-80CS40341 between St. Regis Corporation (now Champion International) and the Department of Energy (DOE). The work has been designated Phase 2D of the overall program to differentiate it from prior work under the same subcontract. The overall program is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of and providing design data for the Rockwell process for gasifying Kraft black liquor. In this process, concentrated black liquor is converted into low-Btu fuel gas and reduced melt by reaction with air in a specially designed gasification reactor.

  11. Climatic factors directly impact the volatile organic compound fingerprint in green Arabica coffee bean as well as coffee beverage quality.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, B; Boulanger, R; Dussert, S; Ribeyre, F; Berthiot, L; Descroix, F; Joët, T

    2012-12-15

    Coffee grown at high elevations fetches a better price than that grown in lowland regions. This study was aimed at determining whether climatic conditions during bean development affected sensory perception of the coffee beverage and combinations of volatile compounds in green coffee. Green coffee samples from 16 plots representative of the broad range of climatic variations in Réunion Island were compared by sensory analysis. Volatiles were extracted by solid phase micro-extraction and the volatile compounds were analysed by GC-MS. The results revealed that, among the climatic factors, the mean air temperature during seed development greatly influenced the sensory profile. Positive quality attributes such as acidity, fruity character and flavour quality were correlated and typical of coffees produced at cool climates. Two volatile compounds (ethanal and acetone) were identified as indicators of these cool temperatures. Among detected volatiles, most of the alcohols, aldehydes, hydrocarbons and ketones appeared to be positively linked to elevated temperatures and high solar radiation, while the sensory profiles displayed major defects (i.e. green, earthy flavour). Two alcohols (butan-1,3-diol and butan-2,3-diol) were closely correlated with a reduction in aromatic quality, acidity and an increase in earthy and green flavours. We assumed that high temperatures induce accumulation of these compounds in green coffee, and would be detected as off-flavours, even after roasting. Climate change, which generally involves a substantial increase in average temperatures in mountainous tropical regions, could be expected to have a negative impact on coffee quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bridging the ``green gap'' of LEDs: giant light output enhancement and directional control of LEDs via embedded nano-void photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Yu-Lin; Liu, Che-Yu; Krishnan, Chirenjeevi; Lin, Da-Wei; Chu, You-Chen; Chen, Tzu-Pei; Shen, Tien-Lin; Kao, Tsung-Sheng; Charlton, Martin D. B.; Yu, Peichen; Lin, Chien-Chung; Kuo, Hao-Chung; He-Hau, Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Green LEDs do not show the same level of performance as their blue and red cousins, greatly hindering the solid-state lighting development, which is the so-called ``green gap''. In this work, nano-void photonic crystals (NVPCs) were fabricated to embed within the GaN/InGaN green LEDs by using epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) and nano-sphere lithography techniques. The NVPCs act as an efficient scattering back-reflector to outcouple the guided and downward photons, which not only boost the light extraction efficiency of LEDs with an enhancement of 78% but also collimate the view angle of LEDs from 131.5° to 114.0°. This could be because of the highly scattering nature of NVPCs which reduce the interference giving rise to Fabry-Perot resonance. Moreover, due to the threading dislocation suppression and strain relief by the NVPCs, the internal quantum efficiency was increased by 25% and droop behavior was reduced from 37.4% to 25.9%. The enhancement of light output power can be achieved as high as 151% at a driving current of 350 mA. Giant light output enhancement and directional control via NVPCs point the way towards a promising avenue of solid-state lighting.Green LEDs do not show the same level of performance as their blue and red cousins, greatly hindering the solid-state lighting development, which is the so-called ``green gap''. In this work, nano-void photonic crystals (NVPCs) were fabricated to embed within the GaN/InGaN green LEDs by using epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) and nano-sphere lithography techniques. The NVPCs act as an efficient scattering back-reflector to outcouple the guided and downward photons, which not only boost the light extraction efficiency of LEDs with an enhancement of 78% but also collimate the view angle of LEDs from 131.5° to 114.0°. This could be because of the highly scattering nature of NVPCs which reduce the interference giving rise to Fabry-Perot resonance. Moreover, due to the threading dislocation suppression and

  13. 75 FR 41518 - Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish (Gun Lake) Tribe Liquor Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish (Gun Lake) Tribe Liquor Control Ordinance AGENCY... certification of the Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish Band of Pottawatomi Indians (Gun Lake) Liquor Control Ordinance... purpose of regulating liquor transactions in Indian Country. The Tribal Council of the Gun Lake Tribe...

  14. Towards green analysis of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds: Extraction by a natural deep eutectic solvent and direct spectrophotometric detection.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Vito Michele; Clemente, Antonia; Summo, Carmine; Pasqualone, Antonella; Caponio, Francesco

    2016-12-01

    The determination of phenolic compounds in extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) by means of rapid, low-cost, environment-free methods would be a desirable achievement. A natural deep eutectic solvent (DES) based on glucose and lactic acid was considered as extraction solvent for phenolic compounds in EVOO. DESs are green solvents characterized by high availability, biodegradability, safety, and low cost. The spectrophotometric characteristics of DES extracts of 65 EVOO samples were related to the total phenolic content of the oils, assessed by methanol-water extraction coupled to the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. A regression model (ncalibration=45, nvalidation=20), including the absorbance at two wavelengths (257, 324nm), was obtained, with an adjusted R(2)=0.762. Therefore the DES could provide a promising and viable approach for a green screening method of phenolic compounds in EVOO, by means of simple spectrophotometric measurements of extracts, even for on-field analysis (for example in olive mills).

  15. The Chasm Green Machine: A Rapid Data Acquisition and Mapping System For Direct Observation of Shallow Hydrological Processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, P.; Merrett, S.

    CHASM (Catchment Hydrology and Sustainable Management) is a major UK funded project investigating all aspects of hydrological observation from point to basin scale. The project includes a mobile instrumentation component, which is now referred to as the 'Green Machine'. This research facility includes an All Terrain Vehicle, an on board high resolution GPS mapping and navigation system, an EM31, an EM38 and a Seistronix seismic kit. The goal of the project is to observe and map unsaturated and saturated zone hydrological processes within soils and drift through repeated map- ping campaigns. The hydrogeophysics kit will be validated against a dense series of ground based observations of soil moisture deficit, suction and peizometric logging instruments. The Green Machine also includes a portable drilling and coring kit that can reach 10m in depth. Thus, the EM31 will attempt to map macroscale fluxes in the water table position, the EM38 will attempt to map the soil moisture deficit, and the seismic profile will show the depth of soil and drift. This 'go anywhere', rapid mapping facility will attempt to map hydrological processes in 4 dimensions in a non- intrusive and extensive manner. Whilst this paper will reflect only the experimental design and some early results, it is hoped that the Green Machine will play an active role in the future of hydrogeophysical research.

  16. 27 CFR 31.201 - Refilling of liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Refilling of liquor bottles. 31.201 Section 31.201 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used...

  17. In situ analysis of ash deposits from black liquor combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Bernath, P. |; Sinquefield, S.A. |; Baxter, L.L.; Sclippa, G.; Rohlfing, C.; Barfield, M. |

    1996-05-01

    Aerosols formed during combustion of black liquor cause a significant fire-side fouling problem in pulp mill recovery boilers. The ash deposits reduce heat transfer effectiveness, plug gas passages, and contribute to corrosion. Both vapors and condensation aerosols lead to the formation of such deposits. The high ash content of the fuel and the low dew point of the condensate salts lead to a high aerosol and vapor concentration in most boilers. In situ measurements of the chemical composition of these deposits is an important step in gaining a fundamental understanding of the deposition process. Infrared emission spectroscopy is used to characterize the composition of thin film deposits resulting from the combustion of black liquor and the deposition of submicron aerosols and vapors. New reference spectra of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} pure component films were recorded and compared with the spectra of the black liquor deposit. All of the black liquor emission bands were identified using a combination of literature data and ab initio calculations. Ab initio calculations also predict the locations and intensities of bands for the alkali vapors of interest. 39 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Novel maqui liquor using traditional pacharán processing.

    PubMed

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Calín-Sánchez, Angel; Moreno, Diego A; Carbonell-Barrachina, Angel A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2015-04-15

    Pacharán is an aniseed liquor-based beverage made with sloe berry (Prunus spinosa L.), that has been historically produced in Navarra (Northern Spain). On the other hand, Chilean native maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) now under increasing study because of its potential health benefits, is not widely known. The aim of this work was to design a new aniseed liquor-based beverage with maqui berry (MBL), characterising its bioactive and volatile composition, antioxidant capacity, sensory quality, and compare it to traditional pacharán (SBP). The results showed that MBL had attractive colour, exhibited higher anthocyanin content and retention during maceration, higher antioxidant capacity, presented similar aroma profile and showed optimal sensory characteristics. Therefore, MBL can be an acceptable new liquor, with better quality characteristics and higher anthocyanin content and retention than pacharán, as well as with great scores in sensory analysis and consumer acceptance, offering a new and tasty beverage for future liquor manufacturing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 27 CFR 5.46 - Standard liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Standard liquor bottles. 5.46 Section 5.46 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Standards of Fill...

  20. 27 CFR 5.46 - Standard liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Standard liquor bottles. 5.46 Section 5.46 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Standards of Fill...

  1. Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

  2. 27 CFR 19.603 - Liquor bottle records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Liquor bottle records. 19.603 Section 19.603 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Processing Records §...

  3. 27 CFR 19.603 - Liquor bottle records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Liquor bottle records. 19.603 Section 19.603 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Processing Records §...

  4. Bridging the "green gap" of LEDs: giant light output enhancement and directional control of LEDs via embedded nano-void photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yu-Lin; Liu, Che-Yu; Krishnan, Chirenjeevi; Lin, Da-Wei; Chu, You-Chen; Chen, Tzu-Pei; Shen, Tien-Lin; Kao, Tsung-Sheng; Charlton, Martin D B; Yu, Peichen; Lin, Chien-Chung; Kuo, Hao-Chung; He, Jr-Hau

    2016-01-14

    Green LEDs do not show the same level of performance as their blue and red cousins, greatly hindering the solid-state lighting development, which is the so-called "green gap". In this work, nano-void photonic crystals (NVPCs) were fabricated to embed within the GaN/InGaN green LEDs by using epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) and nano-sphere lithography techniques. The NVPCs act as an efficient scattering back-reflector to outcouple the guided and downward photons, which not only boost the light extraction efficiency of LEDs with an enhancement of 78% but also collimate the view angle of LEDs from 131.5° to 114.0°. This could be because of the highly scattering nature of NVPCs which reduce the interference giving rise to Fabry-Perot resonance. Moreover, due to the threading dislocation suppression and strain relief by the NVPCs, the internal quantum efficiency was increased by 25% and droop behavior was reduced from 37.4% to 25.9%. The enhancement of light output power can be achieved as high as 151% at a driving current of 350 mA. Giant light output enhancement and directional control via NVPCs point the way towards a promising avenue of solid-state lighting.

  5. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.

    1998-05-01

    The overall objective of the program was to develop correlations to predict physical properties within requirements of engineering precision from a knowledge of pulping conditions and of kraft black liquor composition, if possible. These correlations were to include those relating thermodynamic properties to pulping conditions and liquor composition. The basic premise upon which the research was based is the premise that black liquor behaves as a polymer solution. This premise has proven to be true, and has been used successfully in developing data reduction methods and in interpreting results. A three phase effort involving pulping, analysis of liquor composition, and measurement of liquor properties was conducted.

  6. Method development for the determination of manganese, cobalt and copper in green coffee comparing direct solid sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Oleszczuk, Nédio; Castro, Jacira T; da Silva, Márcia M; Korn, Maria das Graças A; Welz, Bernhard; Vale, Maria Goreti R

    2007-10-31

    A method has been developed for the determination of cobalt, copper and manganese in green coffee using direct solid sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (SS-ET AAS). The motivation for the study was that only a few elements might be suitable to determine the origin of green coffee so that the multi-element techniques usually applied for this purpose might not be necessary. The three elements have been chosen as test elements as they were found to be significant in previous investigations. A number of botanical certified reference materials (CRM) and pre-analyzed samples of green coffee have been used for method validation, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) after microwave-assisted acid digestion of the samples as reference method. Calibration against aqueous standards could be used for the determination of Mn and Co by SS-ET AAS, but calibration against solid CRM was necessary for the determination of Cu. No significant difference was found between the results obtained with the proposed method and certified or independently determined values. The limits of detection for Mn, Cu and Co were 0.012, 0.006 and 0.004mugg(-1) using SS-ET AAS and 0.015, 0.13 and 0.10mugg(-1) using ICP OES. Seven samples of Brazilian green coffee have been analyzed, and there was no significant difference between the values obtained with SS-ET AAS and ICP OES for Mn and Cu. ICP OES could not be used as a reference method for Co, as essentially all values were below the limit of quantification of this technique.

  7. Authentication of Chinese vintage liquors using bomb-pulse 14C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Peng; Zhou, Weijian; Burr, G. S.; Fu, Yunchong; Fan, Yukun; Wu, Shugang

    2016-12-01

    The older a bottle of Chinese vintage liquor is, the higher the price it commands. Driven by the potential for higher profits, some newly-founded distilleries openly sell liquor whose storage ages are exaggerated. In China, the market for vintage liquor has become fraught with uncertainty and a pressing need has arisen to establish an effective method to authenticate the age of vintage liquors. A radiocarbon (14C) dating method is described here that can verify cellar-stored years of Chinese liquors distilled within the last fifty years. Two different flavored Chinese liquors produced in “the golden triangular region” in the Upper Yangtze River region in southwest China, with known cellar-stored years, were analyzed to benchmark the technique. Strong flavored liquors are found to be consistent with local atmospheric Δ14C values. A small offset of 2-3 years between predicted vintage years of soy-sauce flavored liquors and strong flavored liquors is found to be associated with the fermentation cycle of certain varieties. The technique can measure cellar-stored years of a wide range of liquors including those with fundamentally different aromas. This demonstrates the strength of our method in identifying suspect Chinese vintage liquors.

  8. Authentication of Chinese vintage liquors using bomb-pulse 14C

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Peng; Zhou, Weijian; Burr, G. S.; Fu, Yunchong; Fan, Yukun; Wu, Shugang

    2016-01-01

    The older a bottle of Chinese vintage liquor is, the higher the price it commands. Driven by the potential for higher profits, some newly-founded distilleries openly sell liquor whose storage ages are exaggerated. In China, the market for vintage liquor has become fraught with uncertainty and a pressing need has arisen to establish an effective method to authenticate the age of vintage liquors. A radiocarbon (14C) dating method is described here that can verify cellar-stored years of Chinese liquors distilled within the last fifty years. Two different flavored Chinese liquors produced in “the golden triangular region” in the Upper Yangtze River region in southwest China, with known cellar-stored years, were analyzed to benchmark the technique. Strong flavored liquors are found to be consistent with local atmospheric Δ14C values. A small offset of 2–3 years between predicted vintage years of soy-sauce flavored liquors and strong flavored liquors is found to be associated with the fermentation cycle of certain varieties. The technique can measure cellar-stored years of a wide range of liquors including those with fundamentally different aromas. This demonstrates the strength of our method in identifying suspect Chinese vintage liquors. PMID:27922117

  9. Authentication of Chinese vintage liquors using bomb-pulse (14)C.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Peng; Zhou, Weijian; Burr, G S; Fu, Yunchong; Fan, Yukun; Wu, Shugang

    2016-12-06

    The older a bottle of Chinese vintage liquor is, the higher the price it commands. Driven by the potential for higher profits, some newly-founded distilleries openly sell liquor whose storage ages are exaggerated. In China, the market for vintage liquor has become fraught with uncertainty and a pressing need has arisen to establish an effective method to authenticate the age of vintage liquors. A radiocarbon ((14)C) dating method is described here that can verify cellar-stored years of Chinese liquors distilled within the last fifty years. Two different flavored Chinese liquors produced in "the golden triangular region" in the Upper Yangtze River region in southwest China, with known cellar-stored years, were analyzed to benchmark the technique. Strong flavored liquors are found to be consistent with local atmospheric Δ(14)C values. A small offset of 2-3 years between predicted vintage years of soy-sauce flavored liquors and strong flavored liquors is found to be associated with the fermentation cycle of certain varieties. The technique can measure cellar-stored years of a wide range of liquors including those with fundamentally different aromas. This demonstrates the strength of our method in identifying suspect Chinese vintage liquors.

  10. A Green-Kubo approach to reduce collision separation error in the direct simulation Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, Jonathan M.; Josyula, Eswar

    2016-11-01

    A modification to DSMC collision routines is proposed to eliminate or reduce collision separation error in numerical transport coefficients. This modification follows from earlier DSMC error analysis based on Green-Kubo theory, and is currently limited to the case of a hard sphere monatomic simple gas simulation with approximately isotropic collision separation statistics. Further adjustments to the DSMC collision algorithm are proposed to reduce collision separation error associated with a finite time step interval. It is shown analytically that, for random collision partner selection at the small time step limit with a cell size equal to the mean free path, collision separation error in viscosity is reduced by approximately 37% while thermal conductivity error is completely removed. In a demonstration case involving hypersonic flow over a cylinder, the proposed modification is found to allow for large error reductions in both the total force and heat transfer rate. Although this modification is not intended as a general solution to the problem of DSMC collision separation error, it is hoped that the concept demonstrated here of utilizing Green-Kubo analysis for DSMC error reduction will in the future find more widespread applicability.

  11. Molecular analysis of transgenic melon plants showing virus resistance conferred by direct repeat of movement gene of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Ali, Emran Md; Emran, Ali; Tabei, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Kappei; Yamaoka, Naoto; Nishiguchi, Masamichi

    2012-08-01

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) is a major limiting factor in the production of melon plants worldwide. For effective control of this virus using the transgenic approach, the direct repeat of the movement protein gene of CGMMV was used for transforming melon plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. PCR and Southern blot analyses of T₃ confirmed that they carried the transgene. Northern blot analysis with total RNA showed that transgene transcript RNA as well as siRNA was observed in all plants tested. Separate leaves or individual plants were inoculated with CGMMV and subjected to ELISA and RNA blot analysis using the coat protein gene probe of the virus. Compared to nontransgenic control, these plants were shown to have high virus resistance. Furthermore, cytosine of the transgene DNA in the plants was methylated. Thus, these results reveal that the transgenic lines were highly resistant to the virus through RNA silencing. Key message High virus resistance was obtained in transgenic melon plants with direct repeat of movement protein gene of Cucumber green mottle mosaic tobamovirus through RNA silencing.

  12. Biobutanol production by Clostridium acetobutylicum using xylose recovered from birch Kraft black liquor.

    PubMed

    Kudahettige-Nilsson, Rasika L; Helmerius, Jonas; Nilsson, Robert T; Sjöblom, Magnus; Hodge, David B; Rova, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was studied using acid-hydrolyzed xylan recovered from hardwood Kraft black liquor by CO2 acidification as the only carbon source. Detoxification of hydrolyzate using activated carbon was conducted to evaluate the impact of inhibitor removal and fermentation. Xylose hydrolysis yields as high as 18.4% were demonstrated at the highest severity hydrolysis condition. Detoxification using active carbon was effective for removal of both phenolics (76-81%) and HMF (38-52%). Batch fermentation of the hydrolyzate and semi-defined P2 media resulted in a total solvent yield of 0.12-0.13g/g and 0.34g/g, corresponding to a butanol concentration of 1.8-2.1g/L and 7.3g/L respectively. This work is the first study of a process for the production of a biologically-derived biofuel from hemicelluloses solubilized during Kraft pulping and demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing xylan recovered directly from industrial Kraft pulping liquors as a feedstock for biological production of biofuels such as butanol.

  13. Electrocoagulation treatment of black liquor from paper industry.

    PubMed

    Zaied, M; Bellakhal, N

    2009-04-30

    The procedure of electrocoagulation is an effective, fast and economic technique for treatment of black liquor resulting from paper industry. The effect of electrolysis time, current density, type of electrode material and initial pH were studied in an attempt to achieve a higher removal capacity. Under the optimal experimental conditions (initial pH 7, t=50 min and J=14 mA cm(-2)), the treatment of black liquor by electrocoagulation has led to a removal capacity of 98% of COD, 92% of polyphenols and 99% of color intensity with a good repeatability (R.S.D.<3%) making it possible to highlight the industrial interest of this electrochemical process.

  14. Solvated liquid-lignin fractions from a Kraft black liquor.

    PubMed

    Velez, Julian; Thies, Mark C

    2013-11-01

    A softwood Kraft black liquor was acidified with carbon dioxide at 115°C and 6.2 bar over a pH range of 13.6-9.5, resulting in the precipitation of liquefied-lignin fractions as a separate phase. Seven such "liquid-lignin" fractions were produced, with each fraction being phase-separated within a narrow pH band of 0.5 units. The fractions were found to be highly hydrated phases, containing 32.3-48.2 wt.% water; as a result, their measured melting points were quite low, 90.7-110.5°C. In contrast, no melting point was detected up to 375°C for any of the lignin fractions after drying. Significant reductions in metals content were observed for the lignin fractions compared to the original black-liquor feed.

  15. Determination of opiate alkaloids in process liquors using capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hindson, Benjamin J; Francis, Paul S; Purcell, Stuart D; Barnett, Neil W

    2007-02-19

    This paper describes the determination of opiate alkaloids (morphine, codeine, oripavine and thebaine) in industrial process liquors using capillary zone electrophoresis with UV-absorption detection at 214 nm. A study of cyclodextrin type and concentration revealed that the addition of 30 mM hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin to the electrolyte solution (100mM Tris adjusted to pH 2.8) was suitable to resolve the four analytes of interest. Typical analysis time was 12 min and the limit of detection for each alkaloid was 2.5 x 10(-6) M. The results for the proposed methodology were in good agreement with those of a conventional HPLC procedure. Under the same conditions, short-end injection was used to reduce the effective separation length from 41.5 to 8.5 cm, which allowed the determination of morphine and thebaine in process liquors within 2.5 min.

  16. Bioabsorption of chromium from retan chrome liquor by cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Pandi, M; Shashirekha, V; Swamy, Mahadeswara

    2009-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of chromium from retan chrome liquor by Spirulina fusiformis was investigated under laboratory as well as field conditions. At the optimal conditions, metal ion uptake increased with initial metal ion concentration up to 300mg/l. The effect on various physico-chemical parameters like total solids (TS), total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), chlorides, sulphates, phenols, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical studies related to biomass, chlorophyll-a and protein were also carried out. The present study indicates that S. fusiformis is very effective in removal of chromium (93-99%) besides removing other toxicants from retan chrome liquor. The sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and FTIR studies indicate the interaction/complexation between Cr and alga. The mechanism involved in bioaccumulation of chromium is also discussed. The process when upgraded can be applied for detoxification of tannery effluents.

  17. Physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report. Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, A.L.

    1983-12-01

    Methods were selected, equipment installed, and procedures developed for determining rheological properties; for determining thermal properties (stability, density, thermal expansion, and heat capacity); for purification and characterization of lignin (glass transition, stability, weight average molecular weight, and number average molecular weight); and for performing chemical analyses (negative inorganic ions, positive inorganic ions, acid organic salts, lignin, and total solids). A strategy for pulping to supply test liquors was developed, and a statistically designed pulping experiment was specified for a Southern softwood species. Arrangements were made for performing initial pulping work in an industrial pilot plant, and a preliminary set of pulping experiments were conducted. Liquors from the preliminary pulping experiments were used to test procedures and to determine reproducibility of the experiment. Literature was also surveyed and preliminary selection of designs for a pilot digester, and for equipment to determine surface tension were made.

  18. The study on the reaction of rutile in Bayer liquor

    SciTech Connect

    Bi Shiwen; Li Dianfeng; Yang Yihong; Fu Gaofeng; Zhang Xin; Li Yan

    1996-10-01

    TiO{sub 2} is a harmful impurity in the digestion of producing alumina. TiO{sub 2} in bauxite usually exists in the forms of rutile, anatase and brookite. In this paper, the authors studied the reaction of rutile in sodium aluminate liquor, examined the effects of OH{sup {minus}} ion concentration, adding amount of CaO and temperature on the reaction, achieved the kinetics equation and calculated the activation energy of the reaction.

  19. Conceptual design of a black liquor gasification pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kelleher, E. G.

    1987-08-01

    In July 1985, Champion International completed a study of kraft black liquor gasification and use of the product gases in a combined cycle cogeneration system based on gas turbines. That study indicated that gasification had high potential as an alternative to recovery boiler technology and offered many advantages. This paper describes the design of the plant, the construction of the pilot plant, and finally presents data from operation of the plant.

  20. Evaluation of lignin-based black liquor decolorization by Trametes versicolor U 80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amriani, Feni; Sari, Ajeng Arum; R. Irni Fitria, A.; Abimanyu, Haznan; Tachibana, Sanro

    2017-01-01

    Bioethanol second generation (G-2) production process generated black liquor that need to treat before the disposal to prevent environmental pollution. Usually, coagulation technology using polyaluminium chloride was employed to precipitate dissolved lignin and intended to decolorize black liquor. However, this single work is not effective to treat black liquor, so that it requires another work to treat remain brownish liquor. Isolated fungal strain from Japan Trametes versicolor U 80 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium are white rot fungi that are known in ligninolytic enzymes secretion to biodegrade soluble lignin. Decolorization of black and brownish liquor is an indicator of fungi works since lignin is known as the colour agent in liquor colouration. This work evaluated black and brownish liquor decolorization using both fungi that correspond to fungal growth. Liquor toxicity was observed based on mycelial dry weight after 30 days incubation as the presumption of the connection of fungal growth and decolorization. The biosorption from the dead cell was also evaluated for fungal adsorption capability in black and brownish decolorization. As the result, T. versicolor U 80 was able to decolorize brownish liquor 51.5% after 21 days incubation and 68.6% black liquor at 15 days incubation. MnP and Laccase enzymes activity in 15 and 21 days are correlated to those decolorized results. The dead cell was also able to decolorize 67.3% brownish liquor and 25.1% black liquor after 15 days incubation as biosorption mechanism. This research described fungal potential in decolorization as the simple black liquor treatment technology and gave valuable information related to environmental friendly decolorization process.

  1. Black liquor gasification integrated in pulp and paper mills: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, M; Yan, J; Dahlquist, E

    2010-11-01

    Black liquor gasification (BLG) has potential to replace a Tomlinson recovery boiler as an alternative technology to increase safety, flexibility and energy efficiency of pulp and paper mills. This paper presents an extensive literature review of the research and development of various BLG technologies over recent years based on low and high temperature gasification that include SCA-Billerud process, Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International (MTCI) process, direct alkali regeneration system (DARS), BLG with direct causticization, Chemrec BLG system, and catalytic hydrothermal BLG. A few technologies were tested on pilot scale but most of them were abandoned due to technical inferiority and very fewer are now at commercial stage. The drivers for the commercialization of BLG enabling bio-refinery operations at modern pulp mills, co-producing pulp and value added energy products, are discussed. In addition, the potential areas of research and development in BLG required to solve the critical issues and to fill research knowledge gaps are addressed and highlighted.

  2. Determination of oxalate in black liquor by headspace gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Hailong; Chai, Xin-Sheng; DeMartini, Nikolai; Zhan, Huaiyu; Fu, Shiyu

    2008-05-30

    This study demonstrated a headspace gas chromatographic method (HS-GC) for the determination of oxalate content in black liquor (alkaline aqueous solution of inorganic chemicals and dissolved wood species from the alkaline pulping of wood). The method described in this paper is based on the reaction between oxalic and manganese dioxide in an acidic medium, in which oxalic acid is converted to carbon dioxide that is measured with a GC using a thermal conductivity detector. The challenge in developing this method was ensuring complete conversion of oxalic acid while minimizing the contribution of side reactions between carbohydrates, lignin and manganese dioxide to the carbon dioxide measured. It was found that a complete conversion of oxalate to carbon dioxide can be achieved within 3 min at a temperature of 70 degrees C; a MnO(2):C(oxalate) (concentration of H(2)C(2)O(4)+HC(2)O(4)(-)+C(2)O(4)(2-)) mole ratio of 60 and H(2)SO(4) concentration of 0.005-0.01 mol/L in the headspace vial. The method can detect concentrations as low as 0.39 microg of oxalate. The standard deviation was found to be 7% while recovery experiments with black liquor showed recoveries of 93-108% which were deemed acceptable for analysis of oxalate in an industrial sample such as black liquor.

  3. Alberta's and Ontario's liquor boards: why such divergent outcomes?

    PubMed

    Bird, Malcolm G

    2010-01-01

    The provinces of Alberta and Ontario have chosen very different methods to distribute alcoholic beverages: Alberta privatized the Alberta Liquor Control Board (ALCB) in 1993 and established a private market to sell beverage alcohol, while Ontario, in stark contrast, opted to retain and expand the Liquor Control Board of Ontario (LCBO). This article examines the reasons for the divergent policy choices made by Ralph Klein and Mike Harris' Conservative governments in each province. The article draws on John Kingdon's “multiple streams decision-making model,” to examine the mindsets of the key decision-makers, as well as “historical institutionalism,” to organize the pertinent structural, historical and institutional variables that shaped the milieu in which decision-makers acted. Unique, province-specific political cultures, histories, institutional configurations (including the relative influence of a number of powerful actors), as well as the fact that the two liquor control boards were on opposing trajectories towards their ultimate fates, help to explain the different decisions made by each government. Endogenous preference construction in this sector, furthermore, implies that each system is able to satisfy all relevant stakeholders, including consumers.

  4. Solid fuel production by hydrothermal carbonization of black liquor.

    PubMed

    Kang, Shimin; Li, Xianglan; Fan, Juan; Chang, Jie

    2012-04-01

    Formaldehyde was used as a polymerization agent to perform hydrothermal carbonization of black liquor for solid fuel production from 220 to 285°C. Compared to hydrochar prepared without formaldehyde, hydrochar produced in the presence of a 2.8wt.% formaldehyde solution (hydrochar-F) had 1.27-2.13 times higher yield, 1.02-1.36 times higher heating value (HHV), 1.20-2.31 times higher C recovery efficiency, 1.20-2.44 times higher total energy recovery efficiency, 0.51-0.64 times lower sulfur content, and 0.48-0.89 times lower ash content. The HHV of hydrochar-Fs ranged from 2.2×10(4) to 3.0×10(4)kJ/kg, while the HHV of hydrochar-F produced at 285°C was 1.90 times greater than that of the raw material (black liquor solid). These considerable improvements indicated that formaldehyde was an effective additive in hydrothermal carbonization of black liquor.

  5. Fermentation to ethanol of pentose-containing spent sulfite liquor

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.; Wayman, M.; Parekh, S.K.

    1987-01-01

    Ethanolic fermentation of spent sulfite liquor with ordinary bakers' yeast is incomplete because of this yeast cannot ferment the pentose sugars in the liquor. This results in poor alcohol yields, and a residual effluent problem. By using the yeast Candida shehatae (R) for fermentation of the spent sulfite liquor from a large Canadian alcohol-producing sulfite pulp and paper mill, pentoses as well as hexoses were fermented nearly completely, alcohol yields were raised by 33%, and sugar removal increased by 46%. Inhibitors were removed prior to fermentation by steam stripping. Major benefits were obtained by careful recycling of this yeast, which was shown to be tolerant both of high sugar concentrations and high alcohol concentrations. When sugar concentrations over 250 g/L (glucose:xylose 70:30) were fermented, ethanol became an inhibitor when its concentration reached over 90 g/L. However, when the ethanol was removed by low-temperature vacuum distillation, fermentation continued and resulted in a yield of 0.50 g ethanol/g sugar consumed. Further improvement was achieved by combining enzyme saccharification of sugar oligomers with fermentation. This yeast is able to ferment both hexoses and pentoses simultaneously, efficiently, and rapidly.

  6. Fermentation to ethanol of pentose-containing spent sulphite liquor

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.; Wayman, M.; Parekh, S.K.

    1987-06-01

    Ethanolic fermentation of spent sulphite liquor with ordinary bakers' yeast is incomplete because this yeast cannot ferment the pentose sugars in the liquor. This results in poor alcohol yields, and a residual effluent problem. By using the yeast Candida shehatae (R) for fermentation of the spent sulphite liquor from a large Canadian alcohol-producing sulphite pulp and paper mill, pentoses as well as hexoses were fermented nearly completely, alcohol yields were raised by 33%, and sugar removal increased by 46%. Inhibitors were removed prior to fermentation by steam stripping. Major benefits were obtained by careful recycling of this yeast, which was shown to be tolerant both of high sugar concentrations and high alcohol concentrations. When sugar concentrations over 250 g/L (glucose:xylose 70:30) were fermented, ethanol became an inhibitor when its concentration reached 90 g/L. However, when the ethanol was removed by low-temperature vacuum distillation, fermentation continued and resulted in a yield of 0.50 g ethanol/g sugar consumed. Further improvement was achieved by combining enzyme saccharification of sugar oligomers with fermentation. This yeast is able to ferment both hexoses and pentoses simultaneously, efficiently, and rapidly. Present indications are that it is well suited to industrial operations wherever hexoses and pentoses are both to be fermented to ethanol, for example, in wood hydrolysates. (Refs. 6).

  7. Direct Comparison of the Histidine-rich Protein-2 Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (HRP-2 ELISA) and Malaria SYBR Green I Fluorescence (MSF) Drug Sensitivity Tests in Plasmodium falciparum Reference Clones and Fresh ex vivo Field Isolates from Cambodia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-12

    assay (HRP-2 ELISA) and malaria SYBR Green I fluorescence (MSF) drug sensitivity tests were directly compared using Plasmodium falciparum reference...Southeast Asia. Keywords: Immediate ex vivo Plasmodium falciparum drug susceptibility testing, HRP-2 ELISA, Malaria SYBR green fluorescence assay, Cambodia... malaria drug susceptibility assay using a reference clone to improve comparisons of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates. Malar J 2012, 11:325. 22. Le

  8. Direct synthesis of graphitic mesoporous carbon from green phenolic resins exposed to subsequent UV and IR laser irradiations

    PubMed Central

    Sopronyi, Mihai; Sima, Felix; Vaulot, Cyril; Delmotte, Luc; Bahouka, Armel; Matei Ghimbeu, Camelia

    2016-01-01

    The design of mesoporous carbon materials with controlled textural and structural features by rapid, cost-effective and eco-friendly means is highly demanded for many fields of applications. We report herein on the fast and tailored synthesis of mesoporous carbon by UV and IR laser assisted irradiations of a solution consisting of green phenolic resins and surfactant agent. By tailoring the UV laser parameters such as energy, pulse repetition rate or exposure time carbon materials with different pore size, architecture and wall thickness were obtained. By increasing irradiation dose, the mesopore size diminishes in the favor of wall thickness while the morphology shifts from worm-like to an ordered hexagonal one. This was related to the intensification of phenolic resin cross-linking which induces the reduction of H-bonding with the template as highlighted by 13C and 1H NMR. In addition, mesoporous carbon with graphitic structure was obtained by IR laser irradiation at room temperature and in very short time periods compared to the classical long thermal treatment at very high temperatures. Therefore, the carbon texture and structure can be tuned only by playing with laser parameters, without extra chemicals, as usually required. PMID:28000781

  9. Direct synthesis of graphitic mesoporous carbon from green phenolic resins exposed to subsequent UV and IR laser irradiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sopronyi, Mihai; Sima, Felix; Vaulot, Cyril; Delmotte, Luc; Bahouka, Armel; Matei Ghimbeu, Camelia

    2016-12-01

    The design of mesoporous carbon materials with controlled textural and structural features by rapid, cost-effective and eco-friendly means is highly demanded for many fields of applications. We report herein on the fast and tailored synthesis of mesoporous carbon by UV and IR laser assisted irradiations of a solution consisting of green phenolic resins and surfactant agent. By tailoring the UV laser parameters such as energy, pulse repetition rate or exposure time carbon materials with different pore size, architecture and wall thickness were obtained. By increasing irradiation dose, the mesopore size diminishes in the favor of wall thickness while the morphology shifts from worm-like to an ordered hexagonal one. This was related to the intensification of phenolic resin cross-linking which induces the reduction of H-bonding with the template as highlighted by 13C and 1H NMR. In addition, mesoporous carbon with graphitic structure was obtained by IR laser irradiation at room temperature and in very short time periods compared to the classical long thermal treatment at very high temperatures. Therefore, the carbon texture and structure can be tuned only by playing with laser parameters, without extra chemicals, as usually required.

  10. Direct synthesis of graphitic mesoporous carbon from green phenolic resins exposed to subsequent UV and IR laser irradiations.

    PubMed

    Sopronyi, Mihai; Sima, Felix; Vaulot, Cyril; Delmotte, Luc; Bahouka, Armel; Matei Ghimbeu, Camelia

    2016-12-21

    The design of mesoporous carbon materials with controlled textural and structural features by rapid, cost-effective and eco-friendly means is highly demanded for many fields of applications. We report herein on the fast and tailored synthesis of mesoporous carbon by UV and IR laser assisted irradiations of a solution consisting of green phenolic resins and surfactant agent. By tailoring the UV laser parameters such as energy, pulse repetition rate or exposure time carbon materials with different pore size, architecture and wall thickness were obtained. By increasing irradiation dose, the mesopore size diminishes in the favor of wall thickness while the morphology shifts from worm-like to an ordered hexagonal one. This was related to the intensification of phenolic resin cross-linking which induces the reduction of H-bonding with the template as highlighted by (13)C and (1)H NMR. In addition, mesoporous carbon with graphitic structure was obtained by IR laser irradiation at room temperature and in very short time periods compared to the classical long thermal treatment at very high temperatures. Therefore, the carbon texture and structure can be tuned only by playing with laser parameters, without extra chemicals, as usually required.

  11. Re–Os geochronology of the lacustrine Green River Formation: Insights into direct depositional dating of lacustrine successions, Re–Os systematics and paleocontinental weathering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cumming, Vivien M.; Selby, David; Lillis, Paul G.

    2012-01-01

    Lacustrine sedimentary successions provide exceptionally high-resolution records of continental geological processes, responding to tectonic, climatic and magmatic influences. These successions are therefore essential for correlating geological and climatic phenomena across continents and furthermore the globe. Producing accurate geochronological frameworks within lacustrine strata is challenging because the stratigraphy is often bereft of biostratigraphy and directly dateable tuff horizons. The rhenium–osmium (Re–Os) geochronometer is a well-established tool for determining precise and accurate depositional ages of marine organic-rich rocks. Lake systems with stratified water columns are predisposed to the preservation of organic-rich rocks and thus should permit direct Re–Os geochronology of lacustrine strata. We present Re–Os systematics from one of the world's best documented lacustrine systems, the Eocene Green River Formation, providing accurate Re–Os depositional dates that are supported by Ar–Ar and U–Pb ages of intercalated tuff horizons. Precision of the Green River Formation Re–Os dates is controlled by the variation in initial 187Os/188Os and the range of 187Re/188Os ratios, as also documented in marine systems. Controls on uptake and fractionation of Re and Os are considered to relate mainly to depositional setting and the type of organic matter deposited, with the need to further understand the chelating precursors of Re and Os in organic matter highlighted. In addition to geochronology, the Re–Os data records the 187Os/188Os composition of lake water (1.41–1.54) at the time of deposition, giving an insight into continental runoff derived from weathering of the geological hinterland of the Green River Formation. Such insights enable us to evaluate fluctuations in continental climatic, tectonic and magmatic processes and provide the ability for chemostratigraphic correlation combined with direct depositional dates. Furthermore

  12. Green fluorescent protein-based direct viable count to verify a viable but non-culturable state of Salmonella typhi in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Cho, J C; Kim, S J

    1999-06-01

    The gfp-tagging method and lux-tagging method were compared to select a better method for verifying a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state of bacteria in the environment. An environmental isolate of Salmonella typhi was chromosomally marked with a gfp gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP). The hybrid transposon mini-Tn5 gfp was transconjugated from E. coli to S. typhi. Using the same method, S. typhi was chromosomally marked with luxAB genes encoding luciferase. The survival of gfp-tagged S. typhi introduced into groundwater microcosms was examined by GFP-based plate count, total cell count, and a direct viable count method. In microcosms containing lux-tagged S. typhi, luminescence-based plate count and the measurement of bioluminescence of each microcosm sample were performed. In microcosms containing lux-tagged S. typhi, viable but nonculturable cells could not be detected by using luminometry. As no distinguishable luminescence signals from the background signals were found in samples containing no culturable cells, a VBNC state of S. typhi could not be verified in lux-based systems. However, comparison between GFP-based direct viable counts and plate counts was a good method for verifying the VBNC state of S. typhi. Because GFP-based direct viable count method provided a direct and precise estimation of viable cells of introduced bacteria into natural environments, it can be used for verifying the VBNC state of bacteria in environmental samples.

  13. Multistep mass spectrometry methodology for direct characterization of polar lipids in green microalgae using paper spray ionization.

    PubMed

    Oradu, Sheran A; Cooks, R Graham

    2012-12-18

    Paper spray ionization, an ambient ionization method, has been applied for the identification of polar lipids in green microalgae with no sample preparation. A multistep experimental protocol was employed to characterize the lipid species of two microalgae strains, Kyo-Chlorella in tablet form and Nannochloropsis in paste form by mass spectrometry (MS). Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) experiments using collision induced dissociation (CID) were employed for initial characterization of the detected lipid species, which were dominated by polar glycolipids and phospholipids. Product ion scan experiments were performed to determine the lipid head groups and fatty acid composition. Precursor ion scan experiments using fragment ions such as m/z 184, which is characteristic of the phosphocholine headgroup, were then used to confirm the lipid classification. Lipid elemental compositions were determined by exact mass measurements using high resolution mass spectrometry. Finally, the position of unsaturation was determined using reactive paper spray ionization experiments with ozone used as a reagent to cleave double bonds. Ozone was produced in situ using dielectric barrier discharge from a low temperature plasma, and it reacted in ambient air with the spray of ions produced by paper spray ionization. Using the precursor ion scan experiment, the resulting ozone cleavage product ions were used to determine the position of unsaturation for some of these species. By applying this experimental protocol, the molecular formulas and key aspects of the structures of glycerophosphocholines (PCs) such as 9Z-16:1/9Z,12Z-16:2 PC and 6Z,9Z-18:2/6Z,9Z,12Z-18:3PC and monogalactosyldiacylglycerols (MGDGs) such as 18:3/16:3MGDG were identified in the positive ion mode, while glycerophosphoglycerols (PGs) such as 18:3/16:0 PG and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols (SQDGs) such as 18:3/16:0 SQDG were identified in the negative ion mode.

  14. Direct analysis of six antibiotics in wastewater samples using rapid high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector: a chemometric study towards green analytical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Vosough, Maryam; Rashvand, Masoumeh; Esfahani, Hadi M; Kargosha, Kazem; Salemi, Amir

    2015-04-01

    In this work, a rapid HPLC-DAD method has been developed for the analysis of six antibiotics (amoxicillin, metronidazole, sulfamethoxazole, ofloxacine, sulfadiazine and sulfamerazine) in the sewage treatment plant influent and effluent samples. Decreasing the chromatographic run time to less than 4 min as well as lowering the cost per analysis, were achieved through direct injection of the samples into the HPLC system followed by chemometric analysis. The problem of the complete separation of the analytes from each other and/or from the matrix ingredients was resolved as a posteriori. The performance of MCR/ALS and U-PLS/RBL, as second-order algorithms, was studied and comparable results were obtained from implication of these modeling methods. It was demonstrated that the proposed methods could be used promisingly as green analytical strategies for detection and quantification of the targeted pollutants in wastewater samples while avoiding the more complicated high cost instrumentations.

  15. Detection of caffeine in tea, instant coffee, green tea beverage, and soft drink by direct analysis in real time (DART) source coupled to single-quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhao, Pengyue; Zhang, Fengzu; Bai, Aijuan; Pan, Canping

    2013-01-01

    Ambient ionization direct analysis in real time (DART) coupled to single-quadrupole MS (DART-MS) was evaluated for rapid detection of caffeine in commercial samples without chromatographic separation or sample preparation. Four commercial samples were examined: tea, instant coffee, green tea beverage, and soft drink. The response-related parameters were optimized for the DART temperature and MS fragmentor. Under optimal conditions, the molecular ion (M+H)+ was the major ion for identification of caffeine. The results showed that DART-MS is a promising tool for the quick analysis of important marker molecules in commercial samples. Furthermore, this system has demonstrated significant potential for high sample throughput and real-time analysis.

  16. Eco-friendly synthesis for MCM-41 nanoporous materials using the non-reacted reagents in mother liquor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Nanoporous materials such as Mobil composite material number 41 (MCM-41) are attractive for applications such as catalysis, adsorption, supports, and carriers. Green synthesis of MCM-41 is particularly appealing because the chemical reagents are useful and valuable. We report on the eco-friendly synthesis of MCM-41 nanoporous materials via multi-cycle approach by re-using the non-reacted reagents in supernatant as mother liquor after separating the solid product. This approach was achieved via minimal requirement of chemical compensation where additional fresh reactants were added into the mother liquor followed by pH adjustment after each cycle of synthesis. The solid product of each successive batch was collected and characterized while the non-reacted reagents in supernatant can be recovered and re-used to produce subsequent cycle of MCM-41. The multi-cycle synthesis is demonstrated up to three times in this research. This approach suggests a low cost and eco-friendly synthesis of nanoporous material since less waste is discarded after the product has been collected, and in addition, product yield can be maintained at the high level. PMID:23497184

  17. Eco-friendly synthesis for MCM-41 nanoporous materials using the non-reacted reagents in mother liquor.

    PubMed

    Ng, Eng-Poh; Goh, Jia-Yi; Ling, Tau Chuan; Mukti, Rino R

    2013-03-04

    Nanoporous materials such as Mobil composite material number 41 (MCM-41) are attractive for applications such as catalysis, adsorption, supports, and carriers. Green synthesis of MCM-41 is particularly appealing because the chemical reagents are useful and valuable. We report on the eco-friendly synthesis of MCM-41 nanoporous materials via multi-cycle approach by re-using the non-reacted reagents in supernatant as mother liquor after separating the solid product. This approach was achieved via minimal requirement of chemical compensation where additional fresh reactants were added into the mother liquor followed by pH adjustment after each cycle of synthesis. The solid product of each successive batch was collected and characterized while the non-reacted reagents in supernatant can be recovered and re-used to produce subsequent cycle of MCM-41. The multi-cycle synthesis is demonstrated up to three times in this research. This approach suggests a low cost and eco-friendly synthesis of nanoporous material since less waste is discarded after the product has been collected, and in addition, product yield can be maintained at the high level.

  18. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.; Stoy, M.O.; Schmidl, G.W.; Dong, D.J.; Speck, B.

    1998-04-01

    A wide variety of experimental techniques have been used in this work, and many of these have been developed completely or improved significantly in the course of the research done during this program. Therefore, it is appropriate to describe these techniques in detail as a reference for future workers so that the techniques can be used in future work with little additional effort or so that the results reported from this program can be compared better with future results from other work. In many cases, the techniques described are for specific analytical instruments. It is recognized that these may be superseded by future developments and improvements in instrumentation if a complete description of techniques used successfully in the past on other instrumentation is available. The total pulping and liquor preparation research work performed included chip and white liquor preparation, digestion, pulp washing, liquor and wash recovery, liquor sampling, weak liquor concentration in two steps to about 45--50% solids with an intermediate soap skimming at about 140F and 27--30% solids, determination of pulp yield and Kappa number, determination of total liquor solids, and a check on the total material balance for pulping. All other research was performed either on a sample of the weak black liquor (the combined black liquor and washes from the digester) or on the skimmed liquor that had been concentrated.

  19. Yeast community associated with the solid state fermentation of traditional Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qun; Chen, Liangqiang; Xu, Yan

    2013-09-02

    Yeasts are the most important group of microorganisms contributing to liquor quality in the solid-state fermentation process of Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor. There occurred a complex yeast community structure during this process, including stages of Daqu (the starter) making, stacking fermentation on the ground and liquor fermentation in the pits. In the Daqu making stage, few yeast strains accumulated. However, the stacking fermentation stage accumulated nine yeast species with different physio-biochemical characteristics. But only four species kept dominant until liquor fermentation, which were Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranifaciens, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, implying their important functions in liquor making. The four species tended to inhabit in different locations of the stack and pits during stacking and liquor fermentation, due to the condition heterogeneity of the solid-state fermentation, including the different fermentation temperature profiles and oxygen density in different locations. Moreover, yeast population was much larger in the upper layer than that in the middle and bottom layers in liquor fermentation, which was in accordance with the profile of reducing sugar consumption and ethanol production. This was a systematical investigation of yeast community structure dynamics in the Maotai-flavor liquor fermentation process. It would be of help to understand the fermentative mechanism in solid-state fermentation for Maotai-flavor liquor.

  20. Malt liquor marketing in inner cities: the role of neighborhood racial composition.

    PubMed

    McKee, Pat; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Hannan, Peter; Pham, Lan

    2011-01-01

    In response to anecdotal reports that African American neighborhoods are targeted for high-alcohol malt liquor advertising, the authors observed alcohol ads on off-premise alcohol outlets, billboards, and transit structures in 10 U.S. cities over 3 years. Malt liquor ads were prevalent on storefronts, but rare on billboards. Using Poisson regression, the authors found that storefront malt liquor ads were more common in neighborhoods with higher percentages of African Americans, even after controlling for social and physical disorder. Results suggest that policymakers attempting to reduce malt liquor-related harms may do well to consider regulations that limit storefront advertising exposure.

  1. Layered double hydroxide formation in Bayer liquor and its promotional effect on oxalate precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Perrotta, A.J.; Williams, F.

    1996-10-01

    Enhancing the precipitation of sodium oxalate from Bayer process liquor to improve the quality of alumina product remains an important objective for Bayer refining. The formation of layered double hydroxides by the reaction of alkaline earth oxides, such as lime and magnesia, with Bayer liquor gives a crystal structure which is capable of intercalating anions, both inorganic and organic, within its structure. Both lime and magnesia, with long contact times in Bayer liquor, show layered double hydroxide formation. This layered double hydroxide formation is accompanied with a decrease in the sodium oxalate content in the liquor from about 3 g/L to below 1 g/L. Short contact times lead to a destabilization of the liquor which facilitates sodium oxalate precipitation. Additional work on magnesium hydroxide shows, in comparison to lime and magnesia, much less layered double hydroxide formation with equivalent residence time in the liquor. Destabilization of the liquor also occurs, giving enhanced oxalate precipitation with less alumina being consumed in agreement with lower layered double hydroxide formation. Thermal regeneration of these structures, followed by in-situ recrystallization in Bayer liquor, also gives enhanced oxalate precipitation, suggesting that there is an opportunity for a regenerable oxalate reduction system. The implementation of these experiments and other related technology into the plant has resulted in the Purox Process for enhancing the precipitation of sodium oxalate from Bayer liquor.

  2. Process for the recovery of heat and chemicals from spent liquor

    SciTech Connect

    Petaenen, P.

    1993-07-27

    A process is described for the recovery of heat and chemicals from spent liquors consisting essentially of the steps of: (a) evaporating water from the liquor in a concentrator vessel to increase the solids concentration by heating under pressure greater than atmospheric to a temperature above the atmospheric boiling point of the liquor; (b) feeding the liquor from the concentrator vessel to an expansion vessel where the pressure and temperature are lowered but still maintained above the atmospheric pressure and above the atmospheric boiling point of the liquor to further increase the solids concentration of the liquor; (c) feeding the liquor from the expansion vessel to a second expansion vessel and mixing the liquor therein with ashes fed into said second expansion vessel under pressure and further expansion evaporating the mixture while still maintaining the mixture above atmospheric pressure and above the atmospheric boiling point of the liquor; and (d) feeding the mixture into a soda-ash furnace while maintaining the raised pressure and temperature in the second expansion vessel.

  3. Classification and analysis of corn steep liquor by UPLC/Q-TOF MS and HPLC.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xue; Hou, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yang; Liu, Yanjie; Zhao, Hongzhi; Dong, Linyi; Du, Jun; Wang, Yiming; Bai, Gang; Luo, Guoan

    2013-03-30

    Corn steep liquor (CSL), an important raw material with high nutritional value, serves as a nitrogen source in the fermentation industry. The CSL quality directly affects the yield and quality of fermentation products. In this work, a fingerprinting technique was used to identify the potential markers of CSL. Forty-two CSL samples from different manufacturers were profiled by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Sixteen compounds, almost all of which were amino acids and their derivatives, were considered as the potential markers. Then, o-phthalaldehyde-9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate precolumn derivatization by high-performance liquid chromatography was performed to identify the free amino acids in CSL. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to distinguish among the samples from different manufacturers. The results demonstrated that the fingerprinting technique combined with PCA analysis was a powerful tool for determining the CSL quality.

  4. Fast high-pressure freezing of protein crystals in their mother liquor

    PubMed Central

    Burkhardt, Anja; Warmer, Martin; Panneerselvam, Saravanan; Wagner, Armin; Zouni, Athina; Glöckner, Carina; Reimer, Rudolph; Hohenberg, Heinrich; Meents, Alke

    2012-01-01

    High-pressure freezing (HPF) is a method which allows sample vitrification without cryoprotectants. In the present work, protein crystals were cooled to cryogenic temperatures at a pressure of 210 MPa. In contrast to other HPF methods published to date in the field of cryocrystallography, this protocol involves rapid sample cooling using a standard HPF device. The fast cooling rates allow HPF of protein crystals directly in their mother liquor without the need for cryoprotectants or external reagents. HPF was first attempted with hen egg-white lysozyme and cubic insulin crystals, yielding good to excellent diffraction quality. Non-cryoprotected crystals of the membrane protein photosystem II have been successfully cryocooled for the first time. This indicates that the presented HPF method is well suited to the vitrification of challenging systems with large unit cells and weak crystal contacts. PMID:22505429

  5. Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  6. Direct and Indirect Horizontal Transmission of the Antifungal Probiotic Bacterium Janthinobacterium lividum on Green Frog (Lithobates clamitans) Tadpoles

    PubMed Central

    Simonetti, Stephen J.; Shoemaker, William R.; Harris, Reid N.

    2016-01-01

    Amphibian populations worldwide are being threatened by the disease chytridiomycosis, which is caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. To mitigate the effects of B. dendrobatidis, bioaugmentation of antifungal bacteria has been shown to be a promising strategy. One way to implement bioaugmentation is through indirect horizontal transmission, defined as the transfer of bacteria from a host to the environment and to another host. In addition, direct horizontal transmission among individuals can facilitate the spread of a probiotic in a population. In this study, we tested whether the antifungal bacterium Janthinobacterium lividum could be horizontally transferred, directly or indirectly, in a laboratory experiment using Lithobates clamitans tadpoles. We evaluated the ability of J. lividum to colonize the tadpoles' skin and to persist through time using culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. We also tested whether the addition of J. lividum affected the skin community in L. clamitans tadpoles. We found that transmission occurred rapidly by direct and indirect horizontal transmission, but indirect transmission that included a potential substrate was more effective. Even though J. lividum colonized the skin, its relative abundance on the tadpole skin decreased over time. The inoculation of J. lividum did not significantly alter the skin bacterial diversity of L. clamitans tadpoles, which was dominated by Pseudomonas. Our results show that indirect horizontal transmission can be an effective bioaugmentation method. Future research is needed to determine the best conditions, including the presence of substrates, under which a probiotic can persist on the skin so that bioaugmentation becomes a successful strategy to mitigate chytridiomycosis. PMID:26873311

  7. Generation of PHB from Spent Sulfite Liquor Using Halophilic Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Weissgram, Michaela; Gstöttner, Janina; Lorantfy, Bettina; Tenhaken, Raimund; Herwig, Christoph; Weber, Hedda K

    2015-06-08

    Halophilic microorganisms thrive at elevated concentrations of sodium chloride up to saturation and are capable of growing on a wide variety of carbon sources like various organic acids, hexose and also pentose sugars. Hence, the biotechnological application of these microorganisms can cover many aspects, such as the treatment of hypersaline waste streams of different origin. Due to the fact that the high osmotic pressure of hypersaline environments reduces the risk of contamination, the capacity for cost-effective non-sterile cultivation can make extreme halophilic microorganisms potentially valuable organisms for biotechnological applications. In this contribution, the stepwise use of screening approaches, employing design of experiment (DoE) on model media and subsequently using industrial waste as substrate have been implemented to investigate the applicability of halophiles to generate PHB from the industrial waste stream spent sulfite liquor (SSL). The production of PHB on model media as well as dilutions of industrial substrate in a complex medium has been screened for by fluorescence microscopy using Nile Blue staining. Screening was used to investigate the ability of halophilic microorganisms to withstand the inhibiting substances of the waste stream without negatively affecting PHB production. It could be shown that neither single inhibiting substances nor a mixture thereof inhibited growth in the investigated range, hence, leaving the question on the inhibiting mechanisms open. However, it could be demonstrated that some haloarchaea and halophilic bacteria are able to produce PHB when cultivated on 3.3% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor, whereas H. halophila was even able to thrive on 6.6% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor and still produce PHB.

  8. Clarification of Orange Press Liquors by PVDF Hollow Fiber Membranes.

    PubMed

    Simone, Silvia; Conidi, Carmela; Ursino, Claudia; Cassano, Alfredo; Figoli, Alberto

    2016-01-20

    Press liquors are typical by-products of the citrus juice processing characterized by a high content of organic compounds and associated problems of environmental impact, which imply high treatment costs. However, these wastes contain a great number of health promoting substances, including fibers, carotenoids and phenolic compounds (mainly flavonoids), whose recovery against waste-destruction technologies is very attractive for new business opportunities. In this work, the clarification of orange press liquor by using microfiltration (MF) membranes is studied as a preliminary step to obtain a permeate stream enriched in antioxidant compounds which can be further processed to produce extracts of nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical interest. MF poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fibers were prepared by the dry/wet spinning technique. A series of fibers was produced from the same polymeric dope, in order to investigate the effect of selected spinning parameters, i.e., bore fluid composition and flowrate, on their properties. The morphology of the produced fibers was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Fibers were further characterized for their mechanical properties, porosity, bubble point, pore size distribution and pure water permeability (PWP). Some of the produced fibers exhibited high permeability (pure water permeability ~530 L/m²·h·bar), coupled to good mechanical resistance and pore size in the range of MF membranes. These fibers were selected and used for the clarification of press liquor from orange peel processing. In optimized operating conditions, the selected fibers produced steady-state fluxes of about 41 L/m²·h with rejections towards polyphenols and total antioxidant activity of 4.1% and 1.4%, respectively.

  9. Clarification of Orange Press Liquors by PVDF Hollow Fiber Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Simone, Silvia; Conidi, Carmela; Ursino, Claudia; Cassano, Alfredo; Figoli, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Press liquors are typical by-products of the citrus juice processing characterized by a high content of organic compounds and associated problems of environmental impact, which imply high treatment costs. However, these wastes contain a great number of health promoting substances, including fibers, carotenoids and phenolic compounds (mainly flavonoids), whose recovery against waste-destruction technologies is very attractive for new business opportunities. In this work, the clarification of orange press liquor by using microfiltration (MF) membranes is studied as a preliminary step to obtain a permeate stream enriched in antioxidant compounds which can be further processed to produce extracts of nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical interest. MF poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fibers were prepared by the dry/wet spinning technique. A series of fibers was produced from the same polymeric dope, in order to investigate the effect of selected spinning parameters, i.e., bore fluid composition and flowrate, on their properties. The morphology of the produced fibers was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Fibers were further characterized for their mechanical properties, porosity, bubble point, pore size distribution and pure water permeability (PWP). Some of the produced fibers exhibited high permeability (pure water permeability ~530 L/m2·h·bar), coupled to good mechanical resistance and pore size in the range of MF membranes. These fibers were selected and used for the clarification of press liquor from orange peel processing. In optimized operating conditions, the selected fibers produced steady-state fluxes of about 41 L/m2·h with rejections towards polyphenols and total antioxidant activity of 4.1% and 1.4%, respectively. PMID:26805899

  10. Geographic association of liquor licenses and gunshot wounds in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Crandall, Marie; Kucybala, Karolina; Behrens, Jess; Schwulst, Steven; Esposito, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    The association between alcohol and interpersonal violence is well established. Up to 80% of homicide perpetrators and victims are known to have used alcohol before the incident. However, the association between proximity to a liquor-selling establishment and gun violence is more controversial. Scene address data from the Illinois State Trauma Registry from 1999 to 2009 were used to geocode all gunshot wounds (GSWs) presenting to trauma centers in Chicago during the study period. These data were linked to publicly available US Census Demographic Data and City of Chicago Liquor Board data. A combination of ordinary least squares and geographically weighted regression was performed to identify "risk regions" throughout the study area. Logistic regression analysis was then performed to assess the independent effect of proximity to an establishment with a liquor license (LL) on trauma center admissions for GSWs. A total of 11,744 GSWs were geocoded. No association between LLs and GSWs was identified for the city overall (odds ratio [OR] .97, 95% confidence interval [CI] .96 to .99). However, 5 distinct regions of influence between LLs and GSWs were found. In regions with the highest association, likelihood of a GSW near a packaged LL was extraordinarily high (OR 518.08, 95% CI 10.23 to 1,000), and tavern LLs were also very significant (OR 21.51, 95% CI 1.81 to 255.53). We found that proximity to an establishment with an LL was a strong independent predictor of GSW incidence for many areas of the city, even after controlling for neighborhood characteristics. However, this association was not demonstrable for the entire city, and, in fact, marked regional variation was apparent. These data may contribute to our understanding of the interplay between alcohol and violent injury disparities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Generation of PHB from Spent Sulfite Liquor Using Halophilic Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Weissgram, Michaela; Gstöttner, Janina; Lorantfy, Bettina; Tenhaken, Raimund; Herwig, Christoph; Weber, Hedda K.

    2015-01-01

    Halophilic microorganisms thrive at elevated concentrations of sodium chloride up to saturation and are capable of growing on a wide variety of carbon sources like various organic acids, hexose and also pentose sugars. Hence, the biotechnological application of these microorganisms can cover many aspects, such as the treatment of hypersaline waste streams of different origin. Due to the fact that the high osmotic pressure of hypersaline environments reduces the risk of contamination, the capacity for cost-effective non-sterile cultivation can make extreme halophilic microorganisms potentially valuable organisms for biotechnological applications. In this contribution, the stepwise use of screening approaches, employing design of experiment (DoE) on model media and subsequently using industrial waste as substrate have been implemented to investigate the applicability of halophiles to generate PHB from the industrial waste stream spent sulfite liquor (SSL). The production of PHB on model media as well as dilutions of industrial substrate in a complex medium has been screened for by fluorescence microscopy using Nile Blue staining. Screening was used to investigate the ability of halophilic microorganisms to withstand the inhibiting substances of the waste stream without negatively affecting PHB production. It could be shown that neither single inhibiting substances nor a mixture thereof inhibited growth in the investigated range, hence, leaving the question on the inhibiting mechanisms open. However, it could be demonstrated that some haloarchaea and halophilic bacteria are able to produce PHB when cultivated on 3.3% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor, whereas H. halophila was even able to thrive on 6.6% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor and still produce PHB. PMID:27682089

  12. Ultrafiltration of Kraft Black Liquor: Phase II, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, M.K.

    1987-09-01

    The major justification for examining ultrafiltration was to lower the viscosity of the Kraft Black Liquor by recovering it as an ultrafiltration permeate from which the highest MW lignin had been removed. The liquor could then be concentrated to a higher percentage solids before firing into the recovery boiler. Consequent energy savings for the 1000 ton/day pulp mill would be 2.05 x 10 Btu/y for each percentage increase in TDS (total dissolved solids) to the recovery boiler. This Phase II report gives data on viscosity with percentage solids of KBL permeates. Another favorable effect of ultrafiltration on the permeate properties is disproportionate removal of multivalent ions including the major scaling ion CaS . If this high-viscosity high-Ca retentate could be treated to lower its viscosity and to release the Ca in a non-scaling form, this would enhance the possibility that ultrafiltration might be useful in a mill situation. Included in this report are data on the results of treating the retentate fraction. Other justifications for this program included further information in KBL properties: lignin MW in the KBL at high pH; elemental and sugar analyses; and differential properties of lignins in the retentate and the permeate fractions. A preliminary economic analysis of ultrafiltration is contained in this report. These analyses indicate that with flux rates now attainable, ultrafiltration would not be economically justified at this time if the only justification is to lower KBL viscosity. For certain situations where high Ca liquors present a scaling problem, especially in an evaporator-limited mill, the economics are more favorable. There are also unsolved problems relating to the use of the high viscosity retentate.

  13. DEMONSTRATION OF BLACK LIQUOR GASIFICATION AT BIG ISLAND

    SciTech Connect

    Robert DeCarrera

    2003-10-20

    This Technical Progress Report provides an account of the status of the project for the demonstration of Black Liquor Gasification at Georgia-Pacific Corporation's Big Island, VA facility. The report also includes budget information and a milestone schedule. The project to be conducted by G-P is a comprehensive, complete commercial-scale demonstration that is divided into two phases. Phase I is the validation of the project scope and cost estimate. Phase II is project execution, data acquisition and reporting, and consists of procurement of major equipment, construction and start-up of the new system. Phase II also includes operation of the system for a period of time to demonstrate the safe operation and full integration of the energy and chemical recovery systems in a commercial environment. The objective of Phase I is to validate the process design and to engineer viable solutions to any technology gaps. This phase includes engineering and planning for the integration of the full-scale MTCI/StoneChem PulseEnhanced{trademark} black liquor steam-reformer chemical recovery system into G-P's operating pulp and paper mill at Big Island, Virginia. During this phase, the scope and cost estimate will be finalized to confirm the cost of the project and its integration into the existing system at the mill. The objective of Phase II of the project is the successful and safe completion of the engineering, construction and functional operation of the fully integrated full-scale steam reformer process system. This phase includes installation of all associated support systems and equipment required for the enhanced recovery of both energy and chemicals from all of the black liquor generated from the pulping process at the Big Island Mill. The objective also includes operation of the steam reformer system to demonstrate the ability of the system to operate reliably and achieve designed levels of energy and chemical recovery while maintaining environmental emissions at or below

  14. Ultrafiltration of Kraft Black Liquor. Final report, Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, M.K.

    1985-10-01

    Kraft Black Liquor (KBL) is ultrafiltered to favorably affect the properties of the KBL permeate. The major property to be changed is viscosity. If the high molecular weight lignin is removed by ultrafiltration, the KBL permeate should show a significant drop in viscosity. An objective of the work reported was to examine how much KBL viscosity is lowered relative to membrane and membrane pore size used in the ultrafiltration. Another objective was an initial evaluation of ultrafiltration equipment and membranes. Operating characteristics were determined for selected equipment and membranes. Decreases in KBL permeate viscosity were indeed seen. (LEW)

  15. Facilitating normal physiology in the presence of meconium stained liquor.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Julika

    2015-06-01

    There is sufficient evidence to support the practice of optimal cord clamping in normal labour and birth. In this paper, the physiology of meconium stained liquor (MSL), meconium aspiration syndrome and the practice of optimal cord clamping in babies born through MSL, is discussed. Guidelines suggest not stimulating babies born through MSL, at birth, to avoid aspiration. However, the obvious stimulation resulting from early clamping and cutting the cord, leaves a baby with no choice but to inhale, but this appears to be overlooked in practice. Midwives in their role as supporters of normal physiology are in a position to question this routine intervention in the absence of any evidence to support it.

  16. A win-win technique of stabilizing sand dune and purifying paper mill black-liquor.

    PubMed

    Hanjie, Wang; Frits, Penning de Vries; Yongcan, Jin

    2009-01-01

    The principle and technique were reported here to produce lignin-based sand stabilizing material (LSSM) using extracted lignin from black liquor of straw paper mills. Field tests using LSSM to stabilize and green sand dunes were started in 2002. The field experiment was carried out in August 2005 when the newly formed plant community was 3 years old. The results from the comprehensive field experiment demonstrated that unlike polyvinyl acetate or foamed asphalt commonly used for dune stabilization, LSSM was plant-friendly material and could be used in combination with seeding and planting of desert species. With the help of LSSM, the desert species (i.e., Agriophyllum squarrosum (L.) Moq. and Artemisia desertorum Spreng. etc.) could be used to form community in 2-3 yeas and to stabilize sand dune effectively. The newly formed community was sustainable under an extremely dry climate condition. The organic matter and total nitrogen in the soil increased significantly as the community were formed, while the change in P and K contents in the soil was negligible.

  17. Mycosporine-like Amino Acids and Other Phytochemicals Directly Detected by High-Resolution NMR on Klamath (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae) Blue-Green Algae.

    PubMed

    Righi, Valeria; Parenti, Francesca; Schenetti, Luisa; Mucci, Adele

    2016-09-07

    This study describes for the first time the use of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) on Klamath (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, AFA) blue-green algae directly on powder suspension. These algae are considered to be a "superfood", due to their complete nutritional profile that has proved to have important therapeutic effects. The main advantage of NMR spectroscopy is that it permits the detection of a number of metabolites all at once. The Klamath alga metabolome was revealed to be quite complex, and the most peculiar phytochemicals that can be detected directly on algae by NMR are mycosporine-like amino acids (porphyra-334, P334; shinorine, Shi) and low molecular weight glycosides (glyceryl β-d-galactopyranoside, GalpG; glyceryl 6-amino-6-deoxy-α-d-glucopyranoside, ADG), all compounds with a high nutraceutical value. The presence of cis-3,4-DhLys was revealed for the first time. This molecule could be involved in the anticancer properties ascribed to AFA.

  18. A 3D CFD Simulation and Analysis of Flow-Induced Forces on Polymer Piezoelectric Sensors in a Chinese Liquors Identification E-Nose.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yu; Wang, Yang-Fu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Zu-Wu

    2016-10-20

    Chinese liquors can be classified according to their flavor types. Accurate identification of Chinese liquor flavors is not always possible through professional sommeliers' subjective assessment. A novel polymer piezoelectric sensor electric nose (e-nose) can be applied to distinguish Chinese liquors because of its excellent ability in imitating human senses by using sensor arrays and pattern recognition systems. The sensor, based on the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) principle is comprised of a quartz piezoelectric crystal plate sandwiched between two specific gas-sensitive polymer coatings. Chinese liquors are identified by obtaining the resonance frequency value changes of each sensor using the e-nose. However, the QCM principle failed to completely account for a particular phenomenon: we found that the resonance frequency values fluctuated in the stable state. For better understanding the phenomenon, a 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation using the finite volume method is employed to study the influence of the flow-induced forces to the resonance frequency fluctuation of each sensor in the sensor box. A dedicated procedure was developed for modeling the flow of volatile gas from Chinese liquors in a realistic scenario to give reasonably good results with fair accuracy. The flow-induced forces on the sensors are displayed from the perspective of their spatial-temporal and probability density distributions. To evaluate the influence of the fluctuation of the flow-induced forces on each sensor and ensure the serviceability of the e-nose, the standard deviation of resonance frequency value (SDF) and the standard deviation of resultant forces (SDFy) in y-direction (Fy) are compared. Results show that the fluctuations of Fy are bound up with the resonance frequency values fluctuations. To ensure that the sensor's resonance frequency values are steady and only fluctuate slightly, in order to improve the identification accuracy of Chinese liquors using

  19. A 3D CFD Simulation and Analysis of Flow-Induced Forces on Polymer Piezoelectric Sensors in a Chinese Liquors Identification E-Nose

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yu; Wang, Yang-Fu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Zu-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Chinese liquors can be classified according to their flavor types. Accurate identification of Chinese liquor flavors is not always possible through professional sommeliers’ subjective assessment. A novel polymer piezoelectric sensor electric nose (e-nose) can be applied to distinguish Chinese liquors because of its excellent ability in imitating human senses by using sensor arrays and pattern recognition systems. The sensor, based on the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) principle is comprised of a quartz piezoelectric crystal plate sandwiched between two specific gas-sensitive polymer coatings. Chinese liquors are identified by obtaining the resonance frequency value changes of each sensor using the e-nose. However, the QCM principle failed to completely account for a particular phenomenon: we found that the resonance frequency values fluctuated in the stable state. For better understanding the phenomenon, a 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation using the finite volume method is employed to study the influence of the flow-induced forces to the resonance frequency fluctuation of each sensor in the sensor box. A dedicated procedure was developed for modeling the flow of volatile gas from Chinese liquors in a realistic scenario to give reasonably good results with fair accuracy. The flow-induced forces on the sensors are displayed from the perspective of their spatial-temporal and probability density distributions. To evaluate the influence of the fluctuation of the flow-induced forces on each sensor and ensure the serviceability of the e-nose, the standard deviation of resonance frequency value (SDF) and the standard deviation of resultant forces (SDFy) in y-direction (Fy) are compared. Results show that the fluctuations of Fy are bound up with the resonance frequency values fluctuations. To ensure that the sensor's resonance frequency values are steady and only fluctuate slightly, in order to improve the identification accuracy of Chinese liquors using

  20. Green Buildings and Health.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health.

  1. 77 FR 74025 - Federated Indians of Graton Rancheria-Liquor Control Statute

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... Rancheria--Liquor Control Statute (Ordinance). The Ordinance regulates and controls the sale, consumption..., sale, manufacture and distribution of liquor within Lands Under the Jurisdiction of the Federated... Rancheria (``Reservation''), in order to permit alcohol sales by tribally owned and operated enterprises and...

  2. 75 FR 62853 - Reno-Sparks Indian Colony Liquor Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... previously regulated the introduction, possession, sale and consumption of liquor under Ordinance 14...-Sparks Indian Colony will continue to be a ``dry'' reservation where the possession or consumption of... Council, but even where a License is issued, the Tribal Council can prohibit or limit liquor...

  3. 78 FR 54670 - Miami Tribe of Oklahoma-Liquor Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... herein defined. (d) Beer. Any beverage obtained by the alcoholic fermentation of an infusion or decoction... other substance, patented or not, containing distilled or rectified spirits, potable alcohol, beer, wine... liquor or beer. (h) Malt Liquor. Includes beer, strong beer, ale, stout and porter. (i) Package. Any...

  4. Male Readership Differences in Liquor Magazine Ads Employing Nonsensical and Sexual Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Leonard N.; And Others

    A study examined the attention getting value of nonsensical and sexual humor used in liquor advertisements to determine if one was more effective than the other in attracting male magazine readers. Thirty-two Starch-scored liquor ads taken from 1976 and 1977 issues of "Time,""Newsweek," and "Sports Illustrated" were analyzed by three male readers.…

  5. 76 FR 77549 - Lummi Nation-Title 20-Code of Laws-Liquor Code

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Lummi Nation--Title 20--Code of Laws--Liquor Code AGENCY: Bureau of Indian...--Code of Laws--Liquor Code. The Code regulates and controls the possession, sale and consumption of..., Public Law 83-277, 67 Stat. 586, 18 U.S.C. 1161, as interpreted by the Supreme Court in Rice v....

  6. Removal of straw lignin from spent pulping liquor using synthetic cationic and biobased flocculants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aqueous alkaline delignification of wheat straw produces hemicellulose for bioenergy and other applications. After removal of the hemicellulose, spent pulping liquor (SPL) remains. The spent pulping liquor is approximately 28% water, 40% ash, 3% hemicellulose, 25% lignin, 5% protein, and less than...

  7. Bacterial decolorization of black liquor in axenic and mixed condition and characterization of metabolites.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Ram; Abhishek, Amar

    2011-06-01

    The pulping byproducts (black liquor) cause serious environmental problem due to its high pollution load. In order to search the degradability of black liquor, the potential bacterial strains Citrobacter freundii (FJ581026) and Citrobacter sp. (FJ581023) were applied in axenic and mixed condition. Results revealed that the mixed bacterial culture are more effective than axenic condition and can reduce 82% COD, 79% AOX, 79% color and 60% lignin after 144 h of incubation period. Additionally, the optimum activity of lignin degrading enzyme was noted at 96 h and characterized as manganese peroxidase (MnP) by SDS–PAGE analysis. Further, the HPLC analysis of control and bacterial degraded sample has shown the reduction as well as shifting of peaks compared to control indicating the degradation as well as transformation of compounds of black liquor. The comparative GC-MS analysis of control and degraded black liquor revealed that along with lignin fragment some chlorophenolic compounds 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol and pentachlorophenol were detected in black liquor degraded by axenic culture whereas these chlorophenolic compounds were completely absent in black liquor degraded by mixed bacterial culture. These chlorophenol inhibit the oxidative degradation which seems a major reason behind the low degradability of axenic degradation compared to mixed culture. The innovation of this aerobic treatment of alkaline black liquor opens additional possibilities for the better treatment of black liquor along with its metabolic product.

  8. 27 CFR 31.61 - Single sale of liquors or warehouse receipts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... warehouse receipts. 31.61 Section 31.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.61 Single sale of liquors or warehouse receipts. A single sale of distilled spirits, wines, or beer, or a single sale of one or more warehouse receipts...

  9. 27 CFR 31.163 - Requirements when a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. 31.163 Section 31.163 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. (a) Constructive receipt and sale. When a... spirits, and the retail sales of distilled spirits normally represent 90 percent or more of the volume of...

  10. 27 CFR 31.163 - Requirements when a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. 31.163 Section 31.163 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. (a) Constructive receipt and sale. When a... spirits, and the retail sales of distilled spirits normally represent 90 percent or more of the volume of...

  11. 27 CFR 31.163 - Requirements when a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. 31.163 Section 31.163 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. (a) Constructive receipt and sale. When a... spirits, and the retail sales of distilled spirits normally represent 90 percent or more of the volume of...

  12. 27 CFR 31.163 - Requirements when a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. 31.163 Section 31.163 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. (a) Constructive receipt and sale. When a... spirits, and the retail sales of distilled spirits normally represent 90 percent or more of the volume of...

  13. 27 CFR 31.163 - Requirements when a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. 31.163 Section 31.163 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. (a) Constructive receipt and sale. When a... spirits, and the retail sales of distilled spirits normally represent 90 percent or more of the volume of...

  14. 19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.6 Distilled spirits, wines... conveying imported distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors, in accordance with 19 U.S.C. 467. (b) Marks...

  15. 19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.6 Distilled spirits, wines... conveying imported distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors, in accordance with 19 U.S.C. 467. (b) Marks...

  16. 19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.6 Distilled spirits, wines... conveying imported distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors, in accordance with 19 U.S.C. 467. (b) Marks...

  17. 19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.6 Distilled spirits, wines... conveying imported distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors, in accordance with 19 U.S.C. 467. (b) Marks...

  18. 19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.6 Distilled spirits, wines... conveying imported distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors, in accordance with 19 U.S.C. 467. (b) Marks...

  19. Discrimination between authentic and adulterated liquors by near-infrared spectroscopy and ensemble classification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Tan, Chao; Wu, Tong; Wang, Li; Zhu, Wanping

    2014-09-15

    Chinese liquor is one of the famous distilled spirits and counterfeit liquor is becoming a serious problem in the market. Especially, age liquor is facing the crisis of confidence because it is difficult for consumer to identify the marked age, which prompts unscrupulous traders to pose off low-grade liquors as high-grade liquors. An ideal method for authenticity confirmation of liquors should be non-invasive, non-destructive and timely. The combination of near-infrared spectroscopy with chemometrics proves to be a good way to reach these premises. A new strategy is proposed for classification and verification of the adulteration of liquors by using NIR spectroscopy and chemometric classification, i.e., ensemble support vector machines (SVM). Three measures, i.e., accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were used for performance evaluation. The results confirmed that the strategy can serve as a screening tool applied to verify adulteration of the liquor, that is, a prior step used to condition the sample to a deeper analysis only when a positive result for adulteration is obtained by the proposed methodology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 27 CFR 19.773 - Daily record of wholesale liquor dealer and taxpaid storeroom operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... liquor dealer and taxpaid storeroom operations. 19.773 Section 19.773 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... storeroom operations. Where the proprietor, in connection with his plant, conducts wholesale liquor dealer operations, or operates a taxpaid storeroom, on, contiguous to, adjacent to, or in the immediate vicinity of...

  1. Rapid identification of Chinese Sauce liquor from different fermentation positions with FT-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changwen; Wei, Jiping; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Suqin

    2008-07-01

    FT-IR and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-IR) technology were applied to discriminate Chinese Sauce liquor from different fermentation positions (top, middle and bottom of fermentation cellar) for the first time. The liquors at top, middle and bottom of fermentation cellar, possessed the characteristic peaks at 1731 cm -1, 1733 cm -1 and 1602 cm -1, respectively. In the 2D correlation infrared spectra, the differences were amplified. A strong auto-peak at 1725 cm -1 showed in the 2D spectra of the Top Liquor, which indicated that the liquor might contain some ester compounds. Different from Top Liquor, three auto-peaks at 1695, 1590 and 1480 cm -1 were identified in 2D spectra of Middle Liquor, which were the characteristic absorption of acid, lactate. In 2D spectra of Bottom Liquor, two auto-peaks at 1570 and 1485 cm -1 indicated that lactate was the major component. As a result, FT-IR and 2D-IR correlation spectra technology provided a rapid and effective method for the quality analysis of the Sauce liquor.

  2. Discrimination between authentic and adulterated liquors by near-infrared spectroscopy and ensemble classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui; Tan, Chao; Wu, Tong; Wang, Li; Zhu, Wanping

    2014-09-01

    Chinese liquor is one of the famous distilled spirits and counterfeit liquor is becoming a serious problem in the market. Especially, age liquor is facing the crisis of confidence because it is difficult for consumer to identify the marked age, which prompts unscrupulous traders to pose off low-grade liquors as high-grade liquors. An ideal method for authenticity confirmation of liquors should be non-invasive, non-destructive and timely. The combination of near-infrared spectroscopy with chemometrics proves to be a good way to reach these premises. A new strategy is proposed for classification and verification of the adulteration of liquors by using NIR spectroscopy and chemometric classification, i.e., ensemble support vector machines (SVM). Three measures, i.e., accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were used for performance evaluation. The results confirmed that the strategy can serve as a screening tool applied to verify adulteration of the liquor, that is, a prior step used to condition the sample to a deeper analysis only when a positive result for adulteration is obtained by the proposed methodology.

  3. Fourier transform infrared quantification of sugars in pretreated biomass liquors.

    PubMed

    Tucker, M P; Mitri, R K; Eddy, F P; Nguyen, Q A; Gedvilas, L M; Webb, J D

    2000-01-01

    The process of converting renewable lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol requires a number of steps, and pretreatment is one of the most important. Pretreatment usually involves a hydrolysis of the easily hydrolyzed hemi-cellulosic component of biomass using some form of thermal/chemical/mechanical action that results in a product that can be further hydrolyzed by cellulase enzymes (the cellulosic portion). The sugars produced can then be fermented to ethanol by fermentative microorganisms. If the pretreatment step is not severe enough, the resultant residue is not as easily hydrolyzed by the cellulase enzyme. More severe pretreatment conditions result in the production of degradation products that are toxic to the fermentative microorganism. In this article, we report the quantitative analysis of glucose, mannose, xylose, and acetic acid using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy on liquors from dilute-acid-pretreated soft-wood and hard-wood slurries. Comparison of FTIR and high-performance liquid chromatography quantitative analyses of these liquors are reported. Recent developments in infrared probe technology has enabled the rapid quantification of these sugars by FTIR spectroscopy in the batch reactor during optimization of the pretreatment conditions, or interfaced to the computer controlling a continuous reactor for on-line monitoring and control.

  4. It does the job: Young adults discuss their malt liquor consumption.

    PubMed

    Bradizza, Clara M; Collins, R Lorraine; Vincent, Paula C; Falco, Diana L

    2006-09-01

    Young adult men and women (N=53) who regularly consume malt liquor (i.e., 40 oz/week) participated in 10 semi-structured focus groups. Group transcripts were analyzed using a multilevel process that focused on recurring themes across multiple groups. Commonly identified themes encompassed positive and negative qualities of malt liquor as well as contexts in which malt liquor was consumed. Some of the themes were corroborated by quantitative data on drinking behavior and other variables. The focus groups were designed to explore the unique characteristics of malt liquor (low price, high alcohol content, large volume packaging) that enhance consumption patterns and increase risk for excessive alcohol use. The combination of qualitative and quantitative data provides a unique and useful perspective for identifying issues for future research on malt liquor consumption.

  5. Movement of lagoon-liquor constituents below four animal-waste lagoons.

    PubMed

    DeSutter, Tom M; Pierzynski, Gary M; Ham, Jay M

    2005-01-01

    Movement of liquor constituents from animal-waste lagoons has the potential to degrade ground water quality. The depth of movement and concentrations of lagoon-liquor constituents in the soil underlying three cattle (Bos taurus)-waste retention lagoons and one swine (Sus scrofa)-waste lagoon were determined. Samples were taken by using a direct-push coring machine, dissected by depth, and analyzed for total N, organic C, CaCO3, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), texture, and extractable NO3, NH(4), P, Cl, Ca, Mg, K, and Na. Ammonium N concentrations were greatest in the upper 0.5 m of soil under all four lagoons with concentrations ranging from 94 to 1139 mg kg(-1). Organic N was determined to make up between 39 and 74% of the total N beneath all lagoons. The swine lagoon had 2.4 kg N m(-2) in the underlying soil whereas the cattle lagoon with highest quantity of N had 1.2 kg N m(-2) in the underlying soil. Although N concentrations decreased with depth, N was greater than expected background levels at the bottom of some cores, indicating that the sampling efforts did not reach the bottom of the N plume. Nitrate N concentrations were generally less than 5 mg kg(-1) immediately below the lagoon floor. In the uppermost 0.5 m of soil underlying the swine and three cattle lagoons, NH4+ occupied 44% and between 1 and 22% of the soil cation exchange sites, respectively. The depth of movement of N under these lagoons, as much as 4 m, may pose remediation difficulties at lagoon closure.

  6. Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages and Liquor Consumption by Michigan High School Students, 2011.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Katherine R; Largo, Thomas W; Miller, Corinne; Kanny, Dafna; Brewer, Robert D

    2015-11-12

    Excessive alcohol consumption was responsible for approximately 4,300 annual deaths in the United States among people younger than 21 from 2006 through 2010. Underage drinking cost the United States $24.6 billion in 2006. Previous studies have shown that liquor is the most common type of alcohol consumed by high school students. However, little is known about the types of liquor consumed by youth or about the mixing of alcohol with energy drinks. The 2011 Michigan Youth Tobacco Survey was used to assess usual alcohol beverage consumption and liquor consumption and the mixing of alcohol with energy drinks by Michigan high school students. Beverage preferences were analyzed by demographic characteristics and drinking patterns. Overall, 34.2% of Michigan high school students consumed alcohol in the past month, and 20.8% reported binge drinking. Among current drinkers, liquor was the most common type of alcohol consumed (51.2%), and vodka was the most prevalent type of liquor consumed by those who drank liquor (53.0%). The prevalence of liquor consumption was similar among binge drinkers and nonbinge drinkers, but binge drinkers who drank liquor were significantly more likely than nonbinge drinkers to consume vodka and to mix alcohol with energy drinks (49.0% vs 18.2%, respectively). Liquor is the most common type of alcoholic beverage consumed by Michigan high school students; vodka is the most common type of liquor consumed. Mixing alcohol and energy drinks is common, particularly among binge drinkers. Community Guide strategies for reducing excessive drinking (eg, increasing alcohol taxes) can reduce underage drinking.

  7. Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages and Liquor Consumption by Michigan High School Students, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Katherine R.; Largo, Thomas W.; Miller, Corinne; Brewer, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption was responsible for approximately 4,300 annual deaths in the United States among people younger than 21 from 2006 through 2010. Underage drinking cost the United States $24.6 billion in 2006. Previous studies have shown that liquor is the most common type of alcohol consumed by high school students. However, little is known about the types of liquor consumed by youth or about the mixing of alcohol with energy drinks. Methods The 2011 Michigan Youth Tobacco Survey was used to assess usual alcohol beverage consumption and liquor consumption and the mixing of alcohol with energy drinks by Michigan high school students. Beverage preferences were analyzed by demographic characteristics and drinking patterns. Results Overall, 34.2% of Michigan high school students consumed alcohol in the past month, and 20.8% reported binge drinking. Among current drinkers, liquor was the most common type of alcohol consumed (51.2%), and vodka was the most prevalent type of liquor consumed by those who drank liquor (53.0%). The prevalence of liquor consumption was similar among binge drinkers and nonbinge drinkers, but binge drinkers who drank liquor were significantly more likely than nonbinge drinkers to consume vodka and to mix alcohol with energy drinks (49.0% vs 18.2%, respectively). Conclusions Liquor is the most common type of alcoholic beverage consumed by Michigan high school students; vodka is the most common type of liquor consumed. Mixing alcohol and energy drinks is common, particularly among binge drinkers. Community Guide strategies for reducing excessive drinking (eg, increasing alcohol taxes) can reduce underage drinking. PMID:26564010

  8. Characterization of geosmin as source of earthy odor in different aroma type Chinese liquors.

    PubMed

    Du, Hai; Fan, Wenlai; Xu, Yan

    2011-08-10

    Earthy odor is one of the most frequent and serious causes for the aroma deterioration in Chinese liquor, which causes a dirty and dusty impression. The odor in Chinese liquor is similar to that of rice husk, one kind of auxiliary material widely used as a filler in the distillation process. So it is experientially hypothesized that such odor may derive from rice husk. In this paper, the gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) technique and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to discover and identify the characteristic odoriferous zone of Chinese liquor marked by earthy odor. Geosmin was found to be responsible for this odor. The levels of the compound in ten bottled liquors and thirty liquors aging for different years belonging to four different aroma types were determined by the optimized headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) method. Quantitative analysis of bottled liquor revealed the presence of geosmin in all aroma type liquors with concentrations ranging from 1.10 μg/L to 9.90 μg/L, except for strong-aroma type liquor. Meanwhile in the aged liquors belonging to the same aroma type, geosmin was detected with significant concentrations and high odor activity values (OAVs) during different years of aging. However, geosmin was not detected in steamed rice husk nor in nonsteamed rice husk, which suggests that rice husk is not the origin of earthy odor in Chinese liquor, and there may be another origin of it during the brewing process.

  9. Biomass production and nutrient removal by Chlorella sp. as affected by sludge liquor concentration.

    PubMed

    Åkerström, Anette M; Mortensen, Leiv M; Rusten, Bjørn; Gislerød, Hans Ragnar

    2014-11-01

    The use of microalgae for biomass production and nutrient removal from the reject water produced in the dewatering process of anaerobically digested sludge, sludge liquor, was investigated. The sludge liquor was characterized by a high content of total suspended solids (1590 mg L(-1)), a high nitrogen concentration (1210 mg L(-1)), and a low phosphorus concentration (28 mg L(-1)). Chlorella sp. was grown in sludge liquor diluted with wastewater treatment plant effluent water to different concentrations (12, 25, 40, 50, 70, and 100%) using batch mode. The environmental conditions were 25 °C, a continuous lightning of 115 μmol m(-2) s(-1), and a CO2 concentration of 3.0%. The highest biomass production (0.42-0.45 g dry weight L(-1) Day(-1)) was achieved at 40-50% sludge liquor, which was comparable to the production of the control culture grown with an artificial fertilizer. The biomass production was 0.12 and 0.26 g dry weight L(-1) Day(-1) at 12% and 100% sludge liquor, respectively. The percentage of nitrogen in the algal biomass increased from 3.6% in 12% sludge liquor and reached a saturation of ∼10% in concentrations with 50% sludge liquor and higher. The phosphorus content in the biomass increased linearly from 0.2 to 1.5% with increasing sludge liquor concentrations. The highest nitrogen removal rates by algal biosynthesis were 33.6-42.6 mg TN L(-1) Day(-1) at 40-70% sludge liquor, while the highest phosphorus removal rates were 3.1-4.1 mg TP L(-1) Day(-1) at 50-100% sludge liquor.

  10. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. (a) Sales of wines. Any wholesale dealer in liquors (including the proprietor of a bonded wine cellar...

  11. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who has...

  12. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who...

  13. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who...

  14. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who...

  15. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of kraft black liquors. Interim report No.3

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, A.L.; Dong, D.J.; Schmidl, G.W.; Stoy, M.A.; Zaman, A.A.

    1993-09-01

    The black liquor properties program has conducted a systematic collection data of properties, liquor composition, and lignin characteristics. Complete data, except for some density data, has been collected for Slash Pine black liquors made by experimental pulping at a total of 25 different pulping conditions that cover the entire range used for commercial pulping. In addition, complete data has been collected for some mill liquors and partial properties or composition data has been collected on Slash Pine black liquors made at 16 different pulping conditions and some mill liquors. Data reduction methods have been developed or extended for correlation of viscosity, heat capacity, heat of dilution, and density. Correlation of properties to pulping conditions and of composition to pulping conditions has begun. In most cases, data reduction methods have been developed that are fundamentally based and that have been shown to be generally applicable to all black liquors. While it has not proven to be possible to include research for comprehensive correlations for properties for liquors from other species, we have shown that the behavior of liquors made from other species is similar to that which has been explored extensively for Slash Pine liquors. This report reviews the methods used, describes examples of data reduction methods that have been developed, and presents some preliminary results for correlation of liquor composition and properties to pulping conditions for Slash Pine black liquors.

  16. Polymerisation of Kraft lignin from black liquors by laccase from Myceliophthora thermophila: effect of operational conditions and black liquor origin.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, S; Fernández-Costas, C; Sanromán, M A; Moldes, D

    2013-03-01

    The capacity of laccase from Myceliophthora thermophila to promote the oxidative polymerisation of Kraft lignin (KL) was evaluated in several conditions of pH, temperature, enzyme dosage and treatment time. Moreover, different black liquors from the Kraft cooking of Eucalyptus globulus and mixture of Pinus pinaster/E. globulus were evaluated in order to determine the effect of the KL source on the polymerisation reaction. Furthermore, one of these black liquors was fractionated by sequential organic solvent fractionation and the polymerisation of the corresponding fractions was tested. Polymerisation products were analysed by size exclusion chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results provide evidence of notable lignin modifications after incubation with laccase. Structural oxidation and a notably molecular weight increase were attained, reaching a polymer of 69-fold its initial molecular weight depending on the raw lignin. Moreover, optimum values of reaction conditions were obtained: pH 7.3, 70°C, 2UmL(-1) and 2h.

  17. Ag modified LaMnO3 nanorods-reduced graphene oxide composite applied in the photocatalytic discoloration of direct green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jie; Liu, Yuanyuan; Men, Jie; Zhang, Liang; Huang, Hao

    2016-11-01

    A new nanostructure photocatalyst, incorporating Ag and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with LaMnO3-nanorods have been fabricated via two-step synthetic approaches by using Cetyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) as a template via a simple hydrothermal reaction and the decoration of Ag nanoparticles is through a traditional silver mirror reaction. The characteristic of the materials are examined by XRD, TEM, FE-SEM and XPS. The results confirm that the LaMnO3 nanorods are perovskite phase and uniform dispersed on the surface of rGO. The Ag nanoparticles is deposited the surface of LaMnO3-nanorods with its metal form. The Ag/LaMnO3-nanorods/rGO exhibit an excellent performance in the photo-degradation of Direct Green BE under the UV-vis irradiation. As an electron capture agent, metal Ag can capture the e- that transported along the LMO-NR, thereby leading to effective separation of the e--h+ pairs and accelerate the transfer of surface charge, which is further demonstrated by the Photoluminescence (PL) spectra, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and AC impedance spectra.

  18. Foliar residue dynamics of azadirachtins following direct stem injection into white and green ash trees for control of emerald ash borer.

    PubMed

    Grimalt, Susana; Thompson, Dean; Chartrand, Derek; McFarlane, John; Helson, Blair; Lyons, Barry; Meating, Joe; Scarr, Taylor

    2011-10-01

    Azadirachtins are natural insecticides derived from the neem tree. The emerald ash borer (EAB) is an exotic invasive insect pest that infests various ash tree species and has the potential for significant economic, aesthetic and ecological impacts throughout North America. The initial translocation and foliar residue dynamics of azadirachtins were examined following direct injection into white and green ash trees growing in urban scenarios as a potential control for EAB. Substantial concentrations of azadirachtins A and B [mean maxima > 0.98 mg kg(-1) fresh weight (f.w.)] were observed within 2 days of injecting a specifically designed formulation of azadirachtins. Foliar residues declined exponentially through time, with half-life estimates ranging from 5.1 to 12.3 days. At the time of leaf senescence, foliar residue levels approximated 0.01 mg kg(-1) f.w., strongly mitigating the potential effects of non-target biota in soil or aquatic compartments. The magnitude and duration of exposures observed in this field study were considered to be above the thresholds required for biological effectiveness against both larval and adult life stages of EAB. Results support the use of azadirachtins as an environmentally acceptable systemic insecticide for control of EAB and protection of high-value ash trees in urban environments. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Conversion of levulinic acid into γ-valerolactone using Fe3(CO)12: mimicking a biorefinery setting by exploiting crude liquors from biomass acid hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Metzker, Gustavo; Burtoloso, Antonio C B

    2015-09-28

    The conversion of biomass-derived levulinic acid (LA) into gamma-valerolactone (GVL) using formic acid (FA) and Fe3(CO)12 as the catalyst precursor was achieved in 92% yield. To mimic a biorefinery setting, crude liquor (containing 20% LA) from the acid hydrolysis of sugarcane biomass in a pilot plant facility was directly converted into GVL in good yield (50%), without the need for isolating LA.

  20. Assessment of black liquor gasification in supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Sricharoenchaikul, V

    2009-01-01

    Supercritical water gasification of black liquor (waste pulping chemicals) has been examined. The aim was to evaluate the feasibility of using this technique to convert such bio-based waste to value added fuel products, as well as recovery of pulping materials. Supercritical gasification may improve overall process efficiency by eliminating the energy intensive evaporation step necessary in conventional process and product gas obtained at high pressure may be ready for utilization without any compression requirement. Appropriate operating parameters, including pressure, temperature, feed concentration, and reaction time, which would yield the highest conversion and energy efficiency were determined. Reaction was performed in a quartz capillary heated in a fluidized bed reactor. Results indicated that pressure between 220 and 400 atm has insignificant influence on the gas products and extent of carbon conversion. Increasing temperature and residence time between 375-650 degrees C and 5-120 s resulted in greater gas production, overall carbon conversion, and energy efficiency. Maximum conversion to H(2), CO, CH(4), and C(2)H(X) was achieved at the highest temperature and longest residence time tested showing an overall carbon conversion of 84.8%, gas energy content of 9.4 MJ/m(3) and energy conversion ratio of 1.2. Though higher carbon conversion and energy conversion ratio were obtained with more dilute liquor, energy content was lower than for those with higher solid contents. Due to anticipated complex design and high initial investment cost of this operation, further studies on overall feasibility should be carried out in order to identify the optimum operating window for this novel process.

  1. Solvent extraction of cobalt from laterite-ammoniacal leach liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, D.N.; Siemens, R.E.; Rhoads, S.C.

    1980-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines is developing a method to recover Ni, Co, and Cu from laterites containing less than 1.2% Ni and 0.25% Co. The method consists of the following basic unit operations: (1) reduction roasting, (2) leaching, (3) solvent extraction, and (4) electrowinning. The method reflects three Bureau of Mines objectives: (1) recovery of critical minerals that are domestically in short supply from low-grade domestic laterites, (2) lower processing energy requirements, and (3) solution recycling. This report deals with the extraction of cobalt and the preparation of a suitable cobalt electrolyte by solvent extraction from liquor produced by this method. Nickel and copper are coextracted with LIX64N from an ammoniacal ammonium sulfate leach liquor containing about 1.00 g/1 Ni, 0.30 g/1 Co, 0.03 g/1 Cu, and 0.02 g/1 Zn. Cobalt (III) in the nickel-copper barren raffinate is reduced to cobalt (II) with cobalt metal. Reduction of cobalt (III) to cobalt (II) greatly aids subsequent extraction. Commercially available XI-51 extracts about 94% of the cobalt from the treated raffinate in one stage in a laboratory mixer-settler continuous circuit. Ammonia loaded on the solvent is removed in two washing steps. About 94% of the cobalt then is stripped from the XI-51 in one stage with spent cobalt electrolyte containing about 77 g/1 Co and 18 g/1 sulfuric acid (H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/). Electrolytes containing less H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ also may be used. Preliminary data indicate that coextracted zinc may be removed from pregnant cobalt electrolyte containing 3 g/1 or less H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ with di-(2 ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA).

  2. The corrosion of titanium in alkaline peroxide bleach liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Wyllie, W.E. II; Brown, B.E.; Duquette, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    An experimental program to determine the effects of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and of potential corrosion inhibitors on the corrosion behavior of titanium has been developed. Corrosion rates less than 0.25 mm/y were observed in laboratory bleach liquor at pH 12 to which 5 g/l of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were added. At pH 13, with 10 g/l H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the corrosion rates were unacceptably high in both sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and laboratory bleach liquor solutions (>8.38 mm/y). The preliminary results of inhibitor studies indicated that the addition of 3.7 g/l sodium silicate or 0.01 g/l calcium nitrate (Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) effectively inhibited the corrosion of titanium exposed to 5 g/l of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in NaOH solutions of pH 12. It was also found that in simulated paper mill chemistries, i.e., basic solutions containing 3.7 g/l sodium silicate and 0.6 g/l EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), corrosion rates increased markedly with the addition of 5 g/l H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. However, subsequent additions of peroxide resulted in corrosion rates which were even lower than those found in NaOH. This is believed to be due to the formation of a black scale on the surface of the sample. The addition of magnesium sulfate (MgSO{sub 4}) in the 0.1--0.5 g/l range also was shown to inhibit corrosion in the NaOH solution, but only after prior exposure to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  3. A new pulping process for wheat straw to reduce problems with the discharge of black liquor.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guolin; Shi, Jeffrey X; Langrish, Tim A G

    2007-11-01

    Aqueous ammonia mixed with caustic potash as wheat straw pulping liquor was investigated. The caustic potash did not only reduce the NH3 usage and cooking time, but also provided a potassium source as a fertilizer in the black liquor. Excess NH3 in the black liquor was recovered and reused by batch distillation with a 98% recovery rate of free NH3. The black liquor was further treated for reuse by coagulation under alkaline conditions. The effects of different flocculation conditions, such as the dosage of 10% aluminium polychloride, the dosage of 0.1% polyacrylamide, the reaction temperature and the pH of the black liquor on the flocculating process were studied. The supernatant was recycled as cooking liquor by adding extra NH4OH and KOH. The amount of delignification and the pulp yield for the process remained steady at 82-85% and 48-50%, respectively, when reusing the supernatant four times. The coagulated residues could be further processed as solid fertilizers. This study provided a new pulping process for wheat straw to reduce problems of discharge black liquor.

  4. [Determination of sodium cyclamate in liquor by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with linear trap technology].

    PubMed

    Fang, Huiwen; Zhou, Yuan; Lu, Yuepeng; Jiang, Xiaoming; Yang, Yong

    2012-03-01

    An accurate determination of quantitative and confirmative method for sodium cyclamate in liquor by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) with linear trap technology has been established. Without pretreatment, the sample was directly injected after filtering through a 0.2 microm micro filter. The HPLC separation was performed on an Atlantis dC18 column (150 mm x 2.1 mm, 3 microm) by gradient elution with methanol and water containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid. The eluent was determined and confirmed in multiple reaction monitoring-enhanced product ion (MRM-EPI) scan mode. The acquired data from MRM for the quantitative determination, and the product ion spectra were used for library search for qualitative confirmatory analysis. External standard was used for the quantitative determination of sodium cyclamate in liquor, and good linearity (r = 0.9991) was obtained over the range of 1.320 - 132.0 microg/L. The limit of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) for sodium cyclamate was 0.1 microg/L. The average recoveries ranged from 96.38% to 107.2% at the spiked levels of 2.640, 26.40 and 100.0 microg/L with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 9%. The matching degrees of the spectra for all positive samples were higher than 92%. The method is simple, accurate and efficient for the determination of sodium cyclamate in liquor and particularly suitable for confirmatory analysis of positive samples.

  5. Green Diesel from Kraft Lignin in Three Steps.

    PubMed

    Löfstedt, Joakim; Dahlstrand, Christian; Orebom, Alexander; Meuzelaar, Gerrit; Sawadjoon, Supaporn; Galkin, Maxim V; Agback, Peter; Wimby, Martin; Corresa, Elena; Mathieu, Yannick; Sauvanaud, Laurent; Eriksson, Sören; Corma, Avelino; Samec, Joseph S M

    2016-06-22

    Precipitated kraft lignin from black liquor was converted into green diesel in three steps. A mild Ni-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation/hydrogenolysis using 2-propanol generated a lignin residue in which the ethers, carbonyls, and olefins were reduced. An organocatalyzed esterification of the lignin residue with an in situ prepared tall oil fatty acid anhydride gave an esterified lignin residue that was soluble in light gas oil. The esterified lignin residue was coprocessed with light gas oil in a continous hydrotreater to produce a green diesel. This approach will enable the development of new techniques to process commercial lignin in existing oil refinery infrastructures to standardized transportation fuels in the future.

  6. Direct Comparison of GreenLight Laser XPS Photoselective Prostate Vaporization and GreenLight Laser En Bloc Enucleation of the Prostate in Enlarged Glands Greater than 80 ml: a Study of 120 Patients.

    PubMed

    Misrai, Vincent; Kerever, Sebastien; Phe, Veronique; Zorn, Kevin C; Peyronnet, Benoit; Rouprêt, Morgan

    2016-04-01

    We compare patient outcomes after 180 W XPS™ GreenLight™ photoselective vaporization of the prostate and GreenLight laser enucleation of the prostate used to surgically manage benign prostatic obstruction. Two groups of 60 consecutive patients with enlarged glands (greater than 80 ml) underwent GreenLight laser prostate enucleation or photoselective prostate vaporization (performed by the same surgeon and including the learning curve) and were retrospectively evaluated. Perioperative data from both groups were compared. The operative time was significantly shorter in the GreenLight laser prostate enucleation group (60 vs 82 minutes, p <0.0001). Complication rates were comparable between the groups. At 2 months the rate of urinary incontinence was significantly higher in the GreenLight laser prostate enucleation group (25% vs 3.4%, p <0.0001) but incontinence rates were similar at 6 months (3.4% vs 0%, p=0.50). At 6 months International Prostate Symptom Score quality of life and post-void residual urine volume had similarly decreased in the 2 groups after the procedure (compared to baseline), whereas the maximum urinary flow rate had greatly improved, significantly favoring the GreenLight laser prostate enucleation group (+78% vs +64%, p <0.0001). Prostate size and prostate specific antigen reductions were significantly higher in the GreenLight laser prostate enucleation group (74% vs 57%, p <0.0001 and 67% vs 40%, respectively, p=0.007). The unplanned hospital readmission rates were similar in both groups (16.7% vs 6.7%, p=0.16). Photoselective vaporization of the prostate and GreenLight laser enucleation of the prostate are safe and provide satisfactory short-term functional outcomes in patients with a prostate volume greater than 80 ml. However, the surgical time was longer in the photoselective prostate vaporization group, which also had a higher rate of unplanned hospital readmission, and lower decreases in prostate specific antigen and prostate size

  7. Aroma characteristics of Moutai-flavour liquor produced with Bacillus licheniformis by solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, R; Wu, Q; Xu, Y

    2013-07-01

    The potential of Bacillus licheniformis as a starter culture for aroma concentration improvement in the fermentation of Chinese Moutai-flavour liquor was elucidated. The volatile compounds produced by B. licheniformis were identified by GC-MS, in which C4 compounds, pyrazines, volatile acids, aromatic and phenolic compounds were the main ingredients. The strains B. licheniformis (MT-6 and MT-15) produced more volatile compound concentrations, mainly C4 compounds, than the type strain of B. licheniformis (ATCC 14580) at the fermentation temperature of 55°C. Meanwhile, more volatile compound concentrations were produced by B. licheniformis in solid-state fermentation than in submerged state fermentation. Thus, the strains MT-6 and MT-15 were used as the Bacillus starter culture for investigating Moutai-flavour liquor production. The distilled liquor inoculated with Bacillus starter culture was significantly different from the liquor without inoculum. This was particularly evident in the fore-run part of the distilled sample which was inoculated with Bacillus starter culture, where volatile compounds greatly increased compared to the control. Furthermore, the distilled liquor with Bacillus starter culture showed improved results in sensory appraisals. These results indicated that B. licheniformis was one of the main species influencing the aroma characteristics of Moutai-flavour liquor. This is the first report of an investigation into the effect of Bacillus starter cultures on the flavour features of Moutai-flavour liquor, which verified that Bacillus licheniformis can enhance aroma concentration in Moutai-flavour liquor. Bacillus starter culture brought C4 compounds, pyrazines, volatile acids, aromatic and phenolic compounds to the liquor, which gave a better result in sensory appraisals. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. INVESTIGATION OF FUEL CHEMISTRY AND BED PERFORMANCE IN A FLUIDIZED BED BLACK LIQUOR STEAM REFORMER

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Whitty

    2003-12-01

    The University of Utah project ''Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer'' (DOE award number DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation for projects to provide technical support for black liquor and biomass gasification. The primary focus of the project is to provide support for a DOE-sponsored demonstration of MTCI's black liquor steam reforming technology at Georgia-Pacific's paper mill in Big Island, Virginia. A more overarching goal is to improve the understanding of phenomena that take place during low temperature black liquor gasification. This is achieved through five complementary technical tasks: (1) construction of a fluidized bed black liquor gasification test system, (2) investigation of bed performance, (3) evaluation of product gas quality, (4) black liquor conversion analysis and modeling and (5) computational modeling of the Big Island gasifier. Four experimental devices have been constructed under this project. The largest facility, which is the heart of the experimental effort, is a pressurized fluidized bed gasification test system. The system is designed to be able to reproduce conditions near the black liquor injectors in the Big Island steam reformer, so the behavior of black liquor pyrolysis and char gasification can be quantified in a representative environment. The gasification test system comprises five subsystems: steam generation and superheating, black liquor feed, fluidized bed reactor, afterburner for syngas combustion and a flue gas cooler/condenser. The three-story system is located at University of Utah's Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility, and all resources there are available to support the research.

  9. Chemical Analysis of the Chinese Liquor Luzhoulaojiao by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Feng; Yi, Bin; Shen, Caihong; Tao, Fei; Liu, Yumin; Lin, Zhixin; Xu, Ping

    2015-04-01

    Luzhoulaojiao liquor is a type of Chinese liquor that dates back hundreds of years, but whose precise chemical composition remains unknown. This paper describes the screening of the liquor and the identification of its compounds using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC/TOF-MS). Samples were prepared by both liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase microextraction, which facilitated the detection of thousands of compounds in the liquor, thus demonstrating the superior performance of the proposed method over those reported in previous studies. A total of 320 compounds were common to all 18 types of Luzhoulaojiao liquor studied here, and 13 abundant and potentially bioactive compounds were further quantified. The results indicated that the high-performance method presented here is well suited for the detection and identification of compounds in liquors. This study also contributes to enriching our knowledge of the contents of Chinese liquors.

  10. Chemical Analysis of the Chinese Liquor Luzhoulaojiao by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Feng; Yi, Bin; Shen, Caihong; Tao, Fei; Liu, Yumin; Lin, Zhixin; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Luzhoulaojiao liquor is a type of Chinese liquor that dates back hundreds of years, but whose precise chemical composition remains unknown. This paper describes the screening of the liquor and the identification of its compounds using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC/TOF-MS). Samples were prepared by both liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase microextraction, which facilitated the detection of thousands of compounds in the liquor, thus demonstrating the superior performance of the proposed method over those reported in previous studies. A total of 320 compounds were common to all 18 types of Luzhoulaojiao liquor studied here, and 13 abundant and potentially bioactive compounds were further quantified. The results indicated that the high-performance method presented here is well suited for the detection and identification of compounds in liquors. This study also contributes to enriching our knowledge of the contents of Chinese liquors. PMID:25857434

  11. Method for improving separation of carbohydrates from wood pulping and wood or biomass hydrolysis liquors

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, William Louis; Compere, Alicia Lucille; Leitten, Jr., Carl Frederick

    2010-04-20

    A method for separating carbohydrates from pulping liquors includes the steps of providing a wood pulping or wood or biomass hydrolysis pulping liquor having lignin therein, and mixing the liquor with an acid or a gas which forms an acid upon contact with water to initiate precipitation of carbohydrate to begin formation of a precipitate. During precipitation, at least one long chain carboxylated carbohydrate and at least one cationic polymer, such as a polyamine or polyimine are added, wherein the precipitate aggregates into larger precipitate structures. Carbohydrate gel precipitates are then selectively removed from the larger precipitate structures. The method process yields both a carbohydrate precipitate and a high purity lignin.

  12. Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases

    DOEpatents

    Nolan, Paul S.; Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.; Vecci, Stanley J.

    2006-05-02

    A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

  13. Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases

    DOEpatents

    Nolan, Paul S.; Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.; Vecci, Stanley J.

    2003-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

  14. State-specific liquor excise taxes and retail prices in 8 US states, 2012.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Michael; Grundman, Jody; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S; King, Charles; Albers, Alison B; Williams, Rebecca S; Jernigan, David H

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between state excise taxes and liquor prices in 8 states, using 2012 data for 45 brands. The authors made 6042 price observations among 177 liquor stores with online prices. Using a hierarchical model, the authors examined the relationship between excise taxes and product prices. State excise taxes were significantly related to liquor prices, with an estimated pass-through rate of 0.93. The proportion of price accounted for by excise taxes averaged 7.0%. The authors find that excise taxes do increase the price of alcohol, but states are not taking advantage of this opportunity to reduce alcohol-related morbidity and mortality.

  15. One-pot quantitative hydrolysis of lignocelluloses mediated by black liquor.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zuolin; Sun, Meg M; Su, Chungao; Zhao, Hongmei; Ma, Xuemei; Zhu, Zuodong; Shi, Xianlei; Gu, Kangfu

    2013-01-01

    Black liquor from the kraft process facilitates quantitative biomass hydrolysis converting cellulose and hemicellulose into organic acids such as lactic acid (~50%), and lignin into small molecular aromatics, without gasification and black tar formation. Oxygen transfer between lignin and carbohydrates may be the mechanism. With this method, three tons of lignocellulosic biomass can potentially produce up to one ton of lactic acid, and one ton of small molecular aromatics. This novel usage of black liquor is environmentally viable because it is accompanied by significant emission reduction of particulates, sulfur and nitrogen oxides, most organic sulfur compounds and sulfites of black liquor were converted into sulfates.

  16. A novel method for the determination of black liquor viscosity by multiple headspace extraction gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hui-Chao; Chai, Xin-Sheng

    2013-12-13

    This work demonstrates a novel method for the determination of viscosity in the concentrated black liquors from pulp mill recovery process. The method is based on the kinetic release of methanol (a vapor tracer) to the headspace in a sample closed vial by a multiple headspace extraction gas chromatographic technique. Both theoretical and empirical models were proposed for establishing the correlation with the reference method. The results showed that the correlation using either of the models is excellent for the tested black liquor samples (at 110°C). The presented method is simple and practical and can be a valuable tool for black liquor viscosity related research and applications.

  17. Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Whitty

    2007-06-30

    University of Utah's project entitled 'Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer' (DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation released by the U.S. Department of Energy in December 2001, requesting proposals for projects targeted towards black liquor/biomass gasification technology support research and development. Specifically, the solicitation was seeking projects that would provide technical support for Department of Energy supported black liquor and biomass gasification demonstration projects under development at the time.

  18. Energy considerations for steam plasma gasification of black liquor and chemical recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Grandy, J.D.; Kong, P.C.

    1995-07-01

    This paper investigates the energy economics of using a hybrid steam plasma process to gasify black liquor. In the pulp and paper industry, gasification is gaining credibility as an incremental method to supplement the standard Kraft process, which burns the black liquor in large furnaces to recover energy and inorganic chemicals (sodium and sulfur) that are recycled back into the wood pulping process. This paper shows that despite the energy intensive nature of steam plasma processing, several fortuitous conditions arise that make it a viable technology for the gasification of black liquor.

  19. Energy considerations for steam plasma gasification of black liquor and chemical recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Grandy, J.D.; Kong, P.C.

    1995-10-01

    This paper investigates the energy economics of using a hybrid steam plasma process to gasify black liquor. In the pulp and paper industry, gasification is gaining credibility as an incremental method to supplement the standard Kraft process, which bums the black liquor in large furnaces to recover energy and inorganic chemicals (sodium and sulfur) that are recycled back into the wood pulping process. This paper shows that despite the energy intensive nature of steam plasma processing, several fortuitous conditions arise that make it a viable technology for the gasification of black liquor.

  20. Effects of policies to restrict malt liquor sales on neighborhood crime.

    PubMed

    Barajas, Elizabeth; McKee, Patricia; Hannan, Peter J; Nelson, Toben F; Jones-Webb, Rhonda

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of malt liquor sales restrictions adopted in 2005 in three liquor stores in a large Midwestern U.S. city. We hypothesized that the restrictions would be associated with crime reductions in adjacent neighborhoods. Using Poisson regression modeling, we compared crime rates two years prior to, and two years following policy adoption. Findings were mixed; malt liquor restrictions were associated with reductions in disorderly conduct citations, but increases in larceny/theft, beyond citywide trends. Limitations and implications of our study are discussed, and further research suggested. The study was funded by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

  1. Green Thunderstorms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohren, Craig F.; Fraser, Alistair B.

    1993-11-01

    Green thunderstorms are observed occasionally, yet with one exception they have received no scientific attention, experimental or theoretical. Fraser suggested that thunderstorms themselves are not green but that a thick thunderstorm provides a dark backdrop for green airlight near sundown. Greenness is a consequence of reddened sunlight illuminating selective scatterers along the observer's line of sight. Bohron's alternative explanation is that green thunderstorms may be a consequence of the intrinsic blueness of clouds because of selective absorption by pure water, liquid or solid. Most clouds are so thin that the light transmitted by them is not markedly colored because of selective absorption. Only the most massive clouds-large both vertically and horizontally-are thick enough to shift the color of incident sunlight upon transmission. If that incident light is sunlight reddened at sundown, the transmitted light can be perceptually green. These two explanations do not exclude one another but allow for multiple causes, including those not yet identified.

  2. 75 FR 23289 - Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma Liquor Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... members shall not accept gratuity, compensation, or other things of value from any Liquor producer..., but not limited to, a determination that the applicant is of good character and reputation and...

  3. Decolorization of black liquor from bioethanol G2 production using iron oxide coating sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlianti, Vera; Triwahyuni, Eka; Waluyo, Joko; Sari, Ajeng Arum

    2017-01-01

    Bioethanol G2 production using oil palm empty fruit bunch as raw material consists of four steps, namely pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, and purification process. Pretreatment process generates black liquor that causes serious environmental pollution if it is released to the environment. The objective of this research is studying the ability of iron oxide coating sands to adsorb the color of black liquor. The iron oxide coating sands were synthesized from FeCl3.6H2O with quartz sands as support material. This research was conducted on batch mode using black liquor in various pH values. Result obtained that kind of iron oxide on quartz sands's surface was goethite. The result also indicated decreasing of color intensity of black liquor after adsorption process. This research supports local material utilization in environmental technology development to solve some environmental problems.

  4. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of kraft black liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, A.L.

    1989-07-01

    The major accomplishments during the period extending from August 1, 1987 to July 1, 1989 were design and construction of a pilot plant building; design, fabrication, installation, testing, and initial operation of a 3.5 ft/sup 3/ digester system for kraft pulping and a large scale evaporator system for liquor concentration; specification, purchase, and installation of new instruments for lignin characterization; major revision of rheological instruments; specification, purchase, installation, and initial operation of instruments for determining heats of combustion and heats of dilution; extensive revision of techniques for thermal studies; and staff development. Laboratory and pilot scale facilities for conducting experimental kraft pulping, for concentrating experimental and mill liquors for research for complete analysis of liquors, and for rheological and thermal properties measurements for kraft black liquors are now completed. 44 figs.

  5. A review of the determination of organic compounds in Bayer process liquors.

    PubMed

    Power, Greg; Loh, Joanne S C; Wajon, Johannes E; Busetti, Francesco; Joll, Cynthia

    2011-03-09

    Bayer process liquors present a difficult and complex matrix to the analytical chemist, and the history of the application of modern analytical techniques to this problem is a case study in innovation. All Bayer process liquors contain organic compounds, in amounts varying from traces to several grams per litre. The total organic carbon content of Bayer liquors may be less than 5 g/L up to as much as 40 g/L. The presence of these organic impurities is of concern to Bayer technologists because they can have significant impacts on the economics of the process and the quality of the product. This review examines the history and current state-of-the-art of the analysis of organics in Bayer process liquors, and provides guidance on the applicable techniques matched to a comprehensive list of the compounds most likely to be present.

  6. 75 FR 51102 - Liquor Ordinance of the Wichita and Affiliated Tribes; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation.'' DATES: Effective Date: This correction is effective as of August 18..., remove the sentence: ``The amended Liquor Ordinance of the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation reads...

  7. Black liquor fractionation for biofuels production - a techno-economic assessment.

    PubMed

    Mesfun, Sennai; Lundgren, Joakim; Grip, Carl-Erik; Toffolo, Andrea; Nilsson, Rasika Lasanthi Kudahettige; Rova, Ulrika

    2014-08-01

    The hemicelluloses fraction of black liquor is an underutilized resource in many chemical pulp mills. It is possible to extract and separate the lignin and hemicelluloses from the black liquor and use the hemicelluloses for biochemical conversion into biofuels and chemicals. Precipitation of the lignin from the black liquor would consequently decrease the thermal load on the recovery boiler, which is often referred to as a bottleneck for increased pulp production. The objective of this work is to techno-economically evaluate the production of sodium-free lignin as a solid fuel and butanol to be used as fossil gasoline replacement by fractionating black liquor. The hydrolysis and fermentation processes are modeled in Aspen Plus to analyze energy and material balances as well as to evaluate the plant economics. A mathematical model of an existing pulp and paper mill is used to analyze the effects on the energy performance of the mill subprocesses.

  8. A green process to prepare chromic oxide green pigment.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Xu, Hong-Bin; Zheng, Shi-Li; Zhang, Yi; Li, Zuo-Hu; Bai, Yu-Lan

    2008-10-01

    A hydrogen reduction and activated sintering process was proposed to prepare chromic oxide green pigment. Through ICP, XRD, SEM, FT-IR, UV, and CIE-L*a*b* colorimetric analysis, key factors and mechanism that influenced preparation of chromic oxide green pigment were studied. The results revealed that lower hydrogen reduction temperature, suitable addition of Al and Ba, were beneficial to obtaining the high quality chromic oxide green pigment. Typically, when the hydrogen reduction temperature was kept at 450-500 degrees C, physicochemical properties and color performance of the prepared chromic oxide green pigment doped with about 0.1-0.2 wt % Al and 0.2-0.5 wt % Ba conformed to commercial pigment standards. Additionally, characteristics of the green process were discussed. About 90 wt % KOH was reused directly and about 90 wt % Cr(VI) was conversed to Cr(III) directly from potassium chromate to chromic oxide green pigment. Integrating the proprietary green metallurgical process from chromite ore to potassium chromate of this laboratory, more than 99 wt % Cr(VI) could be conversed to Cr(III) compounds and about 99 wt % KOH could be recycled to use. The whole green process, ranging from chromite ore to chromic oxide green pigment, eventually not only provided the possibility for producing the high quality chromic oxide green pigment, but could reach comprehensive utilization of resources, inner recycle of KOH, and zero emission of Cr(VI).

  9. 'White liquor hits black livers': meanings of excessive liquor consumption in South Africa in the second half of the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Mager, Anne

    2004-08-01

    Four years into South Africa's first democracy, the African National Congress Youth League, with the help of the liquor industry's Social Aspects of Alcohol Committee drafted a policy to prevent substance abuse in black communities. They declared that alcohol was 'often not used in a socially acceptable way'. Concerned not so much with post-apartheid policy as with making sense of what socially acceptable alcohol usage might mean, this article explores narratives of alcohol use and abuse in South Africa in the second half of the twentieth century. It demonstrates that while multiple understandings of excess in alcohol consumption were articulated, those notions tied to particular constructions of racial difference prevailed. Ideas pairing drinking habits with race were given effect by state institutions. By tying drinking habits to 'race' and by locating 'race' in a social hierarchy, state institutions determined access to liquor and welfare services. By naturalising Africans as heavy drinkers, the state justified its sale of liquor to African men while denying the need for rehabilitation in the event of alcoholic dependence. By placing 'coloured' closer to 'white' in its racial order, the apartheid state found cause to extend limited rehabilitation services to those designated 'coloured'. By tying liquor revenues to apartheid administration, the ruling regime exonerated its policy of excluding blacks from the retail liquor trade even after lifting prohibition in 1962. This policy encouraged rampant illicit liquor dealing, created a social environment in which alcoholic excess, particularly after 1976, reached new proportions and generated new and dangerous meanings of socially acceptable drinking. Against the grain of these dominant discourses of racially designated meanings of drinking, African people forged a more complex set of practices and meanings not rendered any clearer by the ANC Youth League's discourse of acceptable and unacceptable usage.

  10. Intake of chocolate liquor increases vascular lesions in apoE-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Yazdekhasti, Narges; Brandsch, Corinna; Hirche, Frank; Kühn, Julia; Schloesser, Anke; Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Huebbe, Patricia; Wolffram, Sigfried; Rimbach, Gerald; Stangl, Gabriele I

    2017-09-21

    Cocoa polyphenols are thought to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Thus, cocoa-containing foods may have significant health benefits. Here, we studied the impact of chocolate liquor on vascular lesion development and plaque composition in a mouse model of atherosclerosis. Apolipoprotein E (apoE)-knockout mice were assigned to two groups and fed a Western diet that contained 250 g/kg of either chocolate liquor or a polyphenol-free isoenergetic control paste for 16 weeks. In addition to fat, protein and fibers, the chocolate liquor contained 2 g/kg of polyphenols. Compared to the control group, mice fed the chocolate liquor had larger plaque areas in the descending aorta and aortic root, which were attributed to a higher mass of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and collagen. Vascular lipid deposits and calcification areas did not differ between the two groups. The aortic tissue level of IL-6 mRNA was 5-fold higher in the mice fed chocolate liquor than in the control mice. Chocolate fed mice exhibited an increased hepatic saturated to polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio than the controls. Although the chocolate liquor contained 14 µg/kg of vitamin D2, the chocolate liquor-fed mice did not have measurable 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 in the serum. These mice even showed a 25% reduction in the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 compared to the control mice. To conclude, chocolate liquor, in comparison with the control paste, increased the aortic lesion area and VSMC mass and stimulated the vascular IL-6 mRNA expression. Present data do not support the notion that chocolate promotes vascular health. ©2017 The Author(s).

  11. Analysis of Price Changes in Washington Following the 2012 Liquor Privatization.

    PubMed

    Kerr, William C; Williams, Edwina; Greenfield, Thomas K

    2015-11-01

    In June, 2012 the state of Washington ended a wholesale and retail monopoly on liquor sales resulting in about five times as many stores selling liquor. Three-tier restrictions were also removed on liquor, while beer and wine availability did not increase. Substantial taxes at both the wholesale and retail levels were implemented and it was expected that prices would rise. To evaluate price changes after privatization we developed an index of about 68 brands that were popular in Washington during early 2012. Data on final liquor prices (including all taxes) in Washington were obtained through store visits and on-line sources between November 2013 and March of 2014. Primary analyses were conducted on five or six brand indexes to allow the inclusion of most stores. Washington liquor prices rose by an average of 15.5% for the 750 ml size and by 4.7% for the 1.75 l size, while only small changes were seen in the bordering states of Oregon and Idaho. Prices were found to vary greatly by store type. Liquor Superstores had generally the lowest prices while drugstore, grocery and especially smaller Liquor Store prices were found to be substantially higher. Our findings indicate that liquor prices in Washington increased substantially after privatization and as compared to price changes in bordering states, with a much larger increase seen for the 750 ml size and with wide variation across store types. However, persistent drinkers looking for low prices will be able to find them in certain stores. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of Price Changes in Washington Following the 2012 Liquor Privatization

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, William C.; Williams, Edwina; Greenfield, Thomas K.

    2015-01-01

    Aims In June, 2012 the state of Washington ended a wholesale and retail monopoly on liquor sales resulting in about five times as many stores selling liquor. Three-tier restrictions were also removed on liquor, while beer and wine availability did not increase. Substantial taxes at both the wholesale and retail levels were implemented and it was expected that prices would rise. Methods To evaluate price changes after privatization we developed an index of about 68 brands that were popular in Washington during early 2012. Data on final liquor prices (including all taxes) in Washington were obtained through store visits and on-line sources between November 2013 and March of 2014. Primary analyses were conducted on five or six brand indexes to allow the inclusion of most stores. Results Washington liquor prices rose by an average of 15.5% for the 750 ml size and by 4.7% for the 1.75 l size, while only small changes were seen in the bordering states of Oregon and Idaho. Prices were found to vary greatly by store type. Liquor Superstores had generally the lowest prices while drugstore, grocery and especially smaller Liquor Store prices were found to be substantially higher. Conclusion Our findings indicate that liquor prices in Washington increased substantially after privatization and as compared to price changes in bordering states, with a much larger increase seen for the 750 ml size and with wide variation across store types. However, persistent drinkers looking for low prices will be able to find them in certain stores. PMID:26109262

  13. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of Kraft black liquor. Interim report No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, A.L.; Dong, D.J.; Schmidl, G.W.; Stoy, M.A.; Zaman, A.A.

    1993-09-01

    The black liquor properties program has been conducted over this last period so as to systematically collect data on properties, liquor composition, and lignin characteristics very carefully by methods that have developed during this program. Complete data has been collected for Slash Pine black liquors made by experimental pulping at different pulping conditions. In addition, data has been collected for mill liquors and partial properties or composition data has been collected on Slash Pine black liquors. Data reduction methods have been developed or extended for correlation of viscosity, heat capacity, heat of dilution, and density. Correlation of properties to pulping conditions and of composition to. pulping conditions has begun. In most cases, data reduction methods have been developed that are fundamentally based and that have been shown to be generally applicable to all black liquors. In the near future, we fully expect to accomplish our goal of developing generalized correlations relating physical properties of Slash Pine kraft black liquors to liquor composition. This interim report reviews the methods used, describes examples of data reduction methods that have been developed, and presents some preliminary results for correlation of liquor composition and properties to pulping conditions for Slash Pine black liquors.

  14. Characterization of pyrazines in some Chinese liquors and their approximate concentrations.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wenlai; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Yanhong

    2007-11-28

    Pyrazines are very important impact aroma compounds in Chinese liquors. The identification of pyrazine derivatives was carried out by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). The liquor sample was adjusted to the H(+) concentration of 1 N with 12 N HCl and then concentrated by rotatory evaporator under vacuum condition. The concentrated liquor was extracted by diethyl ether, and the residual aqueous phase was adjusted to pH 10. The basic compounds were detected and identified by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS). A total of 27 pyrazines were identified in Chinese liquors, mainly alkyl- and acetylpyrazines. A method for determining pyrazines in Chinese liquors was developed. It involves extraction by headspace (HS) solid phase microextraction (SPME) and determination using GC-flame thermionic detector (FTD). The optimum method was that the sample alcohol concentration was diluted to 12% vol by freshly redistilled-deionized water, and the diluted samples were saturated with NaCl and equilibrated at 50 degrees C for 15 min and extracted for 30 min at the same temperature. The developed method enabled detection limits of <200 ng/L. Linearity (R(2) > 0.99) and recovery rate were satisfied in all cases. Pyrazines of 12 commercial typical Chinese liquors were quantified by HS-SPME followed by GC-FTD and had a wide range of concentration.

  15. Alcohol and malt liquor availability and promotion and homicide in inner cities.

    PubMed

    Jones-Webb, Rhonda; McKee, Pat; Hannan, Peter; Wall, Melanie; Pham, Lan; Erickson, Darin; Wagenaar, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the role of the alcohol environment in explaining disparities in homicide rates among minorities in 10 cities in the United States using 2003 data from the Malt Liquor and Homicide study. We hypothesized that (a) higher concentrations of African Americans would be associated with higher homicide rates, as well as higher alcohol and malt liquor availability and promotion, and (b) the relationship between neighborhood racial/ethnic concentration and homicide would be attenuated by the greater alcohol and malt liquor availability and promotion in African American neighborhoods. Hypotheses were tested using separate Poisson, linear, and logistic regression models that corrected for spatial autocorrelation. Census block groups served as the unit of analysis (n = 450). We found that higher concentrations of African Americans were associated with higher homicide rates as well as greater alcohol availability, especially malt liquor availability. The promotion of malt liquor on storefronts was also significantly greater in African American than in other neighborhoods. However, none of the measures representing alcohol or malt liquor availability and promotion variables changed the effect of neighborhood racial/ethnic concentration on homicide. Limitations and implications of our findings are discussed.

  16. Classification of Aroma Styles and Geographic Origins of Chinese Liquors Using Chemometrics Based on Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Y.; Huo, D.-Q.; Qin, H.; Shen, C.-H.; Yang, P.; Hou, C.-J.

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the feasibility of fluorescence spectroscopy as a reliable method for discrimination of Chinese liquor according to different aroma styles and geographic origins. The 84 Chinese liquors were analyzed by fluorescence spectroscopy and chemometrics. The results showed that Chinese liquors exhibit characteristic fluorescence spectra recorded at special excitation wavelengths that may be considered as fingerprints. Both principal component analysis (PCA) and stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) were carried out on the emission spectra (330-435 nm) recorded at excitation wavelength 300 nm to classify different aroma styles of Chinese liquors. The first two principal components explained 98.87% of the total variance, and the SLDA classified correctly 100%. Both hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were carried out on the emission spectra (325-420 nm) recorded at excitation wavelength 300 nm to identify different geographic origins of Chinese liquors. HCA accurately identified all the samples and the first three PCA explained 98.25% of the total variance. This study indicates that fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics offers a promising approach for identifying Chinese liquors according to different flavor types and geographic origins.

  17. Feasibility of disposing waste glyphosate neutralization liquor with cement rotary kiln.

    PubMed

    Bai, Y; Bao, Y B; Cai, X L; Chen, C H; Ye, X C

    2014-08-15

    The waste neutralization liquor generated during the glyphosate production using glycine-dimethylphosphit process is a severe pollution problem due to its high salinity and organic components. The cement rotary kiln was proposed as a zero discharge strategy of disposal. In this work, the waste liquor was calcinated and the mineralogical phases of residue were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mineralogical phases and the strength of cement clinker were characterized to evaluate the influence to the products. The burnability of cement raw meal added with waste liquor and the calorific value of waste liquor were tested to evaluate the influence to the thermal state of the kiln system. The results showed that after the addition of this liquor, the differences of the main phases and the strength of cement clinker were negligible, the burnability of raw meal was improved; and the calorific value of this liquor was 6140 J/g, which made it could be considered as an alternative fuel during the actual production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Fuel nitrogen release during black liquor pyrolysis; Part 1: Laboratory measurements at different conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Aho, K.; Vakkilainen, E. ); Hupa, M. . Chemical Engineering Dept.)

    1994-05-01

    Fuel nitrogen release during black liquor pyrolysis is high. There is only minor release during the drying stage. Ammonia is the main fixed nitrogen species formed. The rate of fixed nitrogen release increases with increasing temperature. The level of fixed nitrogen released by birch liquor is almost twice the level for pine liquor. Assuming complete conversion to NO, fixed nitrogen yields gave NO concentrations near typically measured values for flue gases in full scale recovery boilers. The purpose of this work was to gain more detailed information about the behavior of the fuel nitrogen in black liquor combustion. The work focused on the pyrolysis or devolatilization of the combustion process. Devolatilization is the stage at which the majority (typically 50--80%) of the liquor organics release from a fuel particle or droplet as gaseous species due to the rapid destruction of the organic macromolecules in the liquor. In this paper, the authors use the terms devolatilization and pyrolysis interchangeably with no difference in their meaning.

  19. Recovery of flavonoids from orange press liquor by an integrated membrane process.

    PubMed

    Cassano, Alfredo; Conidi, Carmela; Ruby-Figueroa, René

    2014-08-11

    Orange press liquor is a by-product generated by the citrus processing industry containing huge amounts of natural phenolic compounds with recognized antioxidant activity. In this work, an integrated membrane process for the recovery of flavonoids from orange press liquors was investigated on a laboratory scale. The liquor was previously clarified by ultrafiltration (UF) in selected operating conditions by using hollow fiber polysulfone membranes. Then, the clarified liquor with a total soluble solids (TSS) content of 10 g·100 g-1 was pre-concentrated by nanofiltration (NF) up to 32 g TSS 100 g-1 by using a polyethersulfone spiral-wound membrane. A final concentration step, up to 47 g TSS 100 g-1, was performed by using an osmotic distillation (OD) apparatus equipped with polypropylene hollow fiber membranes. Suspended solids were completely removed in the UF step producing a clarified liquor containing most part of the flavonoids of the original press liquor due to the low rejection of the UF membrane towards these compounds. Flavanones and anthocyanins were highly rejected by the NF membrane, producing a permeate stream with a TSS content of 4.5 g·100 g-1. An increasing of both the flavanones and anthocyanins concentration was observed in the NF retentate by increasing the volume reduction factor (VRF). The final concentration of flavonoids by OD produced a concentrated solution of interest for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications.

  20. Recovery of Flavonoids from Orange Press Liquor by an Integrated Membrane Process

    PubMed Central

    Cassano, Alfredo; Conidi, Carmela; Ruby-Figueroa, René

    2014-01-01

    Orange press liquor is a by-product generated by the citrus processing industry containing huge amounts of natural phenolic compounds with recognized antioxidant activity. In this work, an integrated membrane process for the recovery of flavonoids from orange press liquors was investigated on a laboratory scale. The liquor was previously clarified by ultrafiltration (UF) in selected operating conditions by using hollow fiber polysulfone membranes. Then, the clarified liquor with a total soluble solids (TSS) content of 10 g·100 g−1 was pre-concentrated by nanofiltration (NF) up to 32 g TSS 100 g−1 by using a polyethersulfone spiral-wound membrane. A final concentration step, up to 47 g TSS 100 g−1, was performed by using an osmotic distillation (OD) apparatus equipped with polypropylene hollow fiber membranes. Suspended solids were completely removed in the UF step producing a clarified liquor containing most part of the flavonoids of the original press liquor due to the low rejection of the UF membrane towards these compounds. Flavanones and anthocyanins were highly rejected by the NF membrane, producing a permeate stream with a TSS content of 4.5 g·100 g−1. An increasing of both the flavanones and anthocyanins concentration was observed in the NF retentate by increasing the volume reduction factor (VRF). The final concentration of flavonoids by OD produced a concentrated solution of interest for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:25116725

  1. Correlations for viscosity of kraft black liquors at low solids concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Zaman, A.A.; Fricke, A. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    The kinematic viscosities of several kraft black liquors from a two-level, four-variables, factorial-designed experiments for pulping slash pine were determined for solids concentrations from 10 to 50% and temperatures up to 80 C by glass capillary methods. The four pulping variables were cooking time, cooking temperature, sulfidity, and effective alkali. Relationships between temperature and kinematic viscosity have been developed by using free volume and absolute rate theories. The results from these two methods have been compared and discussed. A reduced variables method for dilute polymer solutions was used to correlate the viscosity with the combined effect of temperature and solids concentration. The viscosity of black liquor is an important parameter in the design and performance of kraft recovery systems. The energy efficiency will be increased by firing black liquors at higher solids concentrations. To evaporate the liquor most efficiently and to achieve higher concentrations, knowledge of viscosity over a wide range of temperatures and solids concentrations is essential. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the utility of various fundamentally based models for correlating viscosity data of black liquors as a function of temperature and concentration of nonvolatile components in the region in which the liquors behave a Newtonian fluids.

  2. Greene Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article profiles the 37-year-old researcher Jay P. Greene and his controversial research studies on education. Most people learn early to trust the things they see first, but Greene adheres to a different creed. People are deceived by their own eyes. He believed that visual betrayal is as evident as it is in how people think…

  3. Is liquor intoxicating? Scientists, prohibition, and the normalization of drinking.

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, P J

    1994-01-01

    The reliance of current advocates of recreational drug legalization on parallels between "drug prohibition" and the repudiated experiment of National Prohibition in the 1920s invites renewed attention to the history of the legalization and normalization of drinking. A new scientific conception of the nature and effects of alcohol formed an important element in both the politics of repeal and the ensuing legitimation of alcohol consumption. The industrial toxicologist Yandell Henderson argued that alcohol should be considered analogous to carbon monoxide--clearly a poison, yet a normal part of civilized life and only problematic above a determinable and manageable exposure threshold. This argument had political force in the early 1930s as part of the contention that beer was not an "intoxicating liquor." It was more broadly persuasive because it was consistent with Americans' experience with industrial poisons, for which exposure levels had been set by toxicologists such as Henderson. This historical perspective illuminates the more recent reassessment of the risks of alcohol consumption. It also challenges the applicability of the model of the normalization of drinking to proposals to legalize cocaine and opiates. Images p307-a p309-a PMID:8296962

  4. Maleic acid treatment of biologically detoxified corn stover liquor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daehwan; Ximenes, Eduardo A; Nichols, Nancy N; Cao, Guangli; Frazer, Sarah E; Ladisch, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    Elimination of microbial and enzyme inhibitors from pretreated lignocellulose is critical for effective cellulose conversion and yeast fermentation of liquid hot water (LHW) pretreated corn stover. In this study, xylan oligomers were hydrolyzed using either maleic acid or hemicellulases, and other soluble inhibitors were eliminated by biological detoxification. Corn stover at 20% (w/v) solids was LHW pretreated LHW (severity factor: 4.3). The 20% solids (w/v) pretreated corn stover derived liquor was recovered and biologically detoxified using the fungus Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616. After maleic acid treatment, and using 5 filter paper units of cellulase/g glucan (8.3mg protein/g glucan), 73% higher cellulose conversion from corn stover was obtained for biodetoxified samples compared to undetoxified samples. This corresponded to 87% cellulose to glucose conversion. Ethanol production by yeast of pretreated corn stover solids hydrolysate was 1.4 times higher than undetoxified samples, with a reduction of 3h in the fermentation lag phase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Liquor legislation, last drinks, and lockouts: the Newcastle (Australia) solution.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, G R; Palazzi, K; Oteng Boateng, B K; Oldmeadow, C

    2017-02-18

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the regional implementation of prohibitive liquor legislation, introduced in order to limit the sale of and access to alcohol, can lead to a sustained reduction in the incidence of assault occasioning facial injury, as seen in patients presenting to a level 1 trauma hospital. A retrospective observational cohort study was conducted to document patients who were identified as an acute hospital presentation of assault occasioning facial injury. The period of study was 2003-2015; this ensured a similar period of time before and after the implementation of the legislation in 2008. A statistical analysis was undertaken to assess the rates of change in oral and maxillofacial (OMF) assault admissions pre and post legislation. The study found that pre-legislation numbers of OMF assaults increased at a rate of 14% per annum and then decreased at a rate of 21% per annum post legislation (31% relative rate ratio reduction). Similar trends were seen for all males, males aged 18-35 years, and males where alcohol was recorded at clinical presentation. The introduction of 'last drinks' and 'lock out' legislation has led to a significant and sustained reduction in assaultive alcohol-related facial injury in Newcastle.

  6. A process for producing lignocellulosic flocs from NSSC spent liquor.

    PubMed

    Sitter, Thomas; Oveissi, Farshad; Fatehi, Pedram

    2014-03-10

    Presently, the spent liquor (SL) of neutral sulfite semi chemical (NSSC) pulping process is treated in the waste water system. In this work, a new process for isolating lignocelluloses from the SL of an NSSC process is proposed and the effectiveness of this process is evaluated on industrially produced SL. The results showed that under the optimal conditions of pH 6, 30°C and 15mg/g poly ethylene imine (PEI) concentration in the SL, a maximum of 37% lignin and 37% hemicelluloses could be removed from SL. Alternatively, the dual system of poly diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride (PDADMAC) and PEI (7.5mg/g each) was evaluated in removing lignocelluloses from the SL; and the results showed that lignin and hemicellulose removals were improved to 47% and 50%, respectively. The turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of SL, as well as the elemental analysis of generated flocs were also assessed in this work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Anaerobic treatment of coconut husk liquor for biogas production.

    PubMed

    Leitão, R C; Araújo, A M; Freitas-Neto, M A; Rosa, M F; Santaella, S T

    2009-01-01

    The market for coconut water causes environmental problems as it is one of the major agro-industrial solid wastes in some developing countries. With the aim of reusing the coconut husk, Embrapa developed a system for processing this raw material. During the dewatering stage Coconut Husk Liquor (CHL) is generated with chemical oxygen demand (COD) varying from 60 to 70 g/L due to high concentrations of sugars and tannins. The present study evaluated the feasibility of anaerobic treatment of CHL through Anaerobic Toxicity Assay and the operation of a lab-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor. Results showed that CHL can be treated through a UASB reactor operating with an OLR that reaches up to 10 kg/m3.d and that is maintained stable during the whole operation. With this operational condition, the removal efficiency was higher than 80% for COD and approximately 78% for total tannins, and biogas production was 20 m3 of biogas or 130 KWh per m3 of CHL. Seventy-five percent of the biogas composition was methane and toxicity tests demonstrated that CHL was not toxic to the methanogenic consortia. Conversely, increasing the concentration of CHL leads to increased methanogenic activity.

  8. Is liquor intoxicating? Scientists, prohibition, and the normalization of drinking.

    PubMed

    Pauly, P J

    1994-02-01

    The reliance of current advocates of recreational drug legalization on parallels between "drug prohibition" and the repudiated experiment of National Prohibition in the 1920s invites renewed attention to the history of the legalization and normalization of drinking. A new scientific conception of the nature and effects of alcohol formed an important element in both the politics of repeal and the ensuing legitimation of alcohol consumption. The industrial toxicologist Yandell Henderson argued that alcohol should be considered analogous to carbon monoxide--clearly a poison, yet a normal part of civilized life and only problematic above a determinable and manageable exposure threshold. This argument had political force in the early 1930s as part of the contention that beer was not an "intoxicating liquor." It was more broadly persuasive because it was consistent with Americans' experience with industrial poisons, for which exposure levels had been set by toxicologists such as Henderson. This historical perspective illuminates the more recent reassessment of the risks of alcohol consumption. It also challenges the applicability of the model of the normalization of drinking to proposals to legalize cocaine and opiates.

  9. Effect of pulsation on black liquor gasification. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zinn, B.T.; Jagoda, J.; Jeong, H.; Kushari, A.; Rosen, L.J.

    1998-12-01

    Pyrolysis is an endothermic process. The heat of reaction is provided either by partial combustion of the waste or by heat transfer from an external combustion process. In one proposed system black liquor is pyrolized in a fluidized bed to which heat is added through a series of pulse combustor tail pipes submerged in the bed material. This system appears promising because of the relatively high heat transfer in pulse combustors and in fluidized beds. Other advantages of pulse combustors are discussed elsewhere. The process is, however, only economically viable if a part of the pyrolysis products can be used to fire the pulse combustors. The overall goals of this study were to determine: (1) which is the limiting heat transfer rate in the process of transferring heat from the hot combustion products to the pipe, through the pipe, from the tail pipe to the bed and through the bed; i.e., whether increased heat transfer within the pulse combustor will significantly increase the overall heat transfer rate; (2) whether the heat transfer benefits of the pulse combustor can be utilized while maintaining the temperature in the bed within the narrow temperature range required by the process without generating hot spots in the bed; and (3) whether the fuel gas produced during the gasification process can be used to efficiently fire the pulse combustor.

  10. Antioxidative properties of phenolic antioxidants isolated from corn steep liquor.

    PubMed

    Niwa, T; Doi, U; Kato, Y; Osawa, T

    2001-01-01

    With the immersion of corn into dilute sulfur oxide during starch-manufacturing processes, corn steep liquor (CSL) remains as leftover material. CSL is often used for fermentation, but its components are not fully understood. To determine the properties of CSL, 12 p-coumaric acid-related compounds were isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of CSL with the guidance of antioxidative activity on the rabbit erythrocyte membrane ghost system. The activity of these compounds was compared against oxidative damages, and it was elucidated that the activity of p-coumaric acid derivatives was mainly affected by their functional groups at the 3-position and less by the conjugated side chain. Moreover, p-coumaric acid derivatives exhibited inhibitory activity stronger than that of tocopherols and ascorbic acid on peroxynitrite-mediated lipoprotein nitration. These findings that p-coumaric acid derivatives, which might play a beneficial role against oxidative damage, exist in CSL suggest this byproduct might be a useful resource of phenolic antioxidants.

  11. Biodiesel production from isolated oleaginous fungi Aspergillus sp. using corncob waste liquor as a substrate.

    PubMed

    Venkata Subhash, G; Venkata Mohan, S

    2011-10-01

    The study documented the potential of isolated filamentous fungus Aspergillus sp. as whole cell biocatalyst for biodiesel production using Sabourauds dextrose broth medium (SDBM) and corncob waste liquor (CWL) as substrates. SDBM showed improvement in both biomass production (13.6 g dry weight/1000 ml) and lipid productivity (23.3%) with time. Lipid extraction was performed by direct (DTE) and indirect (IDTE) transesterification methods. DTE showed higher transesterification efficiency with broad spectrum of fatty acids profile over IDTE. CWL as substrate showed good lipid productivity (22.1%; 2g dry biomass; 48 h) along with efficient substrate degradation. Lipids derived from both substrates depicted high fraction of saturated fatty acids than unsaturated ones. Physical characteristics of fungal based biodiesel correlated well with prescribed standards. CWL derived biodiesel showed relatively good fuel properties (acid number, 0.40 mg KOH/g of acid; iodine value, 11 g I₂/100 g oil; density, 0.8342 g/cm³) than SDBM derived biodiesel. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Separation of lignocelluloses from spent liquor of NSSC pulping process via adsorption.

    PubMed

    Dashtban, Mehdi; Gilbert, Allan; Fatehi, Pedram

    2014-04-01

    Hemicelluloses and lignin present in the spent liquor (SL) of neutral sulfite semichemical (NSSC) pulping process can potentially be converted into value-added products such as furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural, levulinic acid, phenols and adhesives. However, the direct conversion of hemicelluloses and lignin of SL into value-added products is uneconomical due to the dilute nature of the SL. To have a feasible downstream process for utilizing lignocelluloses of SL, the lignocelluloses should initially be separated from the SL. In this study, an adsorption process (via applying activated carbon) was considered for isolating the dissolved lignin and hemicelluloses from the SL of an NSSC pulping process. Under the optimal conditions of pH, SL/AC weight ratio, time and temperature of 5.7, 30, 360 min and 30 °C, the maximum lignin and hemicellulose adsorptions were 0.33 and 0.25 g/g on AC. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and turbidity of the SL were decreased by 11% and 39%, respectively, as a result of lignocellulose adsorption on AC. Also, the incineration behavior of the SL-treated AC was studied with a thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA).

  13. The Taiwan Tobacco and Liquor Corporation: To 'join the ranks of global companies'.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, Jappe; Fang, Jennifer; Lee, Kelley

    2017-03-01

    Until the late 1990s, the Taiwan Tobacco and Liquor Corporation (TTL) focused almost exclusively on serving the domestic market as a highly protected monopoly. This paper describes how the company has adopted a more outward looking strategy since 2000, with ambitions to become a regional, and eventually global, business by 2021. Drawing on company documents and industry sources, the paper argues that this shift in strategy was a direct reaction to the decline in domestic market share following liberalisation of the Taiwanese tobacco market and adoption of tougher domestic tobacco control measures. Market opening occurred as a result of pressure from the U.S. Trade Representative in the 1980s, as well as World Trade Organization membership in 2002. It is argued that TTL's efforts to globalise operations have been limited by bureaucratic company management and structures, and ongoing political tension between Taiwan and China. However, the relative success of TTL's alcohol branch, and potential détente as the Taiwanese government reaches out to improve relations with China, may provide TTL with new opportunities to achieve its goal of becoming a regional player with global ambitions. This article is part of the special issue 'The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance.'

  14. The effect of alkali on the product distribution from black liquor conversion under supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Hawangchu, Y; Atong, D; Sricharoenchaikul, V

    2017-07-01

    Lignin in chemical pulping waste, or black liquor (BL), can be converted into various products via supercritical water gasification (SCWG). However, the inherited alkaline contents from the pulping chemicals may affect the product yields and properties. In this research, the influence of the residual alkali on the product distribution via SCWG of soda BL and kraft BL was evaluated. The SCWG was performed in a batch quartz reactor for 10 min at various temperatures (673, 773 and 873 K) and pressures (250, 300 and 400 bar). The highest hydrogen (H2) production occurred at 873 K for the soda BL. The water-gas shift reaction with sodium ions played an important part in the H2 production, while only small amounts of methane and carbon monoxide were detected. Hydrocarbons, carboxylic acids and esters were the dominant substrates in the liquid products, which denoted the potential of this method for bond cleaving of the lignin macromolecule. As a result, BL, which typically contains alkali salt, was an appropriate feedstock for the SCWG reaction to produce renewable fuel. This method not only has a positive influence on the generation of value added products from highly corrosive waste but also helps avoid some technical problems commonly encountered with direct firing in a recovery boiler.

  15. The Taiwan Tobacco and Liquor Corporation: To ‘join the ranks of global companies’

    PubMed Central

    Eckhardt, Jappe; Fang, Jennifer; Lee, Kelley

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Until the late 1990s, the Taiwan Tobacco and Liquor Corporation (TTL) focused almost exclusively on serving the domestic market as a highly protected monopoly. This paper describes how the company has adopted a more outward looking strategy since 2000, with ambitions to become a regional, and eventually global, business by 2021. Drawing on company documents and industry sources, the paper argues that this shift in strategy was a direct reaction to the decline in domestic market share following liberalisation of the Taiwanese tobacco market and adoption of tougher domestic tobacco control measures. Market opening occurred as a result of pressure from the U.S. Trade Representative in the 1980s, as well as World Trade Organization membership in 2002. It is argued that TTL’s efforts to globalise operations have been limited by bureaucratic company management and structures, and ongoing political tension between Taiwan and China. However, the relative success of TTL’s alcohol branch, and potential détente as the Taiwanese government reaches out to improve relations with China, may provide TTL with new opportunities to achieve its goal of becoming a regional player with global ambitions. This article is part of the special issue ‘The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance.’ PMID:28139964

  16. Rapid and direct volatile compound profiling of black and green teas (Camellia sinensis) from different countries with PTR-ToF-MS.

    PubMed

    Yener, Sine; Sánchez-López, José A; Granitto, Pablo M; Cappellin, Luca; Märk, Tilmann D; Zimmermann, Ralf; Bonn, Günther K; Yeretzian, Chahan; Biasioli, Franco

    2016-05-15

    Volatile profiles of 63 black and 38 green teas from different countries were analysed with Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) both for tea leaves and tea infusion. The headspace volatile fingerprints were collected and the tea classes and geographical origins were tracked with pattern recognition techniques. The high mass resolution achieved by ToF mass analyser provided determination of sum formula and tentative identifications of the mass peaks. The results provided successful separation of the black and green teas based on their headspace volatile emissions both from the dry tea leaves and their infusions. The volatile fingerprints were then used to build different classification models for discrimination of black and green teas according to their geographical origins. Two different cross validation methods were applied and their effectiveness for origin discrimination was discussed. The classification models showed a separation of black and green teas according to geographical origins the errors being mostly between neighbouring countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Protective effect of Zhuyeqing liquor, a Chinese traditional health liquor, on acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The study first evaluated the hepatoprotective effect of Zhuyeqing Liquor (ZYQL) against acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. Animals were administered orally with 50% alcohol 12 ml/kg at 4 h after the doses of ZYQL everyday for fourteen consecutive days except mice in normal group. The protective effect was evaluated by biochemical parameters including serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), total-bilirubin (TBIL) and reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver tissue. The result were confirmed histopathologically and the expression of TNF-α in mice liver was determined by immunohistochemistry analysis. HPLC-PDA was used for phytochemical analysis of ZYQL, and the plant source of each compound was claritied by UPLC-TOF-MS. The result showed that pretreatment with ZYQL exhibited a significant protective effect by reversing the biochemical parameters and histopathological changes in a dose depended manner. HPLC analysis indicated that ZYQL contained flavonoids, iridoids, terpenoids and phenolic acids, which might be the active chemicals. This study demonstrated the hepatoprotective activity of ZYQL, thus scientifically supported the function of its health care. PMID:24090365

  18. Optical properties of black liquor and refractometric methods for monitoring the solid residue concentration in sulfate cellulose production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, N. P.; Lapshov, S. N.; Mayorov, E. E.; Sherstobitova, A. S.; Yaskov, A. D.

    2012-07-01

    Measurements of the refractive index, its temperature dependence, and the optical transmission of black liquors produced during sulfate pulping are reported for soluble solid residue concentrations up to k ≅ 60 %. The design features of a commercial refractometer for monitoring the concentration of black liquor are examined briefly. A procedure is proposed for laboratory calibration of commercial sensors that employs black liquor solutions in highly refractive organic liquids as reference samples.

  19. Degradation of black liquor from bioethanol process using coagulation and Fenton-like methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muryanto, Muryanto; Sari, Ajeng Arum; Abimanyu, Haznan

    2017-01-01

    Black liquor is one of the main by-products of the pretreatment process in bioethanol production from oil palm empty fruit bunches. Black liquor wastewater releases black coloured effluent with high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and low dissolved oxygen (DO). It had a distinctive dark coloration, high alkalinity (pH=13), high organic content (COD > 50,000 ppm) and a high solid content (TSS > 5,000 ppm). Lignin destruction can be done by using high oxidation from OH radical system such as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Thereafter, the high concentration of COD, color, and TSS can be removed. The general aim of the present investigation was to determine degradation of black liquor wastewater by using a combined coagulation and Fenton-like methods. In this research, we use Poly Aluminum Chloride (PAC) as a coagulant and FeCl3.6H2O and H2O2 for Fenton-like's reagent. The process was conducted in jar test at 200 rpm for 30 minutes and after that slowly mixed for 2 hours and left for sedimentation 24 hours. 50 ml black liquor was added with variation dose of 1-5% PAC, and 10 % Fenton-like reagent. Hydroxyl radical was generated by the Fenton-like's reagent (ratio FeCl3.6H2O : H2O2 was varied). The highest decolorization of black liquor 70 % was obtained under 5% PAC coagulant. The pH of the wastewater was reduced from 13.00 to 8.07 after the addition of the coagulant. The decolorization of original black liquor was approximately 58% through the Fenton-like process. The combination of PAC and Fenton-like reagent has able to enhance the decolorization of black liquor up to 97%.

  20. Effects of cacao liquor polyphenols on cardiovascular and autonomic nervous functions in hypercholesterolaemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Akita, Megumi; Kuwahara, Masayoshi; Itoh, Fumi; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Osakabe, Naomi; Kurosawa, Tohru; Tsubone, Hirokazu

    2008-12-01

    Many epidemiological studies have shown that polyphenols can reduce the risk of mortality from cardiovascular diseases. This study tested the hypothesis that cacao liquor polyphenols have the properties to restore the cardiovascular and autonomic nervous function in an animal model of familial hypercholesterolaemia. Male Kurosawa and Kusanagi-hypercholesterolaemic rabbits were housed in individual cages in a room where a 12-hr light:dark cycle (lights-on at 8:00 and lights-off at 20:00) was maintained. At 3 months of age, they were divided into two groups (standard diet and cacao liquor polyphenol) and the animals received 100 g of the respective diets per day and were provided with tap water ad libitum. Heart rate and blood pressure were measured by a telemetry system. To clarify the autonomic nervous function, power spectral analysis of heart rate variability, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic nervous tone were measured. After 6 months of dietary administration of cacao liquor polyphenols, heart rate and blood pressure were lowered but plasma lipid concentrations were unchanged. The area of atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta in the cacao liquor polyphenol group was significantly smaller than that in the standard diet group. The high-frequency power of heart rate variability in the rabbits in the standard diet group was significantly decreased with ageing, but that in the cacao liquor polyphenol group was not different between short-term and long-term treatment. Moreover, cacao liquor polyphenols preserved parasympathetic nervous tone, although that in the standard diet group was significantly decreased with ageing. We conclude that cacao liquor polyphenols may play an important role to protect cardiovascular and autonomic nervous functions.

  1. Green chemistry metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthetic chemists have always had an objective to achieve reliable and high-yielding routes to the syntheses of targeted molecules. The importance of minimal waste generation has emphasized the use of green chemistry principles and sustainable development. These directions lead ...

  2. Green chemistry metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthetic chemists have always had an objective to achieve reliable and high-yielding routes to the syntheses of targeted molecules. The importance of minimal waste generation has emphasized the use of green chemistry principles and sustainable development. These directions lead ...

  3. Social capital, the miniaturisation of community and consumption of homemade liquor and smuggled liquor during the past year. A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Martin

    2005-12-01

    To study the impact of social participation, trust and the miniaturisation of community, i.e. high social participation/low trust, on consumption of homemade liquor and smuggled liquor during the past year. The Scania 2000 public health survey is a cross-sectional, postal questionnaire study. A total of 13,604 persons aged 18-80 years were included. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the association between the social capital variables and illegal alcohol consumption. The multivariate analyses analysed the importance of confounders (age, country of origin, education and economic stress) on the differences in consumption of homemade and smuggled liquor according to the social capital variables. A 28.2% proportion of all men and 14.9% of all women had consumed homemade liquor during the past year. The proportions who had consumed smuggled liquor during the past year were even higher, 40.1% among men and 21.4% among women. Both forms of illegal alcohol consumption were significantly positively associated with social participation and negatively associated with trust. The miniaturisation of community category, i.e. high social participation/low trust, had significantly higher risks of consumption during the past year of the consumption of both forms of illegally provided alcohol compared to the high social capital (high social participation/high trust) category, while the low social participation/high trust category had significantly lower risks. High social participation combined with low trust is positively associated with consumption of illegally provided alcohol. The results have implications for alcohol prevention programs, because structural/social factors that may hinder information and norms concerning illegal alcohol have been identified in this study.

  4. Green Engineering

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Green Engineering is the design, commercialization and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while reducing the generation of pollution at the source and minimizing the risk to human health and the environment.

  5. Green Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large paved surfaces keep rain from infiltrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Alternatively, Green infrastructure uses natural processes to reduce and treat stormwater in place by soaking up and storing water. These systems provide many environmental, social, an...

  6. Green Tool

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Green Tool represents infiltration-based stormwater control practices. It allows modelers to select a BMP type, channel shape and BMP unit dimensions, outflow control devices, and infiltration method. The program generates an HSPF-formatted FTABLE.

  7. Green Giant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polo, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Details the design of the Bahen Centre for Information Technology at the University of Toronto, particularly its emphasis on "green," or sustainable, design. Includes floor plans and photographs. (EV)

  8. Green Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large paved surfaces keep rain from infiltrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Alternatively, Green infrastructure uses natural processes to reduce and treat stormwater in place by soaking up and storing water. These systems provide many environmental, social, an...

  9. Green Giant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polo, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Details the design of the Bahen Centre for Information Technology at the University of Toronto, particularly its emphasis on "green," or sustainable, design. Includes floor plans and photographs. (EV)

  10. Code Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMinn, John

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the integrated approach to green design in the new Computer Science Building at Toronto's York University. The building design fulfills the university's demand to combine an energy efficient design with sustainability. Floor and site plans are included. (GR)

  11. Green Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  12. Production of xylanase and β-xylosidase from autohydrolysis liquor of corncob using two fungal strains.

    PubMed

    Michelin, Michele; Polizeli, Maria de Lourdes T M; Ruzene, Denise S; Silva, Daniel P; Ruiz, Héctor A; Vicente, António A; Jorge, João A; Terenzi, Héctor F; Teixeira, José A

    2012-09-01

    Agroindustrial residues are materials often rich in cellulose and hemicellulose. The use of these substrates for the microbial production of enzymes of industrial interest is mainly due to their high availability associated with their low cost. In this work, corncob (CCs) particles decomposed to soluble compounds (liquor) were incorporated in the microbial growth medium through autohydrolysis, as a strategy to increase and undervalue xylanase and β-xylosidase production by Aspergillus terricola and Aspergillus ochraceus. The CCs autohydrolysis liquor produced at 200 °C for 5, 15, 30 or 50 min was used as the sole carbon source or associated with untreated CC. The best condition for enzyme synthesis was observed with CCs submitted to 30 min of autohydrolysis. The enzymatic production with untreated CCs plus CC liquor was higher than with birchwood xylan for both microorganisms. A. terricola produced 750 total U of xylanase (144 h cultivation) and 30 total U of β-xylosidase (96-168 h) with 0.75% untreated CCs and 6% CCs liquor, against 650 total U of xylanase and 2 total U of β-xylosidase in xylan; A. ochraceus produced 605 total U of xylanase and 56 total U of β-xylosidase (168 h cultivation) with 1% untreated CCs and 10% CCs liquor against 400 total U of xylanase and 38 total U of β-xylosidase in xylan. These results indicate that the treatment of agroindustrial wastes through autohydrolysis can be a viable strategy in the production of high levels of xylanolytic enzymes.

  13. Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Whitty

    2008-06-30

    The University of Utah's project 'Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment' (U.S. DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42261) was a response to U.S. DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS36-04GO94002, 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative' Topical Area 4-Kraft Black Liquor Gasification. The project began September 30, 2004. The objective of the project was to improve the understanding of black liquor conversion in high pressure, high temperature reactors that gasify liquor through partial oxidation with either air or oxygen. The physical and chemical characteristics of both the gas and condensed phase were to be studied over the entire range of liquor conversion, and the rates and mechanisms of processes responsible for converting the liquor to its final smelt and syngas products were to be investigated. This would be accomplished by combining fundamental, lab-scale experiments with measurements taken using a new semi-pilot scale pressurized entrained-flow gasifier. As a result of insufficient availability of funds and changes in priority within the Office of Biomass Programs of the U.S. Department of Energy, the research program was terminated in its second year. In total, only half of the budgeted funding was made available for the program, and most of this was used during the first year for construction of the experimental systems to be used in the program. This had a severe impact on the program. As a consequence, most of the planned research was unable to be performed. Only studies that relied on computational modeling or existing experimental facilities started early enough to deliver useful results by the time to program was terminated Over the course of the program, small scale (approx. 1 ton/day) entrained-flow gasifier was designed and installed at the University of Utah's off-campus Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility. The system is designed to operate at

  14. Development of blueberry liquor: influence of distillate, sweetener and fruit quantity.

    PubMed

    Caldeira, Ilda; Lopes, Daniel; Delgado, Teresa; Canas, Sara; Anjos, Ofélia

    2017-07-19

    In this work different formulations of blueberry liquor were tested and characterised based on their physico-chemical and sensory characteristics. Three factors were evaluated: the distillate used to produce the liquor (wine spirit or grape marc spirit); the sweetener (white sugar or honey) and the fruit quantity (two doses). For each liquor, pH, total acidity, dry soluble solids content, dry extract, alcoholic strength, reducing sugars, colour intensity, methanol content, acetaldehyde and fusel alcohols were determined. Sensory tests were carried out with a trained panel. The three factors studied significantly influenced the physico-chemical features of the liquors, being the quantity of fruit the most discriminating factor, except for the volatile compounds which were mainly influenced by the distillate. As regards the sensory analysis, it was found that the most appreciated liquor was that prepared with wine spirit, sugar and a lower dose of blueberry, and the less appreciated formulation was the one made with grape marc spirit, honey and a lower quantity of blueberry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Separation of humic acids from Bayer process liquor by membrane filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Awadalla, F.T.; Kutowy, O.; Tweddle, A. ); Hazlett, J.D. )

    1994-05-01

    Humic acids of high molecular weight were removed from spent Bayer liquor by polymeric ultrafiltration membranes. Among the commercial and laboratory-cast membranes tested, Radel-R polyphenylsulfone on a polypropylene backing material was found to be the most promising candidate for this separation. However, the maximum separation of humic acids obtained at operating conditions of 50[degree]C and 0.34 MPa, as measured by spectrophotometric analysis, was only in the 50 to 55% range. In order to explain this limited membrane separation of humic acids in spent Bayer liquor, a synthetic alkaline solution of humic acids was treated using the same membranes. These tests indicated much higher separation of humic acids (92%). Humic substances in Bayer liquor appear to be hydrolyzed and degraded to low molecular weight fractions (molecular weight < 1000 daltons) by the combined action of the strongly alkaline Bayer liquor and high digestion temperatures. These low molecular weight fractions cannot be retained by standard ultrafiltration membranes. However, some preliminary tests with laboratory-cast Radel-R nanofiltration membranes showed improved color separation (> 70%) when treating spent Bayer liquor. 23 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Liquor landscapes: Does access to alcohol outlets influence alcohol consumption in young adults?

    PubMed

    Foster, Sarah; Trapp, Georgina; Hooper, Paula; Oddy, Wendy H; Wood, Lisa; Knuiman, Matthew

    2017-05-01

    Few longitudinal studies have examined the impact of liquor licences on alcohol consumption, and none in young adults, the life stage when alcohol intake is at its highest. We examined associations between liquor licences (i.e., general licences, on-premise licences, liquor stores, and club licences) and alcohol consumption at 20-years (n=988) and 22-years (n=893), and whether changes in the licences between time-points influenced alcohol consumption (n=665). Only general licences were associated with alcohol consumption at 20-years (p=0.037), but by 22-years, all licences types were positively associated with alcohol consumption (p<0.05). Longitudinal analyses showed that for each increase in liquor stores over time, alcohol consumption increased by 1.22g/day or 8% (p=0.030), and for each additional club licence, consumption increased by 0.90g/day or 6% (p=0.007). Limiting liquor licences could contribute to a reduction in young adults' alcohol intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A field experimental study of lignin sand stabilizing material (LSSM) extracted from spent-liquor of straw pulping paper mills.

    PubMed

    Wang, Han-Jie; Li, Jing; Lu, Xiao-Zhen; Jin, Yong-Can

    2005-01-01

    A new technique was introduced for sand stabilization and re-vegetation by use of lignin sand stabilizing material (LSSM). LSSM is a reconstructed organic compound with lignin as the most dominant component from the extracts of black-liquor issued by straw pulp paper mills. Unlike the polyvinyl acetate or foamed asphalt commonly used for dune stabilization, the new material is plant-friendly and can be used with virescence actions simultaneously. The field experimental study was conducted since 2001 in China's Northwest Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region and has been proved that LSSM is effective in stabilizing the fugitive dunes, making the arenaceous plants survive and the bare dune vegetative. The advisable solution concentration is 2% and the optimal field spraying quantity is 2.5 L/m2. The soil nutrients of the stabilized and greened dune, such as organic matter, available phosphorous and total nitrogen are all increased compared with the control treatment, which is certainly helpful to the growth of arenaceous plants. The technique is worthwhile to be popularized because it is provided not only a new method for desertification control but also an outlet for cleaning contaminants issued from the straw paper mills.

  18. Corn steep liquor as a nutrition adjunct for the production of Aspergillus niger lipase and hydrolysis of oils thereof.

    PubMed

    Edwinoliver, N G; Thirunavukarasu, K; Purushothaman, S; Rose, C; Gowthaman, M K; Kamini, N R

    2009-11-25

    Corn steep liquor (CSL) has been used as a nutrition adjunct for the production of an extracellular lipase from Aspergillus niger, which has immense importance as an additive in laundry detergent formulations. A five-level four-factorial central composite design was chosen to determine the optimal medium components with four critical variables, namely, CSL, NH4H2PO4, Na2HPO4, and sesame oil, that were found to be influential for lipase production by the classical one-factor-at-a-time method. The model suggested that all of the factors chosen had a significant impact on lipase production, and the optimum values of the influential parameters were CSL, 2.0%, w/v; NH4H2PO4, 0.05%, w/v; Na2HPO4, 0.75%, w/v; and sesame oil, 2.0%, w/v, with an activity of 26.7 U/mL at 48 h and 30 degrees C, which was 2.16-fold higher than the initial activity (12 U/mL) obtained by the conventional one-factor-at-a-time method. Furthermore, the enzyme has good potential for the hydrolysis of vegetable oils and fish oils, and a hydrolytic ratio of 88.73% was obtained with palm oil at 48 h. The utilization of CSL and sesame oil for lipase production from A. niger makes the process green, because both are renewable substrates and economically viable at an industrial scale.

  19. Effect of yeast species on the terpenoids profile of Chinese light-style liquor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qun; Zhu, Weian; Wang, Wei; Xu, Yan

    2015-02-01

    Terpenoids are important trace flavour constituents in Chinese light-style liquors, and are formed by the various yeast species present during fermentation of liquor from cereal and legume materials. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia kudriavzevii and Wickerhamomyces anomalus are three such yeast species, and we found S. cerevisiae capable of generating thirteen different terpenoids in cereal and legume extract fermentation, by both de novo and biotransformation pathways. We also found that cereals such as sorghum and barley, and legumes such as peas, contained different terpenoids precursors, which differentially affected the formation and profile of terpenoids mixtures. This work gives new insights into the role of yeast species in generating the various terpenoids mixtures found in Chinese light-style liquors.

  20. Technical Report Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fornetti, Micheal; Freeman, Douglas

    2012-10-31

    The Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Project was developed to construct a black liquor to Methanol biorefinery in Escanaba, Michigan. The biorefinery was to be co-located at the existing pulp and paper mill, NewPage’s Escanaba Paper Mill and when in full operation would: • Generate renewable energy for Escanaba Paper Mill • Produce Methanol for transportation fuel of further refinement to Dimethyl Ether • Convert black liquor to white liquor for pulping. Black liquor is a byproduct of the pulping process and as such is generated from abundant and renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The biorefinery would serve to validate the thermochemical pathway and economic models for black liquor gasification. It was a project goal to create a compelling new business model for the pulp and paper industry, and support the nation’s goal for increasing renewable fuels production and reducing its dependence on foreign oil. NewPage Corporation planned to replicate this facility at other NewPage Corporation mills after this first demonstration scale plant was operational and had proven technical and economic feasibility. An overview of the process begins with black liquor being generated in a traditional Kraft pulping process. The black liquor would then be gasified to produce synthesis gas, sodium carbonate and hydrogen sulfide. The synthesis gas is then cleaned with hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide removed, and fed into a Methanol reactor where the liquid product is made. The hydrogen sulfide is converted into polysulfide for use in the Kraft pulping process. Polysulfide is a known additive to the Kraft process that increases pulp yield. The sodium carbonate salts are converted to caustic soda in a traditional recausticizing process. The caustic soda is then part of the white liquor that is used in the Kraft pulping process. Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant project set out to prove that black liquor gasification could

  1. Advanced process for precipitation of lignin from ethanol organosolv spent liquors.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Peter; Seidel-Morgenstern, Andreas; Lorenz, Heike; Leschinsky, Moritz; Unkelbach, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    An advanced process for lignin precipitation from organosolv spent liquors based on ethanol evaporation was developed. The process avoids lignin incrustations in the reactor, enhances filterability of the precipitated lignin particles and significantly reduces the liquor mass in downstream processes. Initially, lignin solubility and softening properties were understood, quantified and exploited to design an improved precipitation process. Lignin incrustations were avoided by targeted precipitation of solid lignin at specific conditions (e.g. 100 mbar evaporation pressure, 43°C and 10%wt. of ethanol in lignin dispersion) in fed-batch operation at lab and pilot scale. As result of evaporation the mass of spent liquor was reduced by about 50%wt., thus avoiding large process streams. By controlled droplet coalescence the mean lignin particle size increased from below 10 μm to sizes larger than 10 μm improving the significantly filterability.

  2. Removing Al and regenerating caustic soda from the spent washing liquor of Al etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barakat, M. A.; El-Sheikh, S. M.; Farghly, F. E.

    2005-08-01

    Spent liquor from washing of aluminum section materials after etching with caustic soda (NaOH) has been treated. Aluminum was removed from the liquor and caustic soda was regenerated by adding precipitating agents to hydrolyze sodium aluminate (Na2AlO2), separating the aluminumprecipitate, and concentrating free NaOH in the resulting solution for reuse in the etching process. Four systems were investigated: hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2], hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), H2O2/Ca(OH)2 mixture, and dry lime (CaO). Results revealed that CaO was more efficient in the removal of aluminum from the spent liquor with a higher hydrolyzing rate of Na2AlO2 than Ca(OH)2, H2O2, or their mixture.

  3. [Rapid determination of silicon content in black liquor of straw fibrous material].

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Long; Chai, Xin-Sheng; Zhan, Huai-Yu; Liu, Meng-Ru; Fu, Shi-Yu; Sun, Li-Jin

    2012-06-01

    The present paper reports a novel method for the determination of silicon content in straw fibrous material black liquor based on alpha-Si--Mo heteropoly acid spectrophotometry. The selected conditions were as follows: detection wavelength 360 nm, pH 4.0, and reaction time 10 min. It was found that the acidic soluble lignin in the sample liquor was the major interference species in the silicon content determination. The interference of acidic soluble lignin can be eliminated by hydrogen peroxide-nitric acid digestion method. The present method is not only simple, rapid, stable and less interferential, but also of good measurement precision and accuracy, with the relative standard deviations of 0.9%, and recoveries of 99.0%-102%. It is suitable for use in high silicon content of black liquor routine rapid analyses.

  4. Maqui berry vs Sloe berry--liquor-based beverage for new development.

    PubMed

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    "Pacharin" is an aniseed liquor-based beverage made with sloe berry (Prunus spinosa L.) that has been produced in northern Spain. On the other hand, maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) is a common edible berry from Chile, and currently under study because of its multiple beneficial effects on health. The aim of this work was to design a new aniseed liquor-based beverage with maqui berry, as an industrial alternative to a traditional alcoholic product with bioactive berries. The characterization of its composition, compared with the traditional "Pacharin", and its evolution during maceration (6 and 12 months) showed that the new maqui liquor had significantly-higher anthocyanin retention over time. More studies on the organoleptic properties and bioactivity are underway.

  5. A study of soil moisture variability and vegetation greenness dynamics in a mountainous rangeland watershed using direct measurements, remote sensing, and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, Kala Nidhi

    Soil moisture content (theta, m3 m-3) and vegetation greenness in a semi-arid mountainous rangeland watershed were evaluated using field measurements, remotely sensed data, a hydrologic model, and a Geographic Information System (GIS). Field research was carried out in the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (RCEW, 234 km2) located on the northern flanks of the Owyhee mountains about 80 km (50 miles) southwest of Boise, Idaho, USA. This research was divided into three objectives: (1) to characterize the spatial dependence and temporal stability of theta in smaller sub-catchments, (2) to investigate the relationship between plant available soil water (PASW) and greenness of rangeland vegetation, and (3) to evaluate the effect of terrain, soil, and climate parameters on the spatial variability of theta and other water balance parameters using a simulation model and GIS. Geostatistical analysis of theta measurements taken at small sub-catchments (0.13 and 0.26 km2) within the RCEW at a depth of 0--30 cm indicated that there was a spatial correlation in theta for about 200 m. Spatial variability was associated with the season and orientation of the sub-catchments. A parametric approach of temporal stability analysis indicated that about five to six sampling locations are adequate to capture the catchment average theta for these small sub-catchments. Soil water content and the vegetative greenness dynamics at the scale of RCEW were evaluated using field theta measurements, remote sensing data, and modeling. Vegetation indices (VI) derived from satellite images provided spatially distributed patterns on the growth and productivity of vegetation. The SAVI (Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index) was compared with the PASW derived from field theta measurements and with ERHYM (Ekalaka Rangeland Hydrology and Yield Model) generated outputs of transpiration (T) and potential evapotranspiration (PET). The ERHYM-simulated theta were compared with the field measured theta. They were

  6. Internal quantum efficiency and Auger recombination in green, yellow and red InGaN-based light emitters grown along the polar direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, Thi Huong; Gil, Bernard; Damilano, Benjamin; Lekhal, Kaddour; De Mierry, Philippe

    2017-03-01

    We comparatively study the onset of photo-induced non-radiative intrinsic Auger recombination processes for red, yellow and green light emitting InGaNsbnd GaN hetero-structures grown along the polar orientation. We find a dramatic reduction of the photo excitation densities triggering the domination of Auger effect with increasing emission wavelength; that is to say in concert with the enhancement of the internal electric field in the structure. In long wavelength emitters, the internal electric field is stronger, and hence reducing the impact of the internal electric field is more critical.

  7. 78 FR 4431 - Santee Sioux Nation-Title XXI-Alcohol, Chapter 1.-Santee Sioux Nation Liquor Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... other thing of value from any liquor wholesaler, retailer, or distributor or from any licensee; 2. Waive... distribution of liquor, as well as for the taxes collected. E. Audit. As a condition of obtaining a license, the licensee must agree to the review or audit of its book and records relating to the sale of...

  8. Taiwan refineries adopt wet-air oxidation to treat spent caustic liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, C.E. )

    1994-03-01

    Wet-air oxidation technology is enabling a petrochemical company in Taiwan to increase production while protecting the environment. This 30-year-old technology has found a new niche at three refineries owned and operated by Chinese Petroleum Corporation to treat spent caustic liquor derived from ethylene production and other sources. Wet-air oxidation destroys sulfides, mercaptans, phenols and other difficult-to-treat pollutants, or converts them to biodegradable constituents. Such highly colored, odorous liquors are not amenable to biological treatment; however, effluent from wet-air oxidation at CPC is water-clear and treated easily by the company's biological wastewater treatment system.

  9. Ultrafiltration of sulfite liquors for separation of lignosulfonates removed from water by coagulation

    SciTech Connect

    Medvedev, Yu.M.; Medvedev, M.I.; Tsapyuk, E.A.

    1986-04-10

    This paper attempts to select an ultrafilter retaining lignosulfonate (LS) fractions precipitated by coagulants and to study the relationships of their concentration and efficiency of removal from water by coagulants. The material studied - sulfite liquor from the Syas' pulp and paper combine - was fractionated with the use of ''Vladipor'' cellulose acetate ultrafiltration membranes of various pore sizes. Data on the efficiency of removal from water of LS fractions retained by membranes differing in pore size are presented. It is concluded that ecologically safe LS fractions (removed almost completely by the coagulant) can be obtained by ultrafiltration of technical liquor through UAM-500 membranes under 0.7 MPA pressure.

  10. High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry kraft recovery boilers. Quarterly report, Phase 1a: Black liquor gasifier evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This project phase addresses the following workscope: Conduct bench-scale tests of a low temperature, partial combustion gasifier; Prepare a gasifier pilot-plant preliminary design and cost estimate and prepare a budgetary cost estimate of the balance of the program; Outline a test program to evaluate gasification; Prepare an economic/market analysis of gasification and solicit pulp and paper industry support for subsequent phases; and Prepare a final report and conduct a project review prior to commencement of work leading to construction of any pilot scale components or facilities. The primary accomplishments included completion of installation of the bench-scale black liquor gasifier and supporting systems, preparing test plans and related safety procedures and detailed operating procedures, defining the functional design requirements and outlining the test plans for the pilot-scale gasifier, and preparing a preliminary economic assessment of the black liquor gasifier. This work accomplished under Phase 1a during this period is further described by task.

  11. Green Power Partnership Videos

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Green Power Partnership develops videos on a regular basis that explore a variety of topics including, Green Power partnership, green power purchasing, Renewable energy certificates, among others.

  12. Epidemiological and histopathological study of relevance of Guizhou Maotai liquor and liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jun; Cheng, Ming-Liang; Zhang, Guo-Hao; Zhai, Rong-Wei; Huang, Neng-Hui; Li, Cheng-Xiu; Luo, Tian-Yong; Lu, Shuang; Yu, Zhi-Qin; Yao, Yu-Mei; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Ren, Lan-Zhen; Ye, Lan; Li, Ling; Zhang, Hui-Na

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To explore the relevance of Maotai liquor and liver diseases. METHODS: Epidemiological study was conducted on groups of subjects, each consisting of 3 subjects from the Maotai liquor group consisting of 99 individuals and one from the non-alcoholic control group consisting of 33 individuals. Liver biopsy was performed on 23 volunteers from Guizhou Maotai Distillery who had a constant and long history of drinking Maotai liquor. Experimental histopathological study was conducted as follows: sixty male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups randomly and fed with Maotai liquor, ordinary white wine, and physiological saline respectively for a period of 8 and 12 weeks. The rats were sacrificed in batches, then serum ALT, AST, TBil, and AKP were measured. Rat livers were harvested to measure the liver indexes, GSH, and MDA. Histopathological examinations were also performed. Another eighty mice were randomly divided into 4 groups and fed with Maotai (at different dosages of 10 mL·kg-1 and 20 mL·kg-1), ethanol, and physiological saline. The animals were sacrificed after 4 weeks and serum ALT was determined. Then the livers were harvested and liver indexes and MDA were measured. RESULTS: The incidence rate of hepatic symptoms, splenomegaly, liver function impairment, reversal of Albumin/Globulin and increased diameter of portal veins in the Maotai liquor group were 1.0% (1/99), 1.0% (1/99), 1.0% (1/99), 1.0% (1/99), 0 (0/99) and 0 (0/99), 0 (0/99), 0 (0/99), 0 (0/99), 0 (0/99), respectively. There was no significant difference between the Maotai group and the non-alcoholic control group (P > 0.05). Various degree of fatty infiltration of hepatocytes was found in the 23 volunteers receiving liver biopsy, but there was no obvious hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. A comparison was made between the Maotai liquor group and the ordinary white wine group. It was found that hepatic MDA in rats and mice were 0.33 ± 0.10 and 0.49 ± 0.23 respectively in Maotai group and 0.61

  13. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of Kraft black liquor. Interim report No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, A.L.

    1990-12-01

    Experimental effort for the program to evaluate physical properties of kraft black liquors is now proceeding well. Experimental work includes pulping, liquor analysis, lignin purification and characterization, vapor-liquid equilibria, heat capacity, heats of solution and combustion, and viscosity measurements. Measurement of thermal conductivity has not yet begun. Collection of the data necessary for development of generalized correlations is proceeding, but will require about two more years. The digester is operating very well. It is now possible to operate the digester as a closed, rotating reactor or as a batch reactor with liquor circulation. When operated with liquor circulation, temperatures within the chip bed can be monitored during cooking. Cooking is reproducible, and cooks are being performed to produce liquors for experimental studies. The digester could be further modified to permit us to conduct rapid exchange batch pulping or to permit us to simulate continuous pulping. Liquors to be used in experimental studies are concentrated in our large scale evaporator or in our small scale evaporator. The large scale evaporator is used to concentrate liquors to about 50% solids for storage and for use in studies requiring high solids liquors. The small scale evaporator is used for preparing final samples to as high as 85% solids and for measuring vapor-liquid equilibria. Liquors are now routinely analyzed to determine all components, except higher molecular weight organic acids and extractives. Lignin determination by uv-visible means has been improved. Lignin purification from black liquor has been improved and lignin molecular weights are determined routinely. Work on lignin molecular weight distribution is still not satisfactory, but recent developments holds promise.

  14. Green Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    More and more people are viewing the world through green-tinted glasses, and those ideas about making school and university facilities more environmentally friendly suddenly are appearing to be prudent and responsible. Among the groups that have been advocating for environmentally friendly school design for years are the Collaborative for High…

  15. Think green.

    PubMed

    Serb, Chris

    2008-08-01

    Hospitals typically don't come to mind when you think about cutting-edge environmental programs, but that's changing. Rising energy costs, the need to replace older facilities, and a growing environmental consciousness have spurred hospitals nationwide to embrace a green ideology. The executive suite is a vocal and active player in these efforts.

  16. Buying Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layng, T. V. Joe

    2010-01-01

    In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price, quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener…

  17. Green Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    In the world of higher education, even the most ambitious sustainability plans often begin with tiny steps taken by individual departments. Michael Crowley, a program manager for Environmental Health & Engineering (EH&E) and former assistant director of the Harvard (Massachusetts) Green Campus Initiative, explains that going for small wins through…

  18. Green Coffee

    MedlinePlus

    ... of IBS. Thinning bones (osteoporosis): Caffeine from green coffee and other sources can increase the amount of calcium that is flushed out in the urine. This might weaken bones. If you have osteoporosis, limit caffeine consumption to less than 300 mg per day (approximately ...

  19. Green pioneers.

    PubMed

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output.

  20. Green Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    More and more people are viewing the world through green-tinted glasses, and those ideas about making school and university facilities more environmentally friendly suddenly are appearing to be prudent and responsible. Among the groups that have been advocating for environmentally friendly school design for years are the Collaborative for High…

  1. Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  2. Buying Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layng, T. V. Joe

    2010-01-01

    In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price, quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener…

  3. Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  4. Green Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    In the world of higher education, even the most ambitious sustainability plans often begin with tiny steps taken by individual departments. Michael Crowley, a program manager for Environmental Health & Engineering (EH&E) and former assistant director of the Harvard (Massachusetts) Green Campus Initiative, explains that going for small wins through…

  5. Green tribology: principles, research areas and challenges.

    PubMed

    Nosonovsky, Michael; Bhushan, Bharat

    2010-10-28

    In this introductory paper for the Theme Issue on green tribology, we discuss the concept of green tribology and its relation to other areas of tribology as well as other 'green' disciplines, namely, green engineering and green chemistry. We formulate the 12 principles of green tribology: the minimization of (i) friction and (ii) wear, (iii) the reduction or complete elimination of lubrication, including self-lubrication, (iv) natural and (v) biodegradable lubrication, (vi) using sustainable chemistry and engineering principles, (vii) biomimetic approaches, (viii) surface texturing, (ix) environmental implications of coatings, (x) real-time monitoring, (xi) design for degradation, and (xii) sustainable energy applications. We further define three areas of green tribology: (i) biomimetics for tribological applications, (ii) environment-friendly lubrication, and (iii) the tribology of renewable-energy application. The integration of these areas remains a primary challenge for this novel area of research. We also discuss the challenges of green tribology and future directions of research.

  6. Efficient green-light generation by frequency doubling of a picosecond all-fiber ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier in PPKTP waveguide inscribed by femtosecond laser direct writing.

    PubMed

    Tu, Chenghou; Huang, Zhangchao; Lou, Kai; Liu, Hongjun; Wang, Yishan; Li, Yongnan; Lu, Fuyun; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2010-11-22

    We have demonstrated an ultrashort, compact green light radiation by frequency doubling of an all-fiber ytterbium-doped fiber laser source in a PPKTP waveguide fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses. Using the fabricated PPKTP waveguide crystal containing a 10 mm single grating with a period of 9.0 μm, we generate 310 mW of picosecond radiation at 532 nm for a fundamental power of 1.6W, corresponding to a conversion efficiency of 19.3%. The temperature tuning range of 8°C is achieved for a fixed fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm, the FWHM of the wavelength tuning curve is 4.2 nm at room temperature. The generated ultrashort pulses at 532 nm are of great importance and have comprehensive applications in photobiology research and high-resolution spectroscopy.

  7. 75 FR 22419 - Liquor Control Ordinance of the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... majority of child abuse, spousal abuse and elderly abuse that occurs on the Reservation is alcohol related... to combat the problems of alcohol abuse. (4) For the spiritual well-being of our children and..., and consumption of liquor within the Tribal lands and the treatment and reduction of alcohol abuse...

  8. The Readership of Liquor Ads Employing Appeals to Affiliation, Achievement, and Product-Attributes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Leonard N.; And Others

    A study examined whether advertising appeals based on product affiliation, achievement, and attributes would account for differences in male readership of liquor advertisements. The investigation focused on the relationship between the content of alcholic beverage advertisements and attention engagement, the first state in consumer information…

  9. 6. Building E9; view of glass lines for dilute liquor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Building E-9; view of glass lines for dilute liquor and spent acid; second floor, looking ESE. Bottom of wash tank is at the top of the view. (Ryan and Harms) - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  10. Spectroscopic determination of anthraquinone in kraft pulping liquors using a membrane interface

    Treesearch

    X.S. Chai; X.T. Yang; Q.X. Hou; J.Y. Zhu; L.-G. Danielsson

    2003-01-01

    A spectroscopic technique for determining AQ in pulping liquor was developed to effectively separate AQ from dissolved lignin. This technique is based on a flow analysis system with a Nafion membrane interface. The AQ passed through the membrane is converted into its reduced form, AHQ, using sodium hydrosulfite. AHQ has distinguished absorption characteristics in the...

  11. 77 FR 39731 - Swinomish Indian Tribal Community-Title 15, Chapter 4: Liquor Legalization, Regulation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... intoxicating beverage business'' means either maintaining a retail liquor, beer and/or wine establishment... jurisdiction of the Tribe, regardless of whether the principal place of business is or is not located outside... for Tribal License Before the Senate issues a Tribal License, the applicant shall be investigated...

  12. 27 CFR 31.75 - Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dealer in beer and dealer... Subject to Registration § 31.75 Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location. Any person who registers as a wholesale dealer in beer or retail dealer in beer and who thereafter begins to sell...

  13. Health risk and inequitable distribution of liquor stores in African American neighborhood.

    PubMed

    LaVeist, T A; Wallace, J M

    2000-08-01

    In this paper we examine whether the physical availability of alcohol is greater in predominantly African American communities compared to predominantly white communities as indicated by the presence of off premises liquor stores. We investigate the extent to which the income status of the residents of a community mediates the relationship between community racial composition and alcohol availability; and explore whether the intersection of race and class places low income African American communities at increased risk to have such stores located in their communities. Multivariate analytic techniques are used to examine the relationship between community racial composition, median income of neighborhood residents and per capita number of alcohol outlets in 194 census tracts in Baltimore, Maryland. The analysis found that liquor stores are disproportionately located in predominantly black census tracts, even after controlling for census tract socioeconomic status. Census tracts that are both low income and predominantly African American have substantially more liquor stores per capita than other census tracts. Although it is beyond the scope of the present study, our data reveal significant associations between the presence of liquor stores and the risk of health-related social problems in low income neighborhoods. More research needs to be done on the impact of alcohol on the social, psychological, and physiological health of low income urban populations.

  14. Pretreatment of corn stover for sugar production with switchgrass-derived black liquor.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiele; Zhang, Ximing; Cheng, Jay J

    2012-05-01

    To improve the cost-effectiveness of biomass-to-sugar conversion, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pretreatment of switchgrass was carried out at 21°C using previously determined optimum conditions (2% NaOH (w/v), 6h), and the spent alkaline liquid (black liquor) was collected and used for pretreatment of corn stover, a feedstock exhibiting a higher susceptibility to NaOH attack, for improved enzymatic hydrolysis at a reduced cost. The results showed that, because of the high pH and the appreciable amount of carbohydrates in the black liquor, sugar production during enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover pretreated with black liquor was comparable to that of biomass pretreated with 1% NaOH. After black liquor pretreatment at the best residence time (24h), the total reducing sugar, glucose, and xylose yields of corn stover reached 478.5, 287.7, and 145.3mg/g raw biomass, respectively, indicating the viability of this novel pretreatment technology.

  15. Effect of surfactants on Fenton's reagent-mediated degradation of Kraft black liquor.

    PubMed

    Escalante, Maybeth; Rodríguez-Malaver, Antonio J; Araujo, Elisa; González, Aura M; Rojas, Orlando J; Peñaloza, Nancy; Bullón, Johnny; Lara, Mayra A; Dmitrieva, Natalia; Pérez-Pérez, Elizabeth

    2005-10-01

    One of the limitations of the biodegradation of hydrophobic chemical compounds, like lignins, is their low solubility in the aqueous solution where this process takes place. To resolve this problem, surfactants have been used to improve the solubility of these hydrophobic compounds. In this investigation, we studied the effect of surfactants (anionic, cationic, and non-ionic) on the treatment of Kraft black liquor with Fenton's reagent. In the Fenton reaction, H2O2 (two different concentrations, 10 mM and 20 mM), FeCl2 (1 mM) and surfactant solution (10%) were used. Black liquor degradation was determined by UV/Visible spectrophotometry and by measuring phenolic groups. In the presence of Fenton's reagent, the optimum conditions for the oxidative degradation of black liquor were 10 mM H2O2, 1 microL of 10% solution of anionic surfactant (SDS). The importance of the use of surfactants for preparing black liquor for subsequent Fenton's reagent-mediated degradation was discussed.

  16. Recovering ultraclean lignins of controlled molecular weight from Kraft black-liquor lignins.

    PubMed

    Klett, A S; Chappell, P V; Thies, M C

    2015-08-18

    By operating in a region of liquid-liquid equilibrium, hot acetic acid-water mixtures can be used to simultaneously clean, fractionate, and solvate Kraft black-liquor lignins. Lignin-rich liquid phases of controlled molecular weight with key metals contents reduced to <50 ppm are obtained without a washing step.

  17. Final technical report. In-situ FT-IR monitoring of a black liquor recovery boiler

    SciTech Connect

    James Markham; Joseph Cosgrove; David Marran; Jorge Neira; Chad Nelson; Peter Solomon

    1999-05-31

    This project developed and tested advanced Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) instruments for process monitoring of black liquor recovery boilers. The state-of-the-art FT-IR instruments successfully operated in the harsh environment of a black liquor recovery boiler and provided a wealth of real-time process information. Concentrations of multiple gas species were simultaneously monitored in-situ across the combustion flow of the boiler and extractively at the stack. Sensitivity to changes of particulate fume and carryover levels in the process flow were also demonstrated. Boiler set-up and operation is a complex balance of conditions that influence the chemical and physical processes in the combustion flow. Operating parameters include black liquor flow rate, liquor temperature, nozzle pressure, primary air, secondary air, tertiary air, boiler excess oxygen and others. The in-process information provided by the FT-IR monitors can be used as a boiler control tool since species indicative of combustion efficiency (carbon monoxide, methane) and pollutant emissions (sulfur dioxide, hydrochloric acid and fume) were monitored in real-time and observed to fluctuate as operating conditions were varied. A high priority need of the U.S. industrial boiler market is improved measurement and control technology. The sensor technology demonstrated in this project is applicable to the need of industry.

  18. Separation of kraft lignin from kraft black liquor: Final report, July 1984-April 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Kurple, K.R.

    1988-04-15

    All the objectives were accomplished: a high-quality kraft lignin containing less than 50 ppM sodium was separated into a solvent phase (freon) from as much as 1000 lb kraft black liquor. Supporting data (infrared spectra, chemical analyses, etc.) are included. (DLC)

  19. Coliquefaction of coal and black liquor to environmentally acceptable liquid fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.; Lalvani, S.B.; Muchmore, C.B.; Akash, B.A.

    1999-11-01

    Previous work in the laboratories has demonstrated that addition to lignin to coal during liquefaction significantly increases the depolymerization of coal and enhances the quality of the liquid products. It is believed that thermolysis of the lignin results in the formation of phenoxyl and other reactive radicals at temperatures too low for significant thermolysis of the coal matrix; such radicals are effective and active intermediates that depolymerize coal by cleaving methylene bridges. It has been reported that alkali is also effective for extraction of liquids from coal. The work presented here combines these two reactive agents by utilizing the black liquor waste stream from the Kraft pulping process for coal depolymerization. That waste stream contains large amounts of lignin and sodium hydroxide, as well as other components. To permit comparative evaluations of the extent of coal depolymerization by coprocessing coal and black liquor, reference runs were performed with tetralin alone, sodium hydroxide in tetralin, and lignin in tetralin. Results indicated that the sodium hydroxide-tetralin system resulted in almost 67% conversion at 375 C, 1 hour. The black liquor system exhibited a lower conversion of 60%, indicating some inhibition of the depolymerization reactions by components in the black liquor.

  20. Antioxidant activity of lignin phenolic compounds extracted from kraft and sulphite black liquors.

    PubMed

    Faustino, Hélio; Gil, Nuno; Baptista, Cecília; Duarte, Ana Paula

    2010-12-16

    The antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds present in industrial black liquors obtained from the two cooking processes (kraft and sulphite) used in Portugal to produce Eucalyptus globulus pulp was evaluated. The black liquors treated at several pH values were extracted with ethyl acetate. Phenolic fractions were further separated by liquid chromatography of the crude extracts of kraft liquor at pH = 6 and sulphite liquor at the original pH. Total phenolic content was determined in terms of gallic acid equivalents (Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method), and the antioxidant activity in the crude extracts at several pH values and in the separated fractions was measured using the DPPH test for radical scavenging capacity. The total phenolic content of crude extracts and separated fractions ranged from 92.7 to 181.6 and from 91.6 to 1,099.6 mg GAE/g, respectively, while the antioxidant activity index (AAI) ranged from 2.20 to 3.41 and from 2.21 to 11.47 respectively, showing very strong antioxidant activity in all studied cases. The fractions separated by column chromatography were submitted to mass spectrometry analysis and the results were compared to others in the literature of natural products, mainly from Eucalyptus, and the characteristic bands of functional groups were identified by ¹H-NMR and FTIR. These methods allowed the identification of 17 phenolic compounds.

  1. Adopting local alcohol policies: a case study of community efforts to regulate malt liquor sales.

    PubMed

    McKee, Patricia A; Nelson, Toben F; Toomey, Traci L; Shimotsu, Scott T; Hannan, Peter J; Jones-Webb, Rhonda J

    2012-01-01

    To learn how the local context may affect a city's ability to regulate alcohol products such as high-alcohol-content malt liquor, a beverage associated with heavy drinking and a spectrum of nuisance crimes in urban areas. An exploratory, qualitative case study comparing cities that adopted policies to restrict malt liquor sales with cities that considered, but did not adopt policies. Nine large U.S. cities in seven states. City legislators and staff, alcohol enforcement personnel, police, neighborhood groups, business associations, alcohol retailers, and industry representatives. Qualitative data were obtained from key informant interviews (n = 56) and media articles (n = 360). The data were coded and categorized. Similarities and differences in major themes among and across Adopted and Considered cities were identified. Cities faced multiple barriers in addressing malt liquor-related problems, including a lack of enforcement tools, alcohol industry opposition, and a lack of public and political will for alcohol control. Compared to cities that did not adopt malt liquor sales restrictions, cities that adopted restrictions appeared to have a stronger public mandate for a policy and were less influenced by alcohol industry opposition and lack of legislative authority for alcohol control. Strategies common to successful policymaking efforts are discussed. Understanding the local context may be a critical step in winning support for local alcohol control policies.

  2. Red wine, white wine, liquor, beer, and risk for coronary artery disease hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Klatsky, A L; Armstrong, M A; Friedman, G D

    1997-08-15

    International comparison data suggest that wine may be more protective against coronary artery disease than beer or liquor. There are potentially protective antioxidants in wine, especially red wine. However, prospective population studies suggest that each beverage type may reduce coronary risk. The role of alcoholic beverage choice in coronary risk remains unresolved. We performed a prospective study of coronary disease hospitalizations among 128,934 adult members of a Northern California prepaid comprehensive health care program. Alcohol data were supplied at health examinations. Using Cox proportional-hazards models with 9 covariates, analyses were performed of the roles of each major beverage type (wine, beer, and liquor) and of drinking only table wine (red, white, or both). Generally, coronary risk traits were most favorable for wine drinkers and least favorable for liquor drinkers. Among 3,931 persons hospitalized for coronary disease, total alcohol drinking was inversely related to risk in both sexes. Uncontrolled for total alcohol, each beverage type showed evidence for coronary protection, weakest for liquor and strongest for beer in men and wine in women. Controlled for total alcohol, these relations were much reduced, and lost statistical significance except for beer in men and both red and white wine (combined) in all persons. We conclude that (1) drinking ethyl alcohol apparently protects against coronary disease, and (2) there may be minor additional benefits associated with drinking both beer and wine, but not especially red wine.

  3. Generator-Absorber heat exchange transfer apparatus and method using an intermediate liquor

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Benjamin A.; Zawacki, Thomas S.

    1996-11-05

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use the working solution of the absorption system for the heat transfer medium where the working solution has an intermediate liquor concentration.

  4. 27 CFR 31.75 - Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dealer in beer and dealer... Subject to Registration § 31.75 Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location. Any person who registers as a wholesale dealer in beer or retail dealer in beer and who thereafter begins to sell...

  5. 27 CFR 31.75 - Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dealer in beer and dealer... Subject to Registration § 31.75 Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location. Any person who registers as a wholesale dealer in beer or retail dealer in beer and who thereafter begins to sell...

  6. 27 CFR 31.75 - Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dealer in beer and dealer... Subject to Registration § 31.75 Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location. Any person who registers as a wholesale dealer in beer or retail dealer in beer and who thereafter begins to sell...

  7. 27 CFR 31.75 - Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dealer in beer and dealer... Subject to Registration § 31.75 Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location. Any person who registers as a wholesale dealer in beer or retail dealer in beer and who thereafter begins to sell...

  8. Price elasticity of demand for malt liquor beer: findings from a US pilot study.

    PubMed

    French, Michael Thomas; Browntaylor, Didra; Bluthenthal, Ricky Neville

    2006-05-01

    Our objective is to estimate the relative price elasticity of demand for malt liquor beer (MLB), regular beer, hard liquor, and a combined group of all other alcoholic beverages. Three hundred and twenty-nine alcohol consumers (mostly male) in South-Central Los Angeles answered a series of questions pertaining to expected consumption responses to hypothetical price increases. We found that based on a 10% price increase, the mean price elasticity of demand (% change in quantity demanded / % change in price) was -0.79 for MLB drinkers, -1.14 for regular beer drinkers, -1.11 for hard liquor drinkers, and -1.69 for the combined group of all other drinkers. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the personal characteristics significantly related to being a MLB drinker were older age, not working, being homeless, and a daily drinker. Daily (or nearly daily) drinkers were more likely to be married, earning lower incomes, and hard liquor drinkers. This study is the first to investigate the price elasticity of demand for MLB drinkers and other heavy alcohol consumers in poor urban neighborhoods of the US. Future research can use the methods from this pilot study to more rigorously examine and compare the price sensitivity among heavy drinking groups.

  9. Protozoan biomass relation to nutrient and chemical oxygen demand removal in activated sludge mixed liquor.

    PubMed

    Akpor, Oghenerobor B; Momba, Maggy N B; Okonkwo, Jonathan O

    2008-08-01

    The relationship between biomass concentration to nutrient and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal in mixed liquor supplemented with sodium acetate was investigated, using three protozoan isolates and three different initial biomass concentrations (10(1), 10(2) and 10(3) cells/mL). The study was carried out in a shaking flask environment at a shaking speed of 100 rpm for 96 h at 25 degrees C. Aliquot samples were taken periodically for the determination of phosphate, nitrate, COD and dissolved oxygen, using standard methods. The results revealed remarkable phosphate removal of 82-95% at biomass concentration of 10(3)cells/mL. A high nitrate removal of over 87% was observed at all initial biomass concentration in mixed liquor. There was an observed COD increase of over 50% in mixed liquor in at the end of 96-h incubation and this was irrespective of initial biomass concentration used for inoculation. The study shows the trend in nutrient and COD removal at different biomass concentrations of the test isolates in mixed liquor.

  10. Growth of Chaetomium cellulolyticum on Alkali-Pretreated Hardwood Sawdust Solids and Pretreatment Liquor

    PubMed Central

    Pamment, N.; Moo-Young, M.; Hsieh, F.-H.; Robinson, C. W.

    1978-01-01

    The treatment of a hardwood sawdust with 1% NaOH solution at 121°C dissolved 19.7% of the dry matter, mainly hemicellulose and lignin. Fermentation of the treated solids by Chaetomium cellulolyticum for 48 h gave a product containing 12.5% crude protein (total N × 6.25) on a dry weight basis. The in vitro rumen digestibility of the 48-h fermentation product was 30%, compared to 24% for the alkali-treated but unfermented sawdust. Growth was independent of sawdust particle size in the range 40 to 100 mesh. Fermentation of the pretreatment liquor gave a product containing up to 50% crude protein (dry weight basis) with an in vitro rumen digestibility of 65 to 76%. Approximately 6.7 g of crude protein was obtained from the treated solids and 2.2 g from the pretreatment liquor per 100 g of sawdust treated. The product from the pretreatment liquor fermentation has potential as a high-protein animal feed supplement but could not be produced economically without an outlet for the relatively indigestible product from the solids fermentation. Growth on the pretreatment liquor was strongly pH dependent; there was a considerable increase in the lag phase when the pH was lowered from 7.5 to 5.2. This effect appears to be due to an inhibitor whose toxicity is reduced at high pH. PMID:16345308

  11. Maleic acid treatment of bioabated corn stover liquors improves cellulose conversion to ethanol

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Elimination of inhibitory compounds released during pretreatment of lignocellulose is critical for efficient cellulose conversion and ethanol fermentation. This study examined the effect of bioabated liquor from pretreated corn stover on enzyme hydrolysis of Solka Floc or pretreated corn stover soli...

  12. Black liquor viscosity reduction through salt additives: A novel environmentally benign processing alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J.E.; Khan, S.A.; Spontak, R.J.

    1996-10-01

    Processing black liquor at high solids would reduce SO{sub x} emissions, facilitate the use of non-chlorine bleaching techniques and enhance the energy efficiency of the pulping process. However, black liquor exhibits and exponential increase in viscosity as its solids content rises, thus hindering its processability in the composition range of interest (>70% solids). In this study, we present a new approach for controlling viscosity at high solids content by {open_quotes}salting in{close_quotes} black liquor through addition of thiocyanate salts. These salts increases the solubility of the polymer constituents in black liquor leading to a decrease in its viscosity. Several salts capable of viscosity reduction by as much as two orders of magnitude have been identified. The effects of cation size, solution pH and temperature on viscosity reduction is presented and interpreted in terms of the underlying principles of {open_quotes}salting in{close_quotes} and how it affects aqueous solution structure.

  13. Estimation of Theaflavins (TF) and Thearubigins (TR) Ratio in Black Tea Liquor Using Electronic Vision System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akuli, Amitava; Pal, Abhra; Ghosh, Arunangshu; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Bandhopadhyya, Rajib; Tamuly, Pradip; Gogoi, Nagen

    2011-09-01

    Quality of black tea is generally assessed using organoleptic tests by professional tea tasters. They determine the quality of black tea based on its appearance (in dry condition and during liquor formation), aroma and taste. Variation in the above parameters is actually contributed by a number of chemical compounds like, Theaflavins (TF), Thearubigins (TR), Caffeine, Linalool, Geraniol etc. Among the above, TF and TR are the most important chemical compounds, which actually contribute to the formation of taste, colour and brightness in tea liquor. Estimation of TF and TR in black tea is generally done using a spectrophotometer instrument. But, the analysis technique undergoes a rigorous and time consuming effort for sample preparation; also the operation of costly spectrophotometer requires expert manpower. To overcome above problems an Electronic Vision System based on digital image processing technique has been developed. The system is faster, low cost, repeatable and can estimate the amount of TF and TR ratio for black tea liquor with accuracy. The data analysis is done using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Multiple Discriminate Analysis (MDA). A correlation has been established between colour of tea liquor images and TF, TR ratio. This paper describes the newly developed E-Vision system, experimental methods, data analysis algorithms and finally, the performance of the E-Vision System as compared to the results of traditional spectrophotometer.

  14. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    CAFE Foundation Hanger Boss Mike Fenn directs the EcoEagle aircraft to the start of the speed competition during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    CAFE Foundation Hanger Boss Mike Fenn directs the e-Genius aircraft to the start of the speed competition during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Flavor Profile of Chinese Liquor Is Altered by Interactions of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Microbes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qun; Kong, Yu; Xu, Yan

    2015-10-16

    The flavor profile of Chinese liquor is the result of the metabolic activity of its microbial community. Given the importance of the microbial interaction, a novel way to control the liquor's flavor is by regulating the composition of the community. In this study, we efficiently improved the liquor's flavor by perturbing the intrinsic microbial metabolism with extrinsic microbes. We first constructed a basic microbial group (intrinsic) containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, and Issatchenkia orientalis and added special flavor producers (extrinsic), Saccharomyces uvarum and Saccharomyces servazzii, to this intrinsic group. Upon the addition of the extrinsic microbes, the maximum specific growth rates of S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis increased from 6.19 to 43.28/day and from 1.15 to 14.32/day, respectively, but that of W. anomalus changed from 1.00 to 0.96/day. In addition, most volatile compounds known to be produced by the extrinsic strains were not produced. However, more esters, alcohols, and acids were produced by S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis. Six compounds were significantly different by random forest analysis after perturbation. Among them, increases in ethyl hexanoate, isobutanol, and 3-methylbutyric acid were correlated with S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis, and a decrease in geranyl acetone was correlated with W. anomalus. Variations in ethyl acetate and 2-phenylethanol might be due to the varied activity of W. anomalus and S. cerevisiae. This work showed the effect of the interaction between the intrinsic and extrinsic microbes on liquor flavor, which would be beneficial for improving the quality of Chinese liquor. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Effects of black liquor shocks on activated sludge treatment of bleached kraft pulp mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Morales, Gabriela; Pesante, Silvana; Vidal, Gladys

    2015-01-01

    Kraft pulp mills use activated sludge systems to remove organic matter from effluents. Process streams may appear as toxic spills in treatment plant effluents, such as black liquor, which is toxic to microorganisms of the activated sludge. The present study evaluates the effects of black liquor shocks in activated sludge systems. Four black liquor shocks from 883 to 3,225 mg chemical oxygen demand-COD L(-1) were applied during 24 hours in a continuously operating lab-scale activated sludge system. Removal efficiencies of COD, color and specific compounds were determined. Moreover, specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), sludge volumetric index (SVI) and indicator microorganisms were evaluated. Results show that the addition of black liquor caused an increase in COD removal (76-67%) immediately post shock; followed two days later by a decrease (-19-50%). On the other hand, SOUR ranged between 0.152 and 0.336 mgO2 g(-1) volatile suspended solids-VSS• min(-1) during shocks, but the initial value was reestablished at hour 24. When the COD concentration of the shock was higher than 1,014 mg/L, the abundance of stalked ciliates and rotifers dropped. Finally, no changes in SVI were observed, with values remaining in the range 65.8-40.2 mL g(-1) total suspended solids-TSS during the entire operating process. Based on the results, the principal conclusion is that the activated sludge system with the biomass adapted to the kraft pulp effluent could resist a black liquor shock with 3,225 mgCOD L(-1) of concentration during 24 h, under this study's conditions.

  18. Flavor Profile of Chinese Liquor Is Altered by Interactions of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qun; Kong, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The flavor profile of Chinese liquor is the result of the metabolic activity of its microbial community. Given the importance of the microbial interaction, a novel way to control the liquor's flavor is by regulating the composition of the community. In this study, we efficiently improved the liquor's flavor by perturbing the intrinsic microbial metabolism with extrinsic microbes. We first constructed a basic microbial group (intrinsic) containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, and Issatchenkia orientalis and added special flavor producers (extrinsic), Saccharomyces uvarum and Saccharomyces servazzii, to this intrinsic group. Upon the addition of the extrinsic microbes, the maximum specific growth rates of S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis increased from 6.19 to 43.28/day and from 1.15 to 14.32/day, respectively, but that of W. anomalus changed from 1.00 to 0.96/day. In addition, most volatile compounds known to be produced by the extrinsic strains were not produced. However, more esters, alcohols, and acids were produced by S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis. Six compounds were significantly different by random forest analysis after perturbation. Among them, increases in ethyl hexanoate, isobutanol, and 3-methylbutyric acid were correlated with S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis, and a decrease in geranyl acetone was correlated with W. anomalus. Variations in ethyl acetate and 2-phenylethanol might be due to the varied activity of W. anomalus and S. cerevisiae. This work showed the effect of the interaction between the intrinsic and extrinsic microbes on liquor flavor, which would be beneficial for improving the quality of Chinese liquor. PMID:26475111

  19. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling, five-year report

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The project originated in October 1990 and was scheduled to run for four years. At that time, there was considerable emphasis on developing accurate predictions of the physical carryover of macroscopic particles of partially burnt black liquor and smelt droplets out of the furnace, since this was seen as the main cause of boiler plugging. This placed a major emphasis on gas flow patterns within the furnace and on the mass loss rates and swelling and shrinking rates of burning black liquor drops. As work proceeded on developing the recovery boiler furnace model, it became apparent that some recovery boilers encounter serious plugging problems even when physical carryover was minimal. After the original four-year period was completed, the project was extended to address this issue. The objective of the extended project was to improve the utility of the models by including the black liquor chemistry relevant to air emissions predictions and aerosol formation, and by developing the knowledge base and computational tools to relate furnace model outputs to fouling and plugging of the convective sections of the boilers. The work done to date includes CFD model development and validation, acquisition of information on black liquor combustion fundamentals and development of improved burning models, char bed model development, and model application and simplification.

  20. Green toxicology.

    PubMed

    Maertens, Alexandra; Anastas, Nicholas; Spencer, Pamela J; Stephens, Martin; Goldberg, Alan; Hartung, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Historically, early identification and characterization of adverse effects of industrial chemicals was difficult because conventional toxicological test methods did not meet R&D needs for rapid, relatively inexpensive methods amenable to small amounts of test material. The pharmaceutical industry now front-loads toxicity testing, using in silico, in vitro, and less demanding animal tests at earlier stages of product development to identify and anticipate undesirable toxicological effects and optimize product development. The Green Chemistry movement embraces similar ideas for development of less toxic products, safer processes, and less waste and exposure. Further, the concept of benign design suggests ways to consider possible toxicities before the actual synthesis and to apply some structure/activity rules (SAR) and in silico methods. This requires not only scientific development but also a change in corporate culture in which synthetic chemists work with toxicologists. An emerging discipline called Green Toxicology (Anastas, 2012) provides a framework for integrating the principles of toxicology into the enterprise of designing safer chemicals, thereby minimizing potential toxicity as early in production as possible. Green Toxicology`s novel utility lies in driving innovation by moving safety considerations to the earliest stage in a chemical`s lifecycle, i.e., to molecular design. In principle, this field is no different than other subdisciplines of toxicology that endeavor to focus on a specific area - for example, clinical, environmental or forensic toxicology. We use the same principles and tools to evaluate an existing substance or to design a new one. The unique emphasis is in using 21st century toxicology tools as a preventative strategy to "design out" undesired human health and environmental effects, thereby increasing the likelihood of launching a successful, sustainable product. Starting with the formation of a steering group and a series of workshops

  1. Differences in liquor prices between control state-operated and license-state retail outlets in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William; Albers, Alison B.; Naimi, Timothy S.; Jernigan, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study aims to compare the average price of liquor in the United States between retail alcohol outlets in states that have a monopoly ('control' states) with those that do not ('licence' states). Design A cross-sectional study of brand-specific alcohol prices in the United States. Setting We determined the average prices in February 2012 of 74 brands of liquor among the 13 control states that maintain a monopoly on liquor sales at the retail level and among a sample of 50 license-state liquor stores, using their online-available prices. Measurements We calculated average prices for 74 brands of liquor by control vs. license state. We used a random effects regression model to estimate differences between control and license state prices – overall and by alcoholic beverage type. We also compared prices between the 13 control states. Findings The overall mean price for the 74 brands was $27.79 in the license states (95% confidence interval [CI], $25.26–$30.32) and $29.82 in the control states (95% CI, $26.98–$32.66). Based on the random effects linear regression model, the average liquor price was approximately two dollars lower (6.9% lower) in license states. Conclusions In the United States monopoly of alcohol retail outlets appears to be associated with slightly higher liquor prices. PMID:22934914

  2. Differences in liquor prices between control state-operated and license-state retail outlets in the United States.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William; Albers, Alison B; Naimi, Timothy S; Jernigan, David H

    2013-02-01

    This study aims to compare the average price of liquor in the United States between retail alcohol outlets in states that have a monopoly ('control' states) with those that do not ('licence' states). A cross-sectional study of brand-specific alcohol prices in the United States. We determined the average prices in February 2012 of 74 brands of liquor among the 13 control states that maintain a monopoly on liquor sales at the retail level and among a sample of 50 license-state liquor stores, using their online-available prices. We calculated average prices for 74 brands of liquor by control versus license state. We used a random-effects regression model to estimate differences between control and license state prices-overall and by alcoholic beverage type. We also compared prices between the 13 control states. The overall mean price for the 74 brands was $27.79 in the license states [95% confidence interval (CI): $25.26-30.32] and $29.82 in the control states (95% CI: $26.98-32.66). Based on the random-effects linear regression model, the average liquor price was approximately $2 lower (6.9% lower) in license states. In the United States monopoly of alcohol retail outlets appears to be associated with slightly higher liquor prices. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. ^{12}CO J=2-1 and J=3-2 Line Observations of Molecular Clouds toward the Direction of 59 Extended Green Objects in the Northern Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. G.; He, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the differences between the molecular clouds that are associated with massive star forming regions and those not, we perform single dish simultaneous observations of ^{12}CO J = 2-1 and J=3-2 lines toward a sample of 59 Spitzer Extended Green Objects (EGOs) in the northern sky. Combining our results with the archive data of ^{12}CO J=1-0 observations toward the same sample of objects, we statistically investigate the correlations between the CO line widths and strengths for both those molecular clouds associated with EGO objects (EGO clouds) and those not (non-EGO clouds). We compare the different statistical behaviors between the two groups of molecular clouds, and interpret the differences in terms of density, temperature, and velocity field distributions. Particularly, it is found that both EGO and non-EGO clouds have similar mass ranges. We conclude that the formation of massive stars are not sensitively dependent on the total mass of the clouds, but on the volume filling factor of the cloud clumps (or to what extent the molecular clouds have been compressed and shrunk).

  4. A rapid molecular diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis by colorimetric malachite green-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) combined with an FTA card as a direct sampling tool.

    PubMed

    Nzelu, Chukwunonso O; Cáceres, Abraham G; Guerrero-Quincho, Silvia; Tineo-Villafuerte, Edwin; Rodriquez-Delfin, Luis; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Katakura, Ken; Gomez, Eduardo A; Guevara, Angel G; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Kato, Hirotomo

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis remains one of the world's most neglected diseases, and early detection of the infectious agent, especially in developing countries, will require a simple and rapid test. In this study, we established a quick, one-step, single-tube, highly sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of Leishmania DNA from tissue materials spotted on an FTA card. An FTA-LAMP with pre-added malachite green was performed at 64°C for 60min using a heating block and/or water bath and DNA amplification was detected immediately after incubation. The LAMP assay had high detection sensitivity down to a level of 0.01 parasites per μl. The field- and clinic-applicability of the colorimetric FTA-LAMP assay was demonstrated with 122 clinical samples collected from patients suspected of having cutaneous leishmaniasis in Peru, from which 71 positives were detected. The LAMP assay in combination with an FTA card described here is rapid and sensitive, as well as simple to perform, and has great potential usefulness for diagnosis and surveillance of leishmaniasis in endemic areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. 'The ones that turn up are the ones that are responsible': Key stakeholders perspectives on liquor accords.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Ashlee; Miller, Peter; Droste, Nicolas; McFarlane, Emma; Martino, Florentine; Palmer, Darren

    2016-05-01

    Liquor accords were introduced as an intervention to reduce alcohol-related harm in and around licensed venues. There have been very few evaluations of the accords, made all the more difficult given the multitude of measures that are often implemented under their banner. This study provides perspectives on the effectiveness of the liquor accords from key stakeholders who were involved in the strategy. In-depth interviews were conducted with 97 key stakeholders as part of a larger study, of which 46 spoke about the effectiveness of liquor accords. Responses were analysed using thematic analysis. Stakeholders reported the greatest benefit of liquor accords to be their ability to improve communication. Many stakeholders recognised the need for mandatory attendance and discussed whether the accords are a waste of time of resources. Stakeholders did not generally view liquor accords as effective means of reducing alcohol-related harm. There was a lack of positive feedback about liquor accords provided by stakeholders, indicating a clear need to better understand the role of liquor accords, and what they aim to achieve. Responsive regulation theory suggests that the dual roles of communication and intervention are confused, leading to some of the inherent problems with accords. The role and aims of liquor accords need to be clearly defined. The findings suggest that separating the communication and regulatory functions from accords will lead to a clearer role for accords, and interventions and regulation might be better placed in the hands of regulators and enforcement. [Curtis A, Miller P, Droste N, McFarlane E, Martino F, Palmer D. 'The ones that turn up are the ones that are responsible': Key stakeholders perspectives on liquor accords. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:273-279]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  6. Estimated increase in cross-border purchases by Washington residents following liquor privatization and implications for alcohol consumption trends.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yu; Kerr, William C

    2016-11-01

    To estimate changes in liquor sales occurring in Washington, USA and bordering states following the privatization of government controlled liquor stores. Trend analyses of data from January 2009 to October 2014 of a natural experiment beginning 1 June 2012, when liquor prices increased and the number of stores selling liquor increased in the state of Washington. Difference-in-differences (DID) models and interrupted time-series methods were used. Washington and bordering counties in Oregon and Idaho. Monthly liquor sales in 9-l cases. DID model estimates of adjusted change in liquor sales as a result of privatization produced a cross-model average increase of 10.1% in Oregon and 8.2% in Idaho (both P < 0.001). Similar results were found using interrupted time-series. This represents a total loss to Washington of 89 865 l of liquor, 0.226% of total Washington sales, for June 2012 to May 2013. Adding these sales to Washington totals for fiscal years 2013 and 2014, we find that per-capita spirits sales were 5.80 l in both 2012 and 2013, declining slightly to 5.76 l in 2014. The privatization of liquor sales in the state of Washington, USA in 2012 and the price increases associated with this resulted in a significant increase in sales in bordering counties in the states of Oregon and Idaho. However, the amount of alcohol sales and revenue lost by Washington was relatively small. Per-capita liquor sales in Washington appear to have remained flat after privatization. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. [Study on the Recognition of Liquor Age of Gujing Based on Raman Spectra and Support Vector Regression].

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-xiang; Wang, Hai-yan; Wang, Hu; Zhang, Zheng-yong; Liu, Jun

    2016-03-01

    It is an important and difficult research point to recognize the age of Chinese liquor rapidly and exactly in the field of liquor analyzing, which is also of great significance to the healthy development of the liquor industry and protection of the legitimate rights and interests of consumers. Spectroscopy together with the pattern recognition technology is a preferred method of achieving rapid identification of wine quality, in which the Raman Spectroscopy is promising because of its little affection of water and little or free of sample pretreatment. So, in this paper, Raman spectra and support vector regression (SVR) are used to recognize different ages and different storing time of the liquor of the same age. The innovation of this paper is mainly reflected in the following three aspects. First, the application of Raman in the area of liquor analysis is rarely reported till now. Second, the concentration of studying the recognition of wine age, while most studies focus on studying specific components of liquor and studies together with the pattern recognition method focus more on the identification of brands or different types of base wine. The third one is the application of regression analysis framework, which cannot be only used to identify different years of liquor, but also can be used to analyze different storing time, which has theoretical and practical significance to the research and quality control of liquor. Three kinds of experiments are conducted in this paper. Firstly, SVR is used to recognize different ages of 5, 8, 16 and 26 years of the Gujing Liquor; secondly, SVR is also used to classify the storing time of the 8-years liquor; thirdly, certain group of train data is deleted form the train set and put into the test set to simulate the actual situation of liquor age recognition. Results show that the SVR model has good train and predict performance in these experiments, and it has better performance than other non-liner regression method such

  8. Sensory and Instrumental Flavor Changes in Green Tea Brewed Multiple Times

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeehyun; Chambers, Delores; Chambers, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Green teas in leaf form are brewed multiple times, a common selling point. However, the flavor changes, both sensory and volatile compounds, of green teas that have been brewed multiple times are unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine how the aroma and flavor of green teas change as they are brewed multiple times, to determine if a relationship exists between green tea flavors and green tea volatile compounds, and to suggest the number of times that green tea leaves can be brewed. The first and second brews of the green tea samples provided similar flavor intensities. The third and fourth brews provided milder flavors and lower bitterness and astringency when measured using descriptive sensory analysis. In the brewed liquor of green tea mostly linalool, nonanal, geraniol, jasmone, and β-ionone volatile compounds were present at low levels (using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry). The geraniol, linalool, and linalool oxide compounds in green tea may contribute to the floral/perfumy flavor. Green teas in leaf form may be brewed up to four times: the first two brews providing stronger flavor, bitterness, and astringency whereas the third and fourth brews will provide milder flavor, bitterness, and astringency. PMID:28239138

  9. Safety, Perioperative, and Early Functional Outcomes of Vapor Incision Technique Using the GreenLight XPS 180 W System: Direct Comparison with Photoselective Vaporization of the Prostate.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Mounsif; Tholomier, Côme; Meskawi, Malek; Hueber, Pierre-Alain; Valdivieso, Roger F; Alenizi, Abdullah M; Rajih, Emad; Zanaty, Marc; Hai, Mahmood A; Gonzalez, Ricardo R; Eure, Gregg R; Kriteman, Lewis S; Misrai, Vincent; Zorn, Kevin C

    2017-01-01

    To compare perioperative parameters, safety, and short-term functional outcomes between GreenLight 180 W-XPS photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) and vapor incision technique (VIT). A total of 956 men were treated at five high-volume centers in Canada and the United States between 2000 and 2014 for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Perioperative parameters, complications, and early functional outcomes were retrospectively compared. One-to-one propensity score matching was performed to adjust for baseline differences between treatment groups. Subgroup stratified comparative analysis was performed according to preoperative prostate volume 80 cc or less vs greater than 80 cc on transrectal ultrasound (259 and 185 patients, respectively). VIT allowed greater energy delivery and energy density, but operative time and laser time were longer with greater use of MoXy fibers when compared with PVP (all p < 0.05). Improvements in outcomes at 6 months, including International Prostate Symptom Score, quality of life score, and uroflowmetry parameters, were significantly greater after VIT when compared with baseline. VIT was associated with significantly greater 6-month prostate-specific antigen (PSA) reduction (63% vs 50%, p = 0.01). No differences in intraoperative complications were observed between treatment groups. VIT is safe and efficacious, providing greater improvements in functional outcomes and PSA reduction at 6 months in comparison with PVP. These results reflect the larger amount of adenoma removed. Yet, it is associated with longer operative time and greater use of MoXy fibers. Long-term follow-up is needed to accurately assess functional outcomes and retreatment rates.

  10. Characterization of volatile and semi-volatile compounds in green and fermented leaves of Bergenia crassifolia L. by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ID-CUBE direct analysis in real time-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chernetsova, Elena S; Shikov, Alexander N; Crawford, Elizabeth A; Grashorn, Sebastian; Laakso, I; Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Makarov, Valery G; Hiltunen, Raimo; Galambosi, Bertalan; Morlock, Gertrud E

    2014-01-01

    Chemical compositions of volatile and semi-volatile components in green and fermented leaves of Bergenia crassifolia L. were studied. Leaf components were identified using gas chromatography with low resolution mass spectrometry and direct analysis in real time (DART) high resolution mass spectrometry with an ID-CUBE ion source. Phytol, nerolidol, geraniol, linalool, alpha-bisabolol, alpha-bisabololoxide B, alpha-cadinol, delta-cadinene, alpha-terpineol and several other marker compounds of special interest were defined, for which the process of fermentation significantly changed their content in the leaves. Low resolution El GC-MS and ID-CUBE DART-HRMS were found to be complementary methods, as they provide different information, helpful to increase the confidence of identification.

  11. Antioxidant effects of green tea

    PubMed Central

    FORESTER, SARAH C.; LAMBERT, JOSHUA D.

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of green tea (Camellia sinensis) may provide protection against chronic diseases, including cancer. Green tea polyphenols are believed to be responsible for this cancer preventive effect, and the antioxidant activity of the green tea polyphenols has been implicated as a potential mechanism. This hypothesis has been difficult to study in vivo due to metabolism of these compounds and poor understanding of the redox environment in vivo. Green tea polyphenols can be direct antioxidants by scavenging reactive oxygen species or chelating transition metals as has been demonstrated in vitro. Alternatively, they may act indirectly by up-regulating phase II antioxidant enzymes. Evidence of this latter effect has been observed in vivo, yet more work is required to determine under which conditions these mechanisms occur. Green tea polyphenols can also be potent pro-oxidants, both in vitro and in vivo, leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion. The potential role of these pro-oxidant effects in the cancer preventive activity of green tea is not well understood. The evidence for not only the antioxidant, but also pro-oxidant, properties of green tea are discussed in the present review. PMID:21538850

  12. Effects of rupture directivity on ground motions and macroseismic intensities. Study of a Mw 4.1 earthquake recorded in the Alps and a Mw 6 event simulated using Empirical Green's Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courboulex, F.; Dujardin, A.; Vallée, M.; Delouis, B.; Sira, C.; Honoré, L.; Thouvenot, F.; Deschamps, A.

    2013-12-01

    We first conduct a detailed analysis of a moderate earthquake in the French Alps (2012/02/26, Mw 4.1), that has been much more distinctly felt South of the event than North of it. This discrepancy was especially clear in the two large cities of Nice and Grenoble, both situated at 100 km from the epicenter. This observation was confirmed by ground motion measurements that were eight times larger in one city than in the other one, for the same site conditions. Using a time domain deconvolution between the broadband recordings of the mainshock and an aftershock used as empirical Green's Functions, we show that the rupture process of this event had a strong directivity effect towards a direction of N 155° +/- 5 on a ~ 2-km-long fault, detectable only at frequencies higher than 1 Hz. These fault size and direction are in good accordance with the location of the early aftershocks (4 days). The potential directivity effect of 232 aftershocks of the sequence has been also analyzed using their PGA values on broad band stations. We obtained that no preferential directivity effect can be evidenced on aftershocks. In a second step, we take advantage of the good recordings of this Mw=4.1 earthquake and its aftershocks to simulate the ground motions (and compute the macroseismic intensities using GMICES conversion relations) that would be generated by a larger event (Mw 6) occurring on the same fault. We consider separately the cases where the directivity effect is present or absent. The ground motions values (mainly PGA and PGV) and the macroseismic intensities are compared with the values predicted using Ground Motions Equations (GMPEs). The values obtained for the directive scenario on directive stations are almost always larger than the median values +1 sigma predicted by the GMPEs; this highlights the fact that a simple directivity effect of the rupture process can produce much larger damages than expected. Effects of rupture directivity on ground motions and macroseismic

  13. Green ergonomics: definition and scope.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that the goals of ergonomics (i.e. effectiveness, efficiency, health, safety and usability) are closely aligned with the goals of design for environmental sustainability. In this paper, the term 'green ergonomics' is conceptualised to specifically describe ergonomics interventions with a pro-nature emphasis. Green ergonomics is focused on the bi-directional connections between human systems and nature. This involves looking at (1) how ergonomics design and evaluation might be used to conserve, preserve, and restore nature and (2) how ecosystem services might be harnessed to facilitate the improved wellbeing and effectiveness of human systems. The paper proposes the scope of green ergonomics based on these bi-directional relationships in the areas of the design of low resource systems and products, the design of green jobs, and the design for behaviour change. Suggestions for further work in the green ergonomics domain are also made. Given the enormous environmental challenges facing modern industrial society, this paper encourages ergonomics science to embrace a pro-nature understanding of work design and research. This paper sets out the role for green ergonomics based on an appreciation of the human-nature connections that have been integrated with our understanding of ergonomics science and practice.

  14. [Transvenous Embolization by Direct Puncture of the Superior Sagittal Sinus Using Indocyanine Green(ICG)Videoangiography for Treatment of Dural Arteriovenous Fistula of the Transverse-Sigmoid Sinus:A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Jo; Kono, Kenichi; Umesaki, Arisa; Kashimura, Yojiro; Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Terada, Tomoaki

    2017-07-01

    We report a case of dural arteriovenous fistula at the left transverse sinus and sigmoid sinus(TS-dAVF), which was treated with transvenous embolization(TVE)by direct puncture of the superior sagittal sinus(SSS)under indocyanine green(ICG)fluoroscopic guidance. A 71-year-old woman presented with pulsatile tinnitus and progressive dementia. A left TS-dAVF with retrograde SSS and cortical venous reflux(Cognard type IIb)was demonstrated on cerebral angiography. The left internal jugular vein and distal portion of the right transverse sinus were occluded. We considered that TVE via the femoral vein would be difficult for complete cure. We performed trepanation of the frontal portion of the SSS. The SSS was directly punctured with an 18-G needle under ICG fluoroscopic guidance. We inserted a 4-Fr sheath into the SSS. A microcatheter was navigated into the affected sinus. Coils were placed through the microcatheter. The dAVF was completely diminished. No complications occurred. The patient's pulsatile tinnitus disappeared and dementia improved. Transvenous approach with direct puncture of the SSS under ICG fluoroscopic guidance was a useful approach for the treatment of dAVF when other approaches were difficult.

  15. Effectiveness of crime prevention through environmental design in reducing criminal activity in liquor stores: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Casteel, Carri; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Howard, John; Kraus, Jess F

    2004-05-01

    Liquor store employees experience disproportionately higher rates of workplace injury death than employees in any other retail setting. However, efforts to introduce workplace violence prevention programs into liquor stores have been minimal. This study examines the effectiveness of a Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design intervention in reducing criminal activity in Santa Monica, California liquor stores. Nine stores enrolling in the study received an individualized intervention safety plan; the remaining 13 served as a comparison group. Mixed-effects Poisson regression was used to examine intervention effectiveness. The largest reductions in criminal activity occurred for robbery and shoplifting outcomes. We conclude that the Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design program reduced crime and injury in liquor stores and educated small businesses about the risks associated with retail violence and the countermeasures that can be taken.

  16. Evaluation of the anaerobic degradation of black liquor from a Kraft pulp plant with addition of organic co-substrates.

    PubMed

    Buzzini, A P; Sakamoto, I K; Varesche, M B; Pires, E C

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the anaerobic degradation of black liquor with and without additional carbon sources. Batch experiments were conducted using black liquor, from an integrated pulp and paper mill adding ethanol, methanol and nutrients. The PCR/DGGE technique was used to characterize the structure of the microbial community. The addition of extra sources of carbon did not significantly influence the degradation of black liquor under the conditions evaluated and the microbial community was similar in all experiments. It was observed an increase in some members of the archaeal in reactors that had the best efficiencies for removal of black liquor (around 7.5%). Either ethanol or methanol can be used as co-substrates because the produce the same quantitative and qualitative effect.

  17. Bio-refinery system of DME or CH4 production from black liquor gasification in pulp mills.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, M; Yan, J; Fröling, M

    2010-02-01

    There is great interest in developing black liquor gasification technology over recent years for efficient recovery of bio-based residues in chemical pulp mills. Two potential technologies of producing dimethyl ether (DME) and methane (CH(4)) as alternative fuels from black liquor gasification integrated with the pulp mill have been studied and compared in this paper. System performance is evaluated based on: (i) comparison with the reference pulp mill, (ii) fuel to product efficiency (FTPE) and (iii) biofuel production potential (BPP). The comparison with the reference mill shows that black liquor to biofuel route will add a highly significant new revenue stream to the pulp industry. The results indicate a large potential of DME and CH(4) production globally in terms of black liquor availability. BPP and FTPE of CH(4) production is higher than DME due to more optimized integration with the pulping process and elimination of evaporation unit in the pulp mill.

  18. Green Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  19. High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry kraft recovery boilers: Phase 1 -- Final report. Volume 2: Project technical results

    SciTech Connect

    Southards, W.T.; Clement, J.L.; McIlroy, R.A.; Tharp, M.R.; Verrill, C.L.; Wessell, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    This project is a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies to improve high-solids black liquor firing in pulp mill recovery boilers. The principal means to this end is to construct and operate a pilot-scale recovery furnace simulator (RFS) in which these technologies can be tested. The Phase 1 objectives are to prepare a preliminary design for the RFS, delineate a project concept for evaluating candidate technologies, establish industrial partners, and report the results. Phase 1 addressed the objectives with seven tasks: Develop a preliminary design of the RFS; estimate the detailed design and construction costs of the RFS and the balance of the project; identify interested parties in the paper industry and key suppliers; plan the Phase 2 and Phase 3 tests to characterize the RFS; evaluate the economic justification for high-solids firing deployment in the industry; evaluate high-solids black liquor property data to support the RFS design; manage the project and reporting results, which included planning the future program direction.

  20. Fundamental Study of Black Liquor Gasification Kinetics. Quarterly progress report for the period October 1999 to December 1999

    SciTech Connect

    2000-01-31

    The overall objective of this research is to evaluate the kinetics of gasification of kraft black liquor under laboratory conditions simulating pressurized, oxygen-blown gasification. The significant independent variables are gasifier temperature, black liquor composition particle size, and particle residence time. The authors will quantify their impact on the concentration of major and trace gas phase species, as well as the composition of condensed phase inorganic products, including specification of the Na- and S-containing compounds and overall carbon conversion.

  1. A beverage-specific measure of expectancies for malt liquor: development and initial testing.

    PubMed

    Collins, R Lorraine; Vincent, Paula C; Bradizza, Clara M; Kubiak, Audrey J; Falco, Diana L

    2011-12-01

    Malt liquor (ML) is a unique, high alcohol content beverage marketed to encourage heavy drinking. We developed the Malt Liquor Expectancy Questionnaire (MLEQ), a beverage-specific measure of alcohol expectancies, and examined its association with typical weekly ML use, typical weekly alcohol use, and alcohol problems. Forty positive and 40 negative expectancy items were administered to a sample of 639 young adults who regularly consumed ML. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses led to the development of the 30-item MLEQ. The MLEQ consists of two positive (i.e., Social Facilitation and Enjoyment, Enhanced Sexuality) and two negative factors (i.e., Aggression and Negative Consequences; Impairment and Physical Symptoms) that possess good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent validity. The psychometrically sound MLEQ contributes to the limited research on beverage-specific expectancies and heavy drinking.

  2. Influence of pressure on pyrolysis of black liquor: 2. Char yields and component release.

    PubMed

    Whitty, Kevin; Kullberg, Mika; Sorvari, Vesa; Backman, Rainer; Hupa, Mikko

    2008-02-01

    This is the second in a series of papers concerning the behavior of black liquor during pyrolysis at elevated pressures. Two industrial black liquors were pyrolyzed under pressurized conditions in two laboratory-scale devices, a pressurized single-particle reactor and a pressurized grid heater. Temperatures ranging between 650 and 1100 degrees C and pressures in the range 1-20 bar were studied. Char yields were calculated and based on analysis of some of the chars the fate of carbon, sodium, potassium and sulfur was determined as a function of pyrolysis pressure. At temperatures below 800 degrees C little variation in char yield was observed at different pressures. At higher temperatures char yield increased with pressure due to slower decomposition of sodium carbonate. For the same reason, sodium release decreased with pressure. Sulfur release, however, increased with pressure primarily because there was less opportunity for its capture in the less-swollen chars.

  3. Liquor Bilirubin Levels in Normal Pregnancy: A Reassessment of Early Prediction of Haemolytic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Murray, John; Norrie, D. L.; Ruthven, C. R. J

    1970-01-01

    A comparison was made between chemically and spectrophotometrically determined concentrations of total bile pigment in the liquor amnii. For the period 16 to 26 weeks' gestation the upper limit of normal bile pigment to protein ratio was found to be 0·4. Levels above this would be required as an indication for intrauterine transfusion. In 110 cases of isoimmunization of pregnancy these criteria were applied in the diagnosis of severity of the condition. The ratio of the bile pigment to protein was used rather than a simple bile pigment measurement, and found to be valuable. Nevertheless, it is important to emphasize that fallacious high bilirubin readings may arise by using whatever method, particularly owing to bilirubin and other breakdown products of blood contaminating the liquor. PMID:4991485

  4. Physicochemical and functional properties of dietary fiber from maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) liquor residue.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinjin; Zhao, Qingsheng; Wang, Liwei; Zha, Shenghua; Zhang, Lijun; Zhao, Bing

    2015-11-05

    Using maca (Lepidium meyenii) liquor residue as the raw material, dietary fiber (DF) was prepared by chemical (MCDF) and enzymatic (MEDF) methods, respectively, of which the physicochemical and functional properties were comparatively studied. High contents of DF were found in MCDF (55.63%) and MEDF (81.10%). Both fibers showed good functional properties, including swelling capacity, water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, glucose adsorption capacity and glucose retardation index. MEDF showed better functional properties, which could be attributed to its higher content of DF, more irregular surface and more abundant monosaccharide composition. The results herein suggest that maca DF prepared by enzymatic method from liquor residue is a good functional ingredient in food products.

  5. A Remote Sensing Technique For Combustion Gas Temperature Measurement In Black Liquor Recovery Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charagundla, S. R.; Semerjian, H. G.

    1986-10-01

    A remote sensing technique, based on the principles of emission spectroscopy, is being developed for temperature measurements in black liquor recovery boilers. Several tests have been carried out, both in the laboratory and at a number of recovery boilers, to characterize the emission spectra in the wavelength range of 300 nm to 800 nm. These tests have pointed out the potential for temperature measurements using the line intensity ratio technique based on a pair of emission lines at 404.4 nm and 766.5 nm observed in the recovery boiler combustion zone; these emission lines are due to potassium, a common constituent found in all the black liquors. Accordingly, a fiber optics based four-color system has been developed. This in-situ, nonintrusive temperature measurement technique, together with some of the more recent results, is described in this paper.

  6. Amination of black liquor and the application in the ready-mixed wet mortar.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Dafeng; Zheng, Tao; Chen, Ran; Li, Xiaokang; Qiu, Xueqing

    2017-02-28

    In order to extend the application of black liquor (BL), amino group was introduced in lignin through Mannich reaction. The structure of the aminated black liquor (ABL) was characterized with FT-IR, elemental analysis, the zeta potential and the inherent viscosity. The foam generated by ABL was more stable, for the surface tension was lower. The results of the mortar test indicated that the water-retention rate of the fresh mortar incorporated with 0.3 wt% ABL was 89.1%; the consistency loss was about 39.7% after 4 h. When the dosage was less than 0.3 wt%, ABL could increase the bond strength of the hardened mortars. The results showed that ABL could be used as an effective ready-mixed wet mortar admixture. This study not only provided a new method to develop new mortar admixture, but also alleviated the pollution of BL.

  7. Metabolic versatility of halotolerant and alkaliphilic strains of Halomonas isolated from alkaline black liquor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunyu; Wang, Zhe; Li, Yang; Niu, Yu; Du, Miaofen; He, Xiaofei; Ma, Cuiqing; Tang, Hongzhi; Xu, Ping

    2010-09-01

    Wheat straw black liquor is a notorious pulp mill wastewater with very high pH and pollution load. Two halotolerant and alkaliphilic bacteria, designated as Halomonas sp. 19-A and Y2, were isolated from wheat straw black liquor and shown to be able to use guaiacol, vanillin, dibenzo-p-dioxin, biphenyl and fluorene, as sole carbon and carbazole as sole carbon and nitrogen source at pH 9.5 and in the presence of 10% NaCl. The two strains produced carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase), xylanase, lipase, amylase, and pullulanase. High activities of CMCase, xylanase, and amylase were observed at pH 5.0-11.0 and NaCl concentrations of 0-15%. The metabolic versatility of these Halomonas strains even under extreme pH and salinity conditions makes them promising agents for bioremediation and industrial processes.

  8. PCR-DGGE analysis of the microbial communities in three different Chinese "Baiyunbian" liquor fermentation starters.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiaomao; Hu, Yuanliang; Yan, Nanfeng; Huang, Yingna; Peng, Nan; Liang, Yunxiang; Zhao, Shumiao

    2014-08-01

    A systematic investigation was performed on the bacterial, Bacillus, fungal, and yeast communities of the three types of Daqu (mechanically prepared, manually prepared, and mixed prepared) used in Baiyunbian Company by reconditioning PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The DGGE results showed that the microbes in the three types of Daqu were mainly thermotolerant and thermophilic microbes, and the most dominant bacterial species were Bacillus and Virgibacillus, followed by Lactobacillus and Trichococcus. Furthermore, the dominant fungi were found to be molds, such as Rasamsonia, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Monascus, and the dominant yeasts were Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, Pichia anomala, and Debaryomyces hansenii. In general, the three types of Daqu showed slight differences in microbial communities, and the Shannon indexes (H') of the manually prepared and mechanically prepared Daqu were similar. The results suggest that mechanically prepared Daqu can replace manually prepared Daqu in liquor production, and this research provides useful information for liquor production and process improvement.

  9. Dry powder preparation of inulin fructotransferase from Arthrobacter aurescens SK 8.001 fermented liquor.

    PubMed

    Hang, Hua; Li, Yungao; Zhao, Meng; Jiang, Bo; Miao, Ming; Mu, Wanmeng; Zhang, Tao

    2013-06-20

    Difructosan anhydrides III (DFA III) are usually obtained by inulin conversion with inulin fructotransferase (IFTase). IFTase liquor is difficult to store for a long time, which could greatly restrict its application and DFA III production. To meet DFA III scale-up preparation, this work was explored to research dry powder preparation of IFTase from Arthrobacter aurescens SK 8.001 fermented liquor by ultrafiltration concentration, ammonium sulfate precipitation and freeze drying. IFTase powder (10.2g) was obtained from IFTase precipitation (126.4 g) and its specific activity determined was 16.4 U/mg. Dry powder of IFTase could maintain over 120 days at different temperatures. These results showed that it is easy to scale up DFA III preparation for industrial capacity.

  10. [Emission of fluorine from black liquor coal-water slurry combustion].

    PubMed

    Ren, Qiang; Liu, Jian-zhong; Sheng, Jun-jie; Ye, Lin; Cao, Xin-yu; Zhou, Jun-hu; Cen, Ke-fa

    2005-01-01

    The paper is about the emission of fluorine from an experimental boiler of 0.25 MW when burning black liquor coal-water slurry (CWS). The result is compared with CWS. And the analysis of effect factors is also carried out. Experimental research show that, the content of fluorine in CWS, which was less than 30 mg/kg, was relatively low. The emission ratio and concentration of fluorine were 70% - 90% and 2.0 - 2.6 mg/m3 respectively when burning common CWS; while the data of those when combusting black liquor CWS were 45% - 80% and 1.7 - 3.0 mg/m3 respectively. The hearth temperature and the element of CWS were two factors of emission fluorine when burning CWS.

  11. Refining of autohydrolysis liquors for manufacturing xylooligosaccharides: evaluation of operational strategies.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, M J; Garrote, G; Alonso, J L; Domínguez, H; Parajó, J C

    2005-05-01

    When xylan-containing lignocellulosic materials are subjected to the action of heat in an aqueous medium (autohydrolysis reaction) under suitable operational conditions, the heterocyclic ether bonds of the polymeric chain are split to give xylooligosaccharides (XO) and a variety of other products derived from hemicelluloses, lignin and extractives. For product applications requiring high-purity XO, subsequent purification stages have to be implemented. Various strategies have been evaluated for refining Eucalyptus wood autohydrolysis liquors, including the two-stage reaction, precipitation and solvent extraction of freeze-dried, dewaxed liquors. Data on the degree of xylooligosaccharide recovery as well as on the composition of the isolates (measured in terms of hemicellulose-derived products and non-saccharide products) are provided for the various operational procedures assayed.

  12. Microscope image processor for treatment of coke-oven ammonia liquor

    SciTech Connect

    Miyake, Minoru; Yamamoto, Masaki . Ironmaking Dept.); Maeda, Kohzoh . Process Control Dept.)

    1993-08-01

    Ammonia liquor generated in cokemaking operations is discharged from the plant after removal and decomposition of harmful substances. The volume and chemical composition of ammonia liquor varies greatly with the operating conditions of the coke oven and coal properties. These variations often cause unstable activated sludge operation, frequent bulking and other irregularities. Up to now, the activated sludge operation was mainly controlled by analyzing water quality. Recently, however, the importance of observed microorganisms in sludge such as zoogleal microorganisms (floc), filamentous microorganisms and protozoa, has been recognized. These microorganisms are normally observed manually with microscopes, but this procedure is relatively ineffective for control purposes because the measurements take too long and the results are based on qualitative judgments. To realize a quantitative measurement method for filamentous microorganisms and floc, a microscope image processor was developed jointly with Hitachi Ltd. for activated sludge control. The microscope image processor has been found to be effective in predicting bulking and evaluating bulking control techniques.

  13. Pre-desilication and digestion of gibbsitic bauxite with lime in sodium aluminate liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xiao-lin; Yu, Hai-yan; Dong, Kai-wei; Tu, Gan-feng; Bi, Shi-wen

    2012-11-01

    The effect of lime on the pre-desilication and digestion of gibbsitic bauxite in synthetic sodium aluminate liquor at different temperatures was investigated. The bauxite is comprised of gibbsite, aluminogoethite, hematite, kaolin, quartz, and minor boehmite. Lime increases the desilication efficiency of the bauxite during the pre-desilication process by promoting the conversion of sodalite and cancrinite to hydrogarnet. Desilication reactions during the digestion process promoted by lime result in the loss of Al2O3 entering the red mud, but the amount of aluminogoethite-to-hematite conversion promoted by lime leads to the increase of aluminogoethitic Al2O3 entering the digested liquor. The alumina digestion rate at 245°C is higher than that at 145°C due to the more pronounced conversion of aluminogoethite to hematite. The soda consumption during the digestion process decreases due to lime addition, especially at higher temperatures.

  14. Value Addition to Sulfate Waste Pickle Liquor of Steel Industry Using Hydrometallurgical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Archana; Sahu, K. K.

    2009-12-01

    The solvent extraction of concentrated acid was investigated from sulfate waste pickle liquors using Cyanex 923 (trialkylphosphine oxide (TRPO); manufactured by Cytec Industries Inc., Woodland Park, NJ; provided by Cyanamid Canada Inc. (Markham, Canada)) as an extractant. The effect of various parameters was studied such as extractant concentration, organic-to-aqueous phase ratio, temperature. and retention time on acid extraction from the waste pickle liquor to the organic phase, After the saturation of the organic phase with sulfuric acid, stripping studies were performed to back-extract the pure acid into the aqueous phase. The raffinate of the solvent extraction process that contains both ferrous and ferric iron as well as trace impurities was subjected to oxidation and hydrothermal treatment to precipitate iron with a well-defined pseudo-cubic morphology and a high coercivity value that renders it suitable for high-grade ferrite production.

  15. Comparison of Refractory Performance in Black Liquor Gasifiers and a Smelt Test System

    SciTech Connect

    Peascoe, RA

    2001-09-25

    Prior laboratory corrosion studies along with experience at the black liquor gasifier in New Bern, North Carolina, clearly demonstrate that serious material problems exist with the gasifier's refractory lining. Mullite-based and alumina-based refractories used at the New Bern facility suffered significant degradation even though they reportedly performed adequately in smaller scale systems. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's involvement in the failure analysis, and the initial exploration of suitable replacement materials, led to the realization that a simple and reliable, complementary method for refractory screening was needed. The development of a laboratory test system and its suitability for simulating the environment of black liquor gasifiers was undertaken. Identification and characterization of corrosion products were used to evaluate the test system as a rapid screening tool for refractory performance and as a predictor of refractory lifetime. Results from the test systems and pl ants were qualitatively similar.

  16. A Beverage-Specific Measure of Expectancies for Malt Liquor: Development and Initial Testing

    PubMed Central

    Collins, R. Lorraine; Vincent, Paula C.; Bradizza, Clara M.; Kubiak, Audrey J.; Falco, Diana L.

    2011-01-01

    Malt liquor (ML) is a unique, high alcohol content beverage marketed to encourage heavy drinking. We developed the Malt Liquor Expectancy Questionnaire (MLEQ), a beverage-specific measure of alcohol expectancies and examined its association with ML use, total alcohol use and alcohol problems. Forty positive and 40 negative expectancy items were administered to a sample of 639 young adults who regularly consumed ML. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses led to the development of the 30-item MLEQ. The MLEQ consists of two positive (i.e., Social Facilitation and Enjoyment, Enhanced Sexuality) and two negative factors (i.e., Aggression and Negative Consequences; Impairment and Physical Symptoms) that possess good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent validity. The psychometrically sound MLEQ contributes to the limited research on beverage-specific expectancies and heavy drinking. PMID:21928870

  17. Characteristic of a novel composite inorganic polymer coagulant-PFAC prepared by hydrochloric pickle liquor.

    PubMed

    Lan, Wei; Qiu, Huiqin; Zhang, Jie; Yu, Yanjing; Yang, Kailiang; Liu, Zhongzhe; Ding, Guoji

    2009-02-15

    A composite inorganic polymer coagulant, polyferric aluminum chloride (PFAC) was prepared by using hydrochloric pickle liquor and calcium aluminate as main materials. The optimum conditions for preparing PFAC with the hydrochloric pickle liquor and the calcium aluminate were studied. The coagulation performance of PFAC was investigated by studying the turbidity, COD, total phosphate (TP) and NH(3)-N removal efficiency in municipal sewage treatment. Results indicated that the effective composition, basicity (simplified as B, B=[OH]/(3[Fe(T)+Al(T)])x100%), coagulation performance and stability of PFAC were affected by calcium aluminate dosage, reaction time, reaction temperature and stabilizing agents. The COD and turbidity removal efficiency of PFAC was better than that of PFS and FeCl(3), and the TP and NH(3)-N removal efficiency of PFAC was much better than that of PFS, FeCl(3) and PAC. PFAC not only possessed a good coagulation performance, but also had good stability when stored.

  18. Development of viscometers for kraft black liquor. Summary report, Phase 2 and 2A

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, A.L.; Crisalle, O.D.

    1996-11-01

    This report documents the results of the evaluation of the on-line prototype viscometers for kraft black liquors carried out at the Pilot Plant facilities of the University of Florida. The original plan called for the evaluation of five prototype on-line viscometers along with laboratory bench versions. At a later stage in the project an additional experimental prototype under development at Southwest Research Institute was added. The viscometers are evaluated for accuracy and repeatability under varying process conditions, such as black liquor species, solids content, temperature, flow rate, and contaminants, as well as for maintenance and reliability. This document reports extensive results of the evaluations and recommendations for design modifications and for the installation of the instruments in industrial pulping mills for further field evaluations in Phase 3 of the project. The report also documents relevant details of the final design of the pilot flow loop used to support the experiments.

  19. Biocontrol of geosmin-producing Streptomyces spp. by two Bacillus strains from Chinese liquor.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Yan; Wu, Qun; Du, Hai; Xu, Yan

    2016-08-16

    Streptomyces spp. producing geosmin have been regarded as the most frequent and serious microbial contamination causing earthy off-flavor in Chinese liquor. It is therefore necessary to control the Streptomyces community during liquor fermentation. Biological control, using the native microbiota present in liquor making, appears to be a better solution than chemical methods. The objective of this study was to isolate native microbiota antagonistic toward Streptomyces spp. and then to evaluate the possible action mode of the antagonists. Fourteen Bacillus strains isolated from different Daqu (the fermentation starter) showed antagonistic activity against Streptomyces sampsonii, which is one of the dominant geosmin producers. Bacillus subtilis 2-16 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 1-45 from Maotai Daqu significantly inhibited the growth of S. sampsonii by 57.8% and 84.3% respectively, and effectively prevented the geosmin production in the simulated fermentation experiments (inoculation ratio 1:1). To probe the biocontrol mode, the ability of strain 2-16 and 1-45 to produce antimicrobial metabolites and to reduce geosmin in the fermentation system was investigated. Antimicrobial substances were identified as lipopeptides by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem electrospray ionization/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/Q-TOF MS) and in vitro antibiotic assay. In addition, strains 2-16 and 1-45 were able to remove 45% and 15% of the geosmin respectively in the simulated solid-state fermentation. This study highlighted the potential of biocontrol, and how the use of native Bacillus species in Daqu could provide an eco-friendly method to prevent growth of Streptomyces spp. and geosmin contamination in Chinese liquor fermentation.

  20. Neutralization of red mud with pickling waste liquor using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology.

    PubMed

    Rai, Suchita; Wasewar, Kailas L; Lataye, Dilip H; Mishra, Rajshekhar S; Puttewar, Suresh P; Chaddha, Mukesh J; Mahindiran, P; Mukhopadhyay, Jyoti

    2012-09-01

    'Red mud' or 'bauxite residue', a waste generated from alumina refinery is highly alkaline in nature with a pH of 10.5-12.5. Red mud poses serious environmental problems such as alkali seepage in ground water and alkaline dust generation. One of the options to make red mud less hazardous and environmentally benign is its neutralization with acid or an acidic waste. Hence, in the present study, neutralization of alkaline red mud was carried out using a highly acidic waste (pickling waste liquor). Pickling waste liquor is a mixture of strong acids used for descaling or cleaning the surfaces in steel making industry. The aim of the study was to look into the feasibility of neutralization process of the two wastes using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology. This would make both the wastes less hazardous and safe for disposal. The effect of slurry solids, volume of pickling liquor, stirring time and temperature on the neutralization process were investigated. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that the volume of the pickling liquor is the most significant parameter followed by quantity of red mud with 69.18% and 18.48% contribution each respectively. Under the optimized parameters, pH value of 7 can be achieved by mixing the two wastes. About 25-30% of the total soda from the red mud is being neutralized and alkalinity is getting reduced by 80-85%. Mineralogy and morphology of the neutralized red mud have also been studied. The data presented will be useful in view of environmental concern of red mud disposal.