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Sample records for directional sexual selection

  1. Directional postcopulatory sexual selection revealed by artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan P; Zane, Lorenzo; Francescato, Samuela; Pilastro, Andrea

    2003-01-23

    Postcopulatory sexual selection comprises both sperm competition, where the sperm from different males compete for fertilization, and cryptic female choice, where females bias sperm use in favour of particular males. Despite intense current interest in both processes as potential agents of directional sexual selection, few studies have attributed the success of attractive males to events that occur exclusively after insemination. This is because the interactions between pre- and post-insemination episodes of sexual selection can be important sources of variation in paternity. The use of artificial insemination overcomes this difficulty because it controls for variation in male fertilization success attributable to the female's perception of male quality, as well as effects due to mating order and the relative contribution of sperm from competing males. Here, we adopt this technique and show that in guppies, when equal numbers of sperm from two males compete for fertilization, relatively colourful individuals achieve greater parentage than their less ornamented counterparts. This finding indicates that precopulatory female mating preferences can be reinforced exclusively through postcopulatory processes occurring at a physiological level. Our analysis also revealed that relatively small individuals were advantaged in sperm competition, suggesting a possible trade-off between sperm competitive ability and body growth.

  2. How important are direct fitness benefits of sexual selection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Møller, A. P.; Jennions, M. D.

    2001-10-01

    Females may choose mates based on the expression of secondary sexual characters that signal direct, material fitness benefits or indirect, genetic fitness benefits. Genetic benefits are acquired in the generation subsequent to that in which mate choice is performed, and the maintenance of genetic variation in viability has been considered a theoretical problem. Consequently, the magnitude of indirect benefits has traditionally been considered to be small. Direct fitness benefits can be maintained without consideration of mechanisms sustaining genetic variability, and they have thus been equated with the default benefits acquired by choosy females. There is, however, still debate as to whether or not males should honestly advertise direct benefits such as their willingness to invest in parental care. We use meta-analysis to estimate the magnitude of direct fitness benefits in terms of fertility, fecundity and two measures of paternal care (feeding rate in birds, hatching rate in male guarding ectotherms) based on an extensive literature survey. The mean coefficients of determination weighted by sample size were 6.3%, 2.3%, 1.3% and 23.6%, respectively. This compares to a mean weighted coefficient of determination of 1.5% for genetic viability benefits in studies of sexual selection. Thus, for several fitness components, direct benefits are only slightly more important than indirect ones arising from female choice. Hatching rate in male guarding ectotherms was by far the most important direct fitness component, explaining almost a quarter of the variance. Our analysis also shows that male sexual advertisements do not always reliably signal direct fitness benefits.

  3. Sexual dimorphism and directional sexual selection on aposematic signals in a poison frog

    PubMed Central

    Maan, Martine E.; Cummings, Molly E.

    2009-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that natural selection imposed by predators is the prevailing force driving the evolution of aposematic traits. Here, we demonstrate that aposematic signals are shaped by sexual selection as well. We evaluated sexual selection for coloration brightness in populations of the poison frog Oophaga [Dendrobates] pumilio in Panama's Bocas del Toro archipelago. We assessed female preferences for brighter males by manipulating the perceived brightness of spectrally matched males in two-way choice experiments. We found strong female preferences for bright males in two island populations and weaker or ambiguous preferences in females from mainland populations. Spectral reflectance measurements, coupled with an O. pumilio-specific visual processing model, showed that O. pumilio coloration was significantly brighter in island than in mainland morphs. In one of the island populations (Isla Solarte), males were significantly more brightly colored than females. Taken together, these results provide evidence for directional sexual selection on aposematic coloration and document sexual dimorphism in vertebrate warning coloration. Although aposematic signals have long been upheld as exemplars of natural selection, our results show that sexual selection should not be ignored in studies of aposematic evolution. PMID:19858491

  4. Sex-related genes, directional sexual selection, and speciation.

    PubMed

    Civetta, A; Singh, R S

    1998-07-01

    Reproductive isolation and speciation can result from the establishment of either premating or postmating barriers that restrict gene flow between populations. Recent studies of speciation have been dominated by a molecular approach to dissect the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility, a specific form of postmating reproductive isolation. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the evolution of genes involved in premating isolation and genes generally involved in other sex-related functions (e.g., mating behavior, fertilization, spermatogenesis, sex determination). We have assembled DNA sequences from 51 nuclear genes and classified them based on their functional characteristics. The proportion of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitutions were compared between Drosophila melanogaster, Drosophila simulans, and Drosophila pseudoobscura, as well as between Caenorhabditis elegans and Caenorhabditis briggsae. We found a high ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions for sex-related genes (i.e., genes involved in mating behavior, fertilization, spermatogenesis, or sex determination). The results suggest that directional sexual selection has shaped the evolution of sex-related genes and that these changes have more likely occurred during the early stages of speciation. It is possible that directional selection becomes relaxed after reproductive isolation has been completed between more distantly related species (e.g., D. melanogaster and D. pseudoobscura). However, a saturation in the number of nucleotide substitutions since the time of species separation may mask any sign of directional selection between more distantly related species.

  5. Direct and indirect sexual selection and quantitative genetics of male traits in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    Brooks, R; Endler, J A

    2001-05-01

    The ornamentation and displays on which sexual attractiveness and thus mating success are based may be complex and comprise several traits. Predicting the outcome of sexual selection on such complex phenotypes requires an understanding of both the direct operation of selection on each trait and the indirect consequences of selection operating directly on genetically correlated traits. Here we report the results of a quantitative genetic analysis of the ornamentation, sexual attractiveness, and mating success of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata). We analyze male ornamentation both from the point of view of single ornamental traits (e.g., the area of each color) and of composite measures of the way the entire pattern is likely to be perceived by females (e.g., the mean and contrast in chroma). We demonstrate that there is substantial additive genetic variation in almost all measures of male ornamentation and that much of this variation may be Y linked. Attractiveness and mating success are positively correlated at the phenotypic and genetic level. Orange area and chroma, the area of a male's tail, and the color contrast of his pattern overall are positively correlated with attractiveness and/or mating success at the phenotypic and genetic levels. Using attractiveness and mating success as measures of fitness, we estimate gradients of linear directional sexual selection operating on each male trait and use equations of multivariate evolutionary change to predict the response of male ornamentation to this sexual selection. From these analyses, we predict that indirect selection may have important effects on the evolution of male guppy color patterns.

  6. A selective androgen receptor modulator enhances male-directed sexual preference, proceptive behavior, and lordosis behavior in sexually experienced, but not sexually naive, female rats.

    PubMed

    Kudwa, A E; López, F J; McGivern, R F; Handa, R J

    2010-06-01

    Androgens influence many aspects of reproductive behavior, including sexual preference of females for males. In oophorectomized women with sexual desire disorder, testosterone patches improve libido, but their use is limited because of adverse side effects. Selective androgen receptor modulators offer an improved safety profile for both sexes: enhancing libido and muscle and bone growth in a manner similar to steroidal androgens but with fewer adverse effects, such as hirsutism, acne, and prostate growth. The current study investigated the action of a novel selective androgen receptor modulator (LGD-3303 [9-chloro-2-ethyl-1-methyl-3-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-3H-pyrrolo-[3,2-f]quinolin-7(6H)-one]) on male-directed sexual preference, proceptivity, and lordosis behavior of female rats. LGD-3303 is a nonsteroidal, nonaromatizable, highly selective ligand for the androgen receptor and effectively crosses the blood-brain barrier. Gonadectomized female rats were treated with LGD-3303 (3-30 mg/kg) or vehicle by daily oral gavage. Results showed that LGD-3303 treatment enhanced sexual preference of females for males but only if females had previous sexual experience. This occurred after 1 or 7 d of treatment. In contrast, preference for males was inhibited by LGD-3303 treatments of sexually naive females. The LGD-3303 increase in male preference was blocked by pretreatment with the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide. LGD-3303 treatment increased lordosis and proceptivity behaviors in ovariectomized females primed with suboptimal doses of estradiol benzoate plus progesterone. These data support the concept that LGD-3303 can stimulate aspects of female sexual behavior and may serve as a potential therapeutic for women with sexual desire disorders.

  7. Direct and correlated responses to artificial selection on sexual size dimorphism in the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Tigreros, N; Lewis, S M

    2011-04-01

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is a conspicuous yet poorly understood pattern across many organisms. Although artificial selection is an important tool for studying the evolution of SSD, previous studies have applied selection to only a single sex or to both sexes in the same direction. In nature, however, SSD likely arises through sex-specific selection on body size. Here, we use Tribolium castaneum flour beetles to investigate the evolution of SSD by subjecting males and females to sexually antagonistic selection on body size (sexes selected in opposite directions). Additionally, we examined correlated responses to body size selection in larval growth rates and development time. After seven generations, SSD remained unchanged in all selected lines; this observed lack of response to short-term selection may be attributed to evolutionary constraints arising from between-sex body size correlations. Developmental traits showed complex correlated responses under different selection treatments. These results suggest that sex-specific larval development patterns may facilitate the evolution of SSD.

  8. The estimated direct medical cost of selected sexually transmitted infections in the United States, 2008.

    PubMed

    Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Chesson, Harrell W; Gift, Thomas L; Tao, Guoyu; Mahajan, Reena; Ocfemia, Marie Cheryl Bañez; Kent, Charlotte K

    2013-03-01

    Millions of cases of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) occur in the United States each year, resulting in substantial medical costs to the nation. Previous estimates of the total direct cost of STIs are quite dated. We present updated direct medical cost estimates of STIs in the United States. We assembled recent (i.e., 2002-2011) cost estimates to determine the lifetime cost per case of 8 major STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhea, hepatitis B virus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human papillomavirus, genital herpes simplex virus type 2, trichomoniasis and syphilis). The total direct cost for each STI was computed as the product of the number of new or newly diagnosed cases in 2008 and the estimated discounted lifetime cost per case. All costs were adjusted to 2010 US dollars. Results indicated that the total lifetime direct medical cost of the 19.7 million cases of STIs that occurred among persons of all ages in 2008 in the United States was $15.6 (range, $11.0-$20.6) billion. Total costs were as follows: chlamydia ($516.7 [$258.3-$775.0] million), gonorrhea ($162.1 [$81.1-$243.2] million), hepatitis B virus ($50.7 [$41.3-$55.6] million), HIV ($12.6 [$9.5-$15.7] billion), human papillomavirus ($1.7 [$0.8-$2.9] billion), herpes simplex virus type 2 ($540.7 [$270.3-$811.0] million), syphilis ($39.3 [$19.6-$58.9] million), and trichomoniasis ($24.0 [$12.0-$36.0] million). Costs associated with HIV infection accounted for more than 81% of the total cost. Among the nonviral STIs, chlamydia was the most costly infection. Sexually transmitted infections continue to impose a substantial cost burden on the payers of medical care in the United States. The burden of STIs would be even greater in the absence of STI prevention and control efforts.

  9. Directional postcopulatory sexual selection is associated with female sperm storage in Trinidadian guppies.

    PubMed

    Devigili, Alessandro; Di Nisio, Andrea; Grapputo, Alessandro; Pilastro, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Female sperm storage (FSS) is taxonomically widespread and often associated with intense sperm competition, yet its consequences on postcopulatory sexual selection (PCSS) are poorly known. Theory predicts that FSS will reduce the strength of PCSS, because sperm characteristics favored before and after FSS may be traded-off, and opportunities for nondirectional PCSS should increase. We explored these questions in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), by allowing females to mate multiply and by comparing the paternity pattern in two successive broods. Contrary to predictions, the variance in male fertilization success increased after FSS, driven by a change in male paternity share across broods. This change was positively associated with sperm velocity (measured before FSS) but not with the duration of FSS, indirectly suggesting that faster sperm were better in entering female storage organs, rather than in persisting within them. Other male traits, such as male size and orange color, heterozygosity, and relatedness to the female, did not influence paternity after FSS. These results indicate that processes associated with FSS tend to reinforce the strength of PCSS in guppies, rather than weaken it. Further work is necessary to test whether this pattern changes in case of more prolonged FSS. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Ecology, sexual selection and speciation.

    PubMed

    Maan, Martine E; Seehausen, Ole

    2011-06-01

    The spectacular diversity in sexually selected traits among animal taxa has inspired the hypothesis that divergent sexual selection can drive speciation. Unfortunately, speciation biologists often consider sexual selection in isolation from natural selection, even though sexually selected traits evolve in an ecological context: both preferences and traits are often subject to natural selection. Conversely, while behavioural ecologists may address ecological effects on sexual communication, they rarely measure the consequences for population divergence. Herein, we review the empirical literature addressing the mechanisms by which natural selection and sexual selection can interact during speciation. We find that convincing evidence for any of these scenarios is thin. However, the available data strongly support various diversifying effects that emerge from interactions between sexual selection and environmental heterogeneity. We suggest that evaluating the evolutionary consequences of these effects requires a better integration of behavioural, ecological and evolutionary research. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  11. Humor and sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Storey, Robert

    2003-12-01

    Recently Geoffrey Miller has suggested that humor evolved through sexual selection as a signal of "creativity," which in turn implies youthfulness, intelligence, and adaptive unpredictability. Drawing upon available empirical studies, I argue that the evidence for a link between humor and creativity is weak and ambiguous. I also find only tenuous support for Miller's assumption that the attractiveness of the "sense of humor" is to be found in the wittiness of its possessor, since those who use the phrase often seem to associate it with the affects of relatively mirthless "bonding" laughter. Humor, I conclude, may have evolved as an instrument for achieving broad social adhesiveness and for facilitating the individual's maneuverability within the group, but that it evolved through sexual selection has yet to be convincingly demonstrated.

  12. Sexual selection and mating systems

    PubMed Central

    Shuster, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual selection is among the most powerful of all evolutionary forces. It occurs when individuals within one sex secure mates and produce offspring at the expense of other individuals within the same sex. Darwin was first to recognize the power of sexual selection to change male and female phenotypes, and, in noting that sexual selection is nonubiquitous, Darwin was also first to recognize the importance of mating system—the “special circumstances” in which reproduction occurs within species. Analyses of mating systems since Darwin have emphasized either the genetic relationships between male and female mating elements, usually among plants, or the numbers of mates males and females may obtain, usually among animals. Combining these schemes yields a quantitative methodology that emphasizes measurement of the sex difference in the variance in relative fitness, as well as phenotypic and genetic correlations underlying reproductive traits that may arise among breeding pairs. Such information predicts the degree and direction of sexual dimorphism within species, it allows the classification of mating systems using existing genetic and life history data, and with information on the spatial and temporal distributions of fertilizations, it may also predict floral morphology in plants. Because this empirical framework identifies selective forces and genetic architectures responsible for observed male-female differences, it compliments discoveries of nucleotide sequence variation and the expression of quantitative traits. Moreover, because this methodology emphasizes the process of evolutionary change, it is easier to test and interpret than frameworks emphasizing parental investment in offspring and its presumed evolutionary outcomes. PMID:19528645

  13. Sexual selection and mating systems.

    PubMed

    Shuster, Stephen M

    2009-06-16

    Sexual selection is among the most powerful of all evolutionary forces. It occurs when individuals within one sex secure mates and produce offspring at the expense of other individuals within the same sex. Darwin was first to recognize the power of sexual selection to change male and female phenotypes, and, in noting that sexual selection is nonubiquitous, Darwin was also first to recognize the importance of mating system--the "special circumstances" in which reproduction occurs within species. Analyses of mating systems since Darwin have emphasized either the genetic relationships between male and female mating elements, usually among plants, or the numbers of mates males and females may obtain, usually among animals. Combining these schemes yields a quantitative methodology that emphasizes measurement of the sex difference in the variance in relative fitness, as well as phenotypic and genetic correlations underlying reproductive traits that may arise among breeding pairs. Such information predicts the degree and direction of sexual dimorphism within species, it allows the classification of mating systems using existing genetic and life history data, and with information on the spatial and temporal distributions of fertilizations, it may also predict floral morphology in plants. Because this empirical framework identifies selective forces and genetic architectures responsible for observed male-female differences, it compliments discoveries of nucleotide sequence variation and the expression of quantitative traits. Moreover, because this methodology emphasizes the process of evolutionary change, it is easier to test and interpret than frameworks emphasizing parental investment in offspring and its presumed evolutionary outcomes.

  14. Balancing Instrumental and Identity Goals in Relationships: The Role of Request Directness and Request Persistence in the Selection of Sexual Resistance Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afifi, Walid A.; Lee, Josephine W.

    2000-01-01

    Applies the general frameworks of Politeness Theory and Planning Theory to explain the selection of sexual resistance strategies among undergraduates following both initial and persisting requests. Investigates contingent effects of request directness on characteristics of the resistance message. Tests influence of resister sex on strategy choice.…

  15. Sexual selection protects against extinction.

    PubMed

    Lumley, Alyson J; Michalczyk, Łukasz; Kitson, James J N; Spurgin, Lewis G; Morrison, Catriona A; Godwin, Joanne L; Dickinson, Matthew E; Martin, Oliver Y; Emerson, Brent C; Chapman, Tracey; Gage, Matthew J G

    2015-06-25

    Reproduction through sex carries substantial costs, mainly because only half of sexual adults produce offspring. It has been theorized that these costs could be countered if sex allows sexual selection to clear the universal fitness constraint of mutation load. Under sexual selection, competition between (usually) males and mate choice by (usually) females create important intraspecific filters for reproductive success, so that only a subset of males gains paternity. If reproductive success under sexual selection is dependent on individual condition, which is contingent to mutation load, then sexually selected filtering through 'genic capture' could offset the costs of sex because it provides genetic benefits to populations. Here we test this theory experimentally by comparing whether populations with histories of strong versus weak sexual selection purge mutation load and resist extinction differently. After evolving replicate populations of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum for 6 to 7 years under conditions that differed solely in the strengths of sexual selection, we revealed mutation load using inbreeding. Lineages from populations that had previously experienced strong sexual selection were resilient to extinction and maintained fitness under inbreeding, with some families continuing to survive after 20 generations of sib × sib mating. By contrast, lineages derived from populations that experienced weak or non-existent sexual selection showed rapid fitness declines under inbreeding, and all were extinct after generation 10. Multiple mutations across the genome with individually small effects can be difficult to clear, yet sum to a significant fitness load; our findings reveal that sexual selection reduces this load, improving population viability in the face of genetic stress.

  16. Sexual selection: Another Darwinian process.

    PubMed

    Gayon, Jean

    2010-02-01

    Why was sexual selection so important to Darwin? And why was it de-emphasized by almost all of Darwin's followers until the second half of the 20th century? These two questions shed light on the complexity of the scientific tradition named "Darwinism". Darwin's interest in sexual selection was almost as old as his discovery of the principle of natural selection. From the beginning, sexual selection was just another "natural means of selection", although different from standard "natural selection" in its mechanism. But it took Darwin 30 years to fully develop his theory, from the early notebooks to the 1871 book The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. Although there is a remarkable continuity in his basic ideas about sexual selection, he emphasized increasingly the idea that sexual selection could oppose the action of natural selection and be non adaptive. In time, he also gave more weight to mate choice (especially female choice), giving explicit arguments in favor of psychological notions such as "choice" and "aesthetic sense". But he also argued that there was no strict demarcation line between natural and sexual selection, a major difficulty of the theory from the beginning. Female choice was the main reason why Alfred Russel Wallace, the co-discoverer of the principle of natural selection, engaged in a major controversy with Darwin about sexual selection. Wallace was suspicious about sexual selection in general, trying to minimize it by all sorts of arguments. And he denied entirely the existence of female choice, because he thought that it was both unnecessary and an anthropomorphic notion. This had something to do with his spiritualist convictions, but also with his conception of natural selection as a sufficient principle for the evolutionary explanation of all biological phenomena (except for the origin of mind). This is why Wallace proposed to redefine Darwinism in a way that excluded Darwin's principle of sexual selection. The main result of

  17. Sexual and natural selection both influence male genital evolution.

    PubMed

    House, Clarissa M; Lewis, Zenobia; Hodgson, Dave J; Wedell, Nina; Sharma, Manmohan D; Hunt, John; Hosken, David J

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and divergent evolution of male genital morphology is a conspicuous and general pattern across internally fertilizing animals. Rapid genital evolution is thought to be the result of sexual selection, and the role of natural selection in genital evolution remains controversial. However, natural and sexual selection are believed to act antagonistically on male genital form. We conducted an experimental evolution study to investigate the combined effects of natural and sexual selection on the genital-arch lobes of male Drosophila simulans. Replicate populations were forced to evolve under lifetime monogamy (relaxed sexual selection) or lifetime polyandry (elevated sexual selection) and two temperature regimes, 25°C (relaxed natural selection) or 27°C (elevated natural selection) in a fully factorial design. We found that natural and sexual selection plus their interaction caused genital evolution. Natural selection caused some aspects of genital form to evolve away from their sexually selected shape, whereas natural and sexual selection operated in the same direction for other shape components. Additionally, sexual and natural selection tended to favour larger genitals. Thus we find that the underlying selection driving genital evolution is complex, does not only involve sexual selection, and that natural selection and sexual selection do not always act antagonistically.

  18. Sexual and Natural Selection Both Influence Male Genital Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Dave J.; Wedell, Nina; Sharma, Manmohan D.; Hunt, John; Hosken, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and divergent evolution of male genital morphology is a conspicuous and general pattern across internally fertilizing animals. Rapid genital evolution is thought to be the result of sexual selection, and the role of natural selection in genital evolution remains controversial. However, natural and sexual selection are believed to act antagonistically on male genital form. We conducted an experimental evolution study to investigate the combined effects of natural and sexual selection on the genital-arch lobes of male Drosophila simulans. Replicate populations were forced to evolve under lifetime monogamy (relaxed sexual selection) or lifetime polyandry (elevated sexual selection) and two temperature regimes, 25°C (relaxed natural selection) or 27°C (elevated natural selection) in a fully factorial design. We found that natural and sexual selection plus their interaction caused genital evolution. Natural selection caused some aspects of genital form to evolve away from their sexually selected shape, whereas natural and sexual selection operated in the same direction for other shape components. Additionally, sexual and natural selection tended to favour larger genitals. Thus we find that the underlying selection driving genital evolution is complex, does not only involve sexual selection, and that natural selection and sexual selection do not always act antagonistically. PMID:23717488

  19. Selective advantage for sexual reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2006-06-01

    This paper develops a simplified model for sexual reproduction within the quasispecies formalism. The model assumes a diploid genome consisting of two chromosomes, where the fitness is determined by the number of chromosomes that are identical to a given master sequence. We also assume that there is a cost to sexual reproduction, given by a characteristic time τseek during which haploid cells seek out a mate with which to recombine. If the mating strategy is such that only viable haploids can mate, then when τseek=0 , it is possible to show that sexual reproduction will always out compete asexual reproduction. However, as τseek increases, sexual reproduction only becomes advantageous at progressively higher mutation rates. Once the time cost for sex reaches a critical threshold, the selective advantage for sexual reproduction disappears entirely. The results of this paper suggest that sexual reproduction is not advantageous in small populations per se, but rather in populations with low replication rates. In this regime, the cost for sex is sufficiently low that the selective advantage obtained through recombination leads to the dominance of the strategy. In fact, at a given replication rate and for a fixed environment volume, sexual reproduction is selected for in high populations because of the reduced time spent finding a reproductive partner.

  20. Selective advantage for sexual reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2006-03-01

    We develop a simplified model for sexual replication within the quasispecies formalism. We assume that the genomes of the replicating organisms are two-chromosomed and diploid, and that the fitness is determined by the number of chromosomes that are identical to a given master sequence. We also assume that there is a cost to sexual replication, given by a characteristic time τseek during which haploid cells seek out a mate with which to recombine. If the mating strategy is such that only viable haploids can mate, then when τseek= 0 , it is possible to show that sexual replication will always outcompete asexual replication. However, as τseek increases, sexual replication only becomes advantageous at progressively higher mutation rates. Once the time cost for sex reaches a critical threshold, the selective advantage for sexual replication disappears entirely. The results of this talk suggest that sexual replication is not advantageous in small populations per se, but rather in populations with low replication rates. In this regime, the cost for sex is sufficiently low that the selective advantage obtained through recombination leads to the dominance of the strategy. In fact, at a given replication rate and for a fixed environment volume, sexual replication is selected for in high populations because of the reduced time spent finding a reproductive partner.

  1. Why Sexually Selected Weapons Are Not Ornaments.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Erin L; Miller, Christine W; Emlen, Douglas J

    2016-10-01

    The elaboration and diversification of sexually selected weapons remain poorly understood. We argue that progress in this topic has been hindered by a strong bias in sexual selection research, and a tendency for weapons to be conflated with ornaments used in mate choice. Here, we outline how male-male competition and female choice are distinct mechanisms of sexual selection, and why weapons and ornaments are fundamentally different types of traits. We call for research on the factors contributing to weapon divergence, the potential for male-male competition to drive speciation, and the specific use of weapons in the context of direct fights versus displays. Given that weapons are first and foremost fighting structures, biomechanical approaches are an especially promising direction for understanding weapon design.

  2. Intrasexual competition in females: evidence for sexual selection?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In spite of recent interest in sexual selection in females, debate exists over whether traits that influence female–female competition are sexually selected. This review uses female–female aggressive behavior as a model behavioral trait for understanding the evolutionary mechanisms promoting intrasexual competition, focusing especially on sexual selection. I employ a broad definition of sexual selection, whereby traits that influence competition for mates are sexually selected, whereas those that directly influence fecundity or offspring survival are naturally selected. Drawing examples from across animal taxa, including humans, I examine 4 predictions about female intrasexual competition based on the abundance of resources, the availability of males, and the direct or indirect benefits those males provide. These patterns reveal a key sex difference in sexual selection: Although females may compete for the number of mates, they appear to compete more so for access to high-quality mates that provide direct and indirect (genetic) benefits. As is the case in males, intrasexual selection in females also includes competition for essential resources required for access to mates. If mate quality affects the magnitude of mating success, then restricting sexual selection to competition for quantity of mates may ignore important components of fitness in females and underestimate the role of sexual selection in shaping female phenotype. In the future, understanding sex differences in sexual selection will require further exploration of the extent of mutual intrasexual competition and the incorporation of quality of mating success into the study of sexual selection in both sexes. PMID:22479137

  3. The depletion of genetic variance by sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Van Homrigh, Anna; Higgie, Megan; McGuigan, Katrina; Blows, Mark W

    2007-03-20

    Sexually selected traits display substantial genetic variance [1, 2], in conflict with the expectation that sexual selection will deplete it [3-5]. Condition dependence is thought to resolve this paradox [5-7], but experimental tests that relate the direction of sexual selection to the availability of genetic variance are lacking. Here, we show that condition-dependent expression is not sufficient to maintain genetic variance available to sexual selection in multiple male sexually selected traits. We employed an experimental design that simultaneously determined the quantitative genetic basis of nine male cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) of Drosophila bunnanda, the extent of condition dependence of these traits, and the strength and direction of sexual selection acting upon them. The CHCs of D. bunnanda are condition dependent, with 18% of the genetic variance in male body size explained by genetic variance in CHCs. Despite the presence of genetic variance in individual male traits, 98% of the genetic variance in CHCs was found to be orientated more than 88 degrees away from the direction of sexual selection and therefore unavailable to selection. A lack of genetic variance in male traits in the direction of sexual selection may represent a general feature of sexually selected systems, even in the presence of condition-dependent trait expression.

  4. Sexual selection and animal personality.

    PubMed

    Schuett, Wiebke; Tregenza, Tom; Dall, Sasha R X

    2010-05-01

    Consistent individual behavioural tendencies, termed "personalities", have been identified in a wide range of animals. Functional explanations for personality have been proposed, but as yet, very little consideration has been given to a possible role for sexual selection in maintaining differences in personality and its stability within individuals. We provide an overview of the available literature on the role of personality traits in intrasexual competition and mate choice in both human and non-human animals and integrate this into a framework for considering how sexual selection can generate and maintain personality. For this, we consider the evolution and maintenance of both main aspects of animal personality: inter-individual variation and intra-individual consistency.

  5. Sexual selection for moral virtues.

    PubMed

    Miller, Geoffrey F

    2007-06-01

    Moral evolution theories have emphasized kinship, reciprocity, group selection, and equilibrium selection. Yet, moral virtues are also sexually attractive. Darwin suggested that sexual attractiveness may explain many aspects of human morality. This paper updates his argument by integrating recent research on mate choice, person perception, individual differences, costly signaling, and virtue ethics. Many human virtues may have evolved in both sexes through mutual mate choice to advertise good genetic quality, parenting abilities, and/or partner traits. Such virtues may include kindness, fidelity, magnanimity, and heroism, as well as quasi-moral traits like conscientiousness, agreeableness, mental health, and intelligence. This theory leads to many testable predictions about the phenotypic features, genetic bases, and social-cognitive responses to human moral virtues.

  6. Sex differences, sexual selection, and ageing: an experimental evolution approach.

    PubMed

    Maklakov, Alexei A; Bonduriansky, Russell; Brooks, Robert C

    2009-10-01

    Life-history (LH) theory predicts that selection will optimize the trade-off between reproduction and somatic maintenance. Reproductive ageing and finite life span are direct consequences of such optimization. Sexual selection and conflict profoundly affect the reproductive strategies of the sexes and thus can play an important role in the evolution of life span and ageing. In theory, sexual selection can favor the evolution of either faster or slower ageing, but the evidence is equivocal. We used a novel selection experiment to investigate the potential of sexual selection to influence the adaptive evolution of age-specific LH traits. We selected replicate populations of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus for age at reproduction ("Young" and "Old") either with or without sexual selection. We found that LH selection resulted in the evolution of age-specific reproduction and mortality but these changes were largely unaffected by sexual selection. Sexual selection depressed net reproductive performance and failed to promote adaptation. Nonetheless, the evolution of several traits differed between males and females. These data challenge the importance of current sexual selection in promoting rapid adaptation to environmental change but support the hypothesis that sex differences in LH-a historical signature of sexual selection-are key in shaping trait responses to novel selection.

  7. SEXUAL SELECTION AND THE EVOLUTION OF SEXUAL SIZE DIMORPHISM IN THE WATER STRIDER, AQUARIUS REMIGIS.

    PubMed

    Fairbairn, Daphne J; Preziosi, Richard F

    1996-08-01

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is often attributed to sexual selection, particularly when males are the larger sex. However, sexual selection favoring large males is common even in taxa where females are the larger sex, and is therefore not a sufficient explanation of patterns of SSD. As part of a more extensive study of the evolution of SSD in water striders (Heteroptera, Gerridae), we examine patterns of sexual selection and SSD in 12 populations of Aquarius remigis. We calculate univariate and multivariate selection gradients from samples of mating and single males, for two sexually dimorphic traits (total length and profemoral width) and two sexually monomorphic traits (mesofemoral length and wing form). The multivariate analyses reveal strong selection favoring larger males, in spite of the female-biased SSD for this trait, and weaker selection favoring aptery and reduced mesofemoral length. Selection is weakest on the most dimorphic trait, profemoral width, and is stabilizing rather than directional. The pattern of sexual selection on morphological traits is therefore not concordant with the pattern of SSD. The univariate selection gradients reveal little net selection (direct + indirect) on any of the traits, and suggest that evolution away from the plesiomorphic pattern of SSD is constrained by antagonistic patterns of selection acting on this suite of positively correlated morphological traits. We hypothesize that SSD in A. remigis is not in equilibrium, a hypothesis that is consistent with both theoretical models of the evolution of SSD and our previous studies of allometry for SSD. A negative interpopulation correlation between the intensity of sexual selection and the operational sex ratio supports the hypothesis that, as in several other water strider species, sexual selection in A. remigis occurs through generalized female reluctance rather than active female choice. The implications of this for patterns of sexual selection are discussed. © 1996 The

  8. Sexual networks: measuring sexual selection in structured, polyandrous populations

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Grant C.; James, Richard; Krause, Jens; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2013-01-01

    Sexual selection is traditionally measured at the population level, assuming that populations lack structure. However, increasing evidence undermines this approach, indicating that intrasexual competition in natural populations often displays complex patterns of spatial and temporal structure. This complexity is due in part to the degree and mechanisms of polyandry within a population, which can influence the intensity and scale of both pre- and post-copulatory sexual competition. Attempts to measure selection at the local and global scale have been made through multi-level selection approaches. However, definitions of local scale are often based on physical proximity, providing a rather coarse measure of local competition, particularly in polyandrous populations where the local scale of pre- and post-copulatory competition may differ drastically from each other. These limitations can be solved by social network analysis, which allows us to define a unique sexual environment for each member of a population: ‘local scale’ competition, therefore, becomes an emergent property of a sexual network. Here, we first propose a novel quantitative approach to measure pre- and post-copulatory sexual selection, which integrates multi-level selection with information on local scale competition derived as an emergent property of networks of sexual interactions. We then use simple simulations to illustrate the ways in which polyandry can impact estimates of sexual selection. We show that for intermediate levels of polyandry, the proposed network-based approach provides substantially more accurate measures of sexual selection than the more traditional population-level approach. We argue that the increasing availability of fine-grained behavioural datasets provides exciting new opportunities to develop network approaches to study sexual selection in complex societies. PMID:23339246

  9. The Relationship between Sexual Selection and Sexual Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Kokko, Hanna; Jennions, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary conflicts of interest arise whenever genetically different individuals interact and their routes to fitness maximization differ. Sexual selection favors traits that increase an individual’s competitiveness to acquire mates and fertilizations. Sexual conflict occurs if an individual of sex A’s relative fitness would increase if it had a “tool” that could alter what an individual of sex B does (including the parental genes transferred), at a cost to B’s fitness. This definition clarifies several issues: Conflict is very common and, although it extends outside traits under sexual selection, sexual selection is a ready source of sexual conflict. Sexual conflict and sexual selection should not be presented as alternative explanations for trait evolution. Conflict is closely linked to the concept of a lag load, which is context-dependent and sex-specific. This makes it possible to ask if one sex can “win.” We expect higher population fitness if females win. PMID:25038050

  10. [Sexual dysfunctions in selected endocrinopathies].

    PubMed

    Skrzypulec, Violetta; Nowosielski, Krzysztof; Drosdzol, Agnieszka; Kowalaczyk, Robert

    2005-01-01

    According to the socio-sexological reports approximately 40-45% of women and up to 30% of males may suffer from different sexual dysfunctions. The prevalence of those disorders is gradually increasing with age. Multiply numbers of endocrinopathies may influence the human sexual life. In diabetic patients all phases of the sexual responses cycle, especially orgasm, might be affected. Women diagnosed with PCOS have decreased adaptation to the sexual life, low self-esteem and perception of self sexual attractiveness. The intimacy of infertile couples has not been well described and the characteristic of particular dysfunction in sex life has not been established yet. Interdisciplinary approach, understood as treatment of the endocrinopathy accompanied with psychological and sexological counseling, seems to be the fundamental issue in the therapy of sexual dysfunctions in patients with endocrinological disorders.

  11. Sexual selection and natural selection in bird speciation

    PubMed Central

    Price, T.

    1998-01-01

    The role of sexual selection in speciation is investigated, addressing two main issues. First, how do sexually selected traits become species recognition traits? Theory and empirical evidence suggest that female preferences often do not evolve as a correlated response to evolution of male traits. This implies that, contrary to runaway (Fisherian) models of sexual selection, premating isolation will not arise as an automatic side effect of divergence between populations in sexually selected traits. I evaluate premating isolating mechanisms in one group, the birds. In this group premating isolation is often a consequence of sexual imprinting, whereby young birds learn features of their parents and use these features in mate choice. Song, morphology and plumage are known recognition cues. I conclude that perhaps the main role for sexual selection in speciation is in generating differences between populations in traits. Sexual imprinting then leads to these traits being used as species recognition mechanisms. The second issue addressed in this paper is the role of sexual selection in adaptive radiation, again concentrating on birds. Ecological differences between species include large differences in size, which may in themselves be sufficient for species recognition, and differences in habitat, which seem to evolve frequently and at all stages of an adaptive radiation. Differences in habitat often cause song and plumage patterns to evolve as a result of sexual selection for efficient communication. Therefore sexual selection is likely to have an important role in generating premating isolating mechanisms throughout an adaptive radiation. It is also possible that sexual selection, by creating more allopatric species, creates more opportunity for ecological divergence to occur. The limited available evidence does not support this idea. A role for sexual selection in accelerating ecological diversification has yet to be demonstrated.

  12. Sexual selection: an evolutionary force in plants?

    PubMed

    Skogsmyr, Io; Lankinen, Asa

    2002-11-01

    Sexual selection has traditionally been used to explain exaggerated sexual traits in male animals. Today the concept has been developed and various other sexually related traits have been suggested to evolve in the same manner. In nearly all new areas where the theory of sexual selection has been applied, there has been an intense debate as to whether the application is justified. Is it the case that some scientists are all too ready to employ fashionable ideas? Or are there too many dogmatic researchers refusing to accept that science develops and old ideas are transformed? Maybe the controversies are simply a reflection of the difficulty of defining a theory under constant re-evaluation. Thus, we begin by summarizing the theory of sexual selection in order to assess the influence of sexual selection on the evolution of plant morphology. We discuss empirical findings concerning potentially affected traits. Although we have tried to address criticisms fairly, we still conclude that sexual selection can be a useful tool when studying the evolution of reproductive traits in plants. Furthermore, by including the evidence from an additional kingdom, a fuller understanding of the processes involved in sexual selection can be gained.

  13. Effects of natural and sexual selection on adaptive population divergence and premating isolation in a damselfly.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Erik I; Eroukhmanoff, Fabrice; Friberg, Magne

    2006-06-01

    The relative strength of different types of directional selection has seldom been compared directly in natural populations. A recent meta-analysis of phenotypic selection studies in natural populations suggested that directional sexual selection may be stronger in magnitude than directional natural selection, although this pattern may have partly been confounded by the different time scales over which selection was estimated. Knowledge about the strength of different types of selection is of general interest for understanding how selective forces affect adaptive population divergence and how they may influence speciation. We studied divergent selection on morphology in parapatric, natural damselfly (Calopteryx splendens) populations. Sexual selection was stronger than natural selection measured on the same traits, irrespective of the time scale over which sexual selection was measured. Visualization of the fitness surfaces indicated that population divergence in overall morphology is more strongly influenced by divergent sexual selection rather than natural selection. Courtship success of experimental immigrant males was lower than that of resident males, indicating incipient sexual isolation between these populations. We conclude that current and strong sexual selection promotes adaptive population divergence in this species and that premating sexual isolation may have arisen as a correlated response to divergent sexual selection. Our results highlight the importance of sexual selection, rather than natural selection in the adaptive radiation of odonates, and supports previous suggestions that divergent sexual selection promotes speciation in this group.

  14. Sexual selection explains Rensch's rule of size dimorphism in shorebirds.

    PubMed

    Székely, Tamás; Freckleton, Robert P; Reynolds, John D

    2004-08-17

    Sexual size dimorphism shows a remarkably widespread relationship to body size in the animal kingdom: within lineages, it decreases with size when females are the larger sex, but it increases with size when males are the larger sex. Here we demonstrate that this pattern, termed Rensch's rule, exists in shorebirds and allies (Charadriides), and it is determined by two components of sexual selection: the intensity of sexual selection acting on males and the agility of the males' display. These effects are interactive so that the effect of sexual selection on size dimorphism depends on male agility. As a control, we also examine dimorphism in bill length, which is a functionally selected trait. As such, dimorphism in bill length neither exhibits Rensch's rule nor is associated with sexual selection and display. Our results show that variation among taxa in the direction and magnitude of sexual size dimorphism, as manifested as Rensch's rule, can be explained by the interaction between the form and strength of sexual selection acting on each sex in relation to body size.

  15. Sexual selection's impacts on ecological specialization: an experimental test.

    PubMed

    Pfennig, Karin S; Pfennig, David W; Porter, Cody; Martin, Ryan A

    2015-05-22

    In many species, individuals specialize on different resources, thereby reducing competition. Such ecological specialization can promote the evolution of alternative ecomorphs-distinct phenotypes adapted for particular resources. Elucidating whether and how this process is influenced by sexual selection is crucial for understanding how ecological specialization promotes the evolution of novel traits and, potentially, speciation between ecomorphs. We evaluated the population-level effects of sexual selection (as mediated by mate choice) on ecological specialization in spadefoot toad tadpoles that express alternative ecomorphs. We manipulated whether sexual selection was present or reversed by mating females to their preferred versus non-preferred males, respectively. We then exposed their tadpoles to resource competition in experimental mesocosms. The resulting distribution of ecomorphs was similar between treatments, but sexual selection generated poorer trait integration in, and lower fitness of, the more specialized carnivore morph. Moreover, disruptive and directional natural selection were weaker in the sexual selection present treatment. Nevertheless, this effect on disruptive selection was smaller than previously documented effects of ecological opportunity and competitor density. Thus, sexual selection can inhibit adaptation to resource competition and thereby hinder ecological specialization, particularly when females obtain fitness benefits from mate choice that offset the cost of producing competitively inferior offspring. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Teen Sexuality Today: Bibliography of Selected Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., New York, NY.

    This document presents a selected bibliography of recent books and journal articles relating to adolescent sexuality and reproductive health. The compilation of annotated references is divided into sections which focus on the issues of: (1) Sexuality Education; (2) Contraception; (3) Parenthood; (4) Communication with Parents; (5) Reproductive…

  17. Natural and sexual selection against hybrid flycatchers.

    PubMed

    Svedin, Nina; Wiley, Chris; Veen, Thor; Gustafsson, Lars; Qvarnström, Anna

    2008-03-22

    While sexual selection is generally assumed to quickly cause or strengthen prezygotic barriers between sister species, its role in causing postzygotic isolation, through the unattractiveness of intermediate hybrids, is less often examined. Combining 24 years of pedigree data and recently developed species-specific molecular markers from collared (Ficedula albicollis) and pied (Ficedula hypoleuca) flycatchers and their hybrids, we were able to quantify all key components of fitness. To disentangle the relative role of natural and sexual selection acting on F1 hybrid flycatchers, we estimated various fitness components, which when combined represent the total lifetime reproductive success of F1 hybrids, and then compared the different fitness components of F1 hybrids to that of collared flycatchers. Female hybrid flycatchers are sterile, with natural selection being the selective force involved, but male hybrids mainly experienced a reduction in fitness through sexual selection (decreased pairing success and increased rate of being cuckolded). To disentangle the role of sexual selection against male hybrids from a possible effect of genetic incompatibility (on the rate of being cuckolded), we compared male hybrids with pure-bred males expressing intermediate plumage characters. Given that sexual selection against male hybrids is a result of their intermediate plumage, we expect these two groups of males to have a similar fitness reduction. Alternatively, hybrids have reduced fitness owing to genetic incompatibility, in which case their fitness should be lower than that of the intermediate pure-bred males. We conclude that sexual selection against male hybrids accounts for approximately 75% of the reduction in their fitness. We discuss how natural and sexual selection against hybrids may have different implications for speciation and conclude that reinforcement of reproductive barriers may be more likely when there is sexual selection against hybrids.

  18. Natural and sexual selection against hybrid flycatchers

    PubMed Central

    Svedin, Nina; Wiley, Chris; Veen, Thor; Gustafsson, Lars; Qvarnström, Anna

    2008-01-01

    While sexual selection is generally assumed to quickly cause or strengthen prezygotic barriers between sister species, its role in causing postzygotic isolation, through the unattractiveness of intermediate hybrids, is less often examined. Combining 24 years of pedigree data and recently developed species-specific molecular markers from collared (Ficedula albicollis) and pied (Ficedula hypoleuca) flycatchers and their hybrids, we were able to quantify all key components of fitness. To disentangle the relative role of natural and sexual selection acting on F1 hybrid flycatchers, we estimated various fitness components, which when combined represent the total lifetime reproductive success of F1 hybrids, and then compared the different fitness components of F1 hybrids to that of collared flycatchers. Female hybrid flycatchers are sterile, with natural selection being the selective force involved, but male hybrids mainly experienced a reduction in fitness through sexual selection (decreased pairing success and increased rate of being cuckolded). To disentangle the role of sexual selection against male hybrids from a possible effect of genetic incompatibility (on the rate of being cuckolded), we compared male hybrids with pure-bred males expressing intermediate plumage characters. Given that sexual selection against male hybrids is a result of their intermediate plumage, we expect these two groups of males to have a similar fitness reduction. Alternatively, hybrids have reduced fitness owing to genetic incompatibility, in which case their fitness should be lower than that of the intermediate pure-bred males. We conclude that sexual selection against male hybrids accounts for approximately 75% of the reduction in their fitness. We discuss how natural and sexual selection against hybrids may have different implications for speciation and conclude that reinforcement of reproductive barriers may be more likely when there is sexual selection against hybrids. PMID:18211878

  19. Sexual selection is a form of social selection

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Bruce E.; Montgomerie, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Social selection influences the evolution of weapons, ornaments and behaviour in both males and females. Thus, social interactions in both sexual and non-sexual contexts can have a powerful influence on the evolution of traits that would otherwise appear to be detrimental to survival. Although clearly outlined by West-Eberhard in the early 1980s, the idea that social selection is a comprehensive framework for the study of ornaments and weapons has largely been ignored. In West-Eberhard's view, sexual selection is a form of social selection—a concept supported by several lines of evidence. Darwin's distinction between natural and sexual selection has been useful, but recent confusion about the limits of sexual selection suggests that some traits are not easily categorized as naturally or sexually selected. Because social selection theory has much to offer the current debates about both sexual selection and reproductive competition in females, it is sometimes viewed, narrowly, to be most useful when considering female roles. However, social selection theory encompasses much more than female reproductive competition. Our goal here was to provide that broader perspective. PMID:22777015

  20. EVOLUTION OF DIVERGENT FEMALE MATING PREFERENCE IN RESPONSE TO EXPERIMENTAL SEXUAL SELECTION

    PubMed Central

    Debelle, Allan; Ritchie, Michael G; Snook, Rhonda R

    2014-01-01

    Sexual selection is predicted to drive the coevolution of mating signals and preferences (mating traits) within populations, and could play a role in speciation if sexual isolation arises due to mating trait divergence between populations. However, few studies have demonstrated that differences in mating traits between populations result from sexual selection alone. Experimental evolution is a promising approach to directly examine the action of sexual selection on mating trait divergence among populations. We manipulated the opportunity for sexual selection (low vs. high) in populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura. Previous studies on these experimental populations have shown that sexual selection manipulation resulted in the divergence between sexual selection treatments of several courtship song parameters, including interpulse interval (IPI) which markedly influences male mating success. Here, we measure female preference for IPI using a playback design to test for preference divergence between the sexual selection treatments after 130 generations of experimental sexual selection. The results suggest that female preference has coevolved with male signal, in opposite directions between the sexual selection treatments, providing direct evidence of the ability of sexual selection to drive the divergent coevolution of mating traits between populations. We discuss the implications in the context sexual selection and speciation. PMID:24931497

  1. Evolution of divergent female mating preference in response to experimental sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Debelle, Allan; Ritchie, Michael G; Snook, Rhonda R

    2014-09-01

    Sexual selection is predicted to drive the coevolution of mating signals and preferences (mating traits) within populations, and could play a role in speciation if sexual isolation arises due to mating trait divergence between populations. However, few studies have demonstrated that differences in mating traits between populations result from sexual selection alone. Experimental evolution is a promising approach to directly examine the action of sexual selection on mating trait divergence among populations. We manipulated the opportunity for sexual selection (low vs. high) in populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura. Previous studies on these experimental populations have shown that sexual selection manipulation resulted in the divergence between sexual selection treatments of several courtship song parameters, including interpulse interval (IPI) which markedly influences male mating success. Here, we measure female preference for IPI using a playback design to test for preference divergence between the sexual selection treatments after 130 generations of experimental sexual selection. The results suggest that female preference has coevolved with male signal, in opposite directions between the sexual selection treatments, providing direct evidence of the ability of sexual selection to drive the divergent coevolution of mating traits between populations. We discuss the implications in the context sexual selection and speciation.

  2. Sexual selection, sexual size dimorphism and Rensch's rule in Odonata.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Meneses, M A; Córdoba-Aguilar, A; Azpilicueta-Amorín, M; González-Soriano, E; Székely, T

    2008-09-01

    Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) exhibit a range of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) that includes species with male-biased (males > females) or female-biased SSD (males < females) and species exhibiting nonterritorial or territorial mating strategies. Here, we use phylogenetic comparative analyses to investigate the influence of sexual selection on SSD in both suborders: dragonflies (Anisoptera) and damselflies (Zygoptera). First, we show that damselflies have male-biased SSD, and exhibit an allometric relationship between body size and SSD, that is consistent with Rensch's rule. Second, SSD of dragonflies is not different from unit, and this suborder does not exhibit Rensch's rule. Third, we test the influence of sexual selection on SSD using proxy variables of territorial mating strategy and male agility. Using generalized least squares to account for phylogenetic relationships between species, we show that male-biased SSD increases with territoriality in damselflies, but not in dragonflies. Finally, we show that nonagile territorial odonates exhibit male-biased SSD, whereas male agility is not related to SSD in nonterritorial odonates. These results suggest that sexual selection acting on male sizes influences SSD in Odonata. Taken together, our results, along with avian studies (bustards and shorebirds), suggest that male agility influences SSD, although this influence is modulated by territorial mating strategy and thus the likely advantage of being large. Other evolutionary processes, such as fecundity selection and viability selection, however, need further investigation.

  3. Fluctuating asymmetry, sexual selection and canine teeth in primates.

    PubMed

    Manning, J T; Chamberlain, A T

    1993-02-22

    Fluctuating asymmetry arises as small deviations from symmetry which can be expressed on either side of the body. Increases in fluctuating asymmetry can suggest genomic stress such as results from directional selection. It has been argued that epigamic structures and weapons should show high levels of fluctuating asymmetry because sexual selection is essentially directional in nature. We tested this prediction by examining the expression of fluctuating asymmetry in the upper canines of 21 species of Old World primates. We found, for males but not for females, that asymmetry was correlated with measures of sexual selection including canine dimorphism, canine size, mass dimorphism, and intra-male competition. However, there was no significant correlation with diet type and body mass, which are only weakly associated with sexual selection. Phylogenetic inertia did not account for the association between fluctuating asymmetry and sexual selection. We also found that species with high values of canine dimorphism and intra-male competition tended to have a negative correlation between asymmetry and mean canine height, and this latter effect was present in both males and females. The implications of these findings for sexual selection theory are discussed.

  4. Sexual Selection of Protamine 1 in Mammals.

    PubMed

    Lüke, Lena; Tourmente, Maximiliano; Roldan, Eduardo R S

    2016-01-01

    Protamines have a crucial role in male fertility. They are involved in sperm chromatin packaging and influence the shape of the sperm head and, hence, are important for sperm performance. Protamine structure is basic with numerous arginine-rich DNA-binding domains. Postcopulatory sexual selection is thought to play an important role in protamine sequence evolution and expression. Here, we analyze patterns of evolution and sexual selection (in the form of sperm competition) acting on protamine 1 gene sequence in 237 mammalian species. We assessed common patterns as well as differences between the major mammalian subclasses (Eutheria, Metatheria) and clades. We found that a high arginine content in protamine 1 associates with a lower sperm head width, which may have an impact on sperm swimming velocity. Increase in arginine content in protamine 1 across mammals appears to take place in a way consistent with sexual selection. In metatherians, increase in sequence length correlates with sexual selection. Differences in selective pressures on sequences and codon sites were observed between mammalian clades. Our study revealed a complex evolutionary pattern of protamine 1, with different selective constraints, and effects of sexual selection, between mammalian groups. In contrast, the effect of arginine content on head shape, and the possible involvement of sperm competition, was identified across all mammals. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Sexual selection explains Rensch's rule of allometry for sexual size dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Dale, James; Dunn, Peter O; Figuerola, Jordi; Lislevand, Terje; Székely, Tamás; Whittingham, Linda A

    2007-12-07

    In 1950, Rensch first described that in groups of related species, sexual size dimorphism is more pronounced in larger species. This widespread and fundamental allometric relationship is now commonly referred to as 'Rensch's rule'. However, despite numerous recent studies, we still do not have a general explanation for this allometry. Here we report that patterns of allometry in over 5300 bird species demonstrate that Rensch's rule is driven by a correlated evolutionary change in females to directional sexual selection on males. First, in detailed multivariate analysis, the strength of sexual selection was, by far, the strongest predictor of allometry. This was found to be the case even after controlling for numerous potential confounding factors, such as overall size, degree of ornamentation, phylogenetic history and the range and degree of size dimorphism. Second, in groups where sexual selection is stronger in females, allometry consistently goes in the opposite direction to Rensch's rule. Taken together, these results provide the first clear solution to the long-standing evolutionary problem of allometry for sexual size dimorphism: sexual selection causes size dimorphism to correlate with species size.

  6. Sexual selection predicts brain structure in dragon lizards.

    PubMed

    Hoops, D; Ullmann, J F P; Janke, A L; Vidal-Garcia, M; Stait-Gardner, T; Dwihapsari, Y; Merkling, T; Price, W S; Endler, J A; Whiting, M J; Keogh, J S

    2017-02-01

    Phenotypic traits such as ornaments and armaments are generally shaped by sexual selection, which often favours larger and more elaborate males compared to females. But can sexual selection also influence the brain? Previous studies in vertebrates report contradictory results with no consistent pattern between variation in brain structure and the strength of sexual selection. We hypothesize that sexual selection will act in a consistent way on two vertebrate brain regions that directly regulate sexual behaviour: the medial preoptic nucleus (MPON) and the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN). The MPON regulates male reproductive behaviour whereas the VMN regulates female reproductive behaviour and is also involved in male aggression. To test our hypothesis, we used high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging combined with traditional histology of brains in 14 dragon lizard species of the genus Ctenophorus that vary in the strength of precopulatory sexual selection. Males belonging to species that experience greater sexual selection had a larger MPON and a smaller VMN. Conversely, females did not show any patterns of variation in these brain regions. As the volumes of both these regions also correlated with brain volume (BV) in our models, we tested whether they show the same pattern of evolution in response to changes in BV and found that the do. Therefore, we show that the primary brain nuclei underlying reproductive behaviour in vertebrates can evolve in a mosaic fashion, differently between males and females, likely in response to sexual selection, and that these same regions are simultaneously evolving in concert in relation to overall brain size. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  7. Canine evolution in sabretoothed carnivores: natural selection or sexual selection?

    PubMed

    Randau, Marcela; Carbone, Chris; Turvey, Samuel T

    2013-01-01

    The remarkable elongated upper canines of extinct sabretoothed carnivorous mammals have been the subject of considerable speculation on their adaptive function, but the absence of living analogues prevents any direct inference about their evolution. We analysed scaling relationships of the upper canines of 20 sabretoothed feliform carnivores (Nimravidae, Barbourofelidae, Machairodontinae), representing both dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, and 33 non-sabretoothed felids in relation to body size in order to characterize and identify the evolutionary processes driving their development, using the scaling relationships of carnassial teeth in both groups as a control. Carnassials display isometric allometry in both sabretooths and non-sabretooths, supporting their close relationship with meat-slicing, whereas the upper canines of both groups display positive allometry with body size. Whereas there is no statistical difference in allometry of upper canine height between dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, the significantly stronger positive allometry of upper canine height shown by sabretooths as a whole compared to non-sabretooths reveals that different processes drove canine evolution in these groups. Although sabretoothed canines must still have been effective for prey capture and processing by hypercarnivorous predators, canine morphology in these extinct carnivores was likely to have been driven to a greater extent by sexual selection than in non-sabretooths. Scaling relationships therefore indicate the probable importance of sexual selection in the evolution of the hypertrophied sabretooth anterior dentition.

  8. Evolution by fisherian sexual selection in diploids.

    PubMed

    Greenspoon, Philip B; Otto, Sarah P

    2009-04-01

    Most models of Fisherian sexual selection assume haploidy. However, analytical models that focus on dynamics near fixation boundaries and simulations show that the resulting behavior depends on ploidy. Here we model sexual selection in a diploid to characterize behaviour away from fixation boundaries. The model assumes two di-allelic loci, a male-limited trait locus subject to viability selection, and a preference locus that determines a female's tendency to mate with males based on their genotype at the trait locus. Using a quasi-linkage equilibrium (QLE) approach, we find a general equation for the curves of quasi-neutral equilibria, and the conditions under which they are attracting or repelling. Unlike in the haploid model, the system can move away from the internal curve of equilibria in the diploid model. We show that this is the case when the combined forces of natural and sexual selection induce underdominance at the trait locus.

  9. Sexual dichromatism in frogs: natural selection, sexual selection and unexpected diversity.

    PubMed

    Bell, Rayna C; Zamudio, Kelly R

    2012-12-07

    Sexual dichromatism, a form of sexual dimorphism in which males and females differ in colour, is widespread in animals but has been predominantly studied in birds, fishes and butterflies. Moreover, although there are several proposed evolutionary mechanisms for sexual dichromatism in vertebrates, few studies have examined this phenomenon outside the context of sexual selection. Here, we describe unexpectedly high diversity of sexual dichromatism in frogs and create a comparative framework to guide future analyses of the evolution of these sexual colour differences. We review what is known about evolution of colour dimorphism in frogs, highlight alternative mechanisms that may contribute to the evolution of sexual colour differences, and compare them to mechanisms active in other major groups of vertebrates. In frogs, sexual dichromatism can be dynamic (temporary colour change in males) or ontogenetic (permanent colour change in males or females). The degree and the duration of sexual colour differences vary greatly across lineages, and we do not detect phylogenetic signal in the distribution of this trait, therefore frogs provide an opportunity to investigate the roles of natural and sexual selection across multiple independent derivations of sexual dichromatism.

  10. Sexual dichromatism in frogs: natural selection, sexual selection and unexpected diversity

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Rayna C.; Zamudio, Kelly R.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual dichromatism, a form of sexual dimorphism in which males and females differ in colour, is widespread in animals but has been predominantly studied in birds, fishes and butterflies. Moreover, although there are several proposed evolutionary mechanisms for sexual dichromatism in vertebrates, few studies have examined this phenomenon outside the context of sexual selection. Here, we describe unexpectedly high diversity of sexual dichromatism in frogs and create a comparative framework to guide future analyses of the evolution of these sexual colour differences. We review what is known about evolution of colour dimorphism in frogs, highlight alternative mechanisms that may contribute to the evolution of sexual colour differences, and compare them to mechanisms active in other major groups of vertebrates. In frogs, sexual dichromatism can be dynamic (temporary colour change in males) or ontogenetic (permanent colour change in males or females). The degree and the duration of sexual colour differences vary greatly across lineages, and we do not detect phylogenetic signal in the distribution of this trait, therefore frogs provide an opportunity to investigate the roles of natural and sexual selection across multiple independent derivations of sexual dichromatism. PMID:22993253

  11. Parental selection of children's sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, A S; Bailey, J M

    2001-08-01

    As we learn more about the causes of sexual orientation, the likelihood increases that parents will one day be able to select the orientation of their children. This possibility (at least that of selecting for heterosexuality) has generated a great deal of concern among supporters of homosexual rights, with such selection being widely condemned as harmful and morally repugnant. Notwithstanding this widespread condemnation, and even assuming, as we do, that homosexuality is entirely acceptable morally, allowing parents, by means morally unproblematic in themselves, to select for heterosexuality would be morally acceptable. This is because allowing parents to select their children's sexual orientation would further parent's freedom to raise the sort of children they wish to raise and because selection for heterosexuality may benefit parents and children and is unlikely to cause significant harm.

  12. Sexual selection and genital evolution: an overview.

    PubMed

    Shamloul, Rany; el-Sakka, Ahmed; Bella, Anthony J

    2010-05-01

    Genital morphology (especially male) among the animal kingdom is characterized by extensive differences that even members of closely related species with similar general morphology may have remarkably diverse genitalia. To present the sexual medicine specialist with a basic understanding of the current hypotheses on genital evolution with an emphasis on the sexual selection theories. A review of current literature on the theories of genital evolution. Analysis of the supporting evidence for the sexual selection theories of genital evolution. Several theories have been proposed to explain genital evolution. Currently, the sexual selection theories are being considered to present valid and solid evidence explaining genital evolution. However, other theories, including sexual conflict, are still being investigated. All theories of genital evolution have their own weaknesses and strengths. Given that many complex biological mechanisms, mostly unknown yet, are involved in the process of genital evolution, it is thus reasonable to conclude that not one theory can independently explain genital evolution. It is likely that these mechanisms may prove to have synergistic rather than exclusive effects.

  13. Sexually Selected Infanticide in a Polygynous Bat

    PubMed Central

    Knörnschild, Mirjam; Ueberschaer, Katja; Helbig, Maria; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.

    2011-01-01

    Background Adult individuals of many species kill unrelated conspecific infants for several adaptive reasons ranging from predation or resource competition to the prevention of misdirected parental care. Moreover, infanticide can increase the reproductive success of the aggressor by killing the offspring of competitors and thereafter mating with the victimized females. This sexually selected infanticide predominantly occurs in polygynous species, with convincing evidence for primates, carnivores, equids, and rodents. Evidence for bats was predicted but lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report the first case, to our knowledge, of sexually selected infanticide in a bat, the polygynous white-throated round-eared bat, Lophostoma silvicolum. Behavioral studies in a free-living population revealed that an adult male repeatedly attacked and injured the pups of two females belonging to his harem, ultimately causing the death of one pup. The infanticidal male subsequently mated with the mother of the victimized pup and this copulation occurred earlier than any other in his harem. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that sexually selected infanticide is more widespread than previously thought, adding bats as a new taxon performing this strategy. Future work on other bats, especially polygynous species in the tropics, has great potential to investigate the selective pressures influencing the evolution of sexually selected infanticide and to study how infanticide impacts reproductive strategies and social structures of different species. PMID:21949829

  14. Men and Sexuality: Bibliography of Selected Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., New York, NY. Education Dept.

    This selective, annotated bibliography covers a range of topics associated with male sexuality, reproductive health, and sexism. The books listed in this document are organized in five categories which are not strictly exclusive, as most of the entries overlap topic areas. Part I, Men in Society, contains 10 entries dealing with masculinity,…

  15. Men and Sexuality: Bibliography of Selected Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., New York, NY. Education Dept.

    This selective, annotated bibliography covers a range of topics associated with male sexuality, reproductive health, and sexism. The books listed in this document are organized in five categories which are not strictly exclusive, as most of the entries overlap topic areas. Part I, Men in Society, contains 10 entries dealing with masculinity,…

  16. Mate choice, sexual selection, and endocrine-disrupting chemicals.

    PubMed

    Gore, Andrea C; Holley, Amanda M; Crews, David

    2017-09-11

    Humans have disproportionately affected the habitat and survival of species through environmental contamination. Important among these anthropogenic influences is the proliferation of organic chemicals, some of which perturb hormone systems, the latter referred to as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). EDCs are widespread in the environment and affect all levels of reproduction, including development of reproductive organs, hormone release and regulation through the life cycle, the development of secondary sexual characteristics, and the maturation and maintenance of adult physiology and behavior. However, what is not well-known is how the confluence of EDC actions on the manifestation of morphological and behavioral sexual traits influences mate choice, a process that requires the reciprocal evaluation of and/or acceptance of a sexual partner. Moreover, the outcomes of EDC-induced perturbations are likely to influence sexual selection; yet this has rarely been directly tested. Here, we provide background on the development and manifestation of sexual traits, reproductive competence, and the neurobiology of sexual behavior, and evidence for their perturbation by EDCs. Selection acts on individuals, with the consequences manifest in populations, and we discuss the implications for EDC contamination of these processes, and the future of species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Do feather-degrading bacteria affect sexually selected plumage color?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawkey, Matthew D.; Pillai, Shreekumar R.; Hill, Geoffrey E.

    2009-01-01

    Models of parasite-mediated sexual selection propose that males with more elaborate sexual traits will have fewer parasites. These models have generally been tested using metazoan or protozoan parasites of the blood, gut, or integument. Fewer studies have examined sexual ornaments in relation to bacterial infections. While most surface bacteria are harmless or beneficial, feather-degrading bacteria may have detrimental effects. In this study, we examined the relationships between overall bacterial load, feather-degrading bacterial load, and sexually selected carotenoid-based plumage color in a wild population of house finches ( Carpodacus mexicanus). We found that males with the redder plumage preferred by females had similar overall bacterial loads, but lower feather-degrading bacterial loads, than males with less red plumage. These data suggest that plumage color can signal abundance of feather-degrading bacteria to potential mates. It remains unclear whether feather-degrading bacteria directly or indirectly affect plumage color, but the observed correlations suggest that feather-degrading bacteria may play some role in sexual selection.

  18. The locus of sexual selection: moving sexual selection studies into the post-genomics era.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, G S; Breden, F; Mank, J E; Ritchie, M G; Higginson, A D; Radwan, J; Jaquiery, J; Salzburger, W; Arriero, E; Barribeau, S M; Phillips, P C; Renn, S C P; Rowe, L

    2015-04-01

    Sexual selection drives fundamental evolutionary processes such as trait elaboration and speciation. Despite this importance, there are surprisingly few examples of genes unequivocally responsible for variation in sexually selected phenotypes. This lack of information inhibits our ability to predict phenotypic change due to universal behaviours, such as fighting over mates and mate choice. Here, we discuss reasons for this apparent gap and provide recommendations for how it can be overcome by adopting contemporary genomic methods, exploiting underutilized taxa that may be ideal for detecting the effects of sexual selection and adopting appropriate experimental paradigms. Identifying genes that determine variation in sexually selected traits has the potential to improve theoretical models and reveal whether the genetic changes underlying phenotypic novelty utilize common or unique molecular mechanisms. Such a genomic approach to sexual selection will help answer questions in the evolution of sexually selected phenotypes that were first asked by Darwin and can furthermore serve as a model for the application of genomics in all areas of evolutionary biology. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  19. SEXUAL SELECTION AND SURVIVAL SELECTION ON WING COLORATION AND BODY SIZE IN THE RUBYSPOT DAMSELFLY HETAERINA AMERICANA.

    PubMed

    Grether, Gregory F

    1996-10-01

    I review methodological problems that can lead to false evidence for selection on secondary sexual characters and present a study of selection in rubyspot damselflies (Hetaerina americana) that avoids these pitfalls. Male rubyspots have a large red spot on each wing that grows to a terminal size after sexual maturity. Selection gradient analyses revealed evidence for positive sexual and survival selection on both terminal wing spot size and body size. Phenotype manipulations confirmed that wing spot size was subject to direct sexual selection, but showed that the positive slope of survival on wing spot size was an indirect effect of selection on unmeasured traits. This study provides the strongest evidence yet for sexual selection on coloration in Odonata, but also provides clear examples of why phenotypic selection statistics must be calculated and interpreted cautiously. © 1996 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Adaptations to sexual selection and sexual conflict: insights from experimental evolution and artificial selection

    PubMed Central

    Edward, Dominic A.; Fricke, Claudia; Chapman, Tracey

    2010-01-01

    Artificial selection and experimental evolution document natural selection under controlled conditions. Collectively, these techniques are continuing to provide fresh and important insights into the genetic basis of evolutionary change, and are now being employed to investigate mating behaviour. Here, we focus on how selection techniques can reveal the genetic basis of post-mating adaptations to sexual selection and sexual conflict. Alteration of the operational sex ratio of adult Drosophila over just a few tens of generations can lead to altered ejaculate allocation patterns and the evolution of resistance in females to the costly effects of elevated mating rates. We provide new data to show how male responses to the presence of rivals can evolve. For several traits, the way in which males responded to rivals was opposite in lines selected for male-biased, as opposed to female-biased, adult sex ratio. This shows that the manipulation of the relative intensity of intra- and inter-sexual selection can lead to replicable and repeatable effects on mating systems, and reveals the potential for significant contemporary evolutionary change. Such studies, with important safeguards, have potential utility for understanding sexual selection and sexual conflict across many taxa. We discuss how artificial selection studies combined with genomics will continue to deepen our knowledge of the evolutionary principles first laid down by Darwin 150 years ago. PMID:20643744

  1. Adaptations to sexual selection and sexual conflict: insights from experimental evolution and artificial selection.

    PubMed

    Edward, Dominic A; Fricke, Claudia; Chapman, Tracey

    2010-08-27

    Artificial selection and experimental evolution document natural selection under controlled conditions. Collectively, these techniques are continuing to provide fresh and important insights into the genetic basis of evolutionary change, and are now being employed to investigate mating behaviour. Here, we focus on how selection techniques can reveal the genetic basis of post-mating adaptations to sexual selection and sexual conflict. Alteration of the operational sex ratio of adult Drosophila over just a few tens of generations can lead to altered ejaculate allocation patterns and the evolution of resistance in females to the costly effects of elevated mating rates. We provide new data to show how male responses to the presence of rivals can evolve. For several traits, the way in which males responded to rivals was opposite in lines selected for male-biased, as opposed to female-biased, adult sex ratio. This shows that the manipulation of the relative intensity of intra- and inter-sexual selection can lead to replicable and repeatable effects on mating systems, and reveals the potential for significant contemporary evolutionary change. Such studies, with important safeguards, have potential utility for understanding sexual selection and sexual conflict across many taxa. We discuss how artificial selection studies combined with genomics will continue to deepen our knowledge of the evolutionary principles first laid down by Darwin 150 years ago.

  2. Natural and Sexual Selection on Many Loci

    PubMed Central

    Barton, N. H.; Turelli, M.

    1991-01-01

    A method is developed that describes the effects on an arbitrary number of autosomal loci of selection on haploid and diploid stages, of nonrandom mating between haploid individuals, and of recombination. We provide exact recursions for the dynamics of allele frequencies and linkage disequilibria (nonrandom associations of alleles across loci). When selection is weak relative to recombination, our recursions provide simple approximations for the linkage disequilibria among arbitrary combinations of loci. We show how previous models of sex-independent natural selection on diploids, assortative mating between haploids, and sexual selection on haploids can be analyzed in this framework. Using our weak-selection approximations, we derive new results concerning the coevolution of male traits and female preferences under natural and sexual selection. In particular, we provide general expressions for the intensity of linkage-disequilibrium induced selection experienced by loci that contribute to female preferences for specific male traits. Our general results support the previous observation that these indirect selection forces are so weak that they are unlikely to dominate the evolution of preference-producing loci. PMID:2016044

  3. The chemistry of sexual selection.

    PubMed Central

    Eisner, T; Meinwald, J

    1995-01-01

    The moth Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) is protected against predation by pyrrolizidine alkaloids that it sequesters as a larva from its foodplants. At mating, the male transfers alkaloid to the female with the spermatophore, a gift that the female supplements with alkaloid of her own and transmits to the eggs. Eggs are protected as a result. The male produces a pheromone, hydroxydanaidal, that he derives from the alkaloid and emits from a pair of extrusible brushes (coremata) during precopulatory interaction with the female. Males rendered experimentally alkaloid-free fail to produce the pheromone and are less successful in courtship. The male produces the pheromone in proportion both to his alkaloid load and to the amount of alkaloid he transfers to the female. The pheromone could thus serve as an indication of male "worth" and provide a basis for female choice. Utetheisa females are promiscuous and therefore are able to accrue multiple nuptial gifts (alkaloid and nutrient, both transmitted with the spermatophore). They use sperm selectively, favoring those of larger males. Larger males in nature are also richer in alkaloid. Females therefore reinforce after copulation the choice mechanism they already exercise during courtship. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7816847

  4. Strength and tempo of directional selection in the wild

    PubMed Central

    Hoekstra, H. E.; Hoekstra, J. M.; Berrigan, D.; Vignieri, S. N.; Hoang, A.; Hill, C. E.; Beerli, P.; Kingsolver, J. G.

    2001-01-01

    Directional selection is a major force driving adaptation and evolutionary change. However, the distribution, strength, and tempo of phenotypic selection acting on quantitative traits in natural populations remain unclear across different study systems. We reviewed the literature (1984–1997) that reported the strength of directional selection as indexed by standardized linear selection gradients (β). We asked how strong are viability and sexual selection, and whether strength of selection is correlated with the time scale over which it was measured. Estimates of the magnitude of directional selection (|β|) were exponentially distributed, with few estimates greater than 0.50 and most estimates less than 0.15. Sexual selection (measured by mating success) appeared stronger than viability selection (measured by survival). Viability selection that was measured over short periods (days) was typically stronger than selection measured over longer periods (months and years), but the strength of sexual selection did not vary with duration of selection episodes; as a result, sexual selection was stronger than viability selection over longer time scales (months and years), but not over short time scales (days). PMID:11470913

  5. Sexual dimorphism in relation to current selection in the house finch.

    PubMed

    Badyaev, A V; Martin, T E

    2000-06-01

    Sexual dimorphism is thought to have evolved in response to selection pressures that differ between males and females. Our aim in this study was to determine the role of current net selection in shaping and maintaining contemporary sexual dimorphism in a recently established population of the house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) in Montana. We found strong differences between sexes in direction of selection on sexually dimorphic traits, significant heritabilities of these traits, and a close congruence between current selection and observed sexual dimorphism in Montana house finches. Strong directional selection on sexually dimorphic traits and similar intensities of selection in each sex suggested that sexual dimorphism arises from adaptive responses in males and females, with both sexes being far from their local fitness optimum. This pattern is expected when a recently established population experiences continuous immigration from ecologically distinct areas of a species range or as a result of widely fluctuating selection pressures, as found in our study. Strong and sexually dimorphic selection pressures on heritable morphological traits, in combination with low phenotypic and genetic covariation among these traits during growth, may have accounted for close congruence between current selection and observed sexual dimorphism in the house finch. This conclusion is consistent with the profound adaptive population divergence in sexual dimorphism that accompanied very successful colonization of most of the North America by the house finch over the last 50 years.

  6. Sexual selection targets cetacean pelvic bones

    PubMed Central

    Dines, J. P.; Otárola-Castillo, E.; Ralph, P.; Alas, J.; Daley, T.; Smith, A. D.; Dean, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    Male genitalia evolve rapidly, probably as a result of sexual selection. Whether this pattern extends to the internal infrastructure that influences genital movements remains unknown. Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) offer a unique opportunity to test this hypothesis: since evolving from land-dwelling ancestors, they lost external hind limbs and evolved a highly reduced pelvis which seems to serve no other function except to anchor muscles that maneuver the penis. Here we create a novel morphometric pipeline to analyze the size and shape evolution of pelvic bones from 130 individuals (29 species) in the context of inferred mating system. We present two main findings: 1) males from species with relatively intense sexual selection (inferred by relative testes size) have evolved relatively large penises and pelvic bones compared to their body size, and 2) pelvic bone shape diverges more quickly in species pairs that have diverged in inferred mating system. Neither pattern was observed in the anterior-most pair of vertebral ribs, which served as a negative control. This study provides evidence that sexual selection can affect internal anatomy that controls male genitalia. These important functions may explain why cetacean pelvic bones have not been lost through evolutionary time. PMID:25186496

  7. Sexual selection targets cetacean pelvic bones.

    PubMed

    Dines, James P; Otárola-Castillo, Erik; Ralph, Peter; Alas, Jesse; Daley, Timothy; Smith, Andrew D; Dean, Matthew D

    2014-11-01

    Male genitalia evolve rapidly, probably as a result of sexual selection. Whether this pattern extends to the internal infrastructure that influences genital movements remains unknown. Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) offer a unique opportunity to test this hypothesis: since evolving from land-dwelling ancestors, they lost external hind limbs and evolved a highly reduced pelvis that seems to serve no other function except to anchor muscles that maneuver the penis. Here, we create a novel morphometric pipeline to analyze the size and shape evolution of pelvic bones from 130 individuals (29 species) in the context of inferred mating system. We present two main findings: (1) males from species with relatively intense sexual selection (inferred by relative testes size) tend to evolve larger penises and pelvic bones compared to their body length, and (2) pelvic bone shape has diverged more in species pairs that have diverged in inferred mating system. Neither pattern was observed in the anterior-most pair of vertebral ribs, which served as a negative control. This study provides evidence that sexual selection can affect internal anatomy that controls male genitalia. These important functions may explain why cetacean pelvic bones have not been lost through evolutionary time.

  8. Sexual selection drives asymmetric introgression in wall lizards.

    PubMed

    While, Geoffrey M; Michaelides, Sozos; Heathcote, Robert J P; MacGregor, Hannah E A; Zajac, Natalia; Beninde, Joscha; Carazo, Pau; Pérez I de Lanuza, Guillem; Sacchi, Roberto; Zuffi, Marco A L; Horváthová, Terézia; Fresnillo, Belén; Schulte, Ulrich; Veith, Michael; Hochkirch, Axel; Uller, Tobias

    2015-12-01

    Hybridisation is increasingly recognised as an important cause of diversification and adaptation. Here, we show how divergence in male secondary sexual characters between two lineages of the common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis) gives rise to strong asymmetries in male competitive ability and mating success, resulting in asymmetric hybridisation upon secondary contact. Combined with no negative effects of hybridisation on survival or reproductive characters in F1-hybrids, these results suggest that introgression should be asymmetric, resulting in the displacement of sexual characters of the sub-dominant lineage. This prediction was confirmed in two types of secondary contact, across a natural contact zone and in two introduced populations. Our study illustrates how divergence in sexually selected traits via male competition can determine the direction and extent of introgression, contributing to geographic patterns of genetic and phenotypic diversity.

  9. Healthy sex and sexual health: new directions for studying outcomes of sexual health.

    PubMed

    Lefkowitz, Eva S; Vasilenko, Sara A

    2014-01-01

    Sexual behavior is an important aspect of adolescent development with implications for well-being. These chapters highlight important perspectives on studying sexual health from a normative, developmental perspective, such as viewing a range of sexual behaviors as life events; considering potentially positive physical health, mental health, social health, and identity outcomes; examining both intraindividual and interindividual differences in outcomes; recognizing the romantic relationship context of sexual behavior; and understanding how sexual media may impact sexual health outcomes. We suggest new directions for studying sexual health outcomes, such as studying behaviors beyond vaginal sex and condom use, new methodologies such as latent class analysis, sophisticated longitudinal designs, and collection and analysis of dyadic data. We recommend research on populations underrepresented in sexual health research such as late adolescents who do not attend traditional universities and adolescents from ethnic/racial minorities. Finally, we consider future directions for sexuality education and prevention efforts.

  10. Sexually selected females in the monogamous Western Australian seahorse.

    PubMed

    Kvarnemo, Charlotta; Moore, Glenn I; Jones, Adam G

    2007-02-22

    Studies of sexual selection in monogamous species have hitherto focused on sexual selection among males. Here, we provide empirical documentation that sexual selection can also act strongly on females in a natural population with a monogamous mating system. In our field-based genetic study of the monogamous Western Australian seahorse, Hippocampus subelongatus, sexual selection differentials and gradients show that females are under stronger sexual selection than males: mated females are larger than unmated ones, whereas mated and unmated males do not differ in size. In addition, the opportunity for sexual selection (variance in mating success divided by its mean squared) for females is almost three times that for males. These results, which seem to be generated by a combination of a male preference for larger females and a female-biased adult sex ratio, indicate that substantial sexual selection on females is a potentially important but under-appreciated evolutionary phenomenon in monogamous species.

  11. Sexually selected females in the monogamous Western Australian seahorse

    PubMed Central

    Kvarnemo, Charlotta; Moore, Glenn I; Jones, Adam G

    2006-01-01

    Studies of sexual selection in monogamous species have hitherto focused on sexual selection among males. Here, we provide empirical documentation that sexual selection can also act strongly on females in a natural population with a monogamous mating system. In our field-based genetic study of the monogamous Western Australian seahorse, Hippocampus subelongatus, sexual selection differentials and gradients show that females are under stronger sexual selection than males: mated females are larger than unmated ones, whereas mated and unmated males do not differ in size. In addition, the opportunity for sexual selection (variance in mating success divided by its mean squared) for females is almost three times that for males. These results, which seem to be generated by a combination of a male preference for larger females and a female-biased adult sex ratio, indicate that substantial sexual selection on females is a potentially important but under-appreciated evolutionary phenomenon in monogamous species. PMID:17476772

  12. Chemical communication, sexual selection, and introgression in wall lizards.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, Hannah E A; Lewandowsky, Rachel A M; d'Ettorre, Patrizia; Leroy, Chloé; Davies, Noel W; While, Geoffrey M; Uller, Tobias

    2017-07-26

    Divergence in communication systems should influence the likelihood that individuals from different lineages interbreed, and consequently shape the direction and rate of hybridization. Here, we studied the role of chemical communication in hybridization, and its contribution to asymmetric and sexually selected introgression, between two lineages of the common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis). Males of the two lineages differed in the chemical composition of their femoral secretions. Chemical profiles provided information regarding male secondary sexual characters, but the associations were variable and inconsistent between lineages. In experimental contact zones, chemical composition was weakly associated with male reproductive success, and did not predict the likelihood of hybridization. Consistent with these results, introgression of chemical profiles in a natural hybrid zone resembled that of neutral nuclear genetic markers overall, but one compound in particular (tocopherol methyl ether) matched closely the introgression of visual sexual characters. These results imply that associations between male chemical profiles, sexual characters and reproductive success largely reflect transient and environmentally driven effects, and that genetic divergence in chemical composition is largely neutral. We therefore suggest that femoral secretions in wall lizards primarily provide information about residency and individual identity rather than function as sexual signals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Transcriptome-wide effects of sexual selection on the fate of new mutations.

    PubMed

    Collet, Julie M; Blows, Mark W; McGuigan, Katrina

    2015-11-01

    Sexual selection on males is predicted to have widespread effects on genetic variation as a consequence of the pleiotropic allelic effects on sexual and nonsexual traits. We manipulated the opportunity for sexual selection on males during 27 generations of mutation accumulation in inbred lines of Drosophila serrata, and used a microarray platform to investigate the effect of sexual selection on the expression of 2689 genes. While gene expression signal was, on average, higher in the absence of sexual selection, this difference was small (0.1%). In contrast, sexual selection impacted substantially on the mutational variance in gene expression. Over all genes, mutational variance in gene expression was, on average, 42% higher when sexual selection operated than when it was absent. Our results indicate that sexual selection on males can generate widespread effects across the genome. An increase in mutational variance without a corresponding change in mean suggested that most expression traits were unlikely to be under direct sexual selection. Instead, the mutational variance in gene expression traits is consistent with divergence generated by widespread pleiotropic associations with traits affecting male mating success. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. The Sexual Cascade and the Rise of Pre-Ejaculatory (Darwinian) Sexual Selection, Sex Roles, and Sexual Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Geoff A.

    2014-01-01

    After brief historic overviews of sexual selection and sexual conflict, I argue that pre-ejaculatory sexual selection (the form of sexual selection discussed by Darwin) arose at a late stage in an inevitable succession of transitions flowing from the early evolution of syngamy to the evolution of copulation and sex roles. If certain conditions were met, this “sexual cascade” progressed inevitably, if not, sexual strategy remained fixed at a given stage. Prolonged evolutionary history of intense sperm competition/selection under external fertilization preceded the rise of advanced mobility, which generated pre-ejaculatory sexual selection, followed on land by internal fertilization and reduced sperm competition in the form of postcopulatory sexual selection. I develop a prospective model of the early evolution of mobility, which, as Darwin realized, was the catalyst for pre-ejaculatory sexual selection. Stages in the cascade should be regarded as consequential rather than separate phenomena and, as such, invalidate much current opposition to Darwin–Bateman sex roles. Potential for sexual conflict occurs throughout, greatly increasing later in the cascade, reaching its peak under precopulatory sexual selection when sex roles become highly differentiated. PMID:25147177

  15. Sexual selection shapes development and maturation rates in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Brian; Keller, Laurent; Kawecki, Tadeusz J

    2017-02-01

    Explanations for the evolution of delayed maturity usually invoke trade-offs mediated by growth, but processes of reproductive maturation continue long after growth has ceased. Here, we tested whether sexual selection shapes the rate of posteclosion maturation in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. We found that populations maintained for more than 100 generations under a short generation time and polygamous mating system evolved faster posteclosion maturation and faster egg-to-adult development of males, when compared to populations kept under short generations and randomized monogamy that eliminated sexual selection. An independent assay demonstrated that more mature males have higher fitness under polygamy, but this advantage disappears under monogamy. In contrast, for females greater maturity was equally advantageous under polygamy and monogamy. Furthermore, monogamous populations evolved faster development and maturation of females relative to polygamous populations, with no detectable trade-offs with adult size or egg-to-adult survival. These results suggest that a major aspect of male maturation involves developing traits that increase success in sexual competition, whereas female maturation is not limited by investment in traits involved in mate choice or defense against male antagonism. Moreover, rates of juvenile development and adult maturation can readily evolve in opposite directions in the two sexes, possibly implicating polymorphisms with sexually antagonistic pleiotropy. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. Environmental heterogeneity generates fluctuating selection on a secondary sexual trait.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Matthew R; Pilkington, Jill G; Clutton-Brock, Tim H; Pemberton, Josephine M; Kruuk, Loeske E B

    2008-05-20

    In any population in which resources are limiting, the allocation of resources toward increased reproductive success may generate costs to survival [1-8]. The relationship between a sexually selected trait and fitness will therefore represent a balance between its relative associations with fecundity versus viability [3, 6, 7]. Because the risk of mortality in a population is likely to be heavily determined by ecological conditions, survival costs may vary as a function of the prevailing environment [7]. As a result, for populations experiencing heterogeneous ecological conditions, there may not be a single optimal level of allocation toward reproduction versus survival [9]. Here, we show that early viability and fecundity selection act in opposing directions on a secondary sexual trait and that their relative magnitude depends upon ecological conditions, generating fluctuating selection. In a wild population of Soay sheep (Ovis aries), phenotypic and genetic associations between male horn growth and lifetime reproductive success were positive under good environmental conditions (because of increased breeding success) and negative under poor environmental conditions (because of reduced survival). In an unpredictable environment, high allocation to early horn growth is a gamble that will only pay off if ensuing conditions are favorable. Such fluctuating selection may play an important role in preventing the erosion of genetic variance in secondary sexual traits.

  17. Beyond sex allocation: the role of mating systems in sexual selection in parasitoid wasps

    PubMed Central

    Boulton, Rebecca A; Collins, Laura A; Shuker, David M

    2015-01-01

    Despite the diverse array of mating systems and life histories which characterise the parasitic Hymenoptera, sexual selection and sexual conflict in this taxon have been somewhat overlooked. For instance, parasitoid mating systems have typically been studied in terms of how mating structure affects sex allocation. In the past decade, however, some studies have sought to address sexual selection in the parasitoid wasps more explicitly and found that, despite the lack of obvious secondary sexual traits, sexual selection has the potential to shape a range of aspects of parasitoid reproductive behaviour and ecology. Moreover, various characteristics fundamental to the parasitoid way of life may provide innovative new ways to investigate different processes of sexual selection. The overall aim of this review therefore is to re-examine parasitoid biology with sexual selection in mind, for both parasitoid biologists and also researchers interested in sexual selection and the evolution of mating systems more generally. We will consider aspects of particular relevance that have already been well studied including local mating structure, sex allocation and sperm depletion. We go on to review what we already know about sexual selection in the parasitoid wasps and highlight areas which may prove fruitful for further investigation. In particular, sperm depletion and the costs of inbreeding under chromosomal sex determination provide novel opportunities for testing the role of direct and indirect benefits for the evolution of mate choice. PMID:24981603

  18. Beyond sex allocation: the role of mating systems in sexual selection in parasitoid wasps.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Rebecca A; Collins, Laura A; Shuker, David M

    2015-05-01

    Despite the diverse array of mating systems and life histories which characterise the parasitic Hymenoptera, sexual selection and sexual conflict in this taxon have been somewhat overlooked. For instance, parasitoid mating systems have typically been studied in terms of how mating structure affects sex allocation. In the past decade, however, some studies have sought to address sexual selection in the parasitoid wasps more explicitly and found that, despite the lack of obvious secondary sexual traits, sexual selection has the potential to shape a range of aspects of parasitoid reproductive behaviour and ecology. Moreover, various characteristics fundamental to the parasitoid way of life may provide innovative new ways to investigate different processes of sexual selection. The overall aim of this review therefore is to re-examine parasitoid biology with sexual selection in mind, for both parasitoid biologists and also researchers interested in sexual selection and the evolution of mating systems more generally. We will consider aspects of particular relevance that have already been well studied including local mating structure, sex allocation and sperm depletion. We go on to review what we already know about sexual selection in the parasitoid wasps and highlight areas which may prove fruitful for further investigation. In particular, sperm depletion and the costs of inbreeding under chromosomal sex determination provide novel opportunities for testing the role of direct and indirect benefits for the evolution of mate choice. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  19. Interaction between natural and sexual selection during the evolution of mate recognition.

    PubMed

    Blows, Mark W

    2002-06-07

    The interaction between natural and sexual selection is central to many theories of how mate choice and reproductive isolation evolve, but their joint effect on the evolution of mate recognition has not, to my knowledge, been investigated in an evolutionary experiment. Natural and sexual selection were manipulated in interspecific hybrid populations of Drosophila to determine their effects on the evolution of a mate recognition system comprised of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). The effect of natural selection in isolation indicated that CHCs were costly for males and females to produce. The effect of sexual selection in isolation indicated that females preferred males with a particular CHC composition. However, the interaction between natural and sexual selection had a greater effect on the evolution of the mate recognition system than either process in isolation. When natural and sexual selection were permitted to operate in combination, male CHCs became exaggerated to a greater extent than in the presence of sexual selection alone, and female CHCs evolved against the direction of natural selection. This experiment demonstrated that the interaction between natural and sexual selection is critical in determining the direction and magnitude of the evolutionary response of the mate recognition system.

  20. Visual Circuits for Direction Selectivity.

    PubMed

    Mauss, Alex S; Vlasits, Anna; Borst, Alexander; Feller, Marla

    2017-07-25

    Images projected onto the retina of an animal eye are rarely still. Instead, they usually contain motion signals originating either from moving objects or from retinal slip caused by self-motion. Accordingly, motion signals tell the animal in which direction a predator, prey, or the animal itself is moving. At the neural level, visual motion detection has been proposed to extract directional information by a delay-and-compare mechanism, representing a classic example of neural computation. Neurons responding selectively to motion in one but not in the other direction have been identified in many systems, most prominently in the mammalian retina and the fly optic lobe. Technological advances have now allowed researchers to characterize these neurons' upstream circuits in exquisite detail. Focusing on these upstream circuits, we review and compare recent progress in understanding the mechanisms that generate direction selectivity in the early visual system of mammals and flies.

  1. Genetic constraints and the evolution of display trait sexual dimorphism by natural and sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Chenoweth, Stephen F; Rundle, Howard D; Blows, Mark W

    2008-01-01

    The evolution of sexual dimorphism involves an interaction between sex-specific selection and a breakdown of genetic constraints that arise because the two sexes share a genome. We examined genetic constraints and the effect of sex-specific selection on a suite of sexually dimorphic display traits in Drosophila serrata. Sexual dimorphism varied among nine natural populations covering a substantial portion of the species range. Quantitative genetic analyses showed that intersexual genetic correlations were high because of autosomal genetic variance but that the inclusion of X-linked effects reduced genetic correlations substantially, indicating that sex linkage may be an important mechanism by which intersexual genetic constraints are reduced in this species. We then explored the potential for both natural and sexual selection to influence these traits, using a 12-generation laboratory experiment in which we altered the opportunities for each process as flies adapted to a novel environment. Sexual dimorphism evolved, with natural selection reducing sexual dimorphism, whereas sexual selection tended to increase it overall. To this extent, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that sexual selection favors evolutionary divergence of the sexes. However, sex-specific responses to natural and sexual selection contrasted with the classic model because sexual selection affected females rather than males.

  2. Sexual selection maintains whole-body chiral dimorphism in snails

    PubMed Central

    SCHILTHUIZEN, M.; CRAZE, P. G.; CABANBAN, A. S.; DAVISON, A.; STONE, J.; GITTENBERGER, E.; SCOTT, B. J.

    2007-01-01

    Although the vast majority of higher animals are fixed for one chiral morph or another, the cause for this directionality is known in only a few cases. In snails, for example, rare individuals of the opposite coil are unable to mate with individuals of normal coil, so directionality is maintained by frequency-dependent selection. The snail subgenus Amphidromus presents an unexplained exception, because dextral (D) and sinistral (S) individuals occur sympatrically in roughly equal proportions (so-called ‘antisymmetry’) in most species. Here we show that in Amphidromus there is sexual selection for dimorphism, rather than selection for monomorphism. We found that matings between D and S individuals occur more frequently than expected by chance. Anatomical investigations showed that the chirality of the spermatophore and the female reproductive tract probably allow a greater fecundity in such inter-chiral matings. Computer simulation confirms that under these circumstances, sustained dimorphism is the expected outcome. PMID:17714311

  3. Sexually Antagonistic Selection in Human Male Homosexuality

    PubMed Central

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Cermelli, Paolo; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate the existence of genetic factors influencing male homosexuality and bisexuality. In spite of its relatively low frequency, the stable permanence in all human populations of this apparently detrimental trait constitutes a puzzling ‘Darwinian paradox’. Furthermore, several studies have pointed out relevant asymmetries in the distribution of both male homosexuality and of female fecundity in the parental lines of homosexual vs. heterosexual males. A number of hypotheses have attempted to give an evolutionary explanation for the long-standing persistence of this trait, and for its asymmetric distribution in family lines; however a satisfactory understanding of the population genetics of male homosexuality is lacking at present. We perform a systematic mathematical analysis of the propagation and equilibrium of the putative genetic factors for male homosexuality in the population, based on the selection equation for one or two diallelic loci and Bayesian statistics for pedigree investigation. We show that only the two-locus genetic model with at least one locus on the X chromosome, and in which gene expression is sexually antagonistic (increasing female fitness but decreasing male fitness), accounts for all known empirical data. Our results help clarify the basic evolutionary dynamics of male homosexuality, establishing this as a clearly ascertained sexually antagonistic human trait. PMID:18560521

  4. Sexually antagonistic selection in human male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Cermelli, Paolo; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2008-06-18

    Several lines of evidence indicate the existence of genetic factors influencing male homosexuality and bisexuality. In spite of its relatively low frequency, the stable permanence in all human populations of this apparently detrimental trait constitutes a puzzling 'Darwinian paradox'. Furthermore, several studies have pointed out relevant asymmetries in the distribution of both male homosexuality and of female fecundity in the parental lines of homosexual vs. heterosexual males. A number of hypotheses have attempted to give an evolutionary explanation for the long-standing persistence of this trait, and for its asymmetric distribution in family lines; however a satisfactory understanding of the population genetics of male homosexuality is lacking at present. We perform a systematic mathematical analysis of the propagation and equilibrium of the putative genetic factors for male homosexuality in the population, based on the selection equation for one or two diallelic loci and Bayesian statistics for pedigree investigation. We show that only the two-locus genetic model with at least one locus on the X chromosome, and in which gene expression is sexually antagonistic (increasing female fitness but decreasing male fitness), accounts for all known empirical data. Our results help clarify the basic evolutionary dynamics of male homosexuality, establishing this as a clearly ascertained sexually antagonistic human trait.

  5. Sexual selection and the risk of extinction in birds.

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Edward H; Pitcher, Trevor E

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between sexual selection and extinction risk has rarely been investigated. This is unfortunate because extinction plays a key role in determining the patterns of species richness seen in extant clades, which form the basis of comparative studies into the role that sexual selection may play in promoting speciation. We investigate the extent to which the perceived risk of extinction relates to four different estimates of sexual selection in 1030 species of birds. We find no evidence that the number of threatened species is distributed unevenly according to a social mating system, and neither of our two measures of pre-mating sexual selection (sexual dimorphism and dichromatism) was related to extinction risk, after controlling for phylogenetic inertia. However, threatened species apparently experience more intense post-mating sexual selection, measured as testis size, than non-threatened species. These results persisted after including body size as a covariate in the analysis, and became even stronger after controlling for clutch size (two known correlates of extinction risk). Sexual selection may therefore be a double-edged process-promoting speciation on one hand but promoting extinction on the other. Furthermore, we suggest that it is post-mating sexual selection, in particular, that is responsible for the negative effect of sexual selection on clade size. Why this might be is unclear, but the mean population fitness of species with high intensities of post-mating sexual selection may be especially low if costs associated with multiple mating are high or if the selection load imposed by post-mating selection is higher relative to that of pre-mating sexual selection. PMID:12964981

  6. Sexual selection and the rodent baculum: an intraspecific study in the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Ramm, Steven A; Khoo, Lin; Stockley, Paula

    2010-01-01

    The rapid divergence of genitalia is a pervasive trend in animal evolution, thought to be due to the action of sexual selection. To test predictions from the sexual selection hypothesis, we here report data on the allometry, variation, plasticity and condition dependence of baculum morphology in the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus). We find that that baculum size: (a) exhibits no consistent pattern of allometric scaling (baculum size being in most cases unrelated to body size), (b) exhibits low to moderate levels of phenotypic variation, (c) does not exhibit phenotypic plasticity in response to differences in perceived levels of sexual competition and (d) exhibits limited evidence of condition dependence. These patterns provide only limited evidence in support of the sexual selection hypothesis, and no consistent support for any particular sexual selection mechanism; however, more direct measures of how genital morphology influences male fertilization success are required.

  7. Directional Darwinian Selection in proteins

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Molecular evolution is a very active field of research, with several complementary approaches, including dN/dS, HON90, MM01, and others. Each has documented strengths and weaknesses, and no one approach provides a clear picture of how natural selection works at the molecular level. The purpose of this work is to present a simple new method that uses quantitative amino acid properties to identify and characterize directional selection in proteins. Methods Inferred amino acid replacements are viewed through the prism of a single physicochemical property to determine the amount and direction of change caused by each replacement. This allows the calculation of the probability that the mean change in the single property associated with the amino acid replacements is equal to zero (H0: μ = 0; i.e., no net change) using a simple two-tailed t-test. Results Example data from calanoid and cyclopoid copepod cytochrome oxidase subunit I sequence pairs are presented to demonstrate how directional selection may be linked to major shifts in adaptive zones, and that convergent evolution at the whole organism level may be the result of convergent protein adaptations. Conclusions Rather than replace previous methods, this new method further complements existing methods to provide a holistic glimpse of how natural selection shapes protein structure and function over evolutionary time. PMID:24267049

  8. Sexual selection and tail streamers in the barn swallow

    PubMed Central

    ller, A. P. M; Barbosa, A.; Cuervo, J. J.; Lope, F. de; Merino, S.; Saino, N.

    1998-01-01

    The functional significance of elongated, narrow tips of the tail feathers of certain birds, so-called tail streamers, has recently been discussed from an aerodynamic point of view, and the effects of sexual selection on such traits have been questioned. We review our long-term field studies using observational and experimental approaches to investigate natural and sexual selection in the barn swallow, Hirundo rustica, which has sexually size-dimorphic outermost tail feathers. Experimental manipulation of the length of the outermost tail feathers has demonstrated sexual selection advantages of tail elongation and disadvantages of tail shortening, with opposite effects for natural selection in terms of foraging efficiency, haematocrit and survival. These findings are contrary to the prediction of a general deterioration from both shortening and elongation, if the tail trait was determined solely by its effects on aerodynamic efficiency and flight manoeuvrability. Patterns of sexual selection in manipulated birds conform with patterns in unmanipulated birds, and selection differentials for different components of sexual selection in manipulated birds are strongly positively correlated with differentials in unmanipulated birds. Age and sex differences in tail length, and geographical patterns of sexual size dimorphism, are also consistent with sexual selection theory, but inconsistent with a purely natural selection advantage of long outermost tail feathers in male barn swallows.

  9. Geographic variation in sexual selection among populations of an iguanid lizard, Sauromalus obesus (=ater).

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowski, Matthew A; Sullivan, Brian K

    2002-10-01

    Geographic variation in selection pressures may result in population divergence and speciation, especially if sexual selection varies among populations. Yet spatial variation in targets and intensity of sexual selection is well studied in only a few species. Even more rare are simultaneous studies of multiple populations combining observations from natural settings with controlled behavioral experiments. We investigated how sexual selection varies among populations of the chuckwalla, Sauromalus obesus. Chuckwallas are sexually dimorphic in color, and males vary in coloration among populations. Using field observations and multiple regression techniques, we investigated how sexual selection acts on various male traits in three populations in which males differed in coloration. The influence of sexual selection on male coloration was then investigated in more detail using controlled experiments. Results from field observations indicate that phenotypic selection was acting on territory quality in all three populations. In two populations, selection was also acting either directly or indirectly on male coloration. Male color likely functions as an indicator of food resources to females because male color is based partly on carotenoid pigments. In controlled experiments, significantly more females from these two populations chose males with brighter colors over dull males, a result consistent with studies on carotenoid pigments in other taxa. In a third population, no evidence of sexual selection on male coloration was found in either the field study or controlled experiment. Lack of female preferences for male color in this population, in which chuckwalla densities are low and home ranges are large, may result from searching costs to females.

  10. Children's Disclosures of Sexual Abuse: Learning from Direct Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaeffer, Paula; Leventhal, John M.; Asnes, Andrea Gottsegen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Published protocols for forensic interviewing for child sexual abuse do not include specific questions about what prompted children to tell about sexual abuse or what made them wait to tell. We, therefore, aimed to: (1) add direct inquiry about the process of a child's disclosure to a forensic interview protocol; (2) determine if…

  11. Children's Disclosures of Sexual Abuse: Learning from Direct Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaeffer, Paula; Leventhal, John M.; Asnes, Andrea Gottsegen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Published protocols for forensic interviewing for child sexual abuse do not include specific questions about what prompted children to tell about sexual abuse or what made them wait to tell. We, therefore, aimed to: (1) add direct inquiry about the process of a child's disclosure to a forensic interview protocol; (2) determine if…

  12. Reducing mutation load through sexual selection on males.

    PubMed

    McGuigan, Katrina; Petfield, Donna; Blows, Mark W

    2011-10-01

    Mutation load is a key parameter in evolutionary theories, but relatively little empirical information exists on the mutation load of populations, or the elimination of this load through selection. We manipulated the opportunity for sexual selection within a mutation accumulation divergence experiment to determine how sexual selection on males affected the accumulation of mutations contributing to sexual and nonsexual fitness. Sexual selection prevented the accumulation of mutations affecting male mating success, the target trait, as well as reducing mutation load on productivity, a nonsexual fitness component. Mutational correlations between mating success and productivity (estimated in the absence of sexual selection) were positive. Sexual selection significantly reduced these fitness component correlations. Male mating success significantly diverged between sexual selection treatments, consistent with the fixation of genetic differences. However, the rank of the treatments was not consistent across assays, indicating that the mutational effects on mating success were conditional on biotic and abiotic context. Our experiment suggests that greater insight into the genetic targets of natural and sexual selection can be gained by focusing on mutational rather than standing genetic variation, and on the behavior of trait variances rather than means.

  13. Sexual selection and speciation in mammals, butterflies and spiders.

    PubMed Central

    Gage, Matthew J G; Parker, Geoffrey A; Nylin, Soren; Wiklund, Christer

    2002-01-01

    Recently refined evolutionary theories propose that sexual selection and reproductive conflict could be drivers of speciation. Male and female reproductive optima invariably differ because the potential reproductive rate of males almost always exceeds that of females: females are selected to maximize mate 'quality', while males can increase fitness through mate 'quantity'. A dynamic, sexually selected conflict therefore exists in which 'competitive' males are selected to override the preference tactics evolved by 'choosy' females. The wide variation across taxa in mating systems therefore generates variance in the outcome of intrasexual conflict and the strength of sexual selection: monandry constrains reproductive heterozygosity and allows female choice to select and maintain particular (preferred) genes; polyandry promotes reproductive heterozygosity and will more likely override female choice. Two different theories predict how sexual selection might influence speciation. Traditional ideas indicate that increased sexual selection (and hence conflict) generates a greater diversity of male reproductive strategies to be counteracted by female mate preferences, thus providing elevated potentials for speciation as more evolutionary avenues of male-female interaction are created. A less intuitively obvious theory proposes that increased sexual selection and conflict constrains speciation by reducing the opportunities for female mate choice under polyandry. We use a comparative approach to test these theories by investigating whether two general measures of sexual selection and the potential for sexual conflict have influenced speciation. Sexual size dimorphism (across 480 mammalian genera, 105 butterfly genera and 148 spider genera) and degree of polyandry (measured as relative testes size in mammals (72 genera) and mating frequency in female butterflies (54 genera)) showed no associations with the variance in speciosity. Our results therefore show that speciation

  14. Sexual selection and speciation in mammals, butterflies and spiders.

    PubMed

    Gage, Matthew J G; Parker, Geoffrey A; Nylin, Soren; Wiklund, Christer

    2002-11-22

    Recently refined evolutionary theories propose that sexual selection and reproductive conflict could be drivers of speciation. Male and female reproductive optima invariably differ because the potential reproductive rate of males almost always exceeds that of females: females are selected to maximize mate 'quality', while males can increase fitness through mate 'quantity'. A dynamic, sexually selected conflict therefore exists in which 'competitive' males are selected to override the preference tactics evolved by 'choosy' females. The wide variation across taxa in mating systems therefore generates variance in the outcome of intrasexual conflict and the strength of sexual selection: monandry constrains reproductive heterozygosity and allows female choice to select and maintain particular (preferred) genes; polyandry promotes reproductive heterozygosity and will more likely override female choice. Two different theories predict how sexual selection might influence speciation. Traditional ideas indicate that increased sexual selection (and hence conflict) generates a greater diversity of male reproductive strategies to be counteracted by female mate preferences, thus providing elevated potentials for speciation as more evolutionary avenues of male-female interaction are created. A less intuitively obvious theory proposes that increased sexual selection and conflict constrains speciation by reducing the opportunities for female mate choice under polyandry. We use a comparative approach to test these theories by investigating whether two general measures of sexual selection and the potential for sexual conflict have influenced speciation. Sexual size dimorphism (across 480 mammalian genera, 105 butterfly genera and 148 spider genera) and degree of polyandry (measured as relative testes size in mammals (72 genera) and mating frequency in female butterflies (54 genera)) showed no associations with the variance in speciosity. Our results therefore show that speciation

  15. Role of sexual selection in speciation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Singh, Akanksha; Singh, Bashisth N

    2014-02-01

    The power of sexual selection to drive changes in the mate recognition system through divergence in sexually selected traits gives it the potential to be a potent force in speciation. To know how sexual selection can bring such type of divergence in the genus Drosophila, comparative studies based on intra- and inter-sexual selection are documented in this review. The studies provide evidence that both mate choice and male-male competition can cause selection of trait and preference which thereby leads to divergence among species. In the case of intrasexual selection, various kinds of signals play significant role in affecting the species mate recognition system and hence causing divergence between the species. However, intrasexual selection can bring the intraspecific divergence at the level of pre- and post-copulatory stage. This has been better explained through Hawaiian Drosophila which has been suggested a wonderful model system in explaining the events of speciation via sexual selection. This is due to their elaborate mating displays and some kind of ethological isolation persisting among them. Similarly, the genetic basis of sexually selected variations can provide yet another path in understanding the speciation genetics via sexual selection more closely.

  16. The ecological–evolutionary interplay: density-dependent sexual selection in a migratory songbird

    PubMed Central

    Ryder, Thomas B; Fleischer, Robert C; Shriver, W Greg; Marra, Peter P

    2012-01-01

    Little is understood about how environmental heterogeneity influences the spatial dynamics of sexual selection. Within human-dominated systems, habitat modification creates environmental heterogeneity that could influence the adaptive value of individual phenotypes. Here, we used the gray catbird to examine if the ecological conditions experienced in the suburban matrix (SM) and embedded suburban parks (SP) influence reproductive strategies and the strength of sexual selection. Our results show that these habitats varied in a key ecological factor, breeding density. Moreover, this ecological factor was closely tied to reproductive strategies such that local breeding density predicted the probability that a nest would contain extra-pair offspring. Partitioning reproductive variance showed that while within-pair success was more important in both habitats, extra-pair success increased the opportunity for sexual selection by 39% at higher breeding densities. Body size was a strong predictor of relative reproductive success and was under directional selection in both habitats. Importantly, our results show that the strength of sexual selection did not differ among habitats at the landscape scale but rather that fine-scale variation in an ecological factor, breeding density, influenced sexual selection on male phenotypes. Here, we document density-dependent sexual selection in a migratory bird and hypothesize that coarse-scale environmental heterogeneity, in this case generated by anthropogenic habitat modification, changed the fine-scale ecological conditions that drove the spatial dynamics of sexual selection. PMID:22837842

  17. Environment-contingent sexual selection in a colour polymorphic fish

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Suzanne M; Dill, Lawrence M; Tantu, Fadly Y; Loew, Ellis R; Herder, Fabian; McKinnon, Jeffrey S

    2008-01-01

    Sexual selection could be a driving force in the maintenance of intraspecific variation, but supporting observations from nature are limited. Here, we test the hypothesis that spatial heterogeneity of the visual environment can influence sexual selection on colourful male secondary traits such that selective advantage is environment contingent. Using a small fish endemic to Sulawesi, Indonesia (Telmatherina sarasinorum) that has five male colour morphs varying in frequency between two visually distinct mating habitats, we used direct behavioural observations to test the environment-contingent selection hypothesis. These observations were combined with measurements of the visual environment, fish coloration and the sensitivity of visual photopigments to determine whether differential morph conspicuousness was associated with reproductive success across habitats. We found that blue and yellow males are most conspicuous in different habitats, where they also have the highest reproductive fitness. A less conspicuous grey morph also gained high reproductive success in both habitats, raising the possibility that alternative behaviours may also contribute to reproductive success. In a comprehensive analysis, conspicuousness was strongly correlated with reproductive success across morphs and environments. Our results suggest an important role for spatially heterogeneous environments in the maintenance of male colour polymorphism. PMID:18445554

  18. Understanding the link between sexual selection, sexual conflict and aging using crickets as a model.

    PubMed

    Archer, C Ruth; Hunt, John

    2015-11-01

    Aging evolved because the strength of natural selection declines over the lifetime of most organisms. Weak natural selection late in life allows the accumulation of deleterious mutations and may favor alleles that have positive effects on fitness early in life, but costly pleiotropic effects expressed later on. While this decline in natural selection is central to longstanding evolutionary explanations for aging, a role for sexual selection and sexual conflict in the evolution of lifespan and aging has only been identified recently. Testing how sexual selection and sexual conflict affect lifespan and aging is challenging as it requires quantifying male age-dependent reproductive success. This is difficult in the invertebrate model organisms traditionally used in aging research. Research using crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllidae), where reproductive investment can be easily measured in both sexes, has offered exciting and novel insights into how sexual selection and sexual conflict affect the evolution of aging, both in the laboratory and in the wild. Here we discuss how sexual selection and sexual conflict can be integrated alongside evolutionary and mechanistic theories of aging using crickets as a model. We then highlight the potential for research using crickets to further advance our understanding of lifespan and aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic versus census estimators of the opportunity for sexual selection in the wild.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Stacey J; Waits, Lisette P; Byers, John A

    2012-04-01

    Abstract The existence of a direct link between intensity of sexual selection and mating-system type is widely accepted. However, the quantification of sexual selection has proven problematic. Several measures of sexual selection have been proposed, including the operational sex ratio (OSR), the breeding sex ratio (BSR), and the opportunity for sexual selection (I(mates)). For a wild population of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), we calculated OSR and BSR. We estimated I(mates) from census data on the spatial and temporal distribution of receptive females in rut and from a multigenerational genetic pedigree. OSR and BSR indicated weak sexual selection on males, but census and pedigree I(mates) suggested stronger sexual selection on males than on females. OSR and BSR correlated with census but not pedigree estimates of I(mates), and census I(mates) did not correlate with pedigree estimates. This suggests that the behavioral mating system, as deduced from the spatial and temporal distribution of females, does not predict the genetic mating system of pronghorn. The differences we observed between estimators were primarily due to female mate sampling and choice and to the sex ratio. For most species, behavioral data are not perfectly accurate and therefore will be an insufficient alternative to using multigenerational pedigrees to quantify sexual selection.

  20. Disruptive sexual selection for plumage coloration in a passerine bird.

    PubMed

    Greene, E; Lyon, B E; Muehter, V R; Ratcliffe, L; Oliver, S J; Boag, P T

    2000-10-26

    The theory of sexual selection was developed to explain the evolution of highly exaggerated sexual ornaments. Now supported by vast empirical evidence, sexual selection is generally considered to favour individuals with the most extreme trait expression. Here we describe disruptive selection on a sexual ornament, plumage coloration, in yearling male lazuli buntings (Passerina amoena). In habitats with limited good-quality nesting cover, the dullest and the brightest yearlings were more successful in obtaining high-quality territories, pairing with females and siring offspring, than yearlings with intermediate plumage. This pattern reflects the way that territorial adult males vary levels of aggression to influence the structure of their social neighbourhood. Adult males showed less aggression towards dull yearlings than intermediate and bright ones, permitting the dull yearlings to settle on good territories nearby. Fitness comparisons based on paternity analyses showed that both the adults and dull yearlings benefited genetically from this arrangement, revealing a rare example of sexually selected male-male cooperation.

  1. Sexual selection is ineffectual or inhibits the purging of deleterious mutations in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Arbuthnott, Devin; Rundle, Howard D

    2012-07-01

    The effects of sexual selection on population mean fitness are unclear and a subject of debate. Recent models propose that, because reproductive success may be condition dependent, much of the genome may be a target of sexual selection. Under this scenario, mutations that reduce health, and thus nonsexual fitness, may also be deleterious with respect to reproductive success, meaning that sexual selection may contribute to the purging of deleterious alleles. We tested this hypothesis directly by subjecting replicate Drosophila melanogaster populations to two treatments that altered the opportunity for sexual selection and then tracked changes in the frequency of six separate deleterious alleles with recessive and visible phenotypic effects. While natural selection acted to decrease the frequency of all six mutations, the addition of sexual selection did not aid in the purging of any of them, and for three of them appears to have hampered it. Courtship and mating have harmful effects in this species and mate choice assays showed that males directed more courtship and mating behavior toward wild-type over mutant females, providing a likely explanation for sexual selection's cost. Whether this cost extends to other mutations (e.g., those lacking visible phenotypic effects) is an important topic for future research.

  2. Sexual selection expedites the evolution of pesticide resistance.

    PubMed

    Jacomb, Frances; Marsh, Jason; Holman, Luke

    2016-12-01

    The evolution of insecticide resistance by crop pests and disease vectors causes serious problems for agriculture and health. Sexual selection can accelerate or hinder adaptation to abiotic challenges in a variety of ways, but the effect of sexual selection on resistance evolution is little studied. Here, we examine this question using experimental evolution in the pest insect Tribolium castaneum. The experimental removal of sexual selection slowed the evolution of resistance in populations treated with pyrethroid pesticide, and also reduced the rate at which resistance was lost from pesticide-free populations. These results suggest that selection arising from variance in mating and fertilization success can augment natural selection on pesticide resistance, meaning that sexual selection should be considered when designing strategies to limit the evolution of pesticide resistance. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Comment: On the consequences of sexual selection for fisheries-induced evolution.

    PubMed

    Urbach, Davnah; Cotton, Samuel

    2008-11-01

    It is becoming increasingly recognized that fishing (and other forms of nonrandom harvesting) can have profound evolutionary consequences for life history traits. A recent and welcome publication provided the first description of how sexual selection might influence the outcome of fisheries-induced evolution (FIE). One of the main conclusions was that if sexual selection generates a positive relationship between body size and reproductive success, increased fishing pressure on large individuals causes stronger selection for smaller body size. Here, we re-evaluate the sexual selection interpretation of the relationship between body size and reproductive success, and suggest it may in fact be representative of a more general case of pure natural selection. The consequences of sexual selection on FIE are likely to be complicated and dynamic, and we provide additional perspectives to these new and exciting results. Selection differentials and trait variance are considered, with density-dependent and genetic effects on the strength and the direction of sexual selection given particular attention. We hope that our additional views on the role of sexual selection in FIE will encourage more theoretical and empirical work into this important application of evolutionary biology.

  4. Sexual selection and the risk of extinction in mammals.

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Edward H.; Fricke, Claudia

    2004-01-01

    Sexual selection is commonly envisaged as a force working in opposition to natural selection, because extravagant or exaggerated traits could apparently have never evolved via natural selection alone. There is good evidence that a selection load imposed by sexual selection may be eased experimentally by restricting the opportunity for it to operate. Sexual selection could therefore potentially play an important role in influencing the risk of extinction that a population faces, thereby contributing to the apparent selectivity of extinctions. Conversely, recent theory predicts that the likelihood of extinction may decrease when sexual selection is operating because it could accelerate the rate of adaptation in concert with natural selection. So far, comparative evidence (coming mostly from birds) has generally indicated support for the former scenario, but the question remains open. The aim of this study was therefore to examine whether the level of sexual selection (measured as residual testes mass and sexual size dimorphism) was related to the risk of extinction that mammals are currently experiencing. We found no evidence for a relationship between these factors, although our analyses may have been confounded by the possible dominating effect of contemporary anthropogenic factors. PMID:15556893

  5. Sexual selection and the risk of extinction in mammals.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Edward H; Fricke, Claudia

    2004-11-22

    Sexual selection is commonly envisaged as a force working in opposition to natural selection, because extravagant or exaggerated traits could apparently have never evolved via natural selection alone. There is good evidence that a selection load imposed by sexual selection may be eased experimentally by restricting the opportunity for it to operate. Sexual selection could therefore potentially play an important role in influencing the risk of extinction that a population faces, thereby contributing to the apparent selectivity of extinctions. Conversely, recent theory predicts that the likelihood of extinction may decrease when sexual selection is operating because it could accelerate the rate of adaptation in concert with natural selection. So far, comparative evidence (coming mostly from birds) has generally indicated support for the former scenario, but the question remains open. The aim of this study was therefore to examine whether the level of sexual selection (measured as residual testes mass and sexual size dimorphism) was related to the risk of extinction that mammals are currently experiencing. We found no evidence for a relationship between these factors, although our analyses may have been confounded by the possible dominating effect of contemporary anthropogenic factors.

  6. Sexual selection and the differential effect of polyandry.

    PubMed

    Collet, Julie; Richardson, David S; Worley, Kirsty; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2012-05-29

    In principle, widespread polyandry (female promiscuity) creates potential for sexual selection in males both before and after copulation. However, the way polyandry affects pre- and postcopulatory episodes of sexual selection remains little understood. Resolving this fundamental question has been difficult because it requires extensive information on mating behavior as well as paternity for the whole male population. Here we show that in replicate seminatural groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, polyandry eroded variance in male mating success, which simultaneously weakened the overall intensity of sexual selection but increased the relative strength of postcopulatory episodes. We further illustrate the differential effect of polyandry on pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection by considering the case of male social status, a key determinant of male reproductive success in this species. In low-polyandry groups, however, status was strongly sexually selected before copulation because dominants mated with more females. In high-polyandry groups, sexual selection for status was weakened and largely restricted after copulation because dominants defended paternity by mating repeatedly with the same female. These results reveal polyandry as a potent and dynamic modulator of sexual selection episodes.

  7. Sexual selection and the differential effect of polyandry

    PubMed Central

    Collet, Julie; Richardson, David S.; Worley, Kirsty; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2012-01-01

    In principle, widespread polyandry (female promiscuity) creates potential for sexual selection in males both before and after copulation. However, the way polyandry affects pre- and postcopulatory episodes of sexual selection remains little understood. Resolving this fundamental question has been difficult because it requires extensive information on mating behavior as well as paternity for the whole male population. Here we show that in replicate seminatural groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, polyandry eroded variance in male mating success, which simultaneously weakened the overall intensity of sexual selection but increased the relative strength of postcopulatory episodes. We further illustrate the differential effect of polyandry on pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection by considering the case of male social status, a key determinant of male reproductive success in this species. In low-polyandry groups, however, status was strongly sexually selected before copulation because dominants mated with more females. In high-polyandry groups, sexual selection for status was weakened and largely restricted after copulation because dominants defended paternity by mating repeatedly with the same female. These results reveal polyandry as a potent and dynamic modulator of sexual selection episodes. PMID:22592795

  8. The geography of sex-specific selection, local adaptation, and sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Connallon, Tim

    2015-09-01

    Local adaptation and sexual dimorphism are iconic evolutionary scenarios of intraspecific adaptive differentiation in the face of gene flow. Although theory has traditionally considered local adaptation and sexual dimorphism as conceptually distinct processes, emerging data suggest that they often act concurrently during evolutionary diversification. Here, I merge theories of local adaptation in space and sex-specific adaptation over time, and show that their confluence yields several new predictions about the roles of context-specific selection, migration, and genetic correlations, in adaptive diversification. I specifically revisit two influential predictions from classical studies of clinal adaptation and sexual dimorphism: (1) that local adaptation should decrease with distance from the species' range center and (2) that opposing directional selection between the sexes (sexual antagonism) should inevitably accompany the evolution of sexual dimorphism. I show that both predictions can break down under clinally varying selection. First, the geography of local adaptation can be sexually dimorphic, with locations of relatively high local adaptation differing profoundly between the sexes. Second, the intensity of sexual antagonism varies across the species' range, with subpopulations near the range center representing hotspots for antagonistic selection. The results highlight the context-dependent roles of migration versus sexual conflict as primary constraints to adaptive diversification. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. Nonlinear and correlational sexual selection on 'honest' female ornamentation.

    PubMed

    LeBas, Natasha R; Hockham, Leon R; Ritchie, Michael G

    2003-10-22

    Female ornamentation has long been overlooked because of the greater prevalence of elaborate displays in males. However, the circumstances under which females would benefit from honestly signalling their quality are limited. Females are not expected to invest in ornamentation unless the fitness benefits of the ornament exceed those derived from investing the resources directly into offspring. It has been proposed that when females gain direct benefits from mating, females may instead be selected for ornamentation that deceives males about their reproductive state. In the empidid dance flies, males frequently provide nuptial gifts and it is usually only the female that is ornamented. Female traits in empidids, such as abdominal sacs and enlarged pinnate leg scales, have been proposed to 'deceive' males into matings by disguising egg maturity. We quantified sexual selection in the dance fly Rhamphomyia tarsata and found escalating, quadratic selection on pinnate scales and that pinnate scales honestly reflect female fecundity. Mated females had a larger total number and more mature eggs than unmated females, highlighting a potential benefit rather than a cost of male mate choice. We also show correlational selection on female pinnate scales and fecundity. Correlational selection, equivalent investment patterns or increased nutrition from nuptial gifts may all maintain honesty in female ornamentation.

  10. Patterns of Parental Investment and Sexual Selection in Teleost Fishes: Do They Support Bateman's Principles?

    PubMed

    Rios-Cardenas, Oscar

    2005-11-01

    Bateman demonstrated differences in variance for fertility and mating success between the sexes, with males usually having a greater variance than females. Thus in general, male reproductive success increases with number of mates acquired. These results have been referred to as "Bateman's principles" and taken together with other parameters (e.g., relative parental investment) have been proposed to estimate a component of sexual selection. For this review I examine patterns of parental care and sexual selection in teleost fishes (substrate brooding and with internal fertilization). I present data for the pumpkinseed sunfish Lepomis gibbosus, in which I estimated cost of paternal care and compared direct measures of the intensity of selection on possible sexually selected traits to measures of sexual selection based on Bateman's principles.Despite high levels of paternal care in substrate brooding fishes, sexual selection tends to act more strongly on males than on females, which suggests that maternal investment is higher than paternal investment and that parental care does not limit the reproductive rate for males. In pumpkinseed sunfish, selection favors parents with high levels of defense that may exclude predators more effectively and, as suggested by Bateman's measures, alternative reproductive strategies may decrease the opportunity for sexual selection within the parental strategy. In teleost fishes with internal fertilization, patterns of parental investment and intensity of sexual selection seem to support Bateman's principles, but further studies using these systems and these measures of selection will improve the understanding of factors affecting the intensity of sexual selection and its relation to mating systems.

  11. Sexual selection impacts brain anatomy in frogs and toads.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yu; Lou, Shang Ling; Liao, Wen Bo; Jehle, Robert; Kotrschal, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    Natural selection is a major force in the evolution of vertebrate brain size, but the role of sexual selection in brain size evolution remains enigmatic. At least two opposing schools of thought predict a relationship between sexual selection and brain size. Sexual selection should facilitate the evolution of larger brains because better cognitive abilities may aid the competition for mates. However, it may also restrict brain size evolution due to energetic trade-offs between brain tissue and sexually selected traits. Here, we examined the patterns of selection on brain size and brain anatomy in male anurans (frogs and toads), a group where the strength of sexual selection differs markedly among species, using a phylogenetically controlled generalized least-squared (PGLS) regression analyses. The analysis revealed that in 43 Chinese anuran species, neither mating system, nor type of courtship, or testes mass was significantly associated with relative brain size. While none of those factors related to the relative size of olfactory nerves, optic tecta, telencephalon, and cerebellum, the olfactory bulbs were relatively larger in monogamous species and those using calls during courtship. Our findings support the mosaic model of brain evolution and suggest that while the investigated aspects of sexual selection do not seem to play a prominent role in the evolution of brain size of anurans, they do impact their brain anatomy.

  12. Antagonistic responses to natural and sexual selection and the sex-specific evolution of cuticular hydrocarbons in Drosophila simulans.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manmohan D; Hunt, John; Hosken, David J

    2012-03-01

    Natural and sexual selection are classically thought to oppose one another, and although there is evidence for this, direct experimental demonstrations of this antagonism are largely lacking. Here, we assessed the effects of sexual and natural selection on the evolution of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), a character subject to both modes of selection, in Drosophila simulans. Natural selection and sexual selection were manipulated in a fully factorial design, and after 27 generations of experimental evolution, the responses of male and female CHCs were assessed. The effects of natural and sexual selection differed greatly across the sexes. The responses of female CHCs were generally small, but CHCs evolved predominantly in the direction of natural selection. For males, profiles evolved via sexual and natural selection, as well as through the interaction between the two, with some male CHC components only evolving in the direction of natural selection when sexual selection was relaxed. These results indicate sex-specific responses to selection, and that sexual and natural selection act antagonistically for at least some combinations of CHCs.

  13. The roles of natural and sexual selection during adaptation to a novel environment.

    PubMed

    Rundle, Howard D; Chenoweth, Stephen F; Blows, Mark W

    2006-11-01

    The net effect of sexual selection on nonsexual fitness is controversial. On one side, elaborate display traits and preferences for them can be costly, reducing the nonsexual fitness of individuals possessing them, as well as their offspring. In contrast, sexual selection may reinforce nonsexual fitness if an individual's attractiveness and quality are genetically correlated. According to recent models, such good-genes mate choice should increase both the extent and rate of adaptation. We evolved 12 replicate populations of Drosophila serrata in a powerful two-way factorial experimental design to test the separate and combined contributions of natural and sexual selection to adaptation to a novel larval food resource. Populations evolving in the presence of natural selection had significantly higher mean nonsexual fitness when measured over three generations (13-15) during the course of experimental evolution (16-23% increase). The effect of natural selection was even more substantial when measured in a standardized, monogamous mating environment at the end of the experiment (generation 16; 52% increase). In contrast, and despite strong sexual selection on display traits, there was no evidence from any of the four replicate fitness measures that sexual selection promoted adaptation. In addition, a comparison of fitness measures conducted under different mating environments demonstrated a significant direct cost of sexual selection to females, likely arising from some form of male-induced harm. Indirect benefits of sexual selection in promoting adaptation to this novel resource environment therefore appear to be absent in this species, despite prior evidence suggesting the operation of good-genes mate choice in their ancestral environment. How novel environments affect the operation of good-genes mate choice is a fundamental question for future sexual selection research.

  14. Adult sex ratio, sexual dimorphism and sexual selection in a Mesozoic reptile.

    PubMed

    Motani, Ryosuke; Jiang, Da-yong; Rieppel, Olivier; Xue, Yi-fan; Tintori, Andrea

    2015-09-22

    The evolutionary history of sexual selection in the geologic past is poorly documented based on quantification, largely because of difficulty in sexing fossil specimens. Even such essential ecological parameters as adult sex ratio (ASR) and sexual size dimorphism (SSD) are rarely quantified, despite their implications for sexual selection. To enable their estimation, we propose a method for unbiased sex identification based on sexual shape dimorphism, using size-independent principal components of phenotypic data. We applied the method to test sexual selection in Keichousaurus hui, a Middle Triassic (about 237 Ma) sauropterygian with an unusually large sample size for a fossil reptile. Keichousaurus hui exhibited SSD biased towards males, as in the majority of extant reptiles, to a minor degree (sexual dimorphism index -0.087). The ASR is about 60% females, suggesting higher mortality of males over females. Both values support sexual selection of males in this species. The method may be applied to other fossil species. We also used the Gompertz allometric equation to study the sexual shape dimorphism of K. hui and found that two sexes had largely homogeneous phenotypes at birth except in the humeral width, contrary to previous suggestions derived from the standard allometric equation.

  15. Sexual selection on male body size, genital length and heterozygosity: Consistency across habitats and social settings.

    PubMed

    Head, Megan L; Kahn, Andrew T; Henshaw, Jonathan M; Keogh, J Scott; Jennions, Michael D

    2017-08-16

    Spatial and temporal variation in environmental factors and the social setting can help to maintain genetic variation in sexually selected traits if it affects the strength of directional selection. A key social parameter which affects the intensity of, and sometimes predicts the response to, mating competition is the operational sex ratio (OSR; ratio of receptive males to females). How the OSR affects selection for specific male traits is poorly understood. It is also unclear how sexual selection is affected by interactions between the OSR and environmental factors, such as habitat complexity, that alter key male-female interactions such as mate encounter rates. Here, we experimentally manipulated the OSR and habitat complexity and quantified sexual selection on male mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) by directly measuring male reproductive success (i.e. paternity). We show that despite a more equitable sharing of paternity (i.e. higher levels of multiple paternity) under a male-biased OSR, selection on focal male traits was unaffected by the OSR or habitat complexity. Instead, sexual selection consistently, and significantly, favoured smaller bodied males, males with higher genome wide heterozygosity (based on >3,000 SNP markers) and males with a relatively long gonopodium (intromittent organ). Our results show that sexual selection on male body size, relative genital size and heterozygosity in this system is consistent across environments that vary in ecological parameters that are expected to influence mate encounter rates. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  16. Simple signaling games of sexual selection (Grafen's revisited).

    PubMed

    Bernhard, Pierre; Hamelin, Frédéric M

    2014-12-01

    We investigate several versions of a simple game of sexual selection, to explore the role of secondary sexual characters (the "handicap paradox") with the tools of signaling theory. Our models admit closed form solutions. They are very much inspired by Grafen's (J Theor Biol 144:517-546, 1990a; J Theor Biol 144:473-516, 1990b) seminal companion papers. By merging and simplifying his two approaches, we identify a not so minor artifact in the seminal study. We propose an alternative model to start with Grafen's sexual selection theory, with several similarities with Getty (Anim Behav 56:127-130, 1998).

  17. Sexual selection gradients change over time in a simultaneous hermaphrodite

    PubMed Central

    Hoffer, Jeroen NA; Mariën, Janine; Ellers, Jacintha; Koene, Joris M

    2017-01-01

    Sexual selection is generally predicted to act more strongly on males than on females. The Darwin-Bateman paradigm predicts that this should also hold for hermaphrodites. However, measuring this strength of selection is less straightforward when both sexual functions are performed throughout the organism’s lifetime. Besides, quantifications of sexual selection are usually done during a short time window, while many animals store sperm and are long-lived. To explore whether the chosen time frame affects estimated measures of sexual selection, we recorded mating success and reproductive success over time, using a simultaneous hermaphrodite. Our results show that male sexual selection gradients are consistently positive. However, an individual’s female mating success seems to negatively affect its own male reproductive success, an effect that only becomes visible several weeks into the experiment, highlighting that the time frame is crucial for the quantification and interpretation of sexual selection measures, an insight that applies to any iteroparous mating system. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.25139.001 PMID:28613158

  18. Darwin's explanation of races by means of sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Millstein, Roberta L

    2012-09-01

    In Darwin's Sacred Cause, Adrian Desmond and James Moore contend that "Darwin would put his utmost into sexual selection because the subject intrigued him, no doubt, but also for a deeper reason: the theory vindicated his lifelong commitment to human brotherhood" (2009: p. 360). Without questioning Desmond and Moore's evidence, I will raise some puzzles for their view. I will show that attention to the structure of Darwin's arguments in the Descent of Man shows that they are far from straightforward. As Desmond and Moore note, Darwin seems to have intended sexual selection in non-human animals to serve as evidence for sexual selection in humans. However, Darwin's account of sexual selection in humans was different from the canonical cases that Darwin described at great length. If explaining the origin of human races was the main reason for introducing sexual selection, and if sexual selection was a key piece of Darwin's anti-slavery arguments, then it is puzzling why Darwin would have spent so much time discussing cases that did not really support his argument for the origin of human races, and it is also puzzling that his argument for the origin of human races would be so (atypically) poor.

  19. Microhabitat variation and sexual selection can maintain male color polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Chunco, Amanda J; McKinnon, Jeffrey S; Servedio, Maria R

    2007-11-01

    Male color polymorphism may be an important precursor to sympatric speciation by sexual selection, but the processes maintaining such polymorphisms are not well understood. Here, we develop a formal model of the hypothesis that male color polymorphisms may be maintained by variation in the sensory environment resulting in microhabitat-specific selection pressures. We analyze the evolution of two male color morphs when color perception (by females and predators) is dependent on the microhabitat in which natural and sexual selection occur. We find that an environment of heterogeneous microhabitats can lead to the maintenance of color polymorphism despite asymmetries in the strengths of natural and sexual selection and in microhabitat proportions. We show that sexual selection alone is sufficient for polymorphism maintenance over a wide range of parameter space, even when female preferences are weak. Polymorphisms can also be maintained by natural selection acting alone, but the conditions for polymorphism maintenance by natural selection will usually be unrealistic for the case of microhabitat variation. Microhabitat variation and sexual selection for conspicuous males may thus provide a situation particularly favorable to the maintenance of male color polymorphisms. These results are important both because of the general insight they provide into a little appreciated mechanism for the maintenance of variation in natural populations and because such variation is an important prerequisite for sympatric speciation.

  20. Differences in male coloration are predicted by divergent sexual selection between populations of a cichlid fish.

    PubMed

    Selz, O M; Thommen, R; Pierotti, M E R; Anaya-Rojas, J M; Seehausen, O

    2016-05-11

    Female mating preferences can influence both intraspecific sexual selection and interspecific reproductive isolation, and have therefore been proposed to play a central role in speciation. Here, we investigate experimentally in the African cichlid fish Pundamilia nyererei if differences in male coloration between three para-allopatric populations (i.e. island populations with gene flow) of P. nyererei are predicted by differences in sexual selection by female mate choice between populations. Second, we investigate if female mating preferences are based on the same components of male coloration and go in the same direction when females choose among males of their own population, their own and other conspecific populations and a closely related para-allopatric sister-species, P. igneopinnis Mate-choice experiments revealed that females of the three populations mated species-assortatively, that populations varied in their extent of population-assortative mating and that females chose among males of their own population based on different male colours. Females of different populations exerted directional intrapopulation sexual selection on different male colours, and these differences corresponded in two of the populations to the observed differences in male coloration between the populations. Our results suggest that differences in male coloration between populations of P. nyererei can be explained by divergent sexual selection and that population-assortative mating may directly result from intrapopulation sexual selection. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Male mate choice, male quality, and the potential for sexual selection on female traits under polygyny.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Courtney L; Servedio, Maria R

    2017-01-01

    Observations of male mate choice are increasingly common, even in species with traditional sex roles. In addition, female traits that bear the hallmarks of secondary sexual characters are increasingly reported. These concurrent empirical trends have led to the repeated inference that, even under polygyny, male mate choice is a mechanism of sexual selection on female traits. It is often either assumed or argued that in these cases females are competing for males of superior "quality"; females might experience sexual selection under polygyny if they compete for mates that provide either direct or indirect benefits. However, the theoretical foundation of this testable hypothesis remains largely uninvestigated. We develop a population genetic model to probe the logic of this hypothesis and demonstrate that, contrary to common inferences, male mate choice, variation in male quality (in the form of a direct fecundity benefit to females), and female ornamentation can coexist in a population without any sexual selection on female ornamentation taking place at all. Furthermore, even in a "best case scenario" where high quality males with a preference for ornamented females are able to mate disproportionately more often with them, the evolution of female traits by sexual selection may be relatively weak. We discuss the implication of these findings for ongoing empirical and theoretical research on the evolution of sexual-signaling in females. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. Sexually Transmitted Diseases: A Selective, Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., New York, NY. Education Dept.

    This document contains a reference sheet and an annotated bibliography concerned with sexually transmitted diseases (STD). The reference sheet provides a brief, accurate overview of STDs which includes both statistical and background information. The bibliography contains 83 entries, listed alphabetically, that deal with STDs. Books and articles…

  3. Sexually Transmitted Diseases: A Selective, Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., New York, NY. Education Dept.

    This document contains a reference sheet and an annotated bibliography concerned with sexually transmitted diseases (STD). The reference sheet provides a brief, accurate overview of STDs which includes both statistical and background information. The bibliography contains 83 entries, listed alphabetically, that deal with STDs. Books and articles…

  4. Postcopulatory sexual selection: Darwin's omission and its consequences

    PubMed Central

    Eberhard, William G.

    2009-01-01

    In one of his few major oversights, Darwin failed to appreciate that male–male competition and sexual selection can continue even after copulation has begun. The postcopulatory equivalents of both direct male–male battles (sperm competition) and female choice (cryptic female choice) occur within the female's body. Recognition of this hidden, but intense, sexual competition provides new insights into a variety of fields. These include the hyperdiverse and paradoxically elaborate morphology of both sperm and male genitalia, the equally puzzling and elaborate morphology of nongenitalic male structures that are specialized to grasp and stimulate females, powerful manipulative effects of substances in male semen on female reproductive physiology, paradoxical male courtship behavior that occurs after copulation has already begun, variability in parental investments, and the puzzlingly complex and diverse interactions between sperm and female products that surround animal eggs and between male gametophytes and female tissues in flowering plants. Many bizarre traits are involved, including male genitalia that are designed to explode or fall apart during copulation leaving behind parts within the female, male genitalia that “sing” during copulation, potent seminal products that invade the female's body cavity and her nervous system to influence her behavior, and a virtual Kama Sutra of courtship behavior performed after rather than before genital coupling, including male–female dialogues during copulation. PMID:19528642

  5. Postcopulatory sexual selection: Darwin's omission and its consequences.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, William G

    2009-06-16

    In one of his few major oversights, Darwin failed to appreciate that male-male competition and sexual selection can continue even after copulation has begun. The postcopulatory equivalents of both direct male-male battles (sperm competition) and female choice (cryptic female choice) occur within the female's body. Recognition of this hidden, but intense, sexual competition provides new insights into a variety of fields. These include the hyperdiverse and paradoxically elaborate morphology of both sperm and male genitalia, the equally puzzling and elaborate morphology of nongenitalic male structures that are specialized to grasp and stimulate females, powerful manipulative effects of substances in male semen on female reproductive physiology, paradoxical male courtship behavior that occurs after copulation has already begun, variability in parental investments, and the puzzlingly complex and diverse interactions between sperm and female products that surround animal eggs and between male gametophytes and female tissues in flowering plants. Many bizarre traits are involved, including male genitalia that are designed to explode or fall apart during copulation leaving behind parts within the female, male genitalia that "sing" during copulation, potent seminal products that invade the female's body cavity and her nervous system to influence her behavior, and a virtual Kama Sutra of courtship behavior performed after rather than before genital coupling, including male-female dialogues during copulation.

  6. Rapid adaptation to a novel host in a seed beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus): the role of sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Claudia; Arnqvist, Göran

    2007-02-01

    Rapid diversification is common among herbivorous insects and is often the result of host shifts, leading to the exploitation of novel food sources. This, in turn, is associated with adaptive evolution of female oviposition behavior and larval feeding biology. Although natural selection is the typical driver of such adaptation, the role of sexual selection is less clear. In theory, sexual selection can either accelerate or impede adaptation. To assess the independent effects of natural and sexual selection on the rate of adaptation, we performed a laboratory natural selection experiment in a herbivorous bruchid beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus). We established replicated selection lines where we varied natural (food type) and sexual (mating system) selection in a 2 x 2 orthogonal design, and propagated our lines for 35 generations. In half of the lines, we induced a host shift whereas the other half was kept on the ancestral host. We experimentally enforced monogamy in half of the lines, whereas the other half remained polygamous. The beetles rapidly adapted to the novel host, which primarily involved increased host acceptance by females and an accelerated rate of larval development. We also found that our mating system treatment affected the rate of adaptation, but that this effect was contingent upon food type. As beetles adapted to the novel host, sexual selection reinforced natural selection whereas populations residing close to their adaptive peak (i.e., those using their ancestral host) exhibited higher fitness in the absence of sexual selection. We discuss our findings in light of current sexual selection theory and suggest that the net evolutionary effect of reproductive competition may critically depend on natural selection. Sexual selection may commonly accelerate adaptation under directional natural selection whereas sexual selection, and the associated load brought by sexual conflict, may tend to depress population fitness under stabilizing natural

  7. Multivariate selection drives concordant patterns of pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection in a livebearing fish.

    PubMed

    Devigili, Alessandro; Evans, Jonathan P; Di Nisio, Andrea; Pilastro, Andrea

    2015-09-15

    In many species, females mate with multiple partners, meaning that sexual selection on male traits operates across a spectrum that encompasses the competition for mates (that is, before mating) and fertilizations (after mating). Despite being inextricably linked, pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection are typically studied independently, and we know almost nothing about how sexual selection operates across this divide. Here we bridge this knowledge gap using the livebearing fish Poecilia reticulata. We show that both selective episodes, as well as their covariance, explain a significant component of variance in male reproductive fitness. Moreover, linear and nonlinear selection simultaneously act on pre- and postcopulatory traits, and interact to generate multiple phenotypes with similar fitness.

  8. Sexual selection drives speciation in an Amazonian frog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boul, K.E.; Funk, W.C.; Darst, C.R.; Cannatella, D.C.; Ryan, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    One proposed mechanism of speciation is divergent sexual selection, whereby divergence in female preferences and male signals results in behavioural isolation. Despite the appeal of this hypothesis, evidence for it remains inconclusive. Here, we present several lines of evidence that sexual selection is driving behavioural isolation and speciation among populations of an Amazonian frog (Physalaemus petersi). First, sexual selection has promoted divergence in male mating calls and female preferences for calls between neighbouring populations, resulting in strong behavioural isolation. Second, phylogenetic analysis indicates that populations have become fixed for alternative call types several times throughout the species' range, and coalescent analysis rejects genetic drift as a cause for this pattern, suggesting that this divergence is due to selection. Finally, gene flow estimated with microsatellite loci is an average of 30 times lower between populations with different call types than between populations separated by a similar geographical distance with the same call type, demonstrating genetic divergence and incipient speciation. Taken together, these data provide strong evidence that sexual selection is driving behavioural isolation and speciation, supporting sexual selection as a cause for speciation in the wild. ?? 2006 The Royal Society.

  9. Sexual selection and the opportunity cost of free mate choice.

    PubMed

    Apostolou, Menelaos

    2016-06-01

    The model of sexual selection under parental choice has been proposed to account for the control that parents exercise over their children's mating decisions. The present paper attempts to formalize and advance this model with the purpose of providing a better understanding of how parental choice mandates the course of sexual selection. In particular, in the proposed formulation, free mate choice involves an opportunity cost which motivates parents to place their children's mate choices under their control. When they succeed in doing so, they become a significant sexual selection force, as traits that appeal to parents in an in-law are selected and increase in frequency in the population. The degree of parental control over mating, and thus the strength of sexual selection under parental choice, is positively predicted by the size of the opportunity cost of free mate choice. The primary factors that affect the level of opportunity cost vary between society types, affecting the strength of parental choice as a sexual selection force.

  10. Sexual selection and the evolution of obligatory sex.

    PubMed

    Hadany, Lilach; Beker, Tuvik

    2007-12-20

    Among the long-standing conundrums of evolutionary theory, obligatory sex is one of the hardest. Current theory suggests multiple factors that might explain the benefits of sex when compared with complete asexuality, but no satisfactory explanation for the prevalence of obligatory sex in the face of facultative sexual reproduction. We show that when sexual selection is present obligatory sex can evolve and be maintained even against facultative sex, under common scenarios of deleterious mutations and environmental changes.

  11. Finding Direction in the Search for Selection.

    PubMed

    Thiltgen, Grant; Dos Reis, Mario; Goldstein, Richard A

    2017-01-01

    Tests for positive selection have mostly been developed to look for diversifying selection where change away from the current amino acid is often favorable. However, in many cases we are interested in directional selection where there is a shift toward specific amino acids, resulting in increased fitness in the species. Recently, a few methods have been developed to detect and characterize directional selection on a molecular level. Using the results of evolutionary simulations as well as HIV drug resistance data as models of directional selection, we compare two such methods with each other, as well as against a standard method for detecting diversifying selection. We find that the method to detect diversifying selection also detects directional selection under certain conditions. One method developed for detecting directional selection is powerful and accurate for a wide range of conditions, while the other can generate an excessive number of false positives.

  12. Positive allometry and the prehistory of sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Tomkins, Joseph L; LeBas, Natasha R; Witton, Mark P; Martill, David M; Humphries, Stuart

    2010-08-01

    The function of the exaggerated structures that adorn many fossil vertebrates remains largely unresolved. One recurrent hypothesis is that these elaborated traits had a role in thermoregulation. This orthodoxy persists despite the observation that traits exaggerated to the point of impracticality in extant organisms are almost invariably sexually selected. We use allometric scaling to investigate the role of sexual selection and thermoregulation in the evolution of exaggerated traits of the crested pterosaur Pteranodon longiceps and the sail-backed eupelycosaurs Dimetrodon and Edaphosaurus. The extraordinarily steep positive allometry of the head crest of Pteranodon rules out all of the current hypotheses for this trait's main function other than sexual signaling. We also find interspecific patterns of allometry and sexual dimorphism in the sails of Dimetrodon and patterns of elaboration in Edaphosaurus consistent with a sexually selected function. Furthermore, small ancestral, sail-backed pelycosaurs would have been too small to need adaptations to thermoregulation. Our results question the popular view that the elaborated structures of these fossil species evolved as thermoregulatory organs and provide evidence in support of the hypothesis that Pteranodon crests and eupelycosaur sails are among the earliest and most extreme examples of elaborate sexual signals in the evolution of terrestrial vertebrates.

  13. Sexual selection affects local extinction and turnover in bird communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doherty, P.F.; Sorci, G.; Royle, J. Andrew; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Boulinier, T.

    2003-01-01

    Predicting extinction risks has become a central goal for conservation and evolutionary biologists interested in population and community dynamics. Several factors have been put forward to explain risks of extinction, including ecological and life history characteristics of individuals. For instance, factors that affect the balance between natality and mortality can have profound effects on population persistence. Sexual selection has been identified as one such factor. Populations under strong sexual selection experience a number of costs ranging from increased predation and parasitism to enhanced sensitivity to environmental and demographic stochasticity. These findings have led to the prediction that local extinction rates should be higher for species/populations with intense sexual selection. We tested this prediction by analyzing the dynamics of natural bird communities at a continental scale over a period of 21 years (1975-1996), using relevant statistical tools. In agreement with the theoretical prediction, we found that sexual selection increased risks of local extinction (dichromatic birds had on average a 23% higher local extinction rate than monochromatic species). However, despite higher local extinction probabilities, the number of dichromatic species did not decrease over the period considered in this study. This pattern was caused by higher local turnover rates of dichromatic species, resulting in relatively stable communities for both groups of species. Our results suggest that these communities function as metacommunities, with frequent local extinctions followed by colonization. Anthropogenic factors impeding dispersal might therefore have a significant impact on the global persistence of sexually selected species.

  14. Sexual selection modulates genetic conflicts and patterns of genomic imprinting

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Gonçalo S.; Varela, Susana A. M.; Gardner, Andy

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have seen a surge of interest in linking the theories of kin selection and sexual selection. In particular, there is a growing appreciation that kin selection, arising through demographic factors such as sex‐biased dispersal, may modulate sexual conflicts, including in the context of male–female arms races characterized by coevolutionary cycles. However, evolutionary conflicts of interest need not only occur between individuals, but may also occur within individuals, and sex‐specific demography is known to foment such intragenomic conflict in relation to social behavior. Whether and how this logic holds in the context of sexual conflict—and, in particular, in relation to coevolutionary cycles—remains obscure. We develop a kin‐selection model to investigate the interests of different genes involved in sexual and intragenomic conflict, and we show that consideration of these conflicting interests yields novel predictions concerning parent‐of‐origin specific patterns of gene expression and the detrimental effects of different classes of mutation and epimutation at loci underpinning sexually selected phenotypes. PMID:27991659

  15. Sexual selection and genetic colour polymorphisms in animals.

    PubMed

    Wellenreuther, Maren; Svensson, Erik I; Hansson, Bengt

    2014-11-01

    Genetic colour polymorphisms are widespread across animals and often subjected to complex selection regimes. Traditionally, colour morphs were used as simple visual markers to measure allele frequency changes in nature, selection, population divergence and speciation. With advances in sequencing technology and analysis methods, several model systems are emerging where the molecular targets of selection are being described. Here, we discuss recent studies on the genetics of sexually selected colour polymorphisms, aiming at (i) reviewing the evidence of sexual selection on colour polymorphisms, (ii) highlighting the genetic architecture, molecular and developmental basis underlying phenotypic colour diversification and (iii) discuss how the maintenance of such polymorphisms might be facilitated or constrained by these. Studies of the genetic architecture of colour polymorphism point towards the importance of tight clustering of colour loci with other trait loci, such as in the case of inversions and supergene structures. Other interesting findings include linkage between colour loci and mate preferences or sex determination, and the role of introgression and regulatory variation in fuelling polymorphisms. We highlight that more studies are needed that explicitly integrate fitness consequences of sexual selection on colour with the underlying molecular targets of colour to gain insights into the evolutionary consequences of sexual selection on polymorphism maintenance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Comparing complex fitness surfaces: among-population variation in mutual sexual selection in Drosophila serrata.

    PubMed

    Rundle, Howard D; Chenoweth, Stephen F; Blows, Mark W

    2008-04-01

    Despite a dramatic increase in empirical estimates of phenotypic selection over the past two decades, we remain remarkably ignorant about variation in the multivariate fitness surfaces that shape the adaptive landscape. We develop a novel approach for quantifying patterns of spatial and/or temporal variation in multivariate selection that directly compares vectors of linear selection gradients (beta) and matrices of nonlinear selection gradients (gamma) that describe the multivariate fitness surface in each population. We apply this approach to estimates of sexual selection on a suite of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) in males and females from nine geographic populations of Drosophila serrata. In males, variation in linear sexual selection was associated with the presence of the related species Drosophila birchii, suggesting that female mate preferences for male CHCs differ between sympatry and allopatry. This is consistent with previous experimental results suggesting that reproductive character displacement of male CHCs has resulted from selection caused by the presence of D. birchii. No significant associations were found for nonlinear sexual selection in males. In females, large-scale variation in both linear and nonlinear sexual selection was negatively associated with assumed-neutral population genetic structure, suggesting a key role for chance events in male mate preference divergence.

  17. Multivariate sexual selection on male tegmina in wild populations of sagebrush crickets, Cyphoderris strepitans (Orthoptera: Haglidae).

    PubMed

    Ower, G D; Hunt, J; Sakaluk, S K

    2017-02-01

    Although the strength and form of sexual selection on song in male crickets have been studied extensively, few studies have examined selection on the morphological structures that underlie variation in males' song, particularly in wild populations. Geometric morphometric techniques were used to measure sexual selection on the shape, size and symmetry of both top and bottom tegmina in wild populations of sagebrush crickets, a species in which nuptial feeding by females imposes an unambiguous phenotypic marker on males. The size of the tegmina negatively covaried with song dominant frequency and positively covaried with song pulse duration. Sexual selection was more intense on the bottom tegmen, conceivably because it interacts more freely with the subtegminal airspace, which may play a role in song amplification. An expanded coastal/subcostal region was one of the phenotypes strongly favoured by disruptive selection on the bottom tegmen, an adaptation that may form a more effective seal with the thorax to prevent noise cancellation. Directional selection also favoured increased symmetry in tegminal shape. Assuming more symmetrical males are better able to buffer against developmental noise, the song produced by these males may make them more attractive to females. Despite the strong stabilizing selection documented previously on the dominant frequency of the song, stabilizing selection on the resonator that regulates dominant frequency was surprisingly absent. Nonetheless, wing morphology had an important influence on song structure and appears to be subject to significant linear and nonlinear sexual selection through female mate choice.

  18. SIGNALING EFFICACY DRIVES THE EVOLUTION OF LARGER SEXUAL ORNAMENTS BY SEXUAL SELECTION

    PubMed Central

    Tazzyman, Samuel J; Iwasa, Yoh; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Why are there so few small secondary sexual characters? Theoretical models predict that sexual selection should lead to reduction as often as exaggeration, and yet we mainly associate secondary sexual ornaments with exaggerated features such as the peacock's tail. We review the literature on mate choice experiments for evidence of reduced sexual traits. This shows that reduced ornamentation is effectively impossible in certain types of ornamental traits (behavioral, pheromonal, or color-based traits, and morphological ornaments for which the natural selection optimum is no trait), but that there are many examples of morphological traits that would permit reduction. Yet small sexual traits are very rarely seen. We analyze a simple mathematical model of Fisher's runaway process (the null model for sexual selection). Our analysis shows that the imbalance cannot be wholly explained by larger ornaments being less costly than smaller ornaments, nor by preferences for larger ornaments being less costly than preferences for smaller ornaments. Instead, we suggest that asymmetry in signaling efficacy limits runaway to trait exaggeration. PMID:24099137

  19. Environmental origins of sexually selected variation and a critique of the fluctuating asymmetry-sexual selection hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Polak, Michal; Starmer, William T

    2005-03-01

    Identifying sources of phenotypic variability in secondary sexual traits is critical for understanding their signaling properties, role in sexual selection, and for predicting their evolutionary dynamics. The present study tests for the effects of genotype, developmental temperature, and their interaction, on size and fluctuating asymmetry of the male sex comb, a secondary sexual character, in Drosophila bipectinata Duda. Both the size and symmetry of elements of the sex comb have been shown previously to be under sexual selection in a natural population in northeastern Australia. Two independent reciprocal crosses were conducted at 25 degrees and 29 degrees C between genetic lines extracted from this population that differed in the size of the first (TC1) and third (TC3) comb segments. These temperatures are within the documented range experienced by the species in nature. Additive and dominance genetic effects were detected for TC1, whereas additive genetic, and Y-chromosomal effects were detected for TC3. TC2 and TC3 decreased sharply with increasing temperature, by 10% and 22%, respectively. In contrast, positional fluctuating asymmetry (PFA) significantly increased with temperature, by up to 38%. The results (1) document an important source of environmental variance in a sexual ornament expected to reduce trait heritability in field populations, and thus act to attenuate response to sexual selection, (2) suggest that variation in ornament size reflects differences in male condition; and (3) support the general hypothesis that asymmetry in a sexual ornament is indicative of developmental instability arising from environmental stress. The "environmental heterogeneity" (EH) hypothesis is proposed, and supportive evidence for it presented, to explain negative size-FA correlations in natural populations. Data and theory challenge the use of negative size-FA correlations observed in nature to support the FA-sexual selection hypothesis, which posits that such

  20. Sexual selection of male parental care in giant water bugs.

    PubMed

    Ohba, Shin-Ya; Okuda, Noboru; Kudo, Shin-Ichi

    2016-05-01

    Paternal care can be maintained under sexual selection, if it helps in attracting more mates. We tested the hypothesis in two giant water bug species, Appasus major and Appasus japonicus, that male parental care is sexually selected through female preference for caring males. Females were given an opportunity to choose between two males. In the first test of female mate choice, one male carried eggs on its back, while the other did not. The egg status was switched between these two males in the second test. The experiment revealed that females of both species preferred caring males (i.e. egg-bearing) to non-caring males. Nonetheless, the female mate preference for egg-bearing males was stronger in A. major than in A. japonicus. Our results suggest that sexual selection plays an important role in maintaining elaborate paternal care in giant water bugs, but the importance of egg-bearing by males in female mate choice varies among species.

  1. Sexual selection by cryptic female choice on male seminal products - a new bridge between sexual selection and reproductive physiology.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, W G; Cordero, C

    1995-12-01

    Selection clearly focuses on differences in reproduction, but studies of reproductive physiology generally have been carried out in a near vacuum of modern evolutionary theory. This lack of contact between the two fields may be about to change. New ideas indicate that sexual selection by cryptic female choice has affected the evolution of products in male semen that influence female reproductive behavior and physiology.

  2. Sexually antagonistic selection on genetic variation underlying both male and female same-sex sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Berger, David; You, Tao; Minano, Maravillas R; Grieshop, Karl; Lind, Martin I; Arnqvist, Göran; Maklakov, Alexei A

    2016-05-13

    Intralocus sexual conflict, arising from selection for different alleles at the same locus in males and females, imposes a constraint on sex-specific adaptation. Intralocus sexual conflict can be alleviated by the evolution of sex-limited genetic architectures and phenotypic expression, but pleiotropic constraints may hinder this process. Here, we explored putative intralocus sexual conflict and genetic (co)variance in a poorly understood behavior with near male-limited expression. Same-sex sexual behaviors (SSBs) generally do not conform to classic evolutionary models of adaptation but are common in male animals and have been hypothesized to result from perception errors and selection for high male mating rates. However, perspectives incorporating sex-specific selection on genes shared by males and females to explain the expression and evolution of SSBs have largely been neglected. We performed two parallel sex-limited artificial selection experiments on SSB in male and female seed beetles, followed by sex-specific assays of locomotor activity and male sex recognition (two traits hypothesized to be functionally related to SSB) and adult reproductive success (allowing us to assess fitness consequences of genetic variance in SSB and its correlated components). Our experiments reveal both shared and sex-limited genetic variance for SSB. Strikingly, genetically correlated responses in locomotor activity and male sex-recognition were associated with sexually antagonistic fitness effects, but these effects differed qualitatively between male and female selection lines, implicating intralocus sexual conflict at both male- and female-specific genetic components underlying SSB. Our study provides experimental support for the hypothesis that widespread pleiotropy generates pervasive intralocus sexual conflict governing the expression of SSBs, suggesting that SSB in one sex can occur due to the expression of genes that carry benefits in the other sex.

  3. Darwin and sexual selection: One hundred years of misunderstanding.

    PubMed

    Veuille, Michel

    2010-02-01

    Darwin's book on the Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex (1871) is often viewed as the continuation of The Origin of Species published 12 years earlier (1859), both because of the implicit parallelism between natural selection and sexual selection, and because Darwin himself presents the book as developing a subject (man) which he intentionally omitted in the Origin. But the Descent can also be viewed as the continuation of his book on Variation published three years earlier (1868). Firstly because Darwin's hypothesis of pangenesis links the selection process to the origin of variation through use and disuse, an idea underlying his speculations on the origin of moral sense in humans. Second because like the action of the horticulturist on his domestic crops, sexual selection exerted by one sex on the other sex can develop fancy traits that are not easily accounted for by their utility to the selected organism itself, such as artistic taste, pride, courage, and the morphological differences between human populations. These traits are difficult to reconcile with pangenesis. They add up to other contradictions of the book possibly resulting from Darwin's erroneous inference about the mechanism of inheritance, like those on the determination of sex-ratio, or the confusion between individual adaptation and the advantage to the species. These inconsistencies inaugurate a weakening of the Darwinian message, which will last 50 years after his death. They contributed to the neglect of sexual selection for a century. Darwin however maintained a logical distinction between evolutionary mechanisms and hereditary mechanisms, and an epistemological distinction between evolutionary theory and Pangenesis hypothesis. In the modern context of Mendelian genetics, Darwin's sexual selection retrospectively appears as luminous an idea in its pure principle as natural selection, even though the mechanisms governing the evolution of sexual choice in animals remain largely

  4. Selective sexual orientation-related differences in object location memory.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Bano; Rahman, Qazi

    2007-06-01

    The present study examined sexual orientation-related differences in object location memory by using 3 object arrays (testing object exchange, object shift, and novel objects conditions) and 1 metric positional memory array. Heterosexual women and homosexual men significantly outperformed heterosexual men in all 3 object arrays. However, there were no group differences in metric positional memory. Heterosexual males expectedly outperformed the other groups in spatial perception (Judgment of Line Orientation; A. L. Benton, K. D. Hamsher, N. R. Varney, & O. Spreen, 1983). Regression modeling revealed that sexual orientation and spatial perception predicted object exchange performance, whereas recalled childhood gender nonconformity, a robust developmental marker of adult sexual orientation, predicted object shift and novel object performance alone. A measure ascribed to the actions of prenatal androgens, the 2nd to 4th finger length ratio, did not predict object location memory. These data may limit possible developmental pathways for sexual variation in selective forms of spatial memory.

  5. NATURAL SELECTION AND SEXUAL SIZE DIMORPHISM IN RED-WINGED BLACKBIRDS.

    PubMed

    Weatherhead, Patrick J; Clark, Robert G

    1994-08-01

    Patterns of overwinter mortality in the sexually dimorphic red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) were examined to test the predictions of the sexual-selection hypothesis that male size is limited by directional selection favoring small males and that female size is maintained by stabilizing selection wherein extreme phenotypes experience higher mortality. Museum specimens collected from Ontario over a 95-yr period were used to compare the sizes of males and females collected in fall and spring. In a separate field study, body sizes of returning and nonreturning male and female red-winged blackbirds were compared over a 6-yr period. Overall, there was no evidence of higher overwinter mortality among larger males. Among adult (ASY) males, large individuals appeared to have higher survival than small individuals, although among subadult (SY) males, large size may have been disadvantageous. Weak evidence of stabilizing selection on female body size was found. Among adults, sexual size dimorphism seemed more pronounced after winter than before winter. Our results do not support the hypothesis that body size in male red-winged blackbirds is limited by selective mortality outside the breeding season. It is possible that size selection occurs earlier in life, when males are still in the nest. Our results suggest that caution should be exercised when interpreting interspecific evidence showing higher adult male than female mortality in sexually dimorphic species. Such patterns could arise as a cost to males of sexual selection and yet provide no insight into how natural selection opposes sexual selection for increased male size. © 1994 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. The androgen receptor and prostate cancer: a role for sexual selection and sexual conflict?

    PubMed

    Summers, Kyle; Crespi, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    We propose and evaluate the hypothesis that the CAG repeat region of the androgen receptor represents a locus of antagonistic pleiotropy in the context of sexual selection and sexual conflict. Short repeats are associated with increased transactivation of the androgen receptor at the molecular level, and increased fertility at the phenotypic level. However, short repeats are also associated with increased risk of prostate cancer, and with more aggressive forms of the disease. The somatic evolution of cancer cell lineages also shows a repeated pattern of shortening of the CAG repeat in association with cancer progression, apparently as a result of positive selection among cell lineages. We further postulate that other genes associated with prostate cancer are likely to mediate antagonistic pleiotropy in the context of sexual selection and sexual conflict. A key prediction of this hypothesis is that the genes mediating antagonistic pleiotropy will show historical evidence of positive selection, particularly in the context of sexual conflict. Previous research on the molecular evolution of specific genes associated with prostate cancer supports this prediction, and we suggest further critical tests of the role for genomic conflicts and tradeoffs in the evolution of cancer risk.

  7. Sexual selection and the evolution of genital shape and complexity in water striders.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Locke; Arnqvist, Göran

    2012-01-01

    Animal genitalia show two striking but incompletely understood evolutionary trends: a great evolutionary divergence in the shape of genitalic structures, and characteristic structural complexity. Both features are thought to result from sexual selection, but explicit comparative tests are hampered by the fact that it is difficult to quantify both morphological complexity and divergence in shape. We undertake a comparative study of multiple nongenitalic and male genital traits in a clade of 15 water strider species to quantify complexity and shape divergence. We show that genital structures are more complex and their shape more divergent among species than nongenital traits. Further, intromittent genital traits are more complex and have evolved more divergently than nonintromittent genital traits. More importantly, shape and complexity of nonintromittent genital traits show correlated evolution with indices of premating sexual selection and intromittent genital traits with postmating sexual selection, suggesting that the evolution of different components of genital morphology are shaped independently by distinct forms of sexual selection. Our quantitative results provide direct comparative support for the hypothesis that sexual selection is associated with morphological complexity in genitalic traits and highlight the importance of quantifying morphological shape and complexity, rather than size in studies of genital evolution. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution © 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. Novel host plant leads to the loss of sexual dimorphism in a sexually selected male weapon.

    PubMed

    Allen, Pablo E; Miller, Christine W

    2017-08-16

    In this time of massive global change, species are now frequently interacting with novel players. Greater insight into the impact of these novel interactions on traits linked to fitness is essential, because effects on these traits can hinder population existence or promote rapid adaptation. Sexually selected weapons and ornaments frequently influence fitness and often have heightened condition-dependence in response to nutrition. Condition-dependence in response to different ecological conditions, a form of developmental plasticity, may be responsible for much of the intraspecific variation in sexually selected ornaments and weapons in wild populations. Here we examined the consequences of developing on a novel plant for the expression of size and shape in the leaf-footed cactus bug Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae). The males of this species possess enlarged, sexually dimorphic femurs on their hind legs. These legs are used as weapons in male-male contests. Females are typically larger in overall body size. Our study revealed that developing upon a novel host can lead to pronounced phenotypically plastic change in sexually dimorphic traits. Male hind femurs were greatly impacted by the novel diet to the extent that the sexual dimorphism in hind femurs was lost. Further, dimorphism in body size increased, as males became tiny adults while females better maintained their body size. These patterns underscore the complex effects that novel species interactions may have on sexual phenotypes. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Sexual partner selectiveness effects on homosexual HIV transmission dynamics.

    PubMed

    Koopman, J; Simon, C; Jacquez, J; Joseph, J; Sattenspiel, L; Park, T

    1988-01-01

    Deterministic simulation models are used to show that HIV transmission dynamics in homosexual populations can be strongly affected by sexual partner selectiveness. The type of selectiveness or biased mixing examined is where individuals with similar new partnership formation rates are more likely to form a pair than would be expected by chance. The effect of such selectiveness could be strong even when the total number and distribution of new sexual partnerships and sex acts remains constant. This means that in order to predict the future course of HIV transmission and identify the populations at highest risk, we must have information not only on the frequency of new sexual partnerships and types of sex acts, but also on who has sex with whom. Given high sexual partner selectiveness, some groups of homosexuals with low rates of sex and new sex partners would take many decades before a single introduction would generate an epidemic. Epidemics in these groups can be markedly accelerated by only modest contact with higher risk groups. Even in very low activity groups, which if isolated would have no epidemic, an important proportion of their members can be infected when they are not selective. The relative risks of AIDS in groups making high numbers of new sexual partnerships compared to groups making low numbers are markedly affected by sexual partner selectiveness. The models developed were examined using information collected in 1984 from the Coping and Change Study in collaboration with the Chicago Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. This population was divided into activity groups by the rate at which individuals established new sexual partnerships and then a structure of new sexual partnerships between these activity groups was defined consistent with available data. Even without introducing any behavior change in the models, the proportion of the homosexual population infected was seen to level off temporarily at around 50% after several years as a consequence of

  10. Inbreeding depression and genetic load of sexually selected traits: how the guppy lost its spots.

    PubMed

    van Oosterhout, C; Trigg, R E; Carvalho, G R; Magurran, A E; Hauser, L; Shaw, P W

    2003-03-01

    To date, few studies have investigated the effects of inbreeding on sexually selected traits, although inbreeding depression on such traits can play an important role in the evolution and ecology of wild populations. Sexually selected traits such as ornamentation and courtship behaviour may not be primary fitness characters, but selection and dominance coefficients of their mutations will resemble those of traits under natural selection. Strong directional selection, for instance, through female mate-choice, purges all but the most recessive deleterious mutations, and the remaining dominance variation will result in inbreeding depression once populations undergo bottlenecks. We analysed the effects of inbreeding on sexually selected traits (colour pattern and courtship behaviour) in the male guppy, Poecilia reticulata, from Trinidad, and found a significant decline in the frequency of mating behaviour and colour spots. Such effects occurred although the genetic basis of these traits, many of which are Y-linked and hemizygous, would be expected to leave relatively little scope for inbreeding depression. Findings suggest that these sexually selected traits could reflect the genetic condition or health of males, and thus may be informative mate-cue characters for female choice as suggested by the 'good genes' model.

  11. The spatial patterns of directional phenotypic selection.

    PubMed

    Siepielski, Adam M; Gotanda, Kiyoko M; Morrissey, Michael B; Diamond, Sarah E; DiBattista, Joseph D; Carlson, Stephanie M

    2013-11-01

    Local adaptation, adaptive population divergence and speciation are often expected to result from populations evolving in response to spatial variation in selection. Yet, we lack a comprehensive understanding of the major features that characterise the spatial patterns of selection, namely the extent of variation among populations in the strength and direction of selection. Here, we analyse a data set of spatially replicated studies of directional phenotypic selection from natural populations. The data set includes 60 studies, consisting of 3937 estimates of selection across an average of five populations. We performed meta-analyses to explore features characterising spatial variation in directional selection. We found that selection tends to vary mainly in strength and less in direction among populations. Although differences in the direction of selection occur among populations they do so where selection is often weakest, which may limit the potential for ongoing adaptive population divergence. Overall, we also found that spatial variation in selection appears comparable to temporal (annual) variation in selection within populations; however, several deficiencies in available data currently complicate this comparison. We discuss future research needs to further advance our understanding of spatial variation in selection.

  12. Student-Initiated Sexual Health Selective as a Curricular Tool

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Katie; Rullo, Jordan; Faubion, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Patients’ sexual health functioning is important for physicians in all fields of medicine to consider; however, this topic is lacking from almost half of U.S. medical school curricula. Aims This study aims to develop, implement, and assess the feasibility of a preliminary sexual health curriculum for medical students. Methods This Sexual Health Selective (SHS) was developed and implemented by a student and faculty champion for first year medical students. Its design incorporated a number of the guiding principles and recommendations from the 2012 Summit on Medical School Education in Sexual Health. Main Outcome Measures Feasibility was measured by limited-efficacy testing and participant acceptability of the SHS. Limited-efficacy testing was accomplished by conducting descriptive comparisons of responses to a sexual health attitudes and knowledge survey. These responses were compared between (i) participants vs. nonparticipants prior to the SHS, (ii) participants immediately after vs. participants prior to the SHS, (iii) participants 3 months after vs. participants prior to the SHS, and (iv) participants 3 months after vs. participants immediately after the SHS. Participant acceptability was assessed by asking qualitatively and quantitatively whether students enjoyed the SHS, found it beneficial to their learning, and would recommend it to their classmates. Results Immediately after the SHS and 3 months later, participants reported increased comfort and open-mindedness in their attitudes toward sexual health and demonstrated an increase in accurate knowledge about sexual health issues compared with baseline. Objective follow-up also revealed that most participants enjoyed the SHS, found it beneficial to their learning, and would recommend it to their classmates. Conclusions The 1-week SHS was successfully implemented through the teamwork of a medical student and faculty champion. It resulted in more accurate knowledge and more open attitudes toward

  13. Sexual selection on receptor organ traits: younger females attract males with longer antennae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Tamara L.; Symonds, Matthew R. E.; Elgar, Mark A.

    2017-06-01

    Sexual selection theory predicts that female choice may favour the evolution of elaborate male signals. Darwin also suggested that sexual selection can favour elaborate receiver structures in order to better detect sexual signals, an idea that has been largely ignored. We evaluated this unorthodox perspective by documenting the antennal lengths of male Uraba lugens Walker (Lepidoptera: Nolidae) moths that were attracted to experimentally manipulated emissions of female sex pheromone. Either one or two females were placed in field traps for the duration of their adult lives in order to create differences in the quantity of pheromone emissions from the traps. The mean antennal length of males attracted to field traps baited with a single female was longer than that of males attracted to traps baited with two females, a pattern consistent with Darwin's prediction assuming the latter emits higher pheromone concentrations. Furthermore, younger females attracted males with longer antennae, which may reflect age-specific changes in pheromone emission. These field experiments provide the first direct evidence of an unappreciated role for sexual selection in the evolution of sexual dimorphism in moth antennae and raise the intriguing possibility that females select males with longer antennae through strategic emission of pheromones.

  14. Sexual selection on receptor organ traits: younger females attract males with longer antennae.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Tamara L; Symonds, Matthew R E; Elgar, Mark A

    2017-06-01

    Sexual selection theory predicts that female choice may favour the evolution of elaborate male signals. Darwin also suggested that sexual selection can favour elaborate receiver structures in order to better detect sexual signals, an idea that has been largely ignored. We evaluated this unorthodox perspective by documenting the antennal lengths of male Uraba lugens Walker (Lepidoptera: Nolidae) moths that were attracted to experimentally manipulated emissions of female sex pheromone. Either one or two females were placed in field traps for the duration of their adult lives in order to create differences in the quantity of pheromone emissions from the traps. The mean antennal length of males attracted to field traps baited with a single female was longer than that of males attracted to traps baited with two females, a pattern consistent with Darwin's prediction assuming the latter emits higher pheromone concentrations. Furthermore, younger females attracted males with longer antennae, which may reflect age-specific changes in pheromone emission. These field experiments provide the first direct evidence of an unappreciated role for sexual selection in the evolution of sexual dimorphism in moth antennae and raise the intriguing possibility that females select males with longer antennae through strategic emission of pheromones.

  15. Male Mating Success: Preference or Prowess? Investigating Sexual Selection in the Laboratory Using "Drosophila melanogaster"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Seth; Jensen, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Sexual selection is the primary force affecting the evolution of the elaborate sexual displays common in animals, yet sexual selection experiments are largely absent from introductory biology laboratories. Here we describe the rationale, methodology, and results of several experiments using "Drosophila melanogaster" to demonstrate sexual selection…

  16. Male Mating Success: Preference or Prowess? Investigating Sexual Selection in the Laboratory Using "Drosophila melanogaster"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Seth; Jensen, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Sexual selection is the primary force affecting the evolution of the elaborate sexual displays common in animals, yet sexual selection experiments are largely absent from introductory biology laboratories. Here we describe the rationale, methodology, and results of several experiments using "Drosophila melanogaster" to demonstrate sexual selection…

  17. Sexual selection on cuticular hydrocarbons in the Australian field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Melissa L; Simmons, Leigh W

    2009-01-01

    Background Females in a wide range of taxa have been shown to base their choice of mates on pheromone signals. However, little research has focussed specifically on the form and intensity of selection that mate choice imposes on the pheromone signal. Using multivariate selection analysis, we characterise directly the form and intensity of sexual selection acting on cuticular hydrocarbons, chemical compounds widely used in the selection of mates in insects. Using the Australian field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus as a model organism, we use three measures of male attractiveness to estimate fitness; mating success, the duration of courtship required to elicit copulation, and subsequent spermatophore attachment duration. Results We found that all three measures of male attractiveness generated sexual selection on male cuticular hydrocarbons, however there were differences in the form and intensity of selection among these three measures. Mating success was the only measure of attractiveness that imposed both univariate linear and quadratic selection on cuticular hydrocarbons. Although we found that all three attractiveness measures generated nonlinear selection, again only mating success was found to exert statistically significant stabilizing selection. Conclusion This study shows that sexual selection plays an important role in the evolution of male cuticular hydrocarbon signals. PMID:19594896

  18. Divergent sexual selection via male competition: ecology is key.

    PubMed

    Lackey, A C R; Boughman, J W

    2013-08-01

    Sexual selection and ecological differences are important drivers of speciation. Much research has focused on female choice, yet the role of male competition in ecological speciation has been understudied. Here, we test how mating habitats impact sexual selection and speciation through male competition. Using limnetic and benthic species of threespine stickleback fish, we find that different mating habitats select differently on male traits through male competition. In mixed habitat with both vegetated and open areas, selection favours two trait combinations of male body size and nuptial colour: large with little colour and small with lots of colour. This matches what we see in reproductively isolated stickleback species, suggesting male competition could promote trait divergence and reproductive isolation. In contrast, when only open habitat exists, selection favours one trait combination, large with lots of colour, which would hinder trait divergence and reproductive isolation. Other behavioural mechanisms in male competition that might promote divergence, such as avoiding aggression with heterospecifics, are insufficient to maintain separate species. This work highlights the importance of mating habitats in male competition for both sexual selection and speciation.

  19. Postcopulatory fertilization bias as a form of cryptic sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Calsbeek, Ryan; Bonneaud, Camille

    2008-05-01

    Males and females share most of their genetic material yet often experience very different selection pressures. Some traits that are adaptive when expressed in males may therefore be maladaptive when expressed in females. Recent studies demonstrating negative correlations in fitness between parents and their opposite-sex progeny suggest that natural selection may favor a reduction in trait correlations between the sexes to partially mitigate intralocus sexual conflict. We studied sex-specific forms of selection acting in Anolis lizards in the Greater Antilles, a group for which the importance of natural selection has been well documented in species-level diversification, but for which less is known about sexual selection. Using the brown anole (Anolis sagrei), we measured fitness-related variation in morphology (body size), and variation in two traits reflecting whole animal physiological condition: running endurance and immune function. Correlations between body size and physiological traits were opposite between males and females and the form of natural selection acting on physiological traits significantly differed between the sexes. Moreover, physiological traits in progeny were correlated with the body-size of their sires, but correlations were null or even negative between parents and their opposite-sex progeny. Although results based on phenotypic and genetic correlations, as well as the action of natural selection, suggest the potential for intralocus sexual conflict, females used sire body size as a cue to sort sperm for the production of either sons or daughters. Our results suggest that intralocus sexual conflict may be at least partly resolved through post-copulatory sperm choice in A. sagrei.

  20. Cultural sexual selection in monogamous human populations

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In humans, both sexes sometimes show peculiar mating preferences that do not appear to increase their fitness either directly or indirectly. As humans may transmit their preferences and target culturally, and these may be artificially modifiable, I develop theoretical models where a preference and/or a trait are culturally transmitted with a restriction of the trait modification. I assume a monogamous population where some individuals fail to find a mate, and this affects the preference and the trait in the next time step. I show that a strong aversion to, or high tolerance of, failed individuals are necessary for the evolution of irrational preferences that neither seek good genes nor any direct benefit. This evolution is more likely to occur when the preference and/or the trait are cultural rather than genetic. These results may partly explain why humans sometimes show mating preferences for exaggerated physical and cultural traits. PMID:28680657

  1. Contributions of natural and sexual selection to the evolution of premating reproductive isolation: a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Safran, Rebecca J; Scordato, Elizabeth S C; Symes, Laurel B; Rodríguez, Rafael L; Mendelson, Tamra C

    2013-11-01

    Speciation by divergent natural selection is well supported. However, the role of sexual selection in speciation is less well understood due to disagreement about whether sexual selection is a mechanism of evolution separate from natural selection, as well as confusion about various models and tests of sexual selection. Here, we outline how sexual selection and natural selection are different mechanisms of evolutionary change, and suggest that this distinction is critical when analyzing the role of sexual selection in speciation. Furthermore, we clarify models of sexual selection with respect to their interaction with ecology and natural selection. In doing so, we outline a research agenda for testing hypotheses about the relative significance of divergent sexual and natural selection in the evolution of reproductive isolation.

  2. Natural and sexual selection in a monogamous historical human population.

    PubMed

    Courtiol, Alexandre; Pettay, Jenni E; Jokela, Markus; Rotkirch, Anna; Lummaa, Virpi

    2012-05-22

    Whether and how human populations exposed to the agricultural revolution are still affected by Darwinian selection remains controversial among social scientists, biologists, and the general public. Although methods of studying selection in natural populations are well established, our understanding of selection in humans has been limited by the availability of suitable datasets. Here, we present a study comparing the maximum strengths of natural and sexual selection in humans that includes the effects of sex and wealth on different episodes of selection. Our dataset was compiled from church records of preindustrial Finnish populations characterized by socially imposed monogamy, and it contains a complete distribution of survival, mating, and reproductive success for 5,923 individuals born 1760-1849. Individual differences in early survival and fertility (natural selection) were responsible for most variation in fitness, even among wealthier individuals. Variance in mating success explained most of the higher variance in reproductive success in males compared with females, but mating success also influenced reproductive success in females, allowing for sexual selection to operate in both sexes. The detected opportunity for selection is in line with measurements for other species but higher than most previous reports for human samples. This disparity results from biological, demographic, economic, and social differences across populations as well as from failures by most previous studies to account for variation in fitness introduced by nonreproductive individuals. Our results emphasize that the demographic, cultural, and technological changes of the last 10,000 y did not preclude the potential for natural and sexual selection in our species.

  3. Natural and sexual selection in a monogamous historical human population

    PubMed Central

    Courtiol, Alexandre; Pettay, Jenni E.; Jokela, Markus; Rotkirch, Anna; Lummaa, Virpi

    2012-01-01

    Whether and how human populations exposed to the agricultural revolution are still affected by Darwinian selection remains controversial among social scientists, biologists, and the general public. Although methods of studying selection in natural populations are well established, our understanding of selection in humans has been limited by the availability of suitable datasets. Here, we present a study comparing the maximum strengths of natural and sexual selection in humans that includes the effects of sex and wealth on different episodes of selection. Our dataset was compiled from church records of preindustrial Finnish populations characterized by socially imposed monogamy, and it contains a complete distribution of survival, mating, and reproductive success for 5,923 individuals born 1760–1849. Individual differences in early survival and fertility (natural selection) were responsible for most variation in fitness, even among wealthier individuals. Variance in mating success explained most of the higher variance in reproductive success in males compared with females, but mating success also influenced reproductive success in females, allowing for sexual selection to operate in both sexes. The detected opportunity for selection is in line with measurements for other species but higher than most previous reports for human samples. This disparity results from biological, demographic, economic, and social differences across populations as well as from failures by most previous studies to account for variation in fitness introduced by nonreproductive individuals. Our results emphasize that the demographic, cultural, and technological changes of the last 10,000 y did not preclude the potential for natural and sexual selection in our species. PMID:22547810

  4. Nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators enhance female sexual motivation.

    PubMed

    Jones, Amanda; Hwang, Dong Jin; Duke, Charles B; He, Yali; Siddam, Anjaiah; Miller, Duane D; Dalton, James T

    2010-08-01

    Women experience a decline in estrogen and androgen levels after natural or surgically induced menopause, effects that are associated with a loss of sexual desire and bone mineral density. Studies in our laboratories have shown the beneficial effects of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) in the treatment of osteoporosis and muscle wasting in animal models. A series of S-3-(phenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(4-cyano-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-propionamide analogs was synthesized to evaluate the effects of B-ring substitutions on in vitro and in vivo pharmacologic activity, especially female sexual motivation. The androgen receptor (AR) relative binding affinities ranged from 0.1 to 26.5% (relative to dihydrotestosterone) and demonstrated a range of agonist activity at 100 nM. In vivo pharmacologic activity was first assessed by using male rats. Structural modifications to the B-ring significantly affected the selectivity of the SARMs, demonstrating that single-atom substitutions can dramatically and unexpectedly influence activity in androgenic (i.e., prostate) and anabolic (i.e., muscle) tissues. (S)-N-(4-cyano-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-3-(3-fluoro,4-chlorophenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-propanamide (S-23) displayed full agonist activity in androgenic and anabolic tissues; however, the remaining SARMs were more prostate-sparing, selectively maintaining the size of the levator ani muscle in castrated rats. The partner-preference paradigm was used to evaluate the effects of SARMs on female sexual motivation. With the exception of two four-halo substituted analogs, the SARMs increased sexual motivation in ovariectomized rats, with potency and efficacy comparable with testosterone propionate. These results indicate that the AR is important in regulating female libido given the nonaromatizable nature of SARMs and it could be a superior alternative to steroidal testosterone preparations in the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

  5. Nonsteroidal Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators Enhance Female Sexual Motivation

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Amanda; Hwang, Dong Jin; Duke, Charles B.; He, Yali; Siddam, Anjaiah; Miller, Duane D.

    2010-01-01

    Women experience a decline in estrogen and androgen levels after natural or surgically induced menopause, effects that are associated with a loss of sexual desire and bone mineral density. Studies in our laboratories have shown the beneficial effects of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) in the treatment of osteoporosis and muscle wasting in animal models. A series of S-3-(phenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(4-cyano-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-propionamide analogs was synthesized to evaluate the effects of B-ring substitutions on in vitro and in vivo pharmacologic activity, especially female sexual motivation. The androgen receptor (AR) relative binding affinities ranged from 0.1 to 26.5% (relative to dihydrotestosterone) and demonstrated a range of agonist activity at 100 nM. In vivo pharmacologic activity was first assessed by using male rats. Structural modifications to the B-ring significantly affected the selectivity of the SARMs, demonstrating that single-atom substitutions can dramatically and unexpectedly influence activity in androgenic (i.e., prostate) and anabolic (i.e., muscle) tissues. (S)-N-(4-cyano-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-3-(3-fluoro,4-chlorophenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-propanamide (S-23) displayed full agonist activity in androgenic and anabolic tissues; however, the remaining SARMs were more prostate-sparing, selectively maintaining the size of the levator ani muscle in castrated rats. The partner-preference paradigm was used to evaluate the effects of SARMs on female sexual motivation. With the exception of two four-halo substituted analogs, the SARMs increased sexual motivation in ovariectomized rats, with potency and efficacy comparable with testosterone propionate. These results indicate that the AR is important in regulating female libido given the nonaromatizable nature of SARMs and it could be a superior alternative to steroidal testosterone preparations in the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder. PMID:20444881

  6. Sexual selection, redundancy and survival of the most beautiful.

    PubMed

    Morris, R D; Morris, J A

    2004-09-01

    A model is described of a highly redundant complex organism that has overlapping banks of genes such that each vital function is specified by several different genetic systems. This generates a synergistic profile linking probability of survival to the number of deleterious mutations in the genome. Computer models show that there is a dynamic interaction between the mean number of new deleterious mutations per generation (X), the mean number of deleterious mutations in the genome of the population (Y) and percentage zygote survival (Zs). Increased X leads to increased Y and a fall in Zs but it takes several generations before a new equilibrium is reached. If sexual attraction is influenced by the number of deleterious mutations in the genome of individuals then Y is reduced and Zs increased for any given value of X. This fall in Y and rise in Zs is more marked in polygamous than monogamous mating systems. The model is specified such that deleterious mutations can occur without any observable or measurable effect on function. Thus sexual selection, in this organism, for low levels of deleterious mutations cannot be based on assessment of performance. Instead it is based on a simple symmetrical surface pattern that is flawlessly reproduced by organisms with no deleterious mutations, but is less than perfect, and therefore less attractive, if genetic systems have been deleted. A complex vital task requires a system with a high level of redundancy that acts so that the loss of one component has no observable effect and therefore cannot be used for sexual selection. The reproduction of a beautiful surface pattern also requires a low error, high redundancy genetic system; however, in this case there is advantage if a single deleterious mutation produces a recognisable change. This leads to the conclusion that sexual selection and sexual attraction should be based on beauty rather than utility, and explains the common observation in nature that it is the most beautiful

  7. Sexually selected skin colour is heritable and related to fecundity in a non-human primate

    PubMed Central

    Dubuc, Constance; Winters, Sandra; Allen, William L.; Brent, Lauren J. N.; Cascio, Julie; Maestripieri, Dario; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina V.; Widdig, Anja; Higham, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual selection promotes the prevalence of heritable traits that increase an individual's reproductive rate. Despite theoretically strong directional selection, sexually selected traits can show inter-individual variation. Here, we investigate whether red skin ornamentation, a rare example of a male mammalian trait involved in mate attraction, influences fecundity and is heritable in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and explore the mechanisms that are involved in maintaining trait variation. Interestingly, the trait is expressed by and is attractive to both sexes. We collected facial images of 266 free-ranging individuals and modelled skin redness and darkness to rhesus macaque vision. We used 20 years of genetic parentage data to calculate selection gradients on the trait and perform heritability analyses. Results show that males who were both darkly coloured and high-ranking enjoyed higher fecundity. Female skin redness was positively linked to fecundity, although it remains unclear whether this influences male selectiveness. Heritability explained 10–15% of the variation in redness and darkness, and up to 30% for skin darkness when sexes are considered separately, suggesting sex-influenced inheritance. Our results suggest that inter-individual variation is maintained through condition-dependence, with an added effect of balancing selection on male skin darkness, providing rare evidence for a mammalian trait selected through inter-sexual selection. PMID:25253459

  8. Postcopulatory sexual selection influences baculum evolution in primates and carnivores

    PubMed Central

    Brindle, Matilda

    2016-01-01

    The extreme morphological variability of the baculum across mammals is thought to be the result of sexual selection (particularly, high levels of postcopulatory selection). However, the evolutionary trajectory of the mammalian baculum is little studied and evidence for the adaptive function of the baculum has so far been elusive. Here, we use Markov chain Monte Carlo methods implemented in a Bayesian phylogenetic framework to reconstruct baculum evolution across the mammalian class and investigate the rate of baculum length evolution within the primate order. We then test the effects of testes mass (postcopulatory sexual selection), polygamy, seasonal breeding and intromission duration on the baculum in primates and carnivores. The ancestral mammal did not have a baculum, but both ancestral primates and carnivores did. No relationship was found between testes mass and baculum length in either primates or carnivores. Intromission duration correlated with baculum presence over the course of primate evolution, and prolonged intromission predicts significantly longer bacula in extant primates and carnivores. Both polygamous and seasonal breeding systems predict significantly longer bacula in primates. These results suggest the baculum plays an important role in facilitating reproductive strategies in populations with high levels of postcopulatory sexual selection. PMID:27974519

  9. Sexual selection is influenced by both developmental and adult environments.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Stephanie R; Scarlett Tudor, M; Moore, Allen J; Miller, Christine W

    2014-12-01

    Sexual selection is often assumed to be strong and consistent, yet increasing research shows it can fluctuate over space and time. Few experimental studies have examined changes in sexual selection in response to natural environmental variation. Here, we use a difference in resource quality to test for the influence of past environmental conditions and current environmental conditions on male and female mate choice and resulting selection gradients for leaf-footed cactus bugs, Narnia femorata. We raised juveniles on natural high- and low-quality diets, cactus pads with and without ripe cactus fruits. New adults were again assigned a cactus pad with or without fruit, paired with a potential mate, and observed for mating behaviors. We found developmental and adult encounter environments affected mating decisions and the resulting patterns of sexual selection for both males and females. Males were not choosy in the low-quality encounter environment, cactus without fruit, but they avoided mating with small females in the high-quality encounter environment. Females were choosy in both encounter environments, avoiding mating with small males. However, they were the choosiest when they were in the low-quality encounter environment. Female mate choice was also context dependent by male developmental environment. Females were more likely to mate with males that had developed on cactus with fruit when they were currently in the cactus with fruit environment. This pattern disappeared when females were in the cactus without fruit environment. Altogether, these results experimentally demonstrate context-dependent mate choice by both males and females. Furthermore, we demonstrate that simple, seasonal changes in resources can lead to fluctuations in sexual selection.

  10. How multiple mating by females affects sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Shuster, Stephen M; Briggs, William R; Dennis, Patricia A

    2013-03-05

    Multiple mating by females is widely thought to encourage post-mating sexual selection and enhance female fitness. We show that whether polyandrous mating has these effects depends on two conditions. Condition 1 is the pattern of sperm utilization by females; specifically, whether, among females, male mating number, m (i.e. the number of times a male mates with one or more females) covaries with male offspring number, o. Polyandrous mating enhances sexual selection only when males who are successful at multiple mating also sire most or all of each of their mates' offspring, i.e. only when Cov(♂)(m,o), is positive. Condition 2 is the pattern of female reproductive life-history; specifically, whether female mating number, m, covaries with female offspring number, o. Only semelparity does not erode sexual selection, whereas iteroparity (i.e. when Cov(♀)(m,o), is positive) always increases the variance in offspring numbers among females, which always decreases the intensity of sexual selection on males. To document the covariance between mating number and offspring number for each sex, it is necessary to assign progeny to all parents, as well as identify mating and non-mating individuals. To document significant fitness gains by females through iteroparity, it is necessary to determine the relative magnitudes of male as well as female contributions to the total variance in relative fitness. We show how such data can be collected, how often they are collected, and we explain the circumstances in which selection favouring multiple mating by females can be strong or weak.

  11. How multiple mating by females affects sexual selection

    PubMed Central

    Shuster, Stephen M.; Briggs, William R.; Dennis, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple mating by females is widely thought to encourage post-mating sexual selection and enhance female fitness. We show that whether polyandrous mating has these effects depends on two conditions. Condition 1 is the pattern of sperm utilization by females; specifically, whether, among females, male mating number, m (i.e. the number of times a male mates with one or more females) covaries with male offspring number, o. Polyandrous mating enhances sexual selection only when males who are successful at multiple mating also sire most or all of each of their mates' offspring, i.e. only when Cov♂(m,o), is positive. Condition 2 is the pattern of female reproductive life-history; specifically, whether female mating number, m, covaries with female offspring number, o. Only semelparity does not erode sexual selection, whereas iteroparity (i.e. when Cov♀(m,o), is positive) always increases the variance in offspring numbers among females, which always decreases the intensity of sexual selection on males. To document the covariance between mating number and offspring number for each sex, it is necessary to assign progeny to all parents, as well as identify mating and non-mating individuals. To document significant fitness gains by females through iteroparity, it is necessary to determine the relative magnitudes of male as well as female contributions to the total variance in relative fitness. We show how such data can be collected, how often they are collected, and we explain the circumstances in which selection favouring multiple mating by females can be strong or weak. PMID:23339237

  12. Using theories of sexual selection and sexual conflict to improve our understanding of plant ecology and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Lankinen, Åsa; Karlsson Green, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Today it is accepted that the theories of sexual selection and sexual conflict are general and can be applied to both animals and plants. However, potentially due to a controversial history, plant studies investigating sexual selection and sexual conflict are relatively rare. Moreover, these theories and concepts are seldom implemented in research fields investigating related aspects of plant ecology and evolution. Even though these theories are complex, and can be difficult to study, we suggest that several fields in plant biology would benefit from incorporating and testing the impact of selection pressures generated by sexual selection and sexual conflict. Here we give examples of three fields where we believe such incorporation would be particularly fruitful, including (i) mechanisms of pollen–pistil interactions, (ii) mating-system evolution in hermaphrodites and (iii) plant immune responses to pests and pathogens. PMID:25613227

  13. Sexual Selection and Predator Avoidance in the Acoustic Lepidoptera: Discriminating Females Take Fewer Risks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP022934 TITLE: Sexual Selection and Predator Avoidance in the Acoustic...technical report. The following component part numbers comprise the compilation report: ADP022883 thru ADP023022 UNCLASSIFIED Sexual Selection and...a fundamental expectation of sexual selection theory that mating activities incur risk. Normally, these risks are considered from the perspective of

  14. A sexual selection theory longitudinal analysis of sexual segregation and integration in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Anthony D; Long, Jeffrey D

    2003-07-01

    The three objectives in this longitudinal study were motivated by sexual selection theory. The theory specifies the role of sexually segregated groups and the effects of dominance in male groups and relational/indirect aggression in female groups for heterosexual relationships. Using a multi-method, multi-informant, longitudinal design we studied youngsters (N=138) across their first two years of middle school. First, we examined the nature of change in segregation and dating popularity across two years during early adolescence. Second, a model derived from sexual selection theory is tested to explain the ways in which boys and girls are nominated for hypothetical dates (dating popularity). Third, we examined the role of "poke and push courtship" behavior in boys' and girls' dating popularity. Results indicate that although groups did not become more integrated with time, changes in peer group sexual integration co-varied dynamically with dating popularity. Secondly, dominance-related strategies were more important for boys than girls in dating popularity whereas indirect, or relational, aggression strategies were more important for girls than boys. Third, "poke and push courtship" behaviors did not influence peer group integration or dating.

  15. An Exploratory Study of Selected Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes of Indiana Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christina A.; Baldwin, Kathleen L.; Tanner, Amanda E.

    2007-01-01

    Although there are numerous ways to obtain accurate information about sexuality, research suggests that many American adults do not have accurate sexuality and sexual health knowledge. This research investigated selected sexual knowledge and attitudes of adults in Indiana. A representative sample of men (n = 158) and women (n = 340) aged 18 to 89…

  16. Divergent sexual selection enhances reproductive isolation in sticklebacks.

    PubMed

    Boughman, J W

    2001-06-21

    Sexual selection may facilitate speciation because it can cause rapid evolutionary diversification of male mating signals and female preferences. Divergence in these traits can then contribute to reproductive isolation. The sensory drive hypothesis predicts that three mechanisms underlie divergence in sexually selected traits: (1) habitat-specific transmission of male signals; (2) adaptation of female perceptual sensitivity to local ecological conditions; and (3) matching of male signals to female perceptual sensitivity. I test these mechanisms in threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus spp.) that live in different light environments. Here I show that female perceptual sensitivity to red light varies with the extent of redshift in the light environment, and contributes to divergent preferences. Male nuptial colour varies with environment and is tuned to female perceptual sensitivity. The extent of divergence among populations in both male signal colour and female preference for red is correlated with the extent of reproductive isolation in these recently diverged species. These results demonstrate that divergent sexual selection generated by sensory drive contributes to speciation.

  17. Sexual selection of male parental care in giant water bugs

    PubMed Central

    Ohba, Shin-ya; Okuda, Noboru; Kudo, Shin-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Paternal care can be maintained under sexual selection, if it helps in attracting more mates. We tested the hypothesis in two giant water bug species, Appasus major and Appasus japonicus, that male parental care is sexually selected through female preference for caring males. Females were given an opportunity to choose between two males. In the first test of female mate choice, one male carried eggs on its back, while the other did not. The egg status was switched between these two males in the second test. The experiment revealed that females of both species preferred caring males (i.e. egg-bearing) to non-caring males. Nonetheless, the female mate preference for egg-bearing males was stronger in A. major than in A. japonicus. Our results suggest that sexual selection plays an important role in maintaining elaborate paternal care in giant water bugs, but the importance of egg-bearing by males in female mate choice varies among species. PMID:27293778

  18. The evolution of female ornaments and weaponry: social selection, sexual selection and ecological competition

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Joseph A.; Montgomerie, Robert; Lyon, Bruce E.

    2012-01-01

    Ornaments, weapons and aggressive behaviours may evolve in female animals by mate choice and intrasexual competition for mating opportunities—the standard forms of sexual selection in males. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that selection tends to operate in different ways in males and females, with female traits more often mediating competition for ecological resources, rather than mate acquisition. Two main solutions have been proposed to accommodate this disparity. One is to expand the concept of sexual selection to include all mechanisms related to fecundity; another is to adopt an alternative conceptual framework—the theory of social selection—in which sexual selection is one component of a more general form of selection resulting from all social interactions. In this study, we summarize the history of the debate about female ornaments and weapons, and discuss potential resolutions. We review the components of fitness driving ornamentation in a wide range of systems, and show that selection often falls outside the limits of traditional sexual selection theory, particularly in females. We conclude that the evolution of these traits in both sexes is best understood within the unifying framework of social selection. PMID:22777016

  19. An integrative view of sexual selection in Tribolium flour beetles.

    PubMed

    Fedina, Tatyana Y; Lewis, Sara M

    2008-05-01

    Sexual selection is a major force driving the evolution of diverse reproductive traits. This evolutionary process is based on individual reproductive advantages that arise either through intrasexual competition or through intersexual choice and conflict. While classical studies of sexual selection focused mainly on differences in male mating success, more recent work has focused on the differences in paternity share that may arise through sperm competition or cryptic female choice whenever females mate with multiple males. Thus, an integrative view of sexual selection needs to encompass processes that occur not only before copulation (pre-mating), but also during copulation (peri-mating), as well as after copulation (post-mating), all of which can generate differences in reproductive success. By encompassing mechanisms of sexual selection across all of these sequential reproductive stages this review takes an integrative approach to sexual selection in Tribolium flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), a particularly well-studied and economically important model organism. Tribolium flour beetles colonize patchily distributed grain stores, and juvenile and adult stages share the same food resources. Adults are highly promiscuous and female reproduction is distributed across an adult lifespan lasting approximately 1 year. While Tribolium males produce an aggregation pheromone that attracts both sexes, there appears to be little pre-mating discrimination among potential mates by either sex. However, recent work has revealed several peri-mating and post-mating mechanisms that determine how offspring paternity is apportioned among a female's mates. During mating, Tribolium females reject spermatophore transfer and limit sperm numbers transferred by males with low phenotypic quality. Although there is some conflicting evidence, male copulatory leg-rubbing appears to be associated with overcoming female resistance to insemination and does not influence a male

  20. High opportunity for postcopulatory sexual selection under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Turnell, Biz R; Shaw, Kerry L

    2015-08-01

    In polygamous systems, male fitness is determined not only by mating success but also by fertilization success. Despite the growing interest over the past several decades in postcopulatory sexual selection, its relative importance compared to precopulatory sexual selection remains a subject of debate. Here, we use extensive behavioral observations of a seminatural population of Hawaiian swordtail crickets, Laupala cerasina, and molecular paternity assignment to measure the opportunities for pre- and postcopulatory selection. Because postcopulatory selection has the potential to operate at multiple stages, we also separately attribute its effects to factors specific to mating events versus factors specific to males. We find that variance in postcopulatory success is over four times as great as variance in precopulatory success, with most of it unexplained by male mating order or the number of nuptial gifts given. Surprisingly, we also find that male singing effort is under postcopulatory selection, suggesting that males who sing more frequently also have more competitive ejaculates. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that high polyandry levels promote greater relative postcopulatory selection. They also highlight the need for detailed behavioral observations under conditions as natural as possible when measuring mating and reproductive success.

  1. Human homosexuality: a paradigmatic arena for sexually antagonistic selection?

    PubMed

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Battaglia, Umberto; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2015-01-29

    Sexual conflict likely plays a crucial role in the origin and maintenance of homosexuality in our species. Although environmental factors are known to affect human homosexual (HS) preference, sibling concordances and population patterns related to HS indicate that genetic components are also influencing this trait in humans. We argue that multilocus, partially X-linked genetic factors undergoing sexually antagonistic selection that promote maternal female fecundity at the cost of occasional male offspring homosexuality are the best candidates capable of explaining the frequency, familial clustering, and pedigree asymmetries observed in HS male proband families. This establishes male HS as a paradigmatic example of sexual conflict in human biology. HS in females, on the other hand, is currently a more elusive phenomenon from both the empirical and theoretical standpoints because of its fluidity and marked environmental influence. Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, the latter involving sexually antagonistic components, have been hypothesized for the propagation and maintenance of female HS in the population. However, further data are needed to truly clarify the evolutionary dynamics of this trait. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  2. Human Homosexuality: A Paradigmatic Arena for Sexually Antagonistic Selection?

    PubMed Central

    Ciani, Andrea Camperio; Battaglia, Umberto; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Sexual conflict likely plays a crucial role in the origin and maintenance of homosexuality in our species. Although environmental factors are known to affect human homosexual (HS) preference, sibling concordances and population patterns related to HS indicate that genetic components are also influencing this trait in humans. We argue that multilocus, partially X-linked genetic factors undergoing sexually antagonistic selection that promote maternal female fecundity at the cost of occasional male offspring homosexuality are the best candidates capable of explaining the frequency, familial clustering, and pedigree asymmetries observed in HS male proband families. This establishes male HS as a paradigmatic example of sexual conflict in human biology. HS in females, on the other hand, is currently a more elusive phenomenon from both the empirical and theoretical standpoints because of its fluidity and marked environmental influence. Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, the latter involving sexually antagonistic components, have been hypothesized for the propagation and maintenance of female HS in the population. However, further data are needed to truly clarify the evolutionary dynamics of this trait. PMID:25635045

  3. Ecological opportunity and sexual selection together predict adaptive radiation.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Catherine E; Harmon, Luke J; Seehausen, Ole

    2012-07-19

    A fundamental challenge to our understanding of biodiversity is to explain why some groups of species undergo adaptive radiations, diversifying extensively into many and varied species, whereas others do not. Both extrinsic environmental factors (for example, resource availability, climate) and intrinsic lineage-specific traits (for example, behavioural or morphological traits, genetic architecture) influence diversification, but few studies have addressed how such factors interact. Radiations of cichlid fishes in the African Great Lakes provide some of the most dramatic cases of species diversification. However, most cichlid lineages in African lakes have not undergone adaptive radiations. Here we compile data on cichlid colonization and diversification in 46 African lakes, along with lake environmental features and information about the traits of colonizing cichlid lineages, to investigate why adaptive radiation does and does not occur. We find that extrinsic environmental factors related to ecological opportunity and intrinsic lineage-specific traits related to sexual selection both strongly influence whether cichlids radiate. Cichlids are more likely to radiate in deep lakes, in regions with more incident solar radiation and in lakes where there has been more time for diversification. Weak or negative associations between diversification and lake surface area indicate that cichlid speciation is not constrained by area, in contrast to diversification in many terrestrial taxa. Among the suite of intrinsic traits that we investigate, sexual dichromatism, a surrogate for the intensity of sexual selection, is consistently positively associated with diversification. Thus, for cichlids, it is the coincidence between ecological opportunity and sexual selection that best predicts whether adaptive radiation will occur. These findings suggest that adaptive radiation is predictable, but only when species traits and environmental factors are jointly considered.

  4. Characterizing selection in black-throated blue warblers using a sexual network approach.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Emily Ra; Kaiser, Sara A; Webster, Michael S; Sillett, T Scott; Ryder, T Brandt

    2017-10-06

    Our understanding of trait evolution is built upon studies that examine the correlation between traits and fitness, most of which implicitly assume all individuals experience similar selective environments. However, accounting for differences in selective pressures, such as variation in the social environment, can advance our understanding of how selection shapes individual traits and subsequent fitness. In this study, we test whether variation in the social environment affects selection on individual phenotype. We apply a new sexual network framework to quantify each male's social environment as the mean body size of his primary competitors. We test for direct and social selection on male body size using a 10-year dataset on black-throated blue warblers (Setophaga caerulescens), a territorial species for which body size is hypothesized to mediate competition for mates. We found that direct selection on body size was weak and non-significant, as was social selection via the body size of the males' competitors. Analyzing both types of selection simultaneously allows us to firmly reject a role for body size in competitive interactions between males and subsequent male fitness in this population. We evaluate the application of the sexual network approach to empirical data, and suggest that other phenotypic traits such as song characteristics and plumage may be more relevant than body size for male-male competition in this small passerine bird. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Natural and sexual selection act on different axes of variation in avian plumage color

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Peter O.; Armenta, Jessica K.; Whittingham, Linda A.

    2015-01-01

    The bright colors of birds are often attributed to sexual selection on males, but in many species both sexes are colorful and it has been long debated whether sexual selection can also explain this variation. We show that most evolutionary transitions in color have been toward similar plumage in both sexes, and the color of both sexes (for example, bright or dull) was associated with indices of natural selection (for example, habitat type), whereas sexual differences in color were primarily associated with indices of sexual selection on males (for example, polygyny and large testes size). Debate about the evolution of bird coloration can be resolved by recognizing that both natural and sexual selection have been influential, but they have generally acted on two different axes: sexual selection on an axis of sexual differences and natural selection on both sexes for the type of color (for example, bright or dull). PMID:26601146

  6. Persistent sexual dysfunction after discontinuation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Csoka, Antonei B; Csoka, A; Bahrick, Audrey; Mehtonen, Olli-Pekka

    2008-01-01

    Sexual dysfunctions such as low libido, anorgasmia, genital anesthesia, and erectile dysfunction are very common in patients taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). It has been assumed that these side effects always resolve after discontinuing treatment, but recently, four cases were presented in which sexual function did not return to baseline. Here, we describe three more cases. Case #1: A 29-year-old with apparently permanent erectile dysfunction after taking fluoxetine 20 mg once daily for a 4-month period in 1996. Case #2: A 44-year-old male with persistent loss of libido, genital anesthesia, ejaculatory anhedonia, and erectile dysfunction after taking 20-mg once daily citalopram for 18 months. Case #3: A 28-year-old male with persistent loss of libido, genital anesthesia, and ejaculatory anhedonia since taking several different SSRIs over a 2-year period from 2003-2005. No psychological issues related to sexuality were found in any of the three cases, and all common causes of sexual dysfunction such as decreased testosterone, increased prolactin or diabetes were ruled out. Erectile capacity is temporarily restored for Case #1 with injectable alprostadil, and for Case #2 with oral sildenafil, but their other symptoms remain. Case #3 has had some reversal of symptoms with extended-release methylphenidate, although it is not yet known if these prosexual effects will persist when the drug is discontinued. SSRIs can cause long-term effects on all aspects of the sexual response cycle that may persist after they are discontinued. Mechanistic hypotheses including persistent endocrine and epigenetic gene expression alterations were briefly discussed.

  7. Selective advantage for sexual reproduction with random haploid fusion.

    PubMed

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2009-05-01

    This article develops a simplified set of models describing asexual and sexual replication in unicellular diploid organisms. The models assume organisms whose genomes consist of two chromosomes, where each chromosome is assumed to be functional if it is equal to some master sequence sigma(0), and non-functional otherwise. We review the previously studied case of selective mating, where it is assumed that only haploids with functional chromosomes can fuse, and also consider the case of random haploid fusion. When the cost for sex is small, as measured by the ratio of the characteristic haploid fusion time to the characteristic growth time, we find that sexual replication with random haploid fusion leads to a greater mean fitness for the population than a purely asexual strategy. However, independently of the cost for sex, we find that sexual replication with a selective mating strategy leads to a higher mean fitness than the random mating strategy. The results of this article are consistent with previous studies suggesting that sex is favored at intermediate mutation rates, for slowly replicating organisms, and at high population densities. Furthermore, the results of this article provide a basis for understanding sex as a stress response in unicellular organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast).

  8. Sexual selection and assortative mating: an experimental test.

    PubMed

    Debelle, A; Ritchie, M G; Snook, R R

    2016-07-01

    Mate choice and mate competition can both influence the evolution of sexual isolation between populations. Assortative mating may arise if traits and preferences diverge in step, and, alternatively, mate competition may counteract mating preferences and decrease assortative mating. Here, we examine potential assortative mating between populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura that have experimentally evolved under either increased ('polyandry') or decreased ('monogamy') sexual selection intensity for 100 generations. These populations have evolved differences in numerous traits, including a male signal and female preference traits. We use a two males: one female design, allowing both mate choice and competition to influence mating outcomes, to test for assortative mating between our populations. Mating latency shows subtle effects of male and female interactions, with females from the monogamous populations appearing reluctant to mate with males from the polyandrous populations. However, males from the polyandrous populations have a significantly higher probability of mating regardless of the female's population. Our results suggest that if populations differ in the intensity of sexual selection, effects on mate competition may overcome mate choice. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  9. Direct benefits of choosing a high-fitness mate can offset the indirect costs associated with intralocus sexual conflict.

    PubMed

    Pischedda, Alison; Chippindale, Adam K

    2017-06-01

    Intralocus sexual conflict generates a cost to mate choice: high-fitness partners transmit genetic variation that confers lower fitness to offspring of the opposite sex. Our earlier work in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, revealed that these indirect genetic costs were sufficient to reverse potential "good genes" benefits of sexual selection. However, mate choice can also confer direct fitness benefits by inducing larger numbers of progeny. Here, we consider whether direct benefits through enhanced fertility could offset the costs associated with intralocus sexual conflict in D. melanogaster. Using hemiclonal analysis, we found that females mated to high-fitness males produced 11% more offspring compared to those mated to low-fitness males, and high-fitness females produced 34% more offspring than low-fitness females. These direct benefits more than offset the reduction in offspring fitness caused by intralocus sexual conflict, creating a net fitness benefit for each sex to pairing with a high-fitness partner. Our findings highlight the need to consider both direct and indirect effects when investigating the fitness impacts of mate choice. Direct fitness benefits may shelter sexually antagonistic alleles from selection, suggesting a novel mechanism for the maintenance of fitness variation. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Ecology and sexual selection: evolution of wing pigmentation in calopterygid damselflies in relation to latitude, sexual dimorphism, and speciation.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Erik I; Waller, John T

    2013-11-01

    Our knowledge about how the environment influences sexual selection regimes and how ecology and sexual selection interact is still limited. We performed an integrative study of wing pigmentation in calopterygid damselflies, combining phylogenetic comparative analyses, field observations and experiments. We investigated the evolutionary consequences of wing pigmentation for sexual dimorphism, speciation, and extinction and addressed the possible thermoregulatory benefits of pigmentation. First, we reconstructed ancestral states of male and female phenotypes and traced the evolutionary change of wing pigmentation. Clear wings are the ancestral state and that pigmentation dimorphism is derived, suggesting that sexual selection results in sexual dimorphism. We further demonstrate that pigmentation elevates speciation and extinction rates. We also document a significant biogeographic association with pigmented species primarily occupying northern temperate regions with cooler climates. Field observations and experiments on two temperate sympatric species suggest a link between pigmentation, thermoregulation, and sexual selection, although body temperature is also affected by other phenotypic traits such as body mass, microhabitat selection, and thermoregulatory behaviors. Taken together, our results suggest an important role for wing pigmentation in sexual selection in males and in speciation. Wing pigmentation might not increase ecological adaptation and species longevity, and its primary function is in sexual signaling and species recognition.

  11. Adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material and their sexual attitudes and behavior: Parallel development and directional effects.

    PubMed

    Doornwaard, Suzan M; Bickham, David S; Rich, Michael; ter Bogt, Tom F M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M

    2015-10-01

    Although research has repeatedly demonstrated that adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) is related to their endorsement of permissive sexual attitudes and their experience with sexual behavior, it is not clear how linkages between these constructs unfold over time. This study combined 2 types of longitudinal modeling, mean-level development and cross-lagged panel modeling, to examine (a) developmental patterns in adolescents' SEIM use, permissive sexual attitudes, and experience with sexual behavior, as well as whether these developments are related; and (b) longitudinal directionality of associations between SEIM use on the 1 hand and permissive sexual attitudes and sexual behavior on the other hand. We used 4-wave longitudinal data from 1,132 7th through 10th grade Dutch adolescents (M(age) T1 = 13.95; 52.7% boys) and estimated multigroup models to test for moderation by gender. Mean-level developmental trajectories showed that boys occasionally and increasingly used SEIM over the 18-month study period, which co-occurred with increases in their permissive attitudes and their experience with sexual behavior. Cross-lagged panel models revealed unidirectional effects from boys' SEIM use on their subsequent endorsement of permissive attitudes, but no consistent directional effects between their SEIM use and sexual behavior. Girls showed a similar pattern of increases in experience with sexual behavior, but their SEIM use was consistently low and their endorsement of permissive sexual attitudes decreased over the 18-month study period. In contrast to boys, girls' SEIM use was not longitudinally related to their sexual attitudes and behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of these gender-specific findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Broad-sense sexual selection, sex gene pool evolution, and speciation.

    PubMed

    Civetta, A; Singh, R S

    1999-12-01

    Studies of sexual selection have traditionally focused on explaining the extreme sexual dimorphism in male secondary sexual traits and elaborate mating behaviors displayed by males during courtship. In recent years, two aspects of sexual selection have received considerable attention in the literature: an extension of the sexual selection concept to other traits (i.e., postcopulatory behaviors, external and internal genital morphology, gametes, molecules), and alternative mechanistic explanations of the sexual selection process (i.e., coevolutionary runaway, good-genes, sexual conflicts). This article focuses on the need for an extension of sexual selection as a mechanism of change for courtship and (or) mating male characters (i.e., narrow-sense sexual selection) to all components of sexuality not necessarily related to courtship or mating (i.e., broad-sense sexual selection). We bring together evidence from a wide variety of organisms to show that sex-related genes evolve at a fast rate, and discuss the potential role of broad-sense sexual selection as an alternative to models that limit speciation to strict demographic conditions or treat it simply as an epiphenomenon of adaptive evolution.

  13. Pathways to adult sexual revictimization: direct and indirect behavioral risk factors across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Fargo, Jamison D

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate direct and indirect social and behavioral risk factors for adult sexual revictimization. Participants include 147 adult, predominantly African American (88%) women, 59% of whom had a documented history of child sexual abuse. Participants are interviewed in adulthood about adolescent and adult sexual victimization as well as other background and lifestyle characteristics. Structural equation modeling indicates that the relationship between child and adolescent sexual victimization is indirect, mediated by adolescent risk-taking behavior. The relationship between adolescent and adult sexual victimization is also indirect, mediated by risky sexual behavior. The residual effects of early childhood family environment and childhood physical abuse also indirectly predict sexual revictimization. Results provide empirical support for the general supposition that the relationship between child and adult sexual victimization is complex and that many intermediary factors differentially affect risk for a heightened vulnerability to sexual revictimization.

  14. Polyandry and postcopulatory sexual selection in a wild population.

    PubMed

    Turnell, Biz R; Shaw, Kerry L

    2015-12-01

    When females mate multiply, postcopulatory sexual selection can occur via sperm competition and cryptic female choice. Although postcopulatory selection has the potential to be a major force in driving evolution, few studies have estimated its strength in natural populations. Likewise, although polyandry is widespread across taxa and is the focus of a growing body of research, estimates of natural female mating rates are still limited in number. Microsatellites can be used to estimate the number of mates represented in females' sperm stores and the number of sires contributing to their offspring, enabling comparisons both of polyandry and of two components of postcopulatory selection: the proportion of males that mate but fail to sire offspring, and the degree of paternity skew among the males that do sire offspring. Here, we estimate the number of mates and sires among wild females in the Hawaiian swordtail cricket Laupala cerasina. We compare these estimates to the actual mating rates and paternity shares we observed in a semi-natural population. Our results show that postcopulatory sexual selection operates strongly in this species: wild females mated with an average minimum of 3.6 males but used the sperm from only 58% of them. Furthermore, among the males that did sire offspring, paternity was significantly skewed. These patterns were similar to those observed in the field enclosure, where females mated with an average of 5.7 males and used the sperm from 62% of their mates, with paternity significantly skewed among the sires. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Directional summation in non-direction selective retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Syed Y; Hamade, Khaldoun C; Yang, Ellen J; Nawy, Scott; Smith, Robert G; Pettit, Diana L

    2013-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cells receive inputs from multiple bipolar cells which must be integrated before a decision to fire is made. Theoretical studies have provided clues about how this integration is accomplished but have not directly determined the rules regulating summation of closely timed inputs along single or multiple dendrites. Here we have examined dendritic summation of multiple inputs along On ganglion cell dendrites in whole mount rat retina. We activated inputs at targeted locations by uncaging glutamate sequentially to generate apparent motion along On ganglion cell dendrites in whole mount retina. Summation was directional and dependent13 on input sequence. Input moving away from the soma (centrifugal) resulted in supralinear summation, while activation sequences moving toward the soma (centripetal) were linear. Enhanced summation for centrifugal activation was robust as it was also observed in cultured retinal ganglion cells. This directional summation was dependent on hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels as blockade with ZD7288 eliminated directionality. A computational model confirms that activation of HCN channels can override a preference for centripetal summation expected from cell anatomy. This type of direction selectivity could play a role in coding movement similar to the axial selectivity seen in locust ganglion cells which detect looming stimuli. More generally, these results suggest that non-directional retinal ganglion cells can discriminate between input sequences independent of the retina network.

  16. Directional Summation in Non-direction Selective Retinal Ganglion Cells

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Syed Y.; Hamade, Khaldoun C.; Yang, Ellen J.; Nawy, Scott; Smith, Robert G.; Pettit, Diana L.

    2013-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cells receive inputs from multiple bipolar cells which must be integrated before a decision to fire is made. Theoretical studies have provided clues about how this integration is accomplished but have not directly determined the rules regulating summation of closely timed inputs along single or multiple dendrites. Here we have examined dendritic summation of multiple inputs along On ganglion cell dendrites in whole mount rat retina. We activated inputs at targeted locations by uncaging glutamate sequentially to generate apparent motion along On ganglion cell dendrites in whole mount retina. Summation was directional and dependent13 on input sequence. Input moving away from the soma (centrifugal) resulted in supralinear summation, while activation sequences moving toward the soma (centripetal) were linear. Enhanced summation for centrifugal activation was robust as it was also observed in cultured retinal ganglion cells. This directional summation was dependent on hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels as blockade with ZD7288 eliminated directionality. A computational model confirms that activation of HCN channels can override a preference for centripetal summation expected from cell anatomy. This type of direction selectivity could play a role in coding movement similar to the axial selectivity seen in locust ganglion cells which detect looming stimuli. More generally, these results suggest that non-directional retinal ganglion cells can discriminate between input sequences independent of the retina network. PMID:23516351

  17. Sexual selection and the molecular evolution of ADAM proteins.

    PubMed

    Finn, Scott; Civetta, Alberto

    2010-09-01

    Rapid evolution has been identified for many reproductive genes and recent studies have combined phylogenetic tests and information on species mating systems to test sexual selection. Here we examined the molecular evolution of the ADAM gene family, a diverse group of 35 proteins capable of adhesion to and cleavage of other proteins, using sequence data from 25 mammalian genes. Out of the 25 genes analyzed, all those expressed in male reproductive tissue showed evidence of positive selection. Positively selected amino acids within the protein adhesion domain were only found in sperm surface ADAM proteins (ADAMs 1, 2, 3, 4, and 32) suggesting selection driven by male x female interactions. We tested heterogeneity in rates of evolution of the adhesion domain of ADAM proteins by using sequence data from Hominidae and macaques. The use of the branch and branch-site models (PAML) showed evidence of higher d (N)/d (S) and/or positive selection linked to branches experiencing high postmating selective pressures (chimpanzee and macaque) for Adams 2, 18, and 23. Moreover, we found consistent higher proportion of nonsynonymous relative to synonymous and noncoding sequence substitutions in chimpanzee and/or macaque only for Adams 2, 18, and 23. Our results suggest that lineage-specific sexual selection bouts might have driven the evolution of the adhesion sperm protein surface domains of ADAMs 2 and 18 in primates. Adams 2 and 18 are localized in chromosome 8 of primates and adjacent to each other, so their evolution might have also been influenced by their common genome localization.

  18. Experimental evidence for sexual selection against inbred males.

    PubMed

    Vega-Trejo, Regina; Head, Megan L; Keogh, J Scott; Jennions, Michael D

    2017-03-01

    The detrimental effects of matings between relatives are well known. However, few studies determine the extent to which inbreeding depression in males is due to natural or sexual selection. Importantly, measuring fitness or key fitness components, rather than phenotypic traits allows more accurate estimation of inbreeding depression. We investigate how differences in inbreeding and juvenile diet (i.e. early stressful environment) influence a key component of male fitness, namely their reproductive success. We experimentally created inbred and outbred male mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) by mating full-sibs (f = 0·25). We show that this led to a 23% reduction in genome-wide heterozygosity based on SNPs. Males were raised on different diets early in life to create high-stress and low-stress rearing environments. We then allowed adult males to compete freely for females to test if inbreeding, early diet and their interaction affect a male's share of paternity. Early diet had no effect on paternity, but outbred males sired almost twice as many offspring as inbred males (n = 628 offspring from 122 potential sires). Using artificial insemination methods we determined that this was unlikely to be due to early embryo mortality of eggs fertilised by inbred males: there was no evidence that male inbreeding status affects the realised fecundity of females (n = 288). Given there was no difference in male mortality in our competitive mating experiment, the lower reproductive success of inbred males can most parsimoniously be attributed to inbreeding negatively affecting sexually selected traits that affect male mating success and/or sperm competitiveness. We discuss which sexually selected traits might be involved. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2016 British Ecological Society.

  19. Nutrition-dependent phenotypes affect sexual selection in a ladybird

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jiaqin; De Clercq, Patrick; Zhang, Yuhong; Wu, Hongsheng; Pan, Chang; Pang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors play a crucial role in influencing sexual selection in insects and the evolution of their mating systems. Although it has been reported that sexual selection in insects may change in response to varying environments, the reason for these changes remains poorly understood. Here, we focus on the mate selection process of a ladybird, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, when experiencing low- and high-nutrition diet regimes both in its larval and adult stages. We found that female ladybirds preferred to mate with males reared under high-nutrition diet regimes, regardless of the nutritional conditions they experienced during their own larval stages, indicating that mate choice of female C. montrouzieri is non-random and phenotype-dependent. Such mate choice may depend on visual cues (body or genitalia size) and/or chemical cues (pheromones). Further, females from high-nutrition larval diet regimes produced more eggs than those from low-nutrition larval diet regimes. In addition, diet regimes during adulthood also exerted strong effects on egg production. In summary, our study provides new insight into the mate choice of C. montrouzieri as affected by seasonal changes in resources, and suggests that food availability may be a driving force in mate choice. PMID:26269214

  20. A rigorous comparison of sexual selection indexes via simulations of diverse mating systems

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Andrew T.; Fritzsche, Karoline

    2016-01-01

    Sexual selection is a cornerstone of evolutionary theory, but measuring it has proved surprisingly difficult and controversial. Various proxy measures—e.g., the Bateman gradient and the opportunity for sexual selection—are widely used in empirical studies. However, we do not know how reliably these measures predict the strength of sexual selection across natural systems, and most perform poorly in theoretical worst-case scenarios. Here we provide a rigorous comparison of eight commonly used indexes of sexual selection. We simulated 500 biologically plausible mating systems, based on the templates of five well-studied species that cover a diverse range of reproductive life histories. We compared putative indexes to the actual strength of premating sexual selection, measured as the strength of selection on a simulated “mating trait.” This method sidesteps a key weakness of empirical studies, which lack an appropriate yardstick against which proxy measures can be assessed. Our model predicts that, far from being useless, the best proxy measures reliably track the strength of sexual selection across biologically realistic scenarios. The maximum intensity of precopulatory sexual selection s′max (the Jones index) outperformed all other indexes and was highly correlated with the strength of sexual selection. In contrast, the Bateman gradient and the opportunity for sexual selection were poor predictors of sexual selection, despite their continuing popularity. PMID:26739567

  1. Using visual modelling to study the evolution of lizard coloration: sexual selection drives the evolution of sexual dichromatism in lacertids.

    PubMed

    Pérez I de Lanuza, G; Font, E; Monterde, J L

    2013-08-01

    Sexual selection has been invoked as a major force in the evolution of secondary sexual traits, including sexually dimorphic colourations. For example, previous studies have shown that display complexity and elaborate ornamentation in lizards are associated with variables that reflect the intensity of intrasexual selection. However, these studies have relied on techniques of colour analysis based on human--rather than lizard--visual perception. Here, we use reflectance spectrophotometry and visual modelling to quantify sexual dichromatism considering the overall colour patterns of lacertids, a lizard clade in which visual signalling has traditionally been underrated. These objective methods of colour analysis reveal a large, previously unreported, degree of sexual dichromatism in lacertids. Using a comparative phylogenetic approach, we further demonstrate that sexual dichromatism is positively associated with body size dimorphism (an index of intrasexual selection), suggesting that conspicuous coloration in male lacertids has evolved to improve opponent assessment under conditions of intense male-male competition. Our findings provide the first evidence for the covariation of sexual dichromatism and sexual size dimorphism in lacertids and suggest that the prevalent role of intrasexual selection in the evolution of ornamental coloration is not restricted to the iguanian lineage, but rather may be a general trend common to many diurnal lizards. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. RUNAWAY SEXUAL SELECTION WITHOUT GENETIC CORRELATIONS: SOCIAL ENVIRONMENTS AND FLEXIBLE MATE CHOICE INITIATE AND ENHANCE THE FISHER PROCESS

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Nathan W; Moore, Allen J

    2012-01-01

    Female mating preferences are often flexible, reflecting the social environment in which they are expressed. Associated indirect genetic effects (IGEs) can affect the rate and direction of evolutionary change, but sexual selection models do not capture these dynamics. We incorporate IGEs into quantitative genetic models to explore how variation in social environments and mate choice flexibility influence Fisherian sexual selection. The importance of IGEs is that runaway sexual selection can occur in the absence of a genetic correlation between male traits and female preferences. Social influences can facilitate the initiation of the runaway process and increase the rate of trait elaboration. Incorporating costs to choice do not alter the main findings. Our model provides testable predictions: (1) genetic covariances between male traits and female preferences may not exist, (2) social flexibility in female choice will be common in populations experiencing strong sexual selection, (3) variation in social environments should be associated with rapid sexual trait divergence, and (4) secondary sexual traits will be more elaborate than previously predicted. Allowing feedback from the social environment resolves discrepancies between theoretical predictions and empirical data, such as why indirect selection on female preferences, theoretically weak, might be sufficient for preferences to become elaborated. PMID:22946795

  3. Coalescence and genetic diversity in sexual populations under selection.

    PubMed

    Neher, Richard A; Kessinger, Taylor A; Shraiman, Boris I

    2013-09-24

    In sexual populations, selection operates neither on the whole genome, which is repeatedly taken apart and reassembled by recombination, nor on individual alleles that are tightly linked to the chromosomal neighborhood. The resulting interference between linked alleles reduces the efficiency of selection and distorts patterns of genetic diversity. Inference of evolutionary history from diversity shaped by linked selection requires an understanding of these patterns. Here, we present a simple but powerful scaling analysis identifying the unit of selection as the genomic "linkage block" with a characteristic length, , determined in a self-consistent manner by the condition that the rate of recombination within the block is comparable to the fitness differences between different alleles of the block. We find that an asexual model with the strength of selection tuned to that of the linkage block provides an excellent description of genetic diversity and the site frequency spectra compared with computer simulations. This linkage block approximation is accurate for the entire spectrum of strength of selection and is particularly powerful in scenarios with many weakly selected loci. The latter limit allows us to characterize coalescence, genetic diversity, and the speed of adaptation in the infinitesimal model of quantitative genetics.

  4. Sexuality education in North American medical schools: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Shindel, Alan W; Parish, Sharon J

    2013-01-01

    Both the general public and individual patients expect healthcare providers to be knowledgeable and approachable regarding sexual health. Despite this expectation there are no universal standards or expectations regarding the sexuality education of medical students. To review the current state of the art in sexuality education for North American medical students and to articulate future directions for improvement. Evaluation of: (i) peer-reviewed literature on sexuality education (focusing on undergraduate medical students); and (ii) recommendations for sexuality education from national and international public health organizations. Current status and future innovations for sexual health education in North American medical schools. Although the importance of sexuality to patients is recognized, there is wide variation in both the quantity and quality of education on this topic in North American medical schools. Many sexual health education programs in medical schools are focused on prevention of unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection. Educational material on sexual function and dysfunction, female sexuality, abortion, and sexual minority groups is generally scant or absent. A number of novel interventions, many student initiated, have been implemented at various medical schools to improve the student's training in sexual health matters. There is a tremendous opportunity to mold the next generation of healthcare providers to view healthy sexuality as a relevant patient concern. A comprehensive and uniform curriculum on human sexuality at the medical school level may substantially enhance the capacity of tomorrow's physicians to provide optimal care for their patients irrespective of gender, sexual orientation, and individual sexual mores/beliefs. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  5. Robust quantification of orientation selectivity and direction selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Mazurek, Mark; Kager, Marisa; Van Hooser, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Neurons in the visual cortex of all examined mammals exhibit orientation or direction tuning. New imaging techniques are allowing the circuit mechanisms underlying orientation and direction selectivity to be studied with clarity that was not possible a decade ago. However, these new techniques bring new challenges: robust quantitative measurements are needed to evaluate the findings from these studies, which can involve thousands of cells of varying response strength. Here we show that traditional measures of selectivity such as the orientation index (OI) and direction index (DI) are poorly suited for quantitative evaluation of orientation and direction tuning. We explore several alternative methods for quantifying tuning and for addressing a variety of questions that arise in studies on orientation- and direction-tuned cells and cell populations. We provide recommendations for which methods are best suited to which applications and we offer tips for avoiding potential pitfalls in applying these methods. Our goal is to supply a solid quantitative foundation for studies involving orientation and direction tuning. PMID:25147504

  6. Female homosexual behavior and inter-sexual mate competition in Japanese macaques: possible implications for sexual selection theory.

    PubMed

    Vasey, Paul L; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Noëlle; VanderLaan, Doug P

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we review research related to female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata), including our 20-year program of research on this species. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that female homosexual behavior in this species is sexually motivated. In contrast, many sociosexual hypotheses have been tested in relation to female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques, but none have been supported. Female Japanese macaques sometimes engage in same-sex sexual activity even when motivated opposite-sex alternatives are available. Within this context of mate choice, males compete inter-sexually for opportunities to copulate with females above and beyond any intra-sexual competition that is required. Anecdotal evidence suggests that inter-sexual competition for female sexual partners has been observed in a number of other species, including humans. At present it is unclear whether inter-sexual competition for sexual partners influences patterns of reproduction. Our understanding of sexual selection and the evolution of mating systems may be improved by investigating whether inter-sexual mate competition influences the acquisition and maintenance of reproductive partners in those species in which such interactions occur.

  7. Within-season variation in sexual selection in a fish with dynamic sex roles.

    PubMed

    Wacker, Sebastian; Amundsen, Trond; Forsgren, Elisabet; Mobley, Kenyon B

    2014-07-01

    The strength of sexual selection may vary between species, among populations and within populations over time. While there is growing evidence that sexual selection may vary between years, less is known about variation in sexual selection within a season. Here, we investigate within-season variation in sexual selection in male two-spotted gobies (Gobiusculus flavescens). This marine fish experiences a seasonal change in the operational sex ratio from male- to female-biased, resulting in a dramatic decrease in male mating competition over the breeding season. We therefore expected stronger sexual selection on males early in the season. We sampled nests and nest-holding males early and late in the breeding season and used microsatellite markers to determine male mating and reproductive success. We first analysed sexual selection associated with the acquisition of nests by comparing nest-holding males to population samples. Among nest-holders, we calculated the potential strength of sexual selection and selection on phenotypic traits. We found remarkable within-season variation in sexual selection. Selection on male body size related to nest acquisition changed from positive to negative over the season. The opportunity for sexual selection among nest-holders was significantly greater early in the season rather than late in the season, partly due to more unmated males. Overall, our study documents a within-season change in sexual selection that corresponds with a predictable change in the operational sex ratio. We suggest that many species may experience within-season changes in sexual selection and that such dynamics are important for understanding how sexual selection operates in the wild.

  8. Healthy Sex and Sexual Health: New Directions for Studying Outcomes of Sexual Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Vasilenko, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual behavior is an important aspect of adolescent development with implications for well-being. These chapters highlight important perspectives on studying sexual health from a normative, developmental perspective, such as viewing a range of sexual behaviors as life events; considering potentially positive physical health, mental health, social…

  9. Healthy Sex and Sexual Health: New Directions for Studying Outcomes of Sexual Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Vasilenko, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual behavior is an important aspect of adolescent development with implications for well-being. These chapters highlight important perspectives on studying sexual health from a normative, developmental perspective, such as viewing a range of sexual behaviors as life events; considering potentially positive physical health, mental health, social…

  10. Sexual selection drives evolution and rapid turnover of male gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Peter W.; Wright, Alison E.; Zimmer, Fabian; Dean, Rebecca; Montgomery, Stephen H.; Pointer, Marie A.; Mank, Judith E.

    2015-01-01

    The profound and pervasive differences in gene expression observed between males and females, and the unique evolutionary properties of these genes in many species, have led to the widespread assumption that they are the product of sexual selection and sexual conflict. However, we still lack a clear understanding of the connection between sexual selection and transcriptional dimorphism, often termed sex-biased gene expression. Moreover, the relative contribution of sexual selection vs. drift in shaping broad patterns of expression, divergence, and polymorphism remains unknown. To assess the role of sexual selection in shaping these patterns, we assembled transcriptomes from an avian clade representing the full range of sexual dimorphism and sexual selection. We use these species to test the links between sexual selection and sex-biased gene expression evolution in a comparative framework. Through ancestral reconstruction of sex bias, we demonstrate a rapid turnover of sex bias across this clade driven by sexual selection and show it to be primarily the result of expression changes in males. We use phylogenetically controlled comparative methods to demonstrate that phenotypic measures of sexual selection predict the proportion of male-biased but not female-biased gene expression. Although male-biased genes show elevated rates of coding sequence evolution, consistent with previous reports in a range of taxa, there is no association between sexual selection and rates of coding sequence evolution, suggesting that expression changes may be more important than coding sequence in sexual selection. Taken together, our results highlight the power of sexual selection to act on gene expression differences and shape genome evolution. PMID:25831521

  11. Sexual selection and the evolution of brain size in primates.

    PubMed

    Schillaci, Michael A

    2006-12-20

    Reproductive competition among males has long been considered a powerful force in the evolution of primates. The evolution of brain size and complexity in the Order Primates has been widely regarded as the hallmark of primate evolutionary history. Despite their importance to our understanding of primate evolution, the relationship between sexual selection and the evolutionary development of brain size is not well studied. The present research examines the evolutionary relationship between brain size and two components of primate sexual selection, sperm competition and male competition for mates. Results indicate that there is not a significant relationship between relative brain size and sperm competition as measured by relative testis size in primates, suggesting sperm competition has not played an important role in the evolution of brain size in the primate order. There is, however, a significant negative evolutionary relationship between relative brain size and the level of male competition for mates. The present study shows that the largest relative brain sizes among primate species are associated with monogamous mating systems, suggesting primate monogamy may require greater social acuity and abilities of deception.

  12. Does sexual selection explain human sex differences in aggression?

    PubMed

    Archer, John

    2009-08-01

    I argue that the magnitude and nature of sex differences in aggression, their development, causation, and variability, can be better explained by sexual selection than by the alternative biosocial version of social role theory. Thus, sex differences in physical aggression increase with the degree of risk, occur early in life, peak in young adulthood, and are likely to be mediated by greater male impulsiveness, and greater female fear of physical danger. Male variability in physical aggression is consistent with an alternative life history perspective, and context-dependent variability with responses to reproductive competition, although some variability follows the internal and external influences of social roles. Other sex differences, in variance in reproductive output, threat displays, size and strength, maturation rates, and mortality and conception rates, all indicate that male aggression is part of a sexually selected adaptive complex. Physical aggression between partners can be explained using different evolutionary principles, arising from the conflicts of interest between males and females entering a reproductive alliance, combined with variability following differences in societal gender roles. In this case, social roles are particularly important since they enable both the relatively equality in physical aggression between partners from Western nations, and the considerable cross-national variability, to be explained.

  13. Does kin selection moderate sexual conflict in Drosophila?

    PubMed

    Chippindale, Adam K; Berggren, Meredith; Alpern, Joshua H M; Montgomerie, Robert

    2015-08-22

    Two recent studies provide provocative experimental findings about the potential influence of kin recognition and cooperation on the level of sexual conflict in Drosophila melanogaster. In both studies, male fruit flies apparently curbed their mate-harming behaviours in the presence of a few familiar or related males, suggesting some form of cooperation mediated by kin selection. In one study, the reduction in agonistic behaviour by brothers apparently rendered them vulnerable to dramatic loss of paternity share when competing with an unrelated male. If these results are robust and generalizable, fruit flies could be a major new focus for the experimental study of kin selection and social evolution. In our opinion, however, the restrictive conditions required for male cooperation to be adaptive in this species make it unlikely to evolve. We investigated these phenomena in two different populations of D. melanogaster using protocols very similar to those in the two previous studies. Our experiments show no evidence for a reduction in mate harm based upon either relatedness or familiarity between males, and no reduction in male reproductive success when two brothers are in the presence of an unfamiliar, unrelated, 'foreign' male. Thus, the reduction of sexual conflict owing to male cooperation does not appear to be a general feature of the species, at least under domestication, and these contrasting results call for further investigation: in new populations, in the field and in the laboratory populations in which these phenomena have been reported.

  14. Condition-dependence, pleiotropy and the handicap principle of sexual selection in melanin-based colouration.

    PubMed

    Roulin, Alexandre

    2016-05-01

    The signalling function of melanin-based colouration is debated. Sexual selection theory states that ornaments should be costly to produce, maintain, wear or display to signal quality honestly to potential mates or competitors. An increasing number of studies supports the hypothesis that the degree of melanism covaries with aspects of body condition (e.g. body mass or immunity), which has contributed to change the initial perception that melanin-based colour ornaments entail no costs. Indeed, the expression of many (but not all) melanin-based colour traits is weakly sensitive to the environment but strongly heritable suggesting that these colour traits are relatively cheap to produce and maintain, thus raising the question of how such colour traits could signal quality honestly. Here I review the production, maintenance and wearing/displaying costs that can generate a correlation between melanin-based colouration and body condition, and consider other evolutionary mechanisms that can also lead to covariation between colour and body condition. Because genes controlling melanic traits can affect numerous phenotypic traits, pleiotropy could also explain a linkage between body condition and colouration. Pleiotropy may result in differently coloured individuals signalling different aspects of quality that are maintained by frequency-dependent selection or local adaptation. Colouration may therefore not signal absolute quality to potential mates or competitors (e.g. dark males may not achieve a higher fitness than pale males); otherwise genetic variation would be rapidly depleted by directional selection. As a consequence, selection on heritable melanin-based colouration may not always be directional, but mate choice may be conditional to environmental conditions (i.e. context-dependent sexual selection). Despite the interest of evolutionary biologists in the adaptive value of melanin-based colouration, its actual role in sexual selection is still poorly understood.

  15. Polyandry as a mediator of sexual selection before and after mating

    PubMed Central

    Kvarnemo, Charlotta; Simmons, Leigh W.

    2013-01-01

    The Darwin–Bateman paradigm recognizes competition among males for access to multiple mates as the main driver of sexual selection. Increasingly, however, females are also being found to benefit from multiple mating so that polyandry can generate competition among females for access to multiple males, and impose sexual selection on female traits that influence their mating success. Polyandry can reduce a male's ability to monopolize females, and thus weaken male focused sexual selection. Perhaps the most important effect of polyandry on males arises because of sperm competition and cryptic female choice. Polyandry favours increased male ejaculate expenditure that can affect sexual selection on males by reducing their potential reproductive rate. Moreover, sexual selection after mating can ameliorate or exaggerate sexual selection before mating. Currently, estimates of sexual selection intensity rely heavily on measures of male mating success, but polyandry now raises serious questions over the validity of such approaches. Future work must take into account both pre- and post-copulatory episodes of selection. A change in focus from the products of sexual selection expected in males, to less obvious traits in females, such as sensory perception, is likely to reveal a greater role of sexual selection in female evolution. PMID:23339234

  16. Polyandry as a mediator of sexual selection before and after mating.

    PubMed

    Kvarnemo, Charlotta; Simmons, Leigh W

    2013-03-05

    The Darwin-Bateman paradigm recognizes competition among males for access to multiple mates as the main driver of sexual selection. Increasingly, however, females are also being found to benefit from multiple mating so that polyandry can generate competition among females for access to multiple males, and impose sexual selection on female traits that influence their mating success. Polyandry can reduce a male's ability to monopolize females, and thus weaken male focused sexual selection. Perhaps the most important effect of polyandry on males arises because of sperm competition and cryptic female choice. Polyandry favours increased male ejaculate expenditure that can affect sexual selection on males by reducing their potential reproductive rate. Moreover, sexual selection after mating can ameliorate or exaggerate sexual selection before mating. Currently, estimates of sexual selection intensity rely heavily on measures of male mating success, but polyandry now raises serious questions over the validity of such approaches. Future work must take into account both pre- and post-copulatory episodes of selection. A change in focus from the products of sexual selection expected in males, to less obvious traits in females, such as sensory perception, is likely to reveal a greater role of sexual selection in female evolution.

  17. Experimental evidence for the evolution of the Mammalian baculum by sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Leigh W; Firman, Renée C

    2014-01-01

    Male genitalia exhibit a taxonomically widespread pattern of rapid and divergent evolution. Sexual selection is generally believed to be responsible for these patterns of evolutionary divergence, although empirical support for the sexual selection hypothesis comes mainly from studies of insects. Here we show that sexual selection is responsible for an evolutionary divergence in baculum morphology among populations of house mice Mus domesticus. We sourced mice from three isolated populations known to be subject to differing strengths of postcopulatory sexual selection and bred them under common-garden conditions. Mice from populations with strong postcopulatory sexual selection had bacula that were relatively thicker compared with mice from populations with weak selection. We used experimental evolution to determine whether these patterns of divergence could be ascribed to postcopulatory sexual selection. After 27 generations of experimental evolution, populations of mice subjected to postcopulatory sexual selection evolved bacula that were relatively thicker than populations subjected to enforced monogamy. Our data thereby provide evidence that postcopulatory sexual selection underlies an evolutionary divergence in the mammalian baculum and supports the hypothesis that sexual selection plays a general role in the evolution of male genital morphology across evolutionary diverse taxonomic groups. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. Direct and indirect measures of sexual maturity preferences differentiate subtypes of child sexual abusers.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Alexander F; Gykiere, Kim; Vanhoeck, Kris; Mann, Ruth E; Banse, Rainer

    2014-04-01

    To aid risk assessment, management, and treatment planning it is essential to assess child sexual abusers' deviant sexual interests (DSI) and preferences (DSP) for sex with children. However, measurement of DSI/DSP is fraught with psychometric problems. In consequence, research interest has shifted to latency-based indirect measures as a measurement approach to complement self-report and physiological assessment. Utilizing the Explicit and Implicit Sexual Interest Profile (EISIP)-a multimethod approach consisting of self-report, viewing time, and Implicit Association Test (IAT) DSI/DSP measures-we replicated phallometric DSI/DSP differences between child sexual abuser subgroups in a sample of intrafamilial, extrafamilial, and child pornography offenders. DSI/DSP was associated with recidivism risk, offense-behavioral measures of pedophilic interest, and sexual fantasizing. It also negatively correlated with antisociality. Distinguishing between child sexual abuser subtypes and being related to recidivism risk, the EISIP is a useful tool for sexual offender assessments.

  19. Sexual selection explains sex-specific growth plasticity and positive allometry for sexual size dimorphism in a reef fish

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Stefan P. W.; McCormick, Mark I.

    2009-01-01

    In 1950, Rensch noted that in clades where males are the larger sex, sexual size dimorphism (SSD) tends to be more pronounced in larger species. This fundamental allometric relationship is now known as ‘Rensch's rule’. While most researchers attribute Rensch's rule to sexual selection for male size, experimental evidence is lacking. Here, we suggest that ultimate hypotheses for Rensch's rule should also apply to groups of individuals and that individual trait plasticity can be used to test those hypotheses experimentally. Specifically, we show that in the sex-changing fish Parapercis cylindrica, larger males have larger harems with larger females, and that SSD increases with harem size. Thus, sexual selection for male body size is the ultimate cause of sexual size allometry. In addition, we experimentally illustrate a positive relationship between polygyny potential and individual growth rate during sex change from female to male. Thus, sexual selection is the ultimate cause of variation in growth rate, and variation in growth rate is the proximate cause of sexual size allometry. Taken together, our results provide compelling evidence in support of the sexual selection hypothesis for Rensch's rule and highlight the potential importance of individual growth modification in the shaping of morphological patterns in Nature. PMID:19553253

  20. Direct effects of energy-related air pollutants on plant sexual reproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Ragsdale, H.L.; Murdy, W.H.

    1987-12-08

    Our completed research program concentrated on the direct in vivo effects of energy-related air pollutants on plant sexual reproduction. Direct air pollution effects on plant sexual reproduction have been studied for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2}, two of the three major air pollutants.

  1. Sexual selection and the evolution of sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, John L; Lüpold, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Sperm experience intense and varied selection that dramatically impacts the evolution of sperm quality. Selection acts to ensure that sperm are fertilization-competent and able to overcome the many challenges experienced on their way towards eggs. However, simply being able to fertilize an egg is not enough to ensure male fertility in most species. Owing to the prevalence of female multiple mating throughout the animal kingdom, successful fertilization requires sperm to outcompete rival sperm. In addition, females can actively influence sperm quality, storage or utilization to influence male fertility. This review provides an overview of how these selective forces influence the evolution of sperm quality. After exploring the link between sperm traits and male fertility, we examine how post-mating competition between rival ejaculates influences the evolution of sperm quality. We then describe how complex genetic, social and sexual interactions influence sperm quality, focusing on the importance of seminal fluid and interactions between sperm and the female's reproductive tract. In light of the complexities of selection on sperm traits, greater use of multivariate approaches that incorporate male-male, sperm-sperm and sperm-female interactions to study sperm quality will enhance our understanding of how selection acts on sperm traits and factors influencing male fertility. Because the metric of male reproductive success--fertilization--is the same across the animal kingdom, we argue that information about sperm evolution gained from non-human animals has enormous potential to further our understanding of the factors that impact human fertility.

  2. Concurrent natural and sexual selection in wild male sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka.

    PubMed

    Hamon, Troy R; Foote, Chris J

    2005-05-01

    Concurrent natural and sexual selection have been inferred from laboratory and comparative studies in a number of taxa, but are rarely measured in natural populations. Because the interaction of these two general categories of selection may be complex when they occur simultaneously, empirical evidence from natural populations would help us to understand this interaction and probably give us greater insight into each separate episode as well. In male sockeye salmon, sexual selection for larger body size has been indicated in both deep and shallow water habitats. However, in shallow habitats male sockeye are generally smaller and less deep-bodied than in deep habitats, a difference that has been ascribed to natural selection. We measured concurrent natural and sexual selection in two years on breeding male sockeye salmon with respect to body size, body shape, and time of arrival to the breeding grounds. Natural selection was variable in effect and sexual selection was variable in intensity in these two years. The patterns of selection also appear to be interdependent; areas where predation on spawning adults is not intense have yielded different patterns of sexual selection than those measured here. It appears that some of the body shape differences in sockeye salmon associated with different spawning habitats, which were previously attributed to selective mortality, may be a result of different patterns of sexual selection in the different habitats. Total selection resulting from the combination of both natural and sexual selection was less intense than either natural or sexual selection in most cases. Measurement of concurrent selection episodes in nature may help us to understand whether the pattern of differential sexual selection is common, and whether observed patterns of habitat-related differentiation may be due to differences in sexual selection.

  3. Mechanisms and Evidence of Genital Coevolution: The Roles of Natural Selection, Mate Choice, and Sexual Conflict.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Patricia L R; Prum, Richard O

    2015-07-01

    Genital coevolution between the sexes is expected to be common because of the direct interaction between male and female genitalia during copulation. Here we review the diverse mechanisms of genital coevolution that include natural selection, female mate choice, male-male competition, and how their interactions generate sexual conflict that can lead to sexually antagonistic coevolution. Natural selection on genital morphology will result in size coevolution to allow for copulation to be mechanically possible, even as other features of genitalia may reflect the action of other mechanisms of selection. Genital coevolution is explicitly predicted by at least three mechanisms of genital evolution: lock and key to prevent hybridization, female choice, and sexual conflict. Although some good examples exist in support of each of these mechanisms, more data on quantitative female genital variation and studies of functional morphology during copulation are needed to understand more general patterns. A combination of different approaches is required to continue to advance our understanding of genital coevolution. Knowledge of the ecology and behavior of the studied species combined with functional morphology, quantitative morphological tools, experimental manipulation, and experimental evolution have been provided in the best-studied species, all of which are invertebrates. Therefore, attention to vertebrates in any of these areas is badly needed. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  4. Mechanisms and Evidence of Genital Coevolution: The Roles of Natural Selection, Mate Choice, and Sexual Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Patricia L.R.; Prum, Richard O.

    2015-01-01

    Genital coevolution between the sexes is expected to be common because of the direct interaction between male and female genitalia during copulation. Here we review the diverse mechanisms of genital coevolution that include natural selection, female mate choice, male–male competition, and how their interactions generate sexual conflict that can lead to sexually antagonistic coevolution. Natural selection on genital morphology will result in size coevolution to allow for copulation to be mechanically possible, even as other features of genitalia may reflect the action of other mechanisms of selection. Genital coevolution is explicitly predicted by at least three mechanisms of genital evolution: lock and key to prevent hybridization, female choice, and sexual conflict. Although some good examples exist in support of each of these mechanisms, more data on quantitative female genital variation and studies of functional morphology during copulation are needed to understand more general patterns. A combination of different approaches is required to continue to advance our understanding of genital coevolution. Knowledge of the ecology and behavior of the studied species combined with functional morphology, quantitative morphological tools, experimental manipulation, and experimental evolution have been provided in the best-studied species, all of which are invertebrates. Therefore, attention to vertebrates in any of these areas is badly needed. PMID:26134314

  5. Macroevolutionary patterns of bumblebee body size: detecting the interplay between natural and sexual selection

    PubMed Central

    del Castillo, Raúl Cueva; Fairbairn, Daphne J

    2012-01-01

    Bumblebees and other eusocial bees offer a unique opportunity to analyze the evolution of body size differences between sexes. The workers, being sterile females, are not subject to selection for reproductive function and thus provide a natural control for parsing the effects of selection on reproductive function (i.e., sexual and fecundity selection) from other natural selection. Using a phylogenetic comparative approach, we explored the allometric relationships among queens, males, and workers in 70 species of bumblebees (Bombus sp.). We found hyperallometry in thorax width for males relative to workers, indicating greater evolutionary divergence of body size in males than in sterile females. This is consistent with the hypothesis that selection for reproductive function, most probably sexual selection, has caused divergence in male size among species. The slope for males on workers was significantly steeper than that for queens on workers and the latter did not depart from isometry, providing further evidence of greater evolutionary divergence in male size than female size, and no evidence that reproductive selection has accelerated divergence of females. We did not detect significant hyperallometry when male size was regressed directly on queen size and our results thus add the genus Bombus to the increasing list of clades that have female-larger sexual size dimorphism and do not conform to Rensch's rule when analyzed according to standard methodology. Nevertheless, by using worker size as a common control, we were able to demonstrate that bumblee species do show the evolutionary pattern underlying Rensch's rule, that being correlated evolution of body size in males and females, but with greater evolutionary divergence in males. PMID:22408725

  6. Measuring sexual selection on females in sex-role-reversed Mormon crickets (Anabrus simplex, Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae).

    PubMed

    Robson, L J; Gwynne, D T

    2010-07-01

    Although many studies examine the form of sexual selection in males, studies characterizing this selection in females remain sparse. Sexual selection on females is predicted for sex-role-reversed Mormon crickets, Anabrus simplex, where males are choosy of mates and nutrient-deprived females compete for matings and nutritious nuptial gifts. We used selection analyses to describe the strength and form of sexual selection on female morphology. There was no positive linear sexual selection on the female body size traits predicted to be associated with male preferences and female competition. Instead, we detected selection for decreasing head width and mandible length, with stabilizing selection as the dominant form of nonlinear selection. Additionally, we tested the validity of a commonly used instantaneous measure of mating success by comparing selection results with those determined using cumulative mating rate. The two fitness measures yielded similar patterns of selection, supporting the common sampling method comparing mated and unmated fractions.

  7. Quantitative measure of sexual selection with respect to the operational sex ratio: a comparison of selection indices

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Suzanne C; Grapputo, Alessandro; Koskela, Esa; Mappes, Tapio

    2006-01-01

    Despite numerous indices proposed to predict the evolution of mating systems, a unified measure of sexual selection has remained elusive. Three previous studies have compared indices of sexual selection under laboratory conditions. Here, we use a genetic study to compare the most widely used measures of sexual selection in natural populations. We explored the mating and reproductive successes of male and female bank voles, Clethrionomys glareolus, across manipulated operational sex ratios (OSRs) by genotyping all adult and pup bank voles on 13 islands using six microsatellite loci. We used Bateman's principles (Is and I and Bateman gradients) and selection coefficients (s′ and β′) to evaluate, for the first time, the genetic mating system of bank voles and compared these measures with alternative indices of sexual selection (index of monopolization and Morisita's index) across the OSRs. We found that all the sexual selection indices show significant positive intercorrelations for both males and females, suggesting that Bateman's principles are an accurate and a valid measure of the mating system. The Bateman gradient, in particular, provides information over and above that of other sexual selection indices. Male bank voles show a greater potential for sexual selection than females, and Bateman gradients indicate a polygynandrous mating system. Selection coefficients reveal strong selection gradients on male bank vole plasma testosterone level rather than body size. PMID:17134998

  8. Intrasexual competition and sexual selection in cooperative mammals.

    PubMed

    Clutton-Brock, T H; Hodge, S J; Spong, G; Russell, A F; Jordan, N R; Bennett, N C; Sharpe, L L; Manser, M B

    2006-12-21

    In most animals, the sex that invests least in its offspring competes more intensely for access to the opposite sex and shows greater development of secondary sexual characters than the sex that invests most. However, in some mammals where females are the primary care-givers, females compete more frequently or intensely with each other than males. A possible explanation is that, in these species, the resources necessary for successful female reproduction are heavily concentrated and intrasexual competition for breeding opportunities is more intense among females than among males. Intrasexual competition between females is likely to be particularly intense in cooperative breeders where a single female monopolizes reproduction in each group. Here, we use data from a twelve-year study of wild meerkats (Suricata suricatta), where females show high levels of reproductive skew, to show that females gain greater benefits from acquiring dominant status than males and traits that increase competitive ability exert a stronger influence on their breeding success. Females that acquire dominant status also develop a suite of morphological, physiological and behavioural characteristics that help them to control other group members. Our results show that sex differences in parental investment are not the only mechanism capable of generating sex differences in reproductive competition and emphasize the extent to which competition for breeding opportunities between females can affect the evolution of sex differences and the operation of sexual selection.

  9. Sexual selection does not influence minisatellite mutation rate

    PubMed Central

    Amos, William

    2009-01-01

    Background Moller and Cuervo report a significant trend between minisatellite mutation rate and the frequency of extra-pair copulations in birds. This is interpreted as evidence that the high rate of evolution demanded by sexual selection has itself selected for a higher mutation rate in species where selection is strongest. However, there are good a priori reasons for believing that their method of calculating minisatellite mutation rates will be highly error prone and a poor surrogate measure of the evolutionary rate of genes. I therefore attempted to replicate their results using both their data and an independent data set based on papers they failed to locate. Results I find that Moller and Cuervo's data set contains numerous errors that act somewhat to strengthen their key regression. More importantly, data from uncited papers fail to replicate their reported trend and one species in particular, Vireo olivaceus, is apparently deliberately omitted, yet its inclusion removes significance from the original correlation. Over the small number of cases were comparisons can be made, mutation rate estimates do not differ between species but do vary significantly depending on the laboratory/operator. Conclusion There appears to be no clear relationship between minisatellite mutation rate and EPC rate in birds. The previously reported trend can be attributed to data transcription errors and unfortunate data selection. My analysis highlights the importance of total methodological transparency when conducting meta-analyses. PMID:19133116

  10. Sexual selection on male size drives the evolution of male-biased sexual size dimorphism via the prolongation of male development.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Patrick T; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Puniamoorthy, Nalini

    2016-06-01

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) arises when the net effects of natural and sexual selection on body size differ between the sexes. Quantitative SSD variation between taxa is common, but directional intraspecific SSD reversals are rare. We combined micro- and macroevolutionary approaches to study geographic SSD variation in closely related black scavenger flies. Common garden experiments revealed stark intra- and interspecific variation: Sepsis biflexuosa is monomorphic across the Holarctic, while S. cynipsea (only in Europe) consistently exhibits female-biased SSD. Interestingly, S. neocynipsea displays contrasting SSD in Europe (females larger) and North America (males larger), a pattern opposite to the geographic reversal in SSD of S. punctum documented in a previous study. In accordance with the differential equilibrium model for the evolution of SSD, the intensity of sexual selection on male size varied between continents (weaker in Europe), whereas fecundity selection on female body size did not. Subsequent comparative analyses of 49 taxa documented at least six independent origins of male-biased SSD in Sepsidae, which is likely caused by sexual selection on male size and mediated by bimaturism. Therefore, reversals in SSD and the associated changes in larval development might be much more common and rapid and less constrained than currently assumed. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Sexual selection uncouples the evolution of brain and body size in pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, J L; Almbro, M; Gonzalez-Voyer, A; Hamada, S; Pennington, C; Scanlan, J; Kolm, N

    2012-07-01

    The size of the vertebrate brain is shaped by a variety of selective forces. Although larger brains (correcting for body size) are thought to confer fitness advantages, energetic limitations of this costly organ may lead to trade-offs, for example as recently suggested between sexual traits and neural tissue. Here, we examine the patterns of selection on male and female brain size in pinnipeds, a group where the strength of sexual selection differs markedly among species and between the sexes. Relative brain size was negatively associated with the intensity of sexual selection in males but not females. However, analyses of the rates of body and brain size evolution showed that this apparent trade-off between sexual selection and brain mass is driven by selection for increasing body mass rather than by an actual reduction in male brain size. Our results suggest that sexual selection has important effects on the allometric relationships of neural development.

  12. Assessing the alignment of sexual and natural selection using radiomutagenized seed beetles.

    PubMed

    Power, D J; Holman, L

    2015-05-01

    A major unsolved question in evolutionary biology concerns the relationship between natural and sexual selection. Sexual selection might augment natural selection, for example if mutations that harm female fecundity also reduce male mating success. Conversely, sexual selection might favour traits that impair naturally selected fitness components. We induced detrimental mutations in Callosobruchus maculatus beetles using X-ray irradiation and then experimentally measured the effect of precopulatory sexual selection on offspring number and survival rate. Sexual selection treatment had a negative effect on egg-to-adult survivorship, although the number of progeny reaching adulthood was unaffected, perhaps because eggs and juveniles that failed to develop lessened competition on the survivors. We hypothesize that the negative effect of sexual selection arose because sexually competitive males transmitted a smaller nuptial gift or carried alleles that conferred reduced survival. Although we found no evidence that sexual selection on males can purge alleles that are detrimental to naturally selected fitness components, such benefits might exist in other environmental or genetic contexts.

  13. Hunting promotes spatial reorganization and sexually selected infanticide

    PubMed Central

    Leclerc, M.; Frank, S. C.; Zedrosser, A.; Swenson, J. E.; Pelletier, F.

    2017-01-01

    Harvest can affect the ecology and evolution of wild species. The removal of key individuals, such as matriarchs or dominant males, can disrupt social structure and exacerbate the impact of hunting on population growth. We do not know, however, how and when the spatiotemporal reorganization takes place after removal and if such changes can be the mechanism that explain a decrease in population growth. Detailed behavioral information from individually monitored brown bears, in a population where hunting increases sexually selected infanticide, revealed that adult males increased their use of home ranges of hunter-killed neighbors in the second year after their death. Use of a hunter-killed male’s home range was influenced by the survivor’s as well as the hunter-killed male’s age, population density, and hunting intensity. Our results emphasize that hunting can have long-term indirect effects which can affect population viability. PMID:28332613

  14. Natural and sexual selection in a wild insect population.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, R; Bretman, A; Slate, J; Walling, C A; Tregenza, T

    2010-06-04

    The understanding of natural and sexual selection requires both field and laboratory studies to exploit the advantages and avoid the disadvantages of each approach. However, studies have tended to be polarized among the types of organisms studied, with vertebrates studied in the field and invertebrates in the lab. We used video monitoring combined with DNA profiling of all of the members of a wild population of field crickets across two generations to capture the factors predicting the reproductive success of males and females. The factors that predict a male's success in gaining mates differ from those that predict how many offspring he has. We confirm the fundamental prediction that males vary more in their reproductive success than females, and we find that females as well as males leave more offspring when they mate with more partners.

  15. Hunting promotes spatial reorganization and sexually selected infanticide.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, M; Frank, S C; Zedrosser, A; Swenson, J E; Pelletier, F

    2017-03-23

    Harvest can affect the ecology and evolution of wild species. The removal of key individuals, such as matriarchs or dominant males, can disrupt social structure and exacerbate the impact of hunting on population growth. We do not know, however, how and when the spatiotemporal reorganization takes place after removal and if such changes can be the mechanism that explain a decrease in population growth. Detailed behavioral information from individually monitored brown bears, in a population where hunting increases sexually selected infanticide, revealed that adult males increased their use of home ranges of hunter-killed neighbors in the second year after their death. Use of a hunter-killed male's home range was influenced by the survivor's as well as the hunter-killed male's age, population density, and hunting intensity. Our results emphasize that hunting can have long-term indirect effects which can affect population viability.

  16. Sexual selection under parental choice: evidence from sixteen historical societies.

    PubMed

    Apostolou, Menelaos

    2012-08-11

    Asymmetrical fitness benefits between parents and offspring result in the ideal spouse not being the ideal in-law. This enables parents to attempt to control the mating behavior of their children, and when they succeed, parental choice becomes a primary sexual selection force. A number of studies indicate that parental choice is dominant in contemporary pre-industrial societies. This paper presents evidence from the historical record which indicates that parental choice was also dominant during the later stages of human evolution. More specifically, 40 variables have been coded for a sample of 16 historical societies. Consistent with the model of parental choice, it is found that mating is controlled by parents, male parents exercise more control over marriage arrangements than females, and more control is exercised over female than male offspring. Finally, the specific qualities that parents desire in an in-law and offspring desire in a spouse have also been identified. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  17. Sexual selection in hermaphrodites: where did our ideas come from?

    PubMed

    Ghiselin, Michael T

    2006-08-01

    Interpretations of hermaphroditism have been influenced by the old idea that organisms can be arranged in a series from lower to higher, with human beings at the top, leading toward the angels and God (the scala naturae). The consequent notion that hermaphroditism is a primitive condition is still with us. Such issues need to be addressed empirically, in a phylogenetic context. Darwin's theory of sexual selection provided the key to understanding sex switches, but it was not invoked until 1969 when it was conjoined with ideas about relative size influenced by the work of Bernhard Rensch. In principle the problem could have been solved a century earlier, and genetics was misleading rather than helpful. What really helped was an appreciation of Darwin's nonteleological way of thinking.

  18. Structural adaptations to diverse fighting styles in sexually selected weapons

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Erin L.; Tobalske, Bret W.; Emlen, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    The shapes of sexually selected weapons differ widely among species, but the drivers of this diversity remain poorly understood. Existing explanations suggest weapon shapes reflect structural adaptations to different fighting styles, yet explicit tests of this hypothesis are lacking. We constructed finite element models of the horns of different rhinoceros beetle species to test whether functional specializations for increased performance under species-specific fighting styles could have contributed to the diversification of weapon form. We find that horns are both stronger and stiffer in response to species-typical fighting loads and that they perform more poorly under atypical fighting loads, which suggests weapons are structurally adapted to meet the functional demands of fighting. Our research establishes a critical link between weapon form and function, revealing one way male–male competition can drive the diversification of animal weapons. PMID:25201949

  19. Convergent recombination suppression suggests role of sexual selection in guppy sex chromosome formation

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Alison E.; Darolti, Iulia; Bloch, Natasha I.; Oostra, Vicencio; Sandkam, Ben; Buechel, Severine D.; Kolm, Niclas; Breden, Felix; Vicoso, Beatriz; Mank, Judith E.

    2017-01-01

    Sex chromosomes evolve once recombination is halted between a homologous pair of chromosomes. The dominant model of sex chromosome evolution posits that recombination is suppressed between emerging X and Y chromosomes in order to resolve sexual conflict. Here we test this model using whole genome and transcriptome resequencing data in the guppy, a model for sexual selection with many Y-linked colour traits. We show that although the nascent Y chromosome encompasses nearly half of the linkage group, there has been no perceptible degradation of Y chromosome gene content or activity. Using replicate wild populations with differing levels of sexually antagonistic selection for colour, we also show that sexual selection leads to greater expansion of the non-recombining region and increased Y chromosome divergence. These results provide empirical support for longstanding models of sex chromosome catalysis, and suggest an important role for sexual selection and sexual conflict in genome evolution. PMID:28139647

  20. Pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection favor aggressive, young males in polyandrous groups of red junglefowl.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Grant C; Spurgin, Lewis G; Fairfield, Eleanor A; Richardson, David S; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2017-03-28

    A challenge in evolutionary biology is to understand the operation of sexual selection on males in polyandrous groups, where sexual selection occurs before and after mating. Here, we combine fine-grained behavioural information (>41,000 interactions) with molecular parentage data to study sexual selection in replicated, age-structured groups of polyandrous red junglefowl, Gallus gallus. Male reproductive success was determined by the number of females mated (precopulatory sexual selection) and his paternity share, which was driven by the polyandry of his female partners (postcopulatory sexual selection). Pre- and postcopulatory components of male reproductive success covaried positively; males with high mating success also had high paternity share. Two male phenotypes affected male pre- and postcopulatory performance: average aggressiveness towards rival males and age. Aggressive males mated with more females and more often with individual females, resulting in higher sexual exclusivity. Younger males mated with more females and more often with individual females, suffering less intense sperm competition than older males. Older males had a lower paternity share even allowing for their limited sexual exclusivity, indicating they may produce less competitive ejaculates. These results indicate that - in these populations - postcopulatory sexual selection reinforces precopulatory sexual selection, consistently promoting younger and more aggressive males. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Mode selective directional coupler for NLC

    SciTech Connect

    Tantawi, S.G.

    1994-10-01

    The design method for a high power, X-band, 50 dB, circular to rectangular directional coupler is presented. The circular guide is over moded and is intended to operate in TE{sub 01} mode. The rectangular guide operates at the fundamental TE{sub 10} mode. A small percentage of higher order modes in the circular guide can cause considerable errors in the measurements because the magnitude of the axial magnetic field of these modes is higher than that of the operating mode, especially near their cutoff. We used a Hamming window patten for the coupling slots to achieve mode selectivity. Comparison of theory and experiment will be presented.

  2. Mate choice and sexual selection: What have we learned since Darwin?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Adam G.; Ratterman, Nicholas L.

    2009-01-01

    Charles Darwin laid the foundation for all modern work on sexual selection in his seminal book The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. In this work, Darwin fleshed out the mechanism of sexual selection, a hypothesis that he had proposed in The Origin of Species. He went well beyond a simple description of the phenomenon by providing extensive evidence and considering the far-reaching implications of the idea. Here we consider the contributions of Darwin to sexual selection with a particular eye on how far we have progressed in the last 150 years. We focus on 2 key questions in sexual selection. First, why does mate choice evolve at all? And second, what factors determine the strength of mate choice (or intensity of sexual selection) in each sex? Darwin provided partial answers to these questions, and the progress that has been made on both of these topics since his time should be seen as one of the great triumphs of modern evolutionary biology. However, a review of the literature shows that key aspects of sexual selection are still plagued by confusion and disagreement. Many of these areas are complex and will require new theory and empirical data for complete resolution. Overall, Darwin's contributions are still surprisingly relevant to the modern study of sexual selection, so students of evolutionary biology would be well advised to revisit his works. Although we have made significant progress in some areas of sexual selection research, we still have much to accomplish. PMID:19528643

  3. Variable environmental effects on a multicomponent sexually selected trait.

    PubMed

    Cole, Gemma L; Endler, John A

    2015-04-01

    Multicomponent signals are made up of interacting elements that generate a functional signaling unit. The interactions between signal components and their effects on individual fitness are not well understood, and the effect of environment is even less so. It is usually assumed that color patterns appear the same in all light environments and that the effects of each color are additive. Using guppies, Poecilia reticulata, we investigated the effect of water color on the interactions between components of sexually selected male coloration. Through behavioral mate choice trials in four different water colors, we estimated the attractiveness of male color patterns, using multivariate fitness estimates and overall signal contrast. Our results show that females exhibit preferences that favor groups of colors rather than individual colors independently and that each environment favors different color combinations. We found that these effects are consistent with female guppies selecting entire color patterns on the basis of overall visual contrast. This suggests that both individuals and populations inhabiting different light environments will be subject to divergent, multivariate selection. Although the appearance of color patterns changes with light environment, achromatic components change little, suggesting that these could function in species recognition or other aspects of communication that must work across environments. Consequently, we predict different phylogenetic patterns between chromatic and achromatic signals within the same clades.

  4. The roles of life-history selection and sexual selection in the adaptive evolution of mating behavior in a beetle.

    PubMed

    Maklakov, Alexei A; Cayetano, Luis; Brooks, Robert C; Bonduriansky, Russell

    2010-05-01

    Although there is continuing debate about whether sexual selection promotes or impedes adaptation to novel environments, the role of mating behavior in such adaptation remains largely unexplored. We investigated the evolution of mating behavior (latency to mating, mating probability and duration) in replicate populations of seed beetles Callosobruchus maculatus subjected to selection on life-history ("Young" vs. "Old" reproduction) under contrasting regimes of sexual selection ("Monogamy" vs. "Polygamy"). Life-history selection is predicted to favor delayed mating in "Old" females, but sexual conflict under polygamy can potentially retard adaptive life-history evolution. We found that life-history selection yielded the predicted changes in mating behavior, but sexual selection regime had no net effect. In within-line crosses, populations selected for late reproduction showed equally reduced early-life mating probability regardless of mating system. In between-line crosses, however, the effect of life-history selection on early-life mating probability was stronger in polygamous lines than in monogamous ones. Thus, although mating system influenced male-female coevolution, removal of sexual selection did not affect the adaptive evolution of mating behavior. Importantly, our study shows that the interaction between sexual selection and life-history selection can result in either increased or decreased reproductive divergence depending on the ecological context.

  5. Mating portfolios: bet-hedging, sexual selection and female multiple mating.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; Yasui, Yukio; Evans, Jonathan P

    2015-01-07

    Polyandry (female multiple mating) has profound evolutionary and ecological implications. Despite considerable work devoted to understanding why females mate multiply, we currently lack convincing empirical evidence to explain the adaptive value of polyandry. Here, we provide a direct test of the controversial idea that bet-hedging functions as a risk-spreading strategy that yields multi-generational fitness benefits to polyandrous females. Unfortunately, testing this hypothesis is far from trivial, and the empirical comparison of the across-generations fitness payoffs of a polyandrous (bet hedger) versus a monandrous (non-bet hedger) strategy has never been accomplished because of numerous experimental constraints presented by most 'model' species. In this study, we take advantage of the extraordinary tractability and versatility of a marine broadcast spawning invertebrate to overcome these challenges. We are able to simulate multi-generational (geometric mean) fitness among individual females assigned simultaneously to a polyandrous and monandrous mating strategy. Our approaches, which separate and account for the effects of sexual selection and pure bet-hedging scenarios, reveal that bet-hedging, in addition to sexual selection, can enhance evolutionary fitness in multiply mated females. In addition to offering a tractable experimental approach for addressing bet-hedging theory, our study provides key insights into the evolutionary ecology of sexual interactions.

  6. Mating portfolios: bet-hedging, sexual selection and female multiple mating

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; Yasui, Yukio; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    Polyandry (female multiple mating) has profound evolutionary and ecological implications. Despite considerable work devoted to understanding why females mate multiply, we currently lack convincing empirical evidence to explain the adaptive value of polyandry. Here, we provide a direct test of the controversial idea that bet-hedging functions as a risk-spreading strategy that yields multi-generational fitness benefits to polyandrous females. Unfortunately, testing this hypothesis is far from trivial, and the empirical comparison of the across-generations fitness payoffs of a polyandrous (bet hedger) versus a monandrous (non-bet hedger) strategy has never been accomplished because of numerous experimental constraints presented by most ‘model’ species. In this study, we take advantage of the extraordinary tractability and versatility of a marine broadcast spawning invertebrate to overcome these challenges. We are able to simulate multi-generational (geometric mean) fitness among individual females assigned simultaneously to a polyandrous and monandrous mating strategy. Our approaches, which separate and account for the effects of sexual selection and pure bet-hedging scenarios, reveal that bet-hedging, in addition to sexual selection, can enhance evolutionary fitness in multiply mated females. In addition to offering a tractable experimental approach for addressing bet-hedging theory, our study provides key insights into the evolutionary ecology of sexual interactions. PMID:25411448

  7. Sexual Assaults Under the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ): Selected Legislative Proposals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-06

    Sexual Assaults Under the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ): Selected Legislative Proposals R. Chuck Mason Legislative Attorney...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sexual Assaults Under the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ): Selected Legislative Proposals 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Sexual Assaults Under the

  8. Sexual minorities and selection of a primary care physician in a midwestern U.S. city.

    PubMed

    Labig, Chalmer E; Peterson, Tim O

    2006-01-01

    How and why sexual minorities select a primary care physician is critical to the development of methods for attracting these clients to a physician's practice. Data obtained from a sample of sexual minorities in a mid-size city in our nation's heartland would indicate that these patients are loyal when the primary care physician has a positive attitude toward their sexual orientation. The data also confirms that most sexual minorities select same sex physicians but not necessarily same sexual orientation physicians because of lack of knowledge of physicians' sexual orientation. Family practice physicians and other primary care physicians can reach out to this population by encouraging word of mouth advertising and by displaying literature on health issues for all sexual orientations in their offices.

  9. Monoclonal antibodies directed against the sexual binding site of Chlamydomonas eugametos gametes

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were raised against the mt- sexual agglutinin of Chlamydomonas eugametos gametes. Those that blocked the agglutination site were selected. They were divided into two classes dependent upon whether they gave a weak (class A) or clear positive (class B) reaction with mt- flagellar membranes in an ELISA and an indirect immunofluorescence test using glutaraldehyde-fixed mt- gametes. Class A antibodies were shown to be specific for the agglutinin in an extract of mt- gametes, based on results from immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, affinity chromatography, and the absence of a reaction with nonagglutinable cells. Surprisingly, class A mAbs also recognized two mt+ glycoproteins, one of which is the mt+ agglutinin. Class B antibodies were shown to bind to several glycoproteins in both mt- and mt+ gametes, including the mt- agglutinin. Fab fragments from class A mAbs blocked the sexual agglutination process, but those from class B did not, even though the parent antibody did. We conclude that the class A epitope lies in or close to the agglutination site of the mt- agglutinin, whereas the class B epitope lies elsewhere on the molecule. We also conclude that the mt- agglutinin is the only component on the mt- flagellar surface directly involved in agglutination. Class A mAbs were found to elicit several reactions displayed by the mt+ agglutinin. They bound to the mt- agglutinin on gamete flagella and induced most of the reactions typical of sexual agglutination, with the exception of flagellar tip activation. None of these reactions was induced by Fab fragments. High concentrations of class A mAbs completely repressed the sexual competence of live mt- gametes, but low concentrations stimulated cell fusion. PMID:3292540

  10. The pathogen transmission avoidance theory of sexual selection

    SciTech Connect

    Loehle, C.

    1997-08-01

    The current theory that sexual selection results from female preference for males with good genes suffers from several problems. An alternative explanation, the pathogen transmission avoidance hypothesis, argues that the primary function of showy traits is to provide a reliable signal of current disease status, so that sick individuals can be avoided during mating. This study shows that a significant risk of pathogen transmission occurs during mating and that showy traits are reliable indicators of current disease status. The origin of female choosiness is argued to lie in a general tendency to avoid sick individuals, even in the absence of showy traits, which originate as exaggerations of normal traits that are indicative of good health (bright feathers, vigorous movement, large size). Thus, in this new model the origins of both showy traits and female choosiness are not problematic and there is no threshold effect. This model predicts that when the possession of male showy traits does not help to reduce disease in the female, showy traits are unlikely to occur. This case corresponds to thorough exposure of every animal to all group pathogens, on average, in large groups. Such species are shown with a large data set on birds to be less likely to exhibit showy traits. The good-genes model does not make this prediction. The pathogen transmission avoidance model can also lead to the evolution of showy traits even when selection is not effective against a given pathogen (e.g., when there is no heritable variation for resistance), but can result in selection for resistance if such genes are present. Monogamy is argued to reduce selection pressures for showy traits; data show monogamous species to be both less parasitized and less showy. In the context of reduction of pathogen transmission rates in showy populations, selection pressure becomes inversely frequency-dependent, which makes showy traits likely to be self-limiting rather than runaway.

  11. Surveys on sexual health: recent developments and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Wellings, K.; Cleland, J.

    2001-01-01

    The increasingly widespread adoption of the term sexual health reflects a move away from the medicalisation of this specialty. The focus has shifted from clinical practice to lifestyle and behaviour; from clinician to client, and from treatment to prevention. This article discusses these themes, identifying their implications for sexual health research. Recent times have seen, for example, a growing number of studies combining biological and behavioural measures conducted by interdisciplinary teams able to combine biomedical measurements of morbidity with insights into the subjective interpretations of symptoms and consequences. Considerable progress has been made, too, in mounting community based studies, and much has been achieved in gaining compliance and refining sampling methods. Integrated sexual health services, encompassing more than contraceptive or prophylactic service provision, have provided the impetus to investigation of the costs and benefits of coordinated family planning and genitourinary medicine services. Despite its broader focus, there remain opportunities for sexual health research to expand its remit. Studies to date may have focused too narrowly on pathological, to the neglect of health enhancing, consequences of sexual behaviour. Key Words: surveys; sexual health PMID:11463921

  12. Exploring Mechanisms of Selective Directed Forgetting

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Carmen; Gómez-Ariza, Carlos J.; Andrés, Pilar; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Bajo, Ma T.

    2017-01-01

    While some studies have shown that providing a cue to selectively forget one subset of previously learned facts may cause specific forgetting of this information, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this memory phenomenon. In three experiments, we aimed to better understand the nature of the selective directed forgetting (SDF) effect. Participants studied a List 1 consisting of 18 sentences regarding two (or three) different characters and a List 2 consisting of sentences regarding an additional character. In Experiment 1, we explored the role of rehearsal as the mechanism producing SDF by examining the effect of articulatory suppression after List 1 and during List 2 presentation. In Experiments 2 and 3, we explored the role of attentional control mechanisms by introducing a concurrent updating task after List 1 and during List 2 (Experiment 2) and by manipulating the number of characters to be selectively forgotten (1 out of 3 vs. 2 out of 3). Results from the three experiments suggest that neither rehearsal nor context change seem to be the mechanisms underlying SDF, while the pattern of results is consistent with an inhibitory account. In addition, whatever the responsible mechanism is, SDF seems to rely on the available attentional resources and the demands of the task. Our results join other findings to show that SDF is a robust phenomenon and suggest boundary conditions for the effect to be observed. PMID:28316584

  13. The role of ecology in speciation by sexual selection: a systematic empirical review.

    PubMed

    Scordato, Elizabeth S C; Symes, Laurel B; Mendelson, Tamra C; Safran, Rebecca J

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical research indicates that sexual selection interacts with the ecological context in which mate choice occurs, suggesting that sexual and natural selection act together during the evolution of premating reproductive isolation. However, the relative importance of natural and sexual selection to speciation remains poorly understood. Here, we applied a recent conceptual framework for examining interactions between mate choice divergence and ecological context to a review of the empirical literature on speciation by sexual selection. This framework defines two types of interactions between mate choice and ecology: internal interactions, wherein natural and sexual selection jointly influence divergence in sexual signal traits and preferences, and external interactions, wherein sexual selection alone acts on traits and preferences but ecological context shapes the transmission efficacy of sexual signals. The objectives of this synthesis were 3-fold: to summarize the traits, ecological factors, taxa, and geographic contexts involved in studies of mate choice divergence; to analyze patterns of association between these variables; and to identify the most common types of interactions between mate choice and ecological factors. Our analysis revealed that certain traits are consistently associated with certain ecological factors. Moreover, among studies that examined a divergent sexually selected trait and an ecological factor, internal interactions were more common than external interactions. Trait-preference associations may thus frequently be subject to both sexual and natural selection in cases of divergent mate choice. Our results highlight the importance of interactions between sexual selection and ecology in mate choice divergence and suggest areas for future research. © The American Genetic Association. 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Pathways to Adult Sexual Revictimization: Direct and Indirect Behavioral Risk Factors across the Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fargo, Jamison D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate direct and indirect social and behavioral risk factors for adult sexual revictimization. Participants include 147 adult, predominantly African American (88%) women, 59% of whom had a documented history of child sexual abuse. Participants are interviewed in adulthood about adolescent and adult sexual…

  15. Pathways to Adult Sexual Revictimization: Direct and Indirect Behavioral Risk Factors across the Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fargo, Jamison D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate direct and indirect social and behavioral risk factors for adult sexual revictimization. Participants include 147 adult, predominantly African American (88%) women, 59% of whom had a documented history of child sexual abuse. Participants are interviewed in adulthood about adolescent and adult sexual…

  16. Laboratory selection for an accelerated mosquito sexual development rate

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    accelerated sexual maturation when compared with the wild strain. This outcome demonstrates the kinds of selection that can be expected during insect colonization and maintenance, particularly when generations are non-overlapping and similar-age males must compete for mates. PMID:21595988

  17. Evolution of an avian pigmentation gene correlates with a measure of sexual selection

    PubMed Central

    Nadeau, Nicola J; Burke, Terry; Mundy, Nicholas I

    2007-01-01

    The extravagant plumage traits of male birds are a favourite example of sexual selection. However, to date the units that selection is acting upon, the genes themselves have been a ‘black box’. Here, we report evidence of change driven by sexual selection at a pigmentation gene locus in the galliform birds. Across species, we find a correlation between the rate of amino acid change (dN/dS) at this locus (MC1R) and the degree of sexual dichromatism, which we use as a measure of the strength of sexual selection. There is no evidence for a similar pattern in any of five other loci (four candidate and one control locus). This is consistent with previous work on colour polymorphisms and suggests that MC1R may be a key target for selection acting on plumage colour. The pattern of selection at MC1R seems to be consistent with the continuous or cyclical evolution of traits and preferences that is the outcome of several Fisherian and good-genes models of sexual selection. In contrast, we found no support for models of sexual selection that predict an increase in purifying selection as a result of purging of deleterious mutations or for models that predict an increased rate of mutation in association with stronger sexual selection. PMID:17504743

  18. The intensity of sexual selection predicts weapon size in male bovids.

    PubMed

    Bro-Jørgensen, Jakob

    2007-06-01

    As a classical example of a sexually selected trait, the horns of male bovids offer a prime opportunity to identify predictors of the intensity of sexual selection. Here I use the comparative method to quantify sexual and natural selection pressures behind interspecific variation in horn length. I show that male horn length depends on factors proposed to affect the mean mate number per mating male, correlating positively with group size and negatively with male territoriality. This suggests that whereas group size increases the opportunity for sexual selection, territoriality reduces it because territorial males are unable to follow and monopolize female groups as effectively as males in nonterritorial species. Sexual body size dimorphism also correlates positively with group size and negatively with territoriality, corroborating these factors as predictors of the intensity of sexual selection on males. Female horn length was unaffected by the factors related to mating system, suggesting that this trait is mainly under natural selection. Using female horn length as a proxy for forces of natural selection revealed a negative effect on male horn length. Thus where natural selection favors female horns, possibly as effective weapons against predators, a similar selection pressure on males might prevent them from evolving too elaborate horns through sexual selection. There was no correlation found between horn length and latitude, thus providing no support for the hypothesis that horns have a thermoregulatory function.

  19. Sexual selection and canine dimorphism in New World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kay, R F; Plavcan, J M; Glander, K E; Wright, P C

    1988-11-01

    Social and ecological factors are important in shaping sexual dimorphism in Anthropoidea, but there is also a tendency for body-size dimorphism and canine dimorphism to increase with increased body size (Rensch's rule) (Rensch: Evolution Above the Species Level. London: Methuen, 1959.) Most ecologist interpret Rensch's rule to be a consequence of social and ecological selective factors that covary with body size, but recent claims have been advanced that dimorphism is principally a consequence of selection for increased body size alone. Here we assess the effects of body size, body-size dimorphism, and social structure on canine dimorphism among platyrrhine monkeys. Platyrrhine species examined are classified into four behavioral groups reflecting the intensity of intermale competition for access to females or to limiting resources. As canine dimorphism increases, so does the level of intermale competition. Those species with monogamous and polyandrous social structures have the lowest canine dimorphism, while those with dominance rank hierarchies of males have the most canine dimorphism. Species with fission-fusion social structures and transitory intermale breeding-season competition fall between these extremes. Among platyrrhines there is a significant positive correlation between body size and canine dimorphism However, within levels of competition, no significant correlation was found between the two. Also, with increased body size, body-size dimorphism tends to increase, and this correlation holds in some cases within competition levels. In an analysis of covariance, once the level of intermale competition is controlled for, neither molar size nor molar-size dimorphism accounts for a significant part of the variance in canine dimorphism. A similar analysis using body weight as a measure of size and dimorphism yields a less clear-cut picture: body weight contributes significantly to the model when the effects of the other factors are controlled. Finally, in a

  20. Darwinian aesthetics: sexual selection and the biology of beauty.

    PubMed

    Grammer, Karl; Fink, Bernhard; Møller, Anders P; Thornhill, Randy

    2003-08-01

    Current theoretical and empirical findings suggest that mate preferences are mainly cued on visual, vocal and chemical cues that reveal health including developmental health. Beautiful and irresistible features have evolved numerous times in plants and animals due to sexual selection, and such preferences and beauty standards provide evidence for the claim that human beauty and obsession with bodily beauty are mirrored in analogous traits and tendencies throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. Human beauty standards reflect our evolutionary distant and recent past and emphasize the role of health assessment in mate choice as reflected by analyses of the attractiveness of visual characters of the face and the body, but also of vocal and olfactory signals. Although beauty standards may vary between cultures and between times, we show in this review that the underlying selection pressures, which shaped the standards, are the same. Moreover we show that it is not the content of the standards that show evidence of convergence--it is the rules or how we construct beauty ideals that have universalities across cultures. These findings have implications for medical, social and biological sciences.

  1. Mutation-order divergence by sexual selection: diversification of sexual signals in similar environments as a first step in speciation.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Tamra C; Martin, Michael D; Flaxman, Samuel M

    2014-09-01

    The origin of species remains a central question, and recent research focuses on the role of ecological differences in promoting speciation. Ecological differences create opportunities for divergent selection (i.e. 'ecological' speciation), a Darwinian hypothesis that hardly requires justification. In contrast, 'mutation-order' speciation proposes that, instead of adapting to different environments, populations find different ways to adapt to similar environments, implying that speciation does not require ecological differences. This distinction is critical as it provides an alternative hypothesis to the prevailing view that ecological differences drive speciation. Speciation by sexual selection lies at the centre of debates about the importance of ecological differences in promoting speciation; here, we present verbal and mathematical models of mutation-order divergence by sexual selection. We develop three general cases and provide a two-locus population genetic model for each. Results indicate that alternative secondary sexual traits can fix in populations that initially experience similar natural and sexual selection and that divergent traits and preferences can remain stable in the face of low gene flow. This stable divergence can facilitate subsequent divergence that completes or reinforces speciation. We argue that a mutation-order process could explain widespread diversity in secondary sexual traits among closely related, allopatric species.

  2. Direction Selectivity in Drosophila Emerges from Preferred-Direction Enhancement and Null-Direction Suppression.

    PubMed

    Leong, Jonathan Chit Sing; Esch, Jennifer Judson; Poole, Ben; Ganguli, Surya; Clandinin, Thomas Robert

    2016-08-03

    Across animal phyla, motion vision relies on neurons that respond preferentially to stimuli moving in one, preferred direction over the opposite, null direction. In the elementary motion detector of Drosophila, direction selectivity emerges in two neuron types, T4 and T5, but the computational algorithm underlying this selectivity remains unknown. We find that the receptive fields of both T4 and T5 exhibit spatiotemporally offset light-preferring and dark-preferring subfields, each obliquely oriented in spacetime. In a linear-nonlinear modeling framework, the spatiotemporal organization of the T5 receptive field predicts the activity of T5 in response to motion stimuli. These findings demonstrate that direction selectivity emerges from the enhancement of responses to motion in the preferred direction, as well as the suppression of responses to motion in the null direction. Thus, remarkably, T5 incorporates the essential algorithmic strategies used by the Hassenstein-Reichardt correlator and the Barlow-Levick detector. Our model for T5 also provides an algorithmic explanation for the selectivity of T5 for moving dark edges: our model captures all two- and three-point spacetime correlations relevant to motion in this stimulus class. More broadly, our findings reveal the contribution of input pathway visual processing, specifically center-surround, temporally biphasic receptive fields, to the generation of direction selectivity in T5. As the spatiotemporal receptive field of T5 in Drosophila is common to the simple cell in vertebrate visual cortex, our stimulus-response model of T5 will inform efforts in an experimentally tractable context to identify more detailed, mechanistic models of a prevalent computation. Feature selective neurons respond preferentially to astonishingly specific stimuli, providing the neurobiological basis for perception. Direction selectivity serves as a paradigmatic model of feature selectivity that has been examined in many species. While

  3. Direction Selectivity in Drosophila Emerges from Preferred-Direction Enhancement and Null-Direction Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Jonathan Chit Sing; Esch, Jennifer Judson; Poole, Ben; Ganguli, Surya

    2016-01-01

    Across animal phyla, motion vision relies on neurons that respond preferentially to stimuli moving in one, preferred direction over the opposite, null direction. In the elementary motion detector of Drosophila, direction selectivity emerges in two neuron types, T4 and T5, but the computational algorithm underlying this selectivity remains unknown. We find that the receptive fields of both T4 and T5 exhibit spatiotemporally offset light-preferring and dark-preferring subfields, each obliquely oriented in spacetime. In a linear-nonlinear modeling framework, the spatiotemporal organization of the T5 receptive field predicts the activity of T5 in response to motion stimuli. These findings demonstrate that direction selectivity emerges from the enhancement of responses to motion in the preferred direction, as well as the suppression of responses to motion in the null direction. Thus, remarkably, T5 incorporates the essential algorithmic strategies used by the Hassenstein–Reichardt correlator and the Barlow–Levick detector. Our model for T5 also provides an algorithmic explanation for the selectivity of T5 for moving dark edges: our model captures all two- and three-point spacetime correlations relevant to motion in this stimulus class. More broadly, our findings reveal the contribution of input pathway visual processing, specifically center-surround, temporally biphasic receptive fields, to the generation of direction selectivity in T5. As the spatiotemporal receptive field of T5 in Drosophila is common to the simple cell in vertebrate visual cortex, our stimulus-response model of T5 will inform efforts in an experimentally tractable context to identify more detailed, mechanistic models of a prevalent computation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Feature selective neurons respond preferentially to astonishingly specific stimuli, providing the neurobiological basis for perception. Direction selectivity serves as a paradigmatic model of feature selectivity that has been

  4. Sexual selection as a consequence of pathogen avoidance behaviors

    SciTech Connect

    Loehle, C.; Logofet, D.O.

    1997-08-01

    The current theory that sexual selection results from female choice for good genes suffers from several problems. An alternative explanation is proposed. The pathogen avoidance hypothesis argues that the primary function of showy traits is to provide a reliable signal of current disease status so that sick individuals may be avoided during mating. Our studies shown that a significant risk of pathogen transmission occurs during mating and that showy traits are reliable indicators of current disease status. The origin of female choosiness is argued to lie in a general tendency to avoid sick individuals, even in the absence of showy traits. The showy traits are argued to originate as simple exaggerations of normal traits that are indicative of good health (bright feathers; vigorous movement; large size). Thus the origins of both showy traits and female choosiness are not problematic in this theory. A game theory analysis is employed to formalize the theory. Results of the game theory model support the theory. In particular, when the possession of male showy traits does not help reduce disease in the female, then showy traits are unlikely to occur. This case corresponds to the situation in large flocks or herds in which every animal is thoroughly exposed to all group pathogens on average. Such species do not exhibit showy traits. The good genes model does not make this prediction. The pathogen avoidance model can also lead to the evolution of showy traits even when selection is not effective against a given pathogen (e.g., when there is no heritable variation for resistance) but will lead to selection for resistance if such genes are present. Overall, the pathogen avoidance hypothesis provides a complete alternative to the good genes theory.

  5. A Program on Preventing Sexual Assault Directed toward Greek Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Tamara; Boyd, Cynthia

    This paper discusses a program that uses the leadership and status of Greek system officers to prevent sexual assault at a large university. This program aims to prevent future assaults by altering the conditions of a rape-prone culture. The presentation comprises a definition and two examples of acquaintance rape situations, a discussion of…

  6. Sexual selection and population divergence I: The influence of socially flexible cuticular hydrocarbon expression in male field crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus).

    PubMed

    Pascoal, Sonia; Mendrok, Magdalena; Mitchell, Christopher; Wilson, Alastair J; Hunt, John; Bailey, Nathan W

    2016-01-01

    Debates about how coevolution of sexual traits and preferences might promote evolutionary diversification have permeated speciation research for over a century. Recent work demonstrates that the expression of such traits can be sensitive to variation in the social environment. Here, we examined social flexibility in a sexually selected male trait-cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles-in the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus and tested whether population genetic divergence predicts the extent or direction of social flexibility in allopatric populations. We manipulated male crickets' social environments during rearing and then characterized CHC profiles. CHC signatures varied considerably across populations and also in response to the social environment, but our prediction that increased social flexibility would be selected in more recently founded populations exposed to fluctuating demographic environments was unsupported. Furthermore, models examining the influence of drift and selection failed to support a role of sexual selection in driving population divergence in CHC profiles. Variation in social environments might alter the dynamics of sexual selection, but our results align with theoretical predictions that the role social flexibility plays in modulating evolutionary divergence depends critically on whether responses to variation in the social environment are homogeneous across populations, or whether gene by social environment interactions occur.

  7. Coevolution of parental investment and sexually selected traits drives sex-role divergence

    PubMed Central

    Fromhage, Lutz; Jennions, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Sex-role evolution theory attempts to explain the origin and direction of male–female differences. A fundamental question is why anisogamy, the difference in gamete size that defines the sexes, has repeatedly led to large differences in subsequent parental care. Here we construct models to confirm predictions that individuals benefit less from caring when they face stronger sexual selection and/or lower certainty of parentage. However, we overturn the widely cited claim that a negative feedback between the operational sex ratio and the opportunity cost of care selects for egalitarian sex roles. We further argue that our model does not predict any effect of the adult sex ratio (ASR) that is independent of the source of ASR variation. Finally, to increase realism and unify earlier models, we allow for coevolution between parental investment and investment in sexually selected traits. Our model confirms that small initial differences in parental investment tend to increase due to positive evolutionary feedback, formally supporting long-standing, but unsubstantiated, verbal arguments. PMID:27535478

  8. Sexual Selection of Human Cooperative Behaviour: An Experimental Study in Rural Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Tognetti, Arnaud; Berticat, Claire; Raymond, Michel; Faurie, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Human cooperation in large groups and between non-kin individuals remains a Darwinian puzzle. Investigations into whether and how sexual selection is involved in the evolution of cooperation represent a new and important research direction. Here, 69 groups of four men or four women recruited from a rural population in Senegal played a sequential public-good game in the presence of out-group observers, either of the same sex or of the opposite sex. At the end of the game, participants could donate part of their gain to the village school in the presence of the same observers. Both contributions to the public good and donations to the school, which reflect different components of cooperativeness, were influenced by the sex of the observers. The results suggest that in this non-Western population, sexual selection acts mainly on men’s cooperative behaviour with non-kin, whereas women’s cooperativeness is mainly influenced by nonsexual social selection. PMID:22984503

  9. Timing as a sexually selected trait: the right mate at the right moment.

    PubMed

    Hau, Michaela; Dominoni, Davide; Casagrande, Stefania; Buck, C Loren; Wagner, Gabriela; Hazlerigg, David; Greives, Timothy; Hut, Roelof A

    2017-11-19

    Sexual selection favours the expression of traits in one sex that attract members of the opposite sex for mating. The nature of sexually selected traits such as vocalization, colour and ornamentation, their fitness benefits as well as their costs have received ample attention in field and laboratory studies. However, sexually selected traits may not always be expressed: coloration and ornaments often follow a seasonal pattern and behaviours may be displayed only at specific times of the day. Despite the widely recognized differences in the daily and seasonal timing of traits and their consequences for reproductive success, the actions of sexual selection on the temporal organization of traits has received only scant attention. Drawing on selected examples from bird and mammal studies, here we summarize the current evidence for the daily and seasonal timing of traits. We highlight that molecular advances in chronobiology have opened exciting new opportunities for identifying the genetic targets that sexual selection may act on to shape the timing of trait expression. Furthermore, known genetic links between daily and seasonal timing mechanisms lead to the hypothesis that selection on one timescale may simultaneously also affect the other. We emphasize that studies on the timing of sexual displays of both males and females from wild populations will be invaluable for understanding the nature of sexual selection and its potential to act on differences within and between the sexes in timing. Molecular approaches will be important for pinpointing genetic components of biological rhythms that are targeted by sexual selection, and to clarify whether these represent core or peripheral components of endogenous clocks. Finally, we call for a renewed integration of the fields of evolution, behavioural ecology and chronobiology to tackle the exciting question of how sexual selection contributes to the evolution of biological clocks.This article is part of the themed issue

  10. a Genetic Algorithm Based on Sexual Selection for the Multidimensional 0/1 Knapsack Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varnamkhasti, Mohammad Jalali; Lee, Lai Soon

    In this study, a new technique is presented for choosing mate chromosomes during sexual selection in a genetic algorithm. The population is divided into groups of males and females. During the sexual selection, the female chromosome is selected by the tournament selection while the male chromosome is selected based on the hamming distance from the selected female chromosome, fitness value or active genes. Computational experiments are conducted on the proposed technique and the results are compared with some selection mechanisms commonly used for solving multidimensional 0/1 knapsack problems published in the literature.

  11. A study of time- and sex-dependent effects of vortioxetine on rat sexual behavior: Possible roles of direct receptor modulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Pehrson, Alan L; Oosting, Ronald S; Gulinello, Maria; Olivier, Berend; Sanchez, Connie

    2017-07-15

    Treatment-related sexual dysfunction is a common side effect of antidepressants and contributes to patient non-compliance or treatment cessation. However, the multimodal antidepressant, vortioxetine, demonstrates low sexual side effects in depressed patients. To investigate the mechanisms involved, sexual behavior was assessed in male and female rats after acute, and repeated (7 and 14 days) treatment with vortioxetine, flesinoxan (a 5-HT1A receptor agonist), CP-94253 (a 5-HT1B receptor agonist), or ondansetron (a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist). These selective ligands were chosen to simulate vortioxetine's direct modulation of these receptors. Paroxetine was also included in the male study. Acute and repeated treatment with vortioxetine at doses corresponding to clinical levels (based on serotonin transporter occupancy) had minimal effects on sexual behavior in male and female rats. High dose vortioxetine plus flesinoxan (to mimic predicted clinical levels of 5-HT1A receptor occupancy by vortioxetine) facilitated male rat sexual behavior (acutely) while inhibiting female rat proceptive behavior (both acutely and after 14 days treatment). The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, paroxetine, inhibited male sexual behavior after repeated administration (7 and 14 days). Flesinoxan alone facilitated male sexual behavior acutely while inhibiting female rat proceptive behavior after repeated administration (7 and 14 days). CP-94253 inhibited sexual behavior in both male and female rats after repeated administration. Ondansetron had no effect on sexual behavior. These findings underline the complex serotonergic regulation of sexual behavior and indicate that the low sexual side effects of vortioxetine found in clinical studies are likely associated with its direct modulation of serotonin receptors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. The evolution of reproductive character displacement conflicts with how sexual selection operates within a species.

    PubMed

    Higgie, Megan; Blows, Mark W

    2008-05-01

    Processes that affect the evolution of female preferences or male display traits involved in mating decisions in different geographic areas have the potential to result in within-species divergence. This could occur via reinforcement of mate recognition in species using the same traits for species recognition and sexual selection. Sympatric individuals experience reinforcement of female preferences and male display traits, whereas allopatric individuals do not, creating the potential for divergent sexual selection in sympatric and allopatric populations. Sexual selection operates on the cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) of Drosophila serrata, and reinforcement on the CHCs of populations sympatric with D. birchii. Here, we manipulate sexual selection in D. serrata populations generated by hybridizing natural sympatric and allopatric populations. Under the influence of sexual selection, male CHCs evolved from an intermediate phenotype to resemble an allopatric phenotype, which was driven by female choice. Additionally, female choice resulted in evolution of an allopatric female preference, so that allopatric males were preferred to sympatric males. Allopatric CHCs and preferences represent a sexual selection optimum via female choice. Sympatric populations display suboptimal phenotypes relative to their allopatric conspecifics. The combination of reinforcement and sexual selection can therefore generate divergence in female preferences and male display traits.

  13. Selectivity of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Aricò, Antonino S.; Sebastian, David; Schuster, Michael; Bauer, Bernd; D’Urso, Claudia; Lufrano, Francesco; Baglio, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Sulfonic acid-functionalized polymer electrolyte membranes alternative to Nafion® were developed. These were hydrocarbon systems, such as blend sulfonated polyetheretherketone (s-PEEK), new generation perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) systems, and composite zirconium phosphate–PFSA polymers. The membranes varied in terms of composition, equivalent weight, thickness, and filler and were investigated with regard to their methanol permeation characteristics and proton conductivity for application in direct methanol fuel cells. The behavior of the membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) was investigated in fuel cell with the aim to individuate a correlation between membrane characteristics and their performance in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The power density of the DMFC at 60 °C increased according to a square root-like function of the membrane selectivity. This was defined as the reciprocal of the product between area specific resistance and crossover. The power density achieved at 60 °C for the most promising s-PEEK-based membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) was higher than the benchmark Nafion® 115-based MEA (77 mW·cm−2 vs. 64 mW·cm−2). This result was due to a lower methanol crossover (47 mA·cm−2 equivalent current density for s-PEEK vs. 120 mA·cm−2 for Nafion® 115 at 60 °C as recorded at OCV with 2 M methanol) and a suitable area specific resistance (0.15 Ohm cm2 for s-PEEK vs. 0.22 Ohm cm2 for Nafion® 115). PMID:26610582

  14. Selectivity of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Membranes.

    PubMed

    Aricò, Antonino S; Sebastian, David; Schuster, Michael; Bauer, Bernd; D'Urso, Claudia; Lufrano, Francesco; Baglio, Vincenzo

    2015-11-24

    Sulfonic acid-functionalized polymer electrolyte membranes alternative to Nafion(®) were developed. These were hydrocarbon systems, such as blend sulfonated polyetheretherketone (s-PEEK), new generation perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) systems, and composite zirconium phosphate-PFSA polymers. The membranes varied in terms of composition, equivalent weight, thickness, and filler and were investigated with regard to their methanol permeation characteristics and proton conductivity for application in direct methanol fuel cells. The behavior of the membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) was investigated in fuel cell with the aim to individuate a correlation between membrane characteristics and their performance in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The power density of the DMFC at 60 °C increased according to a square root-like function of the membrane selectivity. This was defined as the reciprocal of the product between area specific resistance and crossover. The power density achieved at 60 °C for the most promising s-PEEK-based membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) was higher than the benchmark Nafion(®) 115-based MEA (77 mW·cm(-2) vs. 64 mW·cm(-2)). This result was due to a lower methanol crossover (47 mA·cm(-2) equivalent current density for s-PEEK vs. 120 mA·cm(-2) for Nafion(®) 115 at 60 °C as recorded at OCV with 2 M methanol) and a suitable area specific resistance (0.15 Ohm cm² for s-PEEK vs. 0.22 Ohm cm² for Nafion(®) 115).

  15. Elevated testosterone reduces choosiness in female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis): evidence for a hormonal constraint on sexual selection?

    PubMed

    McGlothlin, Joel W; Neudorf, Diane L H; Casto, Joseph M; Nolan, Val; Ketterson, Ellen D

    2004-07-07

    Because testosterone (T) often mediates the expression of attractive displays and ornaments, in the absence of constraints sexual selection should lead to an evolutionary increase in male T levels. One candidate constraint would be a genetic correlation between the sexes that leads to a correlated response in females. If increased T in females were to have deleterious effects on mate choice, the effect of sexual selection on male T would be weakened. Using female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), we tested whether experimentally enhancing female T would lead to a decrease in discrimination between two classes of males, one treated with T (T-males) and one control (C-males). The two female treatments (T-implanted and C-females) spent equal amounts of time with both classes of males, but T-treated females failed to show a preference for either male treatment, whereas C-females showed a significant preference, albeit in an unexpected direction (for C-males). T-females were less discriminating than C-females, irrespective of the direction of their preference. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that circulating hormones can alter female choosiness without reducing sexual motivation. Our results suggest that hormonal correlations between the sexes have the potential to constrain sexual selection on males.

  16. Elevated testosterone reduces choosiness in female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis): evidence for a hormonal constraint on sexual selection?

    PubMed Central

    McGlothlin, Joel W.; Neudorf, Diane L. H.; Casto, Joseph M.; Nolan, Val; Ketterson, Ellen D.

    2004-01-01

    Because testosterone (T) often mediates the expression of attractive displays and ornaments, in the absence of constraints sexual selection should lead to an evolutionary increase in male T levels. One candidate constraint would be a genetic correlation between the sexes that leads to a correlated response in females. If increased T in females were to have deleterious effects on mate choice, the effect of sexual selection on male T would be weakened. Using female dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), we tested whether experimentally enhancing female T would lead to a decrease in discrimination between two classes of males, one treated with T (T-males) and one control (C-males). The two female treatments (T-implanted and C-females) spent equal amounts of time with both classes of males, but T-treated females failed to show a preference for either male treatment, whereas C-females showed a significant preference, albeit in an unexpected direction (for C-males). T-females were less discriminating than C-females, irrespective of the direction of their preference. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that circulating hormones can alter female choosiness without reducing sexual motivation. Our results suggest that hormonal correlations between the sexes have the potential to constrain sexual selection on males. PMID:15306336

  17. The form of sexual selection on male genitalia cannot be inferred from within-population variance and allometry - a case study in Aquarius remigis.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Angéline; Fairbairn, Daphne J

    2007-04-01

    Male genital morphology in insects and arachnids is characterized by static hypoallometry and low intrapopulational levels of phenotypic variation relative to other male traits. The one-size-fits-all model of genital evolution attributes these patterns to stabilizing sexual selection. This model relies on the assumption that the observed patterns of variation and allometry reflect the form of sexual selection acting these traits. We test this by examining the patterns of scaling and trait variation for a set of genitalic and somatic morphological traits in male water striders (Aquarius remigis). This suite of traits is of particular interest because previous work has shown that the genitalic traits are under strong directional selection whereas the somatic traits are under either weak directional or stabilizing selection. Because the selection regime for these traits is known, we can, for the first time, test the purported relationship between trait variation, scaling, and the form of sexual selection. We show that the patterns of variation and scaling of these traits differ sharply from those predicted for traits experiencing strong directional sexual selection. Specifically, the male genital structures show static hypoallometry and low intrapopulational levels of phenotypic variation relative to other male traits, in spite of consistent, strong, directional sexual selection. These scaling relationships and levels of variation are typical of genital traits in other insect species, where they have been presumed to reflect stabilizing sexual selection. Our data clearly refute the assumption of the one-size-fits-all hypothesis that hypoallometric scaling of genitalic traits implies stabilizing selection. We discuss the implications of this finding and propose future directions for improving our current understanding of genital evolution in arthropods.

  18. Maternal Childhood Sexual Trauma, Child Directed Aggression, Parenting Behavior, and the Moderating Role of Child Sex.

    PubMed

    Zvara, B J; Mills-Koonce, R; Cox, M

    2017-02-01

    Using propensity-matched controls, the present study examines the associations between maternal report of child-directed aggression and observed parenting behavior across early childhood for women with and without childhood sexual trauma histories. The moderating role of child sex was also examined. The sample (n=204) is from a longitudinal study of rural poverty exploring the ways in which child, family, and contextual factors shape development over time. After controlling for numerous factors including child and primary caregiver covariates, findings reveal that childhood sexual trauma is related to sensitive parenting behavior and child-directed aggression. Findings further revealed that child sex moderates the relation between sexual trauma history and maternal behavior towards children. Implications for interventions for mothers with childhood sexual trauma histories and directions for future study are proposed.

  19. Child passenger safety: direction, selection, location, installation.

    PubMed

    Agran, Phyllis F; Hoffman, Benjamin

    2008-09-01

    The most significant risk factor for death and serious injury in a car crash is the failure to use a size-appropriate restraint system. Providing accurate car safety seat anticipatory guidance to families is the standard of care. Guiding families on the best car seat for best protection can be done with the four messages, direction, selection, location, and refer, if needed, to community resources for correct installation. Addressing special issues that impact use of a car seat on each and every ride, including challenging behaviors and obesity, will transfer to many other situations. Data support a new recommendation that children stay rear-facing in size-appropriate car seats until they reach the highest weight and height allowed for rear-facing by the manufacturer of the convertible seat. Premature graduation to the next seat type/size/position increases risk of injury. A driver who is distracted by a cell phone, food, or something else, becomes a risk factor for a car crash. State laws may lag behind best practices. Advocacy for stronger laws, better enforcement, and best practices at the local, state, and national levels is a critical role for the pediatric professional community.

  20. A Paradox of Genetic Variance in Epigamic Traits: Beyond "Good Genes" View of Sexual Selection.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Jacek; Engqvist, Leif; Reinhold, Klaus

    Maintenance of genetic variance in secondary sexual traits, including bizarre ornaments and elaborated courtship displays, is a central problem of sexual selection theory. Despite theoretical arguments predicting that strong sexual selection leads to a depletion of additive genetic variance, traits associated with mating success show relatively high heritability. Here we argue that because of trade-offs associated with the production of costly epigamic traits, sexual selection is likely to lead to an increase, rather than a depletion, of genetic variance in those traits. Such trade-offs can also be expected to contribute to the maintenance of genetic variation in ecologically relevant traits with important implications for evolutionary processes, e.g. adaptation to novel environments or ecological speciation. However, if trade-offs are an important source of genetic variation in sexual traits, the magnitude of genetic variation may have little relevance for the possible genetic benefits of mate choice.

  1. Receiver discriminability drives the evolution of complex sexual signals by sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jianguo; Song, Xiaowei; Zhu, Bicheng; Fang, Guangzhan; Tang, Yezhong; Ryan, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    A hallmark of sexual selection by mate choice is the evolution of exaggerated traits, such as longer tails in birds and more acoustic components in the calls of birds and frogs. Trait elaboration can be opposed by costs such as increased metabolism and greater predation risk, but cognitive processes of the receiver can also put a brake on trait elaboration. For example, according to Weber's Law traits of a fixed absolute difference will be more difficult to discriminate as the absolute magnitude increases. Here, we show that in the Emei music frog (Babina daunchina) increases in the fundamental frequency between successive notes in the male advertisement call, which increases the spectral complexity of the call, facilitates the female's ability to compare the number of notes between calls. These results suggest that female's discriminability provides the impetus to switch from enhancement of signaling magnitude (i.e., adding more notes into calls) to employing a new signal feature (i.e., increasing frequency among notes) to increase complexity. We suggest that increasing the spectral complexity of notes ameliorates some of the effects of Weber's Law, and highlights how perceptual and cognitive biases of choosers can have important influences on the evolution of courtship signals.

  2. Retinal Origin of Direction Selectivity in the Superior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xuefeng; Barchini, Jad; Ledesma, Hector Acaron; Koren, David; Jin, Yanjiao; Liu, Xiaorong; Wei, Wei; Cang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Detecting visual features in the environment such as motion direction is crucial for survival. The circuit mechanisms that give rise to direction selectivity in a major visual center, the superior colliculus (SC), are entirely unknown. Here, we optogenetically isolate the retinal inputs that individual direction-selective SC neurons receive and find that they are already selective as a result of precisely converging inputs from similarly-tuned retinal ganglion cells. The direction selective retinal input is linearly amplified by the intracollicular circuits without changing its preferred direction or level of selectivity. Finally, using 2-photon calcium imaging, we show that SC direction selectivity is dramatically reduced in transgenic mice that have decreased retinal selectivity. Together, our studies demonstrate a retinal origin of direction selectivity in the SC, and reveal a central visual deficit as a consequence of altered feature selectivity in the retina. PMID:28192394

  3. Retinal origin of direction selectivity in the superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xuefeng; Barchini, Jad; Ledesma, Hector Acaron; Koren, David; Jin, Yanjiao; Liu, Xiaorong; Wei, Wei; Cang, Jianhua

    2017-04-01

    Detecting visual features in the environment, such as motion direction, is crucial for survival. The circuit mechanisms that give rise to direction selectivity in a major visual center, the superior colliculus (SC), are entirely unknown. We optogenetically isolate the retinal inputs that individual direction-selective SC neurons receive and find that they are already selective as a result of precisely converging inputs from similarly tuned retinal ganglion cells. The direction-selective retinal input is linearly amplified by intracollicular circuits without changing its preferred direction or level of selectivity. Finally, using two-photon calcium imaging, we show that SC direction selectivity is dramatically reduced in transgenic mice that have decreased retinal selectivity. Together, our studies demonstrate a retinal origin of direction selectivity in the SC and reveal a central visual deficit as a consequence of altered feature selectivity in the retina.

  4. Sexually selected dichromatism in the hihi Notiomystis cincta: multiple colours for multiple receivers

    PubMed Central

    Walker, L K; Ewen, J G; Brekke, P; Kilner, R M

    2014-01-01

    Why do some bird species show dramatic sexual dichromatism in their plumage? Sexual selection is the most common answer to this question. However, other competing explanations mean it is unwise to assume that all sexual dichromatism has evolved by this mechanism. Even if sexual selection is involved, further work is necessary to determine whether dichromatism results from competition amongst rival males, or by female choice for attractive traits, or both. Here, we test whether sexually dichromatic hihi (Notiomystis cincta) plumage is currently under sexual selection, with detailed behavioural and genetic analyses of a free-living island population. Bateman gradients measured for males and females reveal the potential for sexual selection, whilst selection gradients, relating reproductive success to specific colourful traits, show that there is stabilizing selection on white ear tuft length in males. By correlating colourful male plumage with different components of reproductive success, we show that properties of yellow plumage are most likely a product of male–male competition, whilst properties of the black and white plumage are an outcome of both male–male competition and female choice. Male plumage therefore potentially signals to multiple receivers (rival males and potential mates), and this may explain the multicoloured appearance of one of the most strikingly dichromatic species in New Zealand. PMID:24836349

  5. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor-Induced Sexual Dysfunction in Adolescents: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharko, Alexander M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review the existing literature on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)-induced sexual dysfunction in adolescents. Method: A literature review of SSRI-induced adverse effects in adolescents focusing on sexual dysfunction was done. Nonsexual SSRI-induced adverse effects were compared in adult and pediatric populations.…

  6. Senescence and Sexual Selection in a Pelagic Copepod

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, Sara; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The ecology of senescence in marine zooplankton is not well known. Here we demonstrate senescence effects in the marine copepod Oithona davisae and show how sex and sexual selection accelerate the rate of ageing in the males. We show that adult mortality increases and male mating capacity and female fertility decrease with age and that the deterioration in reproductive performance is faster for males. Males have a limited mating capacity because they can fertilize < 2 females day−1 and their reproductive life span is 10 days on average. High female encounter rates in nature (>10 day−1), a rapid age-dependent decline in female fertility, and a high mortality cost of mating in males are conducive to the development of male choosiness. In our experiments males in fact show a preference for mating with young females that are 3 times more fertile than 30-day old females. We argue that this may lead to severe male-male competition for young virgin females and a trade-off that favours investment in mate finding over maintenance. In nature, mate finding leads to a further elevated mortality of males, because these swim rapidly in their search for attractive partners, further relaxing fitness benefits of maintenance investments. We show that females have a short reproductive period compared to their average longevity but virgin females stay fertile for most of their life. We interpret this as an adaptation to a shortage of males, because a long life increases the chance of fertilization and/or of finding a high quality partner. The very long post reproductive life that many females experience is thus a secondary effect of such an adaptation. PMID:21533149

  7. Sexually selected sentinels? Evidence of a role for intrasexual competition in sentinel behavior

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Lindsay A.; York, Jenny E.

    2016-01-01

    Although the evolutionary mechanisms that favor investment in cooperative behaviors have long been a focus of research, comparatively few studies have considered the role that sexual selection may play. For example, evolutionary explanations for sentinel behavior (where 1 individual assumes an elevated position and scans the surroundings while other group members forage nearby) have traditionally focused on the inclusive fitness benefits arising from its effects on predation risk, while its potential role in defense against intrasexual competitors remains largely unexplored. Here, we provide experimental evidence of a role for sentinel behavior in intrasexual competition, in a cooperatively breeding songbird, the white-browed sparrow weaver (Plocepasser mahali). First, dominant males sentinel substantially more than other group members (even when controlling for variation in age and body condition), consistent with a role for sentineling in intrasexual competition for mates and/or territory. Second, experimental playback of an unfamiliar male’s solo song elicited a marked increase in sentineling by the dominant male, and the vocal response to the playback also positively predicted his sentinel effort following the simulated intrusion. A second experiment also suggests that sentineling may facilitate mounting rapid anti-intruder responses, as responses to intruder-playback occurred significantly earlier when the dominant male was sentineling rather than foraging at playback onset. Together, our findings provide rare support for the hypothesis that sentinel behavior plays a role in intrasexual competition, and so highlight the potential for sexually selected direct benefits to shape its expression in this and other social vertebrates. PMID:27656086

  8. Can sexual selection theory inform genetic management of captive populations? A review.

    PubMed

    Chargé, Rémi; Teplitsky, Céline; Sorci, Gabriele; Low, Matthew

    2014-11-01

    Captive breeding for conservation purposes presents a serious practical challenge because several conflicting genetic processes (i.e., inbreeding depression, random genetic drift and genetic adaptation to captivity) need to be managed in concert to maximize captive population persistence and reintroduction success probability. Because current genetic management is often only partly successful in achieving these goals, it has been suggested that management insights may be found in sexual selection theory (in particular, female mate choice). We review the theoretical and empirical literature and consider how female mate choice might influence captive breeding in the context of current genetic guidelines for different sexual selection theories (i.e., direct benefits, good genes, compatible genes, sexy sons). We show that while mate choice shows promise as a tool in captive breeding under certain conditions, for most species, there is currently too little theoretical and empirical evidence to provide any clear guidelines that would guarantee positive fitness outcomes and avoid conflicts with other genetic goals. The application of female mate choice to captive breeding is in its infancy and requires a goal-oriented framework based on the needs of captive species management, so researchers can make honest assessments of the costs and benefits of such an approach, using simulations, model species and captive animal data.

  9. Can sexual selection theory inform genetic management of captive populations? A review

    PubMed Central

    Chargé, Rémi; Teplitsky, Céline; Sorci, Gabriele; Low, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Captive breeding for conservation purposes presents a serious practical challenge because several conflicting genetic processes (i.e., inbreeding depression, random genetic drift and genetic adaptation to captivity) need to be managed in concert to maximize captive population persistence and reintroduction success probability. Because current genetic management is often only partly successful in achieving these goals, it has been suggested that management insights may be found in sexual selection theory (in particular, female mate choice). We review the theoretical and empirical literature and consider how female mate choice might influence captive breeding in the context of current genetic guidelines for different sexual selection theories (i.e., direct benefits, good genes, compatible genes, sexy sons). We show that while mate choice shows promise as a tool in captive breeding under certain conditions, for most species, there is currently too little theoretical and empirical evidence to provide any clear guidelines that would guarantee positive fitness outcomes and avoid conflicts with other genetic goals. The application of female mate choice to captive breeding is in its infancy and requires a goal-oriented framework based on the needs of captive species management, so researchers can make honest assessments of the costs and benefits of such an approach, using simulations, model species and captive animal data. PMID:25553072

  10. Speciation is associated with changing ornamentation rather than stronger sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Ana Cristina R; Sorenson, Michael D; Cardoso, Gonçalo C

    2016-12-01

    Although sexual ornamentation mediates reproductive isolation, comparative evidence does not support the hypothesis that stronger sexual selection promotes speciation. Prior analyses have neglected the possibility that decreases in ornamentation may also promote speciation, such that both increases and decreases in the strength of sexual selection and associated changes in ornamentation promote speciation. To test this hypothesis, we studied color ornamentation in one of the largest and fastest avian radiations, the estrildid finches. We show that more ornamented lineages do not speciate more, even though they tend to have faster rates of ornamental evolution, whereas changes in ornamentation (i.e., increases or decreases) are associated with speciation. This indicates that divergence in sexually selected ornamentation, rather than stronger sexual selection, promotes or is otherwise associated with speciation. We also show that gregariousness and investment in reproduction are related to the elaboration of some ornamental traits, suggesting ecological influences on speciation mediated by ornamentation. We conclude that past work focusing specifically on the strength of sexual selection may have greatly underestimated the importance of sexual ornamentation for speciation.

  11. The dilemma of female mate selection in the brown bear, a species with sexually selected infanticide.

    PubMed

    Bellemain, Eva; Zedrosser, Andreas; Manel, Stéphanie; Waits, Lisette P; Taberlet, Pierre; Swenson, Jon E

    2006-02-07

    Because of differential investment in gametes between sexes, females tend to be the more selective sex. Based on this concept, we investigate mate selection in a large carnivore: the brown bear (Ursus arctos). We hypothesize that, in this species with sexually selected infanticide (SSI), females may be faced with a dilemma: either select a high-quality partner based on phenotypic criteria, as suggested by theories of mate choice, or rather mate with future potentially infanticidal males as a counter-strategy to SSI. We evaluated which male characteristics were important in paternity assignment. Among males available in the vicinity of the females, the largest, most heterozygous and less inbred and also the geographically closest males were more often the fathers of the female's next litter. We suggest that female brown bears may select the closest males as a counter-strategy to infanticide and exercise a post-copulatory cryptic choice, based on physical attributes, such as a large body size, reflecting male genetic quality. However, male-male competition either in the form of fighting before copulation or during the post-copulatory phase, in the form of sperm competition, cannot entirely be ruled out.

  12. The Evolution of Sex-Specific Dominance in Response to Sexually Antagonistic Selection.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Hamish G; Priest, Nicholas K

    2016-05-01

    Arguments about the evolutionary modification of genetic dominance have a long history in genetics, dating back more than 100 years. Mathematical investigations have shown that modifiers of the level of dominance at the locus of interest can spread at a reasonable rate only if heterozygotes at that locus are common. One hitherto neglected scenario is that of sexually antagonistic selection, which not only is ubiquitous in sexual species but also can generate stable high frequencies of heterozygotes that would appear to facilitate the spread of such modifiers. Here we present a mathematical model that shows that sexually specific dominance modification is a potential outcome of sexually antagonistic selection. Our model predicts that loci with higher levels of sexual conflict should exhibit greater differentiation between males and females in levels of dominance and that the strength of antagonistic selection experienced by one sex should be proportional to the level of dominance modification. We show that evidence from the literature is consistent with these predictions but suggest that empiricists should be alert to the possibility of there being numerous cases of sex-specific dominance. Further, in order to determine the significance of sexual conflict in the evolution of dominance, we need improved measures of sexual conflict and better characterization of loci that modify dominance of genes with sexually antagonistic fitness effects.

  13. Ecological selection as the cause and sexual differentiation as the consequence of species divergence?

    PubMed

    Oneal, Elen; Knowles, L Lacey

    2013-01-07

    Key conceptual issues about speciation go unanswered without consideration of non-mutually exclusive factors. With tests based on speciation theory, we exploit the island distribution and habitat differences exhibited by the Caribbean cricket Amphiacusta sanctaecrucis, and with an analysis of divergent ecological selection, sexually selected differentiation and geographical isolation, address how these different factors interact. After testing for divergent selection by comparing neutral genetic and morphological divergence in one ecological (mandible shape) and one sexual (male genitalia shape) trait, we examine whether ecological or sexual selection is the primary mechanism driving population divergence. We find that all three factors--isolation, ecological and sexual selection--contribute to divergence, and that their interaction determines the stage of completeness achieved during the speciation process, as measured by patterns of genetic differentiation. Moreover, despite the striking diversity in genitalic shapes across the genus Amphiacusta, which suggests that sexual selection drives speciation, the significant differences in genitalia shape between forest habitats revealed here implies that ecological divergence may be the primary axis of divergence. Our work highlights critical unstudied aspects in speciation-differentiating the cause from the consequence of divergence-and suggests avenues for further disentangling the roles of natural and sexual selection in driving divergence in Amphiacusta.

  14. Sexual Selection and the differences between the sexes in Mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx).

    PubMed

    Setchell, Joanna M

    2016-01-01

    Sexual selection has become a major focus in evolutionary and behavioral ecology. It is also a popular research topic in primatology. I use studies of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), a classic example of extravagant armaments and ornaments in animals, to exemplify how a long-term, multidisciplinary approach that integrates field observations with laboratory methods can contribute to on-going theoretical debates in the field of sexual selection. I begin with a brief summary of the main concepts of sexual selection theory and the differences between the sexes. I then introduce mandrills and the study population and review mandrill life history, the ontogeny of sex differences, and maternal effects. Next, I focus on male-male competition and female choice, followed by the less well-studied questions of female-female competition and male choice. This review shows how different reproductive priorities lead to very different life histories and divergent adaptations in males and females. It demonstrates how broadening traditional perspectives on sexual selection beyond the ostentatious results of intense sexual selection on males leads to an understanding of more subtle and cryptic forms of competition and choice in both sexes and opens many productive avenues in the study of primate reproductive strategies. These include the potential for studies of postcopulatory selection, female intrasexual competition, and male choice. These studies of mandrills provide comparison and, I hope, inspiration for studies of both other polygynandrous species and species with mating systems less traditionally associated with sexual selection.

  15. Sequential female assessment drives complex sexual selection on bower shape in a cichlid fish.

    PubMed

    Young, Kyle A; Genner, Martin J; Haesler, Marcel P; Joyce, Domino A

    2010-08-01

    In many animals, sexual selection on male traits results from female mate choice decisions made during a sequence of courtship behaviors. We use a bower-building cichlid fish, Nyassachromis cf. microcephalus, to show how applying standard selection analysis to data on sequential female assessment provides new insights into sexual selection by mate choice. We first show that the cumulative selection differentials confirm previous results suggesting female choice favors males holding large volcano-shaped sand bowers. The sequential assessment analysis reveals these cumulative differentials are the result of selection acting on different bower dimensions during the courtship sequence; females choose to follow males courting from tall bowers, but choose to engage in premating circling with males holding bowers with large diameter platforms. The approach we present extends standard selection analysis by partitioning the variances of increasingly accurate estimates of male reproductive fitness and is applicable to systems in which sequential female assessment drives sexual selection on male traits.

  16. Development of synaptic connectivity in the retinal direction selective circuit.

    PubMed

    Morrie, Ryan D; Feller, Marla B

    2016-10-01

    Direction selectivity is a classic neuronal computation that has been described in many different sensory systems. The circuit basis of this computation is perhaps best understood in the retina, where direction selectivity is the result of asymmetric connectivity patterns between excitatory and inhibitory circuit components. Retinal direction selective circuits emerge before eye-opening, though components of the circuit undergo refinement after vision begins. These features make the direction selective circuit a rich model in which to investigate neuronal circuit assembly. In this Opinion, we highlight recent experiments investigating the contribution of various molecular cues, as well as neuronal activity, to the development of the retinal direction selective circuit.

  17. The effects of sexual selection on life-history traits: an experimental study on guppies.

    PubMed

    Pélabon, C; Larsen, L-K; Bolstad, G H; Viken, Å; Fleming, I A; Rosenqvist, G

    2014-02-01

    Sexual selection is often prevented during captive breeding in order to maximize effective population size and retain genetic diversity. However, enforcing monogamy and thereby preventing sexual selection may affect population fitness either negatively by preventing the purging of deleterious mutations or positively by reducing sexual conflicts. To better understand the effect of sexual selection on the fitness of small populations, we compared components of female fitness and the expression of male secondary sexual characters in 19 experimental populations of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) maintained under polygamous or monogamous mating regimes over nine generations. In order to generate treatments that solely differed by their level of sexual selection, the middle-class neighbourhood breeding design was enforced in the monogamous populations, while in the polygamous populations, all females contributed similarly to the next generation with one male and one female offspring. This experimental design allowed potential sexual conflicts to increase in the polygamous populations because selection could not operate on adult-female traits. Clutch size and offspring survival showed a weak decline from generation to generation but did not differ among treatments. Offspring size, however, declined across generations, but more in monogamous than polygamous populations. By generation eight, orange- and black-spot areas were larger in males from the polygamous treatment, but these differences were not statistically significant. Overall, these results suggest that neither sexual conflict nor the purging of deleterious mutation had important effects on the fitness of our experimental populations. However, only few generations of enforced monogamy in a benign environment were sufficient to negatively affect offspring size, a trait potentially crucial for survival in the wild. Sexual selection may therefore, under certain circumstances, be beneficial over enforced monogamy during

  18. Are traits that experience reinforcement also under sexual selection?

    PubMed

    Higgie, Megan; Blows, Mark W

    2007-09-01

    Where closely related species occur in sympatry, reinforcement may result in the evolution of traits involved in species recognition that are at the same time used for within-species mate choice. Drosophila serrata lives in forested habitat on the east coast of Australia, and over the northern half of its distribution it coexists with a closely related species, Drosophila birchii. Here we show that the strength of reinforcing selection in natural populations is sufficient to generate reproductive character displacement along a 36-km transect across the contact between sympatric and allopatric populations of D. serrata. The sympatric and allopatric populations display genetically based differences in male cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), while female CHCs changed with latitude across the contact. The directional changes observed in male CHCs between sympatric and allopatric regions were the same changes that were generated by experimental sympatry in the laboratory, providing direct evidence that the changes across the contact zone are due to the presence of D. birchii. We show that sympatric and allopatric females differ in preference for male CHCs and that females from allopatric populations prefer allopatric-like male CHCs over sympatric-like CHCs. Male attractiveness within D. serrata may therefore be compromised by reinforcing selection, preventing the spread of sympatric-like blends to the area of allopatry.

  19. The interplay between natural and sexual selection in the evolution of sexual size dimorphism in Sceloporus lizards (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae).

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Arcos, Víctor H; Sanabria-Urbán, Salomón; Cueva Del Castillo, Raúl

    2017-02-01

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) evolves because body size is usually related to reproductive success through different pathways in females and males. Female body size is strongly correlated with fecundity, while in males, body size is correlated with mating success. In many lizard species, males are larger than females, whereas in others, females are the larger sex, suggesting that selection on fecundity has been stronger than sexual selection on males. As placental development or egg retention requires more space within the abdominal cavity, it has been suggested that females of viviparous lizards have larger abdomens or body size than their oviparous relatives. Thus, it would be expected that females of viviparous species attain larger sizes than their oviparous relatives, generating more biased patterns of SSD. We test these predictions using lizards of the genus Sceloporus. After controlling for phylogenetic effects, our results confirm a strong relationship between female body size and fecundity, suggesting that selection for higher fecundity has had a main role in the evolution of female body size. However, oviparous and viviparous females exhibit similar sizes and allometric relationships. Even though there is a strong effect of body size on female fecundity, once phylogenetic effects are considered, we find that the slope of male on female body size is significantly larger than one, providing evidence of greater evolutionary divergence of male body size. These results suggest that the relative impact of sexual selection acting on males has been stronger than fecundity selection acting on females within Sceloporus lizards.

  20. Disentangling the contribution of sexual selection and ecology to the evolution of size dimorphism in pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Oliver; Wolf, Jochen B W; Jonker, Rudy M; Hoffman, Joseph I; Trillmich, Fritz

    2014-05-01

    The positive relationship between sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and harem size across pinnipeds is often cited as a textbook example of sexual selection. It assumes that female aggregation selected for large male size via male-male competition. Yet, it is also conceivable that SSD evolved prior to polygyny due to ecological forces. We analyzed 11 life-history traits in 35 pinniped species to determine their coevolutionary dynamics and infer their most likely evolutionary trajectories contrasting these two hypotheses. We find support for SSD having evolved prior to changes in the mating system, either as a consequence of niche partitioning during aquatic foraging or in combination with sexual selection on males to enforce copulations on females. Only subsequently did polygyny evolve, leading to further coevolution as the strength of sexual selection intensified. Evolutionary sequence analyses suggest a polar origin of pinnipeds and indicate that SSD and polygyny are intrinsically linked to a suite of ecological and life-history traits. Overall, this study calls for the inclusion of ecological variables when studying sexual selection and argues for caution when assuming causality between coevolving traits. It provides novel insights into the role of sexual selection for the coevolutionary dynamics of SSD and mating system.

  1. Partitioning sexual selection into its mating success and fertilization success components.

    PubMed

    Pischedda, Alison; Rice, William R

    2012-02-07

    Postcopulatory sexual selection due to sperm competition and/or cryptic female choice has been documented in a diversity of taxonomic groups and is considered a pivotal component of sexual selection. Despite this apparent importance, the relative contribution of postcopulatory fertilization success to overall sexual selection has not yet been measured in any species. Here, we used a laboratory-adapted population of the promiscuous fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to partition the variance in male reproductive success into mating success (a major component of precopulatory sexual selection) and fertilization success (a major component of postcopulatory sexual selection). We found that fertilization success contributed nearly as strongly as mating success to a male's net performance in sexual selection, but that most of this postcopulatory component was attributable to variation in male mating order (the tendency to be the last male to mate a female). After adjusting for mating order, only ≈2% of the residual variation in male reproductive success was attributable to differential fertilization success. We found no correlation between male mating success and fertilization success in this system. Unlike natural populations of Drosophila, our laboratory population is adapted to a semelparous lifecycle, so our findings will be most applicable to other promiscuous species with strong sperm precedence and one short breeding period per year or lifetime. In these species, fertilization success may have as much influence on male reproductive success as mating success, but the timing of mating (mating order) may be the predominant factor contributing to variation in fertilization success.

  2. Selective facilitation of sexual solicitation in the female rat by a melanocortin receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Pfaus, James G; Shadiack, Annette; Van Soest, Tanya; Tse, Maric; Molinoff, Perry

    2004-07-06

    Disorders of sexual desire affect an estimated 30% of women in North America and Europe, with etiologies based on interpersonal, personal, and physiological factors. There are currently no pharmacological agents approved for use in the treatment of female sexual dysfunction. This is due, in part, to a focus on the effects of experimental drugs on reflexive components of sexual behavior, such as lordosis, in animal models. Here we report that PT-141, a peptide analogue of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone that binds to central melanocortin receptors, selectively stimulates solicitational behaviors in the female rat. This occurs without affecting lordosis, pacing, or other sexual behaviors. PT-141 did not cause generalized motor activation, nor did it affect the perception of sexual reward. A selective pharmacological effect on appetitive sexual behavior in female rats has not been reported previously, and indicates that central melanocortin systems are important in the regulation of female sexual desire. Accordingly, PT-141 may be the first identified pharmacological agent with the capability to treat female sexual desire disorders.

  3. The role of sexual and natural selection in shaping patterns of sexual dichromatism in the largest family of songbirds (Aves: Thraupidae).

    PubMed

    Shultz, Allison J; Burns, Kevin J

    2017-04-01

    Males and females can be under different evolutionary pressures if sexual and natural selection is differentially operating in each sex. As a result, many species have evolved sexual dichromatism, or differences in coloration between sexes. Although sexual dichromatism is often used as an index of the magnitude of sexual selection, sexual dichromatism is a composite trait. Here, we examine the evolution of sexual dichromatism in one of the largest and most ecologically diverse families of birds, the tanagers, using the avian visual perspective and a species-level phylogeny. Our results demonstrate that the evolutionary decreases of sexual dichromatism are more often associated with larger and more frequent changes in male plumage coloration, and evolutionary increases are not more often associated with larger changes in either sex. Furthermore, we show that the crown and ventral plumage regions are correlated with sexual dichromatism in males, and that only male plumage complexity is positively correlated with sexual dichromatism. Finally, we demonstrate that light environment is important in shaping both plumage brilliance and complexity. By conducting a multilevel analysis of plumage evolution in males and females, we show that sexual dichromatism evolves via a mosaic of sexual and natural selection in both sexes. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  4. Assailing the competition: sexual selection, proximate mating motives, and aggressive behavior in men.

    PubMed

    Ainsworth, Sarah E; Maner, Jon K

    2014-12-01

    Throughout history, men have tended to be more violent than women. Evolutionary theories suggest that this sex difference derives in part from their historically greater need to compete with other men over access to potential mates. In the current research, men and women (Experiment 1) or men only (Experiments 2 and 3) underwent a mating motive prime or control prime, and then performed a task designed to measure aggression toward a same-sex partner. The mating prime increased aggression among men, but not women (Experiment 1). Furthermore, mating-related increases in aggression were directed only toward men who were depicted as viable intrasexual rivals, including a dominant (vs. non-dominant) male partner (Experiment 2) and a man who was depicted as single (versus married) and looking for a mate (Experiment 3). This research provides a picture of male intrasexual aggression as highly selective and aimed strategically at asserting one's dominance over sexual rivals.

  5. Sexual selection and the evolution of complex color patterns in dragon lizards.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-Ping; Stuart-Fox, Devi; Hugall, Andrew F; Symonds, Matthew R E

    2012-11-01

    Many species have elaborate and complex coloration and patterning, which often differ between the sexes. Sexual selection may increase the size or intensity of color patches (elaboration) in one sex or drive the evolution of novel signal elements (innovation). The latter potentially increases color pattern complexity. Color pattern complexity may also be influenced by ecological factors related to predation and environment; however, very few studies have investigated the effects of both sexual and natural selection on color pattern complexity across species. We used a phylogenetic comparative approach to examine these effects in 85 species and subspecies of Australian dragon lizards (family Agamidae). We quantified color pattern complexity by adapting the Shannon-Wiener diversity index. There were clear sex differences in color pattern complexity, which were positively correlated with both sexual dichromatism and sexual size dimorphism, consistent with the idea that sexual selection plays a significant role in the evolution of color pattern complexity. By contrast, we found little evidence of a link between environmental factors and color pattern complexity on body regions exposed to predators. Our results suggest that sexual selection rather than natural selection has led to increased color pattern complexity in males.

  6. Whole-genome resequencing uncovers molecular signatures of natural and sexual selection in wild bighorn sheep.

    PubMed

    Kardos, Marty; Luikart, Gordon; Bunch, Rowan; Dewey, Sarah; Edwards, William; McWilliam, Sean; Stephenson, John; Allendorf, Fred W; Hogg, John T; Kijas, James

    2015-11-01

    The identification of genes influencing fitness is central to our understanding of the genetic basis of adaptation and how it shapes phenotypic variation in wild populations. Here, we used whole-genome resequencing of wild Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) to >50-fold coverage to identify 2.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genomic regions bearing signatures of directional selection (i.e. selective sweeps). A comparison of SNP diversity between the X chromosome and the autosomes indicated that bighorn males had a dramatically reduced long-term effective population size compared to females. This probably reflects a long history of intense sexual selection mediated by male-male competition for mates. Selective sweep scans based on heterozygosity and nucleotide diversity revealed evidence for a selective sweep shared across multiple populations at RXFP2, a gene that strongly affects horn size in domestic ungulates. The massive horns carried by bighorn rams appear to have evolved in part via strong positive selection at RXFP2. We identified evidence for selection within individual populations at genes affecting early body growth and cellular response to hypoxia; however, these must be interpreted more cautiously as genetic drift is strong within local populations and may have caused false positives. These results represent a rare example of strong genomic signatures of selection identified at genes with known function in wild populations of a nonmodel species. Our results also showcase the value of reference genome assemblies from agricultural or model species for studies of the genomic basis of adaptation in closely related wild taxa.

  7. New directions for studying selection in nature: studies of performance and communities.

    PubMed

    Irschick, Duncan; Bailey, Joseph K; Schweitzer, Jennifer A; Husak, Jerry F; Meyers, Jerry J

    2007-01-01

    Natural and sexual selection are crucial factors in the evolutionary process, yet recent reviews show that researchers have focused narrowly on this topic, with the majority of research centered on the morphological traits of single species. However, in the past several years, several bodies of work have emerged that have examined both selection on performance capacity and selection in a community context, and our goal is to highlight these two growing areas and point toward future directions. Recent studies of selection on performance capacity point toward directional selection favoring high levels of performance, and we detected less evidence for selection favoring intermediate (i.e., stabilizing) or bimodal (i.e., disruptive) kinds of performance levels. Studies of selection in a community context, using the paradigm of indirect genetic effects, show significant community heritability and strong capacity for evolution to occur in a community context via the force of natural selection. For future directions, we argue that researchers should shift toward longer-term studies of selection on both individual species and communities, and we also encourage researchers to publish negative selection results for both performance and community studies to act as balancing influences on published positive selection results.

  8. Young Male Prostitutes: Their Knowledge of Selected Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Thomas; Pickerill, Brian

    1988-01-01

    Conducted unstructured interviews with 18 male street prostitutes between the ages of 13 and 22 to determine the extent of accurate knowledge they possessed concerning four common sexually transmitted diseases. Found that subjects possessed more factual information on gonorrhea and syphilis than on herpes and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.…

  9. Young Male Prostitutes: Their Knowledge of Selected Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Thomas; Pickerill, Brian

    1988-01-01

    Conducted unstructured interviews with 18 male street prostitutes between the ages of 13 and 22 to determine the extent of accurate knowledge they possessed concerning four common sexually transmitted diseases. Found that subjects possessed more factual information on gonorrhea and syphilis than on herpes and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.…

  10. Censorship of Sexual Materials: A Selected, Annotated Basic Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedford, Thomas L.

    The 37 references in this annotated bibliography are compiled for researchers of information on the censorship of sexual materials from ancient times to present. The materials include case studies, histories, essays, and opinion pieces about the use and regulation of "obscenity" in literature, pictorial art, radio broadcasting, the mail, film, and…

  11. Disruption of sexual selection in sand gobies (Pomatoschistus minutus) by 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol, an endocrine disruptor.

    PubMed

    Saaristo, Minna; Craft, John A; Lehtonen, Kari K; Björk, Heikki; Lindström, Kai

    2009-04-01

    In aquatic environments, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that interfere with the reproductive physiology of males form a threat to the reproduction of populations. This is often manifested as decreased sexual performance or sterility among males. We show that exposure to EDCs can directly affect the mating system of a marine fish, the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus). We exposed males for 1 to 4 weeks to two different concentrations (5 ng L(-1) and 24 ng L(-1)) of 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE2); a synthetic compound mimicking estrogen and a water control. The sand goby exhibits a polygynous mating system, in which male mating success is typically skewed towards the largest males, resulting in strong sexual selection for increased male size. Our experiment shows that when males have been exposed to EE2, male size has a smaller effect on mating success, resulting in weaker sexual selection on male size as compared to the control. There was an interaction between treatment and exposure time on the expression of vitellogenin and zona radiata protein mRNAs. Males exposed to high EE2 reached much higher expression levels than males exposed to low EE2. Of the somatic markers, the hepatosomatic index was lower in males exposed to high EE2 than in the low EE2 and control males. Our results suggest that exposure to EDCs can have effects on the mating system before physiological changes are observable. These effects can be of profound nature as they interfere with sexual selection, and may in the long run lead to the loss of traits maintained through sexual selection.

  12. Measuring Bystander Behavior in the Context of Sexual Violence Prevention: Lessons Learned and New Directions.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Sarah; Palmer, Jane E; Banyard, Victoria; Murphy, Megan; Gidycz, Christine A

    2015-07-05

    Bystander intervention is receiving increased attention as a potential sexual violence prevention strategy, especially to address campus sexual assault. Rather than focusing on potential perpetrators or victims, the bystander approach engages all members of a community to take action. A growing body of evaluative work demonstrates that bystander intervention education programs yield increased positive attitudes and behaviors related to sexual violence and greater willingness to intervene in pro-social ways. Future program outcome studies, however, would benefit from more refined measures of bystander action as it is a key variable that prevention education programs attempt to influence. The purpose of the current article is to present key issues, identified by four different research teams, on the measurement of bystander behavior related to sexual violence in the context of college campuses. Comparisons among the methods are made to suggest both lessons learned and new directions for bystander behavior measurement using self-report surveys in program evaluation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Macroecology of Sexual Selection: A Predictive Conceptual Framework for Large-Scale Variation in Reproductive Traits.

    PubMed

    Machado, Glauco; Buzatto, Bruno A; García-Hernández, Solimary; Macías-Ordóñez, Rogelio

    2016-09-01

    Abiotic factors exert direct and indirect influences on behavioral, morphological, and life-history traits. Because some of these traits are related to reproduction, there is a causal link between climatic conditions and the expression of reproductive traits. This link allows us to generate predictions on how reproductive traits vary in large geographic scales. Here we formalize this macroecological framework, present some general predictions, and explore empirical examples using harvestmen as study organisms. Our results show that the length of breeding season in harvestmen is primarily influenced by the number of warm months and that precipitation plays a secondary role in modulating the period devoted to reproduction. Moreover, we show that the probability of resource defense polygyny increases with longer breeding seasons and that the presence of this type of mating system positively affects the magnitude of sexual dimorphism in harvestmen. Finally, the presence of postovipositional parental care is also influenced by the length of breeding season but not by actual evapotranspiration, which is our proxy for the intensity of biotic interactions. We argue that the macroecological framework proposed here may be a fruitful field of investigation, with important implications for our understanding of sexual selection and the evolution of reproductive traits in both animals and plants.

  14. Relationship between algal-foraging ability and expression of sexually selected traits in male guppies.

    PubMed

    Karino, Kenji; Shinjo, Shinya

    2007-06-01

    In the guppy Poecilia reticulata, males exhibit orange spots on their body and tail, and the orange spot patterns are often criteria for female mate choice. The orange spot coloration of males is determined by the intake of algae, a natural source of carotenoids. Therefore, males exhibiting conspicuous orange coloration are considered to possess high algal-foraging ability. In the present study, we examined the influence of algal-foraging ability, measured by algal-searching ability and algal-foraging frequency, on the expression of orange spot patterns and on other sexually selected traits in male guppies. Males exhibiting better performance in terms of both algal-searching ability and algal-foraging frequency grew larger. The size of the orange spots on males also increased with algal-foraging ability. However, neither algal-searching ability nor algal-foraging frequency influenced the coloration of the orange spots. In this experiment, a limited supply of carotenoids possibly prevented the males from completely developing their spots to the intrinsic size. The results of this study suggest that in male guppies under a carotenoid-limited situation, the allocation of carotenoids is directed toward enlargement of the size of the orange spots rather than enhancement of their coloration. Since both the body size and orange spot patterns of males contribute to their sexual attractiveness to females, high algal-foraging ability may enhance their mating success.

  15. Evolution of female multiple mating: A quantitative model of the "sexually selected sperm" hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Bocedi, Greta; Reid, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    Explaining the evolution and maintenance of polyandry remains a key challenge in evolutionary ecology. One appealing explanation is the sexually selected sperm (SSS) hypothesis, which proposes that polyandry evolves due to indirect selection stemming from positive genetic covariance with male fertilization efficiency, and hence with a male's success in postcopulatory competition for paternity. However, the SSS hypothesis relies on verbal analogy with "sexy-son" models explaining coevolution of female preferences for male displays, and explicit models that validate the basic SSS principle are surprisingly lacking. We developed analogous genetically explicit individual-based models describing the SSS and "sexy-son" processes. We show that the analogy between the two is only partly valid, such that the genetic correlation arising between polyandry and fertilization efficiency is generally smaller than that arising between preference and display, resulting in less reliable coevolution. Importantly, indirect selection was too weak to cause polyandry to evolve in the presence of negative direct selection. Negatively biased mutations on fertilization efficiency did not generally rescue runaway evolution of polyandry unless realized fertilization was highly skewed toward a single male, and coevolution was even weaker given random mating order effects on fertilization. Our models suggest that the SSS process is, on its own, unlikely to generally explain the evolution of polyandry. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. Evolution of female multiple mating: A quantitative model of the “sexually selected sperm” hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Bocedi, Greta; Reid, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    Explaining the evolution and maintenance of polyandry remains a key challenge in evolutionary ecology. One appealing explanation is the sexually selected sperm (SSS) hypothesis, which proposes that polyandry evolves due to indirect selection stemming from positive genetic covariance with male fertilization efficiency, and hence with a male's success in postcopulatory competition for paternity. However, the SSS hypothesis relies on verbal analogy with “sexy-son” models explaining coevolution of female preferences for male displays, and explicit models that validate the basic SSS principle are surprisingly lacking. We developed analogous genetically explicit individual-based models describing the SSS and “sexy-son” processes. We show that the analogy between the two is only partly valid, such that the genetic correlation arising between polyandry and fertilization efficiency is generally smaller than that arising between preference and display, resulting in less reliable coevolution. Importantly, indirect selection was too weak to cause polyandry to evolve in the presence of negative direct selection. Negatively biased mutations on fertilization efficiency did not generally rescue runaway evolution of polyandry unless realized fertilization was highly skewed toward a single male, and coevolution was even weaker given random mating order effects on fertilization. Our models suggest that the SSS process is, on its own, unlikely to generally explain the evolution of polyandry. PMID:25330405

  17. Is sexual selection driving diversification of the bioluminescent ponyfishes (Teleostei: Leiognathidae)?

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Prosanta; Davis, Matthew P; Smith, W Leo; Baldwin, Zachary H; Sparks, John S

    2011-07-01

    Sexual selection may facilitate genetic isolation among populations and result in increased rates of diversification. As a mechanism driving diversification, sexual selection has been invoked and upheld in numerous empirical studies across disparate taxa, including birds, plants and spiders. In this study, we investigate the potential impact of sexual selection on the tempo and mode of ponyfish evolution. Ponyfishes (Leiognathidae) are bioluminescent marine fishes that exhibit sexually dimorphic features of their unique light-organ system (LOS). Although sexual selection is widely considered to be the driving force behind ponyfish speciation, this hypothesis has never been formally tested. Given that some leiognathid species have a sexually dimorphic LOS, whereas others do not, this family provides an excellent system within which to study the potential role of sexual selection in diversification and morphological differentiation. In this study, we estimate the phylogenetic relationships and divergence times for Leiognathidae, investigate the tempo and mode of ponyfish diversification, and explore morphological shape disparity among leiognathid clades. We recover strong support for a monophyletic Leiognathidae and estimate that all major ponyfish lineages evolved during the Paleogene. Our studies of ponyfish diversification demonstrate that there is no conclusive evidence that sexually dimorphic clades are significantly more species rich than nonsexually dimorphic lineages and that evidence is lacking to support any significant diversification rate increases within ponyfishes. Further, we detected a lineage-through-time signal indicating that ponyfishes have continuously diversified through time, which is in contrast to many recent diversification studies that identify lineage-through-time patterns that support mechanisms of density-dependent speciation. Additionally, there is no evidence of sexual selection hindering morphological diversity, as sexually dimorphic

  18. Assessing the potential for egg chemoattractants to mediate sexual selection in a broadcast spawning marine invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan P; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; Almbro, Maria; Robinson, Oscar; Fitzpatrick, John L

    2012-07-22

    In numerous species, egg chemoattractants play a critical role in guiding sperm towards unfertilized eggs (sperm chemotaxis). Until now, the known functions of sperm chemotaxis include increasing the effective target size of eggs, thereby promoting sperm-egg encounters, and facilitating species recognition. Here, we report that in the broadcast spawning mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, egg chemoattractants may play an unforeseen role in sexual selection by enabling sperm to effectively 'choose' between the eggs of different conspecific females. In an initial experiment, we confirmed that sperm chemotaxis occurs in M. galloprovincialis by showing that sperm are attracted towards unfertilized eggs when given the choice of eggs or no eggs in a dichotomous chamber. We then conducted two cross-classified mating experiments, each comprising the same individual males and females crossed in identical male × female combinations, but under experimental conditions that offered sperm 'no-choice' (each fertilization trial took place in a Petri dish and involved a single male and female) or a 'choice' of a female's eggs (sperm were placed in the centre of a dichotomous choice chamber and allowed to choose eggs from different females). We show that male-by-female interactions characterized fertilization rates in both experiments, and that there was remarkable consistency between patterns of sperm migration in the egg-choice experiment and fertilization rates in the no-choice experiment. Thus, sperm appear to exploit chemical cues to preferentially swim towards eggs with which they are most compatible during direct sperm-to-egg encounters. These results reveal that sperm differentially select eggs on the basis of chemical cues, thus exposing the potential for egg chemoattractants to mediate mate choice for genetically compatible partners. Given the prevalence of sperm chemotaxis across diverse taxa, our findings may have broad implications for sexual selection in other mating

  19. A Sexual Ornament in Chickens Is Affected by Pleiotropic Alleles at HAO1 and BMP2, Selected during Domestication

    PubMed Central

    Johnsson, Martin; Gustafson, Ida; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Sahlqvist, Anna-Stina; Jonsson, Kenneth B.; Kerje, Susanne; Ekwall, Olov; Kämpe, Olle; Andersson, Leif; Jensen, Per; Wright, Dominic

    2012-01-01

    Domestication is one of the strongest forms of short-term, directional selection. Although selection is typically only exerted on one or a few target traits, domestication can lead to numerous changes in many seemingly unrelated phenotypes. It is unknown whether such correlated responses are due to pleiotropy or linkage between separate genetic architectures. Using three separate intercrosses between wild and domestic chickens, a locus affecting comb mass (a sexual ornament in the chicken) and several fitness traits (primarily medullary bone allocation and fecundity) was identified. This locus contains two tightly-linked genes, BMP2 and HAO1, which together produce the range of pleiotropic effects seen. This study demonstrates the importance of pleiotropy (or extremely close linkage) in domestication. The nature of this pleiotropy also provides insights into how this sexual ornament could be maintained in wild populations. PMID:22956912

  20. Selection analysis on the rapid evolution of a secondary sexual trait

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Swanne P.; Reznick, David; Arendt, Jeff D.; Roughton, Allen; Ontiveros Hernandez, Michelle N.; Bentzen, Paul; López-Sepulcre, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary analyses of population translocations (experimental or accidental) have been important in demonstrating speed of evolution because they subject organisms to abrupt environmental changes that create an episode of selection. However, the strength of selection in such studies is rarely measured, limiting our understanding of the evolutionary process. This contrasts with long-term, mark–recapture studies of unmanipulated populations that measure selection directly, yet rarely reveal evolutionary change. Here, we present a study of experimental evolution of male colour in Trinidadian guppies where we tracked both evolutionary change and individual-based measures of selection. Guppies were translocated from a predator-rich to a low-predation environment within the same stream system. We used a combination of common garden experiments and monthly sampling of individuals to measure the phenotypic and genetic divergence of male coloration between ancestral and derived fish. Results show rapid evolutionary increases in orange coloration in both populations (1 year or three generations), replicating the results of previous studies. Unlike previous studies, we linked this evolution to an individual-based analysis of selection. By quantifying individual reproductive success and survival, we show, for the first time, that males with more orange and black pigment have higher reproductive success, but males with more black pigment also have higher risk of mortality. The net effect of selection is thus an advantage of orange but not black coloration, as reflected in the evolutionary response. This highlights the importance of considering all components of fitness when understanding the evolution of sexually selected traits in the wild. PMID:26290077

  1. Selection analysis on the rapid evolution of a secondary sexual trait.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Swanne P; Reznick, David; Arendt, Jeff D; Roughton, Allen; Ontiveros Hernandez, Michelle N; Bentzen, Paul; López-Sepulcre, Andrés

    2015-08-22

    Evolutionary analyses of population translocations (experimental or accidental) have been important in demonstrating speed of evolution because they subject organisms to abrupt environmental changes that create an episode of selection. However, the strength of selection in such studies is rarely measured, limiting our understanding of the evolutionary process. This contrasts with long-term, mark-recapture studies of unmanipulated populations that measure selection directly, yet rarely reveal evolutionary change. Here, we present a study of experimental evolution of male colour in Trinidadian guppies where we tracked both evolutionary change and individual-based measures of selection. Guppies were translocated from a predator-rich to a low-predation environment within the same stream system. We used a combination of common garden experiments and monthly sampling of individuals to measure the phenotypic and genetic divergence of male coloration between ancestral and derived fish. Results show rapid evolutionary increases in orange coloration in both populations (1 year or three generations), replicating the results of previous studies. Unlike previous studies, we linked this evolution to an individual-based analysis of selection. By quantifying individual reproductive success and survival, we show, for the first time, that males with more orange and black pigment have higher reproductive success, but males with more black pigment also have higher risk of mortality. The net effect of selection is thus an advantage of orange but not black coloration, as reflected in the evolutionary response. This highlights the importance of considering all components of fitness when understanding the evolution of sexually selected traits in the wild. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. Future directions in research on sexual minority adolescent mental, behavioral, and sexual health

    PubMed Central

    Mustanski, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This article describes current knowledge on sexual, mental, and behavioral health of sexual minority (SM) youth and identifies gaps that would benefit from future research. A translational sciences framework is used to conceptualize the article, discussing findings and gaps along the spectrum from basic research on prevalence and mechanisms, to intervention development and testing, to implementation. Relative to adults, there has been much less research on adolescents and very few studies that had longitudinal follow-up beyond one year. Due to historical changes in the social acceptance of the SM community, new cohorts are needed to represent contemporary life experiences and associated health consequences. Important theoretical developments have occurred in conceptualizing mechanisms that drive SM health disparities and mechanistic research is underway, including studies that identify individual and structural risk/protective factors. Research opportunities exist in the utilization of sibling-comparison designs, inclusion of parents, and studying romantic relationships. Methodological innovation is needed in sampling SM populations. There has been less intervention research and approaches should consider natural resiliencies, life-course frameworks, prevention science, multiple levels of influence, and the importance of implementation. Regulatory obstacles are created when ethics boards elect to require parental permission and ethics research is needed. There has been inconsistent inclusion of SM populations in the definition of “health disparity population,” which impacts funding and training opportunities. There are incredible opportunities for scholars to make substantial and foundational contributions to help address the health of SM youth, and new funding opportunities to do so. PMID:25575125

  3. Sexual selection predicts advancement of avian spring migration in response to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Spottiswoode, Claire N; Tøttrup, Anders P; Coppack, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    Global warming has led to earlier spring arrival of migratory birds, but the extent of this advancement varies greatly among species, and it remains uncertain to what degree these changes are phenotypically plastic responses or microevolutionary adaptations to changing environmental conditions. We suggest that sexual selection could help to understand this variation, since early spring arrival of males is favoured by female choice. Climate change could weaken the strength of natural selection opposing sexual selection for early migration, which would predict greatest advancement in species with stronger female choice. We test this hypothesis comparatively by investigating the degree of long-term change in spring passage at two ringing stations in northern Europe in relation to a synthetic estimate of the strength of female choice, composed of degree of extra-pair paternity, relative testes size and degree of sexually dichromatic plumage colouration. We found that species with a stronger index of sexual selection have indeed advanced their date of spring passage to a greater extent. This relationship was stronger for the changes in the median passage date of the whole population than for changes in the timing of first-arriving individuals, suggesting that selection has not only acted on protandrous males. These results suggest that sexual selection may have an impact on the responses of organisms to climate change, and knowledge of a species' mating system might help to inform attempts at predicting these. PMID:17015341

  4. The effects of sexual selection on trait divergence in a peripheral population with gene flow.

    PubMed

    Servedio, Maria R; Bürger, Reinhard

    2015-10-01

    The unique aspects of speciation and divergence in peripheral populations have long sparked much research. Unidirectional migration, received by some peripheral populations, can hinder the evolution of distinct differences from their founding populations. Here, we explore the effects that sexual selection, long hypothesized to drive the divergence of distinct traits used in mate choice, can play in the evolution of such traits in a partially isolated peripheral population. Using population genetic continent-island models, we show that with phenotype matching, sexual selection increases the frequency of an island-specific mating trait only when female preferences are of intermediate strength. We identify regions of preference strength for which sexual selection can instead cause an island-specific trait to be lost, even when it would have otherwise been maintained at migration-selection balance. When there are instead separate preference and trait loci, we find that sexual selection can lead to low trait frequencies or trait loss when female preferences are weak to intermediate, but that sexual selection can increase trait frequencies when preferences are strong. We also show that novel preference strengths almost universally cannot increase, under either mating mechanism, precluding the evolution of premating isolation in peripheral populations at the early stages of species divergence. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. Sexual-moral attitudes, love styles, and mate selection.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Rachel Saul; Reifman, Alan; Scott, Jean Pearson; Harris, Steven M; Fitzpatrick, Jacki

    2004-05-01

    Students at a southwestern university were surveyed to test the interrelations of three constructs: sexual-moral attitudes, love styles, and attraction criteria. Following the procedures of the National Health and Social Life Survey, from which the sexual-moral attitude items were obtained, we conducted a cluster analysis to create attitudinal groupings. We obtained four clusters representing various nuances of liberalism and conservatism. When compared on love styles, the clusters differed primarily on ludus and pragma. Not only did some of the liberal clusters differ from some of the conservative ones on love styles, but there were also some differences within liberalism and within conservatism. Cluster differences also emerged on the attraction criteria.

  6. Selective advantage for sexual replication with random haploid fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2008-03-01

    This talk develops a simplified set of models describing asexual and sexual replication in unicellular diploid organisms. The models assume organisms whose genomes consist of two chromosomes, where each chromosome is assumed to be functional if and only if it is equal to some master sequence. The fitness of an organism is determined by the number of functional chromosomes in its genome. For a population replicating asexually, a cell replicates both of its chromosomes, and then divides and splits its genetic material evenly between the two cells. For a population replicating sexually, a given cell first divides into two haploids, which enter a haploid pool. Within the haploid pool, haploids fuse into diploids, which then divide via the normal mitotic process. When the cost for sex is small, as measured by the ratio of the characteristic haploid fusion time to the characteristic growth time, we find that sexual replication with random haploid fusion leads to a greater mean fitness for the population than a purely asexual strategy. The results of this talk are consistent with previous studies suggesting that sex is favored at intermediate mutation rates, for slowly replicating organisms, and at high population densities.

  7. The Role of Sexual Selection in the Evolution of Chemical Signals in Insects

    PubMed Central

    Steiger, Sandra; Stökl, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Chemical communication is the most ancient and widespread form of communication. Yet we are only beginning to grasp the complexity of chemical signals and the role they play in sexual selection. Focusing on insects, we review here the recent progress in the field of olfactory-based sexual selection. We will show that there is mounting empirical evidence that sexual selection affects the evolution of chemical traits, but form and strength of selection differ between species. Studies indicate that some chemical signals are expressed in relation to an individual’s condition and depend, for example, on age, immunocompetence, fertility, body size or degree of inbreeding. Males or females might benefit by choosing based on those traits, gaining resources or “good genes”. Other chemical traits appear to reliably reflect an individual’s underlying genotype and are suitable to choose a mating partner that matches best the own genotype. PMID:26462692

  8. Genetic differences among populations in sexual dimorphism: evidence for selection on males in a dioecious plant

    PubMed Central

    YU, Q.; ELLEN, E. D.; WADE, M. J.; DELPH, L. F.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic variation among populations in the degree of sexual dimorphism may be a consequence of selection on one or both sexes. We analysed genetic parameters from crosses involving three populations of the dioecious plant Silene latifolia, which exhibits sexual dimorphism in flower size, to determine whether population differentiation was a result of selection on one or both sexes. We took the novel approach of comparing the ratio of population differentiation of a quantitative trait (QST) to that of neutral genetic markers (FST) for males vs. females. We attributed 72.6% of calyx width variation in males to differences among populations vs. only 6.9% in females. The QST/FST ratio was 4.2 for males vs. 0.4 for females, suggesting that selection on males is responsible for differentiation among populations in calyx width and its degree of sexual dimorphism. This selection may be indirect via genetic correlations with other morphological and physiological traits. PMID:21401772

  9. Multiple direct transitions from sexual reproduction to apomictic parthenogenesis in Timema stick insects.

    PubMed

    Schwander, Tanja; Crespi, Bernard J

    2009-01-01

    Transitions from sexual reproduction to parthenogenesis may occur along multiple evolutionary pathways and involve various cytological mechanisms to produce diploid eggs. Here, we investigate routes to parthenogenesis in Timema stick insects, a genus comprising five obligate parthenogens. By combining information from microsatellites and karyotypes with a previously published mitochondrial phylogeny, we show that all five parthenogens likely evolved spontaneously from sexually reproducing species, and that the sexual ancestor of one of the five parthenogens was probably of hybrid origin. The complete maintenance of heterozygosity between generations in the five parthenogens strongly suggests that eggs are produced by apomixis. Virgin females of the sexual species were also able to produce parthenogenetic offspring, but these females produced eggs by automixis. High heterozygosity levels stemming from conserved ancestral alleles in the parthenogens suggest, however, that automixis has not generated the current parthenogenetic Timema lineages but that apomixis appeared abruptly in several sexual species. A direct transition from sexual reproduction to (at least functional) apomixis results in a relatively high level of allelic diversity and high efficiency for parthenogenesis. Because both of these traits should positively affect the demographic success of asexual lineages, spontaneous apomixis may have contributed to the origin and maintenance of asexuality in Timema.

  10. The sexual selection paradigm: have we overlooked other mechanisms in the evolution of male ornaments?

    PubMed

    Candolin, Ulrika; Tukiainen, Iina

    2015-10-07

    Extravagant male ornaments expressed during reproduction are almost invariably assumed to be sexually selected and evolve through competition for mating opportunities. Yet in species where male reproductive success depends on the defence of offspring, male ornaments could also evolve through social competition for offspring survival. However, in contrast to female ornaments, this possibility has received little attention in males. We show that a male ornament that is traditionally assumed to be sexually selected--the red nuptial coloration of the three-spined stickleback--is under stronger selection for offspring survival than for mating success. Males express most coloration during parenting, when they no longer attract females, and the colour correlates with nest retention and hatching success but not with attractiveness to females. This contradicts earlier assumptions and suggests that social selection for offspring survival rather than for sexual selection for mating success is the main mechanism maintaining the ornament in the population. These results suggest that we should consider other forms of social selection beyond sexual selection when seeking to explain the function and evolution of male ornaments. An incorrect assignment of selection pressures could hamper our understanding of evolution. © 2015 The Author(s).

  11. Natural and sexual selection giveth and taketh away reproductive barriers: models of population divergence in guppies.

    PubMed

    Labonne, Jacques; Hendry, Andrew P

    2010-07-01

    The standard predictions of ecological speciation might be nuanced by the interaction between natural and sexual selection. We investigated this hypothesis with an individual-based model tailored to the biology of guppies (Poecilia reticulata). We specifically modeled the situation where a high-predation population below a waterfall colonizes a low-predation population above a waterfall. Focusing on the evolution of male color, we confirm that divergent selection causes the appreciable evolution of male color within 20 generations. The rate and magnitude of this divergence were reduced when dispersal rates were high and when female choice did not differ between environments. Adaptive divergence was always coupled to the evolution of two reproductive barriers: viability selection against immigrants and hybrids. Different types of sexual selection, however, led to contrasting results for another potential reproductive barrier: mating success of immigrants. In some cases, the effects of natural and sexual selection offset each other, leading to no overall reproductive isolation despite strong adaptive divergence. Sexual selection acting through female choice can thus strongly modify the effects of divergent natural selection and thereby alter the standard predictions of ecological speciation. We also found that under no circumstances did divergent selection cause appreciable divergence in neutral genetic markers.

  12. Eggspot Number and Sexual Selection in the Cichlid Fish Astatotilapia burtoni

    PubMed Central

    Henning, Frederico; Meyer, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Sexual selection on male coloration is one of the main mechanisms proposed to explain the explosive speciation rates in East African cichlid fish. True eggspots are color patterns characteristic of the most species-rich lineage of cichlids, the Haplochromini, and have been suggested to be causally related to the speciation processes. Eggspots are thought to have originated by sensory exploitation and subsequently gained several roles in sexual advertisement. However, for most of these functions the evidence is equivocal. In addition, the genetic architecture of this trait still is largely unknown. We conducted bidirectional selective breeding experiments for eggspot numbers in the model cichlid, Astatotilapia burtoni. After two generations, low lines responded significantly, whereas the high lines did not. Body size was both phenotypically and genotypically correlated with eggspot number and showed correlated response to selection. Males with higher numbers of eggspots were found to sire larger offspring. Despite the potential to act as honest indicators of fitness, the behavioral experiments showed no evidence of a role in either intra- or inter-sexual selection. Visual-based female preference was instead explained by courtship intensity. The evolution of this trait has been interpreted in light of adaptive theories of sexual selection, however the present and published results suggest the influence of non-adaptive factors such as sensory exploitation, environmental constraints and sexual antagonism. PMID:22937082

  13. Interlocus sexually antagonistic coevolution can create indirect selection for increased recombination.

    PubMed

    Dapper, Amy L; Lively, Curtis M

    2014-04-01

    The ubiquity of recombination in nature is a paradox because it breaks up combinations of alleles favored by natural selection. Theoretical work has shown that antagonistic coevolution between hosts and parasites can result in rapid fluctuations in epistasis that can create a short-term advantage to recombination. Here, we show that another kind of antagonistic coevolution, interlocus sexually antagonistic coevolution (SAC), can also create indirect selection for modifiers that increase the rate of recombination, and that it can lead to very high levels of recombination at equilibrium. Recombination is favored because interlocus SAC creates heterogeneity in the strength and direction of selection, both within and between generations, which maintains an excess of disadvantageous haplotypes in the population. This result is similar to and consistent with dynamics of fluctuating epistasis produced in models of host-parasite coevolution. However, the conditions under which interlocus SAC provides an advantage to recombination are more permissive. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Artificial selection for a secondary sexual character in males of Drosophila silvestris from Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Hampton L.; Teramoto, Linden T.

    1984-01-01

    Drosophila silvestris is endemic to the rain forests of Hawaii Island. In populations from the northeast side, the male foreleg tibia bears about 100 long cilia; these are used as a brush to stimulate the female during courtship. Cyclical family selection for high and low cilia number was carried out on progeny of lines started from single wild isofemales collected at a single site. Significant response in both directions was obtained; in the third generation the lines differed by a mean of 25 cilia. Despite much effort to save them, both lines died out without further advance; the low cilia number line died after five and the high cilia number line died after nine generations. The data are compatible with the view that the cilia character is polygenic and is maintained in nature by a stabilizing sexual selection that also favors a polygenic heterozygous state. Although selection in these experiments resulted in dysgenesis, such a result is not inevitable. Disorganization and reorganization of such a genetic system following a population bottleneck might be important as a predisposing condition for the emergence of a specifically novel and possibly isolating mode of courtship. PMID:16593479

  15. Germline Selection: Population Genetic Aspects of the Sexual/Asexual Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, I. M.

    1991-01-01

    Population geneticists make a distinction between sexual and asexual organisms depending on whether individuals inherit genes from one or two parents. When individual genes are considered, this distinction becomes less satisfactory for multicellular sexual organisms. Individual genes pass through numerous asexual mitotic cell divisions in the germline prior to meiosis and sexual recombination. The processes of mitotic mutation, mitotic crossing over, and mitotic gene conversion create genotypic diversity between diploid cells in the germline. Genes expressed in the germline whose products affect cell viability (such as many ``housekeeping'' enzymes) may be subjected to natural selection acting on this variability resulting in a non-Mendelian output of gametes. Such genes will be governed by the population genetics of the sexual/asexual life cycle rather than the conventional sexual/Mendelian life cycle. A model is developed to investigate some properties of the sexual/asexual life cycle. When appropriate parameter values were included in the model, it was found that mutation rates per locus per gamete may vary by a factor of up to 100 if selection acts in the germline. Sexual/asexual populations appear able to evolve to a genotype of higher fitness despite intervening genotypes of lower fitness, reducing the problems of underdominance and Wright's adaptive landscape encountered by purely sexual populations. As might be expected this ability is chiefly determined by the number of asexual mitotic cell divisions within the germline. The evolutionary consequences of ``housekeeping'' loci being governed by the dynamics of the sexual/asexual life cycle are considered. PMID:1783297

  16. Social change in adolescent sexual behavior, mate selection, and premarital pregnancy rates in a Kikuyu community.

    PubMed

    Worthman, C M; Whiting, J W

    1987-06-01

    This report documents an example of interactions of cultural change with adolescent fertility and marriage patterns in an East African community. Between 1950 and 1980 the rate of unwed motherhood in Ngeca, Kenya, showed a marked increase from 0% in the 1940s to 11.4% in the 1960s. The authors present evidence of recent changes in Kikuyu culture that may account for this change. Traditional Kikuyu culture structured adolescence through status and role changes bounded and reinforced by ritual and instruction. Abandonment of traditional initiation rites and attenuation of the age-set system have most markedly altered the structure of adolescent experience by shifting the content and context of socialization. Major agents for change in this process have been the school, church, and modern economy. Responsibility for mate selection has remained with young people, but the determinants of partner desirability and gender ratios in partner availability have shifted considerably. Traditional criteria of male desirability included ability to pay bridewealth and to provide the wife with land; diligence and demeanor measured female attractiveness. At present, education and wage earning capacity affect partner attractiveness of each sex. The decline of polygyny has both shifted the balance of competition for spouses toward females, and has had significant repercussions in the marital and reproductive histories of males. Decreases in brideprice and reversals in direction of transfers of wealth at marriage are tangible signs of change in the marriage market. Deritualization of genital operations and attendant weakening of the age-set system have interrupted the flow of information on sex behavior and reproduction, controlled physical intimacy, and partner selection reinforced by peer pressure. Denial of contraception, the continued importance of marriage and fertility, and ambivalence toward sexual activity in adolescence all support adolescent sexual experimentation and

  17. Sexuality and Autism: A Critical Review of Selected Literature Using a Social-Relational Model of Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gougeon, Nathalie A.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a summary of selected research conducted on the sexuality, as well as sexual knowledge and behaviors of individuals with autism over the past 20 years. The discussion section reviews the research according to the following recurrent themes: the importance of sexuality in the lives of individuals with autism, the discourse of…

  18. The laminar development of direction selectivity in ferret visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, Jared M.; Ritter, Neil J.; Roy, Arani; Miller, Julie M.; Van Hooser, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    Sensory experience plays a critical role in the development of cortical circuits. At the time of eye opening, visual cortical neurons in the ferret exhibit orientation selectivity, but lack direction selectivity, which is a feature of mature cortical neurons in this species. Direction selectivity emerges in the days and weeks following eye opening via a process that requires visual experience. However, the circuit mechanisms that underlie the development of direction selectivity remain unclear. Here, we used microelectrodes to examine the laminar chronology of the development of direction selectivity around the time of eye opening in order to identify the locations within the cortical circuit that are altered during this process. We found that neurons in layers 4 and 2/3 exhibited weak direction selectivity just prior to natural eye opening. Layer 4 neurons in animals that had opened their eyes but were younger than postnatal day (PND) 35 exhibited modestly increased direction selectivity, but layer 2/3 cells remained as weakly tuned as before eye opening. Animals that had opened their eyes and were PND 35 or older exhibited increased direction selectivity in both layers 4 and 2/3.On average, initial increases in direction selectivity in animals younger than PND 35 were explained by increases in responses to the preferred direction, while subsequent increases in direction selectivity in animals PND35 or older were explained by decreases in responses to the null direction. These results suggest that all cortical layers are influenced by sensory stimulation during early stages of experience-dependent development. PMID:23238731

  19. Synaptic Mechanisms of Direction Selectivity in Primary Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Chang-quan; Poo, Mu-ming; Dan, Yang; Zhang, Xiao-hui

    2010-01-01

    Frequency modulation (FM) is a prominent feature in animal vocalization and human speech. Although many neurons in the auditory cortex are known to be selective for FM direction, the synaptic mechanisms underlying this selectivity are not well understood. Previous studies of both visual and auditory neurons have suggested two general mechanisms for direction selectivity: 1) differential delays of excitatory inputs across the spatial/spectral receptive field and 2) spatial/spectral offset between excitatory and inhibitory inputs. In this study, we have examined the contributions of both mechanisms to FM direction selectivity in rat primary auditory cortex. The excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs to each cortical neuron were measured by in vivo whole-cell recording. The spectrotemporal receptive field (STRF) of each type of inputs was mapped with random tone pips and compared with direction selectivity of the neuron measured with FM stimuli. We found that both the differential delay of the excitatory input and the spectral offset between excitation and inhibition are positively correlated with direction selectivity of the neuron. Thus, both synaptic mechanisms are likely to contribute to FM direction selectivity in the auditory cortex. Finally, direction selectivity measured from the spiking output is significantly stronger than that based on the subthreshold membrane potentials, indicating that the selectivity is further sharpened by the spike generation mechanism. PMID:20130195

  20. Modeling HIV-1 Drug Resistance as Episodic Directional Selection

    PubMed Central

    Murrell, Ben; de Oliveira, Tulio; Seebregts, Chris; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L.; Scheffler, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of substitutions conferring drug resistance to HIV-1 is both episodic, occurring when patients are on antiretroviral therapy, and strongly directional, with site-specific resistant residues increasing in frequency over time. While methods exist to detect episodic diversifying selection and continuous directional selection, no evolutionary model combining these two properties has been proposed. We present two models of episodic directional selection (MEDS and EDEPS) which allow the a priori specification of lineages expected to have undergone directional selection. The models infer the sites and target residues that were likely subject to directional selection, using either codon or protein sequences. Compared to its null model of episodic diversifying selection, MEDS provides a superior fit to most sites known to be involved in drug resistance, and neither one test for episodic diversifying selection nor another for constant directional selection are able to detect as many true positives as MEDS and EDEPS while maintaining acceptable levels of false positives. This suggests that episodic directional selection is a better description of the process driving the evolution of drug resistance. PMID:22589711

  1. The sexual selection paradigm: have we overlooked other mechanisms in the evolution of male ornaments?

    PubMed Central

    Candolin, Ulrika; Tukiainen, Iina

    2015-01-01

    Extravagant male ornaments expressed during reproduction are almost invariably assumed to be sexually selected and evolve through competition for mating opportunities. Yet in species where male reproductive success depends on the defence of offspring, male ornaments could also evolve through social competition for offspring survival. However, in contrast to female ornaments, this possibility has received little attention in males. We show that a male ornament that is traditionally assumed to be sexually selected—the red nuptial coloration of the three-spined stickleback—is under stronger selection for offspring survival than for mating success. Males express most coloration during parenting, when they no longer attract females, and the colour correlates with nest retention and hatching success but not with attractiveness to females. This contradicts earlier assumptions and suggests that social selection for offspring survival rather than for sexual selection for mating success is the main mechanism maintaining the ornament in the population. These results suggest that we should consider other forms of social selection beyond sexual selection when seeking to explain the function and evolution of male ornaments. An incorrect assignment of selection pressures could hamper our understanding of evolution. PMID:26446811

  2. Evolution of sexual dimorphism and Rensch’s rule in the beetle genus Limnebius (Hydraenidae): is sexual selection opportunistic?

    PubMed Central

    Rudoy, Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is widespread among animals, with larger females usually attributed to an optimization of resources in reproduction and larger males to sexual selection. A general pattern in the evolution of SSD is Rensch’s rule, which states that SSD increases with body size in species with larger males but decreases when females are larger. We studied the evolution of SSD in the genus Limnebius (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae), measuring SSD and male genital size and complexity of ca. 80% of its 150 species and reconstructing its evolution in a molecular phylogeny with 71 species. We found strong support for a higher evolutionary lability of male body size, which had an overall positive allometry with respect to females and higher evolutionary rates measured over the individual branches of the phylogeny. Increases in SSD were associated to increases in body size, but there were some exceptions with an increase associated to changes in only one sex. Secondary sexual characters (SSC) in the external morphology of males appeared several times independently, generally on species that had already increased their size. There was an overall significant correlation between SSD, male body size and male genital size and complexity, although some lineages with complex genitalia had low SSD, and some small species with complex genitalia had no SSD. Our results suggest that the origin of the higher evolutionary variance of male body size may be due to lack of constraints rather than to sexual selection, that may start to act in species with already larger males due to random variation. PMID:28286715

  3. Evolution of male and female genitalia following release from sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Cayetano, Luis; Maklakov, Alexei A; Brooks, Robert C; Bonduriansky, Russell

    2011-08-01

    Despite the key functions of the genitalia in sexual interactions and fertilization, the role of sexual selection and conflict in shaping genital traits remains poorly understood. Seed beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus) males possess spines on the intromittent organ, and females possess a thickened reproductive tract wall that also bears spines. We investigated the role of sexual selection and conflict by imposing monogamous mating on eight replicate populations of this naturally polygamous insect, while maintaining eight other populations under polygamy. To establish whether responses to mating system manipulation were robust to ecological context, we simultaneously manipulated life-history selection (early/late reproduction). Over 18-21 generations, male genital spines evolved relatively reduced length in large males (i.e., shallower static allometry) in monogamous populations. Two nonintromittent male genital appendages also evolved in response to the interaction of mating system and ecology. In contrast, no detectable evolution occurred in female genitalia, consistent with the expectation of a delayed response in defensive traits. Our results support a sexually antagonistic role for the male genital spines, and demonstrate the evolution of static allometry in response to variation in sexual selection opportunity. We argue that further advances in the study of genital coevolution will require a much more detailed understanding of the functions of male and female genital traits.

  4. Direct effects of energy-related air pollutants on plant sexual reproduction. Final report, February 1, 1979--January 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Ragsdale, H.L.; Murdy, W.H.

    1987-12-08

    Our completed research program concentrated on the direct in vivo effects of energy-related air pollutants on plant sexual reproduction. Direct air pollution effects on plant sexual reproduction have been studied for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2}, two of the three major air pollutants.

  5. Genetic architecture of sexual selection: QTL mapping of male song and female receiver traits in an acoustic moth.

    PubMed

    Limousin, Denis; Streiff, Réjane; Courtois, Brigitte; Dupuy, Virginie; Alem, Sylvain; Greenfield, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Models of indirect (genetic) benefits sexual selection predict linkage disequilibria between genes that influence male traits and female preferences, owing to non-random mate choice or physical linkage. Such linkage disequilibria can accelerate the evolution of traits and preferences to exaggerated levels. Both theory and recent empirical findings on species recognition suggest that such linkage disequilibria may result from physical linkage or pleiotropy, but very little work has addressed this possibility within the context of sexual selection. We studied the genetic architecture of sexually selected traits by analyzing signals and preferences in an acoustic moth, Achroia grisella, in which males attract females with a train of ultrasound pulses and females prefer loud songs and a fast pulse rhythm. Both male signal characters and female preferences are repeatable and heritable traits. Moreover, female choice is based largely on male song, while males do not appear to provide direct benefits at mating. Thus, some genetic correlation between song and preference traits is expected. We employed a standard crossing design between inbred lines and used AFLP markers to build a linkage map for this species and locate quantitative trait loci (QTL) that influence male song and female preference. Our analyses mostly revealed QTLs of moderate strength that influence various male signal and female receiver traits, but one QTL was found that exerts a major influence on the pulse-pair rate of male song, a critical trait in female attraction. However, we found no evidence of specific co-localization of QTLs influencing male signal and female receiver traits on the same linkage groups. This finding suggests that the sexual selection process would proceed at a modest rate in A. grisella and that evolution toward exaggerated character states may be tempered. We suggest that this equilibrium state may be more the norm than the exception among animal species.

  6. Genetic Architecture of Sexual Selection: QTL Mapping of Male Song and Female Receiver Traits in an Acoustic Moth

    PubMed Central

    Limousin, Denis; Streiff, Réjane; Courtois, Brigitte; Dupuy, Virginie; Alem, Sylvain; Greenfield, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Models of indirect (genetic) benefits sexual selection predict linkage disequilibria between genes that influence male traits and female preferences, owing to non-random mate choice or physical linkage. Such linkage disequilibria can accelerate the evolution of traits and preferences to exaggerated levels. Both theory and recent empirical findings on species recognition suggest that such linkage disequilibria may result from physical linkage or pleiotropy, but very little work has addressed this possibility within the context of sexual selection. We studied the genetic architecture of sexually selected traits by analyzing signals and preferences in an acoustic moth, Achroia grisella, in which males attract females with a train of ultrasound pulses and females prefer loud songs and a fast pulse rhythm. Both male signal characters and female preferences are repeatable and heritable traits. Moreover, female choice is based largely on male song, while males do not appear to provide direct benefits at mating. Thus, some genetic correlation between song and preference traits is expected. We employed a standard crossing design between inbred lines and used AFLP markers to build a linkage map for this species and locate quantitative trait loci (QTL) that influence male song and female preference. Our analyses mostly revealed QTLs of moderate strength that influence various male signal and female receiver traits, but one QTL was found that exerts a major influence on the pulse-pair rate of male song, a critical trait in female attraction. However, we found no evidence of specific co-localization of QTLs influencing male signal and female receiver traits on the same linkage groups. This finding suggests that the sexual selection process would proceed at a modest rate in A. grisella and that evolution toward exaggerated character states may be tempered. We suggest that this equilibrium state may be more the norm than the exception among animal species. PMID:22957082

  7. Laser Doppler imaging of genital blood flow: a direct measure of female sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Samantha E; Pukall, Caroline F

    2009-08-01

    Female sexual arousal is a challenging construct to measure, partly because of the subtle nature of its indicators, vaginal lubrication and genital swelling. As a result, many instruments have been used in an attempt to accurately measure it; however, problems are associated with each. Furthermore, the relationship between subjective and physiological indicators of arousal appears to be influenced by the instrument used to measure physiological arousal. Specifically, instruments measuring physiological arousal internally yield lower correlations between measures of physiological and subjective arousal than instruments examining the external genitals. Laser Doppler imaging (LDI) is a direct measure of external genital blood flow. The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of LDI for measuring genital blood flow in women in response to erotic visual stimuli, and to explore the relationship between physiological and subjective sexual arousal. Sixty-five participants watched three 15-minute films during LDI scanning. Two nature films (measuring acclimatization and baseline blood flow levels) and one randomly assigned experimental film (erotic, anxiety, humor, or neutral) were used. Participants rated their level of subjective arousal following the third film. Results indicated a significant effect of film condition on genital blood flow, P < 0.001, with the erotic condition differing significantly from the other three conditions. In terms of the relationship between physiological and subjective sexual arousal, physiological arousal was significantly predicted by subjective ratings of sexual arousal (P < 0.001). LDI appears to be able to differentiate blood flow during erotic and nonerotic conditions. In addition, physiological sexual arousal was significantly predicted by women's reported subjective sexual arousal. These findings suggest that LDI is a useful instrument for measuring female sexual arousal, and that women may be more aware of their level

  8. Form and nature of precopulatory sexual selection in both sexes of a moth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jin; Wang, Qiao

    2010-07-01

    Sexual selection is a process that operates through intrasexual competition and intersexual choice for reproduction in both sexes. Here, we report our work on a polygamous moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), aiming to infer the form and nature of precopulatory sexual selection in males and females. We show that, although a number of traits measured in each sex are correlated with mating success, the primary selection trait in females appears to be abdominal thickness and that in males is aedeagus length. As the female’s abdominal thickness is a reliable signal about the number and developmental stage of eggs, males who select females with thicker abdomens for mating will gain reproductive benefit, i.e., fertilizing more mature eggs. For females, earlier maturation of their eggs makes the females more likely to achieve mating earlier in an uncertain world where there is no guarantee that they will find more males in the future. Sexual selection appears to be the important force behind the evolution of fast egg maturation in females. We show that, under a male-biased sex ratio, more than 20% of mating fails within a few minutes after the aedeagus has penetrated into the female’s genitalia, suggesting that females can assess the features of the male aedeagus before allowing insemination to occur. Dissection and examination of both sexes suggest that a longer aedeagus enhances mating and fertilization efficiency in this species, supporting the notion that sexual selection is a primary force in the evolution of genital variance.

  9. Is pedophilic sexual preference continuous? A taxometric analysis based on direct and indirect measures.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Alexander F; Mokros, Andreas; Banse, Rainer

    2013-12-01

    The present study addressed the question of whether deviant sexual preferences for children can be considered a taxon, utilizing data from a multimethod assessment battery. The test battery comprised direct self-report as well as indirect latency-based measures (Implicit Association Tests, viewing time) of deviant sexual preferences for children. In a mixed sample of adult men (N = 304, including sex offenders against children, sex offenders against adults, and controls who were either nonsexual offenders or nonoffenders), 27% of the offenders convicted for child sexual abuse or child pornography charges were identified as a homogeneous and distinct latent class. Additional taxometric analyses corroborated the notion of a pedophilic subgroup. Individuals in this pedophilic group showed elevated scores on measures of deviant sexual preference for children over adults. The offense histories of the individuals from the pedophilic cluster indicated an increased likelihood of pedophilic preference as assessed by a file-based summary index. We interpret the results as evidence for pedophilic sexual preference as a distinct and taxonic clinical construct.

  10. Experimental analyses of sexual and natural selection on short tails in a polygynous warbler.

    PubMed Central

    Balmford, A; Lewis, M J; Brooke, M L; Thomas, A L; Johnson, C N

    2000-01-01

    We believe that no experimental study has yet tested Darwin's idea that, as well as generating trait elaboration, intersexual selection might sometimes drive sex-biased trait reduction. Here we present the results of two experiments exploring the negative relationship between tail length and reproductive success in male golden-headed cisticolas (Cisticola exilis). In the first experiment, artificially shortening a male's tail produced a dramatic increase in his reproductive success, measured as either the number of females nesting or number of chicks Hedged on his territory. A second experiment, in which manipulated birds were flown through a maze, revealed that short tails also impose costs by reducing aerodynamic performance during slow-speed foraging flight. Because tail shortening yields reproductive benefits and viability costs, we conclude it has evolved via sexual selection. Disentangling exactly how short tails enhance male reproductive success is more difficult. Male-male competition appears partly responsible: aerodynamic theory predicts that tail reduction enhances high-speed flight and, in line with this, shortened-tail males spent more time engaged in high-speed aerial chases of rivals and defended higher-quality territories. However, shortened-tail males had higher reproductive success independent of territory quality and spent more time in aerial displays which may be directed at females. This suggests that tail shortening is also favoured via female choice based on male phenotype. PMID:10885517

  11. Major histocompatibility complex similarity and sexual selection: different does not always mean attractive.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, Clelia; Congiu, Leonardo; Pilastro, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Females that mate multiply have the possibility to exert postcopulatory choice and select more compatible sperm to fertilize eggs. Prior work suggests that dissimilarity in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays an important role in determining genetic compatibility between partners. Favouring a partner with dissimilar MHC alleles would result in offspring with high MHC diversity and therefore with enhanced survival thanks to increased resistance to pathogens and parasites. The high variability of MHC genes may further allow discrimination against the sperm from related males, reducing offspring homozygosity and inbreeding risk. Despite the large body of work conducted at precopulatory level, the role of MHC similarity between partners at postcopulatory level has been rarely investigated. We used an internal fertilizing fish with high level of multiple matings (Poecilia reticulata) to study whether MHC similarity plays a role in determining the outcome of fertilization when sperm from two males compete for the same set of eggs. We also controlled for genomewide similarity by determining similarity at 10 microsatellite loci. Contrary to prediction, we found that the more MHC-similar male sired more offspring while similarity at the microsatellite loci did not predict the outcome of sperm competition. Our results suggest that MHC discrimination may be involved in avoidance of hybridization or outbreeding rather than inbreeding avoidance. This, coupled with similar findings in salmon, suggests that the preference for MHC-dissimilar mates is far from being unanimous and that pre- and postcopulatory episodes of sexual selection can indeed act in opposite directions.

  12. Neutral and selection-driven decay of sexual traits in asexual stick insects

    PubMed Central

    Schwander, Tanja; Crespi, Bernard J.; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Environmental shifts and lifestyle changes may result in formerly adaptive traits becoming non-functional or maladaptive. The subsequent decay of such traits highlights the importance of natural selection for adaptations, yet its causes have rarely been investigated. To study the fate of formerly adaptive traits after lifestyle changes, we evaluated sexual traits in five independently derived asexual lineages, including traits that are specific to males and therefore not exposed to selection. At least four of the asexual lineages retained the capacity to produce males that display normal courtship behaviours and are able to fertilize eggs of females from related sexual species. The maintenance of male traits may stem from pleiotropy, or from these traits only regressing via drift, which may require millions of years to generate phenotypic effects. By contrast, we found parallel decay of sexual traits in females. Asexual females produced altered airborne and contact signals, had modified sperm storage organs, and lost the ability to fertilize their eggs, impeding reversals to sexual reproduction. Female sexual traits were decayed even in recently derived asexuals, suggesting that trait changes following the evolution of asexuality, when they occur, proceed rapidly and are driven by selective processes rather than drift. PMID:23782880

  13. Neutral and selection-driven decay of sexual traits in asexual stick insects.

    PubMed

    Schwander, Tanja; Crespi, Bernard J; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard

    2013-08-07

    Environmental shifts and lifestyle changes may result in formerly adaptive traits becoming non-functional or maladaptive. The subsequent decay of such traits highlights the importance of natural selection for adaptations, yet its causes have rarely been investigated. To study the fate of formerly adaptive traits after lifestyle changes, we evaluated sexual traits in five independently derived asexual lineages, including traits that are specific to males and therefore not exposed to selection. At least four of the asexual lineages retained the capacity to produce males that display normal courtship behaviours and are able to fertilize eggs of females from related sexual species. The maintenance of male traits may stem from pleiotropy, or from these traits only regressing via drift, which may require millions of years to generate phenotypic effects. By contrast, we found parallel decay of sexual traits in females. Asexual females produced altered airborne and contact signals, had modified sperm storage organs, and lost the ability to fertilize their eggs, impeding reversals to sexual reproduction. Female sexual traits were decayed even in recently derived asexuals, suggesting that trait changes following the evolution of asexuality, when they occur, proceed rapidly and are driven by selective processes rather than drift.

  14. Populations with elevated mutation load do not benefit from the operation of sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Hollis, B; Houle, D

    2011-09-01

    Theory predicts that if most mutations are deleterious to both overall fitness and condition-dependent traits affecting mating success, sexual selection will purge mutation load and increase nonsexual fitness. We explored this possibility with populations of mutagenized Drosophila melanogaster exhibiting elevated levels of deleterious variation and evolving in the presence or absence of male-male competition and female choice. After 60 generations of experimental evolution, monogamous populations exhibited higher total reproductive output than polygamous populations. Parental environment also affected fitness measures - flies that evolved in the presence of sexual conflict showed reduced nonsexual fitness when their parents experienced a polygamous environment, indicating trans-generational effects of male harassment and highlighting the importance of a common garden design. This cost of parental promiscuity was nearly absent in monogamous lines, providing evidence for the evolution of reduced sexual antagonism. There was no overall difference in egg-to-adult viability between selection regimes. If mutation load was reduced by the action of sexual selection in this experiment, the resultant gain in fitness was not sufficient to overcome the costs of sexual antagonism.

  15. Evolution of opsin expression in birds driven by sexual selection and habitat

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Natasha I.

    2015-01-01

    Theories of sexual and natural selection predict coevolution of visual perception with conspecific colour and/or the light environment animals occupy. One way to test these theories is to focus on the visual system, which can be achieved by studying the opsin-based visual pigments that mediate vision. Birds vary greatly in colour, but opsin gene coding sequences and associated visual pigment spectral sensitivities are known to be rather invariant across birds. Here, I studied expression of the four cone opsin genes (Lws, Rh2, Sws2 and Sws1) in 16 species of New World warblers (Parulidae). I found levels of opsin expression vary both across species and between the sexes. Across species, female, but not male Sws2 expression is associated with an index of sexual selection, plumage dichromatism. This fits predictions of classic sexual selection models, in which the sensory system changes in females, presumably impacting female preference, and co-evolves with male plumage. Expression of the opsins at the extremes of the light spectrum, Lws and Uvs, correlates with the inferred light environment occupied by the different species. Unlike opsin spectral tuning, regulation of opsin gene expression allows for fast adaptive evolution of the visual system in response to natural and sexual selection, and in particular, sex-specific selection pressures. PMID:25429020

  16. Evolution of opsin expression in birds driven by sexual selection and habitat.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Natasha I

    2015-01-07

    Theories of sexual and natural selection predict coevolution of visual perception with conspecific colour and/or the light environment animals occupy. One way to test these theories is to focus on the visual system, which can be achieved by studying the opsin-based visual pigments that mediate vision. Birds vary greatly in colour, but opsin gene coding sequences and associated visual pigment spectral sensitivities are known to be rather invariant across birds. Here, I studied expression of the four cone opsin genes (Lws, Rh2, Sws2 and Sws1) in 16 species of New World warblers (Parulidae). I found levels of opsin expression vary both across species and between the sexes. Across species, female, but not male Sws2 expression is associated with an index of sexual selection, plumage dichromatism. This fits predictions of classic sexual selection models, in which the sensory system changes in females, presumably impacting female preference, and co-evolves with male plumage. Expression of the opsins at the extremes of the light spectrum, Lws and Uvs, correlates with the inferred light environment occupied by the different species. Unlike opsin spectral tuning, regulation of opsin gene expression allows for fast adaptive evolution of the visual system in response to natural and sexual selection, and in particular, sex-specific selection pressures.

  17. Sexual selection and the evolution of egg-sperm interactions in broadcast-spawning invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan P; Sherman, Craig D H

    2013-08-01

    Many marine invertebrate taxa are broadcast spawners, where multiple individuals release their gametes into the water for external fertilization, often in the presence of gametes from heterospecifics. Consequently, sperm encounter the considerable challenges of locating and fertilizing eggs from conspecific females. To overcome these challenges, many taxa exhibit species-specific attraction of sperm toward eggs through chemical signals released from eggs (sperm chemotaxis) and species-specific gamete recognition proteins (GRPs) that mediate compatibility of gametes at fertilization. In this prospective review, we highlight these selective forces, but also emphasize the role that sexual selection, manifested through sperm competition, cryptic female choice, and evolutionary conflicts of interest between the sexes (sexual conflict), can also play in mediating the action of egg chemoattractants and GRPs, and thus individual reproductive fitness. Furthermore, we explore patterns of selection at the level of gametes (sperm phenotype, gamete plasticity, and egg traits) to identify putative traits targeted by sexual selection in these species. We conclude by emphasizing the excellent, but relatively untapped, potential of broadcast-spawning marine invertebrates as model systems to illuminate several areas of research in post-mating sexual selection.

  18. Directional Excitatory Input to Direction-Selective Ganglion Cells in the Rabbit Retina.

    PubMed

    Percival, Kumiko A; Venkataramani, Sowmya; Smith, Robert G; Rowland Taylor, W

    2017-03-14

    Directional responses in retinal ganglion cells are generated in large part by direction-selective release of GABA from starburst amacrine cells onto direction-selective ganglion cells (DSGCs). The excitatory inputs to DSGCs are also widely reported to be direction-selective, however, recent evidence suggests that glutamate release from bipolar cells is not directional, and directional excitation seen in patch-clamp analyses may be an artifact resulting from incomplete voltage control. Here we test this voltage-clamp-artifact hypothesis in recordings from 62 On-Off DSGCs in the rabbit retina. The strength of the directional excitatory signal varies considerably across the sample of cells, but is not correlated with the strength of directional inhibition, as required for a voltage-clamp artifact. These results implicate additional mechanisms in generating directional excitatory inputs to DSGCs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Selection on learning performance results in the correlated evolution of sexual dimorphism in life history.

    PubMed

    Zwoinska, Martyna K; Lind, Martin I; Cortazar-Chinarro, Maria; Ramsden, Mark; Maklakov, Alexei A

    2016-02-01

    The evolution of learning can be constrained by trade-offs. As male and female life histories often diverge, the relationship between learning and fitness may differ between the sexes. However, because sexes share much of their genome, intersexual genetic correlations can prevent males and females from reaching their sex-specific optima resulting in intralocus sexual conflict (IaSC). To investigate if IaSC constraints sex-specific evolution of learning, we selected Caenorhabditis remanei nematode females for increased or decreased olfactory learning performance and measured learning, life span (in mated and virgin worms), reproduction, and locomotory activity in both sexes. Males from downward-selected female lines had higher locomotory activity and longer virgin life span but sired fewer progeny than males from upward-selected female lines. In contrast, we found no effect of selection on female reproduction and downward-selected females showed higher locomotory activity but lived shorter as virgins than upward-selected females. Strikingly, selection on learning performance led to the reversal of sexual dimorphism in virgin life span. We thus show sex-specific trade-offs between learning, reproduction, and life span. Our results support the hypothesis that selection on learning performance can shape the evolution of sexually dimorphic life histories via sex-specific genetic correlations.

  20. Sexual selection and the evolutionary dynamics of the major histocompatibility complex

    PubMed Central

    Jan Ejsmond, Maciej; Radwan, Jacek; Wilson, Anthony B.

    2014-01-01

    The genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are a key component of the adaptive immune system and among the most variable loci in the vertebrate genome. Pathogen-mediated natural selection and MHC-based disassortative mating are both thought to structure MHC polymorphism, but their effects have proven difficult to discriminate in natural systems. Using the first model of MHC dynamics incorporating both survival and reproduction, we demonstrate that natural and sexual selection produce distinctive signatures of MHC allelic diversity with critical implications for understanding host–pathogen dynamics. While natural selection produces the Red Queen dynamics characteristic of host–parasite interactions, disassortative mating stabilizes allele frequencies, damping major fluctuations in dominant alleles and protecting functional variants against drift. This subtle difference generates a complex interaction between MHC allelic diversity and population size. In small populations, the stabilizing effects of sexual selection moderate the effects of drift, whereas pathogen-mediated selection accelerates the loss of functionally important genetic diversity. Natural selection enhances MHC allelic variation in larger populations, with the highest levels of diversity generated by the combined action of pathogen-mediated selection and disassortative mating. MHC-based sexual selection may help to explain how functionally important genetic variation can be maintained in populations of conservation concern. PMID:25339723

  1. Postmating sexual selection: allopatric evolution of sperm competition mechanisms and genital morphology in calopterygid damselflies (Insecta: Odonata).

    PubMed

    Cordero Rivera, A; Andrés, J A; Córdoba-Aguilar, A; Utzeri, C

    2004-02-01

    Postmating sexual selection theory predicts that in allopatry reproductive traits diverge rapidly and that the resulting differentiation in these traits may lead to restrictions to gene flow between populations and, eventually, reproductive isolation. In this paper we explore the potential for this premise in a group of damselflies of the family Calopterygidae, in which postmating sexual mechanisms are especially well understood. Particularly, we tested if in allopatric populations the sperm competition mechanisms and genitalic traits involved in these mechanisms have indeed diverged as sexual selection theory predicts. We did so in two different steps. First, we compared the sperm competition mechanisms of two allopatric populations of Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis (one Italian population studied here and one Spanish population previously studied). Our results indicate that in both populations males are able to displace spermathecal sperm, but the mechanism used for sperm removal between both populations is strikingly different. In the Spanish population males seem to empty the spermathecae by stimulating females, whereas in the Italian population males physically remove sperm from the spermathecae. Both populations also exhibit differences in genital morphometry that explain the use of different mechanisms: the male lateral processes are narrower than the spermathecal ducts in the Italian population, which is the reverse in the Spanish population. The estimated degree of phenotypic differentiation between these populations based on the genitalic traits involved in sperm removal was much greater than the differentiation based on a set of other seven morphological variables, suggesting that strong directional postmating sexual selection is indeed the main evolutionary force behind the reproductive differentiation between the studied populations. In a second step, we examined if a similar pattern in genital morphometry emerge in allopatric populations of this and other

  2. Homosexual mating preferences from an evolutionary perspective: sexual selection theory revisited.

    PubMed

    Gobrogge, Kyle L; Perkins, Patrick S; Baker, Jessica H; Balcer, Kristen D; Breedlove, S Marc; Klump, Kelly L

    2007-10-01

    Studies in evolutionary psychology and sexual selection theory show that heterosexual men prefer younger mating partners than heterosexual women in order to ensure reproductive success. However, previous research has generally not examined differences in mating preferences as a function of sexual orientation or the type of relationship sought in naturalistic settings. Given that homosexual men seek partners for reasons other than procreation, they may exhibit different mating preferences than their heterosexual counterparts. Moreover, mating preferences may show important differences depending on whether an individual is seeking a long-term versus a short-term relationship. The purpose of the present study was to examine these issues by comparing partner preferences in terms of age and relationship type between homosexual and heterosexual men placing internet personal advertisements. Participants included 439 homosexual and 365 heterosexual men who placed internet ads in the U.S. or Canada. Ads were coded for the participant's age, relationship type (longer-term or short-term sexual encounter) sought, and partner age preferences. Significantly more homosexual than heterosexual men sought sexual encounters, although men (regardless of sexual orientation) seeking sexual encounters preferred a significantly wider age range of partners than men seeking longer-term relationships. These findings suggest that partner preferences are independent of evolutionary drives to procreate, since both types of men preferred similar ages in their partners. In addition, they highlight the importance of examining relationship type in evolutionary studies of mating preferences, as men's partner preferences show important differences depending upon the type of relationship sought.

  3. Adolescents' Use of Sexually Explicit Internet Material and Their Sexual Attitudes and Behavior: Parallel Development and Directional Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doornwaard, Suzan M.; Bickham, David S.; Rich, Michael; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Although research has repeatedly demonstrated that adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) is related to their endorsement of permissive sexual attitudes and their experience with sexual behavior, it is not clear how linkages between these constructs unfold over time. This study combined 2 types of longitudinal modeling,…

  4. Evolution of egg dummies in Tanganyikan cichlid fishes: the roles of parental care and sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Amcoff, M; Gonzalez-Voyer, A; Kolm, N

    2013-11-01

    Sexual selection has been suggested to be an important driver of speciation in cichlid fishes of the Great Lakes of Africa, and the presence of male egg dummies is proposed to have played a key role. Here, we investigate how mouthbrooding and egg dummies have evolved in Tanganyikan cichlids, the lineage which seeded the other African radiations, with a special emphasis on the egg dummies. Using modern phylogenetic comparative analyses and a phylogeny including 86% of the 200 described species, we provide formal evidence demonstrating correlated evolution between mouthbrooding and egg dummies in Tanganyikan cichlids. These results concur with existing evidence, suggesting that egg dummies have evolved through sensory exploitation. We also demonstrate that there is a strong evolutionary correlation between the presence of egg dummies and both pre- and post-copulatory sexual selection. Moreover, egg dummy evolution was contingent on the intensity of pre- and post-copulatory sexual selection in Tanganyikan cichlids. In sum, our results provide evidence supporting the hypothesis of egg dummies evolving through sensory exploitation and highlight the role of sexual selection in favouring the evolution and maintenance of this trait. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  5. How sexual selection can drive the evolution of costly sperm ornamentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüpold, Stefan; Manier, Mollie K.; Puniamoorthy, Nalini; Schoff, Christopher; Starmer, William T.; Luepold, Shannon H. Buckley; Belote, John M.; Pitnick, Scott

    2016-05-01

    Post-copulatory sexual selection (PSS), fuelled by female promiscuity, is credited with the rapid evolution of sperm quality traits across diverse taxa. Yet, our understanding of the adaptive significance of sperm ornaments and the cryptic female preferences driving their evolution is extremely limited. Here we review the evolutionary allometry of exaggerated sexual traits (for example, antlers, horns, tail feathers, mandibles and dewlaps), show that the giant sperm of some Drosophila species are possibly the most extreme ornaments in all of nature and demonstrate how their existence challenges theories explaining the intensity of sexual selection, mating-system evolution and the fundamental nature of sex differences. We also combine quantitative genetic analyses of interacting sex-specific traits in D. melanogaster with comparative analyses of the condition dependence of male and female reproductive potential across species with varying ornament size to reveal complex dynamics that may underlie sperm-length evolution. Our results suggest that producing few gigantic sperm evolved by (1) Fisherian runaway selection mediated by genetic correlations between sperm length, the female preference for long sperm and female mating frequency, and (2) longer sperm increasing the indirect benefits to females. Our results also suggest that the developmental integration of sperm quality and quantity renders post-copulatory sexual selection on ejaculates unlikely to treat male-male competition and female choice as discrete processes.

  6. Sexual selection and trichromatic color vision in primates: statistical support for the preexisting-bias hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Andre A; Morris, Molly R

    2007-07-01

    The evolution of trichromatic color vision in primates may improve foraging performance as well as intraspecific communication; however, the context in which color vision initially evolved is unknown. We statistically examined the hypothesis that trichromatic color vision in primates represents a preexisting bias for the evolution of red coloration (pelage and/or skin) through sexual selection. Our analyses show that trichromatic color vision evolved before red pelage and red skin, as well as before gregarious mating systems that would promote sexual selection for visual traits and other forms of intraspecific communication via red traits. We also determined that both red pelage and red skin were more likely to evolve in the presence of color vision and mating systems that promote sexual selection. These results provide statistical support for the hypothesis that trichromatic color vision in primates evolved in a context other than intraspecific communication with red traits, most likely foraging performance, but, once evolved, represented a preexisting bias that promoted the evolution of red traits through sexual selection.

  7. Assessing the potential for post-copulatory sexual selection in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, J L; Kempster, R M; Daly-Engel, T S; Collin, S P; Evans, J P

    2012-04-01

    This review highlights the potential role that post-copulatory sexual selection plays in elasmobranch reproductive systems and the utility of this group to further understanding of evolutionary responses to the post-copulatory processes of sperm competition and cryptic female choice. The growing genetic evidence for female multiple mating (polyandry) in elasmobranchs is summarized. While polyandry appears to be common in this group, rates of multiple paternity are highly variable between species suggesting that there is large variance in the strength of post-copulatory sexual selection among elasmobranchs. Possible adaptations of traits important for post-copulatory sexual selection are then considered. Particular emphasis is devoted to explore the potential for sperm competition and cryptic female choice to influence the evolution of testes size, sperm morphology, genital morphology and sperm storage organs. Finally, it is argued that future work should take advantage of the wealth of information on these reproductive traits already available in elasmobranchs to gain a better understanding of how post-copulatory sexual selection operates in this group.

  8. The contrasting role of male relatedness in different mechanisms of sexual selection in red junglefowl

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Cedric Kai Wei; Doyle, Philippa; Bagshaw, Emma; Richardson, David S.; Wigby, Stuart; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2017-01-01

    In structured populations, competition for reproductive opportunities should be relaxed among related males. The few tests of this prediction often neglect the fact that sexual selection acts through multiple mechanisms, both before and after mating. We performed experiments to study the role of within‐group male relatedness across pre‐ and postcopulatory mechanisms of sexual selection in social groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, in which two related males and one unrelated male competed over females unrelated to all the males. We confirm theoretical expectations that, after controlling for male social status, competition over mating was reduced among related males. However, this effect was contrasted by other sexual selection mechanisms. First, females biased male mating in favor of the unrelated male, and might also favor his inseminations after mating. Second, males invested more—rather than fewer—sperm in postcopulatory competition with relatives. A number of factors may contribute to explain this counterintuitive pattern of sperm allocation, including trade‐offs between male investment in pre‐ versus postcopulatory competition, differences in the relative relatedness of pre‐ versus postcopulatory competitors, and female bias in sperm utilization in response to male relatedness. Collectively, these results reveal that within‐group male relatedness may have contrasting effects in different mechanisms of sexual selection. PMID:27925168

  9. In hot pursuit: fluctuating mating system and sexual selection in sand lizards.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Mats; Wapstra, Erik; Schwartz, Tonia; Madsen, Thomas; Ujvari, Beata; Uller, Tobias

    2011-02-01

    A changing climate is expected to have profound effects on many aspects of ectotherm biology. We report on a decade-long study of free-ranging sand lizards (Lacerta agilis), exposed to an increasing mean mating season temperature and with known operational sex ratios. We assessed year-to-year variation in sexual selection on body size and postcopulatory sperm competition and cryptic female choice. Higher temperature was not linked to strength of sexual selection on body mass, but operational sex ratio (more males) did increase the strength of sexual selection on body size. Elevated temperature increased mating rate and number of sires per clutch with positive effects on offspring fitness. In years when the "quality" of a female's partners was more variable (in standard errors of a male sexual ornament), clutches showed less multiple paternity. This agrees with prior laboratory trials in which females exercised stronger cryptic female choice when male quality varied more. An increased number of sires contributing to within-clutch paternity decreased the risk of having malformed offspring. Ultimately, such variation may contribute to highly dynamic and shifting selection mosaics in the wild, with potential implications for the evolutionary ecology of mating systems and population responses to rapidly changing environmental conditions.

  10. The evolution of the sexually selected sword in Xiphophorus does not compromise aerobic locomotor performance.

    PubMed

    Oufiero, Christopher E; Meredith, Robert W; Jugo, Kristine N; Tran, Paulina; Chappell, Mark A; Springer, Mark S; Reznick, David N; Garland, Theodore

    2014-06-01

    Sexual selection can increase morphological diversity within and among species. Little is known regarding how interspecific variation produced through sexual selection affects other functional systems. Here, we examine how morphological diversity resulting from sexual selection impacts aerobic locomotor performance. Using Xiphophorus (swordtail fish) and their close relatives (N = 19 species), we examined whether the evolution of a longer sexually selected sword affects critical swimming speed. We also examined the effect of other suborganismal, physiological, and morphological traits on critical swimming speed, as well as their relationship with sword length. In correlation analyses, we found no significant relationship between sword length and critical swimming speed. Unexpectedly, we found that critical swimming speed was higher in species with longer swords, after controlling for body size in multiple regression analyses. We also found several suborganismal and morphological predictors of critical swimming speed, as well as a significant negative relationship between sword length and heart and gill mass. Our results suggest that interspecific variation in sword length is not costly for this aspect of swimming performance, but further studies should examine potential costs for other types of locomotion and other components of Darwinian fitness (e.g., survivorship, life span).

  11. Reproductive delays in mammals: an unexplored avenue for post-copulatory sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Orr, Teri J; Zuk, Marlene

    2014-11-01

    Numerous mammalian taxa exhibit reproductive delays, pauses in reproduction that occur between mating and fertilization, between fertilization and implantation of the embryo, or after an embryo has implanted. Of the 27 mammalian orders, 9 are known to exhibit reproductive delays, including Diptrotodontia, Dasyuromorphia, Eulipotyphyta, Cingulata, Carnivora, Rodentia, Chiroptera, Lagomorpha and Cetartiodactyla. Most researchers interested in delays have focused on their evolutionary origins. However, the consequences of these delays have not been considered fully. Given the lengthening of the period over which reproduction occurs, it is possible that this unique aspect of reproduction facilitates post-copulatory sexual selection. When considered in the context of sexual selection, delays may allow sperm competition and female manipulation of fertilization (cryptic female choice) as well as other post-copulatory processes. We investigate the potential for reproductive delays to facilitate post-copulatory sexual selection and suggest avenues for research that may further our knowledge of sexual selection. We also provide a general review of reproductive delays in mammals. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  12. How sexual selection can drive the evolution of costly sperm ornamentation.

    PubMed

    Lüpold, Stefan; Manier, Mollie K; Puniamoorthy, Nalini; Schoff, Christopher; Starmer, William T; Luepold, Shannon H Buckley; Belote, John M; Pitnick, Scott

    2016-05-26

    Post-copulatory sexual selection (PSS), fuelled by female promiscuity, is credited with the rapid evolution of sperm quality traits across diverse taxa. Yet, our understanding of the adaptive significance of sperm ornaments and the cryptic female preferences driving their evolution is extremely limited. Here we review the evolutionary allometry of exaggerated sexual traits (for example, antlers, horns, tail feathers, mandibles and dewlaps), show that the giant sperm of some Drosophila species are possibly the most extreme ornaments in all of nature and demonstrate how their existence challenges theories explaining the intensity of sexual selection, mating-system evolution and the fundamental nature of sex differences. We also combine quantitative genetic analyses of interacting sex-specific traits in D. melanogaster with comparative analyses of the condition dependence of male and female reproductive potential across species with varying ornament size to reveal complex dynamics that may underlie sperm-length evolution. Our results suggest that producing few gigantic sperm evolved by (1) Fisherian runaway selection mediated by genetic correlations between sperm length, the female preference for long sperm and female mating frequency, and (2) longer sperm increasing the indirect benefits to females. Our results also suggest that the developmental integration of sperm quality and quantity renders post-copulatory sexual selection on ejaculates unlikely to treat male-male competition and female choice as discrete processes.

  13. Geography, assortative mating, and the effects of sexual selection on speciation with gene flow.

    PubMed

    Servedio, Maria R

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical research on the evolution of reproductive isolation have both indicated that the effects of sexual selection on speciation with gene flow are quite complex. As part of this special issue on the contributions of women to basic and applied evolutionary biology, I discuss my work on this question in the context of a broader assessment of the patterns of sexual selection that lead to, versus inhibit, the speciation process, as derived from theoretical research. In particular, I focus on how two factors, the geographic context of speciation and the mechanism leading to assortative mating, interact to alter the effect that sexual selection through mate choice has on speciation. I concentrate on two geographic contexts: sympatry and secondary contact between two geographically separated populations that are exchanging migrants and two mechanisms of assortative mating: phenotype matching and separate preferences and traits. I show that both of these factors must be considered for the effects of sexual selection on speciation to be inferred.

  14. Why patterns of assortative mating are key to study sexual selection and how to measure them.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Grant C; Pizzari, Tommaso

    The study of sexual selection is being revolutionised by the realisation that most populations exhibit some degree of polyandry, i.e. females mating with multiple males. Polyandry can drastically change the operation of sexual selection on males as it reduces the reproductive success that males derive by mating with different females, by forcing their ejaculates to compete for fertilisation after copulation (sperm competition). Variation in polyandry within a population means that the impact of polyandry can differ drastically across males, depending on the polyandry of their own mating partners. Because the patterns through which males share mates within a population may have strong repercussions for variation in male reproductive success, measuring such patterns is critical to study the operation of sexual selection. Several methods have been proposed to measure the pattern of mate sharing at the population level. Here, we develop a new method (sperm competition intensity correlation, SCIC) and compare its performance against two established methods (Newman's assortativity and nestedness), using both idealised model populations and random simulated populations, across a range of biologically relevant population parameters: (i) population size, (ii) sex ratio and (iii) the 'mating density' of the population. We conclude that SCIC may be the most promising approach, as it is both internally consistent and robust across the parameter range. We discuss some important caveats and provide advice regarding the choice of method for future studies of sexual selection.

  15. Rapid loss of behavioral plasticity and immunocompetence under intense sexual selection.

    PubMed

    van Lieshout, Emile; McNamara, Kathryn B; Simmons, Leigh W

    2014-09-01

    Phenotypic plasticity allows animals to maximize fitness by conditionally expressing the phenotype best adapted to their environment. Although evidence for such adjustment in reproductive tactics is common, little is known about how phenotypic plasticity evolves in response to sexual selection. We examined the effect of sexual selection intensity on phenotypic plasticity in mating behavior using the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Male genital spines harm females during mating and females exhibit copulatory kicking, an apparent resistance trait aimed to dislodge mating males. After exposing individuals from male- and female-biased experimental evolution lines to male- and female-biased sociosexual environments, we examined behavioral plasticity in matings with standard partners. While females from female-biased lines kicked sooner after exposure to male-biased sociosexual contexts, in male-biased lines this plasticity was lost. Ejaculate size did not diverge in response to selection history, but males from both treatments exhibited plasticity consistent with sperm competition intensity models, reducing size as the number of competitors increased. Analysis of immunocompetence revealed reduced immunity in both sexes in male-biased lines, pointing to increased reproductive costs under high sexual selection. These results highlight how male and female reproductive strategies are shaped by interactions between phenotypically plastic and genetic mechanisms of sexual trait expression.

  16. Strong sexual selection in males against a mutation load that reduces offspring production in seed beetles.

    PubMed

    Grieshop, K; Stångberg, J; Martinossi-Allibert, I; Arnqvist, G; Berger, D

    2016-06-01

    Theory predicts that sexual reproduction can increase population viability relative to asexual reproduction by allowing sexual selection in males to remove deleterious mutations from the population without large demographic costs. This requires that selection acts more strongly in males than females and that mutations affecting male reproductive success have pleiotropic effects on population productivity, but empirical support for these assumptions is mixed. We used the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus to implement a three-generation breeding design where we induced mutations via ionizing radiation (IR) in the F0 generation and measured mutational effects (relative to nonirradiated controls) on an estimate of population productivity in the F1 and effects on sex-specific competitive lifetime reproductive success (LRS) in the F2 . Regardless of whether mutations were induced via F0 males or females, they had strong negative effects on male LRS, but a nonsignificant influence on female LRS, suggesting that selection is more efficient in removing deleterious alleles in males. Moreover, mutations had seemingly shared effects on population productivity and competitive LRS in both sexes. Thus, our results lend support to the hypothesis that strong sexual selection on males can act to remove the mutation load on population viability, thereby offering a benefit to sexual reproduction.

  17. The metabolic cost of carrying a sexually selected trait in the male fiddler crab Uca pugilator.

    PubMed

    Tullis, Alexa; Straube, Corinne H T

    2017-08-09

    Models proposed to explain sexually selected structures assume that these traits are costly. However, studies investigating the impact of such structures on locomotory costs have produced inconsistent results. Male fiddler crabs possess a large sexually selected claw and are ideal for assessing the impact of a sexually selected trait on the cost of locomotion. Here, we measure the energy expenditure of clawed, declawed, and artificially loaded crabs during sustained exercise by measuring oxygen consumption and blood lactate levels. We also measure blood lactate levels of clawed and declawed crabs following a sprint and forced walk to assess energy expenditure during non-sustainable, strenuous locomotion. Clawed and declawed crabs consumed the same amount of oxygen and had the same blood lactate concentration during sustained locomotion, suggesting that the large claw does not increase energetic cost during sustainable locomotion. Following non-sustainable, strenuous locomotion, however, there was a trend for clawed crabs to have higher concentrations of lactate in their blood than declawed crabs, suggesting that bearing a large claw may increase energetic costs during strenuous locomotion and lengthen recovery time. Artificially loaded crabs produced more lactic acid than clawed and declawed crabs during sustainable locomotion, suggesting that compensatory traits help mitigate the energetic cost of carrying the large claw. Overall, results show that the impact of exaggerated structures on energy expenditure may depend on exercise intensity and highlight the need to examine various locomotory intensities when attempting to assess costs of bearing a sexually selected trait. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Assessing the potential for post-copulatory sexual selection in elasmobranchs

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, J. L.; Kempster, R. M.; Daly-Engel, T. S.; Collin, S. P.; Evans, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    This review highlights the potential role that post-copulatory sexual selection plays in elasmobranch reproductive systems and the utility of this group to further understanding of evolutionary responses to the post-copulatory processes of sperm competition and cryptic female choice. The growing genetic evidence for female multiple mating (polyandry) in elasmobranchs is summarized. While polyandry appears to be common in this group, rates of multiple paternity are highly variable between species suggesting that there is large variance in the strength of post-copulatory sexual selection among elasmobranchs. Possible adaptations of traits important for post-copulatory sexual selection are then considered. Particular emphasis is devoted to explore the potential for sperm competition and cryptic female choice to influence the evolution of testes size, sperm morphology, genital morphology and sperm storage organs. Finally, it is argued that future work should take advantage of the wealth of information on these reproductive traits already available in elasmobranchs to gain a better understanding of how post-copulatory sexual selection operates in this group. PMID:22497376

  19. Sexual selection in a lekking bird: the relative opportunity for selection by female choice and male competition.

    PubMed

    DuVal, Emily H; Kempenaers, Bart

    2008-09-07

    Leks are classic models for studies of sexual selection due to extreme variance in male reproductive success, but the relative influence of intrasexual competition and female mate choice in creating this skew is debatable. In the lekking lance-tailed manakin (Chiroxiphia lanceolata), these selective episodes are temporally separated into intrasexual competition for alpha status and female mate choice among alpha males that rarely interact. Variance in reproductive success between status classes of adult males (alpha versus non-alpha) can therefore be attributed to male-male competition whereas that within status largely reflects female mate choice. This provides an excellent opportunity for quantifying the relative contribution of each of these mechanisms of sexual selection to the overall opportunity for sexual selection on males (I males). To calculate variance in actual reproductive success, we assigned genetic paternity to 92.3% of 447 chicks sampled in seven years. Reproduction by non-alphas was rare and apparently reflected status misclassifications or opportunistic copulations en route to attaining alpha status rather than alternative mating strategies. On average 31% (range 7-44%, n=6 years) of the total I males was due to variance in reproductive success between alphas and non-alphas. Similarly, in a cohort of same-aged males followed for six years, 44-58% of the total I males was attributed to variance between males of different status. Thus, both intrasexual competition for status and female mate choice among lekking alpha males contribute substantially to the potential for sexual selection in this species.

  20. Pharmacological study of direction selectivity in the archer fish retina.

    PubMed

    Pinsky, Ehud; Donchin, Opher; Segev, Ronen

    2015-09-18

    Direction selective cells have been found in the retina, the first level of the visual system, in mammals and recently also in the archer fish. These cells are involved in a variety of fast neural computation processes, from the control of eye movements to the detection of prey by the archer fish. The standard model for this mechanism in mammalian retina is well understood and is based on the asymmetry of inhibitory and excitatory inputs to the retinal ganglion cells. However, it remains unclear whether the mechanism that underlies direction selectivity is similar across animal classes. This study reports a pharmacological investigation designed to elucidate the mechanism that underlies motion detection in the archer fish retina. Direction selectivity in the retina was characterized under the influence of specific channel blockers that are known to be present in the different types of neurons of the retina. The results show that the direction-selective mechanism in the archer fish retina is modified only when the inhibitory channels of GABA and Glycine are manipulated. This suggests that the mechanism of direction selectivity in the archer fish retina is fundamentally different from the mechanism of direction selectivity in the mammalian retina.

  1. Promiscuity, sexual selection, and genetic diversity: a reply to Spurgin.

    PubMed

    Lifjeld, Jan T; Gohli, Jostein; Johnsen, Arild

    2013-10-01

    We recently reported a positive association between female promiscuity and genetic diversity across passerine birds, and launched the hypothesis that female promiscuity acts as a balancing selection, pressure maintaining genetic diversity in populations (Gohli et al.2013). Spurgin (2013) questions both our analyses and interpretations. While we agree that the hypothesis needs more comprehensive empirical testing, we find his specific points of criticism unjustified. In a more general perspective, we call for a more explicit recognition of female mating preferences as mechanisms of selection in population genetics theory.

  2. Sexual size dimorphism in caecilian amphibians: analysis, review and directions for future research.

    PubMed

    Kupfer, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism, widespread in the animal kingdom, describes differences between the sexes in size, shape and many other traits. Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) plays a significant role in understanding life history evolution and mating systems. The snakelike morphology of limbless caecilian amphibians lacking obvious secondary sexual characters (in contrast to frogs and salamanders) impedes accurate intrasexual comparisons. In this study, sexual size dimorphism in the oviparous caecilian Ichthyophis cf. kohtaoensis, a phylogenetically basal caecilian, was analysed. Females were larger in all body and head characters tested. However, when adjusted to body size (total length), females differed only in their cloacal shape. Clutch volume was positively correlated to female body size, thus female fecundity increased with body size supporting the hypothesis of a fecundity-selected SSD in the oviparous Ichthyophis cf. kohtaoensis. A review of the present SSD data for caecilians shows that many species are monomorphic for body size but show dimorphism in head size, while other species demonstrate female-biased SSD. Male-biased SSD has not been reported for caecilians. To understand life history evolution in caecilians, further studies on the reproductive biology of other taxa are urgently needed, in particular for rhinatrematids and uraeotyphlids. New data will allow phylogenetically controlled comparative analyses to fully explore the pattern of SSD among caecilian lineages.

  3. Why mammalian lineages respond differently to sexual selection: metabolic rate constrains the evolution of sperm size.

    PubMed

    Gomendio, Montserrat; Tourmente, Maximiliano; Roldan, Eduardo R S

    2011-10-22

    The hypothesis that sperm competition should favour increases in sperm size, because it results in faster swimming speeds, has received support from studies on many taxa, but remains contentious for mammals. We suggest that this may be because mammalian lineages respond differently to sexual selection, owing to major differences in body size, which are associated with differences in mass-specific metabolic rate. Recent evidence suggests that cellular metabolic rate also scales with body size, so that small mammals have cells that process energy and resources from the environment at a faster rate. We develop the 'metabolic rate constraint hypothesis' which proposes that low mass-specific metabolic rate among large mammals may limit their ability to respond to sexual selection by increasing sperm size, while this constraint does not exist among small mammals. Here we show that among rodents, which have high mass-specific metabolic rates, sperm size increases under sperm competition, reaching the longest sperm sizes found in eutherian mammals. By contrast, mammalian lineages with large body sizes have small sperm, and while metabolic rate (corrected for body size) influences sperm size, sperm competition levels do not. When all eutherian mammals are analysed jointly, our results suggest that as mass-specific metabolic rate increases, so does maximum sperm size. In addition, species with low mass-specific metabolic rates produce uniformly small sperm, while species with high mass-specific metabolic rates produce a wide range of sperm sizes. These findings support the hypothesis that mass-specific metabolic rates determine the budget available for sperm production: at high levels, sperm size increases in response to sexual selection, while low levels constrain the ability to respond to sexual selection by increasing sperm size. Thus, adaptive and costly traits, such as sperm size, may only evolve under sexual selection when metabolic rate does not constrain cellular

  4. Female discrimination thresholds frequently exceed local male display variation: implications for mate choice dynamics and sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Höbel, G

    2016-03-01

    Among the factors that can influence female mate choice decisions is the degree to which females differentiate among similar displays: as differences decrease, females are expected to eventually stop discriminating. This discrimination threshold, in conjunction with the magnitude of male trait variation females regularly encounter while making mate choice decisions, may have important consequences for sexual selection. If local display variation is above the discrimination threshold, female preferences should translate into higher mating success for the more attractive male. But if display variation is frequently below the threshold, the resulting increased pattern of random mating may obscure the existence of female mate choice. I investigated the interplay between female discrimination and male display variation in green treefrogs (Hyla cinerea) and found that call trait differences between nearest neighbour males were frequently smaller than what females are expected to discriminate. This finding has two important consequences for our understanding of sexual selection in the wild: first, low display variation should weaken the strength of selection on male display traits, but the direction of selection should mirror the one predicted from females choice trials. Second, caution is needed when interpreting data on realized mating success in the wild: a pattern of random mating with respect to male display traits does not always mean that female preferences are weak or that conditions are too challenging for females to express their preferences. Rather, insufficient display variation can generate the same pattern.

  5. Mate choice theory and the mode of selection in sexual populations.

    PubMed

    Carson, Hampton L

    2003-05-27

    Indirect new data imply that mate and/or gamete choice are major selective forces driving genetic change in sexual populations. The system dictates nonrandom mating, an evolutionary process requiring both revised genetic theory and new data on heritability of characters underlying Darwinian fitness. Successfully reproducing individuals represent rare selections from among vigorous, competing survivors of preadult natural selection. Nonrandom mating has correlated demographic effects: reduced effective population size, inbreeding, low gene flow, and emphasis on deme structure. Characters involved in choice behavior at reproduction appear based on quantitative trait loci. This variability serves selection for fitness within the population, having only an incidental relationship to the origin of genetically based reproductive isolation between populations. The claim that extensive hybridization experiments with Drosophila indicate that selection favors a gradual progression of "isolating mechanisms" is flawed, because intra-group random mating is assumed. Over deep time, local sexual populations are strong, independent genetic systems that use rich fields of variable polygenic components of fitness. The sexual reproduction system thus particularizes, in small subspecific populations, the genetic basis of the grand adaptive sweep of selective evolutionary change, much as Darwin proposed.

  6. Mate choice theory and the mode of selection in sexual populations

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Hampton L.

    2003-01-01

    Indirect new data imply that mate and/or gamete choice are major selective forces driving genetic change in sexual populations. The system dictates nonrandom mating, an evolutionary process requiring both revised genetic theory and new data on heritability of characters underlying Darwinian fitness. Successfully reproducing individuals represent rare selections from among vigorous, competing survivors of preadult natural selection. Nonrandom mating has correlated demographic effects: reduced effective population size, inbreeding, low gene flow, and emphasis on deme structure. Characters involved in choice behavior at reproduction appear based on quantitative trait loci. This variability serves selection for fitness within the population, having only an incidental relationship to the origin of genetically based reproductive isolation between populations. The claim that extensive hybridization experiments with Drosophila indicate that selection favors a gradual progression of “isolating mechanisms” is flawed, because intra-group random mating is assumed. Over deep time, local sexual populations are strong, independent genetic systems that use rich fields of variable polygenic components of fitness. The sexual reproduction system thus particularizes, in small subspecific populations, the genetic basis of the grand adaptive sweep of selective evolutionary change, much as Darwin proposed. PMID:12743377

  7. Sperm Bindin Divergence under Sexual Selection and Concerted Evolution in Sea Stars.

    PubMed

    Patiño, Susana; Keever, Carson C; Sunday, Jennifer M; Popovic, Iva; Byrne, Maria; Hart, Michael W

    2016-08-01

    Selection associated with competition among males or sexual conflict between mates can create positive selection for high rates of molecular evolution of gamete recognition genes and lead to reproductive isolation between species. We analyzed coding sequence and repetitive domain variation in the gene encoding the sperm acrosomal protein bindin in 13 diverse sea star species. We found that bindin has a conserved coding sequence domain structure in all 13 species, with several repeated motifs in a large central region that is similar among all sea stars in organization but highly divergent among genera in nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequence. More bindin codons and lineages showed positive selection for high relative rates of amino acid substitution in genera with gonochoric outcrossing adults (and greater expected strength of sexual selection) than in selfing hermaphrodites. That difference is consistent with the expectation that selfing (a highly derived mating system) may moderate the strength of sexual selection and limit the accumulation of bindin amino acid differences. The results implicate both positive selection on single codons and concerted evolution within the repetitive region in bindin divergence, and suggest that both single amino acid differences and repeat differences may affect sperm-egg binding and reproductive compatibility. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Sexual selection on multivariate phenotypes in Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Sciurano, R.; Rodriguero, M.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Segura, D.; Cladera, J.L.; Allinghi, Armando

    2007-03-15

    Despite the interest in applying environmentally friendly control methods such as sterile insect technique (SIT) against Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), information about its biology, taxonomy, and behavior is still insufficient. To increase this information, the present study aims to evaluate the performance of wild flies under field cage conditions through the study of sexual competitiveness among males (sexual selection). A wild population from Horco Molle, Tucuman, Argentina was sampled. Mature virgin males and females were released into outdoor field cages to compete for mating. Morphometric analyses were applied to determine the relationship between the multivariate phenotype and copulatory success. Successful and unsuccessful males were measured for 8 traits: head width (HW), face width (FW), eye length (EL), thorax length (THL), wing length (WL), wing width (WW), femur length (FL), and tibia length (TIL). Combinations of different multivariate statistical methods and graphical analyses were used to evaluate sexual selection on male phenotype. The results indicated that wing width and thorax length would be the most probable targets of sexual selection. They describe a non-linear association between expected fitness and each of these 2 traits. This non-linear relation suggests that observed selection could maintain the diversity related to body size. (author) [Spanish] A pesar del interes por la aplicacion de metodos de control de bajo impacto ambiental sobre Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae), como la Tecnica del Insecto Esteril (TIE), no existe aun informacion suficiente sobre su biologia, taxonomia y comportamiento. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo evaluar el desempeno de moscas en jaulas de campo a traves del estudio de la competitividad sexual entre machos salvajes (seleccion sexual). Para ello, se muestreo una poblacion de Horco Molle, Tucuman (Argentina). En jaulas de campo se liberaron machos y hembras adultos

  9. Phenology of Scramble Polygyny in a Wild Population of Chrysolemid Beetles: The Opportunity for and the Strength of Sexual Selection

    PubMed Central

    Baena, Martha Lucía; Macías-Ordóñez, Rogelio

    2012-01-01

    Recent debate has highlighted the importance of estimating both the strength of sexual selection on phenotypic traits, and the opportunity for sexual selection. We describe seasonal fluctuations in mating dynamics of Leptinotarsa undecimlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). We compared several estimates of the opportunity for, and the strength of, sexual selection and male precopulatory competition over the reproductive season. First, using a null model, we suggest that the ratio between observed values of the opportunity for sexual selections and their expected value under random mating results in unbiased estimates of the actual nonrandom mating behavior of the population. Second, we found that estimates for the whole reproductive season often misrepresent the actual value at any given time period. Third, mating differentials on male size and mobility, frequency of male fighting and three estimates of the opportunity for sexual selection provide contrasting but complementary information. More intense sexual selection associated to male mobility, but not to male size, was observed in periods with high opportunity for sexual selection and high frequency of male fights. Fourth, based on parameters of spatial and temporal aggregation of female receptivity, we describe the mating system of L. undecimlineata as a scramble mating polygyny in which the opportunity for sexual selection varies widely throughout the season, but the strength of sexual selection on male size remains fairly weak, while male mobility inversely covaries with mating success. We suggest that different estimates for the opportunity for, and intensity of, sexual selection should be applied in order to discriminate how different behavioral and demographic factors shape the reproductive dynamic of populations. PMID:22761675

  10. Phylogenetic evidence for multiple losses of a sexually selected character in phrynosomatid lizards

    PubMed Central

    Wiens, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    The evolution of conspicuous male display ornaments is a common trend in diverse groups of organisms and a continuing challenge to studies of sexual selection. A phylogenetic approach was used to examine macro-evolutionary patterns of change in sexually dichromatic display coloration (distinctively coloured belly patches) among 130 taxa of phrynosomatid lizards. The results showed repeated losses of sexual dimorphism, which occur through losses of conspicuous male coloration or gains of conspicuous female coloration. The frequent loss of male traits is surprising, given that sexual selection presumably drives their evolutionary origin and maintenance, but is consistent with a recently proposed hypothesis suggesting that females may lose responsiveness to male traits over macro-evolutionary time-scales. The observation of repeated losses of male traits in phrynosomatid lizards (and other groups) may have implications for testing among competing models for the evolution of female preferences. A concentrated changes test showed that changes in male display coloration are significantly associated with the use of ground-dwelling habitat, as opposed to rock- or tree-dwelling habitats. This result suggests a role for natural selection in the loss of male display traits in phrynosomatid lizards, but habitat type alone may be insufficient to explain these losses.

  11. Selection for predation, not female fecundity, explains sexual size dimorphism in the orchid mantises.

    PubMed

    Svenson, Gavin J; Brannoch, Sydney K; Rodrigues, Henrique M; O'Hanlon, James C; Wieland, Frank

    2016-12-01

    Here we reconstruct the evolutionary shift towards floral simulation in orchid mantises and suggest female predatory selection as the likely driving force behind the development of extreme sexual size dimorphism. Through analysis of body size data and phylogenetic modelling of trait evolution, we recovered an ancestral shift towards sexual dimorphisms in both size and appearance in a lineage of flower-associated praying mantises. Sedentary female flower mantises dramatically increased in size prior to a transition from camouflaged, ambush predation to a floral simulation strategy, gaining access to, and visually attracting, a novel resource: large pollinating insects. Male flower mantises, however, remained small and mobile to facilitate mate-finding and reproductive success, consistent with ancestral male life strategy. Although moderate sexual size dimorphisms are common in many arthropod lineages, the predominant explanation is female size increase for increased fecundity. However, sex-dependent selective pressures acting outside of female fecundity have been suggested as mechanisms behind niche dimorphisms. Our hypothesised role of predatory selection acting on females to generate both extreme sexual size dimorphism coupled with niche dimorphism is novel among arthropods.

  12. Sexual selection affects the evolution of lifespan and ageing in the decorated cricket Gryllodes sigillatus.

    PubMed

    Archer, C R; Zajitschek, F; Sakaluk, S K; Royle, N J; Hunt, J

    2012-10-01

    Recent work suggests that sexual selection can influence the evolution of ageing and lifespan by shaping the optimal timing and relative costliness of reproductive effort in the sexes. We used inbred lines of the decorated cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus, to estimate the genetic (co)variance between age-dependent reproductive effort, lifespan, and ageing within and between the sexes. Sexual selection theory predicts that males should die sooner and age more rapidly than females. However, a reversal of this pattern may be favored if reproductive effort increases with age in males but not in females. We found that male calling effort increased with age, whereas female fecundity decreased, and that males lived longer and aged more slowly than females. These divergent life-history strategies were underpinned by a positive genetic correlation between early-life reproductive effort and ageing rate in both sexes, although this relationship was stronger in females. Despite these sex differences in life-history schedules, age-dependent reproductive effort, lifespan, and ageing exhibited strong positive intersexual genetic correlations. This should, in theory, constrain the independent evolution of these traits in the sexes and may promote intralocus sexual conflict. Our study highlights the importance of sexual selection to the evolution of sex differences in ageing and lifespan in G. sigillatus. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Selection for predation, not female fecundity, explains sexual size dimorphism in the orchid mantises

    PubMed Central

    Svenson, Gavin J.; Brannoch, Sydney K.; Rodrigues, Henrique M.; O’Hanlon, James C.; Wieland, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Here we reconstruct the evolutionary shift towards floral simulation in orchid mantises and suggest female predatory selection as the likely driving force behind the development of extreme sexual size dimorphism. Through analysis of body size data and phylogenetic modelling of trait evolution, we recovered an ancestral shift towards sexual dimorphisms in both size and appearance in a lineage of flower-associated praying mantises. Sedentary female flower mantises dramatically increased in size prior to a transition from camouflaged, ambush predation to a floral simulation strategy, gaining access to, and visually attracting, a novel resource: large pollinating insects. Male flower mantises, however, remained small and mobile to facilitate mate-finding and reproductive success, consistent with ancestral male life strategy. Although moderate sexual size dimorphisms are common in many arthropod lineages, the predominant explanation is female size increase for increased fecundity. However, sex-dependent selective pressures acting outside of female fecundity have been suggested as mechanisms behind niche dimorphisms. Our hypothesised role of predatory selection acting on females to generate both extreme sexual size dimorphism coupled with niche dimorphism is novel among arthropods. PMID:27905469

  14. Significance, Nature, and Direction of the Association Between Child Sexual Abuse and Conduct Disorder: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Maniglio, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    To elucidate the significance, nature, and direction of the potential relationship between child sexual abuse and conduct disorder, all the pertinent studies were reviewed. Ten databases were searched. Blind assessments of study eligibility and quality were performed by two independent researchers. Thirty-six studies including 185,358 participants and meeting minimum quality criteria that were enough to ensure objectivity and to not invalidate results were analyzed. Across the majority of studies, conduct disorder was significantly and directly related to child sexual abuse, especially repeated sexual molestation and abuse involving penetration, even after controlling for various sociodemographic, family, and clinical variables. The association between child sexual abuse and conduct disorder was not confounded by other risk factors, such as gender, socioeconomic status, school achievement, substance problems, physical abuse, parental antisocial behavior or substance problems, parent-child relationships, and family disruption, conflict, or violence. Evidence for a significant interactive effect between child sexual abuse and monoamine oxidase A gene on conduct disorder was scant. Early sexual abuse might predispose to the subsequent onset of conduct disorder which, in turn, may lead to further sexual victimization through association with sexually abusive peers or involvement in dangerous situations or sexual survival strategies.

  15. Variable selection patterns on the labellum shape of Geoblasta pennicillata, a sexually deceptive orchid.

    PubMed

    Benitez-vieyra, S; Medina, A M; Cocucci, A A

    2009-11-01

    By mimicking shape and female mating pheromones, flowers of sexually deceptive orchids attract sexually excited males which pollinate them while trying to copulate. Although many studies have demonstrated the crucial importance of odour signals in these systems, most flowers pollinated by pseudocopulation resemble, at least superficially, an insect body and these visual cues may be important to cheat pollinators. In this 2-year study, we show that the shape of the labellum of Geoblasta pennicillata is a target of pollinator-mediated natural selection. Contrary to our expectations, plants with a labellum shape more similar to female wasps were not favoured. The strength and pattern of phenotypic selection varied between study years and sexual functions. Although selection through female success was probably associated to the fine-tuning of the mechanical fit between flower form and male wasp, shape was the target of natural selection through male success in both study years indicating that male wasps use this trait when choosing flowers. The imperfect mimicry and patterns of selection observed indicated that an exact imitation is not needed to attract and deceive the pollinators and they suggested a receiver perceptual bias towards uncommon phenotypes.

  16. Diploidy and the selective advantage for sexual reproduction in unicellular organisms.

    PubMed

    Kleiman, Maya; Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2009-11-01

    This article develops mathematical models describing the evolutionary dynamics of both asexually and sexually reproducing populations of diploid unicellular organisms. The asexual and sexual life cycles are based on the asexual and sexual life cycles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Baker's yeast, which normally reproduces by asexual budding, but switches to sexual reproduction when stressed. The mathematical models consider three reproduction pathways: (1) Asexual reproduction, (2) self-fertilization, and (3) sexual reproduction. We also consider two forms of genome organization. In the first case, we assume that the genome consists of two multi-gene chromosomes, whereas in the second case, we consider the opposite extreme and assume that each gene defines a separate chromosome, which we call the multi-chromosome genome. These two cases are considered to explore the role that recombination has on the mutation-selection balance and the selective advantage of the various reproduction strategies. We assume that the purpose of diploidy is to provide redundancy, so that damage to a gene may be repaired using the other, presumably undamaged copy (a process known as homologous recombination repair). As a result, we assume that the fitness of the organism only depends on the number of homologous gene pairs that contain at least one functional copy of a given gene. If the organism has at least one functional copy of every gene in the genome, we assume a fitness of 1. In general, if the organism has l homologous pairs that lack a functional copy of the given gene, then the fitness of the organism is kappa(l). The kappa(l) are assumed to be monotonically decreasing, so that kappa(0) = 1 > kappa(1) > kappa(2) > cdots, three dots, centered > kappa(infinity) = 0. For nearly all of the reproduction strategies we consider, we find, in the limit of large N, that the mean fitness at mutation-selection balance is max{2e(-mu) - 1,0} where N is the number of genes in the haploid set of

  17. The expression of brain sexual dimorphism in artificial selection of rat strains.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia; Pinos, Helena; Collado, Paloma; Pasaro, Eduardo; Fernandez, Rosa; Segovia, Santiago; Guillamon, Antonio

    2005-08-09

    Central nervous system sex differences have two morphological patterns. In one pattern, males show larger measurements (volume, number of neurons) than females (male > female; m > f) and, in the other, the opposite is true (female > male; f > m). The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) is a unique model for the study of sex differences because it has dimorphic and isomorphic subdivisions, with the former showing the two sexually differentiated morphological patterns. Meanwhile, other CNS structures, like the locus coeruleus (LC), present the f > m pattern. The philogenetic maintenance of the two patterns of sexual differentiation can help to disentangle the functional meaning of sex differences. Laboratory rat strains, whether albino or pigmented, descend from the Wistar strain through artificial selection. The present work compares the BST and LC of Wistar and Long-Evans rats. The medial posterior subdivision of the BST (BSTMP) is sexually dimorphic (m > f pattern) in the original (Wistar) and derived (Long-Evans) strains, while the lateral anterior and medial anterior subdivisions of the BST and the LC only present sex differences (f > m pattern) in the ancestor Wistar strain. Isomorphic BST regions are the same in both strains. The fact that the BSTMP, which is implicated in male copulatory behavior, is sexually dimorphic in both strains, as well as in other species, including humans, indicates the relevance of this structure in male sexual behavior in mammals.

  18. Sexual and natural selection in the evolution of extended phenotypes: the use of green nesting material in starlings.

    PubMed

    Rubalcaba, J G; Polo, V; Maia, R; Rubenstein, D R; Veiga, J P

    2016-08-01

    Although sexual selection is typically considered the predominant force driving the evolution of ritualized sexual behaviours, natural selection may also play an important and often underappreciated role. The use of green aromatic plants among nesting birds has been interpreted as a component of extended phenotype that evolved either via natural selection due to potential sanitary functions or via sexual selection as a signal of male attractiveness. Here, we compared both hypotheses using comparative methods in starlings, a group where this behaviour is widespread. We found that the use of green plants was positively related to male-biased size dimorphism and that it was most likely to occur among cavity-nesting species. These results suggest that this behaviour is likely favoured by sexual selection, but also related to its sanitary use in response to higher parasite loads in cavities. We speculate that the use of green plants in starlings may be facilitated by cavity nesting and was subsequently co-opted as a sexual signal by males. Our results represent an example of how an extended phenotypic component of males becomes sexually selected by females. Thus, both natural selection and sexual selection are necessary to fully understand the evolution of ritualized behaviours involved in courtship.

  19. Complementary mechanisms create direction selectivity in the fly.

    PubMed

    Haag, Juergen; Arenz, Alexander; Serbe, Etienne; Gabbiani, Fabrizio; Borst, Alexander

    2016-08-09

    How neurons become sensitive to the direction of visual motion represents a classic example of neural computation. Two alternative mechanisms have been discussed in the literature so far: preferred direction enhancement, by which responses are amplified when stimuli move along the preferred direction of the cell, and null direction suppression, where one signal inhibits the response to the subsequent one when stimuli move along the opposite, i.e. null direction. Along the processing chain in the Drosophila optic lobe, directional responses first appear in T4 and T5 cells. Visually stimulating sequences of individual columns in the optic lobe with a telescope while recording from single T4 neurons, we find both mechanisms at work implemented in different sub-regions of the receptive field. This finding explains the high degree of directional selectivity found already in the fly's primary motion-sensing neurons and marks an important step in our understanding of elementary motion detection.

  20. Nonlinear dynamics of direction-selective recurrent neural media.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaohui; Giese, Martin A

    2002-05-01

    The direction selectivity of cortical neurons can be accounted for by asymmetric lateral connections. Such lateral connectivity leads to a network dynamics with characteristic properties that can be exploited for distinguishing in neurophysiological experiments this mechanism for direction selectivity from other possible mechanisms. We present a mathematical analysis for a class of direction-selective neural models with asymmetric lateral connections. Contrasting with earlier theoretical studies that have analyzed approximations of the network dynamics by neglecting nonlinearities using methods from linear systems theory, we study the network dynamics with nonlinearity taken into consideration. We show that asymmetrically coupled networks can stabilize stimulus-locked traveling pulse solutions that are appropriate for the modeling of the responses of direction-selective neurons. In addition, our analysis shows that outside a certain regime of stimulus speeds the stability of these solutions breaks down, giving rise to lurching activity waves with specific spatiotemporal periodicity. These solutions, and the bifurcation by which they arise, cannot be easily accounted for by classical models for direction selectivity.

  1. The "justice gap" for sexual assault cases: future directions for research and reform.

    PubMed

    Lonsway, Kimberly A; Archambault, Joanne

    2012-02-01

    Media coverage often reports "good" news about the criminal justice system's ability to effectively respond to sexual assault, concluding that the past two decades have seen an increase in rape reporting, prosecution, and conviction. The objective of this article is to examine the validity of such conclusions by critically reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of various data sources and comparing the statistics they produce. These statistics include estimates for sexual assault reporting rates and case outcomes in the criminal justice system. We conclude that such pronouncements are not currently supported by statistical evidence, and we outline some directions for future research and reform efforts to make the "good news" a reality in the United States.

  2. The maintenance of phenotypic divergence through sexual selection: An experimental study in barn swallows Hirundo rustica.

    PubMed

    Safran, Rebecca J; Vortman, Yoni; Jenkins, Brittany R; Hubbard, Joanna K; Wilkins, Matthew R; Bradley, Rachel J; Lotem, Arnon

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that sexual signals can rapidly diverge among closely related species. However, we lack experimental studies to demonstrate that differences in trait-associated reproductive performance maintain sexual trait differences between closely related populations, in support for a role of sexual selection in speciation. Populations of Northern Hemisphere distributed barn swallows Hirundo rustica are closely related, yet differ in two plumage-based traits: ventral color and length of the outermost tail feathers (streamers). Here we provide experimental evidence that manipulations of these traits result in different reproductive consequences in two subspecies of barn swallow: (H. r. erythrogaster in North America and H. r. transitiva in the East Mediterranean). Experimental results in Colorado, USA, demonstrate that males with (1) darkened ventral coloration and (2) shortened streamers gained paternity between two successive reproductive bouts. In contrast, exaggeration of both traits improved reproductive performance within H. r. transitiva in Israel: males with a combination treatment of darkened ventral coloration and elongated streamers gained paternity between two successive reproductive bouts. Collectively, these experimental results fill an important gap in our understanding for how divergent sexual selection maintains phenotype differentiation in closely related populations, an important aspect of the speciation process. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Juvenile immune status affects the expression of a sexually selected trait in field crickets.

    PubMed

    Jacot, A; Scheuber, H; Kurtz, J; Brinkhof, M W G

    2005-07-01

    Parasite-mediated sexual selection theory presumes that variation in sexual traits reliably reflects variation in parasite resistance among available mates. One mechanism that may warrant signal honesty involves costs of immune system activation in the case of a parasitic infection. We investigated this hypothesis in male field crickets Gryllus campestris, whose attractiveness to females depends on characteristics of the sound-producing harp that are essentially fixed following adult eclosion. During the nymphal stage, males subjected to one of two feeding regimes were challenged with bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to investigate condition-dependent effects on harp development as compared to other adult traits. Nymphal nutritional status positively affected adult body size, condition, and harp size. However, nymphal immune status affected harp size only, with LPS-males having smaller harps than control-injected males. In addition, the harps of LPS-males showed a lesser degree of melanization, indicating an enhanced substrate use by the melanin-producing enzyme cascade of the immune system. Thus, past immune status is specifically mirrored in sexual traits, suggesting a key role for deployment costs of immunity in parasite-mediated sexual selection.

  4. Directed forgetting of visual symbols: evidence for nonverbal selective rehearsal.

    PubMed

    Hourihan, Kathleen L; Ozubko, Jason D; MacLeod, Colin M

    2009-12-01

    Is selective rehearsal possible for nonverbal information? Two experiments addressed this question using the item method directed forgetting paradigm, where the advantage of remember items over forget items is ascribed to selective rehearsal favoring the remember items. In both experiments, difficult-to-name abstract symbols were presented for study, followed by a recognition test. Directed forgetting effects were evident for these symbols, regardless of whether they were or were not spontaneously named. Critically, a directed forgetting effect was observed for unnamed symbols even when the symbols were studied under verbal suppression to prevent verbal rehearsal. This pattern indicates that a form of nonverbal rehearsal can be used strategically (i.e., selectively) to enhance memory, even when verbal rehearsal is not possible.

  5. Opsin gene duplication and diversification in the guppy, a model for sexual selection

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Margarete; Tripathi, Namita; Henz, Stefan R; Lindholm, Anna K; Weigel, Detlef; Breden, Felix; Dreyer, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Identification of genes that control variation in adaptive characters is a prerequisite for understanding the processes that drive sexual and natural selection. Male coloration and female colour perception play important roles in mate choice in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a model organism for studies of natural and sexual selection. We examined a potential source for the known variation in colour perception, by analysing genomic and complementary DNA sequences of genes that code for visual pigment proteins. We find high sequence variability, both within and between populations, and expanded copy number for long-wave sensitive (LWS) opsin genes. Alleles with non-synonymous changes that suggest dissimilar spectral tuning properties occur in the same population and even in the same individual, and the high frequency of non-synonymous substitutions argues for diversifying selection acting on these proteins. Therefore, variability in tuning amino acids is partitioned within individuals and populations of the guppy, in contrast to variability for LWS at higher taxonomic levels in cichlids, a second model system for differentiation owing to sexual selection. Since opsin variability parallels the extreme male colour polymorphism within guppy populations, we suggest that mate choice has been a major factor driving the coevolution of opsins and male ornaments in this species. PMID:17015333

  6. Determinants of reproductive success across sequential episodes of sexual selection in a firefly.

    PubMed

    South, A; Lewis, S M

    2012-08-22

    Because females often mate with multiple males, it is critical to expand our view of sexual selection to encompass pre-, peri- and post-copulatory episodes to understand how selection drives trait evolution. In Photinus fireflies, females preferentially respond to males based on their bioluminescent courtship signals, but previous work has shown that male paternity success is negatively correlated with flash attractiveness. Here, we experimentally manipulated both the attractiveness of the courtship signal visible to female Photinus greeni fireflies before mating and male nuptial gift size to determine how these traits might each influence mate acceptance and paternity share. We also measured pericopulatory behaviours to examine their influence on male reproductive success. Firefly males with larger spermatophores experienced dual benefits in terms of both higher mate acceptance and increased paternity share. We found no effect of courtship signal attractiveness or pericopulatory behaviour on male reproductive success. Taken together with previous results, this suggests a possible trade-off for males between producing an attractive courtship signal and investing in nuptial gifts. By integrating multiple episodes of sexual selection, this study extends our understanding of sexual selection in Photinus fireflies and provides insight into the evolution of male traits in other polyandrous species.

  7. Determinants of reproductive success across sequential episodes of sexual selection in a firefly

    PubMed Central

    South, A.; Lewis, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    Because females often mate with multiple males, it is critical to expand our view of sexual selection to encompass pre-, peri- and post-copulatory episodes to understand how selection drives trait evolution. In Photinus fireflies, females preferentially respond to males based on their bioluminescent courtship signals, but previous work has shown that male paternity success is negatively correlated with flash attractiveness. Here, we experimentally manipulated both the attractiveness of the courtship signal visible to female Photinus greeni fireflies before mating and male nuptial gift size to determine how these traits might each influence mate acceptance and paternity share. We also measured pericopulatory behaviours to examine their influence on male reproductive success. Firefly males with larger spermatophores experienced dual benefits in terms of both higher mate acceptance and increased paternity share. We found no effect of courtship signal attractiveness or pericopulatory behaviour on male reproductive success. Taken together with previous results, this suggests a possible trade-off for males between producing an attractive courtship signal and investing in nuptial gifts. By integrating multiple episodes of sexual selection, this study extends our understanding of sexual selection in Photinus fireflies and provides insight into the evolution of male traits in other polyandrous species. PMID:22535779

  8. Developmental Environment Effects on Sexual Selection in Male and Female Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Juliano; Pizzari, Tommaso; Wigby, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The developmental environment can potentially alter the adult social environment and influence traits targeted by sexual selection such as body size. In this study, we manipulated larval density in male and female Drosophila melanogaster, which results in distinct adult size phenotypes–high (low) densities for small (large) adults–and measured sexual selection in experimental groups consisting of adult males and females from high, low, or a mixture of low and high larval densities. Overall, large adult females (those reared at low larval density) had more matings, more mates and produced more offspring than small females (those reared at high larval density). The number of offspring produced by females was positively associated with their number of mates (i.e. there was a positive female Bateman gradient) in social groups where female size was experimentally varied, likely due to the covariance between female productivity and mating rate. For males, we found evidence that the larval environment affected the relative importance of sexual selection via mate number (Bateman gradients), mate productivity, paternity share, and their covariances. Mate number and mate productivity were significantly reduced for small males in social environments where males were of mixed sizes, versus social environments where all males were small, suggesting that social heterogeneity altered selection on this subset of males. Males are commonly assumed to benefit from mating with large females, but in contrast to expectations we found that in groups where both the male and female size varied, males did not gain more offspring per mating with large females. Collectively, our results indicate sex-specific effects of the developmental environment on the operation of sexual selection, via both the phenotype of individuals, and the phenotype of their competitors and mates. PMID:27167120

  9. Sexual selection drives the evolution of antiaphrodisiac pheromones in butterflies.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Catalina; Schulz, Stefan; Yildizhan, Selma; Gilbert, Lawrence E

    2011-10-01

    Competition for mates has resulted in sophisticated mechanisms of male control over female reproduction. Antiaphrodisiacs are pheromones transferred from males to females during mating that reduce attractiveness of females to subsequent courting males. Antiaphrodisiacs generally help unreceptive females reduce male harassment. However, lack of control over pheromone release by females and male control over the amount transferred provides males an opportunity to use antiaphrodisiacs to delay remating by females that have returned to a receptive state. We propose a model for the evolution of antiaphrodisiacs under the influence of intrasexual selection, and determine whether changes in this signal in 11 species of Heliconius butterflies are consistent with two predictions of the model. First, we find that as predicted, male-contributed chemical mixtures are complex and highly variable across species, with limited phylogenetic signal. Second, differences in rates of evolution in pheromone composition between two major clades of Heliconius are as expected: the clade with a greater potential for male-male competition (polyandrous) shows a faster rate of divergence than the one with typically monoandrous mating system. Taken together, our results provide evidence that for females, antiaphrodisiacs can be both honest signals of receptivity (helping reduce harassment) and chastity belts (a male-imposed reduction in remating). © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Interface Pattern Selection Criterion for Cellular Structures in Directional Solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trivedi, R.; Tewari, S. N.; Kurtze, D.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this investigation is to establish key scientific concepts that govern the selection of cellular and dendritic patterns during the directional solidification of alloys. We shall first address scientific concepts that are crucial in the selection of interface patterns. Next, the results of ground-based experimental studies in the Al-4.0 wt % Cu system will be described. Both experimental studies and theoretical calculations will be presented to establish the need for microgravity experiments.

  11. Subthreshold Membrane Conductances Enhance Directional Selectivity in Vertebrate Sensory Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Chacron, Maurice J.; Fortune, Eric S.

    2016-01-01

    Directional selectivity, in which neurons respond preferentially to one “preferred” direction of movement over the opposite “null” direction, is a critical computation that is found in the central nervous systems of many animals. Such responses are generated using two mechanisms: spatiotemporal convergence via pathways that differ in the timing of information from different locations on the receptor array and the nonlinear integration of this information. Previous studies have showed that various mechanisms may act as nonlinear integrators by suppressing the response in the null direction. Here we show, through a combination of mathematical modeling and in vivo intracellular recordings, that subthreshold membrane conductances can act as a nonlinear integrator by increasing the response in the preferred direction of motion only, thereby enhancing the directional bias. Such subthreshold conductances are ubiquitous in the CNS and therefore may be used in a wide array of computations that involve the enhancement of an existing bias arising from differential spatiotemporal filtering. PMID:20445028

  12. Directional Selection Causes Decanalization in a Group I Ribozyme

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Eric J.; Weikert, Christian; Wagner, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    A canalized genotype is robust to environmental or genetic perturbations. Canalization is expected to result from stabilizing selection on a well-adapted phenotype. Decanalization, the loss of robustness, might follow periods of directional selection toward a new optimum. The evolutionary forces causing decanalization are still unknown, in part because it is difficult to determine the fitness effects of mutations in populations of organisms with complex genotypes and phenotypes. Here, we report direct experimental measurements of robustness in a system with a simple genotype and phenotype, the catalytic activity of an RNA enzyme. We find that the robustness of a population of RNA enzymes decreases during a period of directional selection in the laboratory. The decrease in robustness is primarily caused by the selective sweep of a genotype that is decanalized relative to the wild-type, both in terms of mutational robustness and environmental robustness (thermodynamic stability). Our results experimentally demonstrate that directional selection can cause decanalization on short time scales, and demonstrate co-evolution of mutational and environmental robustness. PMID:23028955

  13. Direction Selectivity Mediated by Adaptation in the Owl's Inferior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Peña, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Motion direction is a crucial cue for predicting future states in natural scenes. In the auditory system, the mechanisms that confer direction selectivity to neurons are not well understood. Neither is it known whether sound motion is encoded independently of stationary sound location. Here we investigated these questions in neurons of the owl's external nucleus of the inferior colliculus, where auditory space is represented in a map. Using a high-density speaker array, we show that the preferred direction and the degree of direction selectivity can be predicted by response adaptation to sounds moving over asymmetric spatial receptive fields. At the population level, we found that preference for sounds moving toward frontal space increased with eccentricity in spatial tuning. This distribution was consistent with larger receptive-field asymmetry in neurons tuned to more peripheral auditory space. A model of suppression based on spatiotemporal summation predicted the observations. Thus, response adaptation and receptive-field shape can explain direction selectivity to acoustic motion and an orderly distribution of preferred direction. PMID:24305813

  14. Causal Influence of Visual Cues on Hippocampal Directional Selectivity.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Lavanya; Aghajan, Zahra M; Vuong, Cliff; Moore, Jason J; Mehta, Mayank R

    2016-01-14

    Hippocampal neurons show selectivity with respect to visual cues in primates, including humans, but this has never been found in rodents. To address this long-standing discrepancy, we measured hippocampal activity from rodents during real-world random foraging. Surprisingly, ∼ 25% of neurons exhibited significant directional modulation with respect to visual cues. To dissociate the contributions of visual and vestibular cues, we made similar measurements in virtual reality, in which only visual cues were informative. Here, we found significant directional modulation despite the severe loss of vestibular information, challenging prevailing theories of directionality. Changes in the amount of angular information in visual cues induced corresponding changes in head-directional modulation at the neuronal and population levels. Thus, visual cues are sufficient for-and play a predictable, causal role in-generating directionally selective hippocampal responses. These results dissociate hippocampal directional and spatial selectivity and bridge the gap between primate and rodent studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The artful mind: sexual selection and an evolutionary neurobiological approach to aesthetic appreciation.

    PubMed

    De Ridder, Dirk; Vanneste, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Based on functional imaging of beauty appreciation in art and of beautiful faces, a heuristic model is presented that proposes that beauty appreciation in art is based on a sexual selection mechanism that led to the preference of beautiful faces. Beauty is linked to sexual selection as a sign of fitness. Beautiful traits, like the peacock's tail, are costly and thereby signal superior genetic quality. Mechanistically, beauty is a construct of the brain that links positive feedback of the reward system with hedonic experience, namely pleasure, which itself might be encoded in the orbito-frontal cortex. The context determines whether a stimulus should lead to further approach or withdrawal in order to maintain a hedonic homeostasis. The fact that aesthetic appreciation of art uses the same circuitry as the aesthetic appreciation of faces suggests that there is no special art circuitry in the brain, but that available networks are used for aesthetic appreciation of art.

  16. An Expression of Periodic Phenomena of Fashion on Sexual Selection Model with Conformity Genes and Memes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutoh, Atsuko; Tokuhara, Shinya; Kanoh, Masayoshi; Oboshi, Tamon; Kato, Shohei; Itoh, Hidenori

    It is generally thought that living things have trends in their preferences. The mechanism of occurrence of another trends in successive periods is concerned in their conformity. According to social impact theory, the minority is always exists in the group. There is a possibility that the minority make the transition to the majority by conforming agents. Because of agent's promotion of their conform actions, the majority can make the transition. We proposed an evolutionary model with both genes and memes, and elucidated the interaction between genes and memes on sexual selection. In this paper, we propose an agent model for sexual selection imported the concept of conformity. Using this model we try an environment where male agents and female agents are existed, we find that periodic phenomena of fashion are expressed. And we report the influence of conformity and differentiation on the transition of their preferences.

  17. Baculum morphology predicts reproductive success of male house mice under sexual selection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diversity in penile morphology is characterised by extraordinary variation in the size and shape of the baculum (penis bone) found in many mammals. Although functionally enigmatic, diversity in baculum form is hypothesised to result from sexual selection. According to this hypothesis, the baculum should influence the outcome of reproductive competition among males within promiscuous mating systems. However, a test of this key prediction is currently lacking. Results Here we show that baculum size explains significant variation in the reproductive success of male house mice under competitive conditions. After controlling for body size and other reproductive traits, the width (but not length) of the house mouse baculum predicts both the mean number of offspring sired per litter and total number of offspring sired. Conclusions By providing the first evidence linking baculum morphology to male reproductive success, our results support the hypothesis that evolutionary diversity in baculum form is driven by sexual selection. PMID:23800051

  18. Endocrine disruption of sexual selection by an estrogenic herbicide in the mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor).

    PubMed

    McCallum, Malcolm L; Matlock, Makensey; Treas, Justin; Safi, Barroq; Sanson, Wendy; McCallum, Jamie L

    2013-12-01

    The role that endocrine disruption could play in sexual selection remains relatively untested, and although estrogens occur in insects, little information exists about their biological role in insect reproduction. Atrazine is a commonly applied herbicide that mimics estrogen in vertebrates. Tenebrio molitor were raised from egg to adult under a gradation of environmentally relevant atrazine exposures and a non-treated control. Atrazine was delivered in the drinking water ad libitum. Female T. molitor were provided with a choice between unrelated males raised under three levels of atrazine exposures. Female preference for males demonstrated a non-monotonic inverted U-shaped response to atrazine exposure. There was no significant difference between the control and the high exposure to atrazine. Excluding the control, female preference increased as exposure concentration increased. These results have important repercussions for nonlethal effects of endocrine disruption on populations, their capacity to interfere with sexual selection, and the role of estrogen in pheromone communication among insects.

  19. Baculum morphology predicts reproductive success of male house mice under sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Stockley, Paula; Ramm, Steven A; Sherborne, Amy L; Thom, Michael D F; Paterson, Steve; Hurst, Jane L

    2013-06-26

    Diversity in penile morphology is characterised by extraordinary variation in the size and shape of the baculum (penis bone) found in many mammals. Although functionally enigmatic, diversity in baculum form is hypothesised to result from sexual selection. According to this hypothesis, the baculum should influence the outcome of reproductive competition among males within promiscuous mating systems. However, a test of this key prediction is currently lacking. Here we show that baculum size explains significant variation in the reproductive success of male house mice under competitive conditions. After controlling for body size and other reproductive traits, the width (but not length) of the house mouse baculum predicts both the mean number of offspring sired per litter and total number of offspring sired. By providing the first evidence linking baculum morphology to male reproductive success, our results support the hypothesis that evolutionary diversity in baculum form is driven by sexual selection.

  20. Male infanticide and paternity analyses in a socially natural herd of Przewalski's horses: sexual selection?

    PubMed

    Feh, C; Munkhtuya, B

    2008-07-01

    The sexual selection hypothesis explains infanticide by males in many mammals. In our 11-year study, we investigated this hypothesis in a herd of Przewalski's horses where we had witnessed infanticidal attacks. Infanticide was highly conditional and not simply linked to takeovers. Attacks occurred in only five of 39 cases following a takeover, and DNA paternity revealed that, although infanticidal stallions were not the genetic fathers in four cases out of five, stallions present at birth did not significantly attempt to kill unrelated foals. Infanticide did not reduce birth intervals; only in one case out of five was the infanticidal stallion, the father of the next foal; mothers whose foals were attacked subsequently avoided associating with infanticidal stallions. Therefore, evidence for the sexual selection hypothesis was weak. The "human disturbance" hypothesis received some support, as only zoo bred stallions which grew up in unnatural social groups attacked foals of mares which were pregnant during takeovers.

  1. Sexual selection and the evolution of male pheromone glands in philanthine wasps (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae).

    PubMed

    Weiss, Katharina; Herzner, Gudrun; Strohm, Erhard

    2017-06-06

    Sexual selection is thought to promote evolutionary changes and diversification. However, the impact of sexual selection in relation to other selective forces is difficult to evaluate. Male digger wasps of the tribe Philanthini (Hymenoptera, Philanthinae) scent mark territories to attract receptive females. Consequently, the organs for production and storage of the marking secretion, the mandibular gland (MG) and the postpharyngeal gland (PPG), are subject to sexual selection. In female Philanthini, these glands are most likely solely subject to natural selection and show very little morphological diversity. According to the hypothesis that sexual selection drives interspecific diversity, we predicted that the MG and PPG show higher interspecific variation in males than in females. Using histological methods, 3D-reconstructions, and multivariate statistical analysis of morphological characters, we conducted a comparative analysis of the MG and the PPG in males of 30 species of Philanthini and three species of the Cercerini and Aphilanthopsini, two related tribes within the Philanthinae. We found substantial interspecific diversity in gland morphology with regard to gland incidence, size, shape and the type of associated secretory cells. Overall there was a phylogenetic trend: Ensuing from the large MGs and small PPGs of male Cercerini and Aphilanthopsini, the size and complexity of the MG was reduced in male Philanthini, while their PPG became considerably enlarged, substantially more complex, and associated with an apparently novel type of secretory cells. In some clades of the Philanthini the MG was even lost and entirely replaced by the PPG. However, several species showed reversals of and exceptions from this trend. Head gland morphology was significantly more diverse among male than among female Philanthinae. Our results show considerable variation in male head glands including the loss of an entire gland system and the evolution of a novel kind of secretory

  2. Female-directed violence as a form of sexual coercion in humans (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Barbaro, Nicole; Shackelford, Todd K

    2016-11-01

    Male-perpetrated female-directed violence (FDV) may be associated with greater sexual access to a female. Accordingly, FDV is expected to be associated with greater copulation frequency. Research on nonhuman primates affirms this hypothesis, but no previous research has investigated this relationship in humans (Homo sapiens). The current research tests the hypothesis that FDV is associated with in-pair copulation frequency and, thus, may function as a form of sexual coercion. It was predicted that men who perpetrate FDV will secure more in-pair copulations than men who do not perpetrate violence (Prediction 1a), and that average monthly rates of FDV would positively correlate with in-pair copulation frequency (Prediction 1b). Male participants (n = 355) completed a survey, reporting limited demographic information (e.g., age, relationship length), in-pair copulation frequency, and history of physical violence perpetration. As predicted, violent men secured more in-pair copulations, on average, than nonviolent men, and monthly rates of violence positively correlated with in-pair copulation frequency. In humans, as in nonhuman primates, FDV by males may facilitate greater sexual access to a female. We discuss the implications of the current research for an evolutionary perspective on partner violence, and draw on research on nonhuman primates to highlight profitable avenues of research on FDV in humans. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Reconstructing paternal genotypes to infer patterns of sperm storage and sexual selection in the hawksbill turtle.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Karl P; Jorgensen, Tove H; Jolliffe, Kevin G; Jolliffe, San-Marie; Henwood, Jock; Richardson, David S

    2013-04-01

    Postcopulatory sperm storage can serve a range of functions, including ensuring fertility, allowing delayed fertilization and facilitating sexual selection. Sperm storage is likely to be particularly important in wide-ranging animals with low population densities, but its prevalence and importance in such taxa, and its role in promoting sexual selection, are poorly known. Here, we use a powerful microsatellite array and paternal genotype reconstruction to assess the prevalence of sperm storage and test sexual selection hypotheses of genetic biases to paternity in one such species, the critically endangered hawksbill turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata. In the majority of females (90.7%, N = 43), all offspring were sired by a single male. In the few cases of multiple paternity (9.3%), two males fertilized each female. Importantly, the identity and proportional fertilization success of males were consistent across all sequential nests laid by individual females over the breeding season (up to five nests over 75 days). No males were identified as having fertilized more than one female, suggesting that a large number of males are available to females. No evidence for biases to paternity based on heterozygosity or relatedness was found. These results indicate that female hawksbill turtles are predominantly monogamous within a season, store sperm for the duration of the nesting season and do not re-mate between nests. Furthermore, females do not appear to be using sperm storage to facilitate sexual selection. Consequently, the primary value of storing sperm in marine turtles may be to uncouple mating and fertilization in time and avoid costly re-mating.

  4. Sexual selection and sex differences in the prevalence of childhood externalizing and adolescent internalizing disorders.

    PubMed

    Martel, Michelle M

    2013-11-01

    Despite the well-established sex difference in prevalence of many childhood and adolescent psychopathological conditions, no integrative metatheory of sex differences in psychopathology exists. This review attempts to provide a metatheoretical framework to guide empirical examination of sex differences in prevalence of childhood-onset "externalizing" and adolescent-onset "internalizing" disorders, based on sexual selection evolutionary theory. Sexual selection theory suggests important between-sex differences in markers, mechanisms, etiology, and developmental timing of risk and resilience relevant to psychopathology. Namely, sexual selection theory hypothesizes that disinhibition and sensation-seeking may be important proximate risk markers for childhood-onset externalizing disorders in males. The theory suggests that these male-biased markers may be a product of their higher exposure to prenatal testosterone, which makes them more susceptible to prenatal stressors with downstream effects on dopaminergic neurotransmission, especially for those with genetic alleles associated with lower dopaminergic function. In contrast, sexual selection theory hypothesizes that negative emotionality, empathy, and cognitive rumination may be important proximate risk markers for adolescent-onset internalizing disorders in females. The theory suggests that these markers are propagated by rapidly rising levels of estradiol at puberty that interact with cortisol and oxytocin. These hormones exert downstream effects on the serotonergic system in such a way as to increase females' sensitivity to interpersonal stressors particularly at puberty and especially for those with lower functional serotonergic activity. Such a metatheory can help integrate prior ideas about sex differences and can also generate new predictions of sex differences in markers, etiology, mechanisms, and developmental timing of common forms of psychopathology. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  5. Selective pressures in the human bony pelvis: Decoupling sexual dimorphism in the anterior and posterior spaces.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kirsten M

    2015-07-01

    Sexual dimorphism in the human bony pelvis is commonly assumed to be related to the intensity of obstetrical selective pressures. With intense obstetrical selective pressures, there should be greater shape dimorphism; with minimal obstetrical selective pressures, there should be reduced shape dimorphism. This pattern is seen in the nondimorphic anterior spaces and highly dimorphic posterior spaces. Decoupling sexual dimorphism in these spaces may in turn be related to the differential influence of other selective pressures, such as biomechanical ones. The relationship between sexual dimorphism and selective pressures in the human pelvis was examined using five skeletal samples (total female n = 101; male n = 103). Pelvic shape was quantified by collecting landmark coordinate data on articulated pelves. Euclidean distance matrix analysis was used to extract the distances that defined the anterior and posterior pelvic spaces. Sex and body mass were used as proxies for obstetrical and biomechanical selective pressures, respectively. MANCOVA analyses demonstrate significant effects of sex and body mass on distances in both the anterior and the posterior spaces. A comparison of the relative contribution of shape variance attributed to each of these factors suggests that the posterior space is more influenced by sex, and obstetrics by proxy, whereas the anterior space is more influenced by body mass, and biomechanics by proxy. Although the overall shape of the pelvis has been influenced by obstetrical and biomechanical selective pressures, there is a differential response within the pelvis to these factors. These results provide new insight into the ongoing debate on the obstetrical dilemma hypothesis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Evidence of systematic bias in sexual over- and underperception of naturally occurring events: a direct replication of Haselton (2003) in a more gender-equal culture.

    PubMed

    Bendixen, Mons

    2014-11-17

    Error Management Theory (Haselton and Buss, 2000; Haselton and Nettle, 2006) maintains that natural selection has engineered adaptations for judgment under uncertainty to minimize the overall cost of making errors, leading to universal biases in judgments of sexual interest in men and women. This study, using a sample of het erosexual Norwegian students (n = 308), was carried out as a direct replication of Haselton's (2003) original study of naturally occurring events of sexual misperception. The results strongly supported the main hypotheses in the original study, showing that women reported being subject to opposite-sex sexual overperception far more often relative to underperception, and that this difference was small for men. In support of Error Management Theory, and in contrast to Social Role / Structure Theory expectations, the pattern of misperception for women and men was largely invariant across studies and across demographic groups within a culture. The findings suggest that cross-national differences in the level of gender inequality do not influence reports of sexual over- and underperception in women and men. Beyond sex, factors associated with more sexual overperception relative to underperception were being single, young, and having attitudes condoning casual sex.

  7. The Expression of Pre- and Postcopulatory Sexually Selected Traits Reflects Levels of Dietary Stress in Guppies

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Moshiur; Turchini, Giovanni M.; Gasparini, Clelia; Norambuena, Fernando; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental and ecological conditions can shape the evolution of life history traits in many animals. Among such factors, food or nutrition availability can play an important evolutionary role in moderating an animal's life history traits, particularly sexually selected traits. Here, we test whether diet quantity and/or composition in the form of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (here termed ‘n3LC’) influence the expression of pre- and postcopulatory traits in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing poeciliid fish. We assigned males haphazardly to one of two experimental diets supplemented with n3LC, and each of these diet treatments was further divided into two diet ‘quantity’ treatments. Our experimental design therefore explored the main and interacting effects of two factors (n3LC content and diet quantity) on the expression of precopulatory (sexual behaviour and sexual ornamentation, including the size, number and spectral properties of colour spots) and postcopulatory (the velocity, viability, number and length of sperm) sexually selected traits. Our study revealed that diet quantity had significant effects on most of the pre- and postcopulatory traits, while n3LC manipulation had a significant effect on sperm traits and in particular on sperm viability. Our analyses also revealed interacting effects of diet quantity and n3LC levels on courtship displays, and the area of orange and iridescent colour spots in the males’ colour patterns. We also confirmed that our dietary manipulations of n3LC resulted in the differential uptake of n3LC in body and testes tissues in the different n3LC groups. This study reveals the effects of diet quantity and n3LC on behavioural, ornamental and ejaculate traits in P. reticulata and underscores the likely role that diet plays in maintaining the high variability in these condition-dependent sexual traits. PMID:25170940

  8. The expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexually selected traits reflects levels of dietary stress in guppies.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Moshiur; Turchini, Giovanni M; Gasparini, Clelia; Norambuena, Fernando; Evans, Jonathan P

    2014-01-01

    Environmental and ecological conditions can shape the evolution of life history traits in many animals. Among such factors, food or nutrition availability can play an important evolutionary role in moderating an animal's life history traits, particularly sexually selected traits. Here, we test whether diet quantity and/or composition in the form of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (here termed 'n3LC') influence the expression of pre- and postcopulatory traits in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing poeciliid fish. We assigned males haphazardly to one of two experimental diets supplemented with n3LC, and each of these diet treatments was further divided into two diet 'quantity' treatments. Our experimental design therefore explored the main and interacting effects of two factors (n3LC content and diet quantity) on the expression of precopulatory (sexual behaviour and sexual ornamentation, including the size, number and spectral properties of colour spots) and postcopulatory (the velocity, viability, number and length of sperm) sexually selected traits. Our study revealed that diet quantity had significant effects on most of the pre- and postcopulatory traits, while n3LC manipulation had a significant effect on sperm traits and in particular on sperm viability. Our analyses also revealed interacting effects of diet quantity and n3LC levels on courtship displays, and the area of orange and iridescent colour spots in the males' colour patterns. We also confirmed that our dietary manipulations of n3LC resulted in the differential uptake of n3LC in body and testes tissues in the different n3LC groups. This study reveals the effects of diet quantity and n3LC on behavioural, ornamental and ejaculate traits in P. reticulata and underscores the likely role that diet plays in maintaining the high variability in these condition-dependent sexual traits.

  9. Quantitative measures of sexual selection reveal no evidence for sex-role reversal in a sea spider with prolonged paternal care

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Felipe S.; Avise, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Taxa in which males alone invest in postzygotic care of offspring are often considered good models for investigating the proffered relationships between sexual selection and mating systems. In the pycnogonid sea spider Pycnogonum stearnsi, males carry large egg masses on their bodies for several weeks, so this species is a plausible candidate for sex-role reversal (greater intensity of sexual selection on females than on males). Here, we couple a microsatellite-based assessment of the mating system in a natural population with formal quantitative measures of genetic fitness to investigate the direction of sexual selection in P. stearnsi. Both sexes proved to be highly polygamous and showed similar standardized variances in reproductive and mating successes. Moreover, the fertility (number of progeny) of males and females appeared to be equally and highly dependent on mate access, as shown by similar Bateman gradients for the two sexes. The absence of sex-role reversal in this population of P. stearnsi is probably attributable to the fact that males are not limited by brooding space but have evolved an ability to carry large numbers of progeny. Body length was not a good predictor of male mating or reproductive success, so the aim of future studies should be to determine what traits are the targets of sexual selection in this species. PMID:20462907

  10. Non-breeding season events influence sexual selection in a long-distance migratory bird.

    PubMed

    Reudink, Matthew W; Marra, Peter P; Kyser, T Kurt; Boag, Peter T; Langin, Kathryn M; Ratcliffe, Laurene M

    2009-05-07

    The study of sexual selection has traditionally focused on events and behaviours immediately surrounding copulation. In this study, we examine whether carry-over effects from the non-breeding season can influence the process of sexual selection in a long-distance migratory bird, the American redstart (Setophaga ruticilla). Previous work on American redstarts demonstrated that overwintering in a high-quality habitat influences spring departure dates from the wintering grounds, advances arrival dates on the breeding grounds and increases apparent reproductive success. We show that the mixed-mating strategy of American redstarts compounds the benefits of overwintering in high-quality winter habitats. Males arriving to breed in Canada from high-quality winter habitats arrive earlier than males from poor-quality habitats, resulting in a lower probability of paternity loss, a higher probability of achieving polygyny and ultimately higher realized reproductive success. Such results suggest that the process of sexual selection may be influenced by events interacting throughout the annual cycle.

  11. Sex differences in parental care: Gametic investment, sexual selection, and social environment.

    PubMed

    Liker, András; Freckleton, Robert P; Remeš, Vladimir; Székely, Tamás

    2015-11-01

    Male and female parents often provide different type and amount of care to their offspring. Three major drivers have been proposed to explain parental sex roles: (1) differential gametic investment by males and females that precipitates into sex difference in care, (2) different intensity of sexual selection acting on males and females, and (3) biased social environment that facilitates the more common sex to provide more care. Here, we provide the most comprehensive assessment of these hypotheses using detailed parental care data from 792 bird species covering 126 families. We found no evidence for the gametic investment hypothesis: neither gamete sizes nor gamete production by males relative to females was related to sex difference in parental care. However, sexual selection correlated with parental sex roles, because the male share in care relative to female decreased with both extra-pair paternity and frequency of male polygamy. Parental sex roles were also related to social environment, because male parental care increased with male-biased adult sex ratios (ASRs). Taken together, our results are consistent with recent theories suggesting that gametic investment is not tied to parental sex roles, and highlight the importance of both sexual selection and ASR in influencing parental sex roles.

  12. Fluctuating environments, sexual selection and the evolution of flexible mate choice in birds.

    PubMed

    Botero, Carlos A; Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2012-01-01

    Environmentally-induced fluctuation in the form and strength of natural selection can drive the evolution of morphology, physiology, and behavior. Here we test the idea that fluctuating climatic conditions may also influence the process of sexual selection by inducing unexpected reversals in the relative quality or sexual attractiveness of potential breeding partners. Although this phenomenon, known as 'ecological cross-over', has been documented in a variety of species, it remains unclear the extent to which it has driven the evolution of major interspecific differences in reproductive behavior. We show that after controlling for potentially influential life history and demographic variables, there are significant positive associations between the variability and predictability of annual climatic cycles and the prevalence of infidelity and divorce within populations of a taxonomically diverse array of socially monogamous birds. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that environmental factors have shaped the evolution of reproductive flexibility and suggest that in the absence of severe time constraints, secondary mate choice behaviors can help prevent, correct, or minimize the negative consequences of ecological cross-overs. Our findings also illustrate how a basic evolutionary process like sexual selection is susceptible to the increasing variability and unpredictability of climatic conditions that is resulting from climate change.

  13. The Evolution of Autistic-Like and Schizotypal Traits: A Sexual Selection Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Del Giudice, Marco; Angeleri, Romina; Brizio, Adelina; Elena, Marco R.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a new hypothesis on the evolution of autistic-like and schizotypal personality traits. We argue that autistic-like and schizotypal traits contribute in opposite ways to individual differences in reproductive and mating strategies, and have been maintained – at least in part – by sexual selection through mate choice. Whereas positive schizotypy can be seen as a psychological phenotype oriented to high-mating effort and good genes displays in both sexes, autistic-like traits in their non-pathological form contribute to a male-typical strategy geared toward high parental investment, low-mating effort, and long-term resource allocation. At the evolutionary-genetic level, this sexual selection hypothesis is consistent with Crespi and Badcock's “imprinted brain” theory of autism and psychosis; the effect of offspring mating behavior on resource flow within the family connects sexual selection with genomic imprinting in the context of human biparental care. We conclude by presenting the results of an empirical study testing one of the predictions derived from our hypothesis. In a sample of 199 college students, autistic-like traits predicted lower interest in short-term mating, higher partner-specific investment, and stronger commitment to long-term romantic relations, whereas positive schizotypy showed the opposite pattern of effects. PMID:21833210

  14. Fluctuating Environments, Sexual Selection and the Evolution of Flexible Mate Choice in Birds

    PubMed Central

    Botero, Carlos A.; Rubenstein, Dustin R.

    2012-01-01

    Environmentally-induced fluctuation in the form and strength of natural selection can drive the evolution of morphology, physiology, and behavior. Here we test the idea that fluctuating climatic conditions may also influence the process of sexual selection by inducing unexpected reversals in the relative quality or sexual attractiveness of potential breeding partners. Although this phenomenon, known as ‘ecological cross-over’, has been documented in a variety of species, it remains unclear the extent to which it has driven the evolution of major interspecific differences in reproductive behavior. We show that after controlling for potentially influential life history and demographic variables, there are significant positive associations between the variability and predictability of annual climatic cycles and the prevalence of infidelity and divorce within populations of a taxonomically diverse array of socially monogamous birds. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that environmental factors have shaped the evolution of reproductive flexibility and suggest that in the absence of severe time constraints, secondary mate choice behaviors can help prevent, correct, or minimize the negative consequences of ecological cross-overs. Our findings also illustrate how a basic evolutionary process like sexual selection is susceptible to the increasing variability and unpredictability of climatic conditions that is resulting from climate change. PMID:22359681

  15. Statistical aspects of evolution under natural selection, with implications for the advantage of sexual reproduction.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Daniel J M

    2017-10-27

    The prevalence of sexual reproduction remains mysterious, as it poses clear evolutionary drawbacks compared to reproducing asexually. Several possible explanations exist, with one of the most likely being that finite population size causes linkage disequilibria to randomly generate and impede the progress of natural selection, and that these are eroded by recombination via sexual reproduction. Previous investigations have either analysed this phenomenon in detail for small numbers of loci, or performed population simulations for many loci. Here we present a quantitative genetic model for fitness, based on the Price Equation, in order to examine the theoretical consequences of randomly generated linkage disequilibria when there are many loci. In addition, most previous work has been concerned with the long-term consequences of deleterious linkage disequilibria for population fitness. The expected change in mean fitness between consecutive generations, a measure of short-term evolutionary success, is shown under random environmental influences to be related to the autocovariance in mean fitness between the generations, capturing the effects of stochastic forces such as genetic drift. Interaction between genetic drift and natural selection, due to randomly generated linkage disequilibria, is demonstrated to be one possible source of mean fitness autocovariance. This suggests a possible role for sexual reproduction in reducing the negative effects of genetic drift, thereby improving the short-term efficacy of natural selection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sex-biased dispersal, kin selection and the evolution of sexual conflict.

    PubMed

    Faria, Gonçalo S; Varela, Susana A M; Gardner, Andy

    2015-10-01

    There is growing interest in resolving the curious disconnect between the fields of kin selection and sexual selection. Rankin's (2011, J. Evol. Biol. 24, 71-81) theoretical study of the impact of kin selection on the evolution of sexual conflict in viscous populations has been particularly valuable in stimulating empirical research in this area. An important goal of that study was to understand the impact of sex-specific rates of dispersal upon the coevolution of male-harm and female-resistance behaviours. But the fitness functions derived in Rankin's study do not flow from his model's assumptions and, in particular, are not consistent with sex-biased dispersal. Here, we develop new fitness functions that do logically flow from the model's assumptions, to determine the impact of sex-specific patterns of dispersal on the evolution of sexual conflict. Although Rankin's study suggested that increasing male dispersal always promotes the evolution of male harm and that increasing female dispersal always inhibits the evolution of male harm, we find that the opposite can also be true, depending upon parameter values. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology.

  17. First evidences of sexual selection by mate choice in marine zooplankton.