Science.gov

Sample records for disadvantage factor

  1. 48 CFR 1552.219-74 - Small disadvantaged business participation evaluation factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... business participation evaluation factor. 1552.219-74 Section 1552.219-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1552.219-74 Small disadvantaged business participation evaluation factor...

  2. Protective Factors and the Development of Resilience in the Context of Neighborhood Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderbilt-Adriance, Ella; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine relations among multiple child and family protective factors, neighborhood disadvantage, and positive social adjustment in a sample of 226 urban, low SES boys followed from infancy to early adolescence. The results indicated that child IQ, nurturant parenting, and parent-child relationship quality,…

  3. Protective Factors and the Development of Resilience in the Context of Neighborhood Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderbilt-Adriance, Ella; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine relations among multiple child and family protective factors, neighborhood disadvantage, and positive social adjustment in a sample of 226 urban, low SES boys followed from infancy to early adolescence. The results indicated that child IQ, nurturant parenting, and parent-child relationship quality,…

  4. Predictors of Parenting among Economically Disadvantaged Latina Mothers: Mediating and Moderating Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prelow, Hazel M.; Weaver, Scott R.; Bowman, Marvella A.; Swenson, Rebecca R.

    2010-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to examine the role of ecological risk factors, maternal psychological distress, and social network support on the parenting behaviors of 535 economically disadvantaged Latina mothers, who were surveyed for the Welfare Children, & Families: A Three City Study. We predicted that ecological risk would…

  5. Social–Emotional Factors Affecting Achievement Outcomes Among Disadvantaged Students: Closing the Achievement Gap

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Bronwyn E.; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite concentrated efforts at improving inferior academic outcomes among disadvantaged students, a substantial achievement gap between the test scores of these students and others remains (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; National Center for Education Statistics, 2000a, 2000b; Valencia & Suzuki, 2000). Existing research used ecological models to document social–emotional factors at multiple levels of influence that undermine academic performance. This article integrates ideas from various perspectives in a comprehensive and interdisciplinary model that will inform policy makers, administrators, and schools about the social–emotional factors that act as both risk and protective factors for disadvantaged students’ learning and opportunities for academic success. Four critical social–emotional components that influence achievement performance (academic and school attachment, teacher support, peer values, and mental health) are reviewed. PMID:23255834

  6. Protective Factors and the Development of Resilience in the Context of Neighborhood Disadvantage

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel S.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine relations among multiple child and family protective factors, neighborhood disadvantage, and positive social adjustment in a sample of 226 urban, low SES boys followed from infancy to early adolescence. The results indicated that child IQ, nurturant parenting, and parent–child relationship quality, measured in early childhood, were all significantly associated with a composite measure tapping low levels of antisocial behavior and high levels of social skills at ages 11 and 12. Parental romantic partner relationship quality (RPRQ) was only significantly related to positive social adjustment in the context of low levels of neighborhood disadvantage. Results suggest that with the exception of RPRQ, these protective factors operate in a comparable manner with respect to positive social adjustment for this predominantly low-income urban sample of boys. PMID:18288604

  7. Sustained Implementation of Evidence-based Programs in Disadvantaged Communities: A Conceptual Framework of Supporting Factors.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Lauren M; Turner, Karen M T

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a review of the empirical literature for studies evaluating factors that facilitate and create barriers to sustained program implementation in disadvantaged communities. It outlines study methodology and sustainment outcomes and proposes a conceptual model that involves implementation sustainment support for providers delivering evidence-based health and family services in disadvantaged communities. Sustained program implementation in the community setting is a significant issue as only 43% of studies reported successfully sustained programs. The review identified 18 factors that facilitate success and create barriers to program sustainment. The factors are synthesized into three themes; program characteristics, workplace capacity, and process and interaction factors. The majority of factors map onto commonly cited sustainability influences in implementation science. However, there was an additional focus for studies included in this review on the importance of factors such as program burden, program familiarity and perceived competence in program skills, workplace support for the program, staff mobility and turnover, supervision and peer support, and ongoing technical assistance. The need to use a conceptual framework and develop measures to guide and evaluate capacity building in EBP implementation and sustainment in low-resource community settings is highlighted.

  8. A review of factors affecting the food choices of disadvantaged women.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, W; Barker, M

    2009-05-01

    The diets of young women are important not just for their own health but also for the long-term health of their offspring. Unbalanced unvaried diets are more common amongst poor and disadvantaged women. If the diets of these women are to be improved, it is first necessary to understand why they make the food choices they do. Influences on women's food choices range from the global to the individual: environmental factors, such as difficulty in acquiring and affording good-quality healthy foods; social support and social relationships, such as those with parents, spouses and children; life transitions, such as leaving home, living with a partner or having children; individual factors, such as having low perceived control or self-efficacy in making food choices and placing a low value on health in general and on their own health in particular. These interrelated factors all influence food choice, suggesting that if the diets of disadvantaged women are to be improved, it will be necessary to do more than simply educate about the link between diet and health.

  9. Cigarette Smoking Among Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Young Adults in Association With Food Insecurity and Other Factors

    PubMed Central

    Tsoh, Janice Y.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Low socioeconomic status is associated with high rates of cigarette smoking, and socioeconomic differences in cigarette smoking tend to emerge during young adulthood. To further our understanding of socioeconomic differences in smoking among young adults, we examined correlates of smoking, with attention to multiple socioeconomic indicators that have not been examined in this population. Methods We analyzed data from the 2011–2012 California Health Interview Survey. The analytic sample consisted of young adults aged 18–30 years who were considered socioeconomically disadvantaged as measured by education and poverty. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine factors associated with smoking status in this group, and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine correlates of smoking frequency. Results In this sample (N = 1,511; 48% female, 66% Hispanic/Latino, 18% non-Hispanic white), 39.7% reported experiencing food insecurity in the past year. Smoking prevalence was significantly higher among young adults who reported being food insecure (26.9%) than among those who reported being food secure (16.4%). Past-year food insecurity was significantly associated with current smoking, independent of sociodemographic characteristics and alcohol use. Specifically, food insecurity was significantly associated with daily but not nondaily smoking. Conclusion Socioeconomically disadvantaged young adults with food insecurity may be considered a high-risk group with respect to cigarette smoking. Efforts to reduce tobacco-related health disparities should address diverse sources of socioeconomic influences, including experiences of food insecurity. PMID:26766849

  10. A Systematic Review of Factors Linked to Poor Academic Performance of Disadvantaged Students in Science and Maths in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Pallavi Amitava

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economic hardships put children in an underprivileged position. This systematic review was conducted to identify factors linked to underachievement of disadvantaged pupils in school science and maths. What could be done as evidence-based practice to make the lives of these young people better? The protocol from preferred reporting items for…

  11. Exploring Situational Factors Shaping Access in a Laptop Program for Socially Disadvantaged Children in India: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padmanabhan, Poornima; Wise, Alyssa Friend

    2012-01-01

    Low-cost laptop programs attempt to address gaps in access to computers in developing countries. However, the translation of computing access from intention to actuality is mediated by many situational factors. This research presents a case study of how access to a set of laptops donated to a school for socially disadvantaged children in India was…

  12. Exploring Situational Factors Shaping Access in a Laptop Program for Socially Disadvantaged Children in India: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padmanabhan, Poornima; Wise, Alyssa Friend

    2012-01-01

    Low-cost laptop programs attempt to address gaps in access to computers in developing countries. However, the translation of computing access from intention to actuality is mediated by many situational factors. This research presents a case study of how access to a set of laptops donated to a school for socially disadvantaged children in India was…

  13. Factors Affecting the Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Child in an Educational Setting. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Mildred R.

    This investigation sought to study the socioeconomically disadvantaged child and his levels of achievement as related to the control of positive and negative reinforcements, personality constructs, classroom behavior, and parental attitudes about classroom behavior and school achievement. The sample consisted of 50 matched pairs of eighth grade…

  14. Factors Influencing the Career Choice of Undergraduate Students at a Historically Disadvantaged South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, Fatima; Jano, Rukhsana; van Lill, Burger

    2015-01-01

    During the apartheid years in South Africa, career guidance amongst disadvantaged learners was largely absent and, for many, career choices were limited and governed by politics. Despite South Africa having celebrated 20 years of democracy, this situation has improved only slightly. Therefore, the aims of the study were to determine the factors…

  15. Exploring School- and Home-Related Protective Factors for Economically Disadvantaged Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okilwa, Nathern S. A.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the experiences of middle school students, particularly focusing on the academic achievement of economically disadvantaged students. For low SES middle school students, the known cumulative effects of poverty coupled with school transition and early adolescence development heighten the potential risks for school failure. By…

  16. Factors Influencing the Career Choice of Undergraduate Students at a Historically Disadvantaged South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, Fatima; Jano, Rukhsana; van Lill, Burger

    2015-01-01

    During the apartheid years in South Africa, career guidance amongst disadvantaged learners was largely absent and, for many, career choices were limited and governed by politics. Despite South Africa having celebrated 20 years of democracy, this situation has improved only slightly. Therefore, the aims of the study were to determine the factors…

  17. 48 CFR 1552.219-74 - Small disadvantaged business participation evaluation factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... each of the authorized and applicable North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Industry... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Small disadvantaged... System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES...

  18. 48 CFR 1552.219-74 - Small disadvantaged business participation evaluation factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... each of the authorized and applicable North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Industry... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Small disadvantaged... System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES...

  19. 48 CFR 1552.219-74 - Small disadvantaged business participation evaluation factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... each of the authorized and applicable North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Industry... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Small disadvantaged... System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES...

  20. 48 CFR 1552.219-74 - Small disadvantaged business participation evaluation factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... each of the authorized and applicable North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Industry... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Small disadvantaged... System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES...

  1. Cultural Factors Moderating Links between Neighborhood Disadvantage and Parenting and Coparenting among Mexican Origin Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Melissa A.; Mortensen, Jennifer A.; Gonzalez, Henry; Gonzalez, Jose-Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mexican origin families with young children living in the United States are disproportionately likely to live in disadvantaged neighborhoods that may threaten engagement in positive parenting processes. However, the influences of contextual risks on family processes among Mexican origin families remain unclear. Objective: The goal of…

  2. Cultural Factors Moderating Links between Neighborhood Disadvantage and Parenting and Coparenting among Mexican Origin Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Melissa A.; Mortensen, Jennifer A.; Gonzalez, Henry; Gonzalez, Jose-Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mexican origin families with young children living in the United States are disproportionately likely to live in disadvantaged neighborhoods that may threaten engagement in positive parenting processes. However, the influences of contextual risks on family processes among Mexican origin families remain unclear. Objective: The goal of…

  3. Multi-level risk factors and developmental assets associated with aggressive behavior in disadvantaged adolescents.

    PubMed

    Smokowski, Paul R; Guo, Shenyang; Cotter, Katie L; Evans, Caroline B R; Rose, Roderick A

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined multilevel risk factors and developmental assets on longitudinal trajectories of aggressive behavior in a diverse sample of rural adolescents. Using ecological and social capital theories, we explored the impact of positive and negative proximal processes, social capital, and contextual characteristics (i.e., school and neighborhood) on adolescent aggression. Data came from the Rural Adaptation Project, which is a 5-year longitudinal panel study of more than 4,000 middle and high school students from 40 public schools in two rural, low income counties in North Carolina. A three-level HLM model (N = 4,056 at Wave 1, 4,251 at Wave 2, and 4,256 at Wave 3) was estimated to predict factors affecting the change trajectories of aggression. Results indicated that negative proximal processes in the form of parent-adolescent conflict, friend rejection, peer pressure, delinquent friends, and school hassles were significant predictors of aggression. In addition, social capital in the form of ethnic identity, religious orientation, and school satisfaction served as buffers against aggression. Negative proximal processes were more salient predictors than positive proximal processes. School and neighborhood characteristics had a minimal impact on aggression. Overall, rates of aggression did not change significantly over the 3-year study window. Findings highlight the need to intervene in order to decrease negative interactions in the peer and parent domains. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Risk and resiliency factors influencing onset and adolescence-limited commercial sexual exploitation of disadvantaged girls.

    PubMed

    Reid, Joan A

    2014-12-01

    Previous research into age-related variables relevant to girls and young women being involved in commercial sexual exploitation (including prostitution) has not distinguished between its onset and limitation to adolescence and its early onset and persistence into adult life. The aims of this study were to examine variables associated with adolescent versus adult onset of commercial sexual exploitation and identify potential risk and resiliency factors differentiating adolescence-limited sexual exploitation and early-onset-adult persistent exploitation. Interviews with 174 vulnerable mostly African-American women, 23% of whom reported commercial sexual exploitation in adolescence and/or adulthood, yielded data, which were analysed using multinomial logistic regressions. Adolescent sexual victimisation, younger age at first alcohol/drug use, being a victim of intimate partner violence and sense of stigmatisation of sexual self/others were all variables associated with adolescent onset of commercial sexual exploitation. Educational attainment differentiated adolescence limited from adolescent-adult persistent exploitation; exploitation had ceased by adulthood among over two-thirds of those who completed at least high school education, but only 13% of those exploited into adult life had finished high school. As level of education was linked to cessation of exploitation by adulthood, support for vulnerable girls to complete education at least to high school level may be protective.The link between early onset of substance misuse and persistent exploitation suggests that education and support specifically targeted within this field could reduce likelihood of persistent abuse.Work directed at improvement of self-image may also reduce risk of persistent exploitation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Getting Our Best Teachers into Disadvantaged Schools: Differences in the Professional and Personal Factors Attracting More Effective and Less Effective Teachers to a School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Suzanne M.

    2010-01-01

    Of the school-level factors that have an impact on student learning, one of the most powerful appears to be the effectiveness of the individual teacher. The most effective teachers are, therefore, one of the most important tools schools and systems have at their disposal to lift the achievement of socio-economically disadvantaged students and…

  6. Sociodemographic factors associated with healthy eating and food security in socio-economically disadvantaged groups in the UK and Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Lukar E; Pearce, Jamie R; Ball, Kylie

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the associations between sociodemographic factors and both diet indicators and food security among socio-economically disadvantaged populations in two different (national) contextual settings. Logistic regression was used to determine cross-sectional associations between nationality, marital status, presence of children in the household, education, employment status and household income (four low income categories) with daily fruit and vegetable consumption, low-fat milk consumption and food security. Socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods in the UK and Australia. Two samples of low-income women from disadvantaged neighbourhoods: (i) in the UK, the 2003-05 Low Income Diet and Nutrition Survey (LIDNS; n 643); and (ii) in Australia, the 2007-08 Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality (READI; n 1340). The influence of nationality, marital status and children in the household on the dietary outcomes varied between the two nations. Obtaining greater education qualifications was the most telling factor associated with healthier dietary behaviours. Being employed was positively associated with low-fat milk consumption in both nations and with fruit consumption in the UK, while income was not associated with dietary behaviours in either nation. In Australia, the likelihood of being food secure was higher among those who were born outside Australia, married, employed or had a greater income, while higher income was the only significant factor in the UK. The identification of factors that differently influence dietary behaviours and food security in socio-economically disadvantaged populations in the UK and Australia suggests continued efforts need to be made to ensure that interventions and policy responses are informed by the best available local evidence.

  7. Common mental health problems in historically disadvantaged urban and rural communities in South Africa: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Havenaar, Juhan M; Geerlings, Mirjan I; Vivian, Lauraine; Collinson, Marh; Robertson, Brian

    2008-03-01

    This paper reports on an epidemiological study of common mental health and substance abuse problems in a historically disadvantaged urban and rural community in South Africa. In the rural Limpopo Province of South Africa, and in a peri-urban township near Cape Town, self-report instruments were used in two random population samples and among respondents at primary care and traditional healer settings, to assess common mental health problems, substance abuse problems and associated problems in social functioning. A high prevalence of mental health and substance abuse problems was observed in both communities, with highest rates in the peri-urban township. Even higher prevalences were found among respondents at primary health care or traditional healers. The study shows that mental health and substance abuse problems constitute a considerable burden of disease among disadvantaged communities in South Africa. The study further underscores the integral role of traditional healers in the mental health care system.

  8. Do family factors protect against sexual risk behaviour and teenage pregnancy among multiply disadvantaged young people? Findings from an English longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Bonell, Chris; Wiggins, Meg; Fletcher, Adam; Allen, Elizabeth

    2014-07-01

    Background Structure and parenting within family of origin have been found to be determinants of sexual risk and teenage pregnancy in the general youth population. Few studies have examined determinants of sexual risk among disadvantaged young people; those that do have not examined teenage pregnancy outcomes. Longitudinal data from a cohort of multiply disadvantaged at-risk young people aged 13-15 years living in deprived neighbourhoods in England (n=1285) were analysed to examine how family structure, communication with parents and parental interest in education were associated with heterosexual debut, contraception use, expectation of teenage pregnancy and teenage pregnancy. At follow-up, young women living with both biological parents were less likely than other young women to become pregnant (odds ratio (OR)=0.21, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04-0.97). Young women who could talk to their mothers about private things were less likely to expect to become a teenage parent (OR=0.61, 95% CI: 0.37-0.99). Those whose parents cared very much how they did at school were less likely to report contraception nonuse (OR=0.44, 95% CI: 0.21-0.93). After adjustment, no associations between any family factors and sexual health outcomes were found for young men. We found limited evidence for family-related effects on sexual health risk or teenage pregnancy among disadvantaged young women in England and no evidence of risk factors within the home environment for young men's outcomes. This suggests that targeted family-based interventions may not be appropriate for addressing these outcomes.

  9. Do intrapersonal factors mediate the association of social support with physical activity in young women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods? A longitudinal mediation analysis

    PubMed Central

    te Velde, Saskia J.; Abbott, Gavin; Timperio, Anna; Brug, Johannes; Ball, Kylie

    2017-01-01

    Background Levels of physical activity (PA) decrease when transitioning from adolescence into young adulthood. Evidence suggests that social support and intrapersonal factors (self-efficacy, outcome expectations, PA enjoyment) are associated with PA. The aim of the present study was to explore whether cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of social support from family and friends with leisure-time PA (LTPA) among young women living in disadvantaged areas were mediated by intrapersonal factors (PA enjoyment, outcome expectations, self-efficacy). Methods Survey data were collected from 18–30 year-old women living in disadvantaged suburbs of Victoria, Australia as part of the READI study in 2007–2008 (T0, N = 1197), with follow-up data collected in 2010–2011 (T1, N = 357) and 2012–2013 (T2, N = 271). A series of single-mediator models were tested using baseline (T0) and longitudinal data from all three time points with residual change scores for changes between measurements. Results Cross-sectional analyses showed that social support was associated with LTPA both directly and indirectly, mediated by intrapersonal factors. Each intrapersonal factor explained between 5.9–37.5% of the associations. None of the intrapersonal factors were significant mediators in the longitudinal analyses. Conclusions Results from the cross-sectional analyses suggest that the associations of social support from family and from friends with LTPA are mediated by intrapersonal factors (PA enjoyment, outcome expectations and self-efficacy). However, longitudinal analyses did not confirm these findings. PMID:28301538

  10. Predictors of Co-Occurring Risk Behavior Trajectories among Economically Disadvantaged African American Youth: Contextual and Individual Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sterrett, Emma M.; Dymnicki, Allison B.; Henry, David; Byck, Gayle; Bolland, John; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose African American youth, particularly those from low-income backgrounds, evidence high rates of negative outcomes associated with three problem behaviors, conduct problems, risky sexual behavior, and substance use. This study used a contextually-tailored version of Problem Behavior Theory (PBT) to examine predictors of the simultaneous development of problem behaviors in this specific cultural group. Methods Socio-contextual and individual variables representing four PBT predictor categories, controls protection, support protection, models risk, and vulnerability risk, were examined as predictors of co-occurring problem behaviors among economically disadvantaged African American adolescents (n = 949). Specifically, the likelihood of following three classes of multiple problem behavior trajectories spanning ages 12 to 18, labeled the “early experimenters,” “increasing high risk-takers,” and “adolescent-limited” classes, as opposed to a “normative” class was examined. Results Among other findings, controls protection in the form of a more stringent household curfew at age 12 was related to a lower likelihood of being in the “early experimenters” and “increasing high risk-takers” classes. Conversely, vulnerability risk manifested as stronger attitudes of violence inevitability was associated with a higher likelihood of being in the “early experimenters” class. However, the PBT category of support protection was not associated with risk trajectory class. More distal neighborhood-level manifestations of PBT categories also did not predict co-occurring behavior problems. Conclusion Guided by an incorporation of contextually-salient processes into PBT, prevention programs aiming to decrease co-occurring problem behaviors among low-income African American adolescents would do well to target both proximal systems and psychological constructs related to perceived security throughout adolescence. PMID:24755141

  11. Who Are the Most Disadvantaged? Factors Associated with the Achievement of Students with Low Socio-Economic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellibas, Mehmet Sükrü

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and student achievement has been prevalent in the literature, yet research focusing on the association between factors and the achievement of school populations with distinct categories of SES is limited. The purpose of the present study was to investigate various relevant student,…

  12. A Multiple Risk Factors Model of the Development of Aggression among Early Adolescents from Urban Disadvantaged Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sangwon; Orpinas, Pamela; Kamphaus, Randy; Kelder, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    This study empirically derived a multiple risk factors model of the development of aggression among middle school students in urban, low-income neighborhoods, using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM). Results indicated that aggression increased from sixth to eighth grade. Additionally, the influences of four risk domains (individual, family,…

  13. Depression and Social Context: Primary Supporter Relationship Factors Associated with Depressive Symptoms among a Disadvantaged Population with HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlton, Amy R.; Curry, Aaron; Hua, Wei; Wissow, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Social support is associated with better health outcomes among chronically ill individuals, yet support receipt can be stressful. The study examined supporter relationship factors, among n = 156 main-supporter-HIV+support-recipient dyads, associated with recipient's depression (CES-D greater than or equal to 16). Results indicated that support…

  14. Depression and Social Context: Primary Supporter Relationship Factors Associated with Depressive Symptoms among a Disadvantaged Population with HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlton, Amy R.; Curry, Aaron; Hua, Wei; Wissow, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Social support is associated with better health outcomes among chronically ill individuals, yet support receipt can be stressful. The study examined supporter relationship factors, among n = 156 main-supporter-HIV+support-recipient dyads, associated with recipient's depression (CES-D greater than or equal to 16). Results indicated that support…

  15. A Multiple Risk Factors Model of the Development of Aggression among Early Adolescents from Urban Disadvantaged Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sangwon; Orpinas, Pamela; Kamphaus, Randy; Kelder, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    This study empirically derived a multiple risk factors model of the development of aggression among middle school students in urban, low-income neighborhoods, using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM). Results indicated that aggression increased from sixth to eighth grade. Additionally, the influences of four risk domains (individual, family,…

  16. Multilevel risk factors and developmental assets for internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in disadvantaged adolescents: modeling longitudinal trajectories from the Rural Adaptation Project.

    PubMed

    Smokowski, Paul R; Guo, Shenyang; Rose, Roderick; Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L; Bacallao, Martica

    2014-11-01

    The current study filled significant gaps in our knowledge of developmental psychopathology by examining the influence of multilevel risk factors and developmental assets on longitudinal trajectories of internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in an exceptionally culturally diverse sample of rural adolescents. Integrating ecological and social capital theories, we explored if positive microsystem transactions are associated with self-esteem while negative microsystem transactions increase the chances of internalizing problems. Data came from the Rural Adaptation Project, a 5-year longitudinal panel study of more than 4,000 middle school students from 28 public schools in two rural, disadvantaged counties in North Carolina. Three-level hierarchical linear modeling models were estimated to predict internalizing symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety) and self-esteem. Relative to other students, risk for internalizing problems and low self-esteem was elevated for aggressive adolescents, students who were hassled or bullied at school, and those who were rejected by peers or in conflict with their parents. Internalizing problems were also more common among adolescents from socioeconomically disadvantaged families and neighborhoods, among those in schools with more suspensions, in students who reported being pressured by peers, and in youth who required more teacher support. It is likely that these experiences left adolescents disengaged from developing social capital from ecological microsystems (e.g., family, school, peers). On the positive side, support from parents and friends and optimism about the future were key assets associated with lower internalizing symptoms and higher self-esteem. Self-esteem was also positively related to religious orientation, school satisfaction, and future optimism. These variables show active engagement with ecological microsystems. The implications and limitations were discussed.

  17. Primary Prevention Strategies for Disadvantaged Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhauer, Paul D.

    Primary prevention strategies (prevention at the community level) for disadvantaged populations are discussed. A number of factors in Canadian society have placed additional stress on many poor and working class families. These include issues of housing, unemployment, lack of education, and social changes with adverse effects on the disadvantaged.…

  18. TEACHING THE DISADVANTAGED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston Independent School District, TX.

    GUIDELINES FOR TEACHING AND UNDERSTANDING THE DISADVANTAGED CHILD ARE PRESENTED IN THIS REPORT. SPECIFICALLY DISCUSSED ARE THE PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DISADVANTAGED CHILD, MOTIVATION AND REINFORCEMENT TECHNIQUES, AND TECHNIQUES FOR INSTRUCTING PUPILS IN LANGUAGE ARTS, SOCIAL SCIENCE, SCIENCE, AND MATHEMATICS. THE DUTIES…

  19. Disadvantaged Services. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spewock, Michael

    The purpose of this project was to continue the development and establishment of competencies to prepare teacher educators to work with vocational teachers who teach disadvantaged students. During the project, a list of competencies needed to assist teachers in working with disadvantaged students was developed, along with a list of competencies…

  20. An exploration of the complex relationship of socioecologic factors in the treatment and outcomes of acute myocardial infarction in disadvantaged populations.

    PubMed Central

    Shen, J J; Wan, T T; Perlin, J B

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship of patients' socioeconomic status (SES) as measured by race, health insurance status, and median income by zip code to in-hospital mortality of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), paying special attention to patients with multiple unfavorable socioeconomic risk factors. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: The data set was abstracted from patient-level hospital discharges in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, Release 3, 1994. A total of 95,971 AMI discharges in 11 states were extracted. STUDY DESIGN: The risk adjustment methodology was adapted from the California Hospital Outcomes Project. Risk factors included demographic and clinical characteristics. Patients in double jeopardy had inferior insurance status and lived in poorer neighborhoods. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Compared with patients with health care coverage under Medicare and private insurance uninsured AMI patients had the highest risk-adjusted mortality odds and Medicaid AMI patients had the second highest odds. Probably because of the modest association of median income by zip code areas with mortality odds, the double jeopardy phenomenon was not observed. However, compared to patients who had two favorable SES attributes, patients who carried two unfavorable SES attributes had much higher mortality risk, more comorbidities, longer length of stay, and higher total hospital charges, while they received fewer AMI specialized procedures. Race did not seem to be a significant factor after adjustment for other SES attributes. CONCLUSIONS: SES is significantly related to the mortality of AMI patients. The disadvantaged patients receive fewer specialized procedures, possibly because of their higher levels of severity and financial barriers. The variation in mortality between patients who had favorable and unfavorable SES becomes wider when multiple socioeconomic risks are borne by the latter. PMID:11508636

  1. Social Disadvantage and Crime

    PubMed Central

    Wikström, Per-Olof H.; Treiber, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we analyze the relationship between social disadvantage and crime, starting from the paradox that most persistent offenders come from disadvantaged backgrounds, but most people from disadvantaged backgrounds do not become persistent offenders. We argue that despite the fact that social disadvantage has been a key criminological topic for some time, the mechanisms which link it to offending remain poorly specified. Drawing on situational action theory, we suggest social disadvantage is linked to crime because more people from disadvantaged versus affluent backgrounds develop a high crime propensity and are exposed to criminogenic contexts, and the reason for this is that processes of social and self-selection place the former more frequently in (developmental and action) contexts conducive to the development and expression of high crime propensities. This article will explore this hypothesis through a series of analyses using data from the Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study (PADS+), a longitudinal study which uses a range of data collection methods to study the interaction between personal characteristics and social environments. It pays particular attention to the macro-to-micro processes behind the intersection of people with certain characteristics and environments with certain features – i.e., their exposure – which leads to their interaction. PMID:27524829

  2. Child Survival/Fair Start. A Look at the Factors Threatening the Survival, Health, and Cognitive Development of the World's Disadvantaged Children, and the Ford Foundation's New Program to Help These Children Get a Fair Start in Life. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    In view of the many factors threatening the survival, health, and cognitive development of the world's disadvantaged children, both in the United States and in developing countries, the Ford Foundation has begun a new program, called Child Survival/Fair Start, to improve these children's chances. In this working paper, Fair Start's overall…

  3. Family Factors Related to Competence in Young, Disadvantaged Mexican-American Children. Part of the Final Report on Head Start Evaluation and Research: 1968-69 to the Office of Economic Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedman, James M.; McKenzie, Richard E.

    As part of the continuing search for the environmental antecedents of competence in young children, this study investigated several parameters of a population of disadvantaged Mexican-American children. The factors of child competence on which this study focused were behavioral adjustment and linguistic ability. The antecedents of competence were…

  4. Diabetes and the female disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Mark; Peters, Sanne A E; Huxley, Rachel R

    2015-11-01

    We have produced compelling evidence that women are subject to a higher relative increase in their risk of coronary heart disease and stroke following a diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes. Thus, in terms of vascular risk, diabetes confers a female disadvantage. This excess risk could be due to three main factors. First, it is conceivable that this is merely a mathematical artifact caused by the relatively low background rate for cardiovascular diseases among women, compared with men. Second, it could be due to women receiving poorer care following their diagnosis of diabetes than men; for instance, due to physician bias. Third, certain underlying biological differences in women and men, most likely related to the distribution of body fat, could explain this female disadvantage.

  5. Individual, social and environmental factors influencing physical activity levels and behaviours of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged urban mothers in Canada: A mixed methods approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Existing data provide little insight into the physical activity context of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged mothers in Canada. Our primary objectives were: (1) to use focus group methodology to develop tools to identify the individual, social, and environmental factors influencing utilitarian and leisure time physical activities (LTPA) of multiethnic SED mothers; and (2) to use a women specific physical activity survey tool to assess psychosocial barriers and supports and to quantify individual physical activity (PA) levels of multi-ethnic SED mothers in Canada. Methods Qualitative focus group sessions were conducted in West, Central and Eastern Canada with multiethnic SED mothers (n = 6 focus groups; n = 42 SED mothers) and with health and recreation professionals (HRPs) (n = 5 focus groups; n = 25 HRPs) involved in community PA programming for multiethnic SED mothers. Administration of the women specific Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) tool was completed by consenting SED mothers (n = 59). Results More than half of SED mothers were employed and had higher total PA scores with occupation included than unemployed mothers. However, nearly 60% of both groups were overweight or obese. Barriers to LTPA included the lack of available, affordable and accessible LTPA programs that responded to cultural and social needs. Concerns for safety, nonsupportive cultural and social norms and the winter climate were identified as key barriers to both utilitarian and LTPA. Conclusions Findings show that multiethnic SED mothers experience many barriers to utilitarian and LTPA opportunities within their communities. The varying LTPA levels among these multi-ethnic SED mothers and the occurrence of overweight and obesity suggests that current LTPA programs are likely insufficient to maintain healthy body weights. PMID:22500882

  6. ENGLISH AND THE DISADVANTAGED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FAGAN, EDWARD R., ED.

    PART 1 OF THIS COLLECTION OF ARTICLES BY THE STAFF AND PARTICIPANTS OF AN NDEA SUMMER INSTITUTE IN ENGLISH FOR DISADVANTAGED YOUTH DESCRIBES ATTITUDES AND VIEWPOINTS ON THE PLACE OF ENGLISH IN THE DAILY LIVES OF STUDENTS AND CONTAINS ARTICLES ON "ENGLISH FOR WHAT" BY CHARLES WEINGARTNER, "ENGLISH TEACHING AND DROP-OUTS" AND…

  7. Schools and Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Emma

    2011-01-01

    The three books reviewed in this essay all have a similar theme: the role that schools and other institutions can play in improving the life-chances of young people and breaking the cycle of socio-economic disadvantage and low educational attainment that is characteristic of school systems around the world. Through an evaluation of the Academies…

  8. Reconnecting Disadvantaged Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzer, Harry; Edelman, Peter; Offner, Paul

    2006-01-01

    By several recent counts, the United States is home to 2 to 3 million youth age 16 through 24 who are out of school and out of work. Much has been written on disadvantaged youth, and government policy has gone through many incarnations, yet questions remain unanswered. Why are so many young people "disconnected," and what can public policy do…

  9. Reconnecting Disadvantaged Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzer, Harry; Edelman, Peter; Offner, Paul

    2006-01-01

    By several recent counts, the United States is home to 2 to 3 million youth age 16 through 24 who are out of school and out of work. Much has been written on disadvantaged youth, and government policy has gone through many incarnations, yet questions remain unanswered. Why are so many young people "disconnected," and what can public policy do…

  10. ENGLISH AND THE DISADVANTAGED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FAGAN, EDWARD R., ED.

    PART 1 OF THIS COLLECTION OF ARTICLES BY THE STAFF AND PARTICIPANTS OF AN NDEA SUMMER INSTITUTE IN ENGLISH FOR DISADVANTAGED YOUTH DESCRIBES ATTITUDES AND VIEWPOINTS ON THE PLACE OF ENGLISH IN THE DAILY LIVES OF STUDENTS AND CONTAINS ARTICLES ON "ENGLISH FOR WHAT" BY CHARLES WEINGARTNER, "ENGLISH TEACHING AND DROP-OUTS" AND…

  11. Education and the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melby, Ernest O.

    This conference paper argues that if schools are to meet the needs of a changing society, and if disadvantaged children are to learn effectively, the objectives and practices of the current educational system must be modified. To individualize the educational program, grade levels and the marking system must be abolished. Innovative curriculums…

  12. Conference on Bio-Social Factors in the Development and Learning of Disadvantaged Children. Conference Proceedings (Syracuse, New York, April 19-21, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeshiva Univ., New York, NY. Ferkauf Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences.

    These conference proceedings contain two major papers. The paper by Susan S. Stodolsky and Gerald S. Lesser, "Learning Patterns in the Disadvantaged," reports a study of effects of social class and ethnic group influences on levels and patterns of mental ability. Scores for verbal ability, reasoning, number facility, and space conceptualization of…

  13. Theme: Teaching Academically Disadvantaged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iverson, Maynard J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Will We Serve the Academically Disadvantaged?" (Iverson); "Using Centers of Learning to Reach Academically Disadvantaged Students" (Gentry); "Georgia's Special Lamb Project Adoption Program" (Farmer); "Teacher Expectations" (Powers); "Providing Instruction for Special Populations" (Jewell); and "The Educational Reform Movement and…

  14. Cumulative social disadvantage and child health.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Laurie J; Silver, Ellen J; Stein, Ruth E K

    2006-04-01

    Disparities in child health are a major public health concern. However, it is unclear whether these are predominantly the result of low income, race, or other social risk factors that may contribute to their health disadvantage. Although others have examined the effects of the accumulation of risk factors, this methodology has not been applied to child health. We tested 4 social risk factors (poverty, minority race/ethnicity, low parental education, and not living with both biological parents) to assess whether they have cumulative effects on child health and examined whether access to health care reduced health disparities. We analyzed data on 57,553 children <18 years from the 1994 and 1995 National Health Interview Survey Disability Supplement. Of the 4 risk factors, 3 (poverty, low parental education, and single-parent household) were consistently associated with child health. These were summed, generating the Social Disadvantage Index (range: 0-3). A total of 43.6% of children had no social disadvantages, 30.8% had 1, 15.6% had 2, and 10.0% had all 3. Compared with those with no social disadvantages, the odds ratios (ORs) of being in "good, fair, or poor health" (versus "excellent or very good") were 1.95 for 1 risk, 3.22 for 2 risks, and 4.06 for 3 risks. ORs of having a chronic condition increased from 1.25 (1 risk) to 1.60 (2 risks) to 2.11 (3 risks). ORs for activity limitation were 1.51 (1 risk) to 2.14 (2 risks) and 2.88 (3 risks). Controlling for health insurance did not affect these findings. The accumulation of social disadvantage among children was strongly associated with poorer child health and having insurance did not reduce the observed health disparities.

  15. 48 CFR 1519.204 - Small disadvantaged business participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Small disadvantaged business participation. 1519.204 Section 1519.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL....219-74, Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Evaluation Factor, (and assign a value to it), or...

  16. Knowing and Understanding the Socially Disadvantaged Ethnic Minority Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Staten W.

    This collection of essays deals with those ethnic minority groups which can be classified as being among the socially disadvantaged in America. Here, the socially disadvantaged are described as persons or groups whose chances for the complete maximization of their talents or potentials are limited by societal factors related to poverty and/or…

  17. Creating an Effective Learning Environment for Disadvantaged Adult Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Frank

    Attention to the quality of the learning environment (both the physical and human dimensions) is critical to positive outcomes for adult disadvantaged learners in basic education. It is necessary to understand the characteristics of the adult disadvantaged student, his/her social and cultural or ethnic background, and how these factors influence…

  18. Knowing and Understanding the Socially Disadvantaged Ethnic Minority Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Staten W.

    This collection of essays deals with those ethnic minority groups which can be classified as being among the socially disadvantaged in America. Here, the socially disadvantaged are described as persons or groups whose chances for the complete maximization of their talents or potentials are limited by societal factors related to poverty and/or…

  19. Teaching Literature to the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachner, Saul

    This dissertation proposes a strategy for teaching literature to disadvantaged students. These students are characterized by an inadequate self-concept, a lack of social skills, restricted language development, and behavior motivated by immediate needs. Most of the disadvantaged are Negroes, Puerto Ricans, Mexicans, and Appalachian whites. A…

  20. Opening Opportunities for Disadvantaged Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passow, A. Harry, Ed.

    Contents of this book include: "Urban environment in the 1970's," A. Harry Passow; "Educational strategies and the disadvantaged," S.M. Miller and Pamela Roby; "A critique of the concept of 'compensatory education,'" Basil Bernstein; "Early childhood education for the disadvantaged," Helen Robison; "Up from poverty: the price of 'making it' in a…

  1. New Schools for the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.

    This paper outlines the types of schooling programs that will build on the strengths of educationally disadvantaged students to bring them into the educational mainstream as well as to prepare them for economic, political, and social participation. Without intervention on behalf of the disadvantaged, the following results may occur: (1) a dual…

  2. Cancer in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations.

    PubMed

    Pamies, R J; Woodard, L J

    1992-09-01

    This article presents a summary of the health status of the disadvantaged populations in the United States, with specific regard to the incidence, treatment, and mortality of cancer. It begins with an historical overview of health care for the poor in this country, and continues with an explanation of the risk factors prevalent, if not inherent, in the life-style associated with low socioeconomic status, such as poor diet, cigarette smoking, and ignorance of preventive health measures and screening techniques. It includes a discussion of the different types that are overrepresented in this population and of the barriers to preventive care and treatment that still exist. The most important of these is decreased access to continuous medical care because of a lack of health insurance and an overdependence on emergency room treatment for all health care. The final section reviews solutions that have been preferred by physicians, nurses, lawmakers, public health workers, and community advocates for the poor. The most important parts of the solution are patient education for preventive health care, disease warning signs, and screening techniques and an overhaul of the present system of providing health care to ensure equal access and treatment for all members of the society.

  3. Seeing Disadvantage in Schools: Exploring Student Teachers' Perceptions of Poverty and Disadvantage Using Visual Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, M. L.; Murray, Jean

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes exploratory research into the development of innovative visual pedagogies for investigating how pre-service student-teachers articulate their views about the effects of poverty on educational attainment. Social class emerges as the strongest factor in poverty and educational disadvantage in the UK. The resulting issues are…

  4. Seeing Disadvantage in Schools: Exploring Student Teachers' Perceptions of Poverty and Disadvantage Using Visual Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, M. L.; Murray, Jean

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes exploratory research into the development of innovative visual pedagogies for investigating how pre-service student-teachers articulate their views about the effects of poverty on educational attainment. Social class emerges as the strongest factor in poverty and educational disadvantage in the UK. The resulting issues are…

  5. 13 CFR 124.104 - Who is economically disadvantaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... (b) Submission of narrative and financial information. (1) Each individual claiming economic disadvantage must describe it in a narrative statement, and must submit personal financial information. (2... diminished capital and credit opportunities, SBA will examine factors relating to the personal...

  6. 13 CFR 124.104 - Who is economically disadvantaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (b) Submission of narrative and financial information. (1) Each individual claiming economic disadvantage must describe it in a narrative statement, and must submit personal financial information. (2... diminished capital and credit opportunities, SBA will examine factors relating to the personal...

  7. 13 CFR 124.104 - Who is economically disadvantaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... (b) Submission of narrative and financial information. (1) Each individual claiming economic disadvantage must describe it in a narrative statement, and must submit personal financial information. (2... diminished capital and credit opportunities, SBA will examine factors relating to the personal...

  8. Social Disadvantage: Cause or Consequence of Impending Psychosis?

    PubMed Central

    Stilo, Simona A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: An association between social disadvantage and established psychosis is well documented in the literature, but there remains a lack of data on the social circumstances of patients before they became ill. We investigated whether social disadvantage at, and prior to, first contact with psychiatric services, is associated with psychosis. Method: We collected information on social disadvantage in childhood and adulthood from 278 cases presenting with their first episode of psychosis to the South London and Maudsley National Health Service Foundation Trust and from 226 controls recruited from the local population. Three markers of childhood social disadvantage and 3 markers of disadvantage in adulthood were analyzed. Results: Long term separation from, and death of, a parent before the age of 17 years were both strongly associated with a 2- to 3-fold-increased odds of psychosis. Cases were also significantly more likely to report 2 or more markers of adult social disadvantage than healthy controls (OR = 9.03) at the time of the first presentation with psychosis, independent of a number of confounders. When we repeated these analyses for long-standing adult social disadvantage, we found that the strength of the association decreased but still remained significant for 1 year (OR = 5.67) and 5 years (OR = 2.57) prior to the first contact. Conclusions: Social disadvantage indexes exposure to factors operating prior to onset that increase the risk of psychosis, both during childhood and adulthood. PMID:23091267

  9. Demography of Disadvantage in Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lewis W., Comp.; And Others

    In this report, demography conceptualizes significant characteristics to serve as a basis for more intensive study, planning, and procedures focusing on the target group. A compilation of the latest reports available and primarily tabular in form, identifies and locates Tennessee's disadvantaged people, ranking the 95 counties on each of 8…

  10. Free Schools and Disadvantaged Intakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The Free Schools policy in England has led to the opening of a number of new autonomous state-funded schools. This article uses data from the Annual Schools Census to present the proportions of socioeconomically disadvantaged children attending the first three waves of these schools. It updates and builds on previous work that focused on the…

  11. Early Experiences and Educational Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doll, Russell C.

    1973-01-01

    Identifies stages in a child's life (particularly low-income children) at which he might be "disadvantaged" or "advantaged" in relation to certain influences in his life at that time, and argues that the child experiences the most critical influences before the school receives him.

  12. Free Schools and Disadvantaged Intakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The Free Schools policy in England has led to the opening of a number of new autonomous state-funded schools. This article uses data from the Annual Schools Census to present the proportions of socioeconomically disadvantaged children attending the first three waves of these schools. It updates and builds on previous work that focused on the…

  13. The Disadvantaged: Challenge to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fantini, Mario D.; Weinstein, Gerald

    The major thesis of this new approach to pedagogy is that through an understanding of the problems of disadvantaged children the educational problems of all children will be better understood. The functionalism of John Dewey has been brought up to date in this book through the propositions that curriculum should move from the remote to the…

  14. Motivational Dynamics of Disadvantaged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinman, Suki; Bolton, Brian

    1980-01-01

    A study of disadvantaged women showed they exhibited submissiveness, depressed motivation, poor self esteem, but positive work attitudes. Black, less intelligent, and less educated women were less positive toward work and more externally oriented. Counseling procedures should be based on a differentiation between diminished and initial lack of…

  15. Instructional Resources for Disadvantaged Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard W.

    Criteria and suggestions for the development and selection of instructional materials for culturally disadvantaged youth are discussed from the point of view of the textbook publisher. Materials should be educationally valid (any subject can be taught intellectually and honestly to a child), should teach fundamental concepts, and should suggest…

  16. BOARDING SCHOOLS FOR THE DISADVANTAGED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CLATWORTHY, F. JAMES

    SUGGESTED IS THE ESTABLISHMENT OF PUBLIC ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY BOARDING SCHOOLS FOR URBAN DISADVANTAGED AND DISTURBED OR DELINQUENT CHILDREN. THE INSTITUTIONAL FAMILY LIFE OF RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS CAN OFFER THESE CHILDREN AN ESCAPE FROM THE DESTRUCTIVE ENVIRONMENT OF THE URBAN GHETTO. MOREOVER, URBAN SCHOOLS SHOULD INSTITUTE SUMMER PROGRAMS OUT…

  17. Social disadvantage and network turnover.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that socially disadvantaged groups--especially African Americans and people of low socioeconomic status (SES)--experience more unstable social environments. I argue that this causes higher rates of turnover within their personal social networks. This is a particularly important issue among disadvantaged older adults, who may benefit from stable networks. This article, therefore, examines whether social disadvantage is related to various aspects of personal network change. Social network change was assessed using longitudinal egocentric network data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, a study of older adults conducted between 2005 and 2011. Data collection in Wave 2 included a technique for comparing respondents' confidant network rosters between waves. Rates of network losses, deaths, and additions were modeled using multivariate Poisson regression. African Americans and low-SES individuals lost more confidants--especially due to death--than did whites and college-educated respondents. African Americans also added more confidants than whites. However, neither African Americans nor low-SES individuals were able to match confidant losses with new additions to the extent that others did, resulting in higher levels of confidant network shrinkage. These trends are partly, but not entirely, explained by disadvantaged individuals' poorer health and their greater risk of widowhood or marital dissolution. Additional work is needed to shed light on the role played by race- and class-based segregation on group differences in social network turnover. Social gerontologists should examine the role these differences play in explaining the link between social disadvantage and important outcomes in later life, such as health decline. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Social Disadvantage and Network Turnover

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Research shows that socially disadvantaged groups—especially African Americans and people of low socioeconomic status (SES)—experience more unstable social environments. I argue that this causes higher rates of turnover within their personal social networks. This is a particularly important issue among disadvantaged older adults, who may benefit from stable networks. This article, therefore, examines whether social disadvantage is related to various aspects of personal network change. Method. Social network change was assessed using longitudinal egocentric network data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, a study of older adults conducted between 2005 and 2011. Data collection in Wave 2 included a technique for comparing respondents’ confidant network rosters between waves. Rates of network losses, deaths, and additions were modeled using multivariate Poisson regression. Results. African Americans and low-SES individuals lost more confidants—especially due to death—than did whites and college-educated respondents. African Americans also added more confidants than whites. However, neither African Americans nor low-SES individuals were able to match confidant losses with new additions to the extent that others did, resulting in higher levels of confidant network shrinkage. These trends are partly, but not entirely, explained by disadvantaged individuals’ poorer health and their greater risk of widowhood or marital dissolution. Discussion. Additional work is needed to shed light on the role played by race- and class-based segregation on group differences in social network turnover. Social gerontologists should examine the role these differences play in explaining the link between social disadvantage and important outcomes in later life, such as health decline. PMID:24997286

  19. The Physiological Expression of Living in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods for Youth

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Allison B.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the consequences of chronic exposure to stressors extend beyond psychological effects, and that adolescents living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighborhoods may experience an accumulation of exposure to stressors that wears down the physical systems in the body, resulting in hyper-activation of the stress response. This research examines the relationship between exposure to neighborhood stressors and salivary cortisol reactivity in a sample of 163 at-risk African American adolescents (average age 21; 50% female) living in disadvantaged urban neighborhoods. More specifically, the relationship between neighborhood stressors and physiological stress, measured by baseline cortisol and cortisol reactivity is assessed. This research also examines several moderating pathways between exposure to neighborhood disadvantage and cortisol reactivity including substance use, high effort coping, psychological stress and social support. Results indicate that both individual and neighborhood-level factors influence adolescent cortisol. High effort coping and psychological stress were associated with cortisol in the sample, and exposure to neighborhood socio-economic disadvantage resulted in an atypical cortisol response. In addition, neighborhood disadvantage interacted with intra- and interpersonal factors to affect cortisol indirectly. Thus, living in disadvantaged neighborhoods may take a psychological and physiological toll on adolescents, and it also may exert synergistic effects through individual coping and vulnerabilities. PMID:23086016

  20. Young Disadvantaged Men as Fathers

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Lawrence M.; Langton, Callie

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the existing literature on young disadvantaged fathers’ involvement with children. It first outlines the predominant theoretical perspectives regarding father involvement among resident (married and cohabiting) biological fathers, resident social fathers (unrelated romantic partners of children’s mothers), and nonresident biological fathers. Second, it presents a brief discussion of the ways in which fathers contribute to childrearing. Third, it describes the socioeconomic characteristics of men who enter fatherhood at a young age, highlighting that they tend to be socioeconomically disadvantaged. Fourth, it reviews the empirical research on both antecedents of father involvement and patterns of involvement across father types. Finally, it describes the limitations of existing research and provides suggestions for future research and policy. PMID:21643452

  1. THE DISADVANTAGED CHILD--A PROGRAM FOR ACTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SINGER, LEON; AND OTHERS

    A LARGE NUMBER OF NEW JERSEY PUBLIC SCHOOL PUPILS ARE AFFECTED BY ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS WHICH LIMIT THEIR ASPIRATIONS AND THEIR ACHIEVEMENTS IN THE PROCESS OF EDUCATION. THREE FACTORS AFFECTING THE DISADVANTAGED CHILD ARE THAT HIS FAMILY IS ECONOMICALLY POOR, HIS HOME LIFE PROVIDES LITTLE IF ANY STIMULATION TO HIS INTELLECTUAL GROWTH, AND HE AND…

  2. EDUCATING THE DISADVANTAGED--TRENDS AND PROSPECTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRAZZIEL, WILLIAM F.

    COMPENSATORY AND DEVELOPMENTAL EDUCATION IS EMPHASIZED AS THE MAJOR MOVING FORCE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED. THE DEVELOPMENT OF DISADVANTAGED PEOPLE IS NECESSARY FOR THE CONTINUED GROWTH OF THEIR COMMUNITIES, PROGRAMS SHOULD BE DEVELOPED WHICH INVOLVE DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN AT EVERY STAGE OF THEIR GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT. TO THAT END,…

  3. Schooling Disadvantaged Children: Racing against Catastrophe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natriello, Gary; And Others

    Educating disadvantaged students will demand a national commitment to increasing the resources devoted to the task, restructuring the schools in which the disadvantaged are educated, and conducting research needed to make those schools more effective. Educationally disadvantaged students have been exposed to insufficient educational experiences in…

  4. 48 CFR 52.219-25 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Disadvantaged Status and Reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Business Participation Program-Disadvantaged Status and Reporting. 52.219-25 Section 52.219-25 Federal... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.219-25 Small Disadvantaged Business... clause: Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program—Disadvantaged Status and Reporting (APR...

  5. Identification of the Schools in Which a Considerable Proportion of the Students Come from Disadvantaged Areas. Report on Disadvantaged Schools on the Island of Montreal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depatie, Raymond; And Others

    The focus of this study was to identify schools, located on the Island of Montreal, which may be called "disadvantaged area schools", or, in other words, to identify schools in which a considerable proportion of the students come from disadvantaged areas. Three factors are discussed which are said to produce considerable difficulties in…

  6. HEALTH AND THE EDUCATION OF SOCIALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BIRCH, HERBERT G.

    THE POOR HEALTH OF THE DISADVANTAGED CHILD IS A PRIMARY VARIABLE IN HIS EDUCATIONAL FAILURE. AN EXTENSIVE REVIEW OF HEALTH STUDIES SHOWS THAT NEGROES, PUERTO RICANS, AND INDIANS SUFFER FROM THE GREATEST HEALTH PROBLEMS. THE HEALTH FACTORS WHICH THESE STUDIES FOUND TO RELATE SPECIFICALLY TO INTELLECTUAL AND EDUCATIONAL DEFICITS ARE PREMATURITY,…

  7. Within Our Reach: Breaking the Cycle of Disadvantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schorr, Lisbeth B.; Schorr, Daniel

    This book discusses issues involved in the current debate over the nature and effectiveness of anti-poverty programs, and examines the high economic and social costs of, and the risk factors involved in, cyclical poverty. The book offers suggestions to help solve the problems of cyclical poverty and chronic disadvantage by highlighting effective…

  8. Within Our Reach: Breaking the Cycle of Disadvantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schorr, Lisbeth B.; Schorr, Daniel

    This book discusses issues involved in the current debate over the nature and effectiveness of anti-poverty programs, and examines the high economic and social costs of, and the risk factors involved in, cyclical poverty. The book offers suggestions to help solve the problems of cyclical poverty and chronic disadvantage by highlighting effective…

  9. Against the Odds: Disadvantaged Students Who Succeed in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report explores the factors and conditions that could help more students succeed at school despite challenging socio-economic backgrounds. It does this by studying resilient students and what sets them apart from their less successful peers. Understanding how educational systems can support disadvantaged students and help them "beat the…

  10. Correlates of dietary resilience among socioeconomically disadvantaged adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stephens, L D A; McNaughton, S A; Crawford, D; MacFarlane, A; Ball, K

    2011-11-01

    Despite increased risk for unhealthy diets, some socioeconomically disadvantaged adolescents manage to consume a healthy diet, thereby showing 'dietary resilience'. This investigation aimed to describe the vegetable and fruit intakes of socioeconomically disadvantaged adolescents, and explore the intrapersonal, social and environmental factors associated with more favourable dietary intakes among socioeconomically disadvantaged adolescents. The present investigation draws on data from 1014 socioeconomically disadvantaged adolescents (55% girls), a sub-sample of 3264 adolescents aged 12-15 years recruited from 37 secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. The adolescents completed an online survey in 2004-2005 comprising an FFQ and questions pertaining to intrapersonal, social and environmental factors informed by the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). Frequent vegetable and fruit intake was defined as 2 times per day and 1 time per day, respectively. Approximately one-third of socioeconomically disadvantaged adolescents frequently consumed vegetables and fruit (boys, 29% and 27% respectively; girls, 29% and 36% respectively). Greater perceived importance of health, and frequently being served vegetables with dinner, were associated with frequent intakes. Friends' support for healthy eating was associated with boys' frequent vegetable intake. Less stringent adherence to family meal-time rules was associated with frequent intakes; however, the opposite was observed when girls were expected to eat all foods served. Nutrition promotion messages targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged adolescents could focus on fostering appreciation for health and providing families with strategies to increase meal-time vegetable availability. Friends could be encouraged to support healthy eating among boys. Family meal-time rules warrant further investigation.

  11. Infrastructure for Reaching Disadvantaged Consumers

    PubMed Central

    Hovenga, Evelyn J. S.; Hovel, Joe; Klotz, Jeanette; Robins, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    Both consumers and health service providers need access to up-to-date information, including patient and practice guidelines, that allows them to make decisions in partnership about individual and public health in line with the primary health care model of health service delivery. Only then is it possible for patient preferences to be considered while the health of the general population is improved. The Commonwealth Government of Australia has allocated $250 million over five years, starting July 1, 1997, to support activities and projects designed to meet a range of telecommunication needs in regional, rural, and remote Australia. This paper defines rural and remote communities, then reviews rural and remote health services, information, and telecommunication technology infrastructures and their use in Australia to establish the current state of access to information tools by rural and remote communities and rural health workers in Australia today. It is argued that a suitable telecommunication infrastructure is needed to reach disadvantaged persons in extremely remote areas and that intersectoral support is essential to build this infrastructure. In addition, education will make its utilization possible. PMID:9609497

  12. Problems and Issues in the Counseling of the Disabled Disadvantaged Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Harvey J.

    In the counseling phase which is imbedded in the global vocational rehabilitation process, the primary challenge, in dealing with the disabled disadvantaged client, is viewed as being the disadvantagement rather than the disability per se. A multitude of factors and interacting clusters of variables that influence the counseling process with these…

  13. THE DISADVANTAGED CHILD--ISSUES AND INNOVATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FROST, JOE L.; HAWKES, GLENN R.

    PART ONE OF THIS COLLECTION OF PREVIOUSLY PUBLISHED ARTICLES CONTAINS DISCUSSIONS OF THE DEFINITIONS OF "THE DISADVANTAGED" AND OF THE SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM OF POVERTY. THE ARTICLES IN PART TWO DISCUSS THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DISADVANTAGED, THE ETIOLOGY OF SCHOOL DROPOUT, A SOCIOLOGICAL VIEWPOINT ON THE EDUCATION OF CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED…

  14. HANDBOOK, TEACHING SCIENCE TO EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BINGHAM, N.E.; AND OTHERS

    DESCRIBED ARE PROCEDURES AND LABORATORY MATERIALS WHICH ARE OUTGROWTHS OF A RESEARCH PROJECT OF THE SOUTHEASTERN EDUCATION LABORATORY FOR THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE TO DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS IN GRADES 7, 8, AND 9. PART 1 DEALS WITH THE CRITERIA USED IN DEVELOPING PROCEDURES AND MATERIALS FOR USE WITH EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED. INCLUDED ARE (1) THE…

  15. Adult Education and the Disadvantaged Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Darrell; Niemi, John A.

    The concern of this study was to examine the role of education in altering the social and personal characteristics of disadvantaged adults. Data were collected through a review of the literature and have been limited mainly to research reports on remedial adult education programs. Findings showed that the disadvantaged, who are hampered by…

  16. Program for Disadvantaged Youth. Review and Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizell, M. Hayes; And Others

    This paper reviews the evolution of the Program for Disadvantaged Youth since 1988, describes its accomplishments and lessons learned, and suggests new directions for the Program to build on its experiences. The Program for Disadvantaged Youth rejects many of the stereotypes about the needs and abilities of young adolescents, many of which are the…

  17. Developing Programs for the Educationally Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passow, A. Harry, Ed.

    The 17 papers in this book are collected to offer some insights into the problems of teaching the disadvantaged. Part I contains papers on the nature of the disadvantaged child, curriculum relevant to his needs, and difficulties in evaluating compensatory education programs; Part II includes papers describing compensatory education from various…

  18. Curriculum for Disadvantaged Students in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Jack H.

    Disadvantaged students are college-age youths who are probably non-white, live in a depressed area, come from low-income families, and need special help in order to be successful in college. Courses in the undergraduate curriculum for the disadvantaged should be built around the identified needs and characteristics of the students and of the…

  19. Special Counseling for the Disadvantaged Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaple, Donald J.; Kaple, Marion Keeler

    This book is designed to aid teachers and administrators who have not had special training in counseling and who are working in educational programs for the disadvantaged adult. Subject areas discussed are: The Counselor and the Client (Duties of the Counselor; Areas of Assistance for the Client); Who Are the Disadvantaged (Characteristics of the…

  20. Promising Practices: Teaching the Disadvantaged Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miley, James F., Comp.; And Others

    Intended for teachers, the document offers 10 articles on educating the disadvantaged gifted student. Included are the following titles: "Four Promising Practices for Teaching Gifted Disadvantaged Students" (which describes a workshop with problem solving and creative expressive activities) by E. Paul Torrance; "Cultural Diversity and the…

  1. TEACHING SCIENCE TO THE DISADVANTAGED PUPIL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LISONBEE, LORENZO

    SCIENCE PROGRAMS FOR THE DISADVANTAGED HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT ARE FREQUENTLY DEFICIENT IN CONTENT, IN FACILITIES AND MATERIALS, AND IN PROPER INSTRUCTION AND TEACHER ATTITUDES. RATHER THAN A REVIEW OF HEALTH, NUTRITION, AND DISEASE, PROGRAMS FOR THE DISADVANTAGED SHOULD TEACH FUNDAMENTAL SCIENTIFIC CONCEPTS BY USING A DISCOVERY APPROACH AND…

  2. Cognitive aspects of young children's experience of economic disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Heberle, Amy E; Carter, Alice S

    2015-07-01

    Economic disadvantage is a well-studied risk factor for poorer behavioral and academic functioning in young children. Although the mechanisms by which disadvantage impacts children have long been of interest to researchers, studies to date have predominantly focused on mechanisms that are external to the child (e.g., parental depression, marital conflict). Very few studies have examined the internal, cognitive aspects of the experience of economic disadvantage, and almost none have considered how the effects of disadvantage on children's functioning might be mediated through cognitive processes. This article provides a framework for research into cognitive and social-cognitive mediators of economic disadvantage operating in early-to-middle childhood. The initial section of the article briefly reviews and summarizes the extant literature on childhood poverty and its effects. The second section reviews the evidence that preschool-aged children have the requisite cognitive abilities to recognize social inequality in their environments, to be aware of stereotypes related to social class, and to connect these social concepts to their own experience. The third section reviews and evaluates the small literature on children's appraisals, attributions, stereotypes, and perceptions of or about poverty and inequality. The fourth section defines and evaluates the literature on 2 social-cognitive processes-stereotype threat and status anxiety-that are hypothesized to mediate the effects of economic disadvantage on children's functioning. The article concludes with a series of proposed questions and hypotheses for future research, and elaborates on the potential implications of the proposed area of research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. 48 CFR 52.219-25 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Disadvantaged Status and Reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Small Disadvantaged Business Status.The Contractor shall confirm that a joint venture partner, team... Business Participation Program-Disadvantaged Status and Reporting. 52.219-25 Section 52.219-25 Federal... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.219-25 Small Disadvantaged...

  4. Childhood Social Disadvantage, Cardiometabolic Risk, and Chronic Disease in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Non, Amy L.; Rewak, Marissa; Kawachi, Ichiro; Gilman, Stephen E.; Loucks, Eric B.; Appleton, Allison A.; Román, Jorge C.; Buka, Stephen L.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2014-01-01

    Adverse social environments in early life are hypothesized to become biologically embedded during the first few years of life, with potentially far-reaching implications for health across the life course. Using prospective data from a subset of a US birth cohort, the Collaborative Perinatal Project, started in 1959–1966 (n = 566), we examined associations of social disadvantage assessed in childhood with cardiometabolic function and chronic disease status more than 40 years later (in 2005–2007). Social disadvantage was measured with an index that combined information on adverse socioeconomic and family stability factors experienced between birth and age 7 years. Cardiometabolic risk (CMR) was assessed by combining information from 8 CMR biomarkers; an index of chronic disease status was derived by assessing 8 chronic diseases. Poisson models were used to investigate associations between social disadvantage and CMR or chronic disease scores while adjusting for childhood covariates and potential pathway variables. A high level of social disadvantage was significantly associated with both higher CMR (incident rate ratio = 1.69, 95% confidence interval: 1.19, 2.39) and with a higher number of chronic diseases (incident rate ratio = 1.39, 95% confidence interval: 1.00, 1.92) in minimally adjusted models. Associations with CMR persisted even after accounting for childhood and adult covariates. PMID:24970845

  5. Culture and the Home-Field Disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Medin, Douglas; Bennis, Will; Chandler, Michael

    2010-11-01

    The home-field disadvantage refers to the disadvantage inherent in research that takes a particular cultural group as the starting point or standard for research, including cross-cultural research. We argue that home-field status is a serious handicap that often pushes researchers toward deficit thinking, however good the researchers' intentions may be. In this article, we aim to make this home-field bias more explicit and, in doing so, more avoidable. We discuss three often-overlooked disadvantages that result from this home-field status: the problem of marked versus unmarked culture, the problem of homogenous versus heterogeneous culture, and the problem of regression toward the mean. We also recommend four interventions researchers can apply to avoid the home-field disadvantage or, at the least, attenuate its deleterious effects. © The Author(s) 2010.

  6. Identification of Intellectually Able Disadvantaged Filipino Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval-Severino, Teresita

    1992-01-01

    Preschool Filipino children from disadvantaged urban communities were assessed for giftedness. This article describes the identification procedures and tools used and presents a profile of the children in terms of socioeconomic, intellectual, and personality variables. (Author/JDD)

  7. Creativity, Intelligence, and Achievement Among Disadvantaged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruininks, Robert H.; Feldman, David H.

    1970-01-01

    The major findings of the study was that Torrance's tests of creativity acted as a suppressor variable, increasing the relation between IQ and achievement among the disadvantaged children sampled. (Author)

  8. Maslow's Theories and Educating the Disadvantaged Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Jerry

    1982-01-01

    Summarizes Abraham Maslow's concepts of the organization of the personality with implications for educating the disadvantaged adult learner. Special attention is given to personality syndromes and the effect they have on the expression of behavior. (JOW)

  9. Maslow's Theories and Educating the Disadvantaged Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Jerry

    1982-01-01

    Summarizes Abraham Maslow's concepts of the organization of the personality with implications for educating the disadvantaged adult learner. Special attention is given to personality syndromes and the effect they have on the expression of behavior. (JOW)

  10. Collateral Consequences of Violence in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Harding, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from Addhealth, this study investigates the role of neighborhood violence in mediating the effects of neighborhood disadvantage on high school graduation and teenage pregnancy. Results show that neighborhood violence is a strong predictor of both outcomes, net of individual, family, community, and school controls. Neighborhood violence accounts for almost half the conditional association between neighborhood disadvantage and high school graduation among males and almost all of the association among females. Violence also accounts for about one fifth of the conditional association between disadvantage and teenage pregnancy among adolescents of both genders. Violence is a critical social characteristic of disadvantaged neighborhoods, one that explains a sizable portion of the effects of growing up in such neighborhoods. PMID:20676355

  11. Serving the Disadvantaged from the Administrative Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Marie A.

    1971-01-01

    Service to the disadvantaged can be fostered within existing institutions provided total commitment and strong administrative direction are given to: (1) organization and planning, (2) financing, (3) interagency cooperation and community relations, and (4) staffing. (15 references) (Author/NH)

  12. How does childhood economic disadvantage lead to crime?

    PubMed

    Fergusson, David; Swain-Campbell, Nicola; Horwood, John

    2004-07-01

    This study sought to examine the associations between indices of socio-economic deprivation in childhood and later involvement in crime. Data were gathered as part of the Christchurch Health and Development Study. In this project a cohort of 1,265 children born in Christchurch in 1977 have been studied from birth to age 21 years. The measures collected included: self-reported property and violent crime (15-16, 17-18, and 20-21 years); officially recorded convictions for property/violent crime; measures of childhood socio-economic status; and a series of intervening factors, including parenting (use of physical punishment, maternal care, family change, parental attachment, parental offending), individual (conduct and attention problems), school (truancy, suspensions, examination performance, scholastic ability), and peer factors (affiliations with deviant and substance using peers). The results suggest that childhood socio-economic disadvantage was associated with clear increases in rates of both self-reported crime and officially recorded convictions. However, using block recursive negative binomial regression models a range of parental, individual, school, and peer factors were found to intervene between socio-economic disadvantage and crime. Following introduction of these measures into the models, the association between socio-economic disadvantage and crime became both statistically and practically non-significant. This study suggests that the higher rates of crime found amongst young people from socio-economically disadvantaged families reflect a life course process in which adverse family, individual, school, and peer factors combine to increase individual susceptibility to crime. Copyright 2004 Association for Child Psychology and Psychiatry

  13. Social Disadvantage and Crime: A Criminological Puzzle.

    PubMed

    Wikström, Per-Olof H; Treiber, Kyle

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we analyze the relationship between social disadvantage and crime, starting from the paradox that most persistent offenders come from disadvantaged backgrounds, but most people from disadvantaged backgrounds do not become persistent offenders. We argue that despite the fact that social disadvantage has been a key criminological topic for some time, the mechanisms which link it to offending remain poorly specified. Drawing on situational action theory, we suggest social disadvantage is linked to crime because more people from disadvantaged versus affluent backgrounds develop a high crime propensity and are exposed to criminogenic contexts, and the reason for this is that processes of social and self-selection place the former more frequently in (developmental and action) contexts conducive to the development and expression of high crime propensities. This article will explore this hypothesis through a series of analyses using data from the Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study (PADS+), a longitudinal study which uses a range of data collection methods to study the interaction between personal characteristics and social environments. It pays particular attention to the macro-to-micro processes behind the intersection of people with certain characteristics and environments with certain features - i.e., their exposure - which leads to their interaction.

  14. A summer academic research experience for disadvantaged youth.

    PubMed

    Kabacoff, Cathryn; Srivastava, Vasudha; Robinson, Douglas N

    2013-01-01

    Internships are an effective way of connecting high school students in a meaningful manner to the sciences. Disadvantaged minorities have fewer opportunities to participate in internships, and are underrepresented in both science, technology, engineering, and mathematics majors and careers. We have developed a Summer Academic Research Experience (SARE) program that provides an enriching academic internship to underrepresented youth. Our program has shown that to have a successful internship for these disadvantaged youth, several issues need to be addressed in addition to scientific mentoring. We have found that it is necessary to remediate and/or fortify basic academic skills for students to be successful. In addition, students need to be actively coached in the development of professional skills, habits, and attitudes necessary for success in the workplace. With all these factors in place, these youths can become better students, compete on a more level playing field in their internships, and increase their potential of participating actively in the sciences in the future.

  15. Neighborhood disadvantage and adolescent stress reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Hackman, Daniel A.; Betancourt, Laura M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Hurt, Hallam; Farah, Martha J.

    2012-01-01

    Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with higher levels of life stress, which in turn affect stress physiology. SES is related to basal cortisol and diurnal change, but it is not clear if SES is associated with cortisol reactivity to stress. To address this question, we examined the relationship between two indices of SES, parental education and concentrated neighborhood disadvantage, and the cortisol reactivity of African–American adolescents to a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). We found that concentrated disadvantage was associated with cortisol reactivity and this relationship was moderated by gender, such that higher concentrated disadvantage predicted higher cortisol reactivity and steeper recovery in boys but not in girls. Parental education, alone or as moderated by gender, did not predict reactivity or recovery, while neither education nor concentrated disadvantage predicted estimates of baseline cortisol. This finding is consistent with animal literature showing differential vulnerability, by gender, to the effects of adverse early experience on stress regulation and the differential effects of neighborhood disadvantage in adolescent males and females. This suggests that the mechanisms underlying SES differences in brain development and particularly reactivity to environmental stressors may vary across genders. PMID:23091454

  16. Disadvantaged populations in maternal health in China who and why?

    PubMed

    Yuan, Beibei; Qian, Xu; Thomsen, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Background China has made impressive progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for maternal and reproductive health, but ensuring that progress reaches all segments of the population remains a challenge for policy makers. The aim of this review is to map disadvantaged populations in terms of maternal health in China, and to explain the causes of these inequities to promote policy action. Methods We searched PUBMED, Popline, Proquest and WanFang and included primary studies conducted in mainland China. Experts were also contacted to identify additional studies. Disadvantaged populations in terms of MDG 5 and the reasons for this disadvantage explored by authors were identified and coded based on the conceptual framework developed by the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. Results In China, differences in maternal health service utilization and the maternal mortality ratio among different income groups, and among regions with different socio-economic development still exist, although these differences are narrowing. Groups with low levels of education and ethnic minorities utilize maternal health care less frequently and experience higher maternal mortality, although we could not determine whether these differences have changed in the last decade. Rural-to-urban migrants use maternal health care and contraception to a lower extent than permanent residents of cities, and differential maternal mortality shows a widening trend among these groups. Gender inequity also contributes to the disadvantaged position of women. Intermediary factors that explain these inequities include material circumstances such as long distances to health facilities for women living in remote areas, behavioral factors such as traditional beliefs that result in reduced care seeking among ethnic minorities, and health system determinants such as out-of-pocket payments posing financial barriers for the poor. Conclusions Inequity in maternal health continues to be an

  17. Disadvantaged populations in maternal health in China who and why?

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Beibei; Qian, Xu; Thomsen, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Background China has made impressive progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for maternal and reproductive health, but ensuring that progress reaches all segments of the population remains a challenge for policy makers. The aim of this review is to map disadvantaged populations in terms of maternal health in China, and to explain the causes of these inequities to promote policy action. Methods We searched PUBMED, Popline, Proquest and WanFang and included primary studies conducted in mainland China. Experts were also contacted to identify additional studies. Disadvantaged populations in terms of MDG 5 and the reasons for this disadvantage explored by authors were identified and coded based on the conceptual framework developed by the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. Results In China, differences in maternal health service utilization and the maternal mortality ratio among different income groups, and among regions with different socio-economic development still exist, although these differences are narrowing. Groups with low levels of education and ethnic minorities utilize maternal health care less frequently and experience higher maternal mortality, although we could not determine whether these differences have changed in the last decade. Rural-to-urban migrants use maternal health care and contraception to a lower extent than permanent residents of cities, and differential maternal mortality shows a widening trend among these groups. Gender inequity also contributes to the disadvantaged position of women. Intermediary factors that explain these inequities include material circumstances such as long distances to health facilities for women living in remote areas, behavioral factors such as traditional beliefs that result in reduced care seeking among ethnic minorities, and health system determinants such as out-of-pocket payments posing financial barriers for the poor. Conclusions Inequity in maternal health continues to be an

  18. Teaching the Disadvantaged: A Curriculum Guide for Classes of Disadvantaged Students in Agricultural Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crunkilton, John R.

    The guide begins with some observations on teaching disadvantaged students, a list of successful types of learning activities, and recommendations for planning and conducting an effective classroom situation. Also included are 13 general objectives of a program for the disadvantaged. The guide, intended as a source of ideas and directions in…

  19. The Effect of Three Reinforcement Systems on Spelling Achievement Among Disadvantaged and Non-Disadvantaged Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quick, Custer R., Jr.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relative effectiveness of three different types of reinforcement strategies on spelling achievement among a sample of disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged fourth grade public school pupils. The three reinforcement strategies employed involved a concrete reward (candy), a token or symbolic reward…

  20. Advantage: Disadvantaged Gifted. Presentations from the Third National Conference on Disadvantaged Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivlin, Harry N.; And Others

    The presentations in this volume deal with various aspects of education for the gifted disadvantaged. Maija Blaubergs describes disadvantages experienced by gifted and talented girls in obtaining access to opportunities for achievement congruent with their potentialities. Some of the topics examined are sexist barriers, marriage, institutional and…

  1. A bilingual disadvantage in metacognitive processing.

    PubMed

    Folke, Tomas; Ouzia, Julia; Bright, Peter; De Martino, Benedetto; Filippi, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Recent research indicating that bilingualism is associated with enhanced executive function suggests that this enhancement may operate within a broader spectrum of cognitive abilities than previously thought (e.g., Stocco & Prat, 2014). In this study, we focus on metacognition or the ability to evaluate one's own cognitive performance (Flavell, 1979). Over the course of two experiments, we presented young healthy adult monolinguals and bilinguals with a perceptual two-alternative-forced-choice task followed by confidence judgements. Results from both experiments indicated that bilingual participants showed a disadvantage in metacognitive efficiency, determined through the calculation of Mratio (Maniscalco & Lau, 2014). Our findings provide novel insight into the potential differences in bilingual and monolingual cognition, which may indicate a bilingual disadvantage. Results are discussed with reference to the balance of advantages versus disadvantages associated with multilanguage learning. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Area-level disadvantage and alcohol use disorder in northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Ricardo; Benjet, Corina; Ruiz Velasco-Acosta, Silvia; Moreno Altamirano, Laura; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Zemore, Sarah; Cherpitel, Cheryl; Borges, Guilherme

    2017-06-01

    In Mexico, the Northern States are highly impacted by alcohol consumption and associated problems. Little is known about the association between contextual social disadvantage and alcohol use disorder in this region. Information from 1265 current drinkers surveyed in the U.S.-Mexico Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions (UMSARC) was combined with official data on neighborhood disadvantage (index of urban marginalization, a composite of ten indicators of area-level social disadvantage) for 302 neighborhoods. Using statistical marginal models, we estimated the association of neighborhood disadvantage with alcohol use disorder (AUD; based on DSM-5 criteria), alone and with adjustment for individual and contextual covariates. We also tested for moderation of neighborhood disadvantage effects by sex, education, internal migration and border area. There was a statistically significant increase in the odds of AUD of 59% (AOR=1.59; 95%CI=1.03, 2.46) for every one-point increase on the neighborhood disadvantage scale, after adjustment for covariates. A significant interaction between sex and neighborhood disadvantage was indicated by two measures of additive interaction (AP=0.55; p<0.001 and S=2.55; p<0.001), with higher neighborhood disadvantage related to higher prevalence of AUD for men but not for women. No moderation effects were observed for education, internal migration or border area. Neighborhood disadvantage is a risk factor for AUD independent of other variables, specifically in men. Studies of contextual variables offer the possibility for understanding the role of collective circumstances on individuals in society. Future studies of alcohol use in this geographic area should consider effects of contextual determinants such as disadvantage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Quality of health care for the disadvantaged.

    PubMed

    Brook, R H; Williams, K N

    1975-01-01

    Literature review points out that: (a) differentials in health status between the disadvantaged and the nondisadvantaged persist, often to a large degree; (b) differentials in the overall amount of care received are less striking now than heretofore, but standardization by level of need demonstrates measurable discrepancies in health services provided to the disadvantaged compared with the nondisadvantaged; (c) the quality of health care for the disadvantaged is not strikingly poorer than care for the nondisadvantaged, but, in view of demonstrable shortcomings in the quality of health care in general, this is not viewed as a positive statement; and (d) attempts to improve quality of care for the disadvantaged have not had the hoped-for impact. Four new avenues are suggested for possible further research; increased patient responsibility, increased consumer knowledge, financial accountability, and quality assurance activities. Because of the likelihood of only marginal changes in health status, rigorous evaluation of any experimental program is emphasized. During the last decade, many attempts have been made by private and governmental bodies to improve the health of the American people. In general, these efforts have focused on improving the health of members of disadvantaged groups and have included such diverse activities as building OEO health centers, developing maternal and infant care programs, and financing care for the elderly. During the last few years, a different movement, concerned with assuring high quality care for all people, has produced efforts such as quality assurance activities in health maintenance organizations, the Professional Standards Review Organization program, and the medical care evaluation program of the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Hospitals. Consideration of these two issues, i.e., improving the health of disadvantaged groups and improving the quality of care for all people, has led to two policy-relevant questions: "Can

  4. 48 CFR 719.272 - Small disadvantaged business policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Small disadvantaged... DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.272 Small disadvantaged business... subcontracting with small disadvantaged businesses and other disadvantaged enterprises based on provisions of...

  5. Breastfeeding experiences of mothers from disadvantaged groups: a review.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, Elizabeth; Hughes, Mark

    2010-07-01

    Despite the World Health Organization promoting breastfeeding as the optimal feeding method for infants, the breastfeeding initiation rates within these disadvantaged groups' remains low. It is important to identify the factors that prevent these groups from initiating and establishing successful breastfeeding. This review aims to identify the breastfeeding experiences of teenage mothers and mothers from low income groups. Qualitative research papers were identified using electronic and manual searches by following a systematic methodology. Nine relevant articles were critically analysed using a qualitative Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool. Coding of the nine papers generated six themes. The benefits of breastfeeding known to these mothers were often superseded by the perceived barriers of breastfeeding, while the decision to breastfeed was frequently influenced by their social support network and prior exposure to breastfeeding. Disadvantaged mothers may require extra input and support to overcome any problems associated with breastfeeding. Developing healthcare professionals' capabilities to educate these disadvantaged groups, their social networks and the public about breastfeeding is crucial if it is to become established within our society.

  6. Young smokers' narratives: public health, disadvantage and structural violence.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Sue; Russell, Andrew

    2013-06-01

    This research article on youth smoking in disadvantaged communities is the product of a qualitative study to understand the issues faced by young smokers--and those trying not to be smokers--in such communities. Environmental factors and peer influence are widely recognised influences on adolescents' take-up and continuation of smoking but less is known about whether, what, how and why circumstances in disadvantaged communities affect young people's pathways towards and away from smoking. Focusing on a youth club in a disadvantaged neighbourhood in the North East of England, narratives about young people's relationships with tobacco provide an ethnographically rich, thick description of the experiences of a group that is too often easily ignored. We argue that young people are caught between competing domains that together exert a form of structural violence. These are, first, the economic and political structures that have overseen de-industrialisation; second, the media structures that create desire for what they cannot afford; third the structures of international organised crime that conspire to provide them with the means to consume from which 'legitimate' structures effectively exclude them. Rather than expecting young people to comply with the health imperative, interventions need to bridge issues of agency and critical consciousness, which structural violence otherwise insidiously erodes. © 2013 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Technology and the Education of the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, John Henry

    Educational intervention programs involving disadvantaged children have not sufficiently succeeded in the remediation of their academic deficiencies. Gains made appear to be very short term and generally unimpressive. Accepting the assumption that the deficiencies are not genetic, one is led to suspect the adequacy of the educational system.…

  8. Technology and the Education of the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, John Henry

    To use devices aimed at combating our major educational problems with the disadvantaged, we need criteria based upon learning theory which will reveal for each of the types of media their competetively established efficiency. In the meantime, in the areas of greatest educational need, we need technology that involves many senses; permits the…

  9. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Reliance on the Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaible, Lonnie M.; Hughes, Lorine A.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary theories suggest that, due to limited access and generalized distrust, residents of disadvantaged neighborhoods are relatively unlikely to report matters to police. Although existing studies reveal few ecological differences in crime reporting, findings may be limited to victim/offense subsets represented in aggregated victimization…

  10. Teaching English to Disadvantaged High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zilliax, John

    1968-01-01

    Removing a disadvantaged student from his environment and giving him the advantages of a middle-class education may be a mixed blessing for him educationally. Yet many compensatory summer programs, including Project ABC (A Better Chance) at Carleton College (Minnesota), appear to have caused no deleterious effects. The summer programs are intended…

  11. 101 BOOKS FOR TEACHING THE DISADVANTAGED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ORNSTEIN, ALLAN C.

    AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF 101 BOOKS SUITABLE FOR TEACHING URBAN DISADVANTAGED NEGRO AND PUERTO RICAN CHILDREN IS PRESENTED. THE BOOKS REFLECT THE ROLE AND CONTRIBUTION OF THE NEGRO AND PUERTO RICAN IN OUR HISTORY, ENHANCE THE ESSENTIAL DIGNITY AND INTEGRITY OF MINORITIES, PROVIDE APPRECIATION AND UNDERSTANDING OF MINORITIES, AND PROMOTE…

  12. Deposit Collections for Disadvantaged Adults. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawles, Beverly

    One of a series on library services to disadvantaged adults, this guide explains the use of deposit collections, small library collections placed in easily accessible locations. A collection of materials in a familiar place is one way to make information available to people who don't visit the library and to encourage them to come. The library…

  13. Collateral Consequences of Violence in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from Add Health, this study investigates the role of neighborhood violence in mediating the effects of neighborhood disadvantage on high school graduation and teenage pregnancy. Results show that neighborhood violence is a strong predictor of both outcomes, net of individual, family, community and school controls. Neighborhood violence…

  14. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Variations in Blood Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cathorall, Michelle L.; Xin, Huaibo; Peachey, Andrew; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Schulz, Mark; Aronson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage accounts for variation in blood pressure. Methods: Demographic, biometric, and self-reported data from 19,261 health screenings were used. Addresses of participants were geocoded and located within census block groups (n = 14,510, 75.3%). Three hierarchical linear models were…

  15. How Children from Disadvantaged Areas Keep Safe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Katrina M.; Hill, Malcolm; Stafford, Anne; Walker, Moira

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The paper sets out to describe how children from disadvantaged areas perceive their communities and actively negotiate threats in their lives. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 60 interviews and 16 discussions groups were held with 8 to 14-year-olds sampled from four deprived communities located in the West of Scotland. Participants…

  16. Mentoring Disadvantaged Gifted Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    In spite of increasing amounts of attention given to mentoring in recent years, it appears that the disadvantaged child is not being mentored, and that his or her educational needs are not being addressed. Some possible reasons why so little mentoring of minority students occurs, or reasons why so little is heard about what does occur, are…

  17. Students' Perception of Live Lectures' Inherent Disadvantages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrovic, Juraj; Pale, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to provide insight into various properties of live lectures from the perspective of sophomore engineering students. In an anonymous online survey conducted at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb, we investigated students' opinions regarding lecture attendance, inherent disadvantages of live…

  18. How Children from Disadvantaged Areas Keep Safe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Katrina M.; Hill, Malcolm; Stafford, Anne; Walker, Moira

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The paper sets out to describe how children from disadvantaged areas perceive their communities and actively negotiate threats in their lives. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 60 interviews and 16 discussions groups were held with 8 to 14-year-olds sampled from four deprived communities located in the West of Scotland. Participants…

  19. IMPROVING THE READING LEVEL OF DISADVANTAGED ADULTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCKEE, JOHN M.; AND OTHERS

    TO HELP DISADVANTAGED INMATES WITH LOW READING LEVELS AND THOSE CONSIDERED FUNCTIONALLY ILLITERATE, THE DRAPER CORRECTIONAL CENTER IN ALABAMA EXPERIMENTED WITH VARIOUS READING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMS. MOST SUCCESSFUL WAS THE READING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM USING THE PERCEPTOSCOPE. ALL APPLICANTS WHO SCORED BELOW THE SEVENTH GRADE READING LEVEL IN THE…

  20. Children Rectify Inequalities for Disadvantaged Groups

    PubMed Central

    Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Children’s decisions regarding the allocation of societal resources in the context of preexisting inequalities were investigated. African-American and European-American children ages 5–6 years (n = 91) and 10–11 years (n = 94) judged the acceptability of a medical resource inequality on the basis of race, allocated medical supplies, evaluated different resource allocation strategies, and completed a measure of status awareness based on race. With age, children were increasingly aware of wealth status disparities between African-Americans and European-Americans, and judged a medical resource inequality between groups more negatively. Further, with age, children rectified the resource inequality over perpetuating it, but only when African-American children were disadvantaged. With age, children also referenced rights when reasoning about their judgments concerning the disadvantaged African-American group. When European-American children were disadvantaged, children did not systematically allocate more resources to one group over another. The results are discussed in terms of social inequalities, disadvantaged status, moral judgments, and intergroup attitudes. PMID:27455190

  1. The New CETA Targets the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashian, J. T.

    1978-01-01

    Summaries of eight titles of the reauthorized (for fiscal years 1979 through 1982) Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of 1973 (CETA) are presented and discussed. The new CETA will serve, essentially, to increase the earned income of the economically disadvantaged. (MF)

  2. School Effectiveness and the Disadvantaged Schools Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Allan; Murphy, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    The Disadvantaged Schools Program (DSP) has been an important and integral part of education for many Australian students for over a decade. After reviewing eight school effectiveness variables, this paper argues that adding a new emphasis on academic success and cognitive skills will enhance the DSP program. Includes 3 tables and 20 references.…

  3. Colombia: Educating the Most Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luschei, Thomas F.; Vega, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The United States has long struggled with the challenge of educating children experiencing extreme disadvantage, including the poor, ethnic and racial minorities, English language learners, and foster children. In this article, we argue that solutions to this problem lie not to the east or west, but to the south. Specifically, we offer the…

  4. Barriers to Parental Involvement for Disadvantaged Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify obstacles which prevent active participation at home and at school for economically disadvantaged families. Parental involvement has been recognized as one of the most important variables influencing student academic achievement (Henrich & Gadaire, 2008; Jeynes, 2007; Stewart, 2008). Recent history…

  5. Dialogue on the Disadvantaged. Response to Stakeholders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reingold, Janet

    In April 1994, the U.S. Department of Labor initiated a systemwide dialogue to identify ways of improving job training and employment preparation for economically disadvantaged individuals. The dialogue process was intended to help achieve broad consensus among system partners and serve as a model of ongoing communication to ensure continuous…

  6. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Reliance on the Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaible, Lonnie M.; Hughes, Lorine A.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary theories suggest that, due to limited access and generalized distrust, residents of disadvantaged neighborhoods are relatively unlikely to report matters to police. Although existing studies reveal few ecological differences in crime reporting, findings may be limited to victim/offense subsets represented in aggregated victimization…

  7. Students' Perception of Live Lectures' Inherent Disadvantages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrovic, Juraj; Pale, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to provide insight into various properties of live lectures from the perspective of sophomore engineering students. In an anonymous online survey conducted at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb, we investigated students' opinions regarding lecture attendance, inherent disadvantages of live…

  8. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Variations in Blood Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cathorall, Michelle L.; Xin, Huaibo; Peachey, Andrew; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Schulz, Mark; Aronson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage accounts for variation in blood pressure. Methods: Demographic, biometric, and self-reported data from 19,261 health screenings were used. Addresses of participants were geocoded and located within census block groups (n = 14,510, 75.3%). Three hierarchical linear models were…

  9. Nurturing the Potential of the Gifted Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passow, A. Harry

    This paper traces the concept of the "gifted disadvantaged" child and reviews the development of educational resources for this special population. The National Merit Scholarship Program is described as an example of a program which, though designed to provide opportunities for students from all social strata, until 1964, did not…

  10. A Science Program for the Disadvantaged Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, John W.

    1970-01-01

    Suggests the need for science teachers to (1) examine their negative attitudes and prejudices concerning disadvantaged children, and (2) study the general characteristics and problems peculiar to these children. Classroom techniques that are effective in working with such children are discussed. Bibliography. (LC)

  11. School Effectiveness and the Disadvantaged Schools Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Allan; Murphy, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    The Disadvantaged Schools Program (DSP) has been an important and integral part of education for many Australian students for over a decade. After reviewing eight school effectiveness variables, this paper argues that adding a new emphasis on academic success and cognitive skills will enhance the DSP program. Includes 3 tables and 20 references.…

  12. Colombia: Educating the Most Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luschei, Thomas F.; Vega, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The United States has long struggled with the challenge of educating children experiencing extreme disadvantage, including the poor, ethnic and racial minorities, English language learners, and foster children. In this article, we argue that solutions to this problem lie not to the east or west, but to the south. Specifically, we offer the…

  13. Cumulative Disadvantage among the Highly Ambitious.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Katherine

    1990-01-01

    Using a social reproduction theory framework, analyzes the process by which high school seniors aspiring to high-level positions are sorted out after graduation. Analyzes early educational attainments and changes in occupational expectations. Shows a process of cumulative disadvantage in which White males are more likely to achieve their goals.…

  14. Urban Catholic High Schools and Disadvantaged Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Corinne R.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover the life experiences of disadvantaged female graduates of urban Catholic high schools and what they say about the capacity of Catholic education to meet their academic, emotional, social, and spiritual needs. Based on narrative inquiry, this study was conducted using a series of in-depth, semistructured…

  15. Educational Issues of the Socially Disadvantaged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sreedhar, M. V.

    Even though enrollment in elementary schools and national literacy rates have increased greatly in India since its independence in 1949, the number of dropouts and illiterate individuals will also continue to increase unless the needs of the socially disadvantaged are identified and met. The majority of the dropouts and the illiterates belong to…

  16. MEDIA AND THE EDUCATION OF THE DISADVANTAGED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SMITH, RICHARD W.; AND OTHERS

    THE CONTENTS OF THIS JOURNAL ISSUE OF "AUDIOVISUAL INSTRUCTION," VOLUME 10, NUMBER 1, JANUARY 1965, ARE DEVOTED TO WAYS OF INSTRUCTING THE SOCIALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILD THROUGH MORE EFFECTIVE USE OF MATERIALS. SOME OF THE ARTICLES BRIEFLY DISCUSS THE USE OF AUDIOVISUAL INSTRUCTION IN PRESCHOOL AND KINDERGARTEN PROGRAMS, IN A PEACE CORPS…

  17. Barriers to Parental Involvement for Disadvantaged Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify obstacles which prevent active participation at home and at school for economically disadvantaged families. Parental involvement has been recognized as one of the most important variables influencing student academic achievement (Henrich & Gadaire, 2008; Jeynes, 2007; Stewart, 2008). Recent history…

  18. TEACHING STRATEGIES FOR THE CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ELKINS, DEBORAH; TABA, HILDA

    TWO CURRICULUM SEQUENCES, DESIGNED FOR A GROUP OF PREDOMINANTLY NEGRO SIXTH- AND SEVENTH-GRADERS AND FOR A GROUP OF WHITE SECOND-GENERATION AMERICAN EIGHTH-GRADERS, ARE PRESENTED HERE AS INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDELINES FOR TEACHERS OF DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS. THE SIXTH- AND SEVENTH-GRADE CURRICULUM UNIT ON THE "FAMILY OF MAN" STRESSES INSIGHTS INTO THE…

  19. A GENERAL TECHNICIAN PROGRAM FOR DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GILLIE, ANGELO C.

    A 2-YEAR GENERAL TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM HAS BEEN PLANNED BY RUTGERS UNIVERSITY AND THE NEWARK SCHOOL SYSTEM AS A MEANS OF PREPARING DISADVANTAGED YOUTH TO ENTER GAINFUL EMPLOYMENT AND ENHANCE THEIR OPPORTUNITY TO IMPROVE THEIR STATION IN LIFE. THE STUDENTS WILL BE DEPRIVED AREA YOUTH WHO ARE HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES OR THE EQUIVALENT, GENERALLY FROM THE…

  20. Collateral Consequences of Violence in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from Add Health, this study investigates the role of neighborhood violence in mediating the effects of neighborhood disadvantage on high school graduation and teenage pregnancy. Results show that neighborhood violence is a strong predictor of both outcomes, net of individual, family, community and school controls. Neighborhood violence…

  1. Theoretical Issues Involved in Educating the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menzel, Dennis

    This paper examines the present efforts of colleges and universities to offer educational opportunity to disadvantaged students, briefly reviews some of the studies in this area, and recommends guidelines for planning and implementing educational opportunity programs. The Coleman study clearly documented the problem of educational deprivation;…

  2. Early childhood social disadvantage is associated with poor health behaviours in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Non, Amy L.; Román, Jorge Carlos; Gross, Christopher L.; Gilman, Stephen E.; Loucks, Eric B.; Buka, Stephen L.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Individual health behaviours are considered important risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. These behaviours may be socially patterned by early exposure to social disadvantage, but few studies have prospectively tested this hypothesis empirically. Aim We investigated whether childhood social disadvantage was associated with likelihood of engaging in less healthy behaviours 40 years later. Subjects and Methods Prospective data were analysed from the New England Family Study, a 2005–2007 adult follow-up of a cohort initiated in 1959–1966 (n=565). Childhood social environment (birth-age 7) was assessed using a cumulative index of socioeconomic and family stability factors. Logistic regression models evaluated associations between social disadvantage and each health-related behaviour and obesity in adulthood. Results Relative to low disadvantage, higher disadvantage was associated with 3.6-fold greater odds of smoking (95% CI: 1.9, 7.0), 4.8-fold greater odds (in women only) of excess alcohol consumption (95% CI: 1.6, 14.2), and 2.7-fold greater odds of obesity (95% CI: 1.3, 5.5), but was not associated with unhealthy diet or physical inactivity. Conclusion These findings suggest childhood social disadvantage may contribute to adult cardiometabolic disease by predisposing children to adopt certain unhealthy behaviours. If replicated, such findings may support intervention strategies that target social environmental factors and behavioural pathways that are established early in life. PMID:26727037

  3. Is Mathematics Education in England Working for Everyone? NFER Analysis of the PISA Performance of Disadvantaged Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheater, Rebecca; Durbin, Ben; McNamara, Stephen; Classick, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    The impact of socio-economic background on mathematics performance in England can be seen from the most to least disadvantaged. As socio-economic background of pupils increases, so does average mathematics performance; the gap between the most and least disadvantaged is equivalent to over three years' of schooling. However, many factors other than…

  4. 13 CFR 127.203 - What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... her ownership interest in the concern and equity in her primary personal residence. (c) Factors that may be considered. The personal financial condition of the woman claiming economic disadvantage... within two years. Assets that a woman claiming economic disadvantage transferred within two years of the...

  5. Problems screening for HAND among the educationally disadvantaged.

    PubMed

    Musso, Mandi W; Cosgrove, Seandra J; Peltier, MacKenzie R; McGee, Brian L; Jones, Glenn N

    2016-11-14

    Neurocognitive screeners are used to detect symptoms of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND). However, the degree to which education and socioeconomic status affect these screeners remains unclear. Neurocognitive screeners were administered to 187 socioeconomically disadvantaged HIV+ individuals upon entering treatment who had no other risk factors for HAND. The false positive rates were: 84% for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, 59% for the International HIV Dementia Scale, and 28.3% for the Modified HIV Dementia Scale. Given these high false positive rates, the screeners may be more useful for establishing baseline functioning and sequential testing to detect deterioration.

  6. Summer jobs reduce violence among disadvantaged youth.

    PubMed

    Heller, Sara B

    2014-12-05

    Every day, acts of violence injure more than 6000 people in the United States. Despite decades of social science arguing that joblessness among disadvantaged youth is a key cause of violent offending, programs to remedy youth unemployment do not consistently reduce delinquency. This study tests whether summer jobs, which shift focus from remediation to prevention, can reduce crime. In a randomized controlled trial among 1634 disadvantaged high school youth in Chicago, assignment to a summer jobs program decreases violence by 43% over 16 months (3.95 fewer violent-crime arrests per 100 youth). The decline occurs largely after the 8-week intervention ends. The results suggest the promise of using low-cost, well-targeted programs to generate meaningful behavioral change, even with a problem as complex as youth violence.

  7. Home disadvantage in professional ice hockey.

    PubMed

    Loignon, Andrew; Gayton, William F; Brown, Melissa; Steinroeder, William; Johnson, Carrie

    2007-06-01

    Occurrence of the home field disadvantage in professional ice hockey was examined by analyzing data on penalty shots from 1983-2004. This datum was used as it does not involve physical contact for only the player taking the penalty shot is involved in the outcome. As a result, inhibition of anxiety associated with physical contact should not occur, and diffusion of responsibility would not occur since only the shooter is involved. Analysis indicated the player who took the penalty shot did not make significantly fewer shots at home than in away games. The result did not support hypotheses about roles of physical contact and diffusion of responsibility in accounting for past failures to find the home disadvantage in professional ice hockey.

  8. Optimizing Secure Communication Standards for Disadvantaged Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    to focus our optimizations for disadvantaged networks and offered our reasoning behind that choice . In this chapter we describe CMS in greater detail... initialization vectors and Diffie- Hellman algorithms require passing of public information. 3. Extensible When the CMS structure is extended via RFCs...package of just these issuer names. Each issuer name only accounted for 5̃0 bytes of space compared to the 1024 bytes used before. This means that we

  9. Collaboration Services: Enabling Chat in Disadvantaged Grids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    networks that can cope with mobility and disruptions. Finally, we discuss how a gateway solution can be used to bridge our experimental chat with the...into such environments. We build our chat solution on ACP142, a protocol developed for use in tactical radio networks that can cope with mobility and... mobility [1]. This solution (called Mist chat) was presented as input to NATO STO/IST-090 "SOA challenges for real-time and disadvantaged grids" and

  10. Strongyloidiasis: A Disease of Socioeconomic Disadvantage

    PubMed Central

    Beknazarova, Meruyert; Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2016-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a disease caused by soil transmitted helminths of the Strongyloides genus. Currently, it is predominately described as a neglected tropical disease. However, this description is misleading as it focuses on the geographical location of the disease and not the primary consideration, which is the socioeconomic conditions and poor infrastructure found within endemic regions. This classification may result in misdiagnosis and mistreatment by physicians, but more importantly, it influences how the disease is fundamentally viewed. Strongyloidiasis must be first and foremost considered as a disease of disadvantage, to ensure the correct strategies and control measures are used to prevent infection. Changing how strongyloidiasis is perceived from a geographic and clinical issue to an environmental health issue represents the first step in identifying appropriate long term control measures. This includes emphasis on environmental health controls, such as better infrastructure, sanitation and living conditions. This review explores the global prevalence of strongyloidiasis in relation to its presence in subtropical, tropical and temperate climate zones with mild and cold winters, but also explores the corresponding socioeconomic conditions of these regions. The evidence shows that strongyloidiasis is primarily determined by the socioeconomic status of the communities rather than geographic or climatic conditions. It demonstrates that strongyloidiasis should no longer be referred to as a “tropical” disease but rather a disease of disadvantage. This philosophical shift will promote the development of correct control strategies for preventing this disease of disadvantage. PMID:27213420

  11. Educators' Motivation on Integration of ICTs into Pedagogy: Case of Disadvantaged Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chigona, Agnes; Chigona, Wallace; Davids, Zane

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates factors that motivate educators to use Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) in schools in disadvantaged areas. The study employed Herzberg' Motivation-Hygiene theory to guide the process of understanding the factors that motivate or demotivate educators when using the technology for teaching and learning.…

  12. 48 CFR 52.219-22 - Small Disadvantaged Business Status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Status as a small business and status as a small disadvantaged business for general statistical purposes... representation, as a certified small disadvantaged business concern in the database maintained by the Small...

  13. 48 CFR 52.219-22 - Small Disadvantaged Business Status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Status as a small business and status as a small disadvantaged business for general statistical purposes... representation, as a certified small disadvantaged business concern in the database maintained by the Small...

  14. 48 CFR 52.219-22 - Small Disadvantaged Business Status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Status as a small business and status as a small disadvantaged business for general statistical purposes... representation, as a certified small disadvantaged business concern in the database maintained by the Small...

  15. 48 CFR 52.219-22 - Small Disadvantaged Business Status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Status as a small business and status as a small disadvantaged business for general statistical purposes... representation, as a certified small disadvantaged business concern in the database maintained by the Small...

  16. 48 CFR 52.219-22 - Small Disadvantaged Business Status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Status as a small business and status as a small disadvantaged business for general statistical purposes... representation, as a certified small disadvantaged business concern in the database maintained by the Small...

  17. 23 CFR 635.107 - Participation by disadvantaged business enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... disadvantaged business enterprises. (a) The STD shall schedule contract lettings in a balanced program providing... Highway Acts, and 49 CFR part 26, the STD shall ensure equal opportunity for disadvantaged business...

  18. 23 CFR 635.107 - Participation by disadvantaged business enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... disadvantaged business enterprises. (a) The STD shall schedule contract lettings in a balanced program providing... Highway Acts, and 49 CFR part 26, the STD shall ensure equal opportunity for disadvantaged business...

  19. 13 CFR 124.104 - Who is economically disadvantaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... (b) Submission of narrative and financial information. (1) Each individual claiming economic disadvantage must describe it in a narrative statement, and must submit personal financial information. (2... relating to the personal financial condition of any individual claiming disadvantaged status,...

  20. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Disadvantage and the Shape of the Age–Crime Curve

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Li-Chuan; Loeber, Rolf; Cohen, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to better determine the way in which neighborhood disadvantage affects the shape of the age–crime curve. Methods. We used data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study (PYS), a 14-year longitudinal study, to compare the age–crime curves of individuals in neighborhoods of different disadvantage. We visually compared observed age–crime curves, and then used generalized linear mixed models to test for differences in curve parameters. Results. Adjusted for individual risk factors, the mixed models found that the parameters for interactions of neighborhood disadvantage with both linear age and quadratic age were significant (P < .05) and consistent with higher and longer age–crime curves in more disadvantaged neighborhoods. This implied that compared with boys in advantaged neighborhoods, rates of violence among boys in disadvantaged neighborhoods rose to higher levels that were sustained significantly longer. Conclusions. These results suggested that residing in a disadvantaged neighborhood during early adolescence may have an enduring effect on the shape of the age–crime curve throughout an individual's life. PMID:21778512

  1. Views of Japanese patients on the advantages and disadvantages of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura-Taira, Nanako; Muranaka, Yoshimi; Miwa, Masako; Kin, Seikon; Hirai, Kei

    2013-08-01

    The preference for dialysis modalities is not well understood in Japan. This study explored the subjective views of Japanese patients undergoing dialysis regarding their treatments. The participants were receiving in-center hemodialysis (CHD) or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). In Study 1, 34 participants (17 CHD and 17 CAPD) were interviewed about the advantages and disadvantages of dialysis modalities. In Study 2, 454 dialysis patients (437 CHD and 17 CAPD) rated the advantages and disadvantages of CHD and CAPD in a cross-sectional survey. Interviews showed that professional care and dialysis-free days were considered as advantages of CHD, while independence, less hospital visits, and flexibility were considered as advantages of CAPD. Disadvantages of CHD included restriction of food and fluids and unpleasant symptoms after each dialysis session. Catheter care was an additional disadvantage of CAPD. Survey showed that the highly ranked advantages were professional care in CHD and less frequent hospital visits in CAPD, while the highly ranked disadvantages were concerns about emergency and time restrictions in CHD, and catheter care and difficulty in soaking in a bath in CAPD. The total scores of advantages and disadvantages showed that CHD patients subjectively rated their own modality better CHD over CAPD, while CAPD patients had the opposite opinion. The results of this study indicate that the factors affecting the decision-making process of Japanese patients are unique to Japanese culture, namely considering the trouble caused to the people around patients (e.g., families, spouses, and/or caregivers).

  2. Synergism of Short-Term Air Pollution Exposures and Neighborhood Disadvantage on Initial Stroke Severity.

    PubMed

    Wing, Jeffrey J; Sánchez, Brisa N; Adar, Sara D; Meurer, William J; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Smith, Melinda A; Lisabeth, Lynda D

    2017-09-27

    Little is known about the relation between environment and stroke severity. We investigated associations between environmental exposures, including neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and short-term exposure to airborne particulate matter <2.5 μm and ozone, and their interactions with initial stroke severity. First-ever ischemic stroke cases were identified from the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi project (2000-2012). Associations between pollutants, disadvantage, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale were modeled using linear and logistic regression with adjustment for demographics and risk factors. Pollutants and disadvantage were modeled individually, jointly, and with interactions. Higher disadvantage scores and previous-day ozone concentrations were associated with higher odds of severe stroke. Higher levels of particulate matter <2.5 μm were associated with higher odds of severe stroke among those in higher disadvantage areas (odds ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.55) but not in lower disadvantage areas (odds ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.56-1.22; P interaction =0.097). Air pollution exposures and neighborhood socioeconomic status may be important in understanding stroke severity. Future work should consider the multiple levels of influence on this important stroke outcome. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Sex, gender, and secondhand smoke policies: implications for disadvantaged women.

    PubMed

    Greaves, Lorraine J; Hemsing, Natalie J

    2009-08-01

    Although implementation of secondhand smoke policies is increasing, little research has examined the unintended consequences of these policies for disadvantaged women. Macro-, meso-, and micro-level issues connected to secondhand smoke and women are considered to illustrate the range of ways in which sex, gender, and disadvantage affect women's exposure to secondhand smoke. A review of current literature, primarily published between 2000 and 2008, on sex- and gender-based issues related to secondhand smoke exposure and the effects of secondhand smoke policies for various subpopulations of women, including low-income girls and women, nonwhite minority women, and pregnant women, was conducted in 2008. These materials were critically analyzed using a sex and gender analysis, allowing for the drawing of inferences and reflections on the unintended effects of secondhand smoke policies on disadvantaged women. Smoke-free policies do not always have equal or even desired effects on low-income girls and women. Low-income women are more likely to be exposed to secondhand smoke, may have limited capacity to manage their exposure to secondhand smoke both at home and in the workplace, and may experience heightened stigmatization as a result of secondhand smoke policies. Various sex- and gender-related factors, such as gendered roles, unequal power differences between men and women, child-caring roles, and unequal earning power, affect exposure and responses to secondhand smoke, women's capacity to control exposure, and their responses to protective policies. In sum, a much more nuanced gender- and diversity-sensitive framework is needed to develop research and tobacco control policies that address these issues.

  4. Predicting Career Maturity Attitudes in Rural Economically Disadvantaged Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojewski, Jay W.

    1994-01-01

    Six predictor variables (gender, race, disadvantage, postsecondary plans, vocational education, career indecision) were 75% accurate in identifying career maturity and immaturity among 90 economically disadvantaged rural ninth graders. Career indecision and race were most important for career immaturity, race and disadvantage for career maturity.…

  5. Center Seeks To Improve Education for Disadvantaged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CDS Report, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This collection of descriptions of research at the Center for Research on Effective Schooling for Disadvantaged Students opens with "Center Seeks To Improve Education for Disadvantaged Students," a discussion of the mission of the Center to improve schooling for the disadvantaged through new knowledge and practices produced by rigorous…

  6. 48 CFR 719.272 - Small disadvantaged business policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... business policies. 719.272 Section 719.272 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.272 Small disadvantaged business... subcontracting with small disadvantaged businesses and other disadvantaged enterprises based on provisions of the...

  7. 48 CFR 719.272 - Small disadvantaged business policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... business policies. 719.272 Section 719.272 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.272 Small disadvantaged business... subcontracting with small disadvantaged businesses and other disadvantaged enterprises based on provisions of the...

  8. 48 CFR 719.272 - Small disadvantaged business policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... business policies. 719.272 Section 719.272 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.272 Small disadvantaged business... subcontracting with small disadvantaged businesses and other disadvantaged enterprises based on provisions of the...

  9. The Disadvantaged Worker: Readings in Developing Minority Manpower.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimpel, Lloyd, Ed.

    This document examines the efforts made by American business to make employment opportunities available to the disadvantaged minority worker. Ten major areas are discussed, including the following: changing social attitudes, Negro work attitudes, patterns for disadvantaged programs, management views of hard-core hiring, testing the disadvantaged,…

  10. Disadvantaged and Non-Disadvantaged Urban High School Students Perceptions of Work Within General Merchandise Retail Department Stores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, James Gordon

    In three Ohio cities, a perception scale of 55 statements was administered to: (1) 350 black students in schools serving disadvantaged youth, (2) 600 white students in schools serving non-disadvantaged youth, (3) 27 white students in a school serving disadvantaged youth, and (4) 154 department store workers. Among extensive findings were the…

  11. A Summer Academic Research Experience for Disadvantaged Youth

    PubMed Central

    Kabacoff, Cathryn; Srivastava, Vasudha; Robinson, Douglas N.

    2013-01-01

    Internships are an effective way of connecting high school students in a meaningful manner to the sciences. Disadvantaged minorities have fewer opportunities to participate in internships, and are underrepresented in both science, technology, engineering, and mathematics majors and careers. We have developed a Summer Academic Research Experience (SARE) program that provides an enriching academic internship to underrepresented youth. Our program has shown that to have a successful internship for these disadvantaged youth, several issues need to be addressed in addition to scientific mentoring. We have found that it is necessary to remediate and/or fortify basic academic skills for students to be successful. In addition, students need to be actively coached in the development of professional skills, habits, and attitudes necessary for success in the workplace. With all these factors in place, these youths can become better students, compete on a more level playing field in their internships, and increase their potential of participating actively in the sciences in the future. PMID:24006390

  12. Socioeconomic disadvantage and indicators of risky alcohol-drinking patterns.

    PubMed

    Paljärvi, Tapio; Suominen, Sakari; Car, Josip; Koskenvuo, Markku

    2013-01-01

    The purpose was to establish how the association between socioeconomic disadvantage and risky drinking depends on the indicator of risky alcohol-drinking patterns. Alcohol-drinking Finnish men (n = 9316) and women (n = 11,888) aged 20-54 years at baseline participated in the Health and Social Support (HeSSup) postal survey in 1998. Socioeconomic disadvantage was measured by low educational level, history of previous unemployment among those currently employed, current unemployment, being on disability pension and history of experiencing financial hardships. Indicators of risky drinking were hazardous weekly intake (≥24 and ≥16 Finnish standard drinks for men and women, respectively), frequency of intoxications/drunkenness, hangovers and alcohol-induced pass-outs. The study participants were also followed up for 7 years for alcohol-specific hospitalizations and deaths. Socioeconomic gradient in risky drinking was observed across all indicators of risky drinking, but the gradient was relatively larger in patterns of risky drinking representing high-intensity drinking occasions such as alcohol-induced hangovers and pass-outs. No marked gender differences were observed. These results highlight the need to take into account the multidimensionality of risky alcohol-drinking patterns as a contributing factor in the socioeconomic gradient in alcohol use.

  13. Communicating health information to disadvantaged populations.

    PubMed

    Beacom, Amanda M; Newman, Sandra J

    2010-01-01

    Interest in the communication of health information among disadvantaged populations has increased in recent years with the shift from a model of patient-provider communication to one of a more empowered healthcare consumer; with the use of new communication technologies that increase the number of channels through which health information may be accessed; and with the steadily increasing number of people without health insurance. Three separate research literatures contribute to our current understanding of this issue. In the medicine and public health literature, disparities in health access and outcomes among socioeconomic, ethnic, and racial groups are now well documented. In the information sciences literature, scholars note that on a continuum of health information behaviors, ranging from information avoidance and nonseeking to active seeking, nonseeking behaviors are associated with disadvantaged populations. In the communication literature, enthusiasm over the technology-driven growth of online health information seeking is tempered by evidence supporting the knowledge gap hypothesis, which indicates that as potential access to health information increases, systematic gaps in health knowledge also increase as groups with higher socioeconomic status acquire this information at a faster rate than those with lower socioeconomic status. A number of diverse strategies show promise in reducing information and health disparities, including those that focus on technology, such as programs to increase computer and Internet access, skills, and comprehension; those that focus on interpersonal communication, such as the community health worker model; and those that focus on mass media channels, such as entertainment education.

  14. Readiness of communities to engage with childhood obesity prevention initiatives in disadvantaged areas of Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Cyril, Sheila; Polonsky, Michael; Green, Julie; Agho, Kingsley; Renzaho, Andre

    2016-07-15

    , no studies in Australia have assessed disadvantaged communities' readiness to engage in obesity prevention initiatives.What does this paper add? This paper addresses the current gap in the knowledge of disadvantaged communities' level of readiness to engage in childhood obesity prevention initiatives in Australia. The study also identified the key factors responsible for low readiness of disadvantaged communities to participate in current childhood obesity prevention services. By using the Community Readiness model this study shows the readiness levels specific to the various dimensions of the model; Understanding dimension-specific readiness allows us to identify strategies that are tailored to each dimension, as guided by the model.What are the implications for practitioners? With the increasing burden of childhood obesity on disadvantaged communities, policymakers and health practitioners are facing a crisis in obesity prevention and management. Almost every year, new interventions are being planned and implemented. However if the target communities are not ready to participate in the available interventions these efforts are futile. This study exposes the key factors responsible for low readiness to participate in current obesity prevention services by disadvantaged communities. Addressing these key factors and improving readiness before designing new interventions will improve the participation of disadvantaged communities in those interventions. The study findings ultimately have the potential of reducing obesity-related disparities in Australia.

  15. Educating Disadvantaged Children in the Primary Years (Kindergarten Through Grade 3). Disadvantaged Children Series, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackintosh, Helen K.; And Others

    This brochure focuses on characteristics of severely disadvantaged young children as they come to school, and describes some of the things the visiting specialists found skillful teachers in 16 cities were doing to help children overcome their handicaps. The report shows: (1) How teachers arrange classrooms to stimulate curiosity and learning; (2)…

  16. Significant Trends in the Education of the Disadvantaged. ERIC-IRCD Urban Disadvantaged Series, Number 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Edmund W.

    This paper reviews the wide variety of approaches and issues in research relating to the education of the disadvantaged in the decade of the sixties. Relevant works are designated in two categories: (1) the study of population characteristics and, (2) the description and evaluation of programs and practices. Studies within the former area are…

  17. [Family structures: social disadvantage of women].

    PubMed

    Irizarry Castro, A

    1999-03-01

    A perspective on the family, based on scientific knowledge and on its appreciation as a unit for health care, is suggested. The contemporary family because of its independent links with society has lived and resisted the consequences of a series of economic, political, technological, cultural and ideological transformations. These forces act as influential forces in the family and it responds adopting new forms to temper to these new times. For these reasons, society at present is characterized by a plurality of family structures. As part of that diversity in families, at present, there are families: nuclear biological, nuclear in series, father or mother alone, extended, and those that share the same sexual orientation. The term family should be redefined to enclose all those types of cohabitation. Is imperative that support is given to families with the greatest social disadvantages such as those families made up of women alone as they are expected to continue growing in all societies both developed and underdeveloped.

  18. The Effect of Compensation Studies on Disadvantaged Children's Self Concept Levels and Locus of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadioglu, Ömür

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of "Bir Umut Ol Benim Için" (Be My Hope) project which was prepared for the children who were disadvantaged by being influenced from several risk factors as compared to their peers on the self-concepts and locus of controls of the children. The study group consisted of 33 children who were…

  19. Stress Exposure and Depression in Disadvantaged Women: The Protective Effects of Optimism and Perceived Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grote, Nancy K.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Larkin, Jill; Lemay, Edward P., Jr.; Brown, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the authors predicted that the individual protective factors of optimism and perceived control over acute and chronic stressors would buffer the relations between acute and chronic stress exposure and severity of depression, controlling for household income, in a sample of financially disadvantaged women. Ninety-seven African…

  20. Is an Intervention Program Necessary in Order to Improve Economically Disadvantaged Children's IQ Scores?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Edward; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The hypothesis was investigated that alleviation of negative motivational factors underlies much of the 10-point IQ increase commonly found in economically disadvantaged children's performance following a preschool intervention program. Head Start and non-Head Start groups were tested on IQ and motivational measures three times before and during…

  1. Drugs, Guns, and Disadvantaged Youths: Co-Occurring Behavior and the Code of the Street

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Andrea N.; Lo, Celia C.

    2012-01-01

    Guided by Anderson's theory of the code of the street, this study explored social mechanisms linking individual-level disadvantage factors with the adoption of beliefs grounded in the code of the street and with drug trafficking and gun carrying--the co-occurring behavior shaping violence among young men in urban areas. Secondary data were…

  2. A New Work Sample Battery for Vocational Assessment of the Disadvantaged: VITAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Describes the development of a work sample battery designed for assessment of vocational aptitudes, interests, and temperament in a disadvantaged client population. VITAS provides information about factors most related to success on the job: interest in the job, temperament for the job, and aptitudes for physical and cognitive components of the…

  3. A Longitudinal Study of the Social and Academic Competence of Economically Disadvantaged Bilingual Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oades-Sese, Geraldine V.; Esquivel, Giselle B.; Kaliski, Pamela K.; Maniatis, Lisette

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study was conducted to gain understanding of the social-emotional and academic development of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children. In Study 1, the authors combined cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural-linguistic factors to determine profiles of social competence as measured by peer play. A person-centered…

  4. Tackling Disadvantage: What Works in Narrowing the Achievement Gap in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demie, Feyisa; Mclean, Christabel

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the success factors behind narrowing the achievement gap of disadvantaged pupils who are entitled to free school meals. A complementary methodological approach including a case study and focus group were used to explore performance and the views of teachers, parents and pupils. The key criteria for the selection of schools were…

  5. Promoting Teacher Quality and Continuity: Tackling the Disadvantages of Remote Indigenous Schools in the Northern Territory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brasche, Inga; Harrington, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    The complexity associated with reducing inequality in Indigenous education incorporates a multitude of causal factors. Issues associated with education delivery and outcomes in remote Indigenous communities are endemic nationally, yet the communities of the Northern Territory are uniquely disadvantaged due to their geographical and cultural…

  6. 48 CFR 52.219-24 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Targets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Business Participation Program-Targets. 52.219-24 Section 52.219-24 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.219-24 Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program—Targets. As... Business Participation Program—Targets (OCT 2000) (a) This solicitation contains a source selection factor...

  7. 48 CFR 52.219-24 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Targets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Business Participation Program-Targets. 52.219-24 Section 52.219-24 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.219-24 Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program—Targets. As... Business Participation Program—Targets (OCT 2000) (a) This solicitation contains a source selection factor...

  8. 48 CFR 52.219-24 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Targets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Business Participation Program-Targets. 52.219-24 Section 52.219-24 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.219-24 Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program—Targets. As... Business Participation Program—Targets (OCT 2000) (a) This solicitation contains a source selection factor...

  9. 48 CFR 52.219-24 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Targets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Business Participation Program-Targets. 52.219-24 Section 52.219-24 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.219-24 Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program—Targets. As... Business Participation Program—Targets (OCT 2000) (a) This solicitation contains a source selection factor...

  10. The Impact of the High Tuition Policy on Disadvantaged Students in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching-Yuan, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Taiwan's education rate of return has increased incrementally over the long term, and education is the primary factor impacting income inequality. Its impact has been increasing every year. Having their children attend college is the way for disadvantaged households to escape poverty, but the high tuition policy is putting the poor in an…

  11. Tackling Disadvantage: What Works in Narrowing the Achievement Gap in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demie, Feyisa; Mclean, Christabel

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the success factors behind narrowing the achievement gap of disadvantaged pupils who are entitled to free school meals. A complementary methodological approach including a case study and focus group were used to explore performance and the views of teachers, parents and pupils. The key criteria for the selection of schools were…

  12. Community Involvement and Disadvantaged Students: A Review and Annotated Bibliography. Report No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettles, Saundra Murray; Greenberg, Brenda

    This review examines literature on the community's role in the achievement and psychosocial outcomes of disadvantaged students. It identifies three classes of factors as pertinent: community structure, community climate, and community involvement. Community characteristics were found to have only a weak effect on achievement at the individual…

  13. Drugs, Guns, and Disadvantaged Youths: Co-Occurring Behavior and the Code of the Street

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Andrea N.; Lo, Celia C.

    2012-01-01

    Guided by Anderson's theory of the code of the street, this study explored social mechanisms linking individual-level disadvantage factors with the adoption of beliefs grounded in the code of the street and with drug trafficking and gun carrying--the co-occurring behavior shaping violence among young men in urban areas. Secondary data were…

  14. The Impact of Maternal Cocaine Use on Neonates in Socioeconomic Disadvantaged Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Wei Yue; Chen, William

    1997-01-01

    Reviews literature on prevalence, mechanisms of fetal toxicity, effects of exposure, socioeconomic factors, and social-support programs to increase awareness of the effects of prenatal exposure to cocaine. Emphasizes the need for drug education and social-support programs for disadvantaged pregnant women to prevent and control cocaine use. (EMK)

  15. A New Work Sample Battery for Vocational Assessment of the Disadvantaged: VITAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Describes the development of a work sample battery designed for assessment of vocational aptitudes, interests, and temperament in a disadvantaged client population. VITAS provides information about factors most related to success on the job: interest in the job, temperament for the job, and aptitudes for physical and cognitive components of the…

  16. The Schools and the Disadvantaged: An Examination of a Fundamental Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Harvey

    This conference paper identifies two factors in contemporary educational programs which may have a detrimental effect on disadvantaged youth. First, it is felt that from a historical as well as a contemporary perspective, it is clear that the public schools are designed to meet the needs of the middle class. Thus, even if the same educational…

  17. The Impact of the High Tuition Policy on Disadvantaged Students in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching-Yuan, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Taiwan's education rate of return has increased incrementally over the long term, and education is the primary factor impacting income inequality. Its impact has been increasing every year. Having their children attend college is the way for disadvantaged households to escape poverty, but the high tuition policy is putting the poor in an…

  18. Community Involvement and Adolescent Mental Health: Moderating Effects of Race/Ethnicity and Neighborhood Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Pamela; Kilbourne, Barbara; Reece, Michelle; Husaini, Baqar

    2008-01-01

    Social development and stress process theories suggest that participation in one's community can function as a protective factor for mental health, especially for youth from socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. However, the effects of community involvement on adolescent mental health could vary across racial/ethnic groups and levels of…

  19. Promoting Teacher Quality and Continuity: Tackling the Disadvantages of Remote Indigenous Schools in the Northern Territory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brasche, Inga; Harrington, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    The complexity associated with reducing inequality in Indigenous education incorporates a multitude of causal factors. Issues associated with education delivery and outcomes in remote Indigenous communities are endemic nationally, yet the communities of the Northern Territory are uniquely disadvantaged due to their geographical and cultural…

  20. Discriminant Analysis of Scholastic Aptitude and Critical Thinking Tests and Levels of "Disadvantagement."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follman, John; and Others

    Differences among school children are typically measured by achievement, aptitude and/or intelligence tests. This study investigates the use of critical thinking tests to differentiate between schools of varying racial, economic, and "disadvantagement" factors; the latter being determined by Title I ESEA qualifications and U. S. Office of…

  1. Stress Exposure and Depression in Disadvantaged Women: The Protective Effects of Optimism and Perceived Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grote, Nancy K.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Larkin, Jill; Lemay, Edward P., Jr.; Brown, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the authors predicted that the individual protective factors of optimism and perceived control over acute and chronic stressors would buffer the relations between acute and chronic stress exposure and severity of depression, controlling for household income, in a sample of financially disadvantaged women. Ninety-seven African…

  2. Community Involvement and Adolescent Mental Health: Moderating Effects of Race/Ethnicity and Neighborhood Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Pamela; Kilbourne, Barbara; Reece, Michelle; Husaini, Baqar

    2008-01-01

    Social development and stress process theories suggest that participation in one's community can function as a protective factor for mental health, especially for youth from socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. However, the effects of community involvement on adolescent mental health could vary across racial/ethnic groups and levels of…

  3. Food insecurity among adults residing in disadvantaged urban areas: potential health and dietary consequences.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Rebecca; Giskes, Katrina; Turrell, Gavin; Gallegos, Danielle

    2012-02-01

    Food insecurity is the limited or uncertain availability or access to nutritionally adequate, culturally appropriate and safe foods. Food insecurity may result in inadequate dietary intakes, overweight or obesity and the development of chronic disease. Internationally, few studies have focused on the range of potential health outcomes related to food insecurity among adults residing in disadvantaged locations and no such Australian studies exist. The objective of the present study was to investigate associations between food insecurity, sociodemographic and health factors and dietary intakes among adults residing in disadvantaged urban areas. Data were collected by mail survey (n 505, 53 % response rate), which ascertained information about food security status, demographic characteristics (such as age, gender, household income, education) fruit and vegetable intakes, takeaway and meat consumption, general health, depression and chronic disease. Disadvantaged suburbs of Brisbane city, Australia, 2009. Individuals aged ≥ 20 years. Approximately one in four households (25 %) was food insecure. Food insecurity was associated with lower household income, poorer general health, increased health-care utilisation and depression. These associations remained after adjustment for age, gender and household income. Food insecurity is prevalent in urbanised disadvantaged areas in developed countries such as Australia. Low-income households are at high risk of experiencing food insecurity. Food insecurity may result in significant health burdens among the population, and this may be concentrated in socio-economically disadvantaged suburbs.

  4. The Association Between Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Russell, Abigail Emma; Ford, Tamsin; Williams, Rebecca; Russell, Ginny

    2016-06-01

    This systematic review examines associations between parental socioeconomic disadvantage and childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured by parental income, education, occupation and marital status. Results were mixed by measure of SES with no one aspect being differentially related to ADHD. 42 studies were included in the review, of which 35 found a significant univariate association between socioeconomic disadvantage and ADHD. Meta-analyses of dimensions of SES and their association with ADHD indicate that children in families of low SES are on average 1.85-2.21 more likely to have ADHD than their peers in high SES families. In spite of substantial between-study heterogeneity, there is evidence for an association between socioeconomic disadvantage and risk of ADHD measured in different ways. This is likely mediated by factors linked to low SES such as parental mental health and maternal smoking during pregnancy.

  5. Coping with economic disadvantage. A qualitative study of Chinese adolescents from low-income families.

    PubMed

    Lam, Ching Man; Lam, Mong Chow; Shek, Daniel T L; Tang, Vera M Y

    2004-01-01

    Using a qualitative approach, this paper examines how Chinese adolescents from low-income families cope with economic disadvantage. Thirty-five in-depth one-to-one interviews with twelve adolescents from economically disadvantaged families were conducted. The findings of the study revealed that, although the participants were growing up poor, they do not have a strong sense of poverty, or have a negative perception on poverty. Some of them even attached a positive meaning to their experience of poverty. The accounts of the adolescents revealed that there were personal (low sense of poverty), familial (support from parents and siblings), cultural (cultural interpretation on poverty) and contextual (unclear poor neighborhood boundary, weak poverty subculture) protective factors that promoted adolescent developmental resilience. The study results highlighted the distinct Chinese pattern of socialization and the impacts of Chinese cultural beliefs on poor families. The findings also illustrate the prominent role of family in helping adolescents cope with economic disadvantage.

  6. Disadvantaged persons' participation in health promotion projects: some structural dimensions.

    PubMed

    Boyce, W F

    2001-05-01

    A structural perspective was used in studying community participation of disadvantaged groups (poor women, street youth, and disabled persons) in health promotion projects. Five community projects in the Canadian Health Promotion Contribution Program were examined in a comparative case study utilizing in-depth interviews, documents, and secondary sources. Analysis revealed relatively low numbers and restricted range of participants, difficulties in recruiting and maintaining participants, declining rates of active participation over time, and limited target group influence and power. This paper reports on the relationship between various dimensions of structure (social-cultural, organizational, political-legal-economic) and the community participation process. Participation was influenced by structural factors such as bureaucratic rules and regulators, perceived minority group rights and relations, agency reputations and responsibilities, available resources, and organizational roles. Control of projects by target group members, rather than by service agencies, was an important overall organizational structural factor which allowed community members to achieve influence in projects. The study concludes that a conceptual model based on structural factors is useful in explaining how key factors from federal and local levels can restrict or facilitate the community participation process.

  7. An investigation of home disadvantage in Davis Cup tennis.

    PubMed

    Gayton, William F; Steinroeder, William; Bonnica, Corrine; Loignon, Andrew C

    2009-10-01

    Occurrence of the home disadvantage in Davis Cup tennis matches was examined by analyzing the outcome of Davis Cup finals matches from 1900 to 2007. There was no significant home disadvantage when Matches 1 and 2 were compared with Matches 4 and 5. However, there was a significant home disadvantage when Matches 1 and 2 were compared with Match 5. These findings are compared with those from earlier studies in which data from professional basketball and baseball were examined.

  8. Local Area Disadvantage and Gambling Involvement and Disorder: Evidence for Gene-Environment Correlation and Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Slutske, Wendy S.; Deutsch, Arielle R.; Statham, Dixie B.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that local area characteristics (such as disadvantage and gambling outlet density) and genetic risk factors are associated with gambling involvement and disordered gambling. These two lines of research were brought together in the present study by examining the extent to which genetic contributions to individual differences in gambling involvement and disorder contributed to being exposed to, and were also accentuated by, local area disadvantage. Participants were members of the national community-based Australian Twin Registry who completed a telephone interview in which the past-year frequency of gambling and symptoms of disordered gambling were assessed. Indicators of local area disadvantage were based on census data matched to the participants' postal codes. Univariate biometric model-fitting revealed that exposure to area disadvantage was partially explained by genetic factors. Bivariate biometric model-fitting was conducted to examine the evidence for gene-environment interaction while accounting for gene-environment correlation. These analyses demonstrated that: (a) a small portion of the genetic propensity to gamble was explained by moving to or remaining in a disadvantaged area, and (b) the remaining genetic and unique environmental variation in the frequency of participating in electronic machine gambling (among men and women) and symptoms of disordered gambling (among women) was greater in more disadvantaged localities. As the gambling industry continues to grow, it will be important to take into account the multiple contexts in which problematic gambling behavior can emerge -- from genes to geography -- as well as the ways in which such contexts may interact with each other. PMID:26147321

  9. The advantages and disadvantages of pacifier use.

    PubMed

    Cinar, Dede Nursan

    2004-01-01

    A powerful reflex of the infant in the weeks following birth is sucking. Breastfed babies benefit from both the nutrition in mother's milk and the satisfaction of their sucking instinct. Babies that can not be breastfed due to various reasons may satisfy their sucking instinct by using pacifiers. Pacifier use and digit sucking are believed to be harmless habits. In many places of the world, and especially in developing countries, pacifier use in early childhood is very common. It is said that pacifier use eases the baby and satisfies its sucking instinct. It has been reported in several studies that pacifier use reduces the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). The most important risks of this non-nutritive sucking habit are failure of breastfeeding, dental deformities, recurrent acute otitis media, and the possibility of accidents. The development of latex allergy, tooth decay, oral ulcers and sleep disorders are other problems encountered with pacifier use. Parents may hesitate to use pacifiers for their babies and consult nurses or midwives on this issue. In this article, the advantages and disadvantages of pacifier use are discussed with the aim of providing guidance to nurses and midwives working in the field of pediatrics and infant health.

  10. Capital disadvantage: America's failing capital investment system.

    PubMed

    Porter, M E

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. system of allocating investment capital is failing, putting American companies at a serious disadvantage and threatening the long-term growth of the nation's economy. The problem, says Michael Porter, goes beyond the usual formulation of the issue: accusations of "short-termism" by U.S. managers, ineffective corporate governance by directors, or a high cost of capital. The problem involves the external capital allocation system by which capital is provided to companies, as well as the system by which companies allocate capital internally. America's system is marked by fluid capital and a financial focus. Other countries--notably Japan and Germany--have systems with dedicated capital and a focus on corporate position. In global competition, where investment increasingly determines a company's capacity to upgrade and innovate, the U.S. system does not measure up. These conclusions come out of a two-year research project sponsored by the Harvard Business School and the Council on Competitiveness. Porter recommends five far-reaching reforms to make the U.S. system superior to Japan's and Germany's: 1. Improve the present macroeconomic environment. 2. Expand true ownership throughout the system so that directors, managers, employees, and even customers and suppliers hold positions as owners. 3. Align the goals of capital providers, corporations, directors, managers, employees, customers, suppliers, and society. 4. Improve the information used in decision making. 5. Foster more productive modes of interaction and influence among capital providers, corporations, and business units.

  11. [Psychosocial disadvantages in incarcerated girls and boys].

    PubMed

    Plattner, Belinda; Bessler, Cornelia; Vogt, Gunnar; Linhart, Susanne; Thun-Hohenstein, Leonhard; Aebi, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal studies found that criminal behavior in juveniles often concurs with neighborhood disadvantage and family dysfunction, especially in girls. In this study we assessed the psychosocial background in incarcerated juveniles and analyzed the data for each gender separately. The Multidimensional Clinical Screening Inventory for delinquent juveniles (MCSI) was used to assess school history, psychiatric history, family background, abuse and neglect and motive for crime. The sample consisted of 294 juveniles (46 females and 248 males). Innerfamilial abuse/neglect was reported by 91% (girls) and 79% (boys). 76% (girls) and 88% (boys) reported school-problems. 57% (girls) and 29% (boys) reported to have recieved psychiatric pretreatment. In girls we found significantly higher prevalence rates for parental divorce, incarceration of mother, abuse/neglect and psychiatric pretreatment. Significantly more girls reported a co-occurrence of school-problems and experiences of separation and loss and abuse (65.2% vs. 46.4%, χ²=5.51, df=1, p<.05). Incarcerated juveniles, especially females, are and have been exposed to multiple psychosocial burdens. Therefore it is necessary to implement prevention programs for psychosocially stressed families. Forensic intervention in and after detention has to include a family centered approach.

  12. A Disadvantaged Advantage in Walkability: Findings from ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Urban form-the structure of the built environment-can influence physical activity, yet little is known about how walkable design differs according to neighborhood sociodemographic composition. We studied how walkable urban form varies by neighborhood sociodemographic composition, region, and urbanicity across the United States. Using linear regression models and 2000-2001 US Census data, we investigated the relationship between 5 neighborhood census characteristics (income, education, racial/ethnic composition, age distribution, and sex) and 5 walkability indicators in almost 65,000 census tracts in 48 states and the District of Columbia. Data on the built environment were obtained from the RAND Corporation's (Santa Monica, California) Center for Population Health and Health Disparities (median block length, street segment, and node density) and the US Geological Survey's National Land Cover Database (proportion open space and proportion highly developed). Disadvantaged neighborhoods and those with more educated residents were more walkable (i.e., shorter block length, greater street node density, more developed land use, and higher density of street segments). However, tracts with a higher proportion of children and older adults were less walkable (fewer street nodes and lower density of street segments), after adjustment for region and level of urbanicity. Research and policy on the walkability-health link should give nuanced attention to the gap between perso

  13. Nuclear reactor operator training for disadvantaged Americans

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, J.P.; Mulder, R.U.

    1992-12-01

    The Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics Department of the University of Virginia was awarded a grant by the US Department of Energy in 1984 to establish and administer a reactor operator training program for disadvantaged Americans. Stipends were provided by the US DOE for five trainees with the anticipation that four other educational facilities would participate in the program. Sub-contracts were awarded to four other Universities: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, The University of Missouri at Columbia, Oregon State University, and The State University of New York at Buffalo. The initial two year program was very successful and the grant was renewed in late 1986 for another two years. MIT declined to participate in the second program and was replaced by Ohio State University. U.VA. was notified in September, 1987 that new funding would no longer be provided for this program after December, 1987. U.VA. requested and was granted a no cost extention for the program through December, 1990, since sufficient funds remained in the initial grant to pursue the program further. DOE subsequently approved a no cost extension through November, 1992.

  14. A Transagency Approach to Enabling Access to Parent-Based Intervention for Language Delay in Areas of Social Disadvantage: A Service Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbard, Deborah; Smith, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Primary language delay remains one of the most prevalent developmental delays in early childhood, particularly in disadvantaged areas. Previous research has established language difficulties and social disadvantage being particular risk factors for adverse outcomes later in life. To help prevent low educational achievement and poorer outcomes,…

  15. A Transagency Approach to Enabling Access to Parent-Based Intervention for Language Delay in Areas of Social Disadvantage: A Service Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbard, Deborah; Smith, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Primary language delay remains one of the most prevalent developmental delays in early childhood, particularly in disadvantaged areas. Previous research has established language difficulties and social disadvantage being particular risk factors for adverse outcomes later in life. To help prevent low educational achievement and poorer outcomes,…

  16. Disadvantaged Former Miners' Perspectives on Smoking Cessation: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Simon; Baird, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore disadvantaged former miners' perspectives in north Derbyshire, United Kingdom (UK) on smoking and smoking cessation. Methods: In-depth, audiotaped interviews with 16 disadvantaged former miners who smoked or had stopped smoking within six months. Results: Perceptions of being able to stop smoking with minimal difficulty and…

  17. Guidelines for Methods and Techniques of Teaching Disadvantaged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, N. Alan; Vaughn, D. Lanette

    Recommended teaching techniques for instructing disadvantaged students are presented in this manual. A general definition of a disadvantaged student is given in the introduction, followed by a specific listing of characteristics which a student in the State of Virginia should exhibit in order to qualify for a special program for disadvantaged…

  18. Disadvantaged Former Miners' Perspectives on Smoking Cessation: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Simon; Baird, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore disadvantaged former miners' perspectives in north Derbyshire, United Kingdom (UK) on smoking and smoking cessation. Methods: In-depth, audiotaped interviews with 16 disadvantaged former miners who smoked or had stopped smoking within six months. Results: Perceptions of being able to stop smoking with minimal difficulty and…

  19. Measures of Disadvantage: Is Car Ownership a Good Indicator?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Victoria; Currie, Graham; Stanley, Janet

    2010-01-01

    A need to better understand the multidimensional nature of disadvantage is leading to the adoption of a wider range of measurement variables. One variable now commonly adopted is zero car ownership. This paper challenges the logic of including "not having a car" as an indicator of disadvantage. It argues that this can distort the real picture of…

  20. BREAKING THE BARRIERS OF CULTURAL DISADVANTAGE AND CURRICULUM IMBALANCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCKENDALL, BENJAMIN W.

    THE POSITION TAKEN IS THAT THE CURRICULAR CHANGES THAT HAVE BEEN MADE AT THE UNIVERSITY LEVEL TO PERMIT EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS (USUALLY NEGRO) TO ATTEND COLLEGE ARE ONLY PALLIATIVE BECAUSE MOST ADMISSION PROCEDURES ARE TOO INFLEXIBLE TO CONSIDER THE EFFECTS OF A DISADVANTAGED EDUCATION IN THE LOWER SCHOOLS ON A STUDENT'S SCHOLASTIC…

  1. The Engagement in Schooling of Economically Disadvantaged Parents and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Carey E.; Crosnoe, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This study considers academic risk and resilience in the context of economic disadvantage, examining the associations among such disadvantage, parental involvement in education, and children's academic orientation in a sample of 489 inner-city families. Neither parents' nor children's engagement in the educational system was significantly…

  2. Disadvantaged Learners and VET to Higher Education Transitions. Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Tabatha

    2014-01-01

    The vocational education and training (VET) system can provide an entry point to the education sector for people who have experienced disadvantage in their lives. Participation in VET can provide personal benefits as well as lead to further study and/or employment. How disadvantaged learners participate in vocational education and training is an…

  3. The Elementary Teacher and the Disadvantaged: Bug in a Tub.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koester, Paul W.

    1965-01-01

    The national mandate to "teach the disadvantaged" child requires specific preservice and inservice teacher preparation. The classroom teacher in particular will need to make a firm, deliberate commitment to improve the instruction of the disadvantaged pupils already in his class. However, there are interwoven limitations imposed by the…

  4. KNOWING AND EDUCATING THE DISADVANTAGED, AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    POTTS, ALFRED M., 2D

    "KNOWING AND EDUCATING THE DISADVANTAGED" IS AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF MATERIALS RELATED TO THE EDUCATION OF MIGRANTS OR THE ECONOMICALLY DISADVANTAGED. IT IS ARRANGED BY BOTH TOPIC AND TITLE INDEXES. TOPICS INCLUDE AGRICULTURE, AMERICAN CULTURE, DIRECTORIES, BIBLIOGRAPHIES, GUIDES, HANDBOOKS, ADMINISTRATION AND ORGANIZATION OF…

  5. 48 CFR 1552.219-73 - Small Disadvantaged Business Targets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Business Targets. 1552.219-73 Section 1552.219-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL... Clauses 1552.219-73 Small Disadvantaged Business Targets. As prescribed in 1519.204(b), insert the following clause: Small Disadvantaged Business Targets (OCT 2000) (a) In accordance with FAR 19.1202-4(a...

  6. 48 CFR 1552.219-73 - Small Disadvantaged Business Targets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Business Targets. 1552.219-73 Section 1552.219-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL... Clauses 1552.219-73 Small Disadvantaged Business Targets. As prescribed in 1519.204(b), insert the following clause: Small Disadvantaged Business Targets (OCT 2000) (a) In accordance with FAR 19.1202-4(a...

  7. 48 CFR 1552.219-73 - Small Disadvantaged Business Targets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Business Targets. 1552.219-73 Section 1552.219-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL... Clauses 1552.219-73 Small Disadvantaged Business Targets. As prescribed in 1519.204(b), insert the following clause: Small Disadvantaged Business Targets (OCT 2000) (a) In accordance with FAR 19.1202-4(a...

  8. 48 CFR 1552.219-73 - Small Disadvantaged Business Targets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Business Targets. 1552.219-73 Section 1552.219-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL... Clauses 1552.219-73 Small Disadvantaged Business Targets. As prescribed in 1519.204(b), insert the following clause: Small Disadvantaged Business Targets (OCT 2000) (a) In accordance with FAR 19.1202-4(a...

  9. Characterizing the Bilingual Disadvantage in Noun Phrase Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadat, Jasmin; Martin, Clara D.; Alario, F. Xavier; Costa, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Up to now, evidence on bilingual disadvantages in language production comes from tasks requiring single word retrieval. The present study aimed to assess whether there is a bilingual disadvantage in multiword utterances, and to determine the extent to which such effect is present in onset latencies, articulatory durations, or both. To do so, we…

  10. Attitudes and Practices of Parents: Disadvantage and Access to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Luigi, Nicola; Martelli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on different ways in which socially disadvantaged parents engage with their children's educational experiences, and provides evidence of the role they play in opening or narrowing their children's access to education. Disadvantaged parents are usually associated with weak or difficult educational trajectories for their…

  11. Research Visibility: Manpower Development, Vo-Ed for the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, George L., Ed.

    1970-01-01

    The 16 research reviews which pertain to vocational education for the disadvantaged are organized under these topics: (1) Manpower Development, which reviews manpower forecasting, employer policies and practices, and training in selected apprenticeable trades, (2) Training the Disadvantaged, which discusses the effect of prevocational training and…

  12. Characterizing the Bilingual Disadvantage in Noun Phrase Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadat, Jasmin; Martin, Clara D.; Alario, F. Xavier; Costa, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Up to now, evidence on bilingual disadvantages in language production comes from tasks requiring single word retrieval. The present study aimed to assess whether there is a bilingual disadvantage in multiword utterances, and to determine the extent to which such effect is present in onset latencies, articulatory durations, or both. To do so, we…

  13. 13 CFR 124.1014 - Appeals of disadvantaged status determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appeals of disadvantaged status determinations. 124.1014 Section 124.1014 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS Eligibility, Certification, and...

  14. Cycles of Discrimination: Older Women, Cumulative Disadvantages, and Retirement Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Nanette J.

    2005-01-01

    This article identifies typical life course situations that women experience, which contribute to a cycle of discrimination or a recurrence of disadvantages simply because of their sex, race, or age. Although men suffer social, health, psychological, and economic disadvantages as they age, this article focuses primarily on women as a more deprived…

  15. 13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... prejudice or cultural bias within American society because of their identities as members of groups and without regard to their individual qualities. The social disadvantage must stem from circumstances beyond... designated group if SBA requires it. (3) The presumption of social disadvantage may be overcome with...

  16. 13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... prejudice or cultural bias within American society because of their identities as members of groups and without regard to their individual qualities. The social disadvantage must stem from circumstances beyond... social disadvantage may be overcome with credible evidence to the contrary. Individuals possessing...

  17. 13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... prejudice or cultural bias within American society because of their identities as members of groups and without regard to their individual qualities. The social disadvantage must stem from circumstances beyond... designated group if SBA requires it. (3) The presumption of social disadvantage may be overcome with...

  18. Meeting the Career Development/Counseling Needs of Disadvantaged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puglia, Barbara, Ed.; Bizzaro, Joseph, Ed.

    This handbook is designed to help counselors meet the career development and counseling needs of disadvantaged students. More specifically, the focus of the handbook is on helping disadvantaged students to gain a better understanding of their needs, to strengthen their self-concept, and to reach their fullest potential. Developed around a…

  19. 48 CFR 706.302-71 - Small disadvantaged businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Small disadvantaged... Small disadvantaged businesses. (a) Authority. (1) Citations: Sec. 579, Pub. L. 101-167 (Fiscal Year (FY... authorized in the cited statutes to use other than full and open competition to award contracts to...

  20. 48 CFR 1519.204 - Small disadvantaged business participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Small disadvantaged... PROTECTION AGENCY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 1519.204 Small disadvantaged business participation. (a) The Contracting officer shall insert the provision at 1552.219-72,...

  1. Working with the Disadvantaged Student in Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeKalb SERVE Satellite Center, Stone Mountain, GA.

    This handbook provides vocational educators at the secondary and postsecondary levels with approaches for working with minimally disadvantaged students enrolled in their regular programs. Chapter 1 focuses on the disadvantaged student and considers such problems as perceptual difficulties, resistance to authority, parental influence, insecurity…

  2. Counseling the Disadvantaged Caucasian: A Statistically Significant Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titison, Chessadar

    The primary objective of this study was to determine whether counseling of disadvantaged students during the course of the academic school year would produce an improvement in their emotional problems and lessen the probability of their becoming school dropouts. The 26 disadvantaged Caucasian subjects received extensive counseling therapy for a…

  3. Measures of Disadvantage: Is Car Ownership a Good Indicator?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Victoria; Currie, Graham; Stanley, Janet

    2010-01-01

    A need to better understand the multidimensional nature of disadvantage is leading to the adoption of a wider range of measurement variables. One variable now commonly adopted is zero car ownership. This paper challenges the logic of including "not having a car" as an indicator of disadvantage. It argues that this can distort the real picture of…

  4. 48 CFR 706.302-71 - Small disadvantaged businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... businesses. 706.302-71 Section 706.302-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... Small disadvantaged businesses. (a) Authority. (1) Citations: Sec. 579, Pub. L. 101-167 (Fiscal Year (FY... business concerns owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals (small...

  5. 48 CFR 706.302-71 - Small disadvantaged businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... businesses. 706.302-71 Section 706.302-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... Small disadvantaged businesses. (a) Authority. (1) Citations: Sec. 579, Pub. L. 101-167 (Fiscal Year (FY... business concerns owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals (small...

  6. 48 CFR 706.302-71 - Small disadvantaged businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... businesses. 706.302-71 Section 706.302-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... Small disadvantaged businesses. (a) Authority. (1) Citations: Sec. 579, Pub. L. 101-167 (Fiscal Year (FY... business concerns owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals (small...

  7. A systematic review of peer-support programs for smoking cessation in disadvantaged groups.

    PubMed

    Ford, Pauline; Clifford, Anton; Gussy, Kim; Gartner, Coral

    2013-10-28

    The burden of smoking is borne most by those who are socially disadvantaged and the social gradient in smoking contributes substantially to the health gap between the rich and poor. A number of factors contribute to higher tobacco use among socially disadvantaged populations including social (e.g., low social support for quitting), psychological (e.g., low self-efficacy) and physical factors (e.g., greater nicotine dependence). Current evidence for the effectiveness of peer or partner support interventions in enhancing the success of quit attempts in the general population is equivocal, largely due to study design and lack of a theoretical framework in this research. We conducted a systematic review of peer support interventions for smoking cessation in disadvantaged groups. The eight studies which met the inclusion criteria showed that interventions that improve social support for smoking cessation may be of greater importance to disadvantaged groups who experience fewer opportunities to access such support informally. Peer-support programs are emerging as highly effective and empowering ways for people to manage health issues in a socially supportive context. We discuss the potential for peer-support programs to address the high prevalence of smoking in vulnerable populations and also to build capacity in their communities.

  8. Intimate partner violence in neighborhood context: The roles of structural disadvantage, subjective disorder, and emotional distress.

    PubMed

    Copp, Jennifer E; Kuhl, Danielle C; Giordano, Peggy C; Longmore, Monica A; Manning, Wendy D

    2015-09-01

    Most theoretical treatments of intimate partner violence (IPV) focus on individual-level processes. Some researchers have attempted to situate IPV within the larger neighborhood context, but few studies have sought to link structural- and individual-level factors. The current analyses fill a research gap by examining the role of anger and depression in the association between neighborhood disadvantage and IPV. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) and the 2000 Census, this study focuses on structural indicators of disadvantage as well as subjective disorder, and highlights the complex associations between neighborhood conditions, emotional distress, and IPV. Findings indicate that anger and depressive symptoms partially explain the association between neighborhood disadvantage and IPV. Additionally, the associations between disadvantage, disorder, and IPV depend on respondent's level of anger. Results underscore the need to further consider the role of neighborhood factors (both objective and subjective) in relation to IPV, and also suggest the utility of introducing individual-level emotional measures to assess the circumstances under which neighborhoods matter most. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Intimate Partner Violence in Neighborhood Context: The Roles of Structural Disadvantage, Subjective Disorder, and Emotional Distress

    PubMed Central

    Copp, Jennifer E.; Kuhl, Danielle C.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.

    2015-01-01

    Most theoretical treatments of intimate partner violence (IPV) focus on individual-level processes. Some researchers have attempted to situate IPV within the larger neighborhood context, but few studies have sought to link structural- and individual-level factors. The current analyses fill a research gap by examining the role of anger and depression in the association between neighborhood disadvantage and IPV. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) and the 2000 Census, this study focuses on structural indicators of disadvantage as well as subjective disorder, and highlights the complex associations between neighborhood conditions, emotional distress, and IPV. Findings indicate that anger and depressive symptoms partially explain the association between neighborhood disadvantage and IPV. Additionally, the associations between disadvantage, disorder, and IPV depend on respondent’s level of anger. Results underscore the need to further consider the role of neighborhood factors (both objective and subjective) in relation to IPV, and also suggest the utility of introducing individual-level emotional measures to assess the circumstances under which neighborhoods matter most. PMID:26188438

  10. Stuck in the catch 22: attitudes towards smoking cessation among populations vulnerable to social disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Pateman, Kelsey; Ford, Pauline; Fizgerald, Lisa; Mutch, Allyson; Yuke, Kym; Bonevski, Billie; Gartner, Coral

    2016-06-01

    To explore how smoking and smoking cessation is perceived within the context of disadvantage, across a broad cross-section of defined populations vulnerable to social disadvantage. Qualitative focus groups with participants recruited through community service organizations (CSO). Metropolitan and regional settings in Queensland, Australia. Focus groups were held at the respective CSO facilities. Fifty-six participants across nine focus groups, including people living with mental illness, people experiencing or at risk of homelessness (adult and youth populations), people living with HIV, people living in a low-income area and Indigenous Australians. Thematic, in-depth analysis of focus group discussions. Participant demographic information and smoking history was recorded. Smoking behaviour, smoking identity and feelings about smoking were reflective of individual circumstances and social and environmental context. Participants felt 'trapped' in smoking because they felt unable to control the stressful life circumstances that triggered and sustained their smoking. Smoking cessation was viewed as an individual's responsibility, which was at odds with participants' statements about the broader factors outside of their own control that were responsible for their smoking. Highly disadvantaged smokers' views on smoking involve contradictions between feeling that smoking cessation involves personal responsibility, while at the same time feeling trapped by stressful life circumstances. Tobacco control programmes aiming to reduce smoking among disadvantaged groups are unlikely to be successful unless the complex interplay of social factors is carefully considered. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. A Systematic Review of Peer-Support Programs for Smoking Cessation in Disadvantaged Groups

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Pauline; Clifford, Anton; Gussy, Kim; Gartner, Coral

    2013-01-01

    The burden of smoking is borne most by those who are socially disadvantaged and the social gradient in smoking contributes substantially to the health gap between the rich and poor. A number of factors contribute to higher tobacco use among socially disadvantaged populations including social (e.g., low social support for quitting), psychological (e.g., low self-efficacy) and physical factors (e.g., greater nicotine dependence). Current evidence for the effectiveness of peer or partner support interventions in enhancing the success of quit attempts in the general population is equivocal, largely due to study design and lack of a theoretical framework in this research. We conducted a systematic review of peer support interventions for smoking cessation in disadvantaged groups. The eight studies which met the inclusion criteria showed that interventions that improve social support for smoking cessation may be of greater importance to disadvantaged groups who experience fewer opportunities to access such support informally. Peer-support programs are emerging as highly effective and empowering ways for people to manage health issues in a socially supportive context. We discuss the potential for peer-support programs to address the high prevalence of smoking in vulnerable populations and also to build capacity in their communities. PMID:24169412

  12. Whetting disadvantaged adults' appetite for nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Simone; Biagioni, Nicole; Moore, Sarah; Pratt, Iain S

    2017-10-01

    To identify the features of a nutrition education programme for disadvantaged adults deemed most attractive and useful by participants. A two-year, multi-method, qualitative evaluation of pre and post data collected from programme participants. Data were imported into NVivo10 for coding to facilitate a thematic analysis. Western Australia. Participants Individuals attending the Western Australian FOODcents nutrition education programme that is designed to provide knowledge and skills needed to consume a healthy diet on a budget. Focus groups were conducted several weeks after course completion (five groups, forty-seven participants), observations were conducted during FOODcents sessions (thirty-one observation episodes, 237 participants), and open-ended questions were asked in pre-post hard-copy surveys administered in sessions (n 927) and an online survey administered on average six weeks after course completion (n 114). The course attributes that were found to be especially important to participants were: (i) user-friendly, practical information that could be immediately translated to their daily lives; (ii) experiential learning that involved direct contact with food products; and (iii) opportunities for social interaction. These aspects of nutrition education were described as being highly influential in the decision to participate in the course, the application of the information in their subsequent food purchase and preparation activities, and their word-of-mouth communications with others about the course. Incorporating aspects of most importance to participants into nutrition education programme delivery and promotion may increase joining rates, enjoyment, satisfaction with course content and, ultimately, the uptake of recommended behaviours.

  13. Segmented assimilation, neighborhood disadvantage, and Hispanic immigrant health.

    PubMed

    Akresh, Ilana Redstone; Do, D Phuong; Frank, Reanne

    2016-01-01

    We use a subset of Hispanics from the New Immigrant Survey, a nationally representative data set on immigrants recently granted legal permanent residency (n = 2245), to examine whether the relationship between assimilation and health is modified by neighborhood disadvantage and, in doing so, carry out an empirical test of the segmented assimilation hypothesis. Results indicate that assimilation in the least disadvantaged neighborhoods can be protective against poor health. Specifically, more assimilated men and women in the lowest disadvantage neighborhoods have a lower likelihood of self-reported poorer health and being overweight, respectively; no link was found in higher disadvantage neighborhoods. Assimilation was not found to be associated with self-reported health for women or BMI for men, regardless of neighborhood disadvantage level. Overall, we find some evidence supporting the hypothesis that the effects of assimilation on health depend on the context in which immigrants experience it.

  14. A Comparative Study of Failure Avoidance in Culturally Disadvantaged and Non-Culturally Disadvantaged First Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webbink, Patricia G.; Stedman, Donald J.

    This study tests the hypothesis that culturally disadvantaged (CD) children would return more often to a completed task (one on which they had had previous success), while non-culturally disadvantaged (NCD) children would return more often to an incompleted task (to achieve closure or to re-try a task which they had previously failed.) Failure…

  15. Speaking about Cultural Difference and School Disadvantage. An Interview Study of "Samoan" Paraprofessionals in Designated Disadvantaged Secondary Schools in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Parlo

    2001-01-01

    Uses Bernstein's theory of pedagogic discourse to examine interview accounts of educational disadvantage provided by Samoan paraprofessionals in secondary schools in Queensland (Australia). Finds that Samoan paraprofessionals attributed educational disadvantage to the arbitrary organization of students, knowledge, and spaces in schooling…

  16. The association of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with socioeconomic disadvantage: alternative explanations and evidence.

    PubMed

    Russell, Ginny; Ford, Tamsin; Rosenberg, Rachel; Kelly, Susan

    2014-05-01

    Studies throughout Northern Europe, the United States and Australia have found an association between childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and family socioeconomic disadvantage. We report further evidence for the association and review potential causal pathways that might explain the link. Secondary analysis of a UK birth cohort (the Millennium Cohort Study, N = 19,519) was used to model the association of ADHD with socioeconomic disadvantage and assess evidence for several potential explanatory pathways. The case definition of ADHD was a parent-report of whether ADHD had been identified by a medical doctor or health professional when children were 7 years old. ADHD was associated with a range of indicators of social and economic disadvantage including poverty, housing tenure, maternal education, income, lone parenthood and younger motherhood. There was no evidence to suggest childhood ADHD was a causal factor of socioeconomic disadvantage: income did not decrease for parents of children with ADHD compared to controls over the 7-year study period. No clinical bias towards labelling ADHD in low SES groups was detected. There was evidence to suggest that parent attachment/family conflict mediated the relationship between ADHD and SES. Although genetic and neurological determinants may be the primary predictors of difficulties with activity level and attention, aetiology appears to be influenced by socioeconomic situation. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  17. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Adolescent Substance Use Disorder: The Moderating Role of Maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Handley, Elizabeth D; Rogosch, Fred A; Guild, Danielle J; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-08-01

    The ecological-transactional model proposes that nested contexts interact to influence development. From this perspective, child maltreatment represents an individual-level risk factor posited to interact with numerous other nested contextual levels, such as the neighborhood environment, to affect development. The aim of this study was to investigate whether adolescents with maltreatment histories represent a vulnerable group for whom disadvantaged neighborhoods confer risk for substance use disorders. Participants were 411 adolescents (age 15-18; mean age = 16.24) from an investigation of the developmental sequelae of childhood maltreatment. Multiple-group structural equation models, controlling for family-level socioeconomic status, indicated that neighborhood disadvantage was associated with more marijuana-dependence symptoms among maltreated but not among non-maltreated adolescents. Moreover, among maltreated adolescents, those who experienced multiple subtypes of maltreatment were at greatest risk for problematic marijuana use in the context of neighborhood disadvantage. Interestingly, the direct effect of neighborhood disadvantage, but not the interaction with maltreatment, was related to adolescent alcohol-dependence symptoms. Results highlight the importance of considering multiple levels of influence when examining risk associated with child maltreatment.

  18. Neighborhood disadvantage and adolescent substance use disorder: The moderating role of maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Handley, Elizabeth D.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Guild, Danielle J.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-01-01

    The ecological-transactional model proposes that nested contexts interact to influence development. From this perspective, child maltreatment represents an individual-level risk factor posited to interact with numerous other nested contextual levels, such as the neighborhood environment, to affect development. The aim of this study was to investigate whether adolescents with maltreatment histories represent a vulnerable group for whom disadvantaged neighborhoods confer risk for substance use disorders. Participants were 411 adolescents (ages 15–18; mean age=16.24) from an investigation of the developmental sequelae of childhood maltreatment. Multiple-group structural equation models, controlling for family-level SES, indicated that neighborhood disadvantage was associated with more marijuana dependence symptoms among maltreated, but not non-maltreated adolescents. Moreover, among maltreated adolescents, those who experienced multiple subtypes of maltreatment were at greatest risk for problematic marijuana use in the context of neighborhood disadvantage. Interestingly, the direct effect of neighborhood disadvantage, but not the interaction with maltreatment, was related to adolescent alcohol dependence symptoms. Results highlight the importance of considering multiple levels of influence when examining risk associated with child maltreatment. PMID:25947011

  19. Public perceptions of risk in criminality: the effects of mental illness and social disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Nee, Claire; Witt, Clare

    2013-10-30

    We examined how different types of mental illness elicited varying levels of predicted criminality and compared this with factors which might also elicit a negative response, specifically, a criminal history and social disadvantage. A sample of 243 participants undertook an anonymous, online experiment. Each participant was exposed to one of six vignettes: three involved mental illness (schizophrenia, depression/anxiety, or alcohol dependency); two in which socio-economic background was manipulated; and a control. The impact of mental illness, history of criminality and social disadvantage on the likelihood that the character in the vignette would commit future crime, and levels of sympathy, trust and potential for rehabilitation in the character were measured. Age and personal experience of mental illness and/or criminal behaviour in the participants was also examined. The sample were significantly more likely to think that a character would 'possibly' commit future crime if he had mental illness in comparison to the control, but crimes were expected to be minor. Significantly more discriminatory behaviour was reported towards the character with no mental illness but a disadvantaged background. Familiarity ameliorated this effect. Prejudice towards those with a criminal past and a disadvantaged background may be stronger than prejudice against those with mental illnesses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pathways From Family Disadvantage via Abusive Parenting and Caregiver Mental Health to Adolescent Health Risks in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Meinck, Franziska; Cluver, Lucie Dale; Orkin, Frederick Mark; Kuo, Caroline; Sharma, Amogh Dhar; Hensels, Imca Sifra; Sherr, Lorraine

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent health is a major concern in low- and middle-income countries, but little is known about its predictors. Family disadvantage and abusive parenting may be important factors associated with adolescent psychological, behavioral, and physical health outcomes. This study, based in South Africa, aimed to develop an empirically based theoretical model of relationships between family factors such as deprivation, illness, parenting, and adolescent health outcomes. Cross-sectional data were collected in 2009-2010 from 2,477 adolescents (aged 10-17) and their caregivers using stratified random sampling in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Participants reported on sociodemographics, psychological symptoms, parenting, and physical health. Multivariate regressions were conducted, confirmatory factor analysis employed to identify measurement models, and a structural equation model developed. The final model demonstrated that family disadvantage (caregiver AIDS illness and poverty) was associated with increased abusive parenting. Abusive parenting was in turn associated with higher adolescent health risks. Additionally, family disadvantage was directly associated with caregiver mental health distress which increased adolescent health risks. There was no direct effect of family disadvantage on adolescent health risks but indirect effects through caregiver mental health distress and abusive parenting were found. Reducing family disadvantage and abusive parenting is essential in improving adolescent health in South Africa. Combination interventions could include poverty and violence reduction, access to health care, mental health services for caregivers and adolescents, and positive parenting support. Such combination packages can improve caregiver and child outcomes by reducing disadvantage and mitigating negative pathways from disadvantage among highly vulnerable families. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  1. Advantages and disadvantages of biodegradable platforms in drug eluting stents

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Granillo, Agustina; Rubilar, Bibiana; Rodriguez-Granillo, Gaston; Rodriguez, Alfredo E

    2011-01-01

    Coronary angioplasty with drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation is currently the most common stent procedure worldwide. Since the introduction of DES, coronary restenosis as well as the incidence of target vessel and target lesion revascularization have been significantly reduced. However, the incidence of very late stent thrombosis beyond the first year after stent deployment has more commonly been linked to DES than to bare-metal stent (BMS) implantation. Several factors have been associated with very late stent thrombosis after DES implantation, such as delayed healing, inflammation, stent mal-apposition and endothelial dysfunction. Some of these adverse events were associated with the presence of durable polymers, which were essential to allow the elution of the immunosuppressive drug in the first DES designs. The introduction of erodable polymers in DES technology has provided the potential to complete the degradation of the polymer simultaneously or immediately after the release of the immunosuppressive drug, after which a BMS remains in place. Several DES designs with biodegradable (BIO) polymers have been introduced in preclinical and clinical studies, including randomized trials. In this review, we analyze the clinical results from 6 observational and randomized studies with BIO polymers and discuss advantages and disadvantages of this new technology. PMID:21499496

  2. Adversity, Adaptive Calibration, and Health: The Case of Disadvantaged Families

    PubMed Central

    de Baca, Tomás Cabeza; Wahl, Richard A.; Barnett, Melissa A.; Figueredo, Aurelio José; Ellis, Bruce J.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologists and medical researchers often employ an allostatic load model that focuses on environmental and lifestyle factors, together with biological vulnerabilities, to explain the deterioration of human physiological systems and chronic degenerative disease. Although this perspective has informed medicine and public health, it is agnostic toward the functional significance of pathophysiology and health deterioration. Drawing on Life History (LH) theory, the current paper reviews the literature on disadvantaged families to serve as a conceptual model of stress-health relationships in which the allocation of reproductive effort is instantiated in the LH strategies of individuals and reflects the bioenergetic and material resource tradeoffs. We propose that researchers interested in health disparities reframe chronic degenerative diseases as outcomes resulting from strategic calibration of physiological systems to best adapt, survive, and reproduce in response to demands of specific developmental contexts. These effects of adversity on later-age degenerative disease are mediated, in part, by socioemotional and cognitive mechanisms expressed in different life history strategies. PMID:27175327

  3. Characterizing the bilingual disadvantage in noun phrase production.

    PubMed

    Sadat, Jasmin; Martin, Clara D; Alario, F Xavier; Costa, Albert

    2012-06-01

    Up to now, evidence on bilingual disadvantages in language production comes from tasks requiring single word retrieval. The present study aimed to assess whether there is a bilingual disadvantage in multiword utterances, and to determine the extent to which such effect is present in onset latencies, articulatory durations, or both. To do so, we tested two groups of Spanish speakers (monolinguals and early highly proficient bilinguals using their first and dominant language) each in two different production tasks: bare noun and noun phrase production. Onset latencies were longer for bilinguals relative to monolinguals in both production tasks. Regarding articulatory durations, we observed a clear bilingual disadvantage in noun phrase production and a strong tendency in bare noun production. These findings generalize the bilingual disadvantage in speech production to various performance measures (onset latency and articulatory duration of production) and beyond single words.

  4. Reading Performance of Disadvantaged Children: Cost Effectiveness of Educational Inputs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiesling, Herbert J.

    1972-01-01

    Extends the findings of a study of relationships of some educational inputs and reading performance of disadvantaged California Title I pupils, utilizing a highly simplified model of the compensatory education process. (JM)

  5. Facilitating Vocational Development Among Disadvantaged Inner-City Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamdani, Asma

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the vocational development process of tenth-grade disadvantaged students can be facilitated through deliberate intervention in the form of supplementary learning experiences. (Author)

  6. Gender disadvantage and common mental disorders in women.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Prabha S; Satyanarayana, Veena A

    2010-01-01

    Research in the area of gender and mental health indicates that women are disproportionately affected by common mental disorders (CMDs) as well as co-morbid mental disorders. However, the concept of gender disadvantage, its correlates, and mental health outcomes has received relatively less research attention. In addition, there are no known systematic reviews in the area of gender disadvantage and common mental disorders in recent years. In this review we have therefore attempted to deconstruct the concept of gender disadvantage, identify important correlates of gender disadvantage and illustrate their influence on common mental disorders. Since gender is a social construct and is greatly influenced by one's culture and ethnicity, we have made an attempt to integrate international literature on the subject and highlight cultural and ethnic relevance of topics as they emerge. Finally, we have provided take home messages from existing literature, identified gaps in literature, and formulated directions for future research in this area.

  7. Vocational Training of Disadvantaged Youth in the Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corvalan-Vasquez, Oscar

    1983-01-01

    Defines "disadvantaged youth" and reviews vocational training and employment programs designed for them. Finds that these activities tend to favor the relatively privileged rather than those with the greatest need. (SK)

  8. Facilitating Vocational Development Among Disadvantaged Inner-City Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamdani, Asma

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the vocational development process of tenth-grade disadvantaged students can be facilitated through deliberate intervention in the form of supplementary learning experiences. (Author)

  9. Review of ADHD Pharmacotherapies: Advantages, Disadvantages, and Clinical Pearls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daughton, Joan M.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    The advantages, disadvantages, as well as helpful hints on when to use several drug therapies against attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are discussed. The drugs discussed are methylphenidate, atomoxetine, clonidine, and bupropion.

  10. Making Computer Science More Accessible to Educationally Disadvantaged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Ian; Mueller, Conrad

    1994-01-01

    Addresses how the Department of Computer Science at the University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa has attempted to make computer science accessible to students who have been disadvantaged by the apartheid system. (Author/MKR)

  11. Making Computer Science More Accessible to Educationally Disadvantaged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Ian; Mueller, Conrad

    1994-01-01

    Addresses how the Department of Computer Science at the University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa has attempted to make computer science accessible to students who have been disadvantaged by the apartheid system. (Author/MKR)

  12. Review of ADHD Pharmacotherapies: Advantages, Disadvantages, and Clinical Pearls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daughton, Joan M.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    The advantages, disadvantages, as well as helpful hints on when to use several drug therapies against attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are discussed. The drugs discussed are methylphenidate, atomoxetine, clonidine, and bupropion.

  13. Advantages and disadvantages in usage of bioinformatic programs in promoter region analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawełkowicz, Magdalena E.; Skarzyńska, Agnieszka; Posyniak, Kacper; ZiÄ bska, Karolina; PlÄ der, Wojciech; Przybecki, Zbigniew

    2015-09-01

    An important computational challenge is finding the regulatory elements across the promotor region. In this work we present the advantages and disadvantages from the application of different bioinformatics programs for localization of transcription factor binding sites in the upstream region of genes connected with sex determination in cucumber. We use PlantCARE, PlantPAN and SignalScan to find motifs in the promotor regions. The results have been compared and possible function of chosen motifs has been described.

  14. Re-examining the home disadvantage in professional ice hockey.

    PubMed

    Gayton, William F; Perry, Scott M; Loignon, Andrew C; Ricker, Angela

    2011-04-01

    Occurrence of the home disadvantage in professional ice hockey was examined by analyzing shootout data from 2005 through 2008. Results indicated that teams involved in shootouts playing at their home arenas did not lose significantly more games at home than on the road. Results did not support the hypotheses that emphasize the roles of physical contact and diffusion of responsibility in accounting for past failures to find the home disadvantage in professional ice hockey.

  15. Cumulative Disadvantage and Connections between Welfare Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bask, Miia

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we perform a latent class factor analysis of a panel that involves two waves of data from an annual survey of living conditions in Sweden that were gathered in the years 1994-1995 and 2002-2003. We follow the same 3,149 individuals over both waves, describing them by sex, age group, family type, nationality background, education…

  16. Cumulative Disadvantage and Connections between Welfare Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bask, Miia

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we perform a latent class factor analysis of a panel that involves two waves of data from an annual survey of living conditions in Sweden that were gathered in the years 1994-1995 and 2002-2003. We follow the same 3,149 individuals over both waves, describing them by sex, age group, family type, nationality background, education…

  17. Advantages of Being Disadvantaged: A Paradox.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, E. Gnanaraj

    1985-01-01

    Explores factors that can enable children reared in impoverished environments to use their conditions of adversity to succeed. Discusses essential components to development of achievement motivation, including innate potential; family ties and roots; creative manipulation of the environment; expectations; and the roles of religion, parents, and…

  18. Family and neighborhood disadvantage, home environment, and children's school readiness.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K; Hur, Eunhye

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine associations between family socioeconomic risk, neighborhood disadvantage, and children's school readiness. A sample of 420 children from 48 early childcare programs yielded multi-informant data. The average age was 55.3 months (SD = 6.4), with 38% of children being Black, non-Hispanic, Hispanic, or other minority race (American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, and Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander). One third (32.4%) of the parents had annual incomes less than $30,000. We used multilevel structural equation modeling to test direct and indirect associations among family socioeconomic risk and neighborhood disadvantage and children's cognitive and social-emotional development through home learning environment and parental depression. Children with a greater number of family socioeconomic risks and a higher level of neighborhood disadvantage demonstrated lower scores on cognitive skills. The degree of family socioeconomic risk was indirectly associated with children's cognitive ability through parents' cognitive stimulation at home. Parents who had more family socioeconomic risks and neighborhood disadvantage reported more depressive symptoms, which, in turn, suggested children's greater probability of having social-emotional problems. In other words, home learning environments explained associations between family socioeconomic disadvantage and children's cognitive skills, while parental depression explained associations between family/neighborhood disadvantages and children's social-emotional problems. Results suggest the importance of intervention or prevention strategies for parents to improve cognitive stimulation at home and to reduce depressive symptoms.

  19. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Preconception Stressful Life Events, and Infant Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyojun; Wisk, Lauren E.; Cheng, Erika R.; Mandell, Kara; Chatterjee, Debanjana; Zarak, Dakota

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine whether the effects of preconception stressful life events (PSLEs) on birth weight differed by neighborhood disadvantage. Methods. We drew our data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (2001–2002; n = 9300). We created a neighborhood disadvantage index (NDI) using county-level data from the 2000 US Census. We grouped the NDI into tertiles that represented advantaged, middle advantaged, and disadvantaged neighborhoods. Stratified multinomial logistic regressions estimated the effect of PSLEs on birth weight, controlling for confounders. Results. We found a gradient in the relationship between women’s exposure to PSLEs and having a very low birth weight (VLBW) infant by NDI tertile; the association was strongest in disadvantaged neighborhoods (adjusted odd ratio [AOR] = 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04, 2.53), followed by middle (AOR = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.00, 1.93) and advantaged (AOR = 1.29; 95% CI = 0.91, 1.82) neighborhoods. We observed a similar gradient for women with chronic conditions and among minority mothers. Conclusions. Women who experienced PSLEs, who had chronic conditions, or were racial/ethnic minorities had the greatest risk of having VLBW infants if they lived in disadvantaged neighborhoods; this suggests exacerbation of risk within disadvantaged environments. Interventions to reduce rates of VLBW should focus on reducing the deleterious effects of stressors and on improving neighborhood conditions. PMID:25790423

  20. Race, Employment Disadvantages, and Heavy Drinking: A Multilevel Model.

    PubMed

    Lo, Celia C; Cheng, Tyrone C

    2015-01-01

    We intended to determine (1) whether stress from employment disadvantages led to increased frequency of heavy drinking and (2) whether race had a role in the relationship between such disadvantages and heavy drinking. Study data came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a prospective study that has followed a representative sample of youth since 1979. Our study employed data from 11 particular years, during which the survey included items measuring respondents' heavy drinking. Our final sample numbered 10,171 respondents, which generated 75,394 person-waves for data analysis. Both of our hypotheses were supported by results from multilevel mixed-effects linear regression capturing the time-varying nature of three employment disadvantages and of the heavy-drinking outcome. Results show that more-frequent heavy drinking was associated with employment disadvantages, and that disadvantages' effects on drinking were stronger for Blacks and Hispanics than for Whites. That worsening employment disadvantages have worse effects on minority groups' heavy drinking (compared to Whites) probably contributes to the racial health disparities in our nation. Policies and programs addressing such disparities are especially important during economic downturns.

  1. Competitive disadvantage makes attitudes towards rape less negative.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Kevin L; Pettersen, Cathrine

    2011-10-12

    Evolutionary theorists have argued that perceived competitive disadvantage may lead to more positive evaluation of, and greater likelihood of engaging in, risky and antisocial behavior. However, experimental studies have not yet examined the effects of competitive disadvantage on perceptions of rape. In the current study, we created a manipulation of perceived competitive status to test its effects on beliefs about rape. In one condition, participants were made to feel disadvantaged relative to male peers in terms of financial, physical, and intellectual power, whereas in the other condition they were made to feel advantaged. Participants were 120 heterosexual male undergraduate students. The manipulation was effective; compared to participants in the advantage condition, those in the disadvantage condition rated themselves as significantly worse off financially, shorter, in worse physical shape, and as having lower course marks than the average male student at the university. Compared to perceived competitive advantage, perceived disadvantage led to less negative attitudes towards rape. However, perceived competitive status did not significantly affect justifications and excuses for rape. Future studies using similar experimental manipulations can complement correlational studies and may contribute to greater clarity, precision, and sophistication of research and theory on the role of competitive disadvantage in rape.

  2. Area-level socioeconomic disadvantage and suicidal behaviour in Europe: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Joanne-Marie; Graham, Eva; Bambra, Clare

    2017-09-23

    The relationship between adverse individual socio-economic circumstances and suicidal behaviour is well established. However, the impact of adverse collective circumstances - such as the socio-economic context where people live - is less well understood. This systematic review explores the extent to which area-level socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with inequalities in suicidal behaviour and self-harm in Europe. We performed a systematic review (in MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, EconLit and Social Sciences Citation Index) from 2005 to 2015. Observational studies were included if they were based in Europe and had a primary suicidal behaviour and self-harm outcome, compared at least two areas, included an area-level measure of socio-economic disadvantage and were published in the English language. The review followed The Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines for quality appraisal. We identified 27 studies (30 papers) from 14 different European countries. There was a significant association (in 25/27 studies, all of which were rated as of medium or high quality) between socioeconomic disadvantage and suicidal behaviour (and self-harm), particularly for men, and this was a consistent finding across a variety of European countries. Socio-economic disadvantage was found to have an independent effect in several studies whilst others found evidence of mediating contextual and compositional factors. There is strong evidence of an association between suicidal behaviours (and self-harm) and area-level socio-economic disadvantage in Europe, particularly for men. Suicide prevention strategies should take this into account. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Does cognitive ability buffer the link between childhood disadvantage and adult health?

    PubMed

    Bridger, Emma; Daly, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Individual differences in childhood cognitive ability have been neglected in the study of how early life psychosocial factors may buffer the long-term health consequences of social disadvantage. In this study, we drew on rich data from two large British cohorts to test whether high levels of cognitive ability may protect children from experiencing the physical and mental health consequences of early life socioeconomic disadvantage. Participants from the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS; N = 11,522) were followed from birth to age 42, and those from the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS; N = 13,213) were followed from birth to age 50. Childhood social disadvantage was indexed using 6 indicators gauging parental education, occupational prestige, and housing characteristics (i.e., housing tenure and home crowding). Standardized assessments of cognitive ability were completed at ages 10 (BCS) and 11 (NCDS) years. Psychological distress, self-rated health, and all-cause mortality were examined from early adulthood to midlife in both cohorts. Early social disadvantage predicted elevated levels of psychological distress and lower levels of self-rated health in both cohorts and higher mortality risk in the NCDS. Childhood cognitive ability moderated each of these relationships such that the link between early life social disadvantage and poor health in adulthood was markedly stronger at low (-1 SD) compared to high (+1 SD) levels of childhood cognitive ability. This study provides evidence that high childhood cognitive ability is associated with a decrease in the strength of socioeconomic status-driven health inequalities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. 76 FR 30898 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Improvements for Airport Concessions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... Office of the Secretary 49 CFR Part 23 RIN 2105-AE10 Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program... Department of Transportation's Airport Concessions Disadvantaged Business Enterprise (ACDBE) regulation, consistent with recently issued amendments in the Department's regulation for the disadvantaged business...

  5. Racial disparities in sleep: the role of neighborhood disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Curtis, David S; El-Sheikh, Mona; Chae, David H; Boylan, Jennifer Morozink; Ryff, Carol D

    Disparities in sleep duration and efficiency between Black/African American (AA) and White/European American (EA) adults are well-documented. The objective of this study was to examine neighborhood disadvantage as an explanation for race differences in objectively measured sleep. Data were from 133 AA and 293 EA adults who participated in the sleep assessment protocol of the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study (57% female; Mean Age = 56.8 years, SD = 11.4). Sleep minutes, onset latency, and waking after sleep onset (WASO) were assessed over seven nights using wrist actigraphy. Neighborhood characteristics were assessed by linking home addresses to tract-level socioeconomic data from the 2000 US Census. Multilevel models estimated associations between neighborhood disadvantage and sleep, and the degree to which neighborhood disadvantage mediated race differences in sleep controlling for family socioeconomic position and demographic variables. AAs had shorter sleep duration, greater onset latency, and higher WASO than EAs (ps < 0.001). Neighborhood disadvantage was significantly associated with WASO (B = 3.54, p = 0.028), but not sleep minutes (B = -2.21, p = 0.60) or latency (B = 1.55, p = 0.38). Furthermore, race was indirectly associated with WASO via neighborhood disadvantage (B = 4.63, p = 0.035), which explained 24% of the race difference. When measures of depression, health behaviors, and obesity were added to the model, the association between neighborhood disadvantage and WASO was attenuated by 11% but remained significant. Findings suggest that neighborhood disadvantage mediates a portion of race differences in WASO, an important indicator of sleep efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of county disadvantage on behavior problems among US children with cognitive delay.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Erika R; Park, Hyojun; Robert, Stephanie A; Palta, Mari; Witt, Whitney P

    2014-11-01

    We investigated relationships among cognitive delay, community factors, and behavior problems over 2 years in early childhood with a national sample of US families. Data were from 3 waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (2001-2005; n = 7650). We defined cognitive delay as the lowest 10% of mental scores from the Bayley Short Form-Research Edition, administered at 9 and 24 months. At 24 months, we classified children as typically developing or as having resolved, newly developed, or persistent cognitive delays. Behavior was measured at age 4 years with the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales (range = 0-36). Community factors included perceived neighborhood safety and an index of county disadvantage. Behavior scores at age 4 years (mean = 12.4; SD = 4.9) were higher among children with resolved (Β = 0.70; SE = 0.20), newly developed (Β = 1.92; SE = 0.25), and persistent (Β = 2.96; SE = 0.41) cognitive delays than for typically developing children. The interaction between county disadvantage and cognitive delay status was statistically significant (P < .01), suggesting that county disadvantage was particularly detrimental for children with persistent delays. The community context may provide an opportunity for public health interventions to improve the behavioral health of children with cognitive delays.

  7. Violent behavior in Chinese adolescents with an economic disadvantage. Psychological, family and interpersonal correlates.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T; Tang, Vera

    2003-01-01

    Two studies investigating the psychological, family and interpersonal correlates of adolescent violent behavior are reported in this paper. In Study 1, secondary school students (N = 1,519) responded to established scales assessing their psychological attributes, family functioning, parenting qualities and psychosocial support and conflict. Results of Study 1 showed that: a) adolescents who showed higher levels of perceived stress and psychological symptoms displayed more signs of adolescent violence; b) adolescents who had a higher sense of mastery and existential mental health displayed less signs of violence; c) adolescents' attitudes towards poverty and traditional Chinese beliefs about adversity were significantly related to adolescent violence; d) higher levels of family functioning, positive parenting styles as well as interpersonal support and lower levels of interpersonal conflicts were associated with a lower level of adolescent violence. Results further showed that some of the above factors were more strongly related to adolescent violence in adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage than in adolescents who did not experience economic disadvantage. Some of the findings of Study 1 were replicated in Study 2, where adolescents from 229 families (either families on welfare or low income families) were recruited. These studies suggested that several psychological, family and interpersonal factors are related to adolescent violent behavior, particularly in adolescents with economic disadvantage.

  8. Impact of County Disadvantage on Behavior Problems Among US Children With Cognitive Delay

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyojun; Robert, Stephanie A.; Palta, Mari; Witt, Whitney P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated relationships among cognitive delay, community factors, and behavior problems over 2 years in early childhood with a national sample of US families. Methods. Data were from 3 waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (2001–2005; n = 7650). We defined cognitive delay as the lowest 10% of mental scores from the Bayley Short Form–Research Edition, administered at 9 and 24 months. At 24 months, we classified children as typically developing or as having resolved, newly developed, or persistent cognitive delays. Behavior was measured at age 4 years with the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales (range = 0–36). Community factors included perceived neighborhood safety and an index of county disadvantage. Results. Behavior scores at age 4 years (mean = 12.4; SD = 4.9) were higher among children with resolved (Β = 0.70; SE = 0.20), newly developed (Β = 1.92; SE = 0.25), and persistent (Β = 2.96; SE = 0.41) cognitive delays than for typically developing children. The interaction between county disadvantage and cognitive delay status was statistically significant (P < .01), suggesting that county disadvantage was particularly detrimental for children with persistent delays. Conclusions. The community context may provide an opportunity for public health interventions to improve the behavioral health of children with cognitive delays. PMID:25211742

  9. Socioeconomic status and cumulative disadvantage processes across the life course: implications for health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Seabrook, Jamie A; Avison, William R

    2012-02-01

    Given the complexity surrounding various interactions among health determinants and the challenge of being able to adequately describe the dynamic processes through which health determinants have their effects, the purpose of this paper is to provide a conceptual overview demonstrating the effects of socioeconomic status and cumulative disadvantage on producing health disparities across the life course. The idea underlying cumulative disadvantage is that socioeconomic-based health inequalities will increase across the life course, mostly because of differential exposure to risk factors and access to protective resources. The advantage of life course sociology is its consideration of early life experiences, and the social and historical context of their occurrences, as important contingencies in producing these systematic socioeconomic differences in health gradients.

  10. Neighborhood Disadvantage Alters the Origins of Children's Nonaggressive Conduct Problems.

    PubMed

    Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Neiderhiser, Jenae M

    2016-05-01

    Neighborhood disadvantage plays a pivotal role in child mental health, including child antisocial behavior (e.g., lying, theft, vandalism; assault, cruelty). Prior studies have indicated that shared environmental influences on youth antisocial behavior increase with increasing disadvantage, but have been unable to confirm that these findings persist once various selection confounds are considered. The current study sought to fill this gap in the literature, examining whether and how neighborhood disadvantage alters the genetic and environmental origins of child antisocial behavior. Our sample consisted of 2,054 child twins participating in the Michigan State University Twin Registry, half of whom were oversampled to reside in modestly-to-severely impoverished neighborhoods. We made use of an innovative set of nuclear twin family models, thereby allowing us to disambiguate between, and simultaneously estimate, multiple elements of the shared environment as well as genetic influences. Although there was no evidence that the etiology of aggressive antisocial behavior was moderated by neighborhood disadvantage, the etiology of non-aggressive antisocial behavior shifted dramatically with increasing neighborhood disadvantage. Sibling-level shared environmental influences were estimated to be near zero in the wealthiest neighborhoods, and increased dramatically in the most impoverished neighborhoods. By contrast, both genetic risk and family-level shared environmental transmission were significantly more influential in middle- and upper-class neighborhoods than in impoverished neighborhoods. Such results collectively highlight the profound role that pervasive neighborhood poverty plays in shaping the etiology of child non-aggressive antisocial behavior. Implications are discussed.

  11. Neighborhood Disadvantage Alters the Origins of Children's Nonaggressive Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2015-01-01

    Neighborhood disadvantage plays a pivotal role in child mental health, including child antisocial behavior (e.g., lying, theft, vandalism; assault, cruelty). Prior studies have indicated that shared environmental influences on youth antisocial behavior increase with increasing disadvantage, but have been unable to confirm that these findings persist once various selection confounds are considered. The current study sought to fill this gap in the literature, examining whether and how neighborhood disadvantage alters the genetic and environmental origins of child antisocial behavior. Our sample consisted of 2,054 child twins participating in the Michigan State University Twin Registry, half of whom were oversampled to reside in modestly-to-severely impoverished neighborhoods. We made use of an innovative set of nuclear twin family models, thereby allowing us to disambiguate between, and simultaneously estimate, multiple elements of the shared environment as well as genetic influences. Although there was no evidence that the etiology of aggressive antisocial behavior was moderated by neighborhood disadvantage, the etiology of non-aggressive antisocial behavior shifted dramatically with increasing neighborhood disadvantage. Sibling-level shared environmental influences were estimated to be near zero in the wealthiest neighborhoods, and increased dramatically in the most impoverished neighborhoods. By contrast, both genetic risk and family-level shared environmental transmission were significantly more influential in middle- and upper-class neighborhoods than in impoverished neighborhoods. Such results collectively highlight the profound role that pervasive neighborhood poverty plays in shaping the etiology of child non-aggressive antisocial behavior. Implications are discussed. PMID:27347447

  12. Social disadvantages associated with myasthenia gravis and its treatment: a multicentre cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Nagane, Yuriko; Murai, Hiroyuki; Imai, Tomihiro; Yamamoto, Daisuke; Tsuda, Emiko; Minami, Naoya; Suzuki, Yasushi; Kanai, Tetsuya; Uzawa, Akiyuki; Kawaguchi, Naoki; Masuda, Masayuki; Konno, Shingo; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Aoki, Masashi; Utsugisawa, Kimiaki

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To clarify the social disadvantages associated with myasthenia gravis (MG) and examine associations with its disease and treatment. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting and participants We evaluated 917 consecutive cases of established MG seen at 13 neurological centres in Japan over a short duration. Outcome measures All patients completed a questionnaire on social disadvantages resulting from MG and its treatment and a 15-item MG-specific quality of life scale at study entry. Clinical severity at the worst condition was graded according to the MG Foundation of America classification, and that at the current condition was determined according to the quantitative MG score and MG composite. Maximum dose and duration of dose ≥20 mg/day of oral prednisolone during the disease course were obtained from the patients' medical records. Achievement of the treatment target (minimal manifestation status with prednisolone at ≤5 mg/day) was determined at 1, 2 and 4 years after starting treatment and at study entry. Results We found that 27.2% of the patients had experienced unemployment, 4.1% had been unwillingly transferred and 35.9% had experienced a decrease in income, 47.1% of whom reported that the decrease was ≥50% of their previous total income. In addition, 49.0% of the patients reported feeling reduced social positivity. Factors promoting social disadvantages were severity of illness, dose and duration of prednisolone, long-term treatment, and a depressive state and change in appearance after treatment with oral steroids. Early achievement of the treatment target was a major inhibiting factor. Conclusions Patients with MG often experience unemployment, unwilling job transfers and a decrease in income. In addition, many patients report feeling reduced social positivity. To inhibit the social disadvantages associated with MG and its treatment, greater focus needs to be placed on helping patients with MG resume a normal lifestyle as soon as

  13. 13 CFR 127.203 - What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... residence. (c) Factors that may be considered. The personal financial condition of the woman claiming... as compared to others in the same or similar line of business. (b) Limitation on personal net worth. In order to be considered economically disadvantaged, the woman's personal net worth must be...

  14. Mentoring disadvantaged nursing students through technical writing workshops.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Molly K; Symes, Lene; Bernard, Lillian; Landson, Margie J; Carroll, Theresa L

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have identified a problematic gap for nursing students between terse clinical writing and formal academic writing. This gap can create a potential barrier to academic and workplace success, especially for disadvantaged nursing students who have not acquired the disciplinary conventions and sophisticated writing required in upper-level nursing courses. The authors demonstrate the need for writing-in-the-discipline activities to enhance the writing skills of nursing students, describe the technical writing workshops they developed to mentor minority and disadvantaged nursing students, and provide recommendations to stimulate educator dialogue across disciplines and institutions.

  15. NASA Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU) within NASA promotes the utilization of small, disadvantaged, and women-owned small businesses in compliance with Federal laws, regulations, and policies. We assist such firms in obtaining contracts and subcontracts with NASA and its prime contractors. The OSDBU also facilitates the participation of small businesses in NASA's technology transfer and commercialization activities. Our driving philosophy is to consider small businesses as our products. Our customers are the NASA Enterprises, Field Centers, Functional Staff Offices, major prime contractors, and other large institutions. We hone the skills of our products to make them marketable to our customers in the performance of NASA missions.

  16. A Comparative Study of the Self-Perceptions of Disadvantaged Children in Elementary and Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, Anthony T.; Soares, Louise M.

    The study tested hypotheses predicting significant differences between the self-perception scores of: (1) disadvantaged children in an urban neighborhood elementary school and disadvantaged high school students; (2) disadvantaged girls and boys; and, (3), within each sex, disadvantaged elementary school and high school students. All the students…

  17. Race, Space, and Cumulative Disadvantage: A Case Study of the Subprime Lending Collapse.

    PubMed

    Rugh, Jacob S; Albright, Len; Massey, Douglas S

    2015-05-01

    In this article, we describe how residential segregation and individual racial disparities generate racialized patterns of subprime lending and lead to financial loss among black borrowers in segregated cities. We conceptualize race as a cumulative disadvantage because of its direct and indirect effects on socioeconomic status at the individual and neighborhood levels, with consequences that reverberate across a borrower's life and between generations. Using Baltimore, Maryland as a case study setting, we combine data from reports filed under the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act with additional loan-level data from mortgage-backed securities. We find that race and neighborhood racial segregation are critical factors explaining black disadvantage across successive stages in the process of lending and foreclosure, controlling for differences in borrower credit scores, income, occupancy status, and loan-to-value ratios. We analyze the cumulative cost of predatory lending to black borrowers in terms of reduced disposable income and lost wealth. We find the cost to be substantial. Black borrowers paid an estimated additional 5 to 11 percent in monthly payments and those that completed foreclosure in the sample lost an excess of $2 million in home equity. These costs were magnified in mostly black neighborhoods and in turn heavily concentrated in communities of color. By elucidating the mechanisms that link black segregation to discrimination we demonstrate how processes of cumulative disadvantage continue to undermine black socioeconomic status in the United States today.

  18. Racial-Ethnic Disparities in Maternal Parenting Stress: The Role of Structural Disadvantages and Parenting Values

    PubMed Central

    Nomaguchi, Kei; House, Amanda N.

    2013-01-01

    Although researchers contend that racial-ethnic minorities experience more stress than whites, knowledge of racial-ethnic disparities in parenting stress is limited. Using a pooled time-series analysis of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998–99 (n = 11,324), we examine racial-ethnic differences in maternal parenting stress, with a focus on structural and cultural explanations and variations by nativity and child age. In kindergarten, black mothers, albeit U.S.-born only, report more parenting stress than white mothers due to structural disadvantages and authoritarian parenting values. The black-white gap increases from kindergarten to third grade, and in third grade, U.S.-born black mothers’ higher stress than white mothers’ persists after controlling for structural and parenting factors. Hispanic and Asian mothers, albeit foreign-born only, report more stress than white mothers at both ages due to structural disadvantages and authoritarian values. Despite structural disadvantages, American Indian mothers report less stress. PMID:24026535

  19. Race, Space, and Cumulative Disadvantage: A Case Study of the Subprime Lending Collapse

    PubMed Central

    Rugh, Jacob S.; Albright, Len; Massey, Douglas S.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we describe how residential segregation and individual racial disparities generate racialized patterns of subprime lending and lead to financial loss among black borrowers in segregated cities. We conceptualize race as a cumulative disadvantage because of its direct and indirect effects on socioeconomic status at the individual and neighborhood levels, with consequences that reverberate across a borrower's life and between generations. Using Baltimore, Maryland as a case study setting, we combine data from reports filed under the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act with additional loan-level data from mortgage-backed securities. We find that race and neighborhood racial segregation are critical factors explaining black disadvantage across successive stages in the process of lending and foreclosure, controlling for differences in borrower credit scores, income, occupancy status, and loan-to-value ratios. We analyze the cumulative cost of predatory lending to black borrowers in terms of reduced disposable income and lost wealth. We find the cost to be substantial. Black borrowers paid an estimated additional 5 to 11 percent in monthly payments and those that completed foreclosure in the sample lost an excess of $2 million in home equity. These costs were magnified in mostly black neighborhoods and in turn heavily concentrated in communities of color. By elucidating the mechanisms that link black segregation to discrimination we demonstrate how processes of cumulative disadvantage continue to undermine black socioeconomic status in the United States today. PMID:27478254

  20. Concurrent Social Disadvantages and Chronic Inflammation: The Intersection of Race and Ethnicity, Gender, and Socioeconomic Status.

    PubMed

    Richman, Aliza D

    2017-08-28

    Disadvantaged social statuses, such as being female, poor, or a minority, are associated with increased psychosocial stress and elevated circulating concentrations of C-reactive protein, a biomarker of chronic inflammation and indicator of cardiovascular health. Individuals' experience of embodying psychosocial stress revolves around the multiplicative effects of concurrent gender, socioeconomic, and racial and ethnic identities. This study expands on prior research by examining chronic inflammation at the intersection of race and ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, and age group to understand which demographic subgroups in society are most vulnerable to the cumulative effects of social disadvantage. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010, the findings reveal inflammation disparities between non-poor whites and the following demographic subgroups, net of sociodemographic and biological factors: young poor Hispanic women, young poor white men, young poor and non-poor Hispanic men, middle-aged poor and non-poor black women, middle-aged poor and non-poor black men, and middle-aged poor Hispanic men. Disparities in inflammation on account of social disadvantage are most evident among those aged 45-64 years and diminish for those 65 and older in both men and women.

  1. Is there Complex Trauma Experience typology for Australian's experiencing extreme social disadvantage and low housing stability?

    PubMed

    Keane, Carol A; Magee, Christopher A; Kelly, Peter J

    2016-11-01

    Traumatic childhood experiences predict many adverse outcomes in adulthood including Complex-PTSD. Understanding complex trauma within socially disadvantaged populations has important implications for policy development and intervention implementation. This paper examined the nature of complex trauma experienced by disadvantaged individuals using a latent class analysis (LCA) approach. Data were collected through the large-scale Journeys Home Study (N=1682), utilising a representative sample of individuals experiencing low housing stability. Data on adverse childhood experiences, adulthood interpersonal trauma and relevant covariates were collected through interviews at baseline (Wave 1). Latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted to identify distinct classes of childhood trauma history, which included physical assault, neglect, and sexual abuse. Multinomial logistic regression investigated childhood relevant factors associated with class membership such as biological relationship of primary carer at age 14 years and number of times in foster care. Of the total sample (N=1682), 99% reported traumatic adverse childhood experiences. The most common included witnessing of violence, threat/experience of physical abuse, and sexual assault. LCA identified six distinct childhood trauma history classes including high violence and multiple traumas. Significant covariate differences between classes included: gender, biological relationship of primary carer at age 14 years, and time in foster care. Identification of six distinct childhood trauma history profiles suggests there might be unique treatment implications for individuals living in extreme social disadvantage. Further research is required to examine the relationship between these classes of experience, consequent impact on adulthood engagement, and future transitions though homelessness.

  2. Racial-ethnic disparities in maternal parenting stress: the role of structural disadvantages and parenting values.

    PubMed

    Nomaguchi, Kei; House, Amanda N

    2013-01-01

    Although researchers contend that racial-ethnic minorities experience more stress than whites, knowledge of racial-ethnic disparities in parenting stress is limited. Using a pooled time-series analysis of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (n = 11,324), we examine racial-ethnic differences in maternal parenting stress, with a focus on structural and cultural explanations and variations by nativity and child age. In kindergarten, black mothers, albeit U.S.-born only, report more parenting stress than white mothers due to structural disadvantages and authoritarian parenting values. The black-white gap increases from kindergarten to third grade, and in third grade, U.S.-born black mothers' higher stress than white mothers' persists after controlling for structural and parenting factors. Hispanic and Asian mothers, albeit foreign-born only, report more stress than white mothers at both ages due to structural disadvantages and authoritarian values. Despite structural disadvantages, American Indian mothers report less stress.

  3. Time horizons and substance use among African American youths living in disadvantaged urban areas.

    PubMed

    Cheong, JeeWon; Tucker, Jalie A; Simpson, Cathy A; Chandler, Susan D

    2014-04-01

    Transitioning from adolescence to full-fledged adulthood is often challenging, and young people who live in disadvantaged urban neighborhoods face additional obstacles and experience disproportionately higher negative outcomes, including substance abuse and related risk behaviors. This study investigated whether substance use among African Americans ages 15 to 25 (M=18.86 years) living in such areas was related to present-dominated time perspectives and higher delay discounting. Participants (N=344, 110 males, 234 females) living in Deep South disadvantaged urban neighborhoods were recruited using Respondent Driven Sampling, an improved peer-referral sampling method suitable for accessing this hard-to-reach target group. Structured field interviews assessed alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use and risk/protective factors, including time perspectives (Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory [ZTPI]) and behavioral impulsivity (delay discounting task). As predicted, substance use was positively related to a greater ZTPI orientation toward present pleasure and a lower tendency to plan and achieve future goals. Although the sample as a whole showed high discounting of delayed rewards, discount rates did not predict substance use. The findings suggest that interventions to lengthen time perspectives and promote enriched views of future possible selves may prevent and reduce substance use among disadvantaged youths. Discontinuities among the discounting and time perspective variables in relation to substance use merit further investigation.

  4. Early parenthood as a link between childhood disadvantage and adult heart problems: A gender-based approach.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chioun; Ryff, Carol D

    2016-12-01

    Drawing on conceptual models of critical periods, major life transitions, and life pathways, we proposed that the life-course features of parenthood are important, but understudied, mechanisms for explaining possibly gendered heart-health outcomes. Using three waves from the Midlife in the U.S. Study (MIDUS), we investigated (a) gender differences in the timing of the transition to parenthood as a pathway linking childhood SES disadvantage to onset of heart problems and (b) life-course factors (which vary by gender) that link the timing of the transition to parenthood to adult heart problems. We found that individuals who were disadvantaged in childhood were more likely to have their first child as teenagers or in early young adulthood. For women only, an early transition to parenthood partially explained the association between childhood disadvantage and onset of heart problems. Furthermore, women who had their first child at younger ages, particularly in their teens, had lower rates of college graduation, more financial difficulties, higher levels of depressive symptoms, and greater risk of smoking and obesity in midlife. These factors partially accounted for the association between early parenthood and onset of heart problems in later life. Our findings underscore the significance of the timing of the transition to parenthood in specifying the associations between childhood disadvantage and adult heart problems. Various factors are involved, including low adult SES, psychological distress, and unhealthy lifestyles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Teaching Low Achieving and Disadvantaged Students, 3rd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargis, Charles H.

    2006-01-01

    This new edition updates and expands the previous volume and continues to reflect the concepts and the reasons behind learning and behavior problems of low achieving and disadvantaged students. Through the chapters, the author describes instructional levels and independent levels, emphasizing that success is produced by finding the place on the…

  6. The Physiological Expression of Living in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods for Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, Allison B.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the consequences of chronic exposure to stressors extend beyond psychological effects, and that adolescents living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighborhoods may experience an accumulation of exposure to stressors that wears down the physical systems in the body, resulting in hyper-activation of the stress response.…

  7. Do Disadvantaged Neighborhoods Affect Children's Verbal Skills? Evaluation Science Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Forum on Early Childhood Program Evaluation, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Evaluation Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study evaluating the effects of an early childhood program or environment. This Brief evaluates the study "Durable Effects of Concentrated Disadvantage on Verbal Ability Among African-American Children" (R. Sampson; R. Sharkey; and S. Raudenbush.)…

  8. A Study of Four Library Programs for Disadvantaged Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsor, Charlotte B.; Burrows, Lodema

    This is a study of four projects in New York City which were established with federal grants to offer library service to the disadvantaged in the area. The four programs studied are the Preschool Project of the Brooklyn Public Library, the Community Coordinator Project of the Brooklyn Public Library, the North Manhattan Project of the New York…

  9. Theorising Multiply Disadvantaged Young People's Challenges in Accessing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Melanie; Mkwananzi, Faith

    2015-01-01

    This paper sketches an innovative conceptualisation of disadvantaged youth, shaped dialogically by the interactions of theorising and data from a case study at Orange Farm informal settlement in South Africa in 2013. The study focused on the challenges for the young people in this area in accessing higher education. Drawing on Sen's and Nussbaum's…

  10. Improving the Education of the Disadvantaged in an Elementary Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Gordon P.; And Others

    Described is an action research program in four elementary schools in disadvantaged areas of Quincy, Illinois. This educational improvement effort focused on parent involvement and enrichment during and after school as well as in the summer. Curricular modifications and enrichment included field trips, development of listening skills, puppetry,…

  11. A CURRICULUM DESIGN FOR DISADVANTAGED COMMUNITY JUNIOR COLLEGE STUDENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CLARKE, JOHNNIE RUTH

    THE JUNIOR COLLEGE MUST DEVELOP A CURRICULUM DESIGNED TO MEET THE IDENTIFIABLE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF THE DISADVANTAGED STUDENT, WITH SPECIFIC REFERENCE TO THE EFFECTS OF DEPRIVATION ON ASPIRATIONS, VALUES, MOTIVATION, AND SELF-CONCEPT AND TO THE INFLUENCE OF CLASS OR CASTE ON ACADEMIC PROGRESS. THIS STUDENT NEEDS TO DEVELOP (1) POSITIVE FEELINGS OF…

  12. How Much More Does a Disadvantaged Student Cost?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncombe, W.; Yinger, J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a guide to statistically based methods for estimating the extra costs of educating disadvantaged students, shows how these methods are related, and compares state aid programs that account for these costs in different ways. We show how pupil weights, which are included in many state aid programs, can be estimated from an…

  13. Cognitive Predictors of College Success in Disadvantaged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Outlaw, Patricia; Gunther, Virginia

    This study involved the investigation of the differential validity hypothesis as it pertained to the disadvantaged college student. It evaluated, by means of a multiple regression analysis, the use of SAT scores (Math and Verbal) and the Nelson-Denny Reading Test as predictors of college success, as measured by semester grade point average, for…

  14. Processes of Curiosity and Exploration in Preschool Disadvantaged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minuchin, Patricia

    This study was created primarily to explore new techniques and to generate fruitful new hypotheses and procedures for the (1) description of variations in expressed curiosity and constructive exploration among disadvantaged preschool children and (2) assessment of the relationship between such curiosity and exploration and other aspects of the…

  15. Advantages and Disadvantages of Student Loans Repayment Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Hua

    2010-01-01

    It is a difficulty problem to choice repayment patterns of student loan. "Conventional mortgage-type loan" and "Income contingent loan" has been performed in many countries. These loan repayment manners have their own characteristics. In this paper, we discuss their advantages and disadvantages, and would provide policy choice…

  16. Project SAVE: Promoting Mental Health for Disadvantaged Rural Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Sandra M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Students Actively Valuing Education (SAVE) is a middle school peer facilitator program. Based on the philosophy that students share and identify needs and problems better with peers. Developed to give disadvantaged students leadership opportunities as peer facilitators. Active for three years, Project SAVE is described as a success. Outlines…

  17. Education and Training and the Avoidance of Financial Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Gary N.

    2011-01-01

    Making use of the longitudinal data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, this study examines the relationship between post-school qualifications and financial disadvantage among Australians during the period 2001 to 2008. Specifically, it is concerned with the extent that education and training, vis-a-vis…

  18. Cognitive Advantages and Disadvantages in Early and Late Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelham, Sabra D.; Abrams, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has documented advantages and disadvantages of early bilinguals, defined as learning a 2nd language by school age and using both languages since that time. Relative to monolinguals, early bilinguals manifest deficits in lexical access but benefits in executive function. We investigated whether becoming bilingual "after"…

  19. Self-Employment Programs and Outcomes for Disadvantaged Jobseekers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Ross; Mulvey, Charles; Lewis, P. E. T.

    2002-01-01

    An evaluation of Australia's New Enterprise Initiative Scheme, which provides job search information to disadvantaged job seekers, found the following: of 81 long-term unemployed, 76.5% were self-employed after participation; of 51 non-English speaking individuals, 65% were self-employed; and 84% of 400 participants overall were in some form of…

  20. The Physiological Expression of Living in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods for Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, Allison B.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the consequences of chronic exposure to stressors extend beyond psychological effects, and that adolescents living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighborhoods may experience an accumulation of exposure to stressors that wears down the physical systems in the body, resulting in hyper-activation of the stress response.…

  1. Introducing Computer Science to Educationally Disadvantaged High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paz, Tamar; Levy, Dalit

    2005-01-01

    An approach to the teaching and learning of high school computer science (CS) to and by educationally disadvantaged students (EDS) is described, as well as the implementation of six pedagogical principles in two learning environments developed for Israeli schools. Following a brief description of the main characteristics of EDS classes and a…

  2. Disadvantaged Rural Students: Five Models of School-University Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Peter; And Others

    This paper describes five models of school-university collaboration designed to maximize academic achievement opportunities for disadvantaged rural students. Project SHAPE (School and Homes As Partners in Education) at the State University of New York (SUNY) at Plattsburgh is an extended school day program established in partnership with…

  3. Developing Latent Mathematics Abilities in Economically Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Michele A.; Hollingsworth, Patricia L.; Barnes, Laura L. B.

    2005-01-01

    The current study was undertaken as an effort to attend to the potential giftedness of economically disadvantaged students, to give opportunities for mathematics acceleration, and to provide a sequential, individualized mathematics program for students of high mobility. The authors evaluated the Project SAIL (Students' Active Interdisciplinary…

  4. A Readiness Test for Disadvantaged Preschool Children. PREP-22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Educational Communication (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    In response to the pressing needs to develop a culture-fair, nonverbal readiness test for rural and urban disadvantaged preschool children, a special project was undertaken. PREP kit no. 22 was adapted from the final report of a project conducted by Dr. Wanda Walker, Northwest Missouri State College, Maryville, and supported by the Office of…

  5. Everybody's Problem: Novice Teachers in Disadvantaged Mexican Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez, Nora H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the difficulties that novice teachers confront at two economically, socially, and academically disadvantaged schools in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The researchers employed the action research tradition. Problems were identified using participant observation during reflexive workshops conducted with novice teachers and…

  6. Access to Postsecondary Education: Can Schools Compensate for Socioeconomic Disadvantage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frempong, George; Ma, Xin; Mensah, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    While access to postsecondary education in Canada has increased over the past decade, a number of recent studies demonstrate that youth from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds are vulnerable to some degree of exclusion from postsecondary education. These studies tend to emphasize the lack of financial resources and social capital as the main…

  7. Trends in Educational Disadvantage in Dutch Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driessen, Geert; Merry, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    The central question in this study is whether the language and math delays of the different socio-economic and ethnic minority groups targeted by Dutch educational disadvantage policy have diminished or not. Data are from the years 1995, 1999, 2003 and 2008. Information from a total of 90,000 pupils in Grades 2 and 8 was selected to represent the…

  8. Problem Solving Ability of Disadvantaged Children Under Four Test Modes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtz, John C.; And Others

    A study was conducted to test the hypothesis that Ss from disadvantaged homes have poorly developed "abstract" thinking skills and that their thought can be characterized as more "concrete" or relational. Four forms of a problem-solving inventory were developed which differed in mode of presentation. The original form consisted of real-life…

  9. Toward an Effective Educational Program for Disadvantaged Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dusewicz, Russell A.; Higgins, Martin J.

    This study attempted to determine if significant and lasting cognitive gains could be achieved by focusing preschool efforts upon children younger than those now being serviced by traditional programs--children under three years of age. Thirty-six disadvantaged children, 19-28 months of age, were randomly assigned to two groups: a Home Group…

  10. The Intellectual Disability Mortality Disadvantage: Diminishing with Age?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landes, Scott D.

    2017-01-01

    On average, adults with intellectual disability (ID) have higher mortality risk than their peers in the general population. However, the effect of age on this mortality disadvantage has received minimal attention. Using data from the 1986-2011 National Health Interview Survey-Linked Mortality Files (NHIS-LMF), discrete time hazard models were used…

  11. MATERIALS THE DISADVANTAGED NEED--AND DON'T NEED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HABERMAN, MARTIN

    THE ASSUMPTION THAT SOME CHILDREN ARE LOW ACHIEVERS BECAUSE OF CULTURAL, SENSORY, OR DEVELOPMENTAL DEPRIVATION IS CRITICIZED BECAUSE IT LEADS MAINLY TO A GRASPING FOR NEW AND DIFFERENT TEACHING TECHNOLOGIES. WHAT SHOULD BE INCLUDED IN A COHESIVE VIEW OF THE DISADVANTAGED ARE THEORETICAL UNDERPINNINGS FROM WHICH ACTION PROGRAMS CAN BE DERIVED. THE…

  12. Increasing the Earnings of Disadvantaged Women. Report No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission for Employment Policy (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The National Commission for Employment Policy has examined ways that the United States federal government could improve the economic situation of disadvantaged women. In particular, the Commission examined, during 1980, the role of education and employment and training programs in helping women to prepare for better paying occupations, and then…

  13. Laboratory Experiences for Disadvantaged Youth in the Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baillie, John H.

    This guide contains experiments in the fields of Physical Science, Earth Science, and Biological Science designed to be used with any series of texts in a sequence for disadvantaged youth in the middle school. Any standard classroom can be used, with minor modifications and inexpensive equipment and materials. All students could participate,…

  14. Camping for Disadvantaged Youth, an Informal Educational Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Word, Ulyss G.

    The document provides a summary of special 4-H summer camps for disadvantaged youth in Arkansas. The camping experience in which the participants overcome inadequacies in social skills, self-discipline, self-confidence, and self-assurance is described. Major emphasis is given to the development of socialization skills and to health- and…

  15. 48 CFR 19.304 - Disadvantaged business status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... representation that it is an SDB concern for general statistical purposes. The provision at 52.219-1, Small... Items, is used to collect SDB data for general statistical purposes. (c) The provision at 52.219-22... identified as a small disadvantaged business concern by accessing SBA's database (PRO-Net) or by contacting...

  16. 48 CFR 19.304 - Disadvantaged business status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... representation that it is an SDB concern for general statistical purposes. The provision at 52.219-1, Small... Items, is used to collect SDB data for general statistical purposes. (c) The provision at 52.219-22... identified as a small disadvantaged business concern by accessing SBA's database (PRO-Net) or by contacting...

  17. 48 CFR 19.304 - Disadvantaged business status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... representation that it is an SDB concern for general statistical purposes. The provision at 52.219-1, Small... Items, is used to collect SDB data for general statistical purposes. (c) The provision at 52.219-22... identified as a small disadvantaged business concern by accessing SBA's database (PRO-Net) or by contacting...

  18. 48 CFR 19.304 - Disadvantaged business status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... representation that it is an SDB concern for general statistical purposes. The provision at 52.219-1, Small... Items, is used to collect SDB data for general statistical purposes. (c) The provision at 52.219-22... identified as a small disadvantaged business concern by accessing SBA's database (PRO-Net) or by contacting...

  19. 48 CFR 19.304 - Disadvantaged business status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... representation that it is an SDB concern for general statistical purposes. The provision at 52.219-1, Small... Items, is used to collect SDB data for general statistical purposes. (c) The provision at 52.219-22... identified as a small disadvantaged business concern by accessing SBA's database (PRO-Net) or by contacting...

  20. 77 FR 65164 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... Office of the Secretary 49 CFR Part 26 RIN 2105-AE08 Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program... Act'' section of the NPRM in order to comply with the PRA's procedural requirements. Today, the... the public with 60 days from today to comment both on this collection and all other aspects of...

  1. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT AMONG ECONOMICALLY AND EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GREEN, ROBERT L.

    CURRENT RESEARCH INDICATES THAT SCHOOL AND HOME ENVIRONMENTS STRONGLY INFLUENCE AN INDIVIDUAL'S INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT, ALTHOUGH CERTAIN VERY BROAD HEREDITARY LIMITATIONS MAY ALSO AFFECT IT. THE ECONOMICALLY AND EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH EXPERIENCES AN ENVIRONMENT WHICH LACKS STIMULI ESSENTIAL TO POSITIVE INTELLECTUAL GROWTH AND…

  2. Predicting Success among Prospective Disadvantaged Students in Natural Scientific Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maree, J. G.; Fletcher, L.; Sommerville, J.

    2011-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-nine Grade 11 prospective disadvantaged students in the natural sciences at the University of Pretoria completed the Study Orientation Questionnaire in Mathematics and the Senior Aptitude Test (Advanced). Fifty-nine male students (M age = 16.05; SD = 0.57) and 100 females (M age = 16.02; SD = 0.512) scored significantly…

  3. Educating the Disadvantaged, 1970-1971. An AMS Anthology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doll, Russell C., Ed.; Hawkins, Maxine, Ed.

    This anthology includes newly published essays by Daniel U. Levine, Robert J. Havighurst, and J. McVicker Hunt, two previously unpublished reports from the National Study of American Indian Education, and a new guide to resource centers. In addition, 35 papers by 55 contributors concerned with educating disadvantaged and culturally different…

  4. Disentangling Disadvantage: Can We Distinguish Good Teaching from Classroom Composition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamarro, Gema; Engberg, John; Saavedra, Juan Esteban; Steele, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the use of teacher value-added estimates to assess the distribution of effective teaching across students of varying socioeconomic disadvantage in the presence of classroom composition effects. We examine, via simulations, how accurately commonly used teacher value-added estimators recover the rank correlation between…

  5. Barriers to Healthier Eating in a Disadvantaged Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Martin; Rebane, Deanne; Lester, Carolyn

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The research objective was to identify how healthy eating was understood in a disadvantaged community and how barriers to healthy eating might be overcome. Design: Participatory action research. Setting: Communities in Gurnos, Merthyr Tydfil, one of the most deprived areas in the UK. Method: Trainees on a participative methods course…

  6. Self-Generated Literacy Practices in Disadvantaged Environments in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderón López, Margarita

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the role of literacy in disadvantaged environments and the interplay between self-generated literacy practices and their conceptualization of literacy in 7 to 10-year-old Chilean pupils from two different schools located in Santiago, Chile. The study was framed within a participatory approach focused on promoting the children's…

  7. Cognitive Advantages and Disadvantages in Early and Late Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelham, Sabra D.; Abrams, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has documented advantages and disadvantages of early bilinguals, defined as learning a 2nd language by school age and using both languages since that time. Relative to monolinguals, early bilinguals manifest deficits in lexical access but benefits in executive function. We investigated whether becoming bilingual "after"…

  8. Advantages and disadvantages of untrimmed wood in the supply chain

    Treesearch

    Jason Thompson; Dana Mitchell; John. Klepac

    2014-01-01

    Very few companies that purchase forest products accept untrimmed trees (whole-trees including limbs and tops). Those that do accept untrimmed trees have been doing so for decades. A potential benefit of hauling untrimmed trees is higher in-woods productivity due to less processing of the trees. Disadvantages for the logging contractor can include specialized trailers...

  9. Disadvantaged Children in Canada. Bibliographies in Education, Number 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Teachers' Federation, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Comprised of 191 items, this bibliography on the disadvantaged children in Canada is principally concerned with younger children. It is recommended that this bibliography should be used in conjunction with an earlier one of the series, Number 2, "School Dropouts." The compilation covers the period of the decade of the sixties, and is…

  10. A Summer Academic Research Experience for Disadvantaged Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabacoff, Cathryn; Srivastava, Vasudha; Robinson, Douglas N.

    2013-01-01

    Internships are an effective way of connecting high school students in a meaningful manner to the sciences. Disadvantaged minorities have fewer opportunities to participate in internships, and are underrepresented in both science, technology, engineering, and mathematics majors and careers. We have developed a Summer Academic Research Experience…

  11. The Use of Individually Prescribed Instruction for the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, John M.; Seay, Donna M.

    The adaptation and use of individually prescribed instruction (IPI) in adult basic education for the disadvantaged are discussed. The discussion describes a model IPI system (The Draper Model); recommends certain considerations if it is to be used successfully; and shows that programmed instructional (PI) materials work best in a learning system…

  12. Promotion of Primary Education for Girls and Disadvantaged Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This report presents the results of a meeting of education officials from Bangladesh, China, India, Japan, Nepal, Pakistan, and Thailand to discuss the promotion of primary education for girls and other disadvantaged groups in developing Asian countries. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction, discussing the goals and results of the meeting. Chapter…

  13. Health and Legal Services in a Disadvantaged Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Challenor, Bernard; Onyeani, Loretta

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the role legal services play in public health care delivery in disadvantaged communities in relation to such socio-medical problems as lead poisoning, child abuse, involuntary mental commitment, and housing code violations. Recommends a legal advocacy program to ensure adequate public health care. (Author/SF)

  14. Tracing Consequences of Policy Action: A Basis for Disadvantage Arguments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, David P.

    1984-01-01

    The growth in the popularity and importance of disadvantage arguments in debate has been, in some measure, due to the growing belief that debate should be viewed from a policy-making perspective. And, with the focus of contemporary debate shifting to the consequences of policy actions, there has been a concurrent increase in the sophistication of…

  15. Virtues of SIN: Can Intensified Public Efforts Help Disadvantaged Immigrants?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslund, Olof; Johansson, Per

    2011-01-01

    The labor market integration of immigrants is a top political priority throughout the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Social and fiscal gains, as well as sustained future labor supply make governments search for effective policies to increase employment among the mostly disadvantaged. The author studies SIN,…

  16. The Early Childhood Education of Disadvantaged Children in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Zhanmei; Zhu, Jiaxiong; Xia, Zhuyun; Wu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Since 2010, the Chinese government has adopted a series of services and policies to provide early childhood education for disadvantaged children. The rapid economic development and urbanisation process since the mid-1980s have led to great changes in social structure and demographics in China. This creates new challenges for the education of…

  17. Virtues of SIN: Can Intensified Public Efforts Help Disadvantaged Immigrants?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslund, Olof; Johansson, Per

    2011-01-01

    The labor market integration of immigrants is a top political priority throughout the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Social and fiscal gains, as well as sustained future labor supply make governments search for effective policies to increase employment among the mostly disadvantaged. The author studies SIN,…

  18. Serving the Underserved: Giftedness among Ethnic Minority and Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Stephanie

    1995-01-01

    Properly serving the needs of ethnic minority and economically disadvantaged gifted youth requires early identification, enrichment programs, parental involvement, and specialized teacher training. Primary teachers must be able to identify children exhibiting gifted behaviors not showing up in testing. Profiles San Diego and New Jersey programs…

  19. What's in a Name? Categorising "Disadvantaged Older Workers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The institutionalised categorisation of adults who are over 55 years of age, unemployed and low-skilled as "older" and "disadvantaged" may adversely affect their employment prospects and their self-esteem. This paper reports on the findings of a study that explored the experiences of a small group of such adults; in particular,…

  20. From Here to Where?--"Disadvantaged Schools," Literacy and Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Pat

    2001-01-01

    Argues that the abolishment of the Disadvantaged Schools Program (DSP) in South Australia represented a shift away from a focus on the social to the individual, from curriculum to instruction, from school-based inquiry and teacher research to expert solutions, and from various contexted and contested outcomes to a singular and simplistic version…

  1. The First National Conference on the Disadvantaged Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Ellen J., Ed.; And Others

    Summarized are 19 presentations given at the first annual National Conference on the Disadvantaged Gifted held March 24-25, 1973. Emphasized is the effect of identification procedures, program provisions, and research and evaluation on (1) economically deprived gifted students, (2) culturally different gifted students, (3) female gifted students,…

  2. Non-Intellectual Correlates of Attrition Among Disadvantaged Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingate, James G.

    The study described in this report was conducted in order to determine the effects of self concept and selected demographic and economic variables on attrition. Data are drawn from a group of 74 disadvantaged adult students who enrolled in a college preparatory program at the Syracuse Educational Opportunity Center (S.E.O.C.). Demographic…

  3. THE LIGHTHOUSE DAY CAMP READING EXPERIMENT WITH DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GOMBERG, ADELINE W.

    A READING PROGRAM DESIGNED FOR DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN AND CONDUCTED BY THE LIGHTHOUSE, A SETTLEMENT HOUSE IN NORTH PHILADELPHIA, AS PART OF ITS DAY CAMP PROGRAM WAS DESCRIBED AND ASSESSED. THE READING PROGRAM WAS DEVELOPED (1) TO BOOST THE OPPORTUNITIES IN READING READINESS FOR CHILDREN ABOUT TO ENTER FIRST GRADE, (2) TO ENRICH LANGUAGE…

  4. Compensatory Education: Programs for Diversified Intervention Experinces for Disadvantaged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Edward K.

    As is enunciated by its policy guidelines, funds for compensatory education are being used to provide a diversity of intervention experiences for disadvantaged children. Difficulty in recognizing these implementation practices and outcomes has arisen because of a more popular, but narrow, view of compensatory education. Instead of attempting to…

  5. Programming Mathematics: A New Approach in Teaching the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar-On, Ehud; Or-Bach, Rachel

    The development of an instructional model for teaching formal mathematical concepts (probability concepts) to disadvantaged high school students through computer programming and some results from a field test are described in this document. The instructional model takes into account both learner characteristics (cognitive, affective, and…

  6. Barriers to Healthier Eating in a Disadvantaged Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Martin; Rebane, Deanne; Lester, Carolyn

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The research objective was to identify how healthy eating was understood in a disadvantaged community and how barriers to healthy eating might be overcome. Design: Participatory action research. Setting: Communities in Gurnos, Merthyr Tydfil, one of the most deprived areas in the UK. Method: Trainees on a participative methods course…

  7. The Early Childhood Education of Disadvantaged Children in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Zhanmei; Zhu, Jiaxiong; Xia, Zhuyun; Wu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Since 2010, the Chinese government has adopted a series of services and policies to provide early childhood education for disadvantaged children. The rapid economic development and urbanisation process since the mid-1980s have led to great changes in social structure and demographics in China. This creates new challenges for the education of…

  8. 23 CFR 635.107 - Participation by disadvantaged business enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Participation by disadvantaged business enterprises. 635.107 Section 635.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING... to compete. In accordance with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, subsequent Federal-aid...

  9. Infusing Language Enhancement into the Reading Curriculum for Disadvantaged Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Jaci; Forester, Betsy

    1997-01-01

    Describes the collaborative instruction provided by a special education reading teacher and a speech-language pathologist to disadvantaged high school special education students, most with learning disabilities or mild-to-moderate mental retardation. It discusses teaching issues such as motivation, phonology, language use patterns, and…

  10. Disentangling Disadvantage: Can We Distinguish Good Teaching from Classroom Composition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamarro, Gema; Engberg, John; Saavedra, Juan Esteban; Steele, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the use of teacher value-added estimates to assess the distribution of effective teaching across students of varying socioeconomic disadvantage in the presence of classroom composition effects. We examine, via simulations, how accurately commonly used teacher value-added estimators recover the rank correlation between…

  11. Autonomy and Accountability in Schools Serving Disadvantaged Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Esther Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Increased school autonomy and accountability have been a common denominator of national reforms in otherwise heterogeneous governance systems in Europe and the USA. The paper argues that because schools serving disadvantaged communities (SSDCs) often have lower average performance, they are more often sanctioned or under closer scrutiny,…

  12. University Access for Disadvantaged Children: A Comparison across Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrim, John; Vignoles, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider whether certain countries are particularly adept (or particularly poor) at getting children from disadvantaged homes to study for a bachelor's degree. A series of university access models are estimated for four English-speaking countries (England, Canada, Australia and the USA), which include controls for comparable…

  13. Combating Educational Disadvantage through Early Years and Primary School Investment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frawley, Denise

    2014-01-01

    In 1965, following a review of second-level education in Ireland, the report "Investment in Education" was published. While a concern with educational inequality and disadvantage pre-dates this report, it clearly identified the significant socio-economic disparities in educational participation at the time and emphasised an urgent need…

  14. Motor Development of the Kindergarten Spanish-Speaking Disadvantaged Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasser, Connie

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an experimental group of kindergarten age, Spanish-speaking, disadvantaged children could make significant gains in motor skills when given a concentrated motor development program. The sample consisted of 32 students, 17 students in the experimental group and 15 students in the control group,…

  15. Childhood Adultification in Economically Disadvantaged Families: A Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Linda

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an emergent conceptual model of childhood adultification and economic disadvantage derived from 5 longitudinal ethnographies of children and adolescents growing up in low-income families. Childhood adultification involves contextual, social, and developmental processes in which youth are prematurely, and often…

  16. Everybody's Problem: Novice Teachers in Disadvantaged Mexican Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez, Nora H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the difficulties that novice teachers confront at two economically, socially, and academically disadvantaged schools in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The researchers employed the action research tradition. Problems were identified using participant observation during reflexive workshops conducted with novice teachers and…

  17. Perspectives in the Education of Disadvantaged Children; A Multidisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowles, Milly, Ed.

    A collection of original papers presents an interdisciplinary approach to the education of disadvantaged children. The volume, prepared especially for preservice and inservice teachers, is divided into three sections--poverty and its effects, the children of poverty, and educational implications. The first two parts deal with such areas as…

  18. The Disadvantaged College Student and Study Skills Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Marguerite Kelsey

    The effectiveness of two academic achievement courses in improving quality point averages (QPAs) of educationally disadvantaged students was compared. One of the voluntary study skills courses taught specific study skills (study orientation skills--SOS), while the other purported to teach students to think like achievers (achievement motivation…

  19. 13 CFR 124.104 - Who is economically disadvantaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... personal income for the past two years (including bonuses and the value of company stock given in lieu of cash), personal net worth, and the fair market value of all assets, whether encumbered or not. SBA will... disadvantage must describe it in a narrative statement, and must submit personal financial information....

  20. Advantages and Disadvantages of Weighted Grading. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2004-01-01

    What are the advantages and disadvantages of weighted grading? The primary purpose of weighted grading has been to encourage high school students to take more rigorous courses. This effort is then acknowledged by more weight being given to the grade for a specified class. There are numerous systems of weighted grading cited in the literature from…

  1. Facilitating the Creative Functioning of Disadvantaged Young Black Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, William Roscoe

    This study hypothesized that disadvantaged black children could achieve higher creativity scores if they were provided with stimulating experiences appropriate to psychological warm-up immediately before they were tested for figural and verbal creative thinking ability. The subjects were 105 first grade children divided into three experimental…

  2. Living Conditions of Some Basic School Children: Pointers to Disadvantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, D. R. B.

    This study, conducted by the Bernard Van Leer Foundation Project for Early Childhood Education (PECE), presents the results of a survey which was carried out to identify home deficits in socioeconomically disadvantaged children's preparation for schooling. The study was conducted in Jamaica during July, August, and September, 1970, and was…

  3. Non-Intellectual Correlates of Attrition Among Disadvantaged Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingate, James G.

    The study described in this report was conducted in order to determine the effects of self concept and selected demographic and economic variables on attrition. Data are drawn from a group of 74 disadvantaged adult students who enrolled in a college preparatory program at the Syracuse Educational Opportunity Center (S.E.O.C.). Demographic…

  4. Education and Disadvantage: The Role of Community-Oriented Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Alan; Raffo, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    The proposed development of extended schools in England is part of an international movement towards community-oriented schooling, particularly in areas of disadvantage. Although on the face of it this movement seems like a common-sense approach to self-evident needs, the evaluation evidence on such schools is inconclusive. In order to assess the…

  5. Facilitating the Creative Functioning of Disadvantaged Young Black Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, William Roscoe

    This study hypothesized that disadvantaged black children could achieve higher creativity scores if they were provided with stimulating experiences appropriate to psychological warm-up immediately before they were tested for figural and verbal creative thinking ability. The subjects were 105 first grade children divided into three experimental…

  6. Developing Social Giftedness in Disadvantaged Girls at an Indian School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Yukti

    2012-01-01

    This article describes developmental interactions with a group of female students at an Indian public school situated in a disadvantaged section of the community. Through a series of activities, the author makes an intensive effort to develop social giftedness in these students. The article describes various activities together with the author's…

  7. Combating Educational Disadvantage through Early Years and Primary School Investment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frawley, Denise

    2014-01-01

    In 1965, following a review of second-level education in Ireland, the report "Investment in Education" was published. While a concern with educational inequality and disadvantage pre-dates this report, it clearly identified the significant socio-economic disparities in educational participation at the time and emphasised an urgent need…

  8. Education for All: Compensating for Disadvantage in Mexico. Education Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Shapiro, Joseph; Trevino, Jorge Moreno

    2004-01-01

    This note series is intended to summarize lessons learned and key policy findings on the World Bank's work in education.Education for all means learning for all. It means closing the "advantage" gap--making sure that the children of the poor and disadvantaged achieve the same levels of learning as all other children. This is one of the…

  9. From Here to Where?--"Disadvantaged Schools," Literacy and Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Pat

    2001-01-01

    Argues that the abolishment of the Disadvantaged Schools Program (DSP) in South Australia represented a shift away from a focus on the social to the individual, from curriculum to instruction, from school-based inquiry and teacher research to expert solutions, and from various contexted and contested outcomes to a singular and simplistic version…

  10. American's Problem Youth: Education and Guidance of the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mink, Oscar G., Ed.; Kaplan, Bernard A., Ed.

    This book is the result of a series of workshops designed for school personnel desiring to improve educational programs for disadvantaged youth and potential dropouts. The workshops were conducted at Cornell University during the summer of 1964 through 1967. The chapters in this book on milieu, basic issues, dropout problems, counseling the…

  11. Music Education and the Educationally Disadvantaged Gifted Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Janice Chapin

    This paper is a literature review comparing the characteristics and needs of the average gifted child with the disadvantaged gifted child in four areas: (1) cognitive; (2) affective; (3) psycho-motor; and (4) special aptitudes. Numbered items indicate those comparisons that may be contrasted directly between the two groups. All other items are…

  12. Non-Traditional Admissions Criteria for Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mares, Kenneth R.; Levine, Daniel U.

    1974-01-01

    Ever since an effort has been made to accommodate students uncomfortably referred to as "minority" or "disadvantaged," traditional admissions criteria have had to be modified or eliminated, leaving the admissions office without a selection formula or guidelines. The authors list ten existing non-cognitive criteria, add five of their own, and…

  13. Characteristics and Needs of Disadvantaged Children; an Instructional Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Celia V.

    A publication prepared for use by elementary school teachers in Los Angeles offers background information on disadvantaged children. Discussed in three sections are some viewpoints on this population, their characteristics and needs, and some suggested activities. A final section offers " selected annotated bibliography. (NH)

  14. Education for All: Compensating for Disadvantage in Mexico. Education Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Shapiro, Joseph; Trevino, Jorge Moreno

    2004-01-01

    This note series is intended to summarize lessons learned and key policy findings on the World Bank's work in education.Education for all means learning for all. It means closing the "advantage" gap--making sure that the children of the poor and disadvantaged achieve the same levels of learning as all other children. This is one of the…

  15. Motivating Disadvantaged Students toward the Possibility of College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Destin, Mesmin; Kosko, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence of successful strategies to help keep students from disadvantaged backgrounds motivated to persist in school and succeed in college. These strategies draw from scientifically validated theory and research and they typically involve simple, yet careful, implementation techniques and so educators can expect them to be more…

  16. Nutritional Supplementation of Disadvantaged Elementary-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paige, David M.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Examined with 177 disadvantaged elementary school students (5-9 years old, 99 percent Blacks) were the effects of the provision of a nutritionally fortified low-lactose food supplement on hematocrit values (volume percentage of erythrocytes in whole blood), growth, absenteeism, and lunch consumption. (IM)

  17. Activities for Developing Psycholinguistic Skills with Preschool Culturally Disadvantaged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnes, Merle; And Others

    Intended as a guide, not as a curriculum, the manual presents activities designed to improve communication and information processing skills in culturally disadvantaged preschool children, as well as to ameliorate deficits. Generally following the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, except for a section on visual closure derived from…

  18. The Early College Challenge: Navigating Disadvantaged Students' Transition to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, James E.; Becker, Kelly Iwanaga

    2011-01-01

    Successful early college high schools (ECHSs) are formed through partnerships between high schools and colleges (usually community colleges). Think of it as preparation through acceleration. ECHSs enroll disadvantaged students who have not excelled with ordinary grade-level academic content and have them take college courses while still in high…

  19. Self-Employment Programs and Outcomes for Disadvantaged Jobseekers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Ross; Mulvey, Charles; Lewis, P. E. T.

    2002-01-01

    An evaluation of Australia's New Enterprise Initiative Scheme, which provides job search information to disadvantaged job seekers, found the following: of 81 long-term unemployed, 76.5% were self-employed after participation; of 51 non-English speaking individuals, 65% were self-employed; and 84% of 400 participants overall were in some form of…

  20. Nutritional Supplementation of Disadvantaged Elementary-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paige, David M.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Examined with 177 disadvantaged elementary school students (5-9 years old, 99 percent Blacks) were the effects of the provision of a nutritionally fortified low-lactose food supplement on hematocrit values (volume percentage of erythrocytes in whole blood), growth, absenteeism, and lunch consumption. (IM)

  1. Using the Newspaper to Teach the Disadvantaged Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Newspaper Agency, Inc., Honolulu.

    One of a series prepared by the Hawaii Newspaper Agency, this teaching guide offers suggestions on using the newspaper to teach the disadvantaged child communication and reading skills. The objectives are to acquaint students with the format and contents of the newspaper; to improve vocabulary and comprehension; to encourage students to write…

  2. Theorising Multiply Disadvantaged Young People's Challenges in Accessing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Melanie; Mkwananzi, Faith

    2015-01-01

    This paper sketches an innovative conceptualisation of disadvantaged youth, shaped dialogically by the interactions of theorising and data from a case study at Orange Farm informal settlement in South Africa in 2013. The study focused on the challenges for the young people in this area in accessing higher education. Drawing on Sen's and Nussbaum's…

  3. University Access for Disadvantaged Children: A Comparison across Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrim, John; Vignoles, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider whether certain countries are particularly adept (or particularly poor) at getting children from disadvantaged homes to study for a bachelor's degree. A series of university access models are estimated for four English-speaking countries (England, Canada, Australia and the USA), which include controls for comparable…

  4. Book Selections of Economically Disadvantaged Black Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lunetta M.

    2008-01-01

    The author identified books most often selected among a sample of economically disadvantaged Black 8- to 12-year-old participants (N = 293) and investigated reasons participants offered for choosing specific books. Participants self-selected books at a book fair providing 412 books. The most commonly selected books supplied descriptive data.…

  5. Politics of Government Efforts To Improve the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirst, Michael W.; Gifford, Bernard

    This paper discusses the significant political advances for disadvantaged children that have been dependent upon trends and upheavals in the economy and major social or political movements. Evidence is provided which indicates that large scale U.S. government programs are rarely based on a public concern for children, but rather on a more…

  6. Motivating Disadvantaged Students toward the Possibility of College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Destin, Mesmin; Kosko, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence of successful strategies to help keep students from disadvantaged backgrounds motivated to persist in school and succeed in college. These strategies draw from scientifically validated theory and research and they typically involve simple, yet careful, implementation techniques and so educators can expect them to be more…

  7. What's in a Name? Categorising "Disadvantaged Older Workers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The institutionalised categorisation of adults who are over 55 years of age, unemployed and low-skilled as "older" and "disadvantaged" may adversely affect their employment prospects and their self-esteem. This paper reports on the findings of a study that explored the experiences of a small group of such adults; in particular,…

  8. A Summer Academic Research Experience for Disadvantaged Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabacoff, Cathryn; Srivastava, Vasudha; Robinson, Douglas N.

    2013-01-01

    Internships are an effective way of connecting high school students in a meaningful manner to the sciences. Disadvantaged minorities have fewer opportunities to participate in internships, and are underrepresented in both science, technology, engineering, and mathematics majors and careers. We have developed a Summer Academic Research Experience…

  9. Living Conditions of Some Basic School Children: Pointers to Disadvantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, D. R. B.

    This study, conducted by the Bernard Van Leer Foundation Project for Early Childhood Education (PECE), presents the results of a survey which was carried out to identify home deficits in socioeconomically disadvantaged children's preparation for schooling. The study was conducted in Jamaica during July, August, and September, 1970, and was…

  10. Enhancing Parent-Child Book Reading in a Disadvantaged Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Gordon; Hay, Ian; Homel, Ross; Freiberg, Kate

    2006-01-01

    A parent-child dialogic reading program was implemented across four preschools, involving 62 caregivers/parents in a low socioeconomic status, disadvantaged community where English was not the first language in 54 per cent of the homes. This socioculturally sensitive program aimed to enhance children's language and emergent literacy development,…

  11. Training the Socio-Economically Disadvantaged; A Selected, Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, Beverly J.

    This annotated bibliography presents a collection of readings which should be of interest to persons charged with the responsibility of planning programs dealing with the education, counseling, and socialization of the socioeconomically disadvantaged. Taken from various sources, this collection contains: (1) current readings, (2) a listing of…

  12. WITHDRAWN: Home-based social support for socially disadvantaged mothers.

    PubMed

    Hodnett, E D; Roberts, I

    2007-07-18

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that babies born to socio-economically disadvantaged mothers are at higher risk of injury, abuse and neglect, health problems in infancy, and are less likely to have regular well-child care. Home visitation programs have long been advocated as a strategy for improving the health of disadvantaged children. Over the past two decades, a number of randomised trials have examined the effect of home visitation programs on a range of maternal and child health outcomes. The studies in this review evaluate programs which offer additional home based support for socially disadvantaged mothers and their children. Babies born in socio-economic disadvantage are likely to be at higher risk of injury, abuse and neglect, and to have health problems in infancy. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of programs offering additional home-based support for women who have recently given birth and who are socially disadvantaged. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. Date of last search: 26 October 1998. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials of one or more post-natal home visits with the aim of providing additional home based support for socially disadvantaged women who had recently given birth, compared to usual care. Trial quality was assessed. Study authors were contacted for additional information. Eleven studies, involving 2992 families, were included. Most of the trials had important methodological limitations. Seven trial reports are awaiting further assessment. There was a trend towards reduced child injury rates with additional support, although this was not statistically significant (odds ratio 0.74, 95% confidence interval 0.54 to 1.03). There appeared to be no difference for child abuse and neglect (odds ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval 0.80 to 1.57), although differential surveillance between visited and non-visited families is an important

  13. Association of serum interleukin-6 with mental health problems in children exposed to perinatal complications and social disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Rodrigo B; Cunha, Graccielle R; Asevedo, Elson; Zugman, André; Rizzo, Lucas B; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Levandowski, Mateus L; Gadelha, Ary; Pan, Pedro M; Teixeira, Antônio L; McIntyre, Roger S; Mari, Jair J; Rohde, Luís A; Miguel, Eurípedes C; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Brietzke, Elisa

    2016-09-01

    There is consistent evidence that inflammation is involved in mental disorders pathogenesis. Herein, using data from the High Risk Cohort Study for Psychiatric Disorders, we investigated the relationship between parental mood disorders (PMD), environmental factors, serum interleukin-6 (IL6) and mental health problems in children aged 6-12. We measured the serum levels of IL6 in 567 children. Information related to socio-demographic characteristics, mental health problems and multiple risk factors, as well as parent's psychiatric diagnosis, was captured. We evaluated two groups of environmental risk factors (i.e. perinatal complications and social disadvantage) using a cumulative risk model. Results showed that higher serum levels of IL6 were associated with PMD (RR=1.072, p=0.001), perinatal complications (RR=1.022, p=0.013) and social disadvantage (RR=1.024, p=0.021). There was an interaction between PMD and social disadvantage (RR=1.141, p=0.021), as the effect of PMD on IL6 was significantly higher in children exposed to higher levels of social disadvantage. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between IL6 and mental health problems (RR=1.099, p=0.026), which was moderated by exposure to perinatal complications or social disadvantage (RR=1.273, p=0.015 and RR=1.179, p=0.048, respectively). In conclusions, there is evidence of a differential inflammatory activation in children with PMD and exposure to environmental risk factors, when compared to matched peers. Systemic inflammation may be involved in the pathway linking familial risk and mental health problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Position Papers from Language Education for the Disadvantaged. NDEA National Institute for Advanced Study in Teaching Disadvantaged Youth, Report Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Harold B.; And Others

    Four position papers on language education for the disadvantaged serve as the basis for the second stage of a three-stage seminar and underscore the need for a new look at the teaching of English, its function, and its recorded contribution to the culture. Harold B. Allen's paper, "What English Teachers Should Know About Their Language," is…

  15. The Exemplary Teacher of the Disadvantaged: Two Views. ERIC-IRCD Urban Disadvantaged Series, Number 30, July 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jablonsky, Adelaide

    This report attempts to show that there are effective programs, schools, and administrators, and many teachers who serve disadvantaged students well year in year out. The first part of the report focuses on such exemplary teachers through a survey of 59 teachers as reported by their principals. Characteristics of that model discussed relate to…

  16. Racial disparities in age at time of homicide victimization: a test of the multiple disadvantage model.

    PubMed

    Lo, Celia C; Howell, Rebecca J; Cheng, Tyrone C

    2015-01-01

    This study sought the factors associated with race/ethnicity disparities in the age at which homicide deaths tend to occur. We used the multiple disadvantage model to take race into account as we evaluated associations between age at time of homicide victimization and several social structural, mental health-related, and lifestyle factors. Data were derived from the 1993 National Mortality Followback Survey, a cross-sectional interview study of spouses, next of kin, other relatives, and close friends of individuals 15 years and older who died in the United States in 1993. Our results showed age at time of homicide mortality to be related to the three types of factors; race moderated some of these relationships. In general, being employed, married, and a homeowner appeared associated with reduced victimization while young. The relationship of victimization age and employment was not uniform across racial groups, nor was the relationship of victimization age and marital status uniform across groups. Among Blacks, using mental health services was associated with longer life. Homicide by firearm proved important for our Black and Hispanic subsamples, while among Whites, alcohol's involvement in homicide exerted significant effects. Our results suggest that programs and policies serving the various racial/ethnic groups can alleviate multiple disadvantages relevant in homicide victimization at an early age.

  17. Too poor to say no? Health incentives for disadvantaged populations.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Kristin

    2017-03-01

    Incentive schemes, which offer recipients benefits if they meet particular requirements, are being used across the world to encourage healthier behaviours. From the perspective of equality, an important concern about such schemes is that since people often do not have equal opportunity to fulfil the stipulated conditions, incentives create opportunity for further unfair advantage. Are incentive schemes that are available only to disadvantaged groups less susceptible to such egalitarian concerns? While targeted schemes may at first glance seem well placed to help improve outcomes among disadvantaged groups and thus reduce inequalities, I argue in this paper that they are susceptible to significant problems. At the same time, incentive schemes may be less problematic when they operate in ways that differ from the 'standard' incentive mechanism; I discuss three such mechanisms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Breaking the Intergenerational Cycle of Disadvantage: The Three Generation Approach.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tina L; Johnson, Sara B; Goodman, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    Health disparities in the United States related to socioeconomic status are persistent and pervasive. This review highlights how social disadvantage, particularly low socioeconomic status and the health burden it brings, is passed from 1 generation to the next. First, we review current frameworks for understanding the intergenerational transmission of health disparities and provide 4 illustrative examples relevant to child health, development, and well-being. Second, the leading strategy to break the cycle of poverty in young families in the United States, the 2-generation approach, is reviewed. Finally, we propose a new 3-generation approach that must combine with the 2-generation approach to interrupt the intergenerational cycle of disadvantage and eliminate health disparities.

  19. Breaking the Intergenerational Cycle of Disadvantage: The Three Generation Approach

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sara B.; Goodman, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Health disparities in the United States related to socioeconomic status are persistent and pervasive. This review highlights how social disadvantage, particularly low socioeconomic status and the health burden it brings, is passed from 1 generation to the next. First, we review current frameworks for understanding the intergenerational transmission of health disparities and provide 4 illustrative examples relevant to child health, development, and well-being. Second, the leading strategy to break the cycle of poverty in young families in the United States, the 2-generation approach, is reviewed. Finally, we propose a new 3-generation approach that must combine with the 2-generation approach to interrupt the intergenerational cycle of disadvantage and eliminate health disparities. PMID:27244844

  20. Advantages and disadvantages of computer imaging in cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Koch, R J; Chavez, A; Dagum, P; Newman, J P

    1998-02-01

    Despite the growing popularity of computer imaging systems, it is not clear whether the medical and legal advantages of using such a system outweigh the disadvantages. The purpose of this report is to evaluate these aspects, and provide some protective guidelines in the use of computer imaging in cosmetic surgery. The positive and negative aspects of computer imaging from a medical and legal perspective are reviewed. Also, specific issues are examined by a legal panel. The greatest advantages are potential problem patient exclusion, and enhanced physician-patient communication. Disadvantages include cost, user learning curve, and potential liability. Careful use of computer imaging should actually reduce one's liability when all aspects are considered. Recommendations for such use and specific legal issues are discussed.

  1. Cognitive advantages and disadvantages in early and late bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Pelham, Sabra D; Abrams, Lise

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has documented advantages and disadvantages of early bilinguals, defined as learning a 2nd language by school age and using both languages since that time. Relative to monolinguals, early bilinguals manifest deficits in lexical access but benefits in executive function. We investigated whether becoming bilingual after childhood (late bilinguals) can produce the cognitive advantages and disadvantages typical of early bilinguals. Participants were 30 monolingual English speakers, 30 late English-Spanish bilinguals, and 30 early Spanish-English bilinguals who completed a picture naming task (lexical access) and an attentional network task (executive function). Late and early bilinguals manifested equivalent cognitive effects in both tasks, demonstrating lexical access deficits and executive function benefits. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that cognitive effects associated with bilingualism arise as the result of proficient, habitual use of 2 languages and not of developmental changes associated with becoming bilingual during childhood.

  2. A social and academic enrichment program promotes medical school matriculation and graduation for disadvantaged students.

    PubMed

    Keith, L; Hollar, D

    2012-07-01

    This study assessed the impact of a pre-medical pipeline program on successful completion of medical school and the capacity of this program to address achievement gaps experienced by disadvantaged students. The University of North Carolina (USA) Medical Education Development (MED) program provides intensive academic and test skills preparation for admission to medical, dental, and other allied health professions schools. This retrospective study evaluated the academic progress of a longitudinal sample of 1738 disadvantaged college students who completed MED between 1974 and 2001. Data sources included MED participant data, medical school admissions data for the host school, aggregate data from the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), and individual MED participant data from AAMC. Methods of analysis utilized Chi-square, independent samples t test, and logistic regression to examine associations between factors. Of the 935 students in MED from 1974 to 2001, who had indicated an interest in medical school, 887 (94.9%) successfully matriculated and 801 (85.7%) successfully earned the MD degree. Using logistic regression, factors that were significantly correlated with earning the medical degree included the student's race, college undergraduate total and science grade point averages, with Hispanic, African American, and Native American participants earning the medical degree at rates comparable to Caucasian participants. MED students successfully earned the MD degree despite having significantly lower Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) scores and undergraduate grade point averages compared to all United States medical school applicants: MCAT scores had little relationship with student's success. These findings suggest that an intensive, nine-week, pre-medical academic enrichment program that incorporates confidence-building and small-group tutoring and peer support activities can build a foundation on which disadvantaged students can successfully earn

  3. 77 FR 54951 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ...This notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) proposes three categories of changes to improve implementation of the Department of Transportation's disadvantaged business enterprise (DBE) rule. First, the NPRM proposes revisions to personal net worth, application, and reporting forms. Second, the NPRM proposes modifications to certification-related provisions of the rule. Third, the NPRM would modify several other provisions of the rule, concerning such subjects as good faith efforts, transit vehicle manufacturers and counting of trucking companies.

  4. The Gold Standard Programme: smoking cessation interventions for disadvantaged smokers are effective in a real-life setting.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Tim; Rasmussen, Mette; Ghith, Nermin; Heitmann, Berit L; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates. Observational prospective cohort study. GSPs in pharmacies, hospitals and communities in Denmark, reporting to the national Smoking Cessation Database. Disadvantaged patients, defined as patients with a lower level of education and those receiving unemployment benefits. 6-week manualised GSP smoking cessation interventions performed by certified staff. 6 months of continuous abstinence, response rate: 80%. Continuous abstinence of the 16 377 responders was 34% (of all 20 588 smokers: 27%). Continuous abstinence was lower in 5738 smokers with a lower educational level (30% of responders and 23% of all) and in 840 unemployed (27% of responders and 19% of all). In respect to modifiable factors, continuous abstinence was found more often after programmes in one-on-one formats (vs group formats) among patients with a lower educational level, 34% (vs 25%, p=0.037), or among unemployed, 35% (vs 24%, p=0.099). The variable 'format' stayed in the final model of multivariable analyses in patients with a lower educational level, OR=1.31 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.63). Although continuous abstinence was lower among disadvantaged smokers, the absolute difference was small. If the programme had been as effective in disadvantaged as in non-disadvantaged groups, there would have been an extra 46 or 8 quitters annually, respectively. Promoting individual interventions among those with a low education may increase the effectiveness of GSP.

  5. Effects of an exercise programme with people living with HIV: research in a disadvantaged setting.

    PubMed

    Ley, Clemens; Leach, Lloyd; Barrio, María Rato; Bassett, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the physical health effects of a community based 10-week physical activity programme with people living with HIV. It was developed, implemented and evaluated in a disadvantaged community in South Africa. A pre-post research design was chosen. Major recruitment and adherence challenges resulted in a small sample. Among the 23 participants who took part in both baseline and final testing, compliant participants (n = 12) were compared to non-compliant participants (n = 11). Immunological (CD4, viral load), anthropometric (height, weight, skinfolds and waist to hip ratio), muscular strength (h1RM) and cardiopulmonary fitness (time on treadmill) parameters were measured. The compliant and non-compliant groups were not different at baseline. Muscular strength was the parameter most influenced by compliance with the physical activity programme (F = 4.516, p = 0.047). Weight loss and improvement in cardiopulmonary fitness were restricted by the duration of the programme, compliance and influencing factors (e.g. nutrition, medication). The increase in strength is significant and meaningful in the context, as the participants' goals were to look healthy and strong to avoid HIV related stigma. The improvements in appearance were a motivational factor, especially since the changes were made visible in a short time. Practical implications for health promotion are described. More research contextualised in disadvantaged settings is needed.

  6. The Role of Support Services in Promoting Social Inclusion for the Disadvantaged Urban-dwelling Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Vicky P.K.H.; Sarkari, Feroz; MacNeil, Kate; Cowan, Laura; Rankin, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Background Disadvantaged older adults living in non-family situations in Toronto are more likely than older adults living in family situations to have less economic security, less social support, and less choice in housing. Older adults who live in poverty and are precariously housed are more likely to be chronically ill, to live with multiple illnesses, to have poor nutrition, high stress and loneliness, all of which are strongly associated with the determinant of health social exclusion. The aim of this study is to: 1) evaluate the level of social disadvantage and exclusion experienced by low-income older adults 65 years of age and older living alone or in non-family situations; 2) assess the level of dependency on government and community services (support services) to maintain a reasonable standard of living (minimize effects of social exclusion); and 3) identify consequences of social exclusion not addressed by current available services. Methods Fifteen male older adult members of the Good Neighbours’ Club in downtown Toronto were interviewed. Semi-structured questionnaires assessed barriers to, utility of, and perceived impact of support services available to disadvantaged older adults living in the central core of southeast Toronto. Results Support services for income, housing, food security, social support, and health care do mitigate the effects of social exclusion in the study participants. Data gathered from interviews identified factors that counter the efforts by support services to increase social inclusion in this population. Conclusions Support services reduce social isolation experienced by these older adults. Evidence of the detrimental impact of low financial literacy suggests a need to design and implement training programs to build the older adults’ capacity to manage their own finances effectively, and resist falling victim to financial fraud. PMID:24278093

  7. The Role of Support Services in Promoting Social Inclusion for the Disadvantaged Urban-dwelling Elderly.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vicky P K H; Sarkari, Feroz; Macneil, Kate; Cowan, Laura; Rankin, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Disadvantaged older adults living in non-family situations in Toronto are more likely than older adults living in family situations to have less economic security, less social support, and less choice in housing. Older adults who live in poverty and are precariously housed are more likely to be chronically ill, to live with multiple illnesses, to have poor nutrition, high stress and loneliness, all of which are strongly associated with the determinant of health social exclusion. The aim of this study is to: 1) evaluate the level of social disadvantage and exclusion experienced by low-income older adults 65 years of age and older living alone or in non-family situations; 2) assess the level of dependency on government and community services (support services) to maintain a reasonable standard of living (minimize effects of social exclusion); and 3) identify consequences of social exclusion not addressed by current available services. Fifteen male older adult members of the Good Neighbours' Club in downtown Toronto were interviewed. Semi-structured questionnaires assessed barriers to, utility of, and perceived impact of support services available to disadvantaged older adults living in the central core of southeast Toronto. Support services for income, housing, food security, social support, and health care do mitigate the effects of social exclusion in the study participants. Data gathered from interviews identified factors that counter the efforts by support services to increase social inclusion in this population. Support services reduce social isolation experienced by these older adults. Evidence of the detrimental impact of low financial literacy suggests a need to design and implement training programs to build the older adults' capacity to manage their own finances effectively, and resist falling victim to financial fraud.

  8. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... the determination of his or her disadvantage. (4) When an individual's presumption of social and/or...

  9. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... the determination of his or her disadvantage. (4) When an individual's presumption of social and/or...

  10. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... the determination of his or her disadvantage. (4) When an individual's presumption of social and/or...

  11. 49 CFR 1.62 - Delegations to the Director of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delegations to the Director of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. 1.62 Section 1.62 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... Disadvantaged Business Utilization. The Director of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization is delegated...

  12. 48 CFR 419.201-70 - Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU). 419.201-70 Section 419.201-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU). The Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU) develops rules, policy, procedures and guidelines for the effective administration of USDA...

  13. 10 CFR 600.7 - Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business... ASSISTANCE RULES General § 600.7 Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. (a) DOE... socially and economically disadvantaged individuals and women, of historically black colleges, and...

  14. 48 CFR 52.219-23 - Notice of Price Evaluation Adjustment for Small Disadvantaged Business Concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... consistent with 13 CFR 124, subpart B; and (i) No material change in disadvantaged ownership and control has... pending, and that no material change in disadvantaged ownership and control has occurred since its... disadvantaged business concerns in the United States or its outlying areas. This paragraph does not apply to...

  15. 48 CFR 419.201-70 - Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU). 419.201-70 Section 419.201-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU). The Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU) develops rules, policy, procedures and guidelines for the effective administration of...

  16. 49 CFR 1.42 - Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. 1.42 Section 1.42 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ORGANIZATION AND... Disadvantaged Business Utilization. The Director of the Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business...

  17. 48 CFR 3419.201-70 - Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU). 3419.201-70 Section 3419.201-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Policies 3419.201-70 Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU). The Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU), Office of the Deputy Secretary, is responsible...

  18. 48 CFR 419.201-70 - Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU). 419.201-70 Section 419.201-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU). The Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU) develops rules, policy, procedures and guidelines for the effective administration of...

  19. 49 CFR 1.42 - Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. 1.42 Section 1.42 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ORGANIZATION AND... Disadvantaged Business Utilization. The Director of the Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business...

  20. 48 CFR 3419.201-70 - Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU). 3419.201-70 Section 3419.201-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Policies 3419.201-70 Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU). The Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU), Office of the Deputy Secretary, is responsible...

  1. 48 CFR 3419.201-70 - Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU). 3419.201-70 Section 3419.201-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Policies 3419.201-70 Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU). The Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU), Office of the Deputy Secretary, is responsible...

  2. 48 CFR 3419.201-70 - Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU). 3419.201-70 Section 3419.201-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Policies 3419.201-70 Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU). The Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU), Office of the Deputy Secretary, is responsible...

  3. 49 CFR 1.62 - Delegations to the Director of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delegations to the Director of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. 1.62 Section 1.62 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... Disadvantaged Business Utilization. The Director of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization is...

  4. 49 CFR 1.42 - Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. 1.42 Section 1.42 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ORGANIZATION AND... Disadvantaged Business Utilization. The Director of the Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business...

  5. 48 CFR 419.201-70 - Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU). 419.201-70 Section 419.201-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU). The Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU) develops rules, policy, procedures and guidelines for the effective administration of...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Disadvantage E Appendix E to Part 26 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PARTICIPATION BY DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS ENTERPRISES IN DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Pt. 26, App. E Appendix E to Part 26—Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage The following guidance...

  7. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Disadvantage E Appendix E to Part 26 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PARTICIPATION BY DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS ENTERPRISES IN DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Pt. 26, App. E Appendix E to Part 26—Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage The following guidance...

  8. 13 CFR 124.106 - When do disadvantaged individuals control an applicant or Participant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Hawaiian Organizations, and for CDC-owned concerns.) Disadvantaged individuals managing the concern must... Participant which directly or indirectly allows the non-disadvantaged individual significantly to influence... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When do disadvantaged individuals...

  9. Use of Computer Assisted Instruction for Teaching Mathematics to the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gipson, Joella

    The instructional needs of culturally disadvantaged students must be differentiated from the needs of slow learners and from the needs of mentally retarded children. The characteristics of a disadvantaged student's family structure, home environment, and neighborhood all affect his learning potential. The special needs of disadvantaged students…

  10. Teacher Preparation for the Minority and Disadvantaged. NCRIEEO Tipsheet, Number 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ether, John A.

    This tipsheet reports that the first series of books written especially to help prepare teachers of minorities and the disadvantaged were general books of readings. Among these is "The Disadvantaged Learner" by Staten Webster. Over 600 pages in length, it is loosely organized around three themes: knowing the disadvantaged, understanding the…

  11. 10 CFR 600.7 - Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business... ASSISTANCE RULES General § 600.7 Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. (a) DOE... socially and economically disadvantaged individuals and women, of historically black colleges, and...

  12. 10 CFR 600.7 - Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business... ASSISTANCE RULES General § 600.7 Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. (a) DOE... socially and economically disadvantaged individuals and women, of historically black colleges, and...

  13. 10 CFR 600.7 - Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business... ASSISTANCE RULES General § 600.7 Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. (a) DOE... socially and economically disadvantaged individuals and women, of historically black colleges, and...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Disadvantage E Appendix E to Part 26 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PARTICIPATION BY DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS ENTERPRISES IN DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Pt. 26, App. E Appendix E to Part 26—Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage The following...

  15. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... individual's presumption of economic disadvantage is rebutted. You are not required to have a proceeding...

  16. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... individual's presumption of economic disadvantage is rebutted. You are not required to have a proceeding...

  17. Advantages and disadvantages of stiffness instructions when studying postural control.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Cédrick T

    2016-05-01

    To understand the maintenance of upright stance, researchers try to discover the fundamental mechanisms and attentional resources devoted to postural control and eventually to the performance of other tasks (e.g., counting in the head). During their studies, some researchers require participants to stand as steady as possible and other simply ask participants to stand naturally. Surprisingly, a clear and direct explanation of the usefulness of the steadiness requirement seems to be lacking, both in experimental and methodological discussions. Hence, the objective of the present note was to provide advantages and disadvantages of this steadiness requirement in studies of postural control. The advantages may be to study fundamental postural control, to eliminate useless postural variability, to control spurious body motions and to control the participants' thoughts. As disadvantages, this steadiness requirement only leads to study postural control in unnatural upright stance, it changes the focus of attention (internal vs. external) and the nature of postural control (unconscious vs. conscious), it increases the difficulty of a supposedly easy control task and it eliminates or reduces the opportunity to record exploratory behaviors. When looking carefully at the four advantages of the steadiness requirement, one can believe that they are, in fact, more disadvantageous than advantageous. Overall therefore, this requirement seems illegitimate and it is proposed that researchers should not use it in the study of postural control. They may use this requirement only if they search to know the limit until which participants can consciously reduce their postural sway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Advantages and disadvantages of using computers in education and research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consortini, Anna

    2014-07-01

    Use of computers in education and research has completely changed the way things were made before. For example, a lecture to the students or the presentation of a paper to a Congress are completely different with respect to those of only a few decades ago, when blackboard, transparencies or photographic slides were used. There are many positive aspects of using computers, for example making a talk very attractive. However, there are also negative aspects. In this paper an analysis is presented of advantages and disadvantages I experienced and of consequences of using computers.

  19. [Advantages and disadvantages of a "no-fault" compensation system].

    PubMed

    Legemaate, J

    2003-10-11

    Should the present legal regulation of medical negligence be replaced by a no-fault compensation system (NFCS)? The Dutch government is preparing a viewpoint on this issue on the basis of a research report that describes the pros and cons of a NFCS. Recently, the British chief medical officer (CMO) rejected the introduction of a comprehensive NFCS. Instead, the CMO proposed to introduce other reforms to mitigate the disadvantages of the present system of medical litigation. A NFCS has certain advantages but is supposedly very expensive. Other policy measures can be considered as well.

  20. Virtues of SIN: can intensified public efforts help disadvantaged immigrants?

    PubMed

    Åslund, Olof; Johansson, Per

    2011-08-01

    The labor market integration of immigrants is a top political priority throughout the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Social and fiscal gains, as well as sustained future labor supply make governments search for effective policies to increase employment among the mostly disadvantaged. The author studies SIN, a Swedish pilot workplace introduction program targeting these groups, using very detailed individual data and allowing for effects through several channels. The results show increased transitions from unemployment to work experience schemes and improved future employment probabilities for those who entered these schemes. A rough calculation suggests that each job year created cost about Euro 30,000. © The Author(s) 2011

  1. Physical Activity Influences in a Disadvantaged African American Community and the Communities' Proposed Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Sarah F.; Wilson, Dawn K.; Wilcox, Sara; Buck, Jacqueline; Ainsworth, Barbara E.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this assessment is to increase our understanding of how safety and environmental factors influence physical activity among African American residents living in a low-income, high-crime neighborhood and to get input from these residents about how to best design physical activity interventions for their neighborhood. Twenty-seven African American adult residents of a low-income, high-crime neighborhood in a suburban southeastern community participated in three focus groups. Participants were asked questions about perceptions of what would help them, their families, and their neighbors be more physically active. Two independent raters coded the responses into themes. Participants suggested three environmental approaches in an effort to increase physical activity: increasing law enforcement, community connectedness and social support, and structured programs. Findings suggest that safety issues are an important factor for residents living in disadvantaged conditions and that the residents know how they want to make their neighborhoods healthier. PMID:17728204

  2. Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration Among Adolescent Males in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods Globally.

    PubMed

    Peitzmeier, Sarah M; Kågesten, Anna; Acharya, Rajib; Cheng, Yan; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Olumide, Adesola; Blum, Robert Wm; Sonenstein, Freya; Decker, Michele R

    2016-12-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) affects one in three women globally, with adolescent and young adult women at highest risk. Less is known about IPV perpetration. We compare the prevalence and correlates of IPV perpetration among 15- to 19-year-old adolescent males in Baltimore (United States), Johannesburg (South Africa), Delhi (India), and Shanghai (China). A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 with males aged 15-19 recruited via respondent-driven sampling from disadvantaged neighborhoods in four cities: Baltimore (United States), New Delhi (India), Johannesburg (South Africa), and Shanghai (China); total n = 751 ever-partnered men. We describe the prevalence of past-year physical and sexual IPV perpetration and evaluate associations with gender norm attitudes, mental health, substance use, victimization experiences, and demographic factors. Past-year physical or sexual IPV perpetration ranged from 9% in Shanghai to 40% in Johannesburg. Factors associated with past-year perpetration across multiple sites included: binge drinking (Johannesburg adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.8, Baltimore AOR = 6.7, and Shanghai AOR = 3.2), depressive symptoms (Johannesburg AOR = 2.4 and Shanghai AOR = 2.2), victimization in the home (Baltimore AOR = 2.5, Shanghai AOR = 2.7, and Johannesburg AOR = 1.7), and community violence victimization (Baltimore AOR = 7.0, Delhi AOR = 4.1, and Johannesburg AOR = 2.8). Equitable gender norm attitudes were protective against IPV perpetration in Johannesburg and Shanghai. Demographic factors (e.g., age, employment, and education) were inconsistently associated with IPV perpetration across sites. Past-year IPV perpetration was prevalent with differences identified across settings. Findings suggest the need to scale up evidence-based interventions targeting adolescents in disadvantaged urban communities in order to address many modifiable factors associated with IPV perpetration in this study. Copyright © 2016 Society for

  3. Associations Between Injection Risk and Community Disadvantage Among Suburban Injection Drug Users in Southwestern Connecticut, USA

    PubMed Central

    Barbour, Russell; Palacios, Wilson R.; Nichols, Lisa G.; Grau, Lauretta E.

    2013-01-01

    Increases in drug abuse, injection, and opioid overdoses in suburban communities led us to study injectors residing in suburban communities in southwestern Connecticut, US. We sought to understand the influence of residence on risk and injection-associated diseases. Injectors were recruited by respondent-driven sampling and interviewed about sociodemographics, somatic and mental health, injection risk, and interactions with healthcare, harm reduction, substance abuse treatment, and criminal justice systems. HIV, hepatitis B and C (HBV and HCV) serological testing was also conducted. Our sample was consistent in geographic distribution and age to the general population and to the patterns of heroin-associated overdose deaths in the suburban towns. High rates of interaction with drug abuse treatment and criminal justice systems contrasted with scant use of harm reduction services. The only factors associated with both dependent variables—residence in less disadvantaged census tracts and more injection risk—were younger age and injecting in one’s own residence. This contrasts with the common association among urban injectors of injection-associated risk behaviors and residence in disadvantaged communities. Poor social support and moderate/severe depression were associated with risky injection practices (but not residence in specific classes of census tracts), suggesting that a region-wide dual diagnosis approach to the expansion of harm reduction services could be effective at reducing the negative consequences of injection drug use. PMID:23921583

  4. The physical and social environment of sleep in socioeconomically disadvantaged postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Doering, Jennifer J

    2013-01-01

    To describe the physical and social environment of sleep self-management in postpartum socioeconomically disadvantaged women. Descriptive, exploratory design. Participants were recruited in the hospital after giving birth. Data were collected in participant homes after discharge. Postpartum women on Medicaid with normal healthy infants. Participants completed a survey about features within their physical and social sleep environment at 2 weeks postpartum. Participants then completed 3 days and nights of sleep diaries at 4 and 8 weeks postpartum to document perceived awakenings, select sleep hygiene practices, bed sharing, and reasons for sleep disruption. The sleep environments of participants were dynamic from night to night. Bed sharing was common with nearly one half of participants sharing with a partner, approximately 25% with the infant, and 20% with older children. Fifty-two percent of participants slept with the television on part (31%) or all (69%) of the night. Eighty-five percent of participants drank caffeine and 24% smoked. These results inform theory-driven postpartum sleep interventions. Modifications to the physical and social sleep environment that attend specifically to how sleep hygiene and environmental factors are manifested in the postpartum period have the potential to improve sleep for socioeconomically disadvantaged women. Future research is needed to articulate which changes can be effectively self-managed by mothers through nursing interventions. © 2012 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  5. The Physical and Social Environment of Sleep in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Doering, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe the physical and social environment of sleep self-management in postpartum socioeconomically disadvantaged women. Design Descriptive, exploratory design. Setting Participants were recruited in the hospital after giving birth. Data were collected in participant homes after discharge. Participants Postpartum women on Medicaid with normal healthy infants. Methods Participants completed a survey about features within their physical and social sleep environment at 2 weeks postpartum. Participants then completed three days and nights of sleep diaries at both 4 and 8 weeks postpartum to document perceived awakenings, select sleep hygiene practices, bed sharing, and reasons for sleep disruption. Results The sleep environments of participants were dynamic from night to night. Bed sharing was common with nearly half of participants sharing with a partner, approximately 25 percent with the infant, and 20 percent with older children. Fifty-two percent of participants slept with the television on part (31%) or all (69%) of the night. Eight-five percent of participants drank caffeine and 24 percent smoked. Conclusions These results inform theory-driven postpartum sleep interventions. Modifications to the physical and social sleep environment that attend specifically to how sleep hygiene and environmental factors are manifested in the postpartum period have the potential to improve sleep for socioeconomically disadvantaged women. Future research is needed to articulate which changes can be effectively self-managed by mothers through nursing interventions. PMID:23181913

  6. Associations between injection risk and community disadvantage among suburban injection drug users in southwestern Connecticut, USA.

    PubMed

    Heimer, Robert; Barbour, Russell; Palacios, Wilson R; Nichols, Lisa G; Grau, Lauretta E

    2014-03-01

    Increases in drug abuse, injection, and opioid overdoses in suburban communities led us to study injectors residing in suburban communities in southwestern Connecticut, US. We sought to understand the influence of residence on risk and injection-associated diseases. Injectors were recruited by respondent-driven sampling and interviewed about sociodemographics, somatic and mental health, injection risk, and interactions with healthcare, harm reduction, substance abuse treatment, and criminal justice systems. HIV, hepatitis B and C (HBV and HCV) serological testing was also conducted. Our sample was consistent in geographic distribution and age to the general population and to the patterns of heroin-associated overdose deaths in the suburban towns. High rates of interaction with drug abuse treatment and criminal justice systems contrasted with scant use of harm reduction services. The only factors associated with both dependent variables-residence in less disadvantaged census tracts and more injection risk-were younger age and injecting in one's own residence. This contrasts with the common association among urban injectors of injection-associated risk behaviors and residence in disadvantaged communities. Poor social support and moderate/severe depression were associated with risky injection practices (but not residence in specific classes of census tracts), suggesting that a region-wide dual diagnosis approach to the expansion of harm reduction services could be effective at reducing the negative consequences of injection drug use.

  7. Does social support mediate the relationship among neighborhood disadvantage, incivilities, crime and physical activity?

    PubMed

    Soltero, Erica G; Hernandez, Daphne C; O'Connor, Daniel P; Lee, Rebecca E

    2015-03-01

    Neighborhood disadvantage (ND), incivilities, and crime disproportionately impact minority women, discouraging physical activity (PA). Social support (SS) is a cultural tool promoting PA in minority women. Socially supportive environments may promote PA in disadvantaged neighborhoods, yet few studies have investigated the mediating role of social support among minority women. This study examined SS as a mediator among ND, incivilities, crime, and PA. The Health Is Power study aimed to increase PA in African American and Hispanic Latina women (N=410) in Houston and Austin, TX. ND and crime data were taken from the National Neighborhood Crime Study. Incivilities were measured using the Pedestrian Environment Data Scan (PEDS). SS was measured using the Family and Friend Support for Exercise Habits scale and physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Linear regression analysis was used to examine SS as a mediator following the Baron and Kenny method. ND was negatively associated with PA and SS. SS was not a mediator as it was not significantly associated with ND, crime, and incivilities (F(3,264)=2.02, p>.05) or PA (F(1,266)=3.8 p=.052). ND significantly discourages PA and limits SS. Future research should focus on developing strategies to overcoming these negative environmental factors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. THE CYCLE OF VIOLENCE IN CONTEXT: EXPLORING THE MODERATING ROLES OF NEIGHBORHOOD DISADVANTAGE AND CULTURAL NORMS*

    PubMed Central

    WRIGHT, EMILY M.; FAGAN, ABIGAIL A.

    2013-01-01

    Although the cycle of violence theory has received empirical support (Widom, 1989a, 1989b), in reality, not all victims of child physical abuse become involved in violence. Therefore, little is known regarding factors that may moderate the relationship between abuse and subsequent violence, particularly contextual circumstances. The current investigation used longitudinal data from 1,372 youth living in 79 neighborhoods who participated in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), and it employed a multivariate, multilevel Rasch model to explore the degree to which neighborhood disadvantage and cultural norms attenuate or strengthen the abuse–violence relationship. The results indicate that the effect of child physical abuse on violence was weaker in more disadvantaged communities. Neighborhood cultural norms regarding tolerance for youth delinquency and fighting among family and friends did not moderate the child abuse–violence relationship, but each had a direct effect on violence, such that residence in neighborhoods more tolerant of delinquency and fighting increased the propensity for violence. These results suggest that the cycle of violence may be contextualized by neighborhood structural and cultural conditions. PMID:25147403

  9. Socioeconomic disadvantage and the purchase of takeaway food: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Turrell, Gavin; Giskes, Katrina

    2008-07-01

    This study examined relationships between individual-level socioeconomic position, area-level disadvantage, characteristics of the takeaway food environment, and the purchase of takeaway food. 'Takeaway' is conceptualised as foods or meals that are prepared and purchased outside of the home, and ready for immediate consumption either at the place of purchase or elsewhere. The analytic sample comprised 1001 households and 50 small areas in Brisbane, Australia. Takeaway food was purchased more regularly by high-income householders and those with higher levels of education. Residents of advantaged areas purchased takeaway food more regularly, although area differences attenuated to the null after adjustment for individual-level compositional factors. Number of takeaway shops in the local food environment, and road distance to the closest takeaway shop, were largely unrelated to the purchase of takeaway food. We conclude that there is little evidence that takeaway food purchasing in Brisbane is influenced by area-level socioeconomic disadvantage or features of the takeaway food environment. Rather, it seems that what matters most in terms of influencing the decision or capacity of Brisbane residents to purchase takeaway food are the socioeconomic characteristics of individuals and their households. The findings of this and previous analyses of the Brisbane Food Study data suggest that policy and health promotion aimed at improving the diets of residents and reducing dietary inequalities between socioeconomic groups should focus on people more so than places.

  10. Green synthesis of nanoparticles: Their advantages and disadvantages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parveen, Khadeeja; Banse, Viktoria; Ledwani, Lalita

    2016-04-01

    The nanotechnology and biomedical sciences opens the possibility for a wide variety of biological research topics and medical uses at the molecular and cellular level. The biosynthesis of nanoparticles has been proposed as a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to chemical and physical methods. Plant-mediated synthesis of nanoparticles is a green chemistry approach that connects nanotechnology with plants. Novel methods of ideally synthesizing NPs are thus thought that are formed at ambient temperatures, neutral pH, low costs and environmentally friendly fashion. Keeping these goals in view nanomaterials have been synthesized using various routes. Among the biological alternatives, plants and plant extracts seem to be the best option. Plants are nature's "chemical factories". They are cost efficient and require low maintenance. The advantages and disadvantages of nanotechnology can be easily enumerated. This study attempts to review the diversity of the field, starting with the history of nanotechnology, the properties of the nanoparticle, various strategies of synthesis, the many advantages and disadvantages of different methods and its application.

  11. Early stimulation and language development of economically disadvantaged young children.

    PubMed

    Malhi, Prahbhjot; Sidhu, Manjit; Bharti, Bhavneet

    2014-04-01

    To examine the effect of home stimulation on the language functioning of young children from low income families. The language functioning of 102 children (Mean age = 3.3 y, SD = 1.3) was assessed by the communication sub-scale of the Indian Developmental Inventory (IDI). Home visits were made to assess the quality of stimulation provided by parents to children. Seven items measuring stimulation of the child were selected from the Mohite Home Environment Inventory, a scale measuring the quality of home environment. Nearly 16 % of children from economically disadvantaged homes had language delay. Children with language delay as compared to children with adequate language skills had significantly lower stimulation at home (t = 2.59, P = 0.01), specifically parents were significantly less likely to praise their child (25 % vs. 52 %, χ (2) = 4.03, P = 0.045) or provide verbal stimulation (44 % vs. 72 %, χ (2) = 4.95, P = 0.026). Multivariate stepwise regression analysis revealed that 18 % of the variance in the communication developmental quotient (DQs) of children was accounted by stimulation and age of the child (F = 10.47, P = 0.000). Programs that seek to increase early stimulation for disadvantaged children by providing cognitive-linguistic enriched learning experiences would go a long way in paving the way for improved language, cognition and school performance in young children.

  12. Social determinants of disability-based disadvantage in Solomon islands.

    PubMed

    Gartrell, Alexandra; Jennaway, Megan; Manderson, Lenore; Fangalasuu, Judy; Dolaiano, Simon

    2016-08-25

    Development discourse widely recognises that disability is the result of economic and social processes and structures that fail to accommodate persons with disabilities. Empirical work on the relationship between disability and poverty however, conceptualize poverty through an economic resource lens in high-income countries. To address this conceptual gap this article uses a social determinants of health perspective to examine how socio-cultural, economic and political contexts shape disability-based disadvantage. This article draws upon ethnographic research and supplementary data collected using rapid assessment techniques in Solomon Islands. Findings suggest that the disability-poverty nexus and inequalities in health, wellbeing and quality of life must be understood within broader patterns of social vulnerability that are institutionalised in landownership and patterns of descent, gendered power relations and disability specific stigmas that preclude social and productive engagement . This article demonstrates how a social determinant of health perspective that closely examines lived experiences of disability provides critical analytical insights into the structural mechanisms that constitute disability-based disadvantage. This article provides foundation knowledge on which policies and further research to promote disability-inclusion and equity can be based.

  13. International Resource Book for Libraries Serving Disadvantaged Persons: 2001-2008. An Update to the International Resource Book for Libraries Serving Disadvantaged Persons: 1931-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Joanne; Panella, Nancy M.

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, the Libraries Serving Disadvantaged Persons (LSDP) Section of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA), published the "International Resource Book for Libraries Serving Disadvantaged Persons." This publication is a seventy year retrospective which chronicles the history of the Section from 1931 to 2001.…

  14. Education and the Disadvantaged, Proceedings of a Conference on the Disadvantaged (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, June 8-9, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Harvey, Ed.

    This conference report is made up of six papers and related commentaries on the nature of disadvantagement and its implications. Most participants were from the Milwaukee, Wisconsin, area. Small group meetings and discussions followed each of the papers. The opening paper, "Education and the Disadvantaged" (E. Melby), examined a broad…

  15. Adolescents' perceptions of health from disadvantaged urban communities: findings from the WAVE study.

    PubMed

    Mmari, Kristin; Blum, Robert; Sonenstein, Freya; Marshall, Beth; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Venables, Emily; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Lou, Chaohua; Gao, Ershang; Acharya, Rajib; Jejeebhoy, Shireen; Sangowawa, Adesola

    2014-03-01

    The Well-being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments (WAVE) is a global study of young people living in disadvantaged urban communities from Baltimore, MD, Johannesburg, South Africa, Shanghai, China, New Delhi, India and Ibadan, Nigeria. WAVE was launched in the summer of 2011 to: 1) explore adolescents' perceived health and their top health challenges; and 2) describe the factors that adolescents perceive to be related to their health and health care utilization. Researchers in each site conducted in-depth interviews among adolescents; community mapping and focus groups among adolescents; a Photovoice methodology, in which adolescents were trained in photography and took photos of the meaning of 'health' in their communities; and key informant interviews among adults who work with young people. A total 529 participants from across the sites were included in the analysis. Findings from the study showed that gender played a large role with regards to what adolescents considered as their top health challenges. Among females, sexual and reproductive health problems were primary health challenges, whereas among males, tobacco, drug, and alcohol consumption was of highest concern, which often resulted into acts of violence. Personal safety was also a top concern among males and females from Baltimore and Johannesburg, and among females in New Delhi and Ibadan. Factors perceived to influence health the most were the physical environment, which was characterized by inadequate sanitation and over-crowded buildings, and the social environment, which varied in influence by gender and site. Regardless of the study site, adolescents did not consider physical health as a top priority and very few felt the need to seek health care services. This study highlights the need to focus on underlying structural and social factors for promoting health and well-being among adolescents in disadvantaged urban environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence and determinants of adolescent pregnancy in urban disadvantaged settings across five cities.

    PubMed

    Brahmbhatt, Heena; Kågesten, Anna; Emerson, Mark; Decker, Michele R; Olumide, Adesola O; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Lou, Chaohua; Sonenstein, Freya L; Blum, Robert W; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead

    2014-12-01

    The impact of pregnancy on the health and livelihood of adolescents aged 15-19 years is substantial. This study explored sociodemographic, behavioral, and environmental-level factors associated with adolescent pregnancy across five urban disadvantaged settings. The Well-Being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments study used respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to recruit males and females from Baltimore (456), Johannesburg (496), Ibadan (449), New Delhi (500), and Shanghai (438). RDS-II and poststratification age weights were used to explore the odds associated with "ever had sex" and "ever pregnant"; adjusted odds of pregnancy and 95% confidence interval were developed by site and gender. Among the sexually experienced, pregnancy was most common in Baltimore (females, 53% and males, 25%) and Johannesburg (females, 29% and males 22%). Heterosexual experience and therefore pregnancy were rare in Ibadan, New Delhi, and Shanghai. Current schooling and condom use at the first sex decreased the odds of pregnancy among females in Baltimore and Johannesburg participants. Factors associated with higher odds of pregnancy were early sexual debut (Johannesburg participants and Baltimore females) being raised by someone other than the two parents (Johannesburg females); alcohol use and binge drinking in the past month (Baltimore participants); greater community violence and poor physical environment (Baltimore males and Johannesburg participants). The reported prevalence of adolescent pregnancy varies substantially across similarly economically disadvantaged urban settings. These differences are related to large differences in sexual experience, which may be underreported, and differences in environmental contexts. Pregnancy risk needs to be understood within the specific context that adolescents reside with particular attention to neighborhood-level factors. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Health, behavioral, cognitive, and social correlates of breakfast skipping among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kylie J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Cleland, Verity J; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2013-11-01

    Breakfast skipping is a potentially modifiable behavior that has negative effects on health and is socioeconomically patterned. This study aimed to examine the intrapersonal (health, behavioral, and cognitive) and social factors associated with breakfast skipping. Nonpregnant women (n = 4123) aged 18-45 y from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods throughout Victoria, Australia, completed a postal questionnaire. Sociodemographic characteristics, diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and cognitive and social factors were assessed by self-report. Breakfast skipping was defined in 2 ways: 1) "rarely/never" eating breakfast (n = 498) and 2) eating breakfast ≤2 d/wk (includes those who rarely/never ate breakfast; n = 865). Poisson regression was used to calculate prevalence ratios and linear trends, adjusting for covariates. The P values for linear trends are reported below. Compared with breakfast consumers, women who reported rarely/never eating breakfast tended to have poorer self-rated health (P-trend < 0.001), be current smokers (P-trend < 0.001), pay less attention to health (P-trend < 0.001), not prioritize their own healthy eating when busy looking after their family (P-trend < 0.001), have less nutrition knowledge (P-trend < 0.001), and a lower proportion were trying to control their weight (P-trend < 0.020). When breakfast skipping was defined as eating breakfast ≤2 d/wk, additional associations were found for having lower leisure-time physical activity (P-trend = 0.012) and less self-efficacy for eating a healthy diet (P-trend < 0.043). In conclusion, a range of intrapersonal and social factors were significantly associated with breakfast skipping among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. Acknowledging the cross-sectional design and need for causal confirmation, programs that aim to promote breakfast consumption in this population group should consider targeting family-related barriers to healthy eating and nutrition

  18. Working in disadvantaged communities: What additional competencies do we need?

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Elizabeth; Harris, Mark F; Madden, Lynne; Wise, Marilyn; Sainsbury, Peter; MacDonald, John; Gill, Betty

    2009-01-01

    Background Residents of socioeconomically disadvantaged locations are more likely to have poor health than residents of socioeconomically advantaged locations and this has been comprehensively mapped in Australian cities. These inequalities present a challenge for the public health workers based in or responsible for improving the health of people living in disadvantaged localities. The purpose of this study was to develop a generic workforce needs assessment tool and to use it to identify the competencies needed by the public health workforce to work effectively in disadvantaged communities. Methods A two-step mixed method process was used to identify the workforce needs. In step 1 a generic workforce needs assessment tool was developed and applied in three NSW Area Health Services using focus groups, key stakeholder interviews and a staff survey. In step 2 the findings of this needs assessment process were mapped against the existing National Health Training Package (HLT07) competencies, gaps were identified, additional competencies described and modules of training developed to fill identified gaps. Results There was a high level of agreement among the AHS staff on the nature of the problems to be addressed but less confidence indentifying the work to be done. Processes for needs assessments, community consultations and adapting mainstream programs to local needs were frequently mentioned as points of intervention. Recruiting and retaining experienced staff to work in these communities and ensuring their safety were major concerns. Workforce skill development needs were seen in two ways: higher order planning/epidemiological skills and more effective working relationships with communities and other sectors. Organisational barriers to effective practice were high levels of annual compulsory training, balancing state and national priorities with local needs and giving equal attention to the population groups that are easy to reach and to those that are difficult

  19. Vacuum-assisted drainage in cardiopulmonary bypass: advantages and disadvantages

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho Filho, Élio Barreto; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; da Costa, Loredana Nilkenes Gomes; Antunes, Nilson

    2014-01-01

    Systematic review of vacuum assisted drainage in cardiopulmonary bypass, demonstrating its advantages and disadvantages, by case reports and evidence about its effects on microcirculation. We conducted a systematic search on the period 1997-2012, in the databases PubMed, Medline, Lilacs and SciELO. Of the 70 selected articles, 26 were included in the review. Although the vacuum assisted drainage has significant potential for complications and requires appropriate technology and professionalism, prevailed in literature reviewed the concept that vacuum assisted drainage contributed in reducing the rate of transfusions, hemodilutions, better operative field, no significant increase in hemolysis, reduced complications surgical, use of lower prime and of smaller diameter cannulas. PMID:25140478

  20. Nibbled to Death by Ducks: The Accumulation of Disadvantage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Caroline E.

    2010-05-01

    One of the consequences of unconscious bias is the accumulation of advantage/disadvantage. Research has shown that over time, minor imbalances will accrue and eventually have major impacts regarding promotion, salary, prestige, and advancement to leadership positions. For example, an unconscious bias during an evaluation leading to an underestimate of performance will result in a lower success rate, which then feeds back into the next evaluation and the cycle repeats. How can we address this? We'll be discussing how to become informed and conscious of the problem, and we'll look at recommendations for developing and implementing departmental and institutional policies and practices aimed at increasing awareness and countering these accumulations of imbalances that impact us all.