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Sample records for disadvantage factor

  1. Predictors of Parenting among Economically Disadvantaged Latina Mothers: Mediating and Moderating Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prelow, Hazel M.; Weaver, Scott R.; Bowman, Marvella A.; Swenson, Rebecca R.

    2010-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to examine the role of ecological risk factors, maternal psychological distress, and social network support on the parenting behaviors of 535 economically disadvantaged Latina mothers, who were surveyed for the Welfare Children, & Families: A Three City Study. We predicted that ecological risk would influence…

  2. Protective Factors and the Development of Resilience in the Context of Neighborhood Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderbilt-Adriance, Ella; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine relations among multiple child and family protective factors, neighborhood disadvantage, and positive social adjustment in a sample of 226 urban, low SES boys followed from infancy to early adolescence. The results indicated that child IQ, nurturant parenting, and parent-child relationship quality,…

  3. Social–Emotional Factors Affecting Achievement Outcomes Among Disadvantaged Students: Closing the Achievement Gap

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Bronwyn E.; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite concentrated efforts at improving inferior academic outcomes among disadvantaged students, a substantial achievement gap between the test scores of these students and others remains (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; National Center for Education Statistics, 2000a, 2000b; Valencia & Suzuki, 2000). Existing research used ecological models to document social–emotional factors at multiple levels of influence that undermine academic performance. This article integrates ideas from various perspectives in a comprehensive and interdisciplinary model that will inform policy makers, administrators, and schools about the social–emotional factors that act as both risk and protective factors for disadvantaged students’ learning and opportunities for academic success. Four critical social–emotional components that influence achievement performance (academic and school attachment, teacher support, peer values, and mental health) are reviewed. PMID:23255834

  4. Protective factors and the development of resilience in the context of neighborhood disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Vanderbilt-Adriance, Ella; Shaw, Daniel S

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine relations among multiple child and family protective factors, neighborhood disadvantage, and positive social adjustment in a sample of 226 urban, low SES boys followed from infancy to early adolescence. The results indicated that child IQ, nurturant parenting, and parent-child relationship quality, measured in early childhood, were all significantly associated with a composite measure tapping low levels of antisocial behavior and high levels of social skills at ages 11 and 12. Parental romantic partner relationship quality (RPRQ) was only significantly related to positive social adjustment in the context of low levels of neighborhood disadvantage. Results suggest that with the exception of RPRQ, these protective factors operate in a comparable manner with respect to positive social adjustment for this predominantly low-income urban sample of boys.

  5. Protective Factors and the Development of Resilience in the Context of Neighborhood Disadvantage

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel S.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine relations among multiple child and family protective factors, neighborhood disadvantage, and positive social adjustment in a sample of 226 urban, low SES boys followed from infancy to early adolescence. The results indicated that child IQ, nurturant parenting, and parent–child relationship quality, measured in early childhood, were all significantly associated with a composite measure tapping low levels of antisocial behavior and high levels of social skills at ages 11 and 12. Parental romantic partner relationship quality (RPRQ) was only significantly related to positive social adjustment in the context of low levels of neighborhood disadvantage. Results suggest that with the exception of RPRQ, these protective factors operate in a comparable manner with respect to positive social adjustment for this predominantly low-income urban sample of boys. PMID:18288604

  6. Sustained Implementation of Evidence-based Programs in Disadvantaged Communities: A Conceptual Framework of Supporting Factors.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Lauren M; Turner, Karen M T

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a review of the empirical literature for studies evaluating factors that facilitate and create barriers to sustained program implementation in disadvantaged communities. It outlines study methodology and sustainment outcomes and proposes a conceptual model that involves implementation sustainment support for providers delivering evidence-based health and family services in disadvantaged communities. Sustained program implementation in the community setting is a significant issue as only 43% of studies reported successfully sustained programs. The review identified 18 factors that facilitate success and create barriers to program sustainment. The factors are synthesized into three themes; program characteristics, workplace capacity, and process and interaction factors. The majority of factors map onto commonly cited sustainability influences in implementation science. However, there was an additional focus for studies included in this review on the importance of factors such as program burden, program familiarity and perceived competence in program skills, workplace support for the program, staff mobility and turnover, supervision and peer support, and ongoing technical assistance. The need to use a conceptual framework and develop measures to guide and evaluate capacity building in EBP implementation and sustainment in low-resource community settings is highlighted. PMID:27624514

  7. Exploring Situational Factors Shaping Access in a Laptop Program for Socially Disadvantaged Children in India: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padmanabhan, Poornima; Wise, Alyssa Friend

    2012-01-01

    Low-cost laptop programs attempt to address gaps in access to computers in developing countries. However, the translation of computing access from intention to actuality is mediated by many situational factors. This research presents a case study of how access to a set of laptops donated to a school for socially disadvantaged children in India was…

  8. Factors Influencing the Career Choice of Undergraduate Students at a Historically Disadvantaged South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, Fatima; Jano, Rukhsana; van Lill, Burger

    2015-01-01

    During the apartheid years in South Africa, career guidance amongst disadvantaged learners was largely absent and, for many, career choices were limited and governed by politics. Despite South Africa having celebrated 20 years of democracy, this situation has improved only slightly. Therefore, the aims of the study were to determine the factors…

  9. Cultural Factors Moderating Links between Neighborhood Disadvantage and Parenting and Coparenting among Mexican Origin Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Melissa A.; Mortensen, Jennifer A.; Gonzalez, Henry; Gonzalez, Jose-Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mexican origin families with young children living in the United States are disproportionately likely to live in disadvantaged neighborhoods that may threaten engagement in positive parenting processes. However, the influences of contextual risks on family processes among Mexican origin families remain unclear. Objective: The goal of…

  10. Cardiovascular risk factors in economically disadvantaged women: a study of prevalence and awareness.

    PubMed Central

    Poduri, A.; Grisso, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among low-income women and assessed the level of awareness and attitudes about these risk factors in the community. A survey instrument was developed and administered by a single researcher to a convenience sample of women in health clinics and nonclinical community settings. These settings included: an academic clinic, community clinics, women's shelters, free meal sites, community centers, public housing units, and private homes in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Two hundred two women were selected without regard to age or race. The mean number of cardiovascular risk factors per subject was 2.6 (SD 1.4). Each of eight established cardiovascular risk factors was identified by 4% to 34% of subjects. Among those women with a specific risk factor, only 0% to 45% reported that they were at increased risk due to the presence of that factor. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among low-income women is substantial. Knowledge and understanding of these risk factors is suboptimal, particularly among women personally affected by risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:9770952

  11. Multi-level risk factors and developmental assets associated with aggressive behavior in disadvantaged adolescents.

    PubMed

    Smokowski, Paul R; Guo, Shenyang; Cotter, Katie L; Evans, Caroline B R; Rose, Roderick A

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined multilevel risk factors and developmental assets on longitudinal trajectories of aggressive behavior in a diverse sample of rural adolescents. Using ecological and social capital theories, we explored the impact of positive and negative proximal processes, social capital, and contextual characteristics (i.e., school and neighborhood) on adolescent aggression. Data came from the Rural Adaptation Project, which is a 5-year longitudinal panel study of more than 4,000 middle and high school students from 40 public schools in two rural, low income counties in North Carolina. A three-level HLM model (N = 4,056 at Wave 1, 4,251 at Wave 2, and 4,256 at Wave 3) was estimated to predict factors affecting the change trajectories of aggression. Results indicated that negative proximal processes in the form of parent-adolescent conflict, friend rejection, peer pressure, delinquent friends, and school hassles were significant predictors of aggression. In addition, social capital in the form of ethnic identity, religious orientation, and school satisfaction served as buffers against aggression. Negative proximal processes were more salient predictors than positive proximal processes. School and neighborhood characteristics had a minimal impact on aggression. Overall, rates of aggression did not change significantly over the 3-year study window. Findings highlight the need to intervene in order to decrease negative interactions in the peer and parent domains. PMID:26349636

  12. Getting Our Best Teachers into Disadvantaged Schools: Differences in the Professional and Personal Factors Attracting More Effective and Less Effective Teachers to a School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Suzanne M.

    2010-01-01

    Of the school-level factors that have an impact on student learning, one of the most powerful appears to be the effectiveness of the individual teacher. The most effective teachers are, therefore, one of the most important tools schools and systems have at their disposal to lift the achievement of socio-economically disadvantaged students and…

  13. Predictors of Co-Occurring Risk Behavior Trajectories among Economically Disadvantaged African American Youth: Contextual and Individual Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sterrett, Emma M.; Dymnicki, Allison B.; Henry, David; Byck, Gayle; Bolland, John; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose African American youth, particularly those from low-income backgrounds, evidence high rates of negative outcomes associated with three problem behaviors, conduct problems, risky sexual behavior, and substance use. This study used a contextually-tailored version of Problem Behavior Theory (PBT) to examine predictors of the simultaneous development of problem behaviors in this specific cultural group. Methods Socio-contextual and individual variables representing four PBT predictor categories, controls protection, support protection, models risk, and vulnerability risk, were examined as predictors of co-occurring problem behaviors among economically disadvantaged African American adolescents (n = 949). Specifically, the likelihood of following three classes of multiple problem behavior trajectories spanning ages 12 to 18, labeled the “early experimenters,” “increasing high risk-takers,” and “adolescent-limited” classes, as opposed to a “normative” class was examined. Results Among other findings, controls protection in the form of a more stringent household curfew at age 12 was related to a lower likelihood of being in the “early experimenters” and “increasing high risk-takers” classes. Conversely, vulnerability risk manifested as stronger attitudes of violence inevitability was associated with a higher likelihood of being in the “early experimenters” class. However, the PBT category of support protection was not associated with risk trajectory class. More distal neighborhood-level manifestations of PBT categories also did not predict co-occurring behavior problems. Conclusion Guided by an incorporation of contextually-salient processes into PBT, prevention programs aiming to decrease co-occurring problem behaviors among low-income African American adolescents would do well to target both proximal systems and psychological constructs related to perceived security throughout adolescence. PMID:24755141

  14. Depression and Social Context: Primary Supporter Relationship Factors Associated with Depressive Symptoms among a Disadvantaged Population with HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlton, Amy R.; Curry, Aaron; Hua, Wei; Wissow, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Social support is associated with better health outcomes among chronically ill individuals, yet support receipt can be stressful. The study examined supporter relationship factors, among n = 156 main-supporter-HIV+support-recipient dyads, associated with recipient's depression (CES-D greater than or equal to 16). Results indicated that support…

  15. A Multiple Risk Factors Model of the Development of Aggression among Early Adolescents from Urban Disadvantaged Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sangwon; Orpinas, Pamela; Kamphaus, Randy; Kelder, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    This study empirically derived a multiple risk factors model of the development of aggression among middle school students in urban, low-income neighborhoods, using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM). Results indicated that aggression increased from sixth to eighth grade. Additionally, the influences of four risk domains (individual, family,…

  16. SOCIALLY DISADVANTAGED AMERICANS, SLOW LEARNERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COHEN, S. ALAN

    THIS PAPER DOCUMENTS THE GENERAL CONDITIONS OF DISADVANTAGED AMERICANS AND EXAMINES THE PSYCHOEDUCATIONAL PROBLEMS WHICH GROW OUT OF THEM. SPECIFIC STATISTICS ARE REPORTED WHICH DESCRIBE INADEQUATE MEDICAL SERVICES FOR NEGROES, POOR HEALTH, POVERTY LEVEL INCOMES, AND EDUCATIONAL RETARDATION. THE PSYCHOEDUCATIONAL FACTORS DISCUSSED INCLUDE VISUAL…

  17. Multilevel risk factors and developmental assets for internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in disadvantaged adolescents: modeling longitudinal trajectories from the Rural Adaptation Project.

    PubMed

    Smokowski, Paul R; Guo, Shenyang; Rose, Roderick; Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L; Bacallao, Martica

    2014-11-01

    The current study filled significant gaps in our knowledge of developmental psychopathology by examining the influence of multilevel risk factors and developmental assets on longitudinal trajectories of internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in an exceptionally culturally diverse sample of rural adolescents. Integrating ecological and social capital theories, we explored if positive microsystem transactions are associated with self-esteem while negative microsystem transactions increase the chances of internalizing problems. Data came from the Rural Adaptation Project, a 5-year longitudinal panel study of more than 4,000 middle school students from 28 public schools in two rural, disadvantaged counties in North Carolina. Three-level hierarchical linear modeling models were estimated to predict internalizing symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety) and self-esteem. Relative to other students, risk for internalizing problems and low self-esteem was elevated for aggressive adolescents, students who were hassled or bullied at school, and those who were rejected by peers or in conflict with their parents. Internalizing problems were also more common among adolescents from socioeconomically disadvantaged families and neighborhoods, among those in schools with more suspensions, in students who reported being pressured by peers, and in youth who required more teacher support. It is likely that these experiences left adolescents disengaged from developing social capital from ecological microsystems (e.g., family, school, peers). On the positive side, support from parents and friends and optimism about the future were key assets associated with lower internalizing symptoms and higher self-esteem. Self-esteem was also positively related to religious orientation, school satisfaction, and future optimism. These variables show active engagement with ecological microsystems. The implications and limitations were discussed. PMID:25422975

  18. Multilevel risk factors and developmental assets for internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in disadvantaged adolescents: modeling longitudinal trajectories from the Rural Adaptation Project.

    PubMed

    Smokowski, Paul R; Guo, Shenyang; Rose, Roderick; Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L; Bacallao, Martica

    2014-11-01

    The current study filled significant gaps in our knowledge of developmental psychopathology by examining the influence of multilevel risk factors and developmental assets on longitudinal trajectories of internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in an exceptionally culturally diverse sample of rural adolescents. Integrating ecological and social capital theories, we explored if positive microsystem transactions are associated with self-esteem while negative microsystem transactions increase the chances of internalizing problems. Data came from the Rural Adaptation Project, a 5-year longitudinal panel study of more than 4,000 middle school students from 28 public schools in two rural, disadvantaged counties in North Carolina. Three-level hierarchical linear modeling models were estimated to predict internalizing symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety) and self-esteem. Relative to other students, risk for internalizing problems and low self-esteem was elevated for aggressive adolescents, students who were hassled or bullied at school, and those who were rejected by peers or in conflict with their parents. Internalizing problems were also more common among adolescents from socioeconomically disadvantaged families and neighborhoods, among those in schools with more suspensions, in students who reported being pressured by peers, and in youth who required more teacher support. It is likely that these experiences left adolescents disengaged from developing social capital from ecological microsystems (e.g., family, school, peers). On the positive side, support from parents and friends and optimism about the future were key assets associated with lower internalizing symptoms and higher self-esteem. Self-esteem was also positively related to religious orientation, school satisfaction, and future optimism. These variables show active engagement with ecological microsystems. The implications and limitations were discussed.

  19. An Examination of the First/Second-Grade Form of the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance: Factor Structure and Stability by Grade and Gender across Groups of Economically Disadvantaged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Brian F.; Mantzicopoulos, Panayota

    2007-01-01

    We tested the structure of the Pictorial Scale of Competence and Social Acceptance (PSPCSA) across groups of first and second grade children from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. We used confirmatory factor analysis, including latent mean structures analysis, to test the fit of competing PSPCSA factor models and examined invariance across…

  20. Primary Prevention Strategies for Disadvantaged Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhauer, Paul D.

    Primary prevention strategies (prevention at the community level) for disadvantaged populations are discussed. A number of factors in Canadian society have placed additional stress on many poor and working class families. These include issues of housing, unemployment, lack of education, and social changes with adverse effects on the disadvantaged.…

  1. An exploration of the complex relationship of socioecologic factors in the treatment and outcomes of acute myocardial infarction in disadvantaged populations.

    PubMed Central

    Shen, J J; Wan, T T; Perlin, J B

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship of patients' socioeconomic status (SES) as measured by race, health insurance status, and median income by zip code to in-hospital mortality of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), paying special attention to patients with multiple unfavorable socioeconomic risk factors. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: The data set was abstracted from patient-level hospital discharges in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, Release 3, 1994. A total of 95,971 AMI discharges in 11 states were extracted. STUDY DESIGN: The risk adjustment methodology was adapted from the California Hospital Outcomes Project. Risk factors included demographic and clinical characteristics. Patients in double jeopardy had inferior insurance status and lived in poorer neighborhoods. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Compared with patients with health care coverage under Medicare and private insurance uninsured AMI patients had the highest risk-adjusted mortality odds and Medicaid AMI patients had the second highest odds. Probably because of the modest association of median income by zip code areas with mortality odds, the double jeopardy phenomenon was not observed. However, compared to patients who had two favorable SES attributes, patients who carried two unfavorable SES attributes had much higher mortality risk, more comorbidities, longer length of stay, and higher total hospital charges, while they received fewer AMI specialized procedures. Race did not seem to be a significant factor after adjustment for other SES attributes. CONCLUSIONS: SES is significantly related to the mortality of AMI patients. The disadvantaged patients receive fewer specialized procedures, possibly because of their higher levels of severity and financial barriers. The variation in mortality between patients who had favorable and unfavorable SES becomes wider when multiple socioeconomic risks are borne by the latter. PMID:11508636

  2. Child Survival/Fair Start. A Look at the Factors Threatening the Survival, Health, and Cognitive Development of the World's Disadvantaged Children, and the Ford Foundation's New Program to Help These Children Get a Fair Start in Life. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    In view of the many factors threatening the survival, health, and cognitive development of the world's disadvantaged children, both in the United States and in developing countries, the Ford Foundation has begun a new program, called Child Survival/Fair Start, to improve these children's chances. In this working paper, Fair Start's overall…

  3. Family Factors Related to Competence in Young, Disadvantaged Mexican-American Children. Part of the Final Report on Head Start Evaluation and Research: 1968-69 to the Office of Economic Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedman, James M.; McKenzie, Richard E.

    As part of the continuing search for the environmental antecedents of competence in young children, this study investigated several parameters of a population of disadvantaged Mexican-American children. The factors of child competence on which this study focused were behavioral adjustment and linguistic ability. The antecedents of competence were…

  4. Social Disadvantage and Crime

    PubMed Central

    Wikström, Per-Olof H.; Treiber, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we analyze the relationship between social disadvantage and crime, starting from the paradox that most persistent offenders come from disadvantaged backgrounds, but most people from disadvantaged backgrounds do not become persistent offenders. We argue that despite the fact that social disadvantage has been a key criminological topic for some time, the mechanisms which link it to offending remain poorly specified. Drawing on situational action theory, we suggest social disadvantage is linked to crime because more people from disadvantaged versus affluent backgrounds develop a high crime propensity and are exposed to criminogenic contexts, and the reason for this is that processes of social and self-selection place the former more frequently in (developmental and action) contexts conducive to the development and expression of high crime propensities. This article will explore this hypothesis through a series of analyses using data from the Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study (PADS+), a longitudinal study which uses a range of data collection methods to study the interaction between personal characteristics and social environments. It pays particular attention to the macro-to-micro processes behind the intersection of people with certain characteristics and environments with certain features – i.e., their exposure – which leads to their interaction. PMID:27524829

  5. Individual, social and environmental factors influencing physical activity levels and behaviours of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged urban mothers in Canada: A mixed methods approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Existing data provide little insight into the physical activity context of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged mothers in Canada. Our primary objectives were: (1) to use focus group methodology to develop tools to identify the individual, social, and environmental factors influencing utilitarian and leisure time physical activities (LTPA) of multiethnic SED mothers; and (2) to use a women specific physical activity survey tool to assess psychosocial barriers and supports and to quantify individual physical activity (PA) levels of multi-ethnic SED mothers in Canada. Methods Qualitative focus group sessions were conducted in West, Central and Eastern Canada with multiethnic SED mothers (n = 6 focus groups; n = 42 SED mothers) and with health and recreation professionals (HRPs) (n = 5 focus groups; n = 25 HRPs) involved in community PA programming for multiethnic SED mothers. Administration of the women specific Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) tool was completed by consenting SED mothers (n = 59). Results More than half of SED mothers were employed and had higher total PA scores with occupation included than unemployed mothers. However, nearly 60% of both groups were overweight or obese. Barriers to LTPA included the lack of available, affordable and accessible LTPA programs that responded to cultural and social needs. Concerns for safety, nonsupportive cultural and social norms and the winter climate were identified as key barriers to both utilitarian and LTPA. Conclusions Findings show that multiethnic SED mothers experience many barriers to utilitarian and LTPA opportunities within their communities. The varying LTPA levels among these multi-ethnic SED mothers and the occurrence of overweight and obesity suggests that current LTPA programs are likely insufficient to maintain healthy body weights. PMID:22500882

  6. Conference on Bio-Social Factors in the Development and Learning of Disadvantaged Children. Conference Proceedings (Syracuse, New York, April 19-21, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeshiva Univ., New York, NY. Ferkauf Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences.

    These conference proceedings contain two major papers. The paper by Susan S. Stodolsky and Gerald S. Lesser, "Learning Patterns in the Disadvantaged," reports a study of effects of social class and ethnic group influences on levels and patterns of mental ability. Scores for verbal ability, reasoning, number facility, and space conceptualization of…

  7. Confronting the Disadvantaged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Wayne P.; Weinberg, Sheldon

    1972-01-01

    A review of recent innovations in counseling style is presented along with an analysis of the advantages of these innovations over the more traditional counseling framework when dealing with disadvantaged clients. The authors recommend the use of these new, directive methods for the effective counseling of these groups. (Author)

  8. ENGLISH AND THE DISADVANTAGED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FAGAN, EDWARD R., ED.

    PART 1 OF THIS COLLECTION OF ARTICLES BY THE STAFF AND PARTICIPANTS OF AN NDEA SUMMER INSTITUTE IN ENGLISH FOR DISADVANTAGED YOUTH DESCRIBES ATTITUDES AND VIEWPOINTS ON THE PLACE OF ENGLISH IN THE DAILY LIVES OF STUDENTS AND CONTAINS ARTICLES ON "ENGLISH FOR WHAT" BY CHARLES WEINGARTNER, "ENGLISH TEACHING AND DROP-OUTS" AND "ENGLISH AND THE…

  9. Reconnecting Disadvantaged Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzer, Harry; Edelman, Peter; Offner, Paul

    2006-01-01

    By several recent counts, the United States is home to 2 to 3 million youth age 16 through 24 who are out of school and out of work. Much has been written on disadvantaged youth, and government policy has gone through many incarnations, yet questions remain unanswered. Why are so many young people "disconnected," and what can public policy do…

  10. The Leftouts; Disadvantaged Children in Heterogeneous Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warden, Sandra A.

    This work by a social psychologist is concerned with the consequences of the values, attitudes, and behavior of teachers and more advantaged peers for the educational experience of disadvantaged youngsters in heterogeneous schools. The academic, social, and emotional factors in these schools are interdependent and equally important for the…

  11. Teaching Literature to the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachner, Saul

    This dissertation proposes a strategy for teaching literature to disadvantaged students. These students are characterized by an inadequate self-concept, a lack of social skills, restricted language development, and behavior motivated by immediate needs. Most of the disadvantaged are Negroes, Puerto Ricans, Mexicans, and Appalachian whites. A…

  12. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ANNOTATIONS ON BOOKS ABOUT DISADVANTAGED YOUTH ARE GIVEN. INCLUDED ARE SUCH SUBJECTS AS PUERTO RICAN LINGUAL AND NONLINGUAL MEASURES, APPROACHES TO COMBAT JUVENILE DELINQUENCY, THE URBAN PROBLEMS OF NEGROES SETTLING OUTSIDE THE SOUTH, THE SCHOOLS' OBLIGATIONS AND SERVICES TO MEET THE PROBLEMS OF DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN, CULTURALLY DEPRIVED NEGROES,…

  13. ERIC, DATA ON THE DISADVANTAGED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CALKINS, PATRICIA; GUSSOW, JOAN

    THE INFORMATION RETRIEVAL CENTER ON THE DISADVANTAGED (IRCD) OFFERS A WIDE RANGE OF SERVICES TO THE PROFESSIONAL COMMUNITY INTERESTED IN THE EDUCATION OF THE DISADVANTAGED. THE CENTER ANSWERS SPECIFIC QUESTIONS BY DRAWING ON ITS LARGE COLLECTION OF DOCUMENTS AND ABSTRACTS, MAINTAINS A SPECIALIZED LIBRARY, AND PUBLISHES BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND BIMONTHLY…

  14. Opening Opportunities for Disadvantaged Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passow, A. Harry, Ed.

    Contents of this book include: "Urban environment in the 1970's," A. Harry Passow; "Educational strategies and the disadvantaged," S.M. Miller and Pamela Roby; "A critique of the concept of 'compensatory education,'" Basil Bernstein; "Early childhood education for the disadvantaged," Helen Robison; "Up from poverty: the price of 'making it' in a…

  15. Faculty practice: advantages and disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Klooster, J

    1978-10-01

    In considering the advantages and disadvantages of full-time dental faculty members involved in private practice, some suggestions for coping with problems represented by the disadvantages have been cited. Faculty members may find a more satisfactory climate for the patient service aspect of their professional activity in a system where several options are made available from which a teacher may select his preferred office environment and practice style.

  16. Teaching Culturally Disadvantaged Pupils (Grades K-12). Unit III: The Culturally Disadvantaged Negro Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kenneth R.

    The third of a series of teacher education units on teaching the disadvantaged contains material specifically about the Negro student. Reviewed are the scope and significance of the problem of educating these students, with some brief remarks on their location. The factors which contribute to the cultural deprivation of Negroes are…

  17. Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and access to health care.

    PubMed

    Kirby, James B; Kaneda, Toshiko

    2005-03-01

    Most research on access to health care focuses on individual-level determinants such as income and insurance coverage. The role of community-level factors in helping or hindering individuals in obtaining needed care, however, has not received much attention. We address this gap in the literature by examining how neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with access to health care. We find that living in disadvantaged neighborhoods reduces the likelihood of having a usual source of care and of obtaining recommended preventive services, while it increases the likelihood of having unmet medical need. These associations are not explained by the supply of health care providers. Furthermore, though controlling for individual-level characteristics reduces the association between neighborhood disadvantage and access to health care, a significant association remains. This suggests that when individuals who are disadvantaged are concentrated into specific areas, disadvantage becomes an "emergent characteristic " of those areas that predicts the ability of residents to obtain health care. PMID:15869118

  18. Chronic kidney disease in disadvantaged populations

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Garcia, G.; Jha, V.

    2015-01-01

    The increased burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in disadvantaged populations is due to both global factors and population-specific issues. Low socioeconomic status and poor access to care contribute to health care disparities and exacerbate the negative effects of genetic or biological predisposition. Provision of appropriate renal care to these populations requires a two-pronged approach: expanding the reach of dialysis through development of low-cost alternatives that can be practiced in remote locations, and implementation and evaluation of cost-effective prevention strategies. Kidney transplantation should be promoted by expansion of deceased donor transplant programs and use of inexpensive, generic immunosuppressive drugs. The message of World Kidney Day 2015 is that a concerted attack against the diseases that lead to end-stage renal disease, by increasing community outreach, better education, improved economic opportunity, and access to preventive medicine for those at highest risk, could end the unacceptable relationship between CKD and disadvantage in these communities. PMID:25760025

  19. Free Schools and Disadvantaged Intakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The Free Schools policy in England has led to the opening of a number of new autonomous state-funded schools. This article uses data from the Annual Schools Census to present the proportions of socioeconomically disadvantaged children attending the first three waves of these schools. It updates and builds on previous work that focused on the…

  20. The Disadvantaged: Challenge to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fantini, Mario D.; Weinstein, Gerald

    The major thesis of this new approach to pedagogy is that through an understanding of the problems of disadvantaged children the educational problems of all children will be better understood. The functionalism of John Dewey has been brought up to date in this book through the propositions that curriculum should move from the remote to the…

  1. GUIDANCE FOR EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED PUPILS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KAPLAN, BERNARD A.; AND OTHERS

    CHILDREN FROM CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED BACKGROUNDS REQUIRE SPECIAL ATTENTION FROM COUNSELORS AND OTHER SCHOOL PERSONNEL. PUBLIC SCHOOLS OFTEN REFLECT A MIDDLE-CLASS ORIENTATION AND VALUE STRUCTURE. AS A RESULT, A LARGE PROPORTION OF THE SCHOOL'S ACTIVITIES, EXPECTATIONS, AND STANDARDS ARE PARTIALLY ALIEN TO THOSE OF MOST OF ITS DISADVANTAGED…

  2. Social Disadvantage and Network Turnover

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Research shows that socially disadvantaged groups—especially African Americans and people of low socioeconomic status (SES)—experience more unstable social environments. I argue that this causes higher rates of turnover within their personal social networks. This is a particularly important issue among disadvantaged older adults, who may benefit from stable networks. This article, therefore, examines whether social disadvantage is related to various aspects of personal network change. Method. Social network change was assessed using longitudinal egocentric network data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, a study of older adults conducted between 2005 and 2011. Data collection in Wave 2 included a technique for comparing respondents’ confidant network rosters between waves. Rates of network losses, deaths, and additions were modeled using multivariate Poisson regression. Results. African Americans and low-SES individuals lost more confidants—especially due to death—than did whites and college-educated respondents. African Americans also added more confidants than whites. However, neither African Americans nor low-SES individuals were able to match confidant losses with new additions to the extent that others did, resulting in higher levels of confidant network shrinkage. These trends are partly, but not entirely, explained by disadvantaged individuals’ poorer health and their greater risk of widowhood or marital dissolution. Discussion. Additional work is needed to shed light on the role played by race- and class-based segregation on group differences in social network turnover. Social gerontologists should examine the role these differences play in explaining the link between social disadvantage and important outcomes in later life, such as health decline. PMID:24997286

  3. Young Disadvantaged Men as Fathers

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Lawrence M.; Langton, Callie

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the existing literature on young disadvantaged fathers’ involvement with children. It first outlines the predominant theoretical perspectives regarding father involvement among resident (married and cohabiting) biological fathers, resident social fathers (unrelated romantic partners of children’s mothers), and nonresident biological fathers. Second, it presents a brief discussion of the ways in which fathers contribute to childrearing. Third, it describes the socioeconomic characteristics of men who enter fatherhood at a young age, highlighting that they tend to be socioeconomically disadvantaged. Fourth, it reviews the empirical research on both antecedents of father involvement and patterns of involvement across father types. Finally, it describes the limitations of existing research and provides suggestions for future research and policy. PMID:21643452

  4. 48 CFR 52.219-25 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Disadvantaged Status and Reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) (a) Disadvantaged status for joint venture partners, team members, and subcontractors. This clause addresses disadvantaged status for joint venture partners, teaming arrangement members, and subcontractors.... The Contractor shall obtain representations of small disadvantaged status from joint venture...

  5. THE DISADVANTAGED CHILD--A PROGRAM FOR ACTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SINGER, LEON; AND OTHERS

    A LARGE NUMBER OF NEW JERSEY PUBLIC SCHOOL PUPILS ARE AFFECTED BY ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS WHICH LIMIT THEIR ASPIRATIONS AND THEIR ACHIEVEMENTS IN THE PROCESS OF EDUCATION. THREE FACTORS AFFECTING THE DISADVANTAGED CHILD ARE THAT HIS FAMILY IS ECONOMICALLY POOR, HIS HOME LIFE PROVIDES LITTLE IF ANY STIMULATION TO HIS INTELLECTUAL GROWTH, AND HE AND…

  6. Methods for Developing Resiliency in Children from Disadvantaged Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhauer, Paul D.

    Protective factors that contribute to the development of resiliency in children, defined as "unusually good adaptation in the face of severe stress, and an ability of the stressed person to rebound to the prestress level of adaptation," are discussed. The biological, psychological, familial, and social factors related to disadvantages that…

  7. EDUCATING THE DISADVANTAGED--TRENDS AND PROSPECTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRAZZIEL, WILLIAM F.

    COMPENSATORY AND DEVELOPMENTAL EDUCATION IS EMPHASIZED AS THE MAJOR MOVING FORCE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED. THE DEVELOPMENT OF DISADVANTAGED PEOPLE IS NECESSARY FOR THE CONTINUED GROWTH OF THEIR COMMUNITIES, PROGRAMS SHOULD BE DEVELOPED WHICH INVOLVE DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN AT EVERY STAGE OF THEIR GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT. TO THAT END,…

  8. HEALTH AND THE EDUCATION OF SOCIALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BIRCH, HERBERT G.

    THE POOR HEALTH OF THE DISADVANTAGED CHILD IS A PRIMARY VARIABLE IN HIS EDUCATIONAL FAILURE. AN EXTENSIVE REVIEW OF HEALTH STUDIES SHOWS THAT NEGROES, PUERTO RICANS, AND INDIANS SUFFER FROM THE GREATEST HEALTH PROBLEMS. THE HEALTH FACTORS WHICH THESE STUDIES FOUND TO RELATE SPECIFICALLY TO INTELLECTUAL AND EDUCATIONAL DEFICITS ARE PREMATURITY,…

  9. Variables Affecting Self-Concept in Black Disadvantaged Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Roberta N.; Piers, Ellen V.

    This study of levels of self-esteem in a sample of black disadvantaged children was conducted to investigate factors known from other studies to facilitate the development and maintenance of a favorable self-concept despite adverse environmental conditions and skin color. The child subjects were selected from six classes of fifth grade black…

  10. Against the Odds: Disadvantaged Students Who Succeed in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report explores the factors and conditions that could help more students succeed at school despite challenging socio-economic backgrounds. It does this by studying resilient students and what sets them apart from their less successful peers. Understanding how educational systems can support disadvantaged students and help them "beat the odds"…

  11. The Competitive Disadvantage: Teacher Compensation in Rural America. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimerson, Lorna

    Three components of the teacher shortage are the recruitment challenge, the retention problem, and the demand for teacher quality. Although the teacher shortage problem involves many factors, any solution must address salaries. Rural districts face a threefold disadvantage: teachers are not compensated as well as other rural professionals; rural…

  12. 48 CFR 19.304 - Disadvantaged business status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... contractor are a price evaluation adjustment for SDB concerns (see Subpart 19.11), and an evaluation factor... identified as a small disadvantaged business concern by accessing SBA's database (PRO-Net) or by contacting... its position as the apparently successful offeror is due to the application of the price...

  13. 48 CFR 1519.204 - Small disadvantaged business participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....219-74, Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Evaluation Factor, (and assign a value to it), or... business participation. 1519.204 Section 1519.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 1519.204 Small...

  14. Infrastructure for Reaching Disadvantaged Consumers

    PubMed Central

    Hovenga, Evelyn J. S.; Hovel, Joe; Klotz, Jeanette; Robins, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    Both consumers and health service providers need access to up-to-date information, including patient and practice guidelines, that allows them to make decisions in partnership about individual and public health in line with the primary health care model of health service delivery. Only then is it possible for patient preferences to be considered while the health of the general population is improved. The Commonwealth Government of Australia has allocated $250 million over five years, starting July 1, 1997, to support activities and projects designed to meet a range of telecommunication needs in regional, rural, and remote Australia. This paper defines rural and remote communities, then reviews rural and remote health services, information, and telecommunication technology infrastructures and their use in Australia to establish the current state of access to information tools by rural and remote communities and rural health workers in Australia today. It is argued that a suitable telecommunication infrastructure is needed to reach disadvantaged persons in extremely remote areas and that intersectoral support is essential to build this infrastructure. In addition, education will make its utilization possible. PMID:9609497

  15. Self Concepts of Disadvantaged and Advantaged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, Louise M.; Soares, Anthony T.

    The specific intention of this study was to determine whether samples of disadvantaged students showed positive self-images (as had been shown by some of previous researches) and whether these are maintained when disadvantaged children move out of their neighborhood schools to the more integrated environment of the high school. Seven hundred and…

  16. Developing Programs for the Educationally Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passow, A. Harry, Ed.

    The 17 papers in this book are collected to offer some insights into the problems of teaching the disadvantaged. Part I contains papers on the nature of the disadvantaged child, curriculum relevant to his needs, and difficulties in evaluating compensatory education programs; Part II includes papers describing compensatory education from various…

  17. Disadvantaged Children: Health, Nutrition and School Failure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Herbert G.; Gussow, Joan Dye

    This book examines the relationships between poverty, disadvantage, and educational failure in a way considered to be more comprehensive and complex than is possible when such an examination is based solely on a concept of cultural disadvantage and defective experience. The mortality of infants and their mothers around birth, held to be both the…

  18. Developmental Levels of Economically Disadvantaged College Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarbrough, Stephen L.

    The personal developmental levels of students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds were studied; and the hypothesis that students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds would be less mature than other students in the developmental levels of autonomy, purpose, and interpersonal relationships was assessed. The effects of participation in…

  19. Special Counseling for the Disadvantaged Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaple, Donald J.; Kaple, Marion Keeler

    This book is designed to aid teachers and administrators who have not had special training in counseling and who are working in educational programs for the disadvantaged adult. Subject areas discussed are: The Counselor and the Client (Duties of the Counselor; Areas of Assistance for the Client); Who Are the Disadvantaged (Characteristics of the…

  20. HANDBOOK, TEACHING SCIENCE TO EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BINGHAM, N.E.; AND OTHERS

    DESCRIBED ARE PROCEDURES AND LABORATORY MATERIALS WHICH ARE OUTGROWTHS OF A RESEARCH PROJECT OF THE SOUTHEASTERN EDUCATION LABORATORY FOR THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE TO DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS IN GRADES 7, 8, AND 9. PART 1 DEALS WITH THE CRITERIA USED IN DEVELOPING PROCEDURES AND MATERIALS FOR USE WITH EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED. INCLUDED ARE (1) THE…

  1. METHODS AND MATERIALS FOR EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GOLDBERG, MIRIAM L.

    PROCEDURES TO HELP THE TEACHER OF DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN RECONSTITUTE THE MODELS OF LEARNERS AND CLASSROOMS TO WHICH SHE IS ACCUSTOMED ARE PRESENTED. THESE PROCEDURES ALSO HELP TO ELIMINATE THE EDUCATIONAL RETARDATION OF DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN. SEVEN PROCEDURES WERE DISCUSSED--(1) "CONTACT WITH THE CULTURAL MAINSTREAM"--ON THE ASSUMPTION THAT…

  2. Collateral Consequences of Violence in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Harding, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from Addhealth, this study investigates the role of neighborhood violence in mediating the effects of neighborhood disadvantage on high school graduation and teenage pregnancy. Results show that neighborhood violence is a strong predictor of both outcomes, net of individual, family, community, and school controls. Neighborhood violence accounts for almost half the conditional association between neighborhood disadvantage and high school graduation among males and almost all of the association among females. Violence also accounts for about one fifth of the conditional association between disadvantage and teenage pregnancy among adolescents of both genders. Violence is a critical social characteristic of disadvantaged neighborhoods, one that explains a sizable portion of the effects of growing up in such neighborhoods. PMID:20676355

  3. Disadvantaged populations in maternal health in China who and why?

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Beibei; Qian, Xu; Thomsen, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Background China has made impressive progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for maternal and reproductive health, but ensuring that progress reaches all segments of the population remains a challenge for policy makers. The aim of this review is to map disadvantaged populations in terms of maternal health in China, and to explain the causes of these inequities to promote policy action. Methods We searched PUBMED, Popline, Proquest and WanFang and included primary studies conducted in mainland China. Experts were also contacted to identify additional studies. Disadvantaged populations in terms of MDG 5 and the reasons for this disadvantage explored by authors were identified and coded based on the conceptual framework developed by the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. Results In China, differences in maternal health service utilization and the maternal mortality ratio among different income groups, and among regions with different socio-economic development still exist, although these differences are narrowing. Groups with low levels of education and ethnic minorities utilize maternal health care less frequently and experience higher maternal mortality, although we could not determine whether these differences have changed in the last decade. Rural-to-urban migrants use maternal health care and contraception to a lower extent than permanent residents of cities, and differential maternal mortality shows a widening trend among these groups. Gender inequity also contributes to the disadvantaged position of women. Intermediary factors that explain these inequities include material circumstances such as long distances to health facilities for women living in remote areas, behavioral factors such as traditional beliefs that result in reduced care seeking among ethnic minorities, and health system determinants such as out-of-pocket payments posing financial barriers for the poor. Conclusions Inequity in maternal health continues to be an

  4. Teaching Culturally Disadvantaged Pupils (Grades K-12). Unit VII: Improving Language Skills of the Culturally Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kenneth R.

    The seventh in a series of inservice teacher education units is devoted to improving the language skills of disadvantaged students. Part I discusses standard and nonstandard English, and the structural and functional interferences posed by the language systems used by disadvantaged pupils. Part II is devoted to the dialects used by Negro and…

  5. Breastfeeding experiences of mothers from disadvantaged groups: a review.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, Elizabeth; Hughes, Mark

    2010-07-01

    Despite the World Health Organization promoting breastfeeding as the optimal feeding method for infants, the breastfeeding initiation rates within these disadvantaged groups' remains low. It is important to identify the factors that prevent these groups from initiating and establishing successful breastfeeding. This review aims to identify the breastfeeding experiences of teenage mothers and mothers from low income groups. Qualitative research papers were identified using electronic and manual searches by following a systematic methodology. Nine relevant articles were critically analysed using a qualitative Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool. Coding of the nine papers generated six themes. The benefits of breastfeeding known to these mothers were often superseded by the perceived barriers of breastfeeding, while the decision to breastfeed was frequently influenced by their social support network and prior exposure to breastfeeding. Disadvantaged mothers may require extra input and support to overcome any problems associated with breastfeeding. Developing healthcare professionals' capabilities to educate these disadvantaged groups, their social networks and the public about breastfeeding is crucial if it is to become established within our society. PMID:20701189

  6. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Variations in Blood Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cathorall, Michelle L.; Xin, Huaibo; Peachey, Andrew; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Schulz, Mark; Aronson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage accounts for variation in blood pressure. Methods: Demographic, biometric, and self-reported data from 19,261 health screenings were used. Addresses of participants were geocoded and located within census block groups (n = 14,510, 75.3%). Three hierarchical linear models were…

  7. Mentoring Disadvantaged Gifted Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    In spite of increasing amounts of attention given to mentoring in recent years, it appears that the disadvantaged child is not being mentored, and that his or her educational needs are not being addressed. Some possible reasons why so little mentoring of minority students occurs, or reasons why so little is heard about what does occur, are…

  8. Educational Issues of the Socially Disadvantaged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sreedhar, M. V.

    Even though enrollment in elementary schools and national literacy rates have increased greatly in India since its independence in 1949, the number of dropouts and illiterate individuals will also continue to increase unless the needs of the socially disadvantaged are identified and met. The majority of the dropouts and the illiterates belong to…

  9. Pre-testing Orientation for the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihalka, Joseph A.

    A pre-testing orientation was incorporated into the Work Incentives Program, a pre-vocational program for disadvantaged youth. Test-taking skills were taught in seven and one half hours of instruction and a variety of methods were used to provide a sequential experience with distributed learning, positive reinforcement, and immediate feedback of…

  10. How Children from Disadvantaged Areas Keep Safe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Katrina M.; Hill, Malcolm; Stafford, Anne; Walker, Moira

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The paper sets out to describe how children from disadvantaged areas perceive their communities and actively negotiate threats in their lives. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 60 interviews and 16 discussions groups were held with 8 to 14-year-olds sampled from four deprived communities located in the West of Scotland. Participants…

  11. Using Pamphlets with Disadvantaged Adults. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Susan K.

    One of a series on library services to disadvantaged adults, this guide explains the advantages of pamphlets for a public library collection. Pamphlets provide easily read, up-to-date information at little cost. Several bibliographies and magazine columns regularly list free and inexpensive pamphlets. Collections of these booklets can be placed…

  12. TEACHING STRATEGIES FOR THE CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ELKINS, DEBORAH; TABA, HILDA

    TWO CURRICULUM SEQUENCES, DESIGNED FOR A GROUP OF PREDOMINANTLY NEGRO SIXTH- AND SEVENTH-GRADERS AND FOR A GROUP OF WHITE SECOND-GENERATION AMERICAN EIGHTH-GRADERS, ARE PRESENTED HERE AS INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDELINES FOR TEACHERS OF DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS. THE SIXTH- AND SEVENTH-GRADE CURRICULUM UNIT ON THE "FAMILY OF MAN" STRESSES INSIGHTS INTO THE…

  13. A GENERAL TECHNICIAN PROGRAM FOR DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GILLIE, ANGELO C.

    A 2-YEAR GENERAL TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM HAS BEEN PLANNED BY RUTGERS UNIVERSITY AND THE NEWARK SCHOOL SYSTEM AS A MEANS OF PREPARING DISADVANTAGED YOUTH TO ENTER GAINFUL EMPLOYMENT AND ENHANCE THEIR OPPORTUNITY TO IMPROVE THEIR STATION IN LIFE. THE STUDENTS WILL BE DEPRIVED AREA YOUTH WHO ARE HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES OR THE EQUIVALENT, GENERALLY FROM THE…

  14. Comment: Unemployment Theories and Disadvantaged Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickens, Al

    1975-01-01

    It is argued that policies tolerating higher levels of joblessness for workers generally, and for disadvantaged workers in particular, are based on tenuous job search rationales and inflation expectationist fears. The old weapons of fiscal and monetary stimulation to stabilize income and unemployment are required, together with new strategies to…

  15. EDUCATING THE CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED, A MATURING APPROACH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FOWLER, WILLIAM L.

    THIS REPORT BRIEFLY REVIEWS TRENDS IN 20TH-CENTURY RESEARCH ON EDUCATING DISADVANTAGED AND MINORITY GROUP PUPILS. MANY STUDIES WRITTEN IN THE 1920'S AND 1930'S INDICATED THAT NEGROES WERE LESS INTELLIGENT THAN CAUCASIANS, AND THUS TEACHERS DEMANDED LITTLE OF THEIR MINORITY GROUP PUPILS. SINCE THAT TIME RESEARCH STUDIES HAVE EMPHASIZED THE…

  16. Making Education Meaningful for Disadvantaged Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lansing J.

    Educational and training programs have been successful in recruiting disadvantaged young adults because they also provide other services (e.g., food, money, and shelter); yet, client participation in the programs is often minimal. Client lack of utilization of academic and vocational training programs can be categorized in three areas. These are…

  17. Cumulative Disadvantage among the Highly Ambitious.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Katherine

    1990-01-01

    Using a social reproduction theory framework, analyzes the process by which high school seniors aspiring to high-level positions are sorted out after graduation. Analyzes early educational attainments and changes in occupational expectations. Shows a process of cumulative disadvantage in which White males are more likely to achieve their goals.…

  18. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Reliance on the Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaible, Lonnie M.; Hughes, Lorine A.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary theories suggest that, due to limited access and generalized distrust, residents of disadvantaged neighborhoods are relatively unlikely to report matters to police. Although existing studies reveal few ecological differences in crime reporting, findings may be limited to victim/offense subsets represented in aggregated victimization…

  19. Collateral Consequences of Violence in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from Add Health, this study investigates the role of neighborhood violence in mediating the effects of neighborhood disadvantage on high school graduation and teenage pregnancy. Results show that neighborhood violence is a strong predictor of both outcomes, net of individual, family, community and school controls. Neighborhood violence…

  20. Colombia: Educating the Most Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luschei, Thomas F.; Vega, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The United States has long struggled with the challenge of educating children experiencing extreme disadvantage, including the poor, ethnic and racial minorities, English language learners, and foster children. In this article, we argue that solutions to this problem lie not to the east or west, but to the south. Specifically, we offer the…

  1. Classroom Management and the Socially Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Earl

    Because of their deficits in academic attainments and different cultural styles, socially disadvantaged children create more potential than other children for classroom management problems. To improve classroom management, teachers should maintain a clean room and train their students to enter that room in an orderly fashion. In dealing with their…

  2. Achievement Related Motives of Educationally Disadvantaged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyans, Leslie J.; And Others

    The motivational dynamics of educationally disadvantaged students in Title I education programs in Illinois were studied. Pretesting and posttesting for 450 students in grades 1 through 6 were conducted by using two test forms, the Mature Test Form for the older students and the Happy Face Form for the younger students. Ethnicity included Whites,…

  3. IMPROVING THE READING LEVEL OF DISADVANTAGED ADULTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCKEE, JOHN M.; AND OTHERS

    TO HELP DISADVANTAGED INMATES WITH LOW READING LEVELS AND THOSE CONSIDERED FUNCTIONALLY ILLITERATE, THE DRAPER CORRECTIONAL CENTER IN ALABAMA EXPERIMENTED WITH VARIOUS READING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMS. MOST SUCCESSFUL WAS THE READING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM USING THE PERCEPTOSCOPE. ALL APPLICANTS WHO SCORED BELOW THE SEVENTH GRADE READING LEVEL IN THE…

  4. Collective Bargaining, Transfer Rights, and Disadvantaged Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzia, Sarah F.; Moe, Terry M.

    2014-01-01

    Collective bargaining is common in American public education, but its consequences are poorly understood. We focus here on key contractual provisions--seniority-based transfer rights--that affect teacher assignments, and we show that these transfer rights operate to burden disadvantaged schools with higher percentages of inexperienced teachers. We…

  5. Psychological Assessment of the Preschool Disadvantaged Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lidz, Carol S.

    The author describes a psychological assessment process for use with the disadvantaged preschooler which involves screening (identification), diagnostic evaluation, instruction related assessment (formative evaluation), evaluation of the results of instruction (summative evaluation), and prediction of readiness. Some generalizations which apply to…

  6. Strongyloidiasis: A Disease of Socioeconomic Disadvantage

    PubMed Central

    Beknazarova, Meruyert; Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2016-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a disease caused by soil transmitted helminths of the Strongyloides genus. Currently, it is predominately described as a neglected tropical disease. However, this description is misleading as it focuses on the geographical location of the disease and not the primary consideration, which is the socioeconomic conditions and poor infrastructure found within endemic regions. This classification may result in misdiagnosis and mistreatment by physicians, but more importantly, it influences how the disease is fundamentally viewed. Strongyloidiasis must be first and foremost considered as a disease of disadvantage, to ensure the correct strategies and control measures are used to prevent infection. Changing how strongyloidiasis is perceived from a geographic and clinical issue to an environmental health issue represents the first step in identifying appropriate long term control measures. This includes emphasis on environmental health controls, such as better infrastructure, sanitation and living conditions. This review explores the global prevalence of strongyloidiasis in relation to its presence in subtropical, tropical and temperate climate zones with mild and cold winters, but also explores the corresponding socioeconomic conditions of these regions. The evidence shows that strongyloidiasis is primarily determined by the socioeconomic status of the communities rather than geographic or climatic conditions. It demonstrates that strongyloidiasis should no longer be referred to as a “tropical” disease but rather a disease of disadvantage. This philosophical shift will promote the development of correct control strategies for preventing this disease of disadvantage. PMID:27213420

  7. Educational Values of Adult Rural Disadvantaged Students: An Affective Evaluation Report. General Report No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Rowan W.

    Sixteen educational aims were rank ordered by 188 adult rural disadvantaged family members who were student participants in the Mountain-Plains Program. Results were examined by factor analysis and by the Thurstone (unweighted) scaling method; the factor structure was weak, indicating considerable independence for the individual items. Students…

  8. Evolution of the ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Disadvantaged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Paul M., Jr.; Jablonsky, Adelaide

    1970-01-01

    Describes the scope, function, and history of the ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Disadvantaged (ERIC-UD). This clearinghouse was formerly the Information Retrieval Center on the Disadvantaged (IRCD). (DE)

  9. British Ethnic Minorities and Employment Training: Redressing or Extending Disadvantage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbonna, Emmanuel

    1998-01-01

    Ethnic minorities in Britain continue to be disadvantaged in the labor market through employment and training discrimination. Government-sponsored programs sometimes extend disadvantage through constant policy changes, contradictory policies, and inefficiency or prejudice in training and employing organizations. (SK)

  10. 48 CFR 719.272 - Small disadvantaged business policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... business policies. 719.272 Section 719.272 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.272 Small disadvantaged business... subcontracting with small disadvantaged businesses and other disadvantaged enterprises based on provisions of...

  11. 48 CFR 719.272 - Small disadvantaged business policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... business policies. 719.272 Section 719.272 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.272 Small disadvantaged business... subcontracting with small disadvantaged businesses and other disadvantaged enterprises based on provisions of...

  12. 48 CFR 719.272 - Small disadvantaged business policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... business policies. 719.272 Section 719.272 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.272 Small disadvantaged business... subcontracting with small disadvantaged businesses and other disadvantaged enterprises based on provisions of...

  13. 13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... without regard to their individual qualities. The social disadvantage must stem from circumstances beyond... designated group if SBA requires it. (3) The presumption of social disadvantage may be overcome with credible... presumed to be socially disadvantaged in paragraph (b)(1) of this section must establish individual...

  14. Education and Social Crisis; Perspectives on Teaching Disadvantaged Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keach, Everett T., Jr., Ed.; And Others

    A collection of readings presents 49 papers published between 1959 and 1965. The volume is organized into three parts: (1) cultural values and family life of disadvantaged youth; (2) problems facing disadvantaged youth in the schools; and (3) programs and progress in meeting the educational needs of disadvantaged youth. Introductions by the…

  15. Communicating health information to disadvantaged populations.

    PubMed

    Beacom, Amanda M; Newman, Sandra J

    2010-01-01

    Interest in the communication of health information among disadvantaged populations has increased in recent years with the shift from a model of patient-provider communication to one of a more empowered healthcare consumer; with the use of new communication technologies that increase the number of channels through which health information may be accessed; and with the steadily increasing number of people without health insurance. Three separate research literatures contribute to our current understanding of this issue. In the medicine and public health literature, disparities in health access and outcomes among socioeconomic, ethnic, and racial groups are now well documented. In the information sciences literature, scholars note that on a continuum of health information behaviors, ranging from information avoidance and nonseeking to active seeking, nonseeking behaviors are associated with disadvantaged populations. In the communication literature, enthusiasm over the technology-driven growth of online health information seeking is tempered by evidence supporting the knowledge gap hypothesis, which indicates that as potential access to health information increases, systematic gaps in health knowledge also increase as groups with higher socioeconomic status acquire this information at a faster rate than those with lower socioeconomic status. A number of diverse strategies show promise in reducing information and health disparities, including those that focus on technology, such as programs to increase computer and Internet access, skills, and comprehension; those that focus on interpersonal communication, such as the community health worker model; and those that focus on mass media channels, such as entertainment education. PMID:20216358

  16. Child survival in big cities: the disadvantages of migrants.

    PubMed

    Brockerhoff, M

    1995-05-01

    Data from 15 Demographic and Health Surveys are used to examine whether rural-urban migrants in developing countries experience higher child mortality after settling in towns and cities than do lifelong urban residents, and if so, what individual or household characteristics account for this. Findings indicate that children of female migrants from the countryside generally have much poorer survival chances than other urban children. This survival disadvantage is more pronounced in big cities than in smaller urban areas, among migrants who have lived in the city for many years than among recent migrants, and in urban Latin America than in urban North Africa and sub-Saharan Africa. Within big cities, higher child mortality among migrant women is clearly related to their concentration in low-quality housing, and in part to fertility patterns at early ages of children and mother's educational attainment at later ages. Excess child mortality among urban migrants may also result from factors associated with the migration process, that are outlined in this study but not included in the analysis. Evidence of moderately high levels of residential segregation of migrant women in big cities suggests that opportunities exist for urban health programs to direct interventions to this disadvantaged segment of city populations. PMID:7638646

  17. A summer academic research experience for disadvantaged youth.

    PubMed

    Kabacoff, Cathryn; Srivastava, Vasudha; Robinson, Douglas N

    2013-01-01

    Internships are an effective way of connecting high school students in a meaningful manner to the sciences. Disadvantaged minorities have fewer opportunities to participate in internships, and are underrepresented in both science, technology, engineering, and mathematics majors and careers. We have developed a Summer Academic Research Experience (SARE) program that provides an enriching academic internship to underrepresented youth. Our program has shown that to have a successful internship for these disadvantaged youth, several issues need to be addressed in addition to scientific mentoring. We have found that it is necessary to remediate and/or fortify basic academic skills for students to be successful. In addition, students need to be actively coached in the development of professional skills, habits, and attitudes necessary for success in the workplace. With all these factors in place, these youths can become better students, compete on a more level playing field in their internships, and increase their potential of participating actively in the sciences in the future. PMID:24006390

  18. A Summer Academic Research Experience for Disadvantaged Youth

    PubMed Central

    Kabacoff, Cathryn; Srivastava, Vasudha; Robinson, Douglas N.

    2013-01-01

    Internships are an effective way of connecting high school students in a meaningful manner to the sciences. Disadvantaged minorities have fewer opportunities to participate in internships, and are underrepresented in both science, technology, engineering, and mathematics majors and careers. We have developed a Summer Academic Research Experience (SARE) program that provides an enriching academic internship to underrepresented youth. Our program has shown that to have a successful internship for these disadvantaged youth, several issues need to be addressed in addition to scientific mentoring. We have found that it is necessary to remediate and/or fortify basic academic skills for students to be successful. In addition, students need to be actively coached in the development of professional skills, habits, and attitudes necessary for success in the workplace. With all these factors in place, these youths can become better students, compete on a more level playing field in their internships, and increase their potential of participating actively in the sciences in the future. PMID:24006390

  19. COEDUCATION - A CONTRIBUTING FACTOR IN MISEDUCATION OF THE DISADVANTAGED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEVINE, DANIEL

    THE PROBLEM OF COEDUCATION IN THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL WAS DISCUSSED. REASONS FOR REEVALUATING THE PRESENT SITUATION WERE GIVEN. LOWER-CLASS MALE YOUNGERSTERS LEARNED AN EXAGGERATED AGGRESSIVENESS BASED PARTLY ON INSECURITY, THEREFORE THEY HAD TO ASSERT AND DEFEND THEIR IMAGE OF MALENESS IN THE CLASSROOM. THE NEGRO YOUNGSTER, RAISED IN A MATRIARCHAL…

  20. [Family structures: social disadvantage of women].

    PubMed

    Irizarry Castro, A

    1999-03-01

    A perspective on the family, based on scientific knowledge and on its appreciation as a unit for health care, is suggested. The contemporary family because of its independent links with society has lived and resisted the consequences of a series of economic, political, technological, cultural and ideological transformations. These forces act as influential forces in the family and it responds adopting new forms to temper to these new times. For these reasons, society at present is characterized by a plurality of family structures. As part of that diversity in families, at present, there are families: nuclear biological, nuclear in series, father or mother alone, extended, and those that share the same sexual orientation. The term family should be redefined to enclose all those types of cohabitation. Is imperative that support is given to families with the greatest social disadvantages such as those families made up of women alone as they are expected to continue growing in all societies both developed and underdeveloped.

  1. Teaching Culturally Disadvantaged Pupils (Grades K-12). Unit I: The Culturally Disadvantaged Pupil--Part I; Unit II: The Culturally Disadvantaged Student--Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kenneth R.

    The goal of this series of inservice teacher education units is to help classroom teachers understand the disadvantaged, to suggest promising teaching techniques and approaches, to stimulate thought and discussion among teachers, and to improve human relations throughout the field of education. The first unit identifies the disadvantaged student…

  2. Intervention with disadvantaged parents of sick preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Beckwith, L

    1988-08-01

    Infants born preterm are, as a group, at increased risk for a wide variety of later developmental problems (Kopp and Parmelee 1979), although many preterm infants do well (Hack et al. 1983; Saigal et al. 1984). The perinatal vulnerability, however, is amplified in disadvantaged families (Sameroff and Chandler 1975), increasing the likelihood of later emotional and cognitive difficulties (Werner and Smith 1977). A preventive intervention project was designed, therefore, that would provide and then evaluate the effectiveness of supportive home visitor services to parents of infants who were at double jeopardy, both biologically and socially--that is, sick preterm infants being reared by low-income parents. E. Baxter, K. Weiler and I hypothesized that if intervention could increase mothers' involvement and level of responsive interactions with their children, that increased maternal commitment and responsiveness to the infant would act as a protective factor ameliorating or preventing later problems in the child (Beckwith and Cohen 1984; Werner and Smith 1982).

  3. Linking Inputs and Outcomes: Achievement among Economically Disadvantaged Appalachian Middle Grades Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Kenneth J.; And Others

    This paper examines school, family, and community factors related to the academic success of economically disadvantaged Appalachian students. In two middle schools in Appalachian Kentucky and Tennessee, 245 students who received free or reduced-price school lunches completed the Rural School Success Inventory (RSSI) and a writing sample about…

  4. Community Involvement and Adolescent Mental Health: Moderating Effects of Race/Ethnicity and Neighborhood Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Pamela; Kilbourne, Barbara; Reece, Michelle; Husaini, Baqar

    2008-01-01

    Social development and stress process theories suggest that participation in one's community can function as a protective factor for mental health, especially for youth from socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. However, the effects of community involvement on adolescent mental health could vary across racial/ethnic groups and levels of…

  5. A New Work Sample Battery for Vocational Assessment of the Disadvantaged: VITAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Describes the development of a work sample battery designed for assessment of vocational aptitudes, interests, and temperament in a disadvantaged client population. VITAS provides information about factors most related to success on the job: interest in the job, temperament for the job, and aptitudes for physical and cognitive components of the…

  6. Study Habits and Attitudes of Disadvantaged Students in A College Reading and Study Skills Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, George O., Sr.

    The importance of the nonintellective factors, study habits and attitudes of the learner, was investigated. Tested were the effects of different methods of reading and study skills instruction upon the study habits and attitudes of 102 disadvantaged black college freshmen enrolled in a reading and study skills course at North Carolina Central…

  7. The Impact of Maternal Cocaine Use on Neonates in Socioeconomic Disadvantaged Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Wei Yue; Chen, William

    1997-01-01

    Reviews literature on prevalence, mechanisms of fetal toxicity, effects of exposure, socioeconomic factors, and social-support programs to increase awareness of the effects of prenatal exposure to cocaine. Emphasizes the need for drug education and social-support programs for disadvantaged pregnant women to prevent and control cocaine use. (EMK)

  8. Drugs, Guns, and Disadvantaged Youths: Co-Occurring Behavior and the Code of the Street

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Andrea N.; Lo, Celia C.

    2012-01-01

    Guided by Anderson's theory of the code of the street, this study explored social mechanisms linking individual-level disadvantage factors with the adoption of beliefs grounded in the code of the street and with drug trafficking and gun carrying--the co-occurring behavior shaping violence among young men in urban areas. Secondary data were…

  9. Stress Exposure and Depression in Disadvantaged Women: The Protective Effects of Optimism and Perceived Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grote, Nancy K.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Larkin, Jill; Lemay, Edward P., Jr.; Brown, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the authors predicted that the individual protective factors of optimism and perceived control over acute and chronic stressors would buffer the relations between acute and chronic stress exposure and severity of depression, controlling for household income, in a sample of financially disadvantaged women. Ninety-seven African…

  10. Tackling Disadvantage: What Works in Narrowing the Achievement Gap in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demie, Feyisa; Mclean, Christabel

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the success factors behind narrowing the achievement gap of disadvantaged pupils who are entitled to free school meals. A complementary methodological approach including a case study and focus group were used to explore performance and the views of teachers, parents and pupils. The key criteria for the selection of schools were…

  11. Some Learning Disabilities of Socially Disadvantaged Puerto Rican and Negro Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, S. Alan

    The findings of several tests are used to describe some learning disabilities and patterns common in lower-class Puerto Rican and Negro children. In particular, perceptual dysfunction is pointed to as a major causal factor in the reading problems of the disadvantaged. In one urban slum school, 40 percent of first graders showed serious dysfunction…

  12. A Longitudinal Study of the Social and Academic Competence of Economically Disadvantaged Bilingual Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oades-Sese, Geraldine V.; Esquivel, Giselle B.; Kaliski, Pamela K.; Maniatis, Lisette

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study was conducted to gain understanding of the social-emotional and academic development of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children. In Study 1, the authors combined cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural-linguistic factors to determine profiles of social competence as measured by peer play. A person-centered…

  13. The Impact of the High Tuition Policy on Disadvantaged Students in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching-Yuan, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Taiwan's education rate of return has increased incrementally over the long term, and education is the primary factor impacting income inequality. Its impact has been increasing every year. Having their children attend college is the way for disadvantaged households to escape poverty, but the high tuition policy is putting the poor in an…

  14. The intergenerational transmission of inequality: Maternal disadvantage and health at birth

    PubMed Central

    Aizer, Anna; Currie, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Health at birth is an important predictor of long-term outcomes, including education, income, and disability. Recent evidence suggests that maternal disadvantage leads to worse health at birth through poor health behaviors; exposure to harmful environmental factors; worse access to medical care, including family planning; and worse underlying maternal health. With increasing inequality, those at the bottom of the distribution now face relatively worse economic conditions, but newborn health among the most disadvantaged has actually improved. The most likely explanation is increasing knowledge about determinants of infant health and how to protect it along with public policies that put this knowledge into practice. PMID:24855261

  15. Disadvantaged persons' participation in health promotion projects: some structural dimensions.

    PubMed

    Boyce, W F

    2001-05-01

    A structural perspective was used in studying community participation of disadvantaged groups (poor women, street youth, and disabled persons) in health promotion projects. Five community projects in the Canadian Health Promotion Contribution Program were examined in a comparative case study utilizing in-depth interviews, documents, and secondary sources. Analysis revealed relatively low numbers and restricted range of participants, difficulties in recruiting and maintaining participants, declining rates of active participation over time, and limited target group influence and power. This paper reports on the relationship between various dimensions of structure (social-cultural, organizational, political-legal-economic) and the community participation process. Participation was influenced by structural factors such as bureaucratic rules and regulators, perceived minority group rights and relations, agency reputations and responsibilities, available resources, and organizational roles. Control of projects by target group members, rather than by service agencies, was an important overall organizational structural factor which allowed community members to achieve influence in projects. The study concludes that a conceptual model based on structural factors is useful in explaining how key factors from federal and local levels can restrict or facilitate the community participation process.

  16. An investigation of home disadvantage in Davis Cup tennis.

    PubMed

    Gayton, William F; Steinroeder, William; Bonnica, Corrine; Loignon, Andrew C

    2009-10-01

    Occurrence of the home disadvantage in Davis Cup tennis matches was examined by analyzing the outcome of Davis Cup finals matches from 1900 to 2007. There was no significant home disadvantage when Matches 1 and 2 were compared with Matches 4 and 5. However, there was a significant home disadvantage when Matches 1 and 2 were compared with Match 5. These findings are compared with those from earlier studies in which data from professional basketball and baseball were examined.

  17. Local Area Disadvantage and Gambling Involvement and Disorder: Evidence for Gene-Environment Correlation and Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Slutske, Wendy S.; Deutsch, Arielle R.; Statham, Dixie B.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that local area characteristics (such as disadvantage and gambling outlet density) and genetic risk factors are associated with gambling involvement and disordered gambling. These two lines of research were brought together in the present study by examining the extent to which genetic contributions to individual differences in gambling involvement and disorder contributed to being exposed to, and were also accentuated by, local area disadvantage. Participants were members of the national community-based Australian Twin Registry who completed a telephone interview in which the past-year frequency of gambling and symptoms of disordered gambling were assessed. Indicators of local area disadvantage were based on census data matched to the participants' postal codes. Univariate biometric model-fitting revealed that exposure to area disadvantage was partially explained by genetic factors. Bivariate biometric model-fitting was conducted to examine the evidence for gene-environment interaction while accounting for gene-environment correlation. These analyses demonstrated that: (a) a small portion of the genetic propensity to gamble was explained by moving to or remaining in a disadvantaged area, and (b) the remaining genetic and unique environmental variation in the frequency of participating in electronic machine gambling (among men and women) and symptoms of disordered gambling (among women) was greater in more disadvantaged localities. As the gambling industry continues to grow, it will be important to take into account the multiple contexts in which problematic gambling behavior can emerge -- from genes to geography -- as well as the ways in which such contexts may interact with each other. PMID:26147321

  18. [Coronary revascularization by arterial bypasses: advantages, disadvantages].

    PubMed

    Bical, O; Deleuze, P; Sousa Uva, M

    1997-01-01

    Coronary vein grafts are frequently become occluded or develop atherosclerotic lesions in the long-term. In contrast, the internal mammary artery has a very satisfactory long-term patency rate. The use of an internal mammary artery on the LAD consequently increases the benefit of coronary surgery. The benefit of using 2 internal mammary arteries or other arterial grafts for coronary artery bypass surgery is more controversial. The advantages and disadvantages of the various coronary artery grafts are reported together with the clinical experience of several teams in this area. Coronary artery surgery should be reserved to patients with a good general condition, who are likely to benefit from this type of revascularization. The right internal mammary artery is unsuitable for revascularization of the right coronary network and the two internal mammary arteries must be used to revascularize the left coronary network, in order to obtain a good result. However, surgeons must be aware of the limitations of coronary artery surgery and these techniques should be used cautiously.

  19. Capital disadvantage: America's failing capital investment system.

    PubMed

    Porter, M E

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. system of allocating investment capital is failing, putting American companies at a serious disadvantage and threatening the long-term growth of the nation's economy. The problem, says Michael Porter, goes beyond the usual formulation of the issue: accusations of "short-termism" by U.S. managers, ineffective corporate governance by directors, or a high cost of capital. The problem involves the external capital allocation system by which capital is provided to companies, as well as the system by which companies allocate capital internally. America's system is marked by fluid capital and a financial focus. Other countries--notably Japan and Germany--have systems with dedicated capital and a focus on corporate position. In global competition, where investment increasingly determines a company's capacity to upgrade and innovate, the U.S. system does not measure up. These conclusions come out of a two-year research project sponsored by the Harvard Business School and the Council on Competitiveness. Porter recommends five far-reaching reforms to make the U.S. system superior to Japan's and Germany's: 1. Improve the present macroeconomic environment. 2. Expand true ownership throughout the system so that directors, managers, employees, and even customers and suppliers hold positions as owners. 3. Align the goals of capital providers, corporations, directors, managers, employees, customers, suppliers, and society. 4. Improve the information used in decision making. 5. Foster more productive modes of interaction and influence among capital providers, corporations, and business units. PMID:10121317

  20. Nuclear reactor operator training for disadvantaged Americans

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, J.P.; Mulder, R.U.

    1992-12-01

    The Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics Department of the University of Virginia was awarded a grant by the US Department of Energy in 1984 to establish and administer a reactor operator training program for disadvantaged Americans. Stipends were provided by the US DOE for five trainees with the anticipation that four other educational facilities would participate in the program. Sub-contracts were awarded to four other Universities: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, The University of Missouri at Columbia, Oregon State University, and The State University of New York at Buffalo. The initial two year program was very successful and the grant was renewed in late 1986 for another two years. MIT declined to participate in the second program and was replaced by Ohio State University. U.VA. was notified in September, 1987 that new funding would no longer be provided for this program after December, 1987. U.VA. requested and was granted a no cost extention for the program through December, 1990, since sufficient funds remained in the initial grant to pursue the program further. DOE subsequently approved a no cost extension through November, 1992.

  1. Pharyngeal Packing during Rhinoplasty: Advantages and Disadvantages

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Majid; Taghavi Gilani, Mehryar; Bameshki, Ali Reza; Behdani, Reza; Khadivi, Ehsan; Bakhshaee, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Controversy remains as to the advantages and disadvantages of pharyngeal packing during septorhinoplasty. Our study investigated the effect of pharyngeal packing on postoperative nausea and vomiting and sore throat following this type of surgery or septorhinoplasty. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was performed on 90 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I or II patients who were candidates for septorhinoplasty. They were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in the study group had received pharyngeal packing while those in the control group had not. The incidence of nausea and vomiting and sore throat based on the visual analog scale (VAS) was evaluated postoperatively in the recovery room as well as at 2, 6 and 24 hours. Results: The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) was 12.3%, with no significant difference between the study and control groups. Sore throat was reported in 50.5% of cases overall (56.8% on pack group and 44.4% on control). Although the severity of pain was higher in the study group at all times, the incidence in the two groups did not differ significantly. Conclusion: The use of pharyngeal packing has no effect in reducing the incidence of nausea and vomiting and sore throat after surgery. Given that induced hypotension is used as the routine method of anesthesia in septorhinoplasty surgery, with a low incidence of hemorrhage and a high risk of unintended retention of pharyngeal packing, its routine use is not recommended for this procedure. PMID:26788486

  2. 48 CFR 706.302-71 - Small disadvantaged businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... businesses. 706.302-71 Section 706.302-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... Small disadvantaged businesses. (a) Authority. (1) Citations: Sec. 579, Pub. L. 101-167 (Fiscal Year (FY... business concerns owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals...

  3. Working with the Disadvantaged Student in Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeKalb SERVE Satellite Center, Stone Mountain, GA.

    This handbook provides vocational educators at the secondary and postsecondary levels with approaches for working with minimally disadvantaged students enrolled in their regular programs. Chapter 1 focuses on the disadvantaged student and considers such problems as perceptual difficulties, resistance to authority, parental influence, insecurity…

  4. Disadvantaged Learners and VET to Higher Education Transitions. Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Tabatha

    2014-01-01

    The vocational education and training (VET) system can provide an entry point to the education sector for people who have experienced disadvantage in their lives. Participation in VET can provide personal benefits as well as lead to further study and/or employment. How disadvantaged learners participate in vocational education and training is an…

  5. Cycles of Discrimination: Older Women, Cumulative Disadvantages, and Retirement Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Nanette J.

    2005-01-01

    This article identifies typical life course situations that women experience, which contribute to a cycle of discrimination or a recurrence of disadvantages simply because of their sex, race, or age. Although men suffer social, health, psychological, and economic disadvantages as they age, this article focuses primarily on women as a more deprived…

  6. 48 CFR 706.302-71 - Small disadvantaged businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... businesses. 706.302-71 Section 706.302-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... Small disadvantaged businesses. (a) Authority. (1) Citations: Sec. 579, Pub. L. 101-167 (Fiscal Year (FY... business concerns owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals...

  7. 48 CFR 19.304 - Disadvantaged business status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Disadvantaged business... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Determination of Small Business Status for Small Business Programs 19.304 Disadvantaged business status. (a) To be eligible to receive a benefit as a...

  8. 48 CFR 706.302-71 - Small disadvantaged businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... businesses. 706.302-71 Section 706.302-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... Small disadvantaged businesses. (a) Authority. (1) Citations: Sec. 579, Pub. L. 101-167 (Fiscal Year (FY... business concerns owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals...

  9. 48 CFR 1552.219-73 - Small Disadvantaged Business Targets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Business Targets. 1552.219-73 Section 1552.219-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL... Clauses 1552.219-73 Small Disadvantaged Business Targets. As prescribed in 1519.204(b), insert the following clause: Small Disadvantaged Business Targets (OCT 2000) (a) In accordance with FAR...

  10. 48 CFR 1552.219-73 - Small Disadvantaged Business Targets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Business Targets. 1552.219-73 Section 1552.219-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL... Clauses 1552.219-73 Small Disadvantaged Business Targets. As prescribed in 1519.204(b), insert the following clause: Small Disadvantaged Business Targets (OCT 2000) (a) In accordance with FAR...

  11. 48 CFR 1552.219-73 - Small Disadvantaged Business Targets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Business Targets. 1552.219-73 Section 1552.219-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL... Clauses 1552.219-73 Small Disadvantaged Business Targets. As prescribed in 1519.204(b), insert the following clause: Small Disadvantaged Business Targets (OCT 2000) (a) In accordance with FAR...

  12. Measures of Disadvantage: Is Car Ownership a Good Indicator?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Victoria; Currie, Graham; Stanley, Janet

    2010-01-01

    A need to better understand the multidimensional nature of disadvantage is leading to the adoption of a wider range of measurement variables. One variable now commonly adopted is zero car ownership. This paper challenges the logic of including "not having a car" as an indicator of disadvantage. It argues that this can distort the real picture of…

  13. 78 FR 57336 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ...) entitled, ``Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications,'' at 77 FR 54952, that... FR 651164, that corrected minor errors in the NPRM related to the Paperwork Reduction Act and... Office of the Secretary 49 CFR Part 26 RIN 2105-AE08 Disadvantaged Business Enterprise:...

  14. Vocational Education for the Disadvantaged, A New Dimension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Don

    This report is meant to be a tool for the recognition and resolution of a major concern at Los Angeles City College--vocational education programs for the disadvantaged. It is intended to help the college develop programs in which the disadvantaged can successfully function and from which he can enter the world of work as a competent and skilled…

  15. Urban Disadvantage and VET Participation and Achievement. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, John

    A study examined the profiles of vocational education and training (VET) clients in disadvantaged areas of Sydney and Melbourne, Australia, building on earlier analysis of VET participation in those cities. The study examined the characteristics of VET clients coming from postal codes identified as disadvantaged to determine, if possible, to what…

  16. KNOWING AND EDUCATING THE DISADVANTAGED, AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    POTTS, ALFRED M., 2D

    "KNOWING AND EDUCATING THE DISADVANTAGED" IS AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF MATERIALS RELATED TO THE EDUCATION OF MIGRANTS OR THE ECONOMICALLY DISADVANTAGED. IT IS ARRANGED BY BOTH TOPIC AND TITLE INDEXES. TOPICS INCLUDE AGRICULTURE, AMERICAN CULTURE, DIRECTORIES, BIBLIOGRAPHIES, GUIDES, HANDBOOKS, ADMINISTRATION AND ORGANIZATION OF EDUCATION, ADULT…

  17. Motivation and the Disadvantaged Trainee: A Manual for Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radcliffe, Donald V.; And Others

    Chapter One of this manual includes a definition of "disadvantagement," and discussion of implications for manpower requirements, distribution of the disadvantaged, employment conditions and outlook, early environment, predominant acquired characteristics, and response to training. Chapter Two discusses concepts of motivation, including drives,…

  18. Characterizing the Bilingual Disadvantage in Noun Phrase Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadat, Jasmin; Martin, Clara D.; Alario, F. Xavier; Costa, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Up to now, evidence on bilingual disadvantages in language production comes from tasks requiring single word retrieval. The present study aimed to assess whether there is a bilingual disadvantage in multiword utterances, and to determine the extent to which such effect is present in onset latencies, articulatory durations, or both. To do so, we…

  19. Resources in Health Careers Programs for Teachers of Disadvantaged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemko, Barbara; Dutton, Eina

    This guide is intended to provide resources for teachers of disadvantaged persons in the health careers field. Entries in the guide are the result of a year-long nationwide search for services and materials prepared especially for disadvantaged students. Instructional resources are listed in the following areas: basic mathematics and reading…

  20. A Transagency Approach to Enabling Access to Parent-Based Intervention for Language Delay in Areas of Social Disadvantage: A Service Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbard, Deborah; Smith, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Primary language delay remains one of the most prevalent developmental delays in early childhood, particularly in disadvantaged areas. Previous research has established language difficulties and social disadvantage being particular risk factors for adverse outcomes later in life. To help prevent low educational achievement and poorer outcomes,…

  1. A systematic review of peer-support programs for smoking cessation in disadvantaged groups.

    PubMed

    Ford, Pauline; Clifford, Anton; Gussy, Kim; Gartner, Coral

    2013-10-28

    The burden of smoking is borne most by those who are socially disadvantaged and the social gradient in smoking contributes substantially to the health gap between the rich and poor. A number of factors contribute to higher tobacco use among socially disadvantaged populations including social (e.g., low social support for quitting), psychological (e.g., low self-efficacy) and physical factors (e.g., greater nicotine dependence). Current evidence for the effectiveness of peer or partner support interventions in enhancing the success of quit attempts in the general population is equivocal, largely due to study design and lack of a theoretical framework in this research. We conducted a systematic review of peer support interventions for smoking cessation in disadvantaged groups. The eight studies which met the inclusion criteria showed that interventions that improve social support for smoking cessation may be of greater importance to disadvantaged groups who experience fewer opportunities to access such support informally. Peer-support programs are emerging as highly effective and empowering ways for people to manage health issues in a socially supportive context. We discuss the potential for peer-support programs to address the high prevalence of smoking in vulnerable populations and also to build capacity in their communities.

  2. Intimate Partner Violence in Neighborhood Context: The Roles of Structural Disadvantage, Subjective Disorder, and Emotional Distress

    PubMed Central

    Copp, Jennifer E.; Kuhl, Danielle C.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.

    2015-01-01

    Most theoretical treatments of intimate partner violence (IPV) focus on individual-level processes. Some researchers have attempted to situate IPV within the larger neighborhood context, but few studies have sought to link structural- and individual-level factors. The current analyses fill a research gap by examining the role of anger and depression in the association between neighborhood disadvantage and IPV. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) and the 2000 Census, this study focuses on structural indicators of disadvantage as well as subjective disorder, and highlights the complex associations between neighborhood conditions, emotional distress, and IPV. Findings indicate that anger and depressive symptoms partially explain the association between neighborhood disadvantage and IPV. Additionally, the associations between disadvantage, disorder, and IPV depend on respondent’s level of anger. Results underscore the need to further consider the role of neighborhood factors (both objective and subjective) in relation to IPV, and also suggest the utility of introducing individual-level emotional measures to assess the circumstances under which neighborhoods matter most. PMID:26188438

  3. Disadvantaging the disadvantaged: When public health policies and practices negatively affect marginalized populations.

    PubMed

    Silva, Diego S; Smith, Maxwell J; Upshur, Ross E G

    2013-01-01

    Public health is intimately related to social justice, which is why practice and research in the field seek to improve the social determinants of health. Despite the best intentions of those working in public health, however, some policies and practices inadvertently further disadvantage pre-existing marginalized populations. In this paper, we provide a diagnosis of possible reasons why this phenomenon might occur. We posit that the challenges associated with further marginalizing certain populations stem from a) not acknowledging the normative aspects of apparently objective data, b) a misunderstanding and an uncritical alignment of public health goals with the ethics theory of utilitarianism, and c) assuming that those working in public health might be able to fully understand the experiences of marginalized populations. It is our view that the trend of public consultation with marginalized persons, the explicit teaching of ethics and philosophy of science in graduate departments of public health, and the increased use of health equity impact assessments might help protect against public health policies and practices that disadvantage marginalized populations. PMID:24183183

  4. Disadvantaging the disadvantaged: When public health policies and practices negatively affect marginalized populations.

    PubMed

    Silva, Diego S; Smith, Maxwell J; Upshur, Ross E G

    2013-01-01

    Public health is intimately related to social justice, which is why practice and research in the field seek to improve the social determinants of health. Despite the best intentions of those working in public health, however, some policies and practices inadvertently further disadvantage pre-existing marginalized populations. In this paper, we provide a diagnosis of possible reasons why this phenomenon might occur. We posit that the challenges associated with further marginalizing certain populations stem from a) not acknowledging the normative aspects of apparently objective data, b) a misunderstanding and an uncritical alignment of public health goals with the ethics theory of utilitarianism, and c) assuming that those working in public health might be able to fully understand the experiences of marginalized populations. It is our view that the trend of public consultation with marginalized persons, the explicit teaching of ethics and philosophy of science in graduate departments of public health, and the increased use of health equity impact assessments might help protect against public health policies and practices that disadvantage marginalized populations.

  5. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Adolescent Substance Use Disorder: The Moderating Role of Maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Handley, Elizabeth D; Rogosch, Fred A; Guild, Danielle J; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-08-01

    The ecological-transactional model proposes that nested contexts interact to influence development. From this perspective, child maltreatment represents an individual-level risk factor posited to interact with numerous other nested contextual levels, such as the neighborhood environment, to affect development. The aim of this study was to investigate whether adolescents with maltreatment histories represent a vulnerable group for whom disadvantaged neighborhoods confer risk for substance use disorders. Participants were 411 adolescents (age 15-18; mean age = 16.24) from an investigation of the developmental sequelae of childhood maltreatment. Multiple-group structural equation models, controlling for family-level socioeconomic status, indicated that neighborhood disadvantage was associated with more marijuana-dependence symptoms among maltreated but not among non-maltreated adolescents. Moreover, among maltreated adolescents, those who experienced multiple subtypes of maltreatment were at greatest risk for problematic marijuana use in the context of neighborhood disadvantage. Interestingly, the direct effect of neighborhood disadvantage, but not the interaction with maltreatment, was related to adolescent alcohol-dependence symptoms. Results highlight the importance of considering multiple levels of influence when examining risk associated with child maltreatment. PMID:25947011

  6. Public perceptions of risk in criminality: the effects of mental illness and social disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Nee, Claire; Witt, Clare

    2013-10-30

    We examined how different types of mental illness elicited varying levels of predicted criminality and compared this with factors which might also elicit a negative response, specifically, a criminal history and social disadvantage. A sample of 243 participants undertook an anonymous, online experiment. Each participant was exposed to one of six vignettes: three involved mental illness (schizophrenia, depression/anxiety, or alcohol dependency); two in which socio-economic background was manipulated; and a control. The impact of mental illness, history of criminality and social disadvantage on the likelihood that the character in the vignette would commit future crime, and levels of sympathy, trust and potential for rehabilitation in the character were measured. Age and personal experience of mental illness and/or criminal behaviour in the participants was also examined. The sample were significantly more likely to think that a character would 'possibly' commit future crime if he had mental illness in comparison to the control, but crimes were expected to be minor. Significantly more discriminatory behaviour was reported towards the character with no mental illness but a disadvantaged background. Familiarity ameliorated this effect. Prejudice towards those with a criminal past and a disadvantaged background may be stronger than prejudice against those with mental illnesses.

  7. Neighborhood disadvantage and adolescent substance use disorder: The moderating role of maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Handley, Elizabeth D.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Guild, Danielle J.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-01-01

    The ecological-transactional model proposes that nested contexts interact to influence development. From this perspective, child maltreatment represents an individual-level risk factor posited to interact with numerous other nested contextual levels, such as the neighborhood environment, to affect development. The aim of this study was to investigate whether adolescents with maltreatment histories represent a vulnerable group for whom disadvantaged neighborhoods confer risk for substance use disorders. Participants were 411 adolescents (ages 15–18; mean age=16.24) from an investigation of the developmental sequelae of childhood maltreatment. Multiple-group structural equation models, controlling for family-level SES, indicated that neighborhood disadvantage was associated with more marijuana dependence symptoms among maltreated, but not non-maltreated adolescents. Moreover, among maltreated adolescents, those who experienced multiple subtypes of maltreatment were at greatest risk for problematic marijuana use in the context of neighborhood disadvantage. Interestingly, the direct effect of neighborhood disadvantage, but not the interaction with maltreatment, was related to adolescent alcohol dependence symptoms. Results highlight the importance of considering multiple levels of influence when examining risk associated with child maltreatment. PMID:25947011

  8. The perplexing links between contraceptive sterilization and (dis)advantage in ten low-fertility countries.

    PubMed

    Eeckhaut, Mieke C W; Sweeney, Megan M

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the association between contraceptive sterilization and socio-economic status (measured by educational attainment) in ten countries, using data from the 2006-10 National Survey of Family Growth and the 2004-10 Generations and Gender Surveys. The findings confirm that a long-standing association between socio-economic status and sterilization persists in the contemporary United States: female sterilization is associated with economic disadvantage, whereas male sterilization is associated with economic advantage. The latter association is found to be unique to the United States, but female sterilization is associated with disadvantage in most of the other countries studied. While basic demographic background factors such as early childbearing and parity can explain the observed associations in most of the countries, a strong gendered association between sterilization and socio-economic status remains in the United States and Belgium even after adjusting for these factors.

  9. Cumulative Disadvantage and Connections between Welfare Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bask, Miia

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we perform a latent class factor analysis of a panel that involves two waves of data from an annual survey of living conditions in Sweden that were gathered in the years 1994-1995 and 2002-2003. We follow the same 3,149 individuals over both waves, describing them by sex, age group, family type, nationality background, education…

  10. Advantages of Being Disadvantaged: A Paradox.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, E. Gnanaraj

    1985-01-01

    Explores factors that can enable children reared in impoverished environments to use their conditions of adversity to succeed. Discusses essential components to development of achievement motivation, including innate potential; family ties and roots; creative manipulation of the environment; expectations; and the roles of religion, parents, and…

  11. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged... Disadvantage E Appendix E to Part 26 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PARTICIPATION BY DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS ENTERPRISES IN DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Pt. 26, App....

  12. Rethinking the Issues Regarding the Culturally Disadvantaged Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Mary M.

    1979-01-01

    Aspects covered include definitions, identification, and appropriate educational programing. Several programing strategies are briefly described, and attention is given to the problem of creating an effective learning environment for the disadvantaged gifted child. (DLS)

  13. 13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, Japan, China (including Hong Kong), Taiwan... similar causes not common to individuals who are not socially disadvantaged; (ii) Personal experiences of... treatment in opportunities for government contracts or other work, unequal treatment by potential...

  14. Making Computer Science More Accessible to Educationally Disadvantaged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Ian; Mueller, Conrad

    1994-01-01

    Addresses how the Department of Computer Science at the University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa has attempted to make computer science accessible to students who have been disadvantaged by the apartheid system. (Author/MKR)

  15. Facilitating Vocational Development Among Disadvantaged Inner-City Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamdani, Asma

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the vocational development process of tenth-grade disadvantaged students can be facilitated through deliberate intervention in the form of supplementary learning experiences. (Author)

  16. Review of ADHD Pharmacotherapies: Advantages, Disadvantages, and Clinical Pearls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daughton, Joan M.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    The advantages, disadvantages, as well as helpful hints on when to use several drug therapies against attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are discussed. The drugs discussed are methylphenidate, atomoxetine, clonidine, and bupropion.

  17. 13 CFR 124.104 - Who is economically disadvantaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (b) Submission of narrative and financial information. (1) Each individual claiming economic...) When married, an individual claiming economic disadvantage also must submit separate financial... exclusions for asset valuation or access to capital and credit purposes. (i) A contingent liability does...

  18. 13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... following individuals are socially disadvantaged: Black Americans; Hispanic Americans; Native Americans...); Asian Pacific Americans (persons with origins from Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore..., Tonga, Kiribati, Tuvalu, or Nauru); Subcontinent Asian Americans (persons with origins from...

  19. 13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... following individuals are socially disadvantaged: Black Americans; Hispanic Americans; Native Americans (American Indians, Eskimos, Aleuts, or Native Hawaiians); Asian Pacific Americans (persons with origins from...); Subcontinent Asian Americans (persons with origins from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Bhutan,...

  20. 13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... following individuals are socially disadvantaged: Black Americans; Hispanic Americans; Native Americans...); Asian Pacific Americans (persons with origins from Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore..., Tonga, Kiribati, Tuvalu, or Nauru); Subcontinent Asian Americans (persons with origins from...

  1. Advantages and disadvantages in usage of bioinformatic programs in promoter region analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawełkowicz, Magdalena E.; Skarzyńska, Agnieszka; Posyniak, Kacper; ZiÄ bska, Karolina; PlÄ der, Wojciech; Przybecki, Zbigniew

    2015-09-01

    An important computational challenge is finding the regulatory elements across the promotor region. In this work we present the advantages and disadvantages from the application of different bioinformatics programs for localization of transcription factor binding sites in the upstream region of genes connected with sex determination in cucumber. We use PlantCARE, PlantPAN and SignalScan to find motifs in the promotor regions. The results have been compared and possible function of chosen motifs has been described.

  2. Competitive disadvantage makes attitudes towards rape less negative.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Kevin L; Pettersen, Cathrine

    2011-10-12

    Evolutionary theorists have argued that perceived competitive disadvantage may lead to more positive evaluation of, and greater likelihood of engaging in, risky and antisocial behavior. However, experimental studies have not yet examined the effects of competitive disadvantage on perceptions of rape. In the current study, we created a manipulation of perceived competitive status to test its effects on beliefs about rape. In one condition, participants were made to feel disadvantaged relative to male peers in terms of financial, physical, and intellectual power, whereas in the other condition they were made to feel advantaged. Participants were 120 heterosexual male undergraduate students. The manipulation was effective; compared to participants in the advantage condition, those in the disadvantage condition rated themselves as significantly worse off financially, shorter, in worse physical shape, and as having lower course marks than the average male student at the university. Compared to perceived competitive advantage, perceived disadvantage led to less negative attitudes towards rape. However, perceived competitive status did not significantly affect justifications and excuses for rape. Future studies using similar experimental manipulations can complement correlational studies and may contribute to greater clarity, precision, and sophistication of research and theory on the role of competitive disadvantage in rape.

  3. Family and neighborhood disadvantage, home environment, and children's school readiness.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K; Hur, Eunhye

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine associations between family socioeconomic risk, neighborhood disadvantage, and children's school readiness. A sample of 420 children from 48 early childcare programs yielded multi-informant data. The average age was 55.3 months (SD = 6.4), with 38% of children being Black, non-Hispanic, Hispanic, or other minority race (American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, and Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander). One third (32.4%) of the parents had annual incomes less than $30,000. We used multilevel structural equation modeling to test direct and indirect associations among family socioeconomic risk and neighborhood disadvantage and children's cognitive and social-emotional development through home learning environment and parental depression. Children with a greater number of family socioeconomic risks and a higher level of neighborhood disadvantage demonstrated lower scores on cognitive skills. The degree of family socioeconomic risk was indirectly associated with children's cognitive ability through parents' cognitive stimulation at home. Parents who had more family socioeconomic risks and neighborhood disadvantage reported more depressive symptoms, which, in turn, suggested children's greater probability of having social-emotional problems. In other words, home learning environments explained associations between family socioeconomic disadvantage and children's cognitive skills, while parental depression explained associations between family/neighborhood disadvantages and children's social-emotional problems. Results suggest the importance of intervention or prevention strategies for parents to improve cognitive stimulation at home and to reduce depressive symptoms.

  4. 48 CFR 219.1203 - Incentive subcontracting with small disadvantaged business concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... with small disadvantaged business concerns. 219.1203 Section 219.1203 Federal Acquisition Regulations... BUSINESS PROGRAMS Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program 219.1203 Incentive subcontracting with small disadvantaged business concerns. The contracting officer shall encourage increased...

  5. Impact of County Disadvantage on Behavior Problems Among US Children With Cognitive Delay

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyojun; Robert, Stephanie A.; Palta, Mari; Witt, Whitney P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated relationships among cognitive delay, community factors, and behavior problems over 2 years in early childhood with a national sample of US families. Methods. Data were from 3 waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (2001–2005; n = 7650). We defined cognitive delay as the lowest 10% of mental scores from the Bayley Short Form–Research Edition, administered at 9 and 24 months. At 24 months, we classified children as typically developing or as having resolved, newly developed, or persistent cognitive delays. Behavior was measured at age 4 years with the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales (range = 0–36). Community factors included perceived neighborhood safety and an index of county disadvantage. Results. Behavior scores at age 4 years (mean = 12.4; SD = 4.9) were higher among children with resolved (Β = 0.70; SE = 0.20), newly developed (Β = 1.92; SE = 0.25), and persistent (Β = 2.96; SE = 0.41) cognitive delays than for typically developing children. The interaction between county disadvantage and cognitive delay status was statistically significant (P < .01), suggesting that county disadvantage was particularly detrimental for children with persistent delays. Conclusions. The community context may provide an opportunity for public health interventions to improve the behavioral health of children with cognitive delays. PMID:25211742

  6. Educational stratification among Arabs and Jews in Israel: historical disadvantage, discrimination, and opportunity.

    PubMed

    Okun, Barbara S; Friedlander, Dov

    2005-07-01

    Arabs in Israel are a heterogeneous but largely underprivileged minority with a history of disadvantage in several domains, including education and employment. In this paper, we document changes in their attainment of various educational levels across cohorts born from the mid-1920s to the 1970s. We make comparisons among different Arab religious groups, between men and women, and between Arabs and the majority Jewish populations in Israel. We find that over consecutive birth cohorts, substantial ethnic differences in educational attainment have narrowed at the lower levels of schooling, but have increased at higher levels. Moreover, the results indicate that the disadvantage of Muslim Arabs in terms of entry into and completion of high school can be accounted for only partially by differences in the social status of their parents and characteristics of their neighbourhoods. The findings suggest that long-term historical differences among groups and discriminatory practices towards Arabs are important factors in explanations of disparities in educational attainment.

  7. Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Students Who Are Academically Successful: Examining Academic Resilience Cross-Nationally. Policy Brief No. 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erberber, Ebru; Stephens, Maria; Mamedova, Saida; Ferguson, Sharlyn; Kroeger, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Academically resilient students are those students who are academically successful, despite coming from the socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds that have typically predicted poorer educational outcomes. These students are an important group to study because if policymakers can understand what factors may have contributed to their…

  8. NASA Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU) within NASA promotes the utilization of small, disadvantaged, and women-owned small businesses in compliance with Federal laws, regulations, and policies. We assist such firms in obtaining contracts and subcontracts with NASA and its prime contractors. The OSDBU also facilitates the participation of small businesses in NASA's technology transfer and commercialization activities. Our driving philosophy is to consider small businesses as our products. Our customers are the NASA Enterprises, Field Centers, Functional Staff Offices, major prime contractors, and other large institutions. We hone the skills of our products to make them marketable to our customers in the performance of NASA missions.

  9. Mentoring disadvantaged nursing students through technical writing workshops.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Molly K; Symes, Lene; Bernard, Lillian; Landson, Margie J; Carroll, Theresa L

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have identified a problematic gap for nursing students between terse clinical writing and formal academic writing. This gap can create a potential barrier to academic and workplace success, especially for disadvantaged nursing students who have not acquired the disciplinary conventions and sophisticated writing required in upper-level nursing courses. The authors demonstrate the need for writing-in-the-discipline activities to enhance the writing skills of nursing students, describe the technical writing workshops they developed to mentor minority and disadvantaged nursing students, and provide recommendations to stimulate educator dialogue across disciplines and institutions.

  10. Time horizons and substance use among African American youths living in disadvantaged urban areas.

    PubMed

    Cheong, JeeWon; Tucker, Jalie A; Simpson, Cathy A; Chandler, Susan D

    2014-04-01

    Transitioning from adolescence to full-fledged adulthood is often challenging, and young people who live in disadvantaged urban neighborhoods face additional obstacles and experience disproportionately higher negative outcomes, including substance abuse and related risk behaviors. This study investigated whether substance use among African Americans ages 15 to 25 (M=18.86 years) living in such areas was related to present-dominated time perspectives and higher delay discounting. Participants (N=344, 110 males, 234 females) living in Deep South disadvantaged urban neighborhoods were recruited using Respondent Driven Sampling, an improved peer-referral sampling method suitable for accessing this hard-to-reach target group. Structured field interviews assessed alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use and risk/protective factors, including time perspectives (Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory [ZTPI]) and behavioral impulsivity (delay discounting task). As predicted, substance use was positively related to a greater ZTPI orientation toward present pleasure and a lower tendency to plan and achieve future goals. Although the sample as a whole showed high discounting of delayed rewards, discount rates did not predict substance use. The findings suggest that interventions to lengthen time perspectives and promote enriched views of future possible selves may prevent and reduce substance use among disadvantaged youths. Discontinuities among the discounting and time perspective variables in relation to substance use merit further investigation.

  11. Time horizons and substance use among African American youths living in disadvantaged urban areas.

    PubMed

    Cheong, JeeWon; Tucker, Jalie A; Simpson, Cathy A; Chandler, Susan D

    2014-04-01

    Transitioning from adolescence to full-fledged adulthood is often challenging, and young people who live in disadvantaged urban neighborhoods face additional obstacles and experience disproportionately higher negative outcomes, including substance abuse and related risk behaviors. This study investigated whether substance use among African Americans ages 15 to 25 (M=18.86 years) living in such areas was related to present-dominated time perspectives and higher delay discounting. Participants (N=344, 110 males, 234 females) living in Deep South disadvantaged urban neighborhoods were recruited using Respondent Driven Sampling, an improved peer-referral sampling method suitable for accessing this hard-to-reach target group. Structured field interviews assessed alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use and risk/protective factors, including time perspectives (Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory [ZTPI]) and behavioral impulsivity (delay discounting task). As predicted, substance use was positively related to a greater ZTPI orientation toward present pleasure and a lower tendency to plan and achieve future goals. Although the sample as a whole showed high discounting of delayed rewards, discount rates did not predict substance use. The findings suggest that interventions to lengthen time perspectives and promote enriched views of future possible selves may prevent and reduce substance use among disadvantaged youths. Discontinuities among the discounting and time perspective variables in relation to substance use merit further investigation. PMID:24531637

  12. Racial-ethnic disparities in maternal parenting stress: the role of structural disadvantages and parenting values.

    PubMed

    Nomaguchi, Kei; House, Amanda N

    2013-01-01

    Although researchers contend that racial-ethnic minorities experience more stress than whites, knowledge of racial-ethnic disparities in parenting stress is limited. Using a pooled time-series analysis of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (n = 11,324), we examine racial-ethnic differences in maternal parenting stress, with a focus on structural and cultural explanations and variations by nativity and child age. In kindergarten, black mothers, albeit U.S.-born only, report more parenting stress than white mothers due to structural disadvantages and authoritarian parenting values. The black-white gap increases from kindergarten to third grade, and in third grade, U.S.-born black mothers' higher stress than white mothers' persists after controlling for structural and parenting factors. Hispanic and Asian mothers, albeit foreign-born only, report more stress than white mothers at both ages due to structural disadvantages and authoritarian values. Despite structural disadvantages, American Indian mothers report less stress. PMID:24026535

  13. The first-mover disadvantage: the folly of revealing compatible preferences.

    PubMed

    Loschelder, David D; Swaab, Roderick I; Trötschel, Roman; Galinsky, Adam D

    2014-04-01

    The current research establishes a first-mover disadvantage in negotiation. We propose that making the first offer in a negotiation will backfire when the sender reveals private information that an astute recipient can leverage to his or her advantage. In two experiments, we manipulated whether the first offer was purely distributive or revealed that the sender's preferences were compatible with the recipient's preferences (i.e., the negotiators wanted the same outcome on an issue). When first offers contained only distributive issues, the classic first-mover advantage occurred, and first offers predicted final prices. However, a first-mover disadvantage emerged when senders opened with offers that revealed compatible preferences. These effects were moderated by negotiators' social value orientation: Proself negotiators were more likely to take advantage of compatible information than were prosocial negotiators. Overall, the key factor that determined whether the first-mover advantage or disadvantage emerged was whether the offer revealed compatible preferences. These results demonstrate that first offers not only provide numerical value but also convey qualitative information.

  14. Racial-Ethnic Disparities in Maternal Parenting Stress: The Role of Structural Disadvantages and Parenting Values

    PubMed Central

    Nomaguchi, Kei; House, Amanda N.

    2013-01-01

    Although researchers contend that racial-ethnic minorities experience more stress than whites, knowledge of racial-ethnic disparities in parenting stress is limited. Using a pooled time-series analysis of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998–99 (n = 11,324), we examine racial-ethnic differences in maternal parenting stress, with a focus on structural and cultural explanations and variations by nativity and child age. In kindergarten, black mothers, albeit U.S.-born only, report more parenting stress than white mothers due to structural disadvantages and authoritarian parenting values. The black-white gap increases from kindergarten to third grade, and in third grade, U.S.-born black mothers’ higher stress than white mothers’ persists after controlling for structural and parenting factors. Hispanic and Asian mothers, albeit foreign-born only, report more stress than white mothers at both ages due to structural disadvantages and authoritarian values. Despite structural disadvantages, American Indian mothers report less stress. PMID:24026535

  15. Racial-ethnic disparities in maternal parenting stress: the role of structural disadvantages and parenting values.

    PubMed

    Nomaguchi, Kei; House, Amanda N

    2013-01-01

    Although researchers contend that racial-ethnic minorities experience more stress than whites, knowledge of racial-ethnic disparities in parenting stress is limited. Using a pooled time-series analysis of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (n = 11,324), we examine racial-ethnic differences in maternal parenting stress, with a focus on structural and cultural explanations and variations by nativity and child age. In kindergarten, black mothers, albeit U.S.-born only, report more parenting stress than white mothers due to structural disadvantages and authoritarian parenting values. The black-white gap increases from kindergarten to third grade, and in third grade, U.S.-born black mothers' higher stress than white mothers' persists after controlling for structural and parenting factors. Hispanic and Asian mothers, albeit foreign-born only, report more stress than white mothers at both ages due to structural disadvantages and authoritarian values. Despite structural disadvantages, American Indian mothers report less stress.

  16. Race, Space, and Cumulative Disadvantage: A Case Study of the Subprime Lending Collapse

    PubMed Central

    Rugh, Jacob S.; Albright, Len; Massey, Douglas S.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we describe how residential segregation and individual racial disparities generate racialized patterns of subprime lending and lead to financial loss among black borrowers in segregated cities. We conceptualize race as a cumulative disadvantage because of its direct and indirect effects on socioeconomic status at the individual and neighborhood levels, with consequences that reverberate across a borrower's life and between generations. Using Baltimore, Maryland as a case study setting, we combine data from reports filed under the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act with additional loan-level data from mortgage-backed securities. We find that race and neighborhood racial segregation are critical factors explaining black disadvantage across successive stages in the process of lending and foreclosure, controlling for differences in borrower credit scores, income, occupancy status, and loan-to-value ratios. We analyze the cumulative cost of predatory lending to black borrowers in terms of reduced disposable income and lost wealth. We find the cost to be substantial. Black borrowers paid an estimated additional 5 to 11 percent in monthly payments and those that completed foreclosure in the sample lost an excess of $2 million in home equity. These costs were magnified in mostly black neighborhoods and in turn heavily concentrated in communities of color. By elucidating the mechanisms that link black segregation to discrimination we demonstrate how processes of cumulative disadvantage continue to undermine black socioeconomic status in the United States today. PMID:27478254

  17. At a disadvantage: the occupational attainments of foreign born women in Canada.

    PubMed

    Boyd, M

    1984-01-01

    Using data on the wage and salary of labor force participants aged 25-64 from the 1973 Canadian Mobility Study, this study on the occupational status of Canadian female immigrant employess, finds that immigrant women in the Canadian labor force have occupational statuses which are lower on the average than those of other sex and nativity groups, and which appear to reflect not only their level of occupational status related resources, but their membership to 2 negative groups--female and foreign-born. However, considerable stratification, by birth place, exists among groups of female immigrant workers. The analysis indicates that the double disadvantage of being female and foreign-born is a less of a factor for the occupational attainments of women born in the US and UK, than it is for born elsewhere. There are 3 possible explanations for the existence of the dual disadvantage: 1) the social image of the desirability of foreign-born female immigrants and their capabilities may play a role; 2) the formation of ethnically and linguistically bounded local economies, which is a feature of immigrant receiving societies, may shape the employment patterns of women more so than men's, influenced by the non-North American norms concerning male approval of the work lives of women; and 3) the more general exploitation of workers in a class society and the relations between core-capitalist economies and dependent ones on the periphery, may be responsible for placing immigrant women in a position of double disadvantage.

  18. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Individual Determinations of Social and Economic... Appendix E to Part 26—Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage The following...

  19. A Comparative Study of the Self-Perceptions of Disadvantaged Children in Elementary and Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, Anthony T.; Soares, Louise M.

    The study tested hypotheses predicting significant differences between the self-perception scores of: (1) disadvantaged children in an urban neighborhood elementary school and disadvantaged high school students; (2) disadvantaged girls and boys; and, (3), within each sex, disadvantaged elementary school and high school students. All the students…

  20. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Appendix E to Part 26—Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage The following guidance... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged... access to institutions of higher education and vocational training, exclusion from social...

  1. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Appendix E to Part 26—Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage The following guidance... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged... access to institutions of higher education and vocational training, exclusion from social...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Individual Determinations of Social and Economic... Appendix E to Part 26—Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage The following...

  3. Effect of an enrichment program on DAT scores of potential dental students from disadvantaged backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kimberly P; Woolfolk, Marilyn; May, Kenneth B; Inglehart, Marita R

    2013-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore whether Dental Admission Test (DAT) training in an enrichment program for potential dental students increases the participants' Perceptual Achievement Test (PAT) and academic average (AA) scores and whether the length of the program and personal factors such as the number of disadvantages correlate with the DAT scores. Data were collected from 361 students in the summer enrichment program at one dental school between 1994 and 2011. Their baseline, midpoint, and end of program PAT and AA DAT scores were collected. Seventy students self-reported official scores. These students' PAT scores increased from 14.40 at baseline to 17.09 at midpoint to 17.84 at program end (p<0.001), and their AA scores increased from 13.53 to 14.09 to 15.12 (p<0.001). Their official scores were higher than the beginning scores (PAT: 14.42 vs. 16.15; p<0.001; AA: 13.61 vs. 16.23; p<0.001). The longer the program, the more the students improved their official scores (PAT: r=0.35; p=0.003; AA: r=0.24; p=0.044). The more disadvantages the students self-reported, the better their official test scores were (PAT: r=0.40; p<0.001; AA: r=0.43; p<0.001). This study found that the DAT training during summer enrichment programs for students from disadvantaged backgrounds led to significant improvements in their DAT scores. The longer the programs, the more the students improved; and the more disadvantages the students had, the more they benefitted.

  4. Access to Postsecondary Education: Can Schools Compensate for Socioeconomic Disadvantage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frempong, George; Ma, Xin; Mensah, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    While access to postsecondary education in Canada has increased over the past decade, a number of recent studies demonstrate that youth from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds are vulnerable to some degree of exclusion from postsecondary education. These studies tend to emphasize the lack of financial resources and social capital as the main…

  5. 78 FR 68016 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ...) entitled, ``Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Implementation Modifications,'' at 77 FR 54952, that... FR 65164, which corrected minor errors in the NPRM related to the Paperwork Reduction Act and..., 2013, as announced in a September 18, 2013 notice. 78 FR 57336. At that time, the Department...

  6. 48 CFR 52.219-22 - Small Disadvantaged Business Status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Small Business Administration as a small disadvantaged business concern consistent with 13 CFR 124... Business Administration or a Private Certifier in accordance with 13 CFR part 124, subpart B. For joint... applicable exclusions set forth at 13 CFR 124.104(c)(2); and (C) It is identified, on the date of...

  7. Politics of Government Efforts To Improve the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirst, Michael W.; Gifford, Bernard

    This paper discusses the significant political advances for disadvantaged children that have been dependent upon trends and upheavals in the economy and major social or political movements. Evidence is provided which indicates that large scale U.S. government programs are rarely based on a public concern for children, but rather on a more…

  8. Music Education and the Educationally Disadvantaged Gifted Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Janice Chapin

    This paper is a literature review comparing the characteristics and needs of the average gifted child with the disadvantaged gifted child in four areas: (1) cognitive; (2) affective; (3) psycho-motor; and (4) special aptitudes. Numbered items indicate those comparisons that may be contrasted directly between the two groups. All other items are…

  9. Criterion Referenced Test: Some Advantages and Disadvantages for Science Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esler, William K.; Dziuban, Charles D.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the criterion referenced test and focuses on such questions as What is it? What are the advantages to be gained from a performance-based curriculum and criterion reference evaluation procedures? What are the disadvantages? The Science - A Process Approach program is identified as the most complete and tested example of the use of…

  10. Developing Latent Mathematics Abilities in Economically Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Michele A.; Hollingsworth, Patricia L.; Barnes, Laura L. B.

    2005-01-01

    The current study was undertaken as an effort to attend to the potential giftedness of economically disadvantaged students, to give opportunities for mathematics acceleration, and to provide a sequential, individualized mathematics program for students of high mobility. The authors evaluated the Project SAIL (Students' Active Interdisciplinary…

  11. Do Disadvantaged Neighborhoods Affect Children's Verbal Skills? Evaluation Science Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Forum on Early Childhood Program Evaluation, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Evaluation Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study evaluating the effects of an early childhood program or environment. This Brief evaluates the study "Durable Effects of Concentrated Disadvantage on Verbal Ability Among African-American Children" (R. Sampson; R. Sharkey; and S. Raudenbush.) Racial and economic…

  12. Educating the Disadvantaged, 1970-1971. An AMS Anthology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doll, Russell C., Ed.; Hawkins, Maxine, Ed.

    This anthology includes newly published essays by Daniel U. Levine, Robert J. Havighurst, and J. McVicker Hunt, two previously unpublished reports from the National Study of American Indian Education, and a new guide to resource centers. In addition, 35 papers by 55 contributors concerned with educating disadvantaged and culturally different…

  13. University Access for Disadvantaged Children: A Comparison across Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrim, John; Vignoles, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider whether certain countries are particularly adept (or particularly poor) at getting children from disadvantaged homes to study for a bachelor's degree. A series of university access models are estimated for four English-speaking countries (England, Canada, Australia and the USA), which include controls for comparable…

  14. Disrupting Patterns of Educational Inequality and Disadvantage in Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pridmore, Pat; Jere, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the gap in educational provision for vulnerable learners in Malawi who are at risk of falling behind and dropping out of school due to irregular attendance. It draws on a study in high HIV-prevalence areas that explores the patterns of inequality and disadvantage that disrupt learning and uses this knowledge to design…

  15. Developing Social Giftedness in Disadvantaged Girls at an Indian School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Yukti

    2012-01-01

    This article describes developmental interactions with a group of female students at an Indian public school situated in a disadvantaged section of the community. Through a series of activities, the author makes an intensive effort to develop social giftedness in these students. The article describes various activities together with the author's…

  16. Training the Socio-Economically Disadvantaged; A Selected, Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, Beverly J.

    This annotated bibliography presents a collection of readings which should be of interest to persons charged with the responsibility of planning programs dealing with the education, counseling, and socialization of the socioeconomically disadvantaged. Taken from various sources, this collection contains: (1) current readings, (2) a listing of…

  17. Teaching Low Achieving and Disadvantaged Students, 3rd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargis, Charles H.

    2006-01-01

    This new edition updates and expands the previous volume and continues to reflect the concepts and the reasons behind learning and behavior problems of low achieving and disadvantaged students. Through the chapters, the author describes instructional levels and independent levels, emphasizing that success is produced by finding the place on the…

  18. THE LIGHTHOUSE DAY CAMP READING EXPERIMENT WITH DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GOMBERG, ADELINE W.

    A READING PROGRAM DESIGNED FOR DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN AND CONDUCTED BY THE LIGHTHOUSE, A SETTLEMENT HOUSE IN NORTH PHILADELPHIA, AS PART OF ITS DAY CAMP PROGRAM WAS DESCRIBED AND ASSESSED. THE READING PROGRAM WAS DEVELOPED (1) TO BOOST THE OPPORTUNITIES IN READING READINESS FOR CHILDREN ABOUT TO ENTER FIRST GRADE, (2) TO ENRICH LANGUAGE…

  19. 48 CFR 1552.219-73 - Small Disadvantaged Business Targets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Small Disadvantaged Business Targets. 1552.219-73 Section 1552.219-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions...

  20. 48 CFR 1552.219-73 - Small Disadvantaged Business Targets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Small Disadvantaged Business Targets. 1552.219-73 Section 1552.219-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions...

  1. Facilitating the Creative Functioning of Disadvantaged Young Black Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, William Roscoe

    This study hypothesized that disadvantaged black children could achieve higher creativity scores if they were provided with stimulating experiences appropriate to psychological warm-up immediately before they were tested for figural and verbal creative thinking ability. The subjects were 105 first grade children divided into three experimental…

  2. What's in a Name: "Education and the Disadvantaged American" (1962)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Wayne J.

    2009-01-01

    "Education and the Disadvantaged American" represented an attempt by the leaders of the American elementary and secondary education enterprise to come to terms with the failure to learn of a significant portion of the school population. The dimension of race surrounded the discussion leading to publication, but it was never addressed…

  3. The Early College Challenge: Navigating Disadvantaged Students' Transition to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, James E.; Becker, Kelly Iwanaga

    2011-01-01

    Successful early college high schools (ECHSs) are formed through partnerships between high schools and colleges (usually community colleges). Think of it as preparation through acceleration. ECHSs enroll disadvantaged students who have not excelled with ordinary grade-level academic content and have them take college courses while still in high…

  4. Predicting Success among Prospective Disadvantaged Students in Natural Scientific Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maree, J. G.; Fletcher, L.; Sommerville, J.

    2011-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-nine Grade 11 prospective disadvantaged students in the natural sciences at the University of Pretoria completed the Study Orientation Questionnaire in Mathematics and the Senior Aptitude Test (Advanced). Fifty-nine male students (M age = 16.05; SD = 0.57) and 100 females (M age = 16.02; SD = 0.512) scored significantly…

  5. 23 CFR 635.107 - Participation by disadvantaged business enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....107 Section 635.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING... to compete. In accordance with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, subsequent Federal-aid Highway Acts, and 49 CFR part 26, the STD shall ensure equal opportunity for disadvantaged...

  6. 23 CFR 635.107 - Participation by disadvantaged business enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....107 Section 635.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING... to compete. In accordance with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, subsequent Federal-aid Highway Acts, and 49 CFR part 26, the STD shall ensure equal opportunity for disadvantaged...

  7. Introducing Computer Science to Educationally Disadvantaged High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paz, Tamar; Levy, Dalit

    2005-01-01

    An approach to the teaching and learning of high school computer science (CS) to and by educationally disadvantaged students (EDS) is described, as well as the implementation of six pedagogical principles in two learning environments developed for Israeli schools. Following a brief description of the main characteristics of EDS classes and a…

  8. 48 CFR 52.219-22 - Small Disadvantaged Business Status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Small Business Administration as a small disadvantaged business concern consistent with 13 CFR 124... the Small Business Administration or a Private Certifier in accordance with 13 CFR part 124, subpart B... applicable exclusions set forth at 13 CFR 124.104(c)(2); and (C) It is identified, on the date of...

  9. 48 CFR 52.219-22 - Small Disadvantaged Business Status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Small Business Administration as a small disadvantaged business concern consistent with 13 CFR 124... Business Administration or a Private Certifier in accordance with 13 CFR part 124, subpart B. For joint... applicable exclusions set forth at 13 CFR 124.104(c)(2); and (C) It is identified, on the date of...

  10. 48 CFR 52.219-22 - Small Disadvantaged Business Status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Small Business Administration as a small disadvantaged business concern consistent with 13 CFR 124... the Small Business Administration or a Private Certifier in accordance with 13 CFR part 124, subpart B... applicable exclusions set forth at 13 CFR 124.104(c)(2); and (C) It is identified, on the date of...

  11. Virtues of SIN: Can Intensified Public Efforts Help Disadvantaged Immigrants?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslund, Olof; Johansson, Per

    2011-01-01

    The labor market integration of immigrants is a top political priority throughout the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Social and fiscal gains, as well as sustained future labor supply make governments search for effective policies to increase employment among the mostly disadvantaged. The author studies SIN,…

  12. Education and Training and the Avoidance of Financial Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Gary N.

    2011-01-01

    Making use of the longitudinal data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, this study examines the relationship between post-school qualifications and financial disadvantage among Australians during the period 2001 to 2008. Specifically, it is concerned with the extent that education and training, vis-a-vis…

  13. 48 CFR 706.302-71 - Small disadvantaged businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 706.302-71... disadvantaged businesses as defined in 726.7002), historically black colleges and universities, colleges and universities having a student body of which more than 40 percent of the students are Hispanic Americans,...

  14. A Readiness Test for Disadvantaged Preschool Children. PREP-22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Educational Communication (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    In response to the pressing needs to develop a culture-fair, nonverbal readiness test for rural and urban disadvantaged preschool children, a special project was undertaken. PREP kit no. 22 was adapted from the final report of a project conducted by Dr. Wanda Walker, Northwest Missouri State College, Maryville, and supported by the Office of…

  15. Instructional Resources for Teachers of the Culturally Disadvantaged and Exceptional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Robert M., Ed.; And Others

    Designed as a reference for general educators, a resource book for teachers of the disadvantaged and exceptional, a textbook, a tool for administrators, and a resource for librarians, the book contains a list of instructional resources which the authors or experienced others had used with positive impression, plus recent materials. An introduction…

  16. Combating Educational Disadvantage through Early Years and Primary School Investment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frawley, Denise

    2014-01-01

    In 1965, following a review of second-level education in Ireland, the report "Investment in Education" was published. While a concern with educational inequality and disadvantage pre-dates this report, it clearly identified the significant socio-economic disparities in educational participation at the time and emphasised an urgent need…

  17. "Second Chance" Education: Accessing Opportunity or Recycling Disadvantage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Mark G.

    1996-01-01

    Reports on an ethnographic project examining an Australian program designed to provide homeless adolescents with access to secondary education. Focuses on the relationships among groups of students within the program and explores the way that education can either reinforce disadvantage or offer access to opportunity. (MJP)

  18. Promotion of Primary Education for Girls and Disadvantaged Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This report presents the results of a meeting of education officials from Bangladesh, China, India, Japan, Nepal, Pakistan, and Thailand to discuss the promotion of primary education for girls and other disadvantaged groups in developing Asian countries. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction, discussing the goals and results of the meeting. Chapter…

  19. Advantages and Disadvantages of Student Loans Repayment Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Hua

    2010-01-01

    It is a difficulty problem to choice repayment patterns of student loan. "Conventional mortgage-type loan" and "Income contingent loan" has been performed in many countries. These loan repayment manners have their own characteristics. In this paper, we discuss their advantages and disadvantages, and would provide policy choice…

  20. Perspectives in the Education of Disadvantaged Children; A Multidisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowles, Milly, Ed.

    A collection of original papers presents an interdisciplinary approach to the education of disadvantaged children. The volume, prepared especially for preservice and inservice teachers, is divided into three sections--poverty and its effects, the children of poverty, and educational implications. The first two parts deal with such areas as…

  1. NEW PROGRAMS AND TRENDS IN GUIDANCE FOR SOCIALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOORE, JAMES W.

    THE BUREAU OF GUIDANCE OF THE NEW YORK STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT INITIATES DEMONSTRATION GUIDANCE PROJECTS FOR DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS WHICH ARE CONDUCTED THROUGHOUT THE STATE. PROPOSALS FOR THESE PROJECTS ARE SUBMITTED BY THE LOCAL SCHOOL DISTRICTS BECAUSE GUIDANCE AND EDUCATIONAL PROJECTS CONDUCTED AT THIS LEVEL ARE MOST PROMISING. PROJECT ABLE…

  2. Nutritional Supplementation of Disadvantaged Elementary-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paige, David M.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Examined with 177 disadvantaged elementary school students (5-9 years old, 99 percent Blacks) were the effects of the provision of a nutritionally fortified low-lactose food supplement on hematocrit values (volume percentage of erythrocytes in whole blood), growth, absenteeism, and lunch consumption. (IM)

  3. A Study of Four Library Programs for Disadvantaged Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsor, Charlotte B.; Burrows, Lodema

    This is a study of four projects in New York City which were established with federal grants to offer library service to the disadvantaged in the area. The four programs studied are the Preschool Project of the Brooklyn Public Library, the Community Coordinator Project of the Brooklyn Public Library, the North Manhattan Project of the New York…

  4. Training the Disadvantaged: Can it Reduce Welfare Dependence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassi, Laurie J.

    1987-01-01

    The cost effectiveness of the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act was evaluated in terms of moving economically disadvantaged individuals toward financial independence. Data analysis indicated small savings in welfare payments for female recipients, but not males. Data deficiencies in the Continuous Longitudinal Manpower Survey were also…

  5. Living Conditions of Some Basic School Children: Pointers to Disadvantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, D. R. B.

    This study, conducted by the Bernard Van Leer Foundation Project for Early Childhood Education (PECE), presents the results of a survey which was carried out to identify home deficits in socioeconomically disadvantaged children's preparation for schooling. The study was conducted in Jamaica during July, August, and September, 1970, and was…

  6. The Early Childhood Education of Disadvantaged Children in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Zhanmei; Zhu, Jiaxiong; Xia, Zhuyun; Wu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Since 2010, the Chinese government has adopted a series of services and policies to provide early childhood education for disadvantaged children. The rapid economic development and urbanisation process since the mid-1980s have led to great changes in social structure and demographics in China. This creates new challenges for the education of…

  7. A Summer Academic Research Experience for Disadvantaged Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabacoff, Cathryn; Srivastava, Vasudha; Robinson, Douglas N.

    2013-01-01

    Internships are an effective way of connecting high school students in a meaningful manner to the sciences. Disadvantaged minorities have fewer opportunities to participate in internships, and are underrepresented in both science, technology, engineering, and mathematics majors and careers. We have developed a Summer Academic Research Experience…

  8. Book Selections of Economically Disadvantaged Black Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lunetta M.

    2008-01-01

    The author identified books most often selected among a sample of economically disadvantaged Black 8- to 12-year-old participants (N = 293) and investigated reasons participants offered for choosing specific books. Participants self-selected books at a book fair providing 412 books. The most commonly selected books supplied descriptive data.…

  9. Pathways of disadvantage and smoking careers: evidence and policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Hilary; Inskip, Hazel M; Francis, Brian; Harman, Juliet

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To investigate in older industrialised societies (a) how social disadvantage contributes to smoking risk among women (b) the role of social and economic policies in reducing disadvantage and moderating wider inequalities in life chances and living standards. Methods Review and analysis of (a) the effects of disadvantage in childhood and into adulthood on women's smoking status in early adulthood (b) policy impacts on the social exposures associated with high smoking risk. Main results (a) Smoking status—ever smoking, current smoking, heavy smoking, and cessation—is influenced not only by current circumstances but by longer term biographies of disadvantage (b) social and economic policies shape key social predictors of women's smoking status, including childhood circumstances, educational levels and adult circumstances, and moderate inequalities in the distribution of these dimensions of life chances and living standards. Together, the two sets of findings argue for a policy toolkit that acts on the distal determinants of smoking, with interventions targeting the conditions in which future and current smokers live. Conclusions An approach to tobacco control is advocated that combines changing smoking habits with reducing inequalities in the social trajectories in which they are embedded. Policies to level up opportunities and living standards across the lifecourse should be championed as part of an equity oriented approach to reducing the disease burden of cigarette smoking. PMID:17708005

  10. Development of a Cooperative Retailing Program for the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litzinger, F. Donald; And Others.

    This report presents a two-year junior college retailing curriculum for the disadvantaged, proposed on the basis of answers to questionnaires sent to retailing industries in the Metropolitan Rochester area. The questionnaires were designed to assess the need and feasibility of such a retailing program and to ascertain qualifications required to…

  11. Activating the Disadvantaged. Variations in Addressing Youth Transitions across Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Axel; Walther, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    The term activation refers to a shift in social policies, through which individuals are given more responsibility for their own social inclusion. This article provides a comparative analysis of the different ways in which EU member states interpret and implement the concept of activation by addressing the transitions of disadvantaged young people…

  12. Teachers for the Disadvantaged. Series in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, James C.

    This book gives detailed reports on twenty-five projects in teacher training, specifically designed to prepare teachers for teaching disadvantaged children. These reports give a comprehensive mixture of local problems and their solutions which can provide patterns or models for problems in any area. Part I describes the projects in terms of their…

  13. Health Care of the Elderly in Medically Disadvantaged Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    German, Pearl S.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This study of three disadvantaged urban areas reports on the relationship between available resources and ambulatory health care. Findings indicate a high proportion of elderly receiving care for serious conditions but a sharp drop in care for less serious but potentially disabling conditions. (Author)

  14. A CURRICULUM DESIGN FOR DISADVANTAGED COMMUNITY JUNIOR COLLEGE STUDENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CLARKE, JOHNNIE RUTH

    THE JUNIOR COLLEGE MUST DEVELOP A CURRICULUM DESIGNED TO MEET THE IDENTIFIABLE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF THE DISADVANTAGED STUDENT, WITH SPECIFIC REFERENCE TO THE EFFECTS OF DEPRIVATION ON ASPIRATIONS, VALUES, MOTIVATION, AND SELF-CONCEPT AND TO THE INFLUENCE OF CLASS OR CASTE ON ACADEMIC PROGRESS. THIS STUDENT NEEDS TO DEVELOP (1) POSITIVE FEELINGS OF…

  15. Barriers to Healthier Eating in a Disadvantaged Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Martin; Rebane, Deanne; Lester, Carolyn

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The research objective was to identify how healthy eating was understood in a disadvantaged community and how barriers to healthy eating might be overcome. Design: Participatory action research. Setting: Communities in Gurnos, Merthyr Tydfil, one of the most deprived areas in the UK. Method: Trainees on a participative methods course…

  16. From Here to Where?--"Disadvantaged Schools," Literacy and Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Pat

    2001-01-01

    Argues that the abolishment of the Disadvantaged Schools Program (DSP) in South Australia represented a shift away from a focus on the social to the individual, from curriculum to instruction, from school-based inquiry and teacher research to expert solutions, and from various contexted and contested outcomes to a singular and simplistic version…

  17. Programming Mathematics: A New Approach in Teaching the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar-On, Ehud; Or-Bach, Rachel

    The development of an instructional model for teaching formal mathematical concepts (probability concepts) to disadvantaged high school students through computer programming and some results from a field test are described in this document. The instructional model takes into account both learner characteristics (cognitive, affective, and…

  18. The First National Conference on the Disadvantaged Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Ellen J., Ed.; And Others

    Summarized are 19 presentations given at the first annual National Conference on the Disadvantaged Gifted held March 24-25, 1973. Emphasized is the effect of identification procedures, program provisions, and research and evaluation on (1) economically deprived gifted students, (2) culturally different gifted students, (3) female gifted students,…

  19. SOME SUGGESTED GUIDLINES FOR WRITING MATERIALS FOR THE DISADVANTAGED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OLSEN, JAMES

    GUIDELINES FOR WRITING DIRECTIONS AND FOR WRITING EXERCISES FOR THE DISADVANTAGED WHO ARE ON THE LOWEST READING LEVEL ARE PRESENTED. SENTENCE AND LANGUAGE STUCTURE SHOULD BE SIMPLE, BRIEF, AND CONVERSATIONAL. DIRECTIONS SHOULD BE CONSIDERED A PART OF THE TEXT AND SHOULD BE ON THE SAME READING LEVEL. DIRECTIONS SHOULD BE CONSIDERED A PART OF THE…

  20. Motivating Disadvantaged Students toward the Possibility of College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Destin, Mesmin; Kosko, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence of successful strategies to help keep students from disadvantaged backgrounds motivated to persist in school and succeed in college. These strategies draw from scientifically validated theory and research and they typically involve simple, yet careful, implementation techniques and so educators can expect them to be more…

  1. Disentangling Disadvantage: Can We Distinguish Good Teaching from Classroom Composition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamarro, Gema; Engberg, John; Saavedra, Juan Esteban; Steele, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the use of teacher value-added estimates to assess the distribution of effective teaching across students of varying socioeconomic disadvantage in the presence of classroom composition effects. We examine, via simulations, how accurately commonly used teacher value-added estimators recover the rank correlation between…

  2. 48 CFR 19.304 - Disadvantaged business status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Programs 19.304 Disadvantaged business status. (a) To be eligible to receive a benefit as a prime... Business Program Representations, or 52.212-3(c)(4), Offeror Representations and Certifications-Commercial...—Commercial Items, is used to obtain SDB status when the prime contractor may receive a benefit based on...

  3. Cognitive Advantages and Disadvantages in Early and Late Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelham, Sabra D.; Abrams, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has documented advantages and disadvantages of early bilinguals, defined as learning a 2nd language by school age and using both languages since that time. Relative to monolinguals, early bilinguals manifest deficits in lexical access but benefits in executive function. We investigated whether becoming bilingual "after"…

  4. Self-Employment Programs and Outcomes for Disadvantaged Jobseekers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Ross; Mulvey, Charles; Lewis, P. E. T.

    2002-01-01

    An evaluation of Australia's New Enterprise Initiative Scheme, which provides job search information to disadvantaged job seekers, found the following: of 81 long-term unemployed, 76.5% were self-employed after participation; of 51 non-English speaking individuals, 65% were self-employed; and 84% of 400 participants overall were in some form of…

  5. MATERIALS THE DISADVANTAGED NEED--AND DON'T NEED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HABERMAN, MARTIN

    THE ASSUMPTION THAT SOME CHILDREN ARE LOW ACHIEVERS BECAUSE OF CULTURAL, SENSORY, OR DEVELOPMENTAL DEPRIVATION IS CRITICIZED BECAUSE IT LEADS MAINLY TO A GRASPING FOR NEW AND DIFFERENT TEACHING TECHNOLOGIES. WHAT SHOULD BE INCLUDED IN A COHESIVE VIEW OF THE DISADVANTAGED ARE THEORETICAL UNDERPINNINGS FROM WHICH ACTION PROGRAMS CAN BE DERIVED. THE…

  6. 13 CFR 124.104 - Who is economically disadvantaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Who is economically disadvantaged... Requirements for Participation in the 8(a) Business Development Program § 124.104 Who is economically... family member, or to a trust a beneficiary of which is an immediate family member, for less than...

  7. Trends in Educational Disadvantage in Dutch Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driessen, Geert; Merry, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    The central question in this study is whether the language and math delays of the different socio-economic and ethnic minority groups targeted by Dutch educational disadvantage policy have diminished or not. Data are from the years 1995, 1999, 2003 and 2008. Information from a total of 90,000 pupils in Grades 2 and 8 was selected to represent the…

  8. Improving the Education of the Disadvantaged in an Elementary Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Gordon P.; And Others

    Described is an action research program in four elementary schools in disadvantaged areas of Quincy, Illinois. This educational improvement effort focused on parent involvement and enrichment during and after school as well as in the summer. Curricular modifications and enrichment included field trips, development of listening skills, puppetry,…

  9. 23 CFR 635.107 - Participation by disadvantaged business enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Highway Acts, and 49 CFR part 26, the STD shall ensure equal opportunity for disadvantaged business... funded with title 23 funds, the requirements of 49 CFR part 26 and the State's approved DBE plan apply....107 Section 635.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  10. 23 CFR 635.107 - Participation by disadvantaged business enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Highway Acts, and 49 CFR part 26, the STD shall ensure equal opportunity for disadvantaged business... funded with title 23 funds, the requirements of 49 CFR part 26 and the State's approved DBE plan apply....107 Section 635.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  11. 23 CFR 635.107 - Participation by disadvantaged business enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Highway Acts, and 49 CFR part 26, the STD shall ensure equal opportunity for disadvantaged business... funded with title 23 funds, the requirements of 49 CFR part 26 and the State's approved DBE plan apply....107 Section 635.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  12. Education for All: Compensating for Disadvantage in Mexico. Education Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Shapiro, Joseph; Trevino, Jorge Moreno

    2004-01-01

    This note series is intended to summarize lessons learned and key policy findings on the World Bank's work in education.Education for all means learning for all. It means closing the "advantage" gap--making sure that the children of the poor and disadvantaged achieve the same levels of learning as all other children. This is one of the great…

  13. 13 CFR 124.104 - Who is economically disadvantaged?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS 8(a) Business Development Eligibility Requirements for Participation in the 8(a) Business Development Program § 124.104 Who is economically... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Who is economically...

  14. The Physiological Expression of Living in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods for Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, Allison B.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the consequences of chronic exposure to stressors extend beyond psychological effects, and that adolescents living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighborhoods may experience an accumulation of exposure to stressors that wears down the physical systems in the body, resulting in hyper-activation of the stress response.…

  15. The Use of Individually Prescribed Instruction for the Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, John M.; Seay, Donna M.

    The adaptation and use of individually prescribed instruction (IPI) in adult basic education for the disadvantaged are discussed. The discussion describes a model IPI system (The Draper Model); recommends certain considerations if it is to be used successfully; and shows that programmed instructional (PI) materials work best in a learning system…

  16. Theorising Multiply Disadvantaged Young People's Challenges in Accessing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Melanie; Mkwananzi, Faith

    2015-01-01

    This paper sketches an innovative conceptualisation of disadvantaged youth, shaped dialogically by the interactions of theorising and data from a case study at Orange Farm informal settlement in South Africa in 2013. The study focused on the challenges for the young people in this area in accessing higher education. Drawing on Sen's and Nussbaum's…

  17. Teaching Culturally Disadvantaged Pupils (Grades K-12). Unit V: Teaching the Culturally Disadvantaged Student--Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kenneth R.

    The fifth in a series of teacher education units emphasizes the specific problems of teaching disadvantaged students. Discussed are research and its relationship to classroom teachers, the need for research about pupils, the teacher-pupil relationship, and the instructional program. One section of the document is devoted to ways in which teachers…

  18. Teaching Culturally Disadvantaged Pupils (Grades K-12). Unit VIII: Improving the Reading and Writing Skills of Culturally Disadvantaged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kenneth R.

    The last of a series of teacher education units discusses techniques for teaching reading and writing to culturally disadvantaged students. The poor reading ability of such students is related to their cultural backgrounds which prepared them inadequately for reading instruction in a middle-class oriented curriculum. Therefore, remedial…

  19. Teaching Culturally Disadvantaged Pupils (Grades K-12). Unit VI: Teaching the Culturally Disadvantaged Student--Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kenneth R.

    The sixth in a series of teacher education units continues a discussion of specific problems faced by teachers of disadvantaged students. Stressed in this document are the teacher's role in working with the parents of these students. Also discussed are compensatory programs and those which use a curriculum content relevant to and derived from the…

  20. Socially Disadvantaged Students in Socially Disadvantaged Schools: Double Jeopardy in Mathematics Achievement in the G8 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dundas, Traci Lynne

    2010-01-01

    Using the G8 countries' (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, and the United States) samples from the 2003 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), this study aimed to explore the phenomenon of double jeopardy in mathematics achievement for socially disadvantaged students. Double…

  1. Racial disparities in age at time of homicide victimization: a test of the multiple disadvantage model.

    PubMed

    Lo, Celia C; Howell, Rebecca J; Cheng, Tyrone C

    2015-01-01

    This study sought the factors associated with race/ethnicity disparities in the age at which homicide deaths tend to occur. We used the multiple disadvantage model to take race into account as we evaluated associations between age at time of homicide victimization and several social structural, mental health-related, and lifestyle factors. Data were derived from the 1993 National Mortality Followback Survey, a cross-sectional interview study of spouses, next of kin, other relatives, and close friends of individuals 15 years and older who died in the United States in 1993. Our results showed age at time of homicide mortality to be related to the three types of factors; race moderated some of these relationships. In general, being employed, married, and a homeowner appeared associated with reduced victimization while young. The relationship of victimization age and employment was not uniform across racial groups, nor was the relationship of victimization age and marital status uniform across groups. Among Blacks, using mental health services was associated with longer life. Homicide by firearm proved important for our Black and Hispanic subsamples, while among Whites, alcohol's involvement in homicide exerted significant effects. Our results suggest that programs and policies serving the various racial/ethnic groups can alleviate multiple disadvantages relevant in homicide victimization at an early age.

  2. Should uptake of state benefits be used as indicators of need and disadvantage?

    PubMed

    Rosato, Michael; O'Reilly, Dermot

    2006-07-01

    Government requires indicators of disadvantage to guide programmes and allocate resources to those areas which are most in need. Proxy measures of relative disadvantage are often utilised for this task in the absence of ideal indicators of need. The recent availability of government administrative datasets, such as social security benefit uptake levels, are increasingly being used throughout the UK and have been hailed as a significant advance on previous measures of need. However, their suitability presupposes that the association between those in need of benefit and those actually in receipt of benefit is not confounded by non-needs-related factors. In the present study, the authors examine area-level factors associated with uptake of one health-related benefit and show that, while closely correlated with health status, it is also associated with factors which might be related to the propensity and ability to make a successful claim, as well as local adjudication practices. They conclude that, while the use of these government datasets has increased our ability to target resources, researchers and policy makers should be aware of these additional influences. PMID:16787480

  3. Neighborhood disadvantage, network social capital, and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Haines, Valerie A; Beggs, John J; Hurlbert, Jeanne S

    2011-03-01

    Research on why neighborhood disadvantage matters for health focuses on the capacity of neighborhoods to regulate residents' behavior through informal social control. The authors extend this research by conducting a multilevel analysis of data from a 1995 telephone survey of 497 residents of 32 neighborhoods in a U.S. city. The authors find that network social capital mediates the contextual effect of neighborhood disadvantage on depressive symptoms and that health effects of network social capital persist when perceived neighborhood disorder, a standard indicator of low informal social control, is controlled for. The findings demonstrate the value of a conceptualization and measurement of network social capital that (1) considers ties that transcend neighborhood boundaries, (2) investigates health benefits of network social capital in the forms of closure and embedded support resources and range and embedded instrumental resources, and (3) uses network data on specific network members with strong and weak ties to respondents.

  4. Breaking the Intergenerational Cycle of Disadvantage: The Three Generation Approach.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tina L; Johnson, Sara B; Goodman, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    Health disparities in the United States related to socioeconomic status are persistent and pervasive. This review highlights how social disadvantage, particularly low socioeconomic status and the health burden it brings, is passed from 1 generation to the next. First, we review current frameworks for understanding the intergenerational transmission of health disparities and provide 4 illustrative examples relevant to child health, development, and well-being. Second, the leading strategy to break the cycle of poverty in young families in the United States, the 2-generation approach, is reviewed. Finally, we propose a new 3-generation approach that must combine with the 2-generation approach to interrupt the intergenerational cycle of disadvantage and eliminate health disparities.

  5. Ingroup friendship and political mobilization among the disadvantaged.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Nikhil K; Milojev, Petar; Barlow, Fiona K; Sibley, Chris G

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of ingroup contact in a large, national sample of Māori (a disadvantaged ethnic group; N = 940) on political attitudes relevant to decreasing ethnic inequality in New Zealand. We tested the role of 2 mediating mechanisms-ethnic identification and system justification-to explain the effects of ingroup contact on the dependent variables. Time spent with ingroup friends predicted increased support for the Māori Party and support for symbolic and resource-specific reparative policies benefiting Māori. These effects were partially mediated by increased ethnic identification. Although ingroup contact also reduced levels of system justification among Māori, its effects on policy attitudes and party preference were not mediated by system justification. This suggests that a key antecedent to system challenging political attitudes is an increased sense of identification with a disadvantaged group resulting, in part, from interactions with ingroup friends.

  6. [Chorionic Villus Sampling in cytogenetic analysis--disadvantages and advantages].

    PubMed

    Gnyś-Wiercioch, Agnieszka; Bloch, Renata; Grolik, Barbara; Hadaś, Jolanta; Kania, Agnieszka; Szołtysik-Szot, Mariola; Sodowska, Henryka

    2012-05-01

    Chorionic villus sampling is used in prenatal diagnosis, enabling to detect fetal genetic abnormalities. Its advantages include the possibility of performing the procedure during the first trimester of pregnancy relatively fast result, risk of miscarriage comparable to that in case of amniocentesis. The disadvantages of this method are: difficult cytogenetic analysis, the possibility of contamination with maternal cells and the risk of mosaicism. There should always be a valid indication to perform the CVS procedure.

  7. Advantages and disadvantages of stiffness instructions when studying postural control.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Cédrick T

    2016-05-01

    To understand the maintenance of upright stance, researchers try to discover the fundamental mechanisms and attentional resources devoted to postural control and eventually to the performance of other tasks (e.g., counting in the head). During their studies, some researchers require participants to stand as steady as possible and other simply ask participants to stand naturally. Surprisingly, a clear and direct explanation of the usefulness of the steadiness requirement seems to be lacking, both in experimental and methodological discussions. Hence, the objective of the present note was to provide advantages and disadvantages of this steadiness requirement in studies of postural control. The advantages may be to study fundamental postural control, to eliminate useless postural variability, to control spurious body motions and to control the participants' thoughts. As disadvantages, this steadiness requirement only leads to study postural control in unnatural upright stance, it changes the focus of attention (internal vs. external) and the nature of postural control (unconscious vs. conscious), it increases the difficulty of a supposedly easy control task and it eliminates or reduces the opportunity to record exploratory behaviors. When looking carefully at the four advantages of the steadiness requirement, one can believe that they are, in fact, more disadvantageous than advantageous. Overall therefore, this requirement seems illegitimate and it is proposed that researchers should not use it in the study of postural control. They may use this requirement only if they search to know the limit until which participants can consciously reduce their postural sway.

  8. The Role of Support Services in Promoting Social Inclusion for the Disadvantaged Urban-dwelling Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Vicky P.K.H.; Sarkari, Feroz; MacNeil, Kate; Cowan, Laura; Rankin, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Background Disadvantaged older adults living in non-family situations in Toronto are more likely than older adults living in family situations to have less economic security, less social support, and less choice in housing. Older adults who live in poverty and are precariously housed are more likely to be chronically ill, to live with multiple illnesses, to have poor nutrition, high stress and loneliness, all of which are strongly associated with the determinant of health social exclusion. The aim of this study is to: 1) evaluate the level of social disadvantage and exclusion experienced by low-income older adults 65 years of age and older living alone or in non-family situations; 2) assess the level of dependency on government and community services (support services) to maintain a reasonable standard of living (minimize effects of social exclusion); and 3) identify consequences of social exclusion not addressed by current available services. Methods Fifteen male older adult members of the Good Neighbours’ Club in downtown Toronto were interviewed. Semi-structured questionnaires assessed barriers to, utility of, and perceived impact of support services available to disadvantaged older adults living in the central core of southeast Toronto. Results Support services for income, housing, food security, social support, and health care do mitigate the effects of social exclusion in the study participants. Data gathered from interviews identified factors that counter the efforts by support services to increase social inclusion in this population. Conclusions Support services reduce social isolation experienced by these older adults. Evidence of the detrimental impact of low financial literacy suggests a need to design and implement training programs to build the older adults’ capacity to manage their own finances effectively, and resist falling victim to financial fraud. PMID:24278093

  9. Home and neighbourhood correlates of BMI among children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods.

    PubMed

    Crawford, David A; Ball, Kylie; Cleland, Verity J; Campbell, Karen J; Timperio, Anna F; Abbott, Gavin; Brug, Johannes; Baur, Louise A; Salmon, Jo A

    2012-04-01

    A detailed understanding of the underlying drivers of obesity-risk behaviours is needed to inform prevention initiatives, particularly for individuals of low socioeconomic position who are at increased risk of unhealthy weight gain. However, few studies have concurrently considered factors in the home and local neighbourhood environments, and little research has examined determinants among children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The present study examined home, social and neighbourhood correlates of BMI (kg/m2) in children living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Cross-sectional data were collected from 491 women with children aged 5-12 years living in forty urban and forty rural socioeconomically disadvantaged areas (suburbs) of Victoria, Australia in 2007 and 2008. Mothers completed questionnaires about the home environment (maternal efficacy, perceived importance/beliefs, rewards, rules and access to equipment), social norms and perceived neighbourhood environment in relation to physical activity, healthy eating and sedentary behaviour. Children's height and weight were measured at school or home. Linear regression analyses controlled for child sex and age. In multivariable analyses, children whose mothers had higher efficacy for them doing physical activity tended to have lower BMI z scores (B = - 0·04, 95 % CI - 0·06, - 0·02), and children who had a television (TV) in their bedroom (B = 0·24, 95 % CI 0·04, 0·44) and whose mothers made greater use of food as a reward for good behaviour (B = 0·05, 95 % CI 0·01, 0·09) tended to have higher BMI z scores. Increasing efficacy among mothers to promote physical activity, limiting use of food as a reward and not placing TV in children's bedrooms may be important targets for future obesity prevention initiatives in disadvantaged communities. PMID:21824445

  10. The effect of neighborhood disadvantage, social ties, and genetic variation on the antisocial behavior of African American women: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L; Edmond, Mary Bond; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Cutrona, Carolyn E

    2014-11-01

    Social disorganization theory posits that individuals who live in disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to engage in antisocial behavior than are those who live in advantaged neighborhoods and that neighborhood disadvantage asserts this effect through its disruptive impact on social ties. Past research on this framework has been limited in two respects. First, most studies have concentrated on adolescent males. In contrast, the present study focused on a sample of adult African American females. Second, past research has largely ignored individual-level factors that might explain why people who grow up in disadvantaged neighborhoods often do not engage in antisocial behavior. We investigated the extent to which genetic variation contributes to heterogeneity of response to neighborhood conditions. We found that the impact of neighborhood disadvantage on antisocial behavior was mediated by neighborhood social ties. Further, the analysis indicated that the effects of neighborhood disadvantage and social ties on antisocial behavior were moderated by genetic polymorphisms. Examination of these moderating effects provided support for the differential susceptibility model of Gene × Environment. The effect of Gene × Neighborhood Disadvantage on antisocial behavior was mediated by the effect of Gene × Neighborhood Social Ties, providing support for an expanded view of social disorganization theory.

  11. The effect of neighborhood disadvantage, social ties, and genetic variation on the antisocial behavior of African American women: A multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    LEI, MAN-KIT; SIMONS, RONALD L.; EDMOND, MARY BOND; SIMONS, LESLIE GORDON; CUTRONA, CAROLYN E.

    2015-01-01

    Social disorganization theory posits that individuals who live in disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to engage in antisocial behavior than are those who live in advantaged neighborhoods and that neighborhood disadvantage asserts this effect through its disruptive impact on social ties. Past research on this framework has been limited in two respects. First, most studies have concentrated on adolescent males. In contrast, the present study focused on a sample of adult African American females. Second, past research has largely ignored individual-level factors that might explain why people who grow up in disadvantaged neighborhoods often do not engage in antisocial behavior. We investigated the extent to which genetic variation contributes to heterogeneity of response to neighborhood conditions. We found that the impact of neighborhood disadvantage on antisocial behavior was mediated by neighborhood social ties. Further, the analysis indicated that the effects of neighborhood disadvantage and social ties on antisocial behavior were moderated by genetic polymorphisms. Examination of these moderating effects provided support for the differential susceptibility model of Gene×Environment. The effect of Gene×Neighborhood Disadvantage on antisocial behavior was mediated by the effect of Gene×Neighborhood Social Ties, providing support for an expanded view of social disorganization theory. PMID:24713449

  12. Adverse birth outcomes in African American women: the social context of persistent reproductive disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Tyan Parker

    2011-01-01

    African Americans have the highest rates of infant mortality and adverse birth outcomes of all major racial/ethnic groups in the United States. The long-standing nature of this disparity suggests the need to shift epidemiologic focus from individual-level risk factors to the larger social forces that shape disease risk in populations. In this article, the African American reproductive disadvantage is discussed within the context of American race relations. The review of the literature focuses on racism as a social determinant of race-based disparities in adverse birth outcomes with specific attention to the viability of genetic explanations, the role of socioeconomic factors, the multidimensional nature of racism, and the stress-induced physiologic pathways by which racism may negatively affect pregnancy. Implications for social work research and practice also are discussed.

  13. 48 CFR 726.7007 - Requirement for subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... procurement (except for a contract or modification with a disadvantaged enterprise as defined in 726.7002... subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises. 726.7007 Section 726.7007 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Enterprises Program 726.7007 Requirement for subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises. (a) In addition...

  14. 48 CFR 726.7007 - Requirement for subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... procurement (except for a contract or modification with a disadvantaged enterprise as defined in 726.7002... subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises. 726.7007 Section 726.7007 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Enterprises Program 726.7007 Requirement for subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises. (a) In addition...

  15. 10 CFR 600.7 - Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business... ASSISTANCE RULES General § 600.7 Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. (a) DOE... socially and economically disadvantaged individuals and women, of historically black colleges, and...

  16. 10 CFR 600.7 - Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business... ASSISTANCE RULES General § 600.7 Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. (a) DOE... socially and economically disadvantaged individuals and women, of historically black colleges, and...

  17. 10 CFR 600.7 - Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business... ASSISTANCE RULES General § 600.7 Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. (a) DOE... socially and economically disadvantaged individuals and women, of historically black colleges, and...

  18. 10 CFR 600.7 - Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business... ASSISTANCE RULES General § 600.7 Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. (a) DOE... socially and economically disadvantaged individuals and women, of historically black colleges, and...

  19. 10 CFR 600.7 - Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business... ASSISTANCE RULES General § 600.7 Small and disadvantaged and women-owned business participation. (a) DOE... socially and economically disadvantaged individuals and women, of historically black colleges, and...

  20. 49 CFR 1.62 - Delegations to the Director of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Disadvantaged Business Utilization. The Director of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization is delegated authority to: (a) Exercise Departmental responsibility for the implementation and execution of functions and... Disadvantaged Business Utilization. 1.62 Section 1.62 Transportation Office of the Secretary of...

  1. Teacher Preparation for the Minority and Disadvantaged. NCRIEEO Tipsheet, Number 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ether, John A.

    This tipsheet reports that the first series of books written especially to help prepare teachers of minorities and the disadvantaged were general books of readings. Among these is "The Disadvantaged Learner" by Staten Webster. Over 600 pages in length, it is loosely organized around three themes: knowing the disadvantaged, understanding the…

  2. 48 CFR 726.7007 - Requirement for subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises. 726.7007 Section 726.7007 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Enterprises Program 726.7007 Requirement for subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises. (a) In addition to... procurement (except for a contract or modification with a disadvantaged enterprise as defined in...

  3. 48 CFR 726.7007 - Requirement for subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises. 726.7007 Section 726.7007 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Enterprises Program 726.7007 Requirement for subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises. (a) In addition to... procurement (except for a contract or modification with a disadvantaged enterprise as defined in...

  4. 48 CFR 726.7007 - Requirement for subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises. 726.7007 Section 726.7007 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Enterprises Program 726.7007 Requirement for subcontracting with disadvantaged enterprises. (a) In addition to... procurement (except for a contract or modification with a disadvantaged enterprise as defined in...

  5. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... the determination of his or her disadvantage. (4) When an individual's presumption of social...

  6. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What rules determine social and economic... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... the determination of his or her disadvantage. (4) When an individual's presumption of social...

  7. 48 CFR 52.219-23 - Notice of Price Evaluation Adjustment for Small Disadvantaged Business Concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... disadvantaged business concern in accordance with 13 CFR 124, subpart B, and a decision on that application is... disadvantaged business concerns that have not waived the adjustment; and (ii) An otherwise successful offer from... Adjustment for Small Disadvantaged Business Concerns. 52.219-23 Section 52.219-23 Federal...

  8. Green synthesis of nanoparticles: Their advantages and disadvantages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parveen, Khadeeja; Banse, Viktoria; Ledwani, Lalita

    2016-04-01

    The nanotechnology and biomedical sciences opens the possibility for a wide variety of biological research topics and medical uses at the molecular and cellular level. The biosynthesis of nanoparticles has been proposed as a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to chemical and physical methods. Plant-mediated synthesis of nanoparticles is a green chemistry approach that connects nanotechnology with plants. Novel methods of ideally synthesizing NPs are thus thought that are formed at ambient temperatures, neutral pH, low costs and environmentally friendly fashion. Keeping these goals in view nanomaterials have been synthesized using various routes. Among the biological alternatives, plants and plant extracts seem to be the best option. Plants are nature's "chemical factories". They are cost efficient and require low maintenance. The advantages and disadvantages of nanotechnology can be easily enumerated. This study attempts to review the diversity of the field, starting with the history of nanotechnology, the properties of the nanoparticle, various strategies of synthesis, the many advantages and disadvantages of different methods and its application.

  9. Neural Correlates of Advantageous and Disadvantageous Inequity in Sharing Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Crone, Eveline A.

    2014-01-01

    Humans have a strong preference for fair distributions of resources. Neuroimaging studies have shown that being treated unfairly coincides with activation in brain regions involved in signaling conflict and negative affect. Less is known about neural responses involved in violating a fairness norm ourselves. Here, we investigated the neural patterns associated with inequity, where participants were asked to choose between an equal split of money and an unequal split that could either maximize their own (advantageous inequity) or another person’s (disadvantageous inequity) earnings. Choosing to divide money unequally, irrespective who benefited from the unequal distribution, was associated with activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Inequity choices that maximized another person’s profits were further associated with activity in the ventral striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Taken together, our findings show evidence of a common neural pattern associated with both advantageous and disadvantageous inequity in sharing decisions and additional recruitment of neural circuitry previously linked to the computation of subjective value and reward when violating a fairness norm at the benefit of someone else. PMID:25238541

  10. Neural correlates of advantageous and disadvantageous inequity in sharing decisions.

    PubMed

    Güroğlu, Berna; Will, Geert-Jan; Crone, Eveline A

    2014-01-01

    Humans have a strong preference for fair distributions of resources. Neuroimaging studies have shown that being treated unfairly coincides with activation in brain regions involved in signaling conflict and negative affect. Less is known about neural responses involved in violating a fairness norm ourselves. Here, we investigated the neural patterns associated with inequity, where participants were asked to choose between an equal split of money and an unequal split that could either maximize their own (advantageous inequity) or another person's (disadvantageous inequity) earnings. Choosing to divide money unequally, irrespective who benefited from the unequal distribution, was associated with activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Inequity choices that maximized another person's profits were further associated with activity in the ventral striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Taken together, our findings show evidence of a common neural pattern associated with both advantageous and disadvantageous inequity in sharing decisions and additional recruitment of neural circuitry previously linked to the computation of subjective value and reward when violating a fairness norm at the benefit of someone else. PMID:25238541

  11. Health, behavioral, cognitive, and social correlates of breakfast skipping among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kylie J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Cleland, Verity J; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2013-11-01

    Breakfast skipping is a potentially modifiable behavior that has negative effects on health and is socioeconomically patterned. This study aimed to examine the intrapersonal (health, behavioral, and cognitive) and social factors associated with breakfast skipping. Nonpregnant women (n = 4123) aged 18-45 y from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods throughout Victoria, Australia, completed a postal questionnaire. Sociodemographic characteristics, diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and cognitive and social factors were assessed by self-report. Breakfast skipping was defined in 2 ways: 1) "rarely/never" eating breakfast (n = 498) and 2) eating breakfast ≤2 d/wk (includes those who rarely/never ate breakfast; n = 865). Poisson regression was used to calculate prevalence ratios and linear trends, adjusting for covariates. The P values for linear trends are reported below. Compared with breakfast consumers, women who reported rarely/never eating breakfast tended to have poorer self-rated health (P-trend < 0.001), be current smokers (P-trend < 0.001), pay less attention to health (P-trend < 0.001), not prioritize their own healthy eating when busy looking after their family (P-trend < 0.001), have less nutrition knowledge (P-trend < 0.001), and a lower proportion were trying to control their weight (P-trend < 0.020). When breakfast skipping was defined as eating breakfast ≤2 d/wk, additional associations were found for having lower leisure-time physical activity (P-trend = 0.012) and less self-efficacy for eating a healthy diet (P-trend < 0.043). In conclusion, a range of intrapersonal and social factors were significantly associated with breakfast skipping among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. Acknowledging the cross-sectional design and need for causal confirmation, programs that aim to promote breakfast consumption in this population group should consider targeting family-related barriers to healthy eating and nutrition

  12. Prevalence and Determinants of Adolescent Pregnancy in Urban, Disadvantaged Settings across Five Cities

    PubMed Central

    Brahmbhatt, Heena; Kågesten, Anna; Emerson, Mark; Decker, Michele; Olumide, Adesolu; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Chaohua, Lou; Sonenstein, Freya; Blum, Robert; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead

    2015-01-01

    Background The impact of pregnancy on the health and livelihood of adolescents aged 15–19 is substantial. This study explored sociodemographic, behavioral and environmental-level factors associated with adolescent pregnancy across 5 urban disadvantaged settings. Methods The Well Being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments study used Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) to recruit males and females from Baltimore (456), Johannesburg (496), Ibadan (449), Delhi (500) and Shanghai(438). RDS-II and post-stratification age weights were used to explore the odds associated with “ever had sex” and “ever pregnant”; adjusted odds of pregnancy and 95% CI were developed by site and gender. Results Among the sexually experienced, pregnancy was most common in Baltimore (females 53%, males 25%) and Johannesburg (females 29%, males 22%). Heterosexual experience and therefore pregnancy were rare in Ibadan, Delhi and Shanghai. Current schooling and condom use at first sex decreased the odds of pregnancy among females in Baltimore and Johannesburg participants. Factors associated with higher odds of pregnancy were: early sexual debut (Johannesburg participants, Baltimore females) being raised by someone other than 2 parents (Johannesburg females); alcohol use and binge drinking in the past month (Baltimore participants); greater community violence and poor physical environment (Baltimore males, Johannesburg participants). Conclusions The reported prevalence of adolescent pregnancy varies substantially across similarly economically disadvantaged urban settings. These differences are related to large differences in sexual experience, which may be underreported, as well as differences in environmental contexts. Pregnancy risk needs to be understood within the specific context that adolescents reside, with particular attention to neighborhood-level factors. PMID:25454003

  13. International Resource Book for Libraries Serving Disadvantaged Persons: 2001-2008. An Update to the International Resource Book for Libraries Serving Disadvantaged Persons: 1931-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Joanne; Panella, Nancy M.

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, the Libraries Serving Disadvantaged Persons (LSDP) Section of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA), published the "International Resource Book for Libraries Serving Disadvantaged Persons." This publication is a seventy year retrospective which chronicles the history of the Section from 1931 to 2001.…

  14. Problem-based learning: description, advantages, disadvantages, scenarios and facilitation.

    PubMed

    Jones, R W

    2006-08-01

    Problem-based learning arose out of educational initiatives in the 1960s and is often one of the most contentious issues within medical education. McMaster University in Canada was the first to implement problem-based learning on a large scale within medicine and this was soon followed by universities in Europe and Australia. In modern times, few western medical schools do not include at least some aspect of problem-based learning within their instructional itinerary, and many build their entire curriculum and instructional procedures around problem-based learning. This article provides an overview of problem-based learning within medical education, pertinent background, describes the characteristics of problem-based learning, its advantages and disadvantages, problem-based learning scenarios and facilitation.

  15. Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy in Spain: advantages and disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pérez, L; García-Gavín, J; Gilaberte, Y

    2014-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an option for the treatment of actinic keratosis, Bowen disease, and certain types of basal cell carcinoma. It is also used to treat various other types of skin condition, including inflammatory and infectious disorders. The main disadvantages of PDT are the time it takes to administer (both for the patient and for health professionals) and the pain associated with treatment. Daylight-mediated PDT has recently been reported to be an alternative to the conventional approach. Several studies have shown it to be similar in efficacy to and better tolerated than classic PDT for the treatment of mild to moderate actinic keratosis. Nevertheless, most of these studies are from northern Europe, and no data have been reported from southern Europe. The present article reviews the main studies published to date, presents the treatment protocol, and summarizes our experience with a group of treated patients.

  16. Overlapping and distinct representations of advantageous and disadvantageous inequality.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rongjun; Calder, Andrew J; Mobbs, Dean

    2014-07-01

    Advantageous inequality (AI) aversion, or paying at a personal cost to achieve equal reward distribution, represents a unique feature of human behavior. Here, we show that individuals have strong preferences for fairness in both disadvantageous (DI) and advantageous inequality (AI) situations, such that they alter others' payoff at a personal financial cost. At the neural level, we found that both types of inequality activated the putamen, orbitofrontal cortex, and insula, regions implicated in motivation. Individual difference analyses found that those who spent more money to increase others' payoff had stronger activity in putamen when they encountered AI and less functional connectivity between putamen and both orbitofrontal cortex and anterior insula. Conversely, those who spent more money to reduce others' payoff had stronger activity in amygdala in response to DI and less functional connectivity between amygdala and ventral anterior cingulate cortex. These dissociations suggest that both types of inequality are processed by similar brain areas, yet modulated by different neural pathways. PMID:25050425

  17. Disentangling Disadvantage: Can We Distinguish Good Teaching from Classroom Composition?

    PubMed Central

    Zamarro, Gema; Engberg, John; Saavedra, Juan Esteban

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of teacher value-added estimates to assess the distribution of effective teaching across students of varying socioeconomic disadvantage in the presence of classroom composition effects. We examine, via simulations, how accurately commonly-used teacher-value added estimators recover the rank correlation between true and estimated teacher effects and a parameter representing the distribution of effective teaching. We consider various scenarios of teacher assignment, within-teacher variability in classroom composition, importance of classroom composition effects, and presence of student unobserved heterogeneity. No single model recovers without bias estimates of the distribution parameter in all the scenarios we consider. Models that rank teacher effectiveness most accurately do not necessarily recover distribution parameter estimates with less bias. Since true teacher sorting in real data is seldom known, we recommend that analysts incorporate contextual information into their decisions about model choice and we offer some guidance on how to do so. PMID:26681993

  18. Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and gestational weight gain and loss

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Dara D.; Doebler, Donna Almario; Kim, Kevin H.; Amutah, Ndidi N.; Fabio, Anthony; Bodnar, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We explored the relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage (NSED) and gestational weight gain and loss and if the association differed by race. Methods A census tract level NSED index (categorized as low, mid-low, mid-high, and high) was generated from 12 measures from the 2000 US Census data. Gestational weight gain and other individual-level characteristics were derived from vital birth records for Allegheny County, PA for 2003–2010 (n=55,608). Crude and adjusted relative risks were estimated using modified multilevel Poisson regression models to estimate the association between NSED and excessive and inadequate gestational weight gain (GWG) and weight loss (versus adequate GWG). Results Black women lived in neighborhoods that were more likely to be socioeconomically disadvantaged compared to white women. Almost 55% of women gained an excessive amount of weight during pregnancy, and 2% lost weight during pregnancy. Black women were more likely than white women to have inadequate weight gain or weight loss. Mid-high (aRR=1.3, 95% CI: 1.2, 1.3) and high (aRR=1.5, 95% CI: 1.5, 1.6) NSED compared to low NSED was associated with inadequate weight gain while NSED was not associated with excessive weight gain. Among black women, high versus low NSED was associated with weight loss during pregnancy (RR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.5). Among white women, each level of NSED compared to low NSED was associated with weight loss during pregnancy. Conclusion This study demonstrates how neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics can contribute to our understanding of inadequate weight gain and weight loss during pregnancy, having implications for future research and interventions designed to advance pregnancy outcomes. PMID:24026397

  19. Resistance of Aedes aegypti to temephos and adaptive disadvantages

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Morgana Michele Cavalcanti de Souza Leal; Henriques, Alleksandra Dias da Silva; Leandro, Renata da Silva; Aguiar, Dalvanice Leal; Beserra, Eduardo Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the resistance of Aedes aegypti to temephos Fersol 1G (temephos 1% w/w) associated with the adaptive disadvantage of insect populations in the absence of selection pressure. METHODS A diagnostic dose of 0.28 mg a.i./L and doses between 0.28 mg a.i./L and 1.40 mg a.i./L were used. Vector populations collected between 2007 and 2008 in the city of Campina Grande, state of Paraíba, were evaluated. To evaluate competition in the absence of selection pressure, insect populations with initial frequencies of 20.0%, 40.0%, 60.0%, and 80.0% resistant individuals were produced and subjected to the diagnostic dose for two months. Evaluation of the development of aquatic and adult stages allowed comparison of the life cycles in susceptible and resistant populations and construction of fertility life tables. RESULTS No mortality was observed in Ae. aegypti populations subjected to the diagnostic dose of 0.28 mg a.i./L. The decreased mortality observed in populations containing 20.0%, 40.0%, 60.0%, and 80.0% resistant insects indicates that temephos resistance is unstable in the absence of selection pressure. A comparison of the life cycles indicated differences in the duration and viability of the larval phase, but no differences were observed in embryo development, sex ratio, adult longevity, and number of eggs per female. CONCLUSIONS The fertility life table results indicated that some populations had reproductive disadvantages compared with the susceptible population in the absence of selection pressure, indicating the presence of a fitness cost in populations resistant to temephos. PMID:25372168

  20. Direct and indirect violence exposure: relations to depression for economically disadvantaged ethnic minority mid-adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Kathan Dushyant; Wiesner, Margit

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to violence remains a considerable public health problem for adolescents in the United States. This cross-sectional study examined relative associations between exposure to violence in 3 different contexts (home, school, community) and depressive symptoms, using data from 233 11th-graders (predominantly economically disadvantaged Hispanic and African American students). Analyses examined the effects of victimization and witnessing violence in each context and those of cumulative violence exposure across contexts on depression, controlling for other risk factors. Both victimization and witnessing violence at home significantly predicted depression. Violence exposure in school and neighborhood was unrelated to the outcome. Witnessing violence was slightly more effective in predicting depression than victimization. Cumulative violence exposure was significantly related to depression in a linear fashion.

  1. Do obesity-promoting food environments cluster around socially disadvantaged schools in Glasgow, Scotland?

    PubMed

    Ellaway, Anne; Macdonald, Laura; Lamb, Karen; Thornton, Lukar; Day, Peter; Pearce, Jamie

    2012-11-01

    Increase in the consumption of food and drinks outside the home by adolescents and young people and associations with rising levels of obesity is a significant concern worldwide and it has been suggested that the food environment around schools may be a contributory factor. As few studies have explored this issue in a UK setting, we examined whether different types of food outlets are clustered around public secondary schools in Glasgow, and whether this pattern differed by social disadvantage. We found evidence of clustering of food outlets around schools but a more complex picture in relation to deprivation was observed. Across all schools there were numerous opportunities for pupils to purchase energy dense foods locally and the implications for policy are discussed.

  2. Doubly Disadvantaged? Bullying Experiences among Disabled Children and Young People in England

    PubMed Central

    Chatzitheochari, Stella; Parsons, Samantha; Platt, Lucinda

    2015-01-01

    Bullying among school-aged children and adolescents is recognised as an important social problem, and the adverse consequences for victims are well established. However, despite growing interest in the socio-demographic profile of victims, there is limited evidence on the relationship between bullying victimisation and childhood disability. This article enhances our understanding of bullying experiences among disabled children in both early and later childhood, drawing on nationally representative longitudinal data from the Millennium Cohort Study and the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England. We model the association of disability measured in two different ways with the probability of being bullied at ages seven and 15, controlling for a wide range of known risk factors that vary with childhood disability. Results reveal an independent association of disability with bullying victimisation, suggesting a potential pathway to cumulative disability-related disadvantage, and drawing attention to the school as a site of reproduction of social inequalities. PMID:27546915

  3. The link between ethnicity, social disadvantage and mental health problems in a school-based multiethnic sample of children in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Adriaanse, Marcia; Veling, Wim; Doreleijers, Theo; van Domburgh, Lieke

    2014-11-01

    To investigate to what extent differences in prevalence and types of mental health problems between ethnic minority and majority youth can be explained by social disadvantage. Mental health problems were assessed in a sample of 1,278 schoolchildren (55% Dutch, 32% Moroccan and 13% Turkish; mean age: 12.9 ± 1.8) using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire self-report and teacher report. Measures of family socioeconomic status, neighbourhood deprivation, perceived discrimination, family structure, repeating a school year, housing stability and neighbourhood urbanization were used as indicators of social disadvantage, based on which a cumulative index was created. Ethnic minority youth had more externalizing and fewer internalizing problems than majority youth. Perceived discrimination and living in an unstable social environment were associated with mental health problems, independent of ethnicity. A dose-response relationship was found between social disadvantage and mental health problems. The adjusted odds ratio for mental health problems was 4.16 (95% CI 2.49-6.94) for more than four compared with zero indicators of social disadvantage. Social disadvantage was more common in ethnic minority than in majority youth, explaining part of the differences in prevalence of mental health problems. Ethnic minority youth in the Netherlands have a different profile of mental health problems than majority youth. In all ethnic groups, the risk of mental health problems increases with the degree of social disadvantage. The higher prevalence of externalizing problems among ethnic minority youth is explained partly by their disadvantaged social position. The findings suggest that social factors associated with ethnicity are likely to explain mental health problems in ethnic groups.

  4. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Midlife Depressive Symptoms: The Role of Cumulative Disadvantage Across the Life Course

    PubMed Central

    Garbarski, Dana

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the role of cumulative disadvantage mechanisms across the life course in the production of racial and ethnic disparities in depressive symptoms at midlife, including the early life exposure to health risk factors, the persistent exposure to health risk factors, and varying mental health returns to health risk factors across racial and ethnic groups. Using data from the over-40 health module of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY) 1979 cohort, this study uses regression decomposition techniques to attend to differences in the composition of health risk factors across racial and ethnic groups, differences by race and ethnicity in the association between depressive symptoms and health risk factors, and how these differences combine within racial and ethnic groups to produce group-specific levels of—and disparities in—depressive symptoms at midlife. While the results vary depending on the groups being compared across race/ethnicity and gender, the study documents how racial and ethnic mental health disparities at midlife stem from life course processes of cumulative disadvantage through both unequal distribution and unequal associations across racial and ethnic groups. PMID:26047842

  5. A Program for Fostering of Reading and Thinking of Disadvantaged Adolescents in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasser-Cohen, Hadara

    1985-01-01

    Describes an Israeli reading program for disadvantaged adolescents based on verbal exercises using informative, literary, and speculative texts to improve their reading comprehension and cognitive functions. (HOD)

  6. Childhood Disadvantage and Health Problems in Middle and Later Life: Early Imprints on Physical Health?

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Schafer, Markus H.; Wilkinson, Lindsay R.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, we examine the relationship between childhood disadvantage and health problems in adulthood. Using two waves of data from Midlife Development in the United States, we investigate whether childhood disadvantage is associated with adult disadvantage, including fewer social resources, and the effect of lifelong disadvantage on health problems measured at the baseline survey and a 10-year follow-up. Findings reveal that childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and frequent abuse by parents are generally associated with fewer adult social resources and more lifestyle risks. Health problems, in turn, are affected by childhood disadvantage and by lifestyle risks, especially smoking and obesity. Not only was early disadvantage related to health problems at the baseline survey, but childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and frequent abuse also were related to the development of new health problems at the follow-up survey. These findings reveal the imprint of early disadvantage on health decades later and suggest greater attention to resources, even during midlife, can interrupt the chain of risks. PMID:27445413

  7. [Early post-partum discharges: benefits, disadvantages and implementation methodology].

    PubMed

    Berkane, N

    2015-02-01

    Early post-partum discharges (EPD) are a hot topic. Already widely practised in many European countries this procedure, was promoted by the government for a decade, requested by representatives of Midwive organisations, desired by some patients, but also criticized by the Academy of Medicine. Well organized and with an obligatory control and follow-up, EPD could help with the management of the shortage of maternity beds and hence increase the satisfaction of the patients. The procedure could even be a way to effectively implement a town-hospital network, something, which has many other benefits. However this procedure is not without potential dangers: lower quality of care, financial risks for the department, and especially a significant increase of the workload of the hospital staff. The main objective of this paper is to detail the benefits and disadvantages of EPD for maternities and to propose an organizational basis if EPD is the procedure of choice. A participatory methodology is essential when using this procedure, due to the important participation of different categories of staff involved in hospital discharge (administrative, medical and paramedical staff) and to exclude complications when certain specifications are not followed or misunderstood.

  8. [Advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing hospital microbiological testings].

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Masaru

    2011-10-01

    In Japan, laws and ordinances were enforced to relax the regulation of the clinical laboratory setting in hospitals by revising the law of medical institutions in 2001. For this reason, outsourcing hospital microbiological testing, particularly by medium- or small-sized hospitals, was encouraged. The advantage of outsourcing microbiological testing is promotion of an efficient hospital management by cost saving. In contrast, the disadvantages are as follows: deterioration of specimen quality by extension of transportation time, delay in reporting by an independent laboratory compared with that by a hospital-based laboratory; this report is generally obtained within 1 or 2 days, difficulty and lack of communication between the laboratory staff and physician, and deterioration of the value of the microbiology report and the quality of the infection control system in a hospital. In addition to performing profit-related maintenance, independent laboratories should strive hard to maintain the same quality as that of a laboratory registered in a hospital. Furthermore, the new role of independent laboratories demands them to have a system allowing instant communication of information regarding the crisis control of infectious diseases to a hospital.

  9. [Laboratory unification: advantages and disadvantages for clinical microbiology].

    PubMed

    Andreu, Antonia; Matas, Lurdes

    2010-10-01

    This article aims to reflect on which areas or tasks of microbiology laboratories could be unified with those of clinical biochemistry, hematology, immunology or pathology laboratories to benefit patients and the health system, as well as the areas that should remain independent since their amalgamation would not only fail to provide a benefit but could even jeopardize the quality of microbiological diagnosis, and consequently patient care. To do this, the distinct analytic phases of diagnosis are analyzed, and the advantages and disadvantages of amalgamation are evaluated in each phase. The pros and cons of the unification of certain areas such as the computer system, occupational risk units, customer service, purchasing logistics, and materials storage, etc, are also discussed. Lastly, the effect of unification on urgent microbiology diagnosis is analyzed. Microbiological diagnosis should be unique. The microbiologist should perform an overall evaluation of the distinct techniques used for a particular patient, both those that involve direct diagnosis (staining, culture, antigen detection techniques or molecular techniques) and indirect diagnosis (antibody detection). Moreover, the microbiology laboratory should be independent, with highly trained technicians and specialists in microbiology that provide added value as experts in infection and as key figures in the process of establishing a correct etiological diagnosis.

  10. [Biomarkers for liver fibrosis: advances, advantages and disadvantages].

    PubMed

    Cequera, A; García de León Méndez, M C

    2014-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis in Mexico is one of the most important causes of death in persons between the ages of 25 and 50 years. One of the reasons for therapeutic failure is the lack of knowledge about the molecular mechanisms that cause liver disorder and make it irreversible. One of its prevalent anatomical characteristics is an excessive deposition of fibrous tissue that takes different forms depending on etiology and disease stage. Liver biopsy, traditionally regarded as the gold standard of fibrosis staging, has been brought into question over the past decade, resulting in the proposal for developing non-invasive technologies based on different, but complementary, approaches: a biological one that takes the serum levels of products arising from the fibrosis into account, and a more physical one that evaluates scarring of the liver by methods such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance elastography; some of the methods were originally studied and validated in patients with hepatitis C. There is great interest in determining non-invasive markers for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis, since at present there is no panel or parameter efficient and reliable enough for diagnostic use. In this paper, we describe the biomarkers that are currently being used for studying liver fibrosis in humans, their advantages and disadvantages, as well as the implementation of new-generation technologies and the evaluation of their possible use in the diagnosis of fibrosis.

  11. [Laboratory unification: advantages and disadvantages for clinical microbiology].

    PubMed

    Andreu, Antonia; Matas, Lurdes

    2010-10-01

    This article aims to reflect on which areas or tasks of microbiology laboratories could be unified with those of clinical biochemistry, hematology, immunology or pathology laboratories to benefit patients and the health system, as well as the areas that should remain independent since their amalgamation would not only fail to provide a benefit but could even jeopardize the quality of microbiological diagnosis, and consequently patient care. To do this, the distinct analytic phases of diagnosis are analyzed, and the advantages and disadvantages of amalgamation are evaluated in each phase. The pros and cons of the unification of certain areas such as the computer system, occupational risk units, customer service, purchasing logistics, and materials storage, etc, are also discussed. Lastly, the effect of unification on urgent microbiology diagnosis is analyzed. Microbiological diagnosis should be unique. The microbiologist should perform an overall evaluation of the distinct techniques used for a particular patient, both those that involve direct diagnosis (staining, culture, antigen detection techniques or molecular techniques) and indirect diagnosis (antibody detection). Moreover, the microbiology laboratory should be independent, with highly trained technicians and specialists in microbiology that provide added value as experts in infection and as key figures in the process of establishing a correct etiological diagnosis. PMID:21129589

  12. Development and disadvantage: implications for the early years and beyond.

    PubMed

    Locke, Ann; Ginsborg, Jane; Peers, Ian

    2002-01-01

    Links have long been made between literacy and economic development, and recent governments in the UK have put great emphasis on the teaching of literacy to raise educational standards. There is substantial evidence to show that spoken and written language share some processes in common and that the development of literacy is supported by the development of spoken language. Anecdotal evidence from early years practitioners suggests that many children coming into early years education, particularly those from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds, may not have the spoken language skills needed to develop reading and writing. This preliminary study aimed to investigate the extent to which the spoken language skills of children reared in poverty are depressed in comparison with the general population, and in comparison with their general cognitive abilities. Two tests were administered to children in their first term at nursery school to measure their spoken language skills and cognitive abilities: CELF-PUK and BAS II. More than half of the children were found to be language-delayed, although girls' receptive language abilities were significantly better than those of boys. Participants' language skills were also significantly depressed in comparison with their cognitive abilities. Government initiatives to raise awareness of spoken language in the early years are discussed, and implications for the future role of speech and language therapists working in the pre-school sector are considered. PMID:11852457

  13. Access to primary care for socioeconomically disadvantaged older people in rural areas: a realist review

    PubMed Central

    Ford, John A; Wong, Geoff; Jones, Andy P; Steel, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this review is to identify and understand the contexts that effect access to high-quality primary care for socioeconomically disadvantaged older people in rural areas. Design A realist review. Data sources MEDLINE and EMBASE electronic databases and grey literature (from inception to December 2014). Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Broad inclusion criteria were used to allow articles which were not specific, but might be relevant to the population of interest to be considered. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were assessed for rigour and relevance and coded for concepts relating to context, mechanism or outcome. Analysis An overarching patient pathway was generated and used as the basis to explore contexts, causal mechanisms and outcomes. Results 162 articles were included. Most were from the USA or the UK, cross-sectional in design and presented subgroup data by age, rurality or deprivation. From these studies, a patient pathway was generated which included 7 steps (problem identified, decision to seek help, actively seek help, obtain appointment, get to appointment, primary care interaction and outcome). Important contexts were stoicism, education status, expectations of ageing, financial resources, understanding the healthcare system, access to suitable transport, capacity within practice, the booking system and experience of healthcare. Prominent causal mechanisms were health literacy, perceived convenience, patient empowerment and responsiveness of the practice. Conclusions Socioeconomically disadvantaged older people in rural areas face personal, community and healthcare barriers that limit their access to primary care. Initiatives should be targeted at local contextual factors to help individuals recognise problems, feel welcome, navigate the healthcare system, book appointments easily, access appropriate transport and have sufficient time with professional staff to improve their experience of healthcare; all of which

  14. Ethnicity and Child Health in Northern Tanzania: Maasai Pastoralists Are Disadvantaged Compared to Neighbouring Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, David W.; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Ghiselli, Margherita E.; Ngadaya, Esther; Ngowi, Bernard; Mfinanga, Sayoki G. M.; Hartwig, Kari; James, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The Maasai of northern Tanzania, a semi-nomadic ethnic group predominantly reliant on pastoralism, face a number of challenges anticipated to have negative impacts on child health, including marginalisation, vulnerabilities to drought, substandard service provision and on-going land grabbing conflicts. Yet, stemming from a lack of appropriate national survey data, no large-scale comparative study of Maasai child health has been conducted. Savannas Forever Tanzania surveyed the health of over 3500 children from 56 villages in northern Tanzania between 2009 and 2011. The major ethnic groups sampled were the Maasai, Sukuma, Rangi, and the Meru. Using multilevel regression we compare each ethnic group on the basis of (i) measurements of child health, including anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and self-reported incidence of disease; and (ii) important proximate determinants of child health, including food insecurity, diet, breastfeeding behaviour and vaccination coverage. We then (iii) contrast households among the Maasai by the extent to which subsistence is reliant on livestock herding. Measures of both child nutritional status and disease confirm that the Maasai are substantially disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups, Meru are relatively advantaged, and Rangi and Sukuma intermediate in most comparisons. However, Maasai children were less likely to report malaria and worm infections. Food insecurity was high throughout the study site, but particularly severe for the Maasai, and reflected in lower dietary intake of carbohydrate-rich staple foods, and fruits and vegetables. Breastfeeding was extended in the Maasai, despite higher reported consumption of cow's milk, a potential weaning food. Vaccination coverage was lowest in Maasai and Sukuma. Maasai who rely primarily on livestock herding showed signs of further disadvantage compared to Maasai relying primarily on agriculture. We discuss the potential ecological, socioeconomic, demographic

  15. Cognitive and motivational determinants of academic achievement and behaviour in third and fourth grade disadvantaged children.

    PubMed

    Kreitler, S; Zigler, E; Kagan, S; Olsen, D; Weissler, K; Kreitler, H

    1995-09-01

    While most studies on the determinants of learning deal with either cognition or motivation, there is a growing awareness that both should be considered. Our purpose was to examine the relative roles of cognitive and motivational factors for the scholastic achievement and behaviour of disadvantaged children. Cognition was conceptualised in terms of the psychosemantic theory that assesses cognitive processes by characteristics of the individual's meaning assignment (Kreitler & Kreitler, 1987a). Motivation was conceptualised in terms of the cognitive orientation (CO) theory which assumes that cognitive contents guide behaviour (Kreitler & Kreitler, 1982). Participants were 57 third and fourth graders of both genders, recommended for a remedial summer programme. They were administered the Meaning Test assessing cognitive abilities; the CO Questionnaire of Motivation for Learning assessing the disposition to learn; and the Metropolitan Achievement Test and the IOWA tests assessing verbal, mathematical and working skills. Teachers completed the Teacher-Child Rating Scale assessing six scholastic behaviours. Regression analyses showed that all dependent variables were predicted by the cognitive and motivational variables, better by specific than global predictors. Cognitive variables contributed more to the predictions, especially of academic achievements, and more in the case of verbal than mathematical abilities. In girls, motivational factors played a larger role than cognitive factors, absolutely and relative to boys. Implications for promoting scholastic achievements are discussed.

  16. Prediction of HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Disadvantaged African American Adults Using a Syndemic Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    Nehl, Eric J; Klein, Hugh; Sterk, Claire E; Elifson, Kirk W

    2016-02-01

    The focus of this paper is on HIV sexual risk taking among a community-based sample of disadvantaged African American adults. The objective is to examine multiple factors associated with sexual HIV risk behaviors within a syndemic conceptual framework. Face-to-face, computer-assisted, structured interviews were conducted with 1535 individuals in Atlanta, Georgia. Bivariate analyses indicated a high level of relationships among the HIV sexual risks and other factors. Results from multivariate models indicated that gender, sexual orientation, relationship status, self-esteem, condom use self-efficacy, sex while the respondent was high, and sex while the partner was high were significant predictors of condomless sex. Additionally, a multivariate additive model of risk behaviors indicated that the number of health risks significantly increased the risk of condomless sex. This intersection of HIV sexual risk behaviors and their associations with various other behavioral, socio-demographic, and psychological functioning factors help explain HIV risk-taking among this sample of African American adults and highlights the need for research and practice that accounts for multiple health behaviors and problems. PMID:26188618

  17. Prediction of HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Disadvantaged African American Adults Using a Syndemic Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    Nehl, Eric J; Klein, Hugh; Sterk, Claire E; Elifson, Kirk W

    2016-02-01

    The focus of this paper is on HIV sexual risk taking among a community-based sample of disadvantaged African American adults. The objective is to examine multiple factors associated with sexual HIV risk behaviors within a syndemic conceptual framework. Face-to-face, computer-assisted, structured interviews were conducted with 1535 individuals in Atlanta, Georgia. Bivariate analyses indicated a high level of relationships among the HIV sexual risks and other factors. Results from multivariate models indicated that gender, sexual orientation, relationship status, self-esteem, condom use self-efficacy, sex while the respondent was high, and sex while the partner was high were significant predictors of condomless sex. Additionally, a multivariate additive model of risk behaviors indicated that the number of health risks significantly increased the risk of condomless sex. This intersection of HIV sexual risk behaviors and their associations with various other behavioral, socio-demographic, and psychological functioning factors help explain HIV risk-taking among this sample of African American adults and highlights the need for research and practice that accounts for multiple health behaviors and problems.

  18. Symposium on surgical manpower in the smaller community. The advantages and disadvantages of practising surgery in a small community.

    PubMed

    Rivers, L F

    1986-05-01

    The advantages of practice in a community encompassing a population of about 35 000 include readily available beds and operating rooms, a relative diversity of surgical problems, increased job satisfaction and solid community support through service clubs and other volunteer organizations. Disadvantages in some situations can include lack of investigational facilities and of internists for consultation. A lack of surgical assistants, anesthetists and intensive-care-unit support are other potential negative factors. The quest for continuing medical education requires definite resolve, and practice finesse must be well honed.

  19. Child obesity associated with social disadvantage of children's neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Grow, H Mollie Greves; Cook, Andrea J; Arterburn, David E; Saelens, Brian E; Drewnowski, Adam; Lozano, Paula

    2010-08-01

    Evidence suggests variability in adult obesity risk at a small-scale geographic area is associated with differences in neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES). However, the extent to which geographic variability in child obesity is associated with neighborhood SES is unknown. The objective of this paper was to estimate risk of child obesity associated with multiple census tract SES measures and race within a large urban U.S. county. Height, weight, age, sex, medical insurance type and census tract residence were obtained for 6-18 year old children (n=8616) who received medical care at a health plan in King County, Washington, in 2006. Spatial analyses examined the individual risk of obesity (BMI > or = 95th percentile) with 2000 US census tract measures of median household income, home ownership, adult female education level, single parent households, and race as predictors. Conditional autoregressive regression models that incorporated adjacent census tracts (spatial autocorrelation) were applied to each census tract variable, adjusting for individual variables. We found that in adjusted spatial models, child obesity risk was significantly associated with each census tract variable in the expected direction: lower household income, lower home ownership, and for each 10% increase in less educated women, and single parent households, as well as non-white residents. In a spatial model including all variables, the SES/race variables explained approximately 24% of geographic variability in child obesity. Results indicated that living in census tracts with social disadvantage defined by multiple different measures was associated with child obesity among insured children in a large U.S. urban county. These results contribute new information on relationships between broader social and economic context and child obesity risk using robust spatial analyses. PMID:20541306

  20. 48 CFR 1519.201-71 - Director of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Director of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. 1519.201-71 Section 1519.201-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. The Director, OSDBU, provides guidance and advice,...

  1. Physical Fitness and Academic Performance in Primary School Children with and without a Social Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Greeff, J. W.; Hartman, E.; Mullender-Wijnsma, M. J.; Bosker, R. J.; Doolaard, S.; Visscher, C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the differences between children with a low socioeconomic status [socially disadvantaged children (SDC)] and children without this disadvantage (non-SDC) on physical fitness and academic performance. In addition, this study determined the association between physical fitness and academic performance, and investigated the…

  2. The Effect of Social Disadvantage on Motor Development in Young Children: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhillips, Martin; Jordan-Black, Julie-Anne

    2007-01-01

    Background: Empirical research suggests that social disadvantage has a negative effect on the development of language, and related cognitive skills such as reading. There is, however, no corresponding body of research on the impact of social disadvantage on motor development. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of…

  3. The Relationship between Teachers' Collective Efficacy and Student Achievement at Economically Disadvantaged Middle School Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Juan Manuel; Challoo, Linda B.; Kupczynski, Lori

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the collective efficacy of teachers and student achievement at economically disadvantaged middle school campuses. The population of the study consisted of Texas campuses that served economically disadvantaged students and received a campus rating of Exemplary or Academically…

  4. Educational Differentiation Policies and the Performance of Disadvantaged Students across OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castejón, Alba; Zancajo, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on analysing the effect of educational differentiation policies of OECD educational systems on socioeconomically disadvantaged students, based on data from PISA 2009. The analysis is conducted on the basis of a definition of two subgroups of disadvantaged students: those that achieve high scores, and those obtaining scores…

  5. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Residential Stability, and Perceptions of Instrumental Support among New Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turney, Kristin; Harknett, Kristen

    2010-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing survey (N = 4,211), this study examines neighborhood disadvantage and perceptions of instrumental support among mothers with young children. The authors find that (a) living in a disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with less instrumental support, particularly financial…

  6. An experimental demonstration that early-life competitive disadvantage accelerates telomere loss.

    PubMed

    Nettle, Daniel; Monaghan, Pat; Gillespie, Robert; Brilot, Ben; Bedford, Thomas; Bateson, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Adverse experiences in early life can exert powerful delayed effects on adult survival and health. Telomere attrition is a potentially important mechanism in such effects. One source of early-life adversity is the stress caused by competitive disadvantage. Although previous avian experiments suggest that competitive disadvantage may accelerate telomere attrition, they do not clearly isolate the effects of competitive disadvantage from other sources of variation. Here, we present data from an experiment in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) that used cross-fostering to expose siblings to divergent early experience. Birds were assigned either to competitive advantage (being larger than their brood competitors) or competitive disadvantage (being smaller than their brood competitors) between days 3 and 12 post-hatching. Disadvantage did not affect weight gain, but it increased telomere attrition, leading to shorter telomere length in disadvantaged birds by day 12. There were no effects of disadvantage on oxidative damage as measured by plasma lipid peroxidation. We thus found strong evidence that early-life competitive disadvantage can accelerate telomere loss. This could lead to faster age-related deterioration and poorer health in later life.

  7. 15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evidence of social or economic... ASSISTANCE § 1400.4 Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. (a) The representatives of the group requesting formal designation should establish social or economic disadvantage by a preponderance of...

  8. 15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence of social or economic... ASSISTANCE § 1400.4 Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. (a) The representatives of the group requesting formal designation should establish social or economic disadvantage by a preponderance of...

  9. Access to Effective Teaching for Disadvantaged Students: Executive Summary. NCEE 2014-4002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isenberg, Eric; Max, Jeffrey; Gleason, Philip; Potamites, Liz; Santillano, Robert; Hock, Heinrich; Hansen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This report describes disadvantaged students' access to effective teaching in grades 4 through 8 in 29 diverse school districts, using value-added analysis to measure effective teaching. Recent federal initiatives emphasize measuring teacher effectiveness and ensuring that disadvantaged students have equal access to effective teachers. These…

  10. Nephrology in the developing world. Chronic kidney disease in disadvantaged populations.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Jha, Vivekanand

    2015-03-01

    'Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in disadvantaged populations' is the focus of World Kidney Day 2015. In this article, we discuss the disproportionate burden of CKD in disadvantaged communities as well as approaches to ensure the provision of appropriate renal care across socioeconomic and ethnic groups.

  11. Research and Teaching Reading to Disadvantaged Learners: Implications for Further Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, S. Alan

    Research on the teaching of reading to disadvantaged children often places too much emphasis on etiology rather than on pedagogy. The student's behavior, not the etiology, is the key to change. Suggestions that disadvantaged children have initial reading problems because of auditory, vocabulary, and visual discrimination deficits or articulatory…

  12. The Scarring Effects of Bankruptcy: Cumulative Disadvantage across Credit and Labor Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maroto, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    As the recent economic crisis has demonstrated, inequality often spans credit and labor markets, supporting a system of cumulative disadvantage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this research draws on stigma, cumulative disadvantage and status characteristics theories to examine whether credit and labor markets intersect…

  13. 7 CFR 761.208 - Target participation rates for socially disadvantaged groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Target participation rates for socially disadvantaged... ADMINISTRATION Allocation of Farm Loan Programs Funds to State Offices § 761.208 Target participation rates for socially disadvantaged groups. (a) General. (1) The Agency establishes target participation rates...

  14. 7 CFR 761.208 - Target participation rates for socially disadvantaged groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Target participation rates for socially disadvantaged... ADMINISTRATION Allocation of Farm Loan Programs Funds to State Offices § 761.208 Target participation rates for socially disadvantaged groups. (a) General. (1) The Agency establishes target participation rates...

  15. 7 CFR 761.208 - Target participation rates for socially disadvantaged groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Target participation rates for socially disadvantaged... Farm Loan Programs Funds to State Offices § 761.208 Target participation rates for socially disadvantaged groups. (a) General. (1) The Agency establishes target participation rates for providing FO and...

  16. 7 CFR 761.208 - Target participation rates for socially disadvantaged groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Target participation rates for socially disadvantaged... Farm Loan Programs Funds to State Offices § 761.208 Target participation rates for socially disadvantaged groups. (a) General. (1) The Agency establishes target participation rates for providing FO,...

  17. 7 CFR 761.208 - Target participation rates for socially disadvantaged groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Target participation rates for socially disadvantaged... ADMINISTRATION Allocation of Farm Loan Programs Funds to State Offices § 761.208 Target participation rates for socially disadvantaged groups. (a) General. (1) The Agency establishes target participation rates...

  18. Targeting Disadvantage among Young Children in the Republic of Ireland: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Jacqueline

    2005-01-01

    It has been recognised for some time that the effects of disadvantage are in place early in a child's life, and early intervention has become an established element of efforts to alleviate such effects. This paper describes the range of interventions that exist to address disadvantage among children in the birth to six age range in Republic of…

  19. State Planning for the Disadvantaged. A Report of the National Dissemination Project for Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Dennis; Das, Deb

    Major elements in a general process model for state and local planning for minority and disadvantaged education are discussed. These elements are: (1) needs assessment and public discussion of issues, (2) state goals and objectives for disadvantaged education, (3) local community college goals, objectives, and commitments, (4) provision of…

  20. Economic Disadvantage in Complex Family Systems: Expansion of Family Stress Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Melissa A.

    2008-01-01

    Economic disadvantage is associated with multiple risks to early socioemotional development. This article reviews research regarding family stress frameworks to model the pathways from economic disadvantage to negative child outcomes via family processes. Future research in this area should expand definitions of family and household to incorporate…

  1. Selection of Advantaged and Disadvantaged South African Students for University Admission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skuy, Mervin; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A South African study explored predictors of success among 18 educationally disadvantaged and 8 advantaged students in a University of Witwatersrand developmental studies program. Results showed academic success was considerably less predictable among disadvantaged students. Universally-used admission criteria were not predictive for either group;…

  2. Disadvantaged Urban Eighth Graders: Where They Are and How They Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Research Bulletin, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This report describes disadvantaged urban eighth-grade students. All statistical data were drawn from the student, parent, and school files of the base year of the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88). The following findings are summarized: (1) rural schools contain the greatest proportion of disadvantaged eighth-graders, but…

  3. Evaluation of the Special Services for Disadvantaged Students (SSDS) Program: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulson, John E.; Bradford, Clarence

    The results of a 1983 followup survey to assess the long-term impact of the federally-funded Special Services for Disadvantaged Students (SSDS) program are presented. Educationally or economically disadvantaged students who enrolled in the program during their freshman year, 1979-1980, were studied. Questionnaires investigated respondents'…

  4. A New Role for Teachers: Involving the Entire Family in the Education of Preschool Disadvantaged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnes, Merle B.

    This approach to preschool education of the disadvantaged uses a teacher training program which was developed only after each component of the program had been empirically tested. Teachers were retrained through course work and workshops to teach disadvantaged preschool children. These teachers then taught mothers and older siblings of…

  5. Do Disadvantaged Students Have Equal Access to Effective Teaching? NCEE Study Snapshot. NCEE 2014-4001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This study snapshot offers a summary of "Access to Effective Teaching for Disadvantaged Students. NCEE 2014-4001," the first report from a study initiated by the U.S. Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences to examine access to effective teaching for disadvantaged students in 29 diverse school districts. The study…

  6. The Impact of Disadvantage on VET Completion and Employment Gaps. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVicar, Duncan; Tabasso, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Increasing educational attainment is generally tied to better employment outcomes. The vocational education and training (VET) sector is often used as an entry point into post-compulsory education for individuals who have experienced disadvantage in their lives. But does increasing participation in VET by disadvantaged individuals necessarily lead…

  7. Environmental Attitudes and Behaviors of American Youth with an Emphasis on Youth from Disadvantaged Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper Starch Worldwide Inc.

    The National Environmental Education and Training Foundation commissioned a survey on environmental attitudes and behaviors of disadvantaged youth in America to identify the critical gaps in environmental education so that resources can be targeted more effectively. Phase 1 consisted of qualitative research among disadvantaged students through…

  8. Theorizing Alternative Pathways through Adulthood: Unequal Social Arrangements in the Lives of Young Disadvantaged Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Kevin; Jones, Nikki

    2014-01-01

    This chapter introduces the innovative field-based studies on disadvantaged men that are featured in this volume. Together, these studies of disadvantaged men from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds and both urban and nonurban settings complement and extend recent discussions of emerging adulthood, which typically conceptualizes the transition…

  9. 13 CFR 124.106 - When do disadvantaged individuals control an applicant or Participant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When do disadvantaged individuals control an applicant or Participant? 124.106 Section 124.106 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS 8(a)...

  10. 41 CFR 105-53.130-4 - Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... responsible for the implementation and execution of the functions and duties under Sections 8 and 15 of the... Disadvantaged Business Utilization. 105-53.130-4 Section 105-53.130-4 Public Contracts and Property Management... ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Central Offices § 105-53.130-4 Office of Small and Disadvantaged...

  11. The "Collateral Impact" of Pupil Behaviour and Geographically Concentrated Socio-Economic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Alex Hugh

    2010-01-01

    Schools in areas of concentrated disadvantage tend to have below-average attainment, but there is no consensus on why. Mental and behavioural disorders in children are correlated with socio-economic disadvantage. This paper puts forward the hypothesis that the first phenomenon can at least partly be accounted for by the second phenomenon through…

  12. Multiple Levels of Social Disadvantage and Links to Obesity in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hedwig; Harris, Kathleen M.; Lee, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Background: The rise in adolescent obesity has become a public health concern, especially because of its impact on disadvantaged youth. This article examines the role of disadvantage at the family-, peer-, school-, and neighborhood-level, to determine which contexts are related to obesity in adolescence and young adulthood. Methods: We analyzed…

  13. 48 CFR 52.219-26 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Incentive Subcontracting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Business Participation Program-Incentive Subcontracting. 52.219-26 Section 52.219-26 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.219-26 Small Disadvantaged Business Participation... the following: Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program—Incentive Subcontracting (OCT...

  14. Disadvantaged Former Miners' Perspectives on Smoking Cessation: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Simon; Baird, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore disadvantaged former miners' perspectives in north Derbyshire, United Kingdom (UK) on smoking and smoking cessation. Methods: In-depth, audiotaped interviews with 16 disadvantaged former miners who smoked or had stopped smoking within six months. Results: Perceptions of being able to stop smoking with minimal difficulty…

  15. Disadvantages of Minority Group Membership: The Perspective of a "Nondeprived" Minority Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavender, Abraham D.

    1975-01-01

    Utilizing a sample of Jewish undergraduate students, evidence is presented to indicate that a minority group which is not deprived materially can nonetheless perceive itself as receiving disadvantages from its minority group status. The most frequently perceived disadvantages (as well as advantages) are enumerated and discussed. (EH)

  16. 48 CFR 726.7006 - Determination of status as a disadvantaged enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Determination of status as a disadvantaged enterprise. 726.7006 Section 726.7006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY... Enterprises Program 726.7006 Determination of status as a disadvantaged enterprise. (a) To be eligible for...

  17. 48 CFR 726.7006 - Determination of status as a disadvantaged enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Determination of status as a disadvantaged enterprise. 726.7006 Section 726.7006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY... Enterprises Program 726.7006 Determination of status as a disadvantaged enterprise. (a) To be eligible for...

  18. 48 CFR 726.7006 - Determination of status as a disadvantaged enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Determination of status as a disadvantaged enterprise. 726.7006 Section 726.7006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY... Enterprises Program 726.7006 Determination of status as a disadvantaged enterprise. (a) To be eligible for...

  19. 48 CFR 726.7006 - Determination of status as a disadvantaged enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Determination of status as a disadvantaged enterprise. 726.7006 Section 726.7006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY... Enterprises Program 726.7006 Determination of status as a disadvantaged enterprise. (a) To be eligible for...

  20. An Investigation of the Sustained Effects of Reading Recovery ® on Economically Disadvantaged Fifth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redding, Larry R.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the long-term benefits of the Reading Recovery ® program for economically disadvantaged students who were successfully discontinued after the first grade. The hypothesis was tested that students exiting first grade with grade-level reading abilities and with similar low socio-economic status (economically disadvantaged), who…

  1. 15 CFR 1400.4 - Evidence of social or economic disadvantage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence of social or economic... ASSISTANCE § 1400.4 Evidence of social or economic disadvantage. (a) The representatives of the group requesting formal designation should establish social or economic disadvantage by a preponderance of...

  2. An experimental demonstration that early-life competitive disadvantage accelerates telomere loss

    PubMed Central

    Nettle, Daniel; Monaghan, Pat; Gillespie, Robert; Brilot, Ben; Bedford, Thomas; Bateson, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Adverse experiences in early life can exert powerful delayed effects on adult survival and health. Telomere attrition is a potentially important mechanism in such effects. One source of early-life adversity is the stress caused by competitive disadvantage. Although previous avian experiments suggest that competitive disadvantage may accelerate telomere attrition, they do not clearly isolate the effects of competitive disadvantage from other sources of variation. Here, we present data from an experiment in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) that used cross-fostering to expose siblings to divergent early experience. Birds were assigned either to competitive advantage (being larger than their brood competitors) or competitive disadvantage (being smaller than their brood competitors) between days 3 and 12 post-hatching. Disadvantage did not affect weight gain, but it increased telomere attrition, leading to shorter telomere length in disadvantaged birds by day 12. There were no effects of disadvantage on oxidative damage as measured by plasma lipid peroxidation. We thus found strong evidence that early-life competitive disadvantage can accelerate telomere loss. This could lead to faster age-related deterioration and poorer health in later life. PMID:25411450

  3. CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN OF HIGHER POTENTIAL, INTELLECTUAL FUNCTIONING AND EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KARNES, MERLE B.; AND OTHERS

    A RESEARCH STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE PSYCHOEDUCATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH-POTENTIAL CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN AND THE IMPLICATIONS OF THESE CHARACTERISTICS FOR AN EFFECTIVE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM. INTELLIGENCE TESTS WERE ADMINISTERED TO CHILDREN FROM SIX ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS WITHIN A DISADVANTAGED SCHOOL DISTRICT, AND THE 203…

  4. Leading in Disadvantaged Zimbabwean School Contexts: Female School Heads' Experiences of Emotional Labour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zikhali, Joyce; Perumal, Juliet

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative multiple case study explored the sources of emotional stress experienced by 12 female Zimbabwean primary heads leading in socio-economic disadvantaged schools in Masvingo District and their attempts to alleviate the challenges that the children from these disadvantaged contexts presented them with. Data was generated through…

  5. 48 CFR 52.219-23 - Notice of Price Evaluation Adjustment for Small Disadvantaged Business Concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... consistent with 13 CFR 124, subpart B; and (i) No material change in disadvantaged ownership and control has... taking into account the applicable exclusions set forth at 13 CFR 124.104(c)(2); and (iii) It is... disadvantaged business concern in accordance with 13 CFR 124, subpart B, and a decision on that application...

  6. 48 CFR 52.219-23 - Notice of Price Evaluation Adjustment for Small Disadvantaged Business Concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... consistent with 13 CFR 124, subpart B; and (i) No material change in disadvantaged ownership and control has... taking into account the applicable exclusions set forth at 13 CFR 124.104(c)(2); and (iii) It is... disadvantaged business concern in accordance with 13 CFR 124, subpart B, and a decision on that application...

  7. 48 CFR 52.219-23 - Notice of Price Evaluation Adjustment for Small Disadvantaged Business Concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... consistent with 13 CFR 124, subpart B; and (i) No material change in disadvantaged ownership and control has... taking into account the applicable exclusions set forth at 13 CFR 124.104(c)(2); and (iii) It is... disadvantaged business concern in accordance with 13 CFR 124, subpart B, and a decision on that application...

  8. Urban Education and the "Truly Disadvantaged": The Historical Roots of the Contemporary Crisis, 1945-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantor, Harvey; Brenzel, Barbara

    1992-01-01

    Postwar transformation of U.S. cities gave new form to longstanding racial and economic educational inequities, intensifying barriers to achievement facing disadvantaged students. By concentrating disadvantaged students in inferior innercity schools, educational problems are intensified. Bureaucratic school systems do little to address new…

  9. What Helps Children Eat Well? A Qualitative Exploration of Resilience among Disadvantaged Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lauren K.; Veitch, Jenny; Ball, Kylie

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that persons of low socioeconomic position consume generally a less healthy diet. Key determinants of unhealthy eating among disadvantaged individuals include aspects of the family and external environment. Much less is known about family and environmental determinants of healthy eating among social disadvantaged children. The aim…

  10. Teaching Advanced Skills to Educationally Disadvantaged Students. Data Analysis Support Center (DASC) Task 4. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Means, Barbara, Ed.; Knapp, Michael S., Ed.

    This document comprises six papers that discuss teaching advanced skills to educationally disadvantaged students. An introductory paper, "Models for Teaching Advanced Skills to Educationally Disadvantaged Children" (B. Means and M. S. Knapp), synthesizes the themes that characterize the collection of papers as a whole, and discusses general issues…

  11. 13 CFR 124.1007 - Who may protest the disadvantaged status of a concern?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who may protest the disadvantaged status of a concern? 124.1007 Section 124.1007 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS...

  12. Are Disadvantaged Students Given Equal Opportunities to Learn Mathematics? PISA in Focus. No. 63

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economically advantaged and disadvantaged students are not equally exposed to mathematics problems and concepts at school. Exposure to mathematics at school has an impact on performance, and disadvantaged students' relative lack of familiarity with mathematics partly explains their lower performance. Widening access to mathematics content…

  13. The Self-Concept of Disadvantaged Children: An Exploratory Study in Middle Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey, Mary; Phillips, Shelley

    1981-01-01

    The self-concepts of 2,100 children (ages 6 to 11.5 years) from disadvantaged schools in New South Wales, Australia, was explored. Comparison with a nondisadvantaged group suggests that while disadvantaged children have a more externalized, concrete, less differentiated, and less future-oriented view of self, they do not have a totally negative…

  14. Child Participation and Family Engagement with Early Childhood Education and Care Services in Disadvantaged Australian Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Rebekah; Bowes, Jennifer; Elcombe, Emma

    2014-01-01

    To support national policy initiatives in early childhood education and to determine reasons for low enrolment in services from families in disadvantaged areas, the authors investigated the views and practices of 101 families from disadvantaged communities. Families with a child aged 3-5 years were recruited from urban, rural and remote areas of…

  15. Pilot Evaluation of a Home Visit Parent Training Program in Disadvantaged Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Cynthia; Tsang, Sandra; Heung, Kitty

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The study reported the pilot evaluation of the Healthy Start Home Visit Program for disadvantaged Chinese parents with preschool children, delivered by trained parent assistants. Home visiting was used to make services more accessible to disadvantaged families. Method: The participants included 21 parent-child dyads. Outcome measures…

  16. Access to Effective Teaching for Disadvantaged Students in 29 School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isenberg, Eric; Max, Jeffrey; Gleason, Philip; Potamites, Liz; Santillano, Robert; Hock, Heinrich; Hansen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Recent federal policy initiatives are aimed at improving disadvantaged students' access to effective teaching. These efforts, including Race to the Top and the Teacher Incentive Fund, arise from concerns that disadvantaged students are taught by less effective teachers. A growing body of research uses value-added analysis to measure teacher…

  17. The Role of School in the Upward Mobility of Disadvantaged Immigrants’ Children

    PubMed Central

    HAO, LINGXIN; PONG, SUET-LING

    2014-01-01

    How can we explain exceptional advancement by disadvantaged immigrants’ children? Extending segmented assimilation theory, this article traces the structural and relational attributes of high schools attended by young adults who reached their late twenties in 2000. Hypotheses are derived from theories in sociology of education and tested with four waves of data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS). The authors offer three major findings. First, an overwhelming majority of disadvantaged students attend public schools; some relational attributes are typical in public schools attended by disadvantaged students. Second, children’s upward mobility is shaped by the structural and relational attributes of their high schools. Most school effects are the same for disadvantaged and advantaged youngsters, and student-educator bonds and curriculum structure have even stronger positive effects for the disadvantaged. Finally, mobility patterns differ widely among Chinese, Mexicans, and whites. Mexicans are less likely to be exposed to favorable school attributes. PMID:25418989

  18. Harder than Expected: Increased Conflict in Clearly Disadvantageous Delayed Choices in a Computer Game

    PubMed Central

    Leiberg, Susanne; Goschke, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    When choosing between immediate and temporally delayed goods, people sometimes decide disadvantageously. Here, we aim to provide process-level insight into differences between individually determined advantageous and disadvantageous choices. Participants played a computer game, deciding between two different rewards of varying size and distance by moving an agent towards the chosen reward. We calculated individual models of advantageous choices and characterized the decision process by analyzing mouse movements. The larger amount of participants’ choices was classified as advantageous and the disadvantageous choices were biased towards choosing sooner/smaller rewards. The deflection of mouse movements indicated more conflict in disadvantageous choices compared with advantageous choices when the utilities of the options differed clearly. Further process oriented analysis revealed that disadvantageous choices were biased by a tendency for choice-repetition and an undervaluation of the value information in favour of the delay information, making rather simple choices harder than could be expected from the properties of the decision situation. PMID:24260192

  19. Family and School Socioeconomic Disadvantage: Interactive Influences on Adolescent Dating Violence Victimization

    PubMed Central

    Spriggs, Aubrey L.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Herring, Amy H; Schoenbach, Victor J

    2010-01-01

    Although low socioeconomic status has been positively associated with adult partner violence, its relationship to adolescent dating violence remains unclear. Further, few studies have examined the relationship between contextual disadvantage and adolescent dating violence, or the interactive influences of family and contextual disadvantage. Guided by Social Disorganization Theory, Relative Deprivation Theory, and Gendered Resource Theory, we analyzed data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994-1996) to explore how family and school disadvantage relate to dating violence victimization. Psychological and minor physical victimization were self-reported by adolescents in up to six heterosexual romantic or sexual relationships. Family and school disadvantage were based on a principal component analysis of soecioeconomic indicators reported by adolescents and parents. In weighted multilevel random effects models, between-school variability in dating violence victimization was proportionately small but substantive: 10% for male victimization and 5% for female victimization. In bivariate analyses, family disadvantage was positively related to victimization for both males and females; however, school disadvantage was only related to males’ physical victimization. In models adjusted for race/ethnicity, relative age within the school, and mean school age, neither family nor school disadvantage remained related to males’ victimization. For females, family disadvantage remained significantly positively associated with victimization, but was modified by school disadvantage: family disadvantage was more strongly associated with dating violence victimization in more advantaged schools. Findings support gendered resource theory, and suggest that status differentials between females and their school context may increase their vulnerability to dating violence victimization. PMID:19375207

  20. Identifying the "Truly Disadvantaged": A Comprehensive Biosocial Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, J. C.; Beaver, Kevin M.; Connolly, Eric J.; Schwartz, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    There has been significant interest in examining the developmental factors that predispose individuals to chronic criminal offending. This body of research has identified some social-environmental risk factors as potentially important. At the same time, the research producing these results has generally failed to employ genetically sensitive…

  1. Feasibility and validity of the structured attention module among economically disadvantaged preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Bush, Hillary H; Eisenhower, Abbey; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret; Carter, Alice S

    2015-01-01

    Rooted in the theory of attention put forth by Mirsky, Anthony, Duncan, Ahearn, and Kellam (1991), the Structured Attention Module (SAM) is a developmentally sensitive, computer-based performance task designed specifically to assess sustained selective attention among 3- to 6-year-old children. The current study addressed the feasibility and validity of the SAM among 64 economically disadvantaged preschool-age children (mean age = 58 months; 55% female); a population known to be at risk for attention problems and adverse math performance outcomes. Feasibility was demonstrated by high completion rates and strong associations between SAM performance and age. Principal Factor Analysis with rotation produced robust support for a three-factor model (Accuracy, Speed, and Endurance) of SAM performance, which largely corresponded with existing theorized models of selective and sustained attention. Construct validity was evidenced by positive correlations between SAM Composite scores and all three SAM factors and IQ, and between SAM Accuracy and sequential memory. Value-added predictive validity was not confirmed through main effects of SAM on math performance above and beyond age and IQ; however, significant interactions by child sex were observed: Accuracy and Endurance both interacted with child sex to predict math performance. In both cases, the SAM factors predicted math performance more strongly for girls than for boys. There were no overall sex differences in SAM performance. In sum, the current findings suggest that interindividual variation in sustained selective attention, and potentially other aspects of attention and executive function, among young, high-risk children can be captured validly with developmentally sensitive measures.

  2. Feasibility and validity of the structured attention module among economically disadvantaged preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Bush, Hillary H; Eisenhower, Abbey; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret; Carter, Alice S

    2015-01-01

    Rooted in the theory of attention put forth by Mirsky, Anthony, Duncan, Ahearn, and Kellam (1991), the Structured Attention Module (SAM) is a developmentally sensitive, computer-based performance task designed specifically to assess sustained selective attention among 3- to 6-year-old children. The current study addressed the feasibility and validity of the SAM among 64 economically disadvantaged preschool-age children (mean age = 58 months; 55% female); a population known to be at risk for attention problems and adverse math performance outcomes. Feasibility was demonstrated by high completion rates and strong associations between SAM performance and age. Principal Factor Analysis with rotation produced robust support for a three-factor model (Accuracy, Speed, and Endurance) of SAM performance, which largely corresponded with existing theorized models of selective and sustained attention. Construct validity was evidenced by positive correlations between SAM Composite scores and all three SAM factors and IQ, and between SAM Accuracy and sequential memory. Value-added predictive validity was not confirmed through main effects of SAM on math performance above and beyond age and IQ; however, significant interactions by child sex were observed: Accuracy and Endurance both interacted with child sex to predict math performance. In both cases, the SAM factors predicted math performance more strongly for girls than for boys. There were no overall sex differences in SAM performance. In sum, the current findings suggest that interindividual variation in sustained selective attention, and potentially other aspects of attention and executive function, among young, high-risk children can be captured validly with developmentally sensitive measures. PMID:24564761

  3. 48 CFR 1552.219-74 - Small disadvantaged business participation evaluation factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... complexity and variety of the work the SDB concerns are to perform under the contract; (4) The realism of the... concerns, at the prime contractor and subcontractor level, in the performance of the contract (in...

  4. Beyond Income Poverty: Measuring Disadvantage in Terms of Material Hardship and Health.

    PubMed

    Neckerman, Kathryn M; Garfinkel, Irwin; Teitler, Julien O; Waldfogel, Jane; Wimer, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    The New York City (NYC) Longitudinal Study of Wellbeing, or "Poverty Tracker," is a survey of approximately 2300 NYC residents. Its purpose is to provide a multidimensional and dynamic understanding of economic disadvantage in NYC. Measures of disadvantage were collected at baseline and a 12-month follow-up, and include 3 types of disadvantage: 1) income poverty, using a measure on the basis of the new Supplemental Poverty Measure; 2) material hardship, including indicators of food insecurity, housing hardship, unmet medical needs, utility cutoffs, and financial insecurity; and 3) adult health problems, which can drain family time and resources. In this article initial results for NYC families with children younger than the age of 18 years are presented. At baseline, 56% of families with children had 1 or more type of disadvantage, including 28% with income poverty, 39% with material hardship, and 17% with an adult health problem. Even among nonpoor families, 33% experienced material hardship and 14% reported an adult health problem. Two-thirds of all families faced disadvantage at either baseline or follow-up, with 46% experiencing some kind of disadvantage at both time points. Respondents with a college education were much less likely to face disadvantage. Even after adjusting for educational attainment and family characteristics, the families of black and Hispanic respondents had increased rates of disadvantage. Considering income poverty alone the extent of disadvantage among families with children in NYC is greatly understated. These results suggest that in addition to addressing income poverty, policymakers should give priority to efforts to reduce material hardship and help families cope with chronic physical or mental illness. The need for these resources extends far above the poverty line.

  5. An Investigation of the Vocational Directors' Role and Responsibilities in the Delivery and Evaluation of Disadvantaged and Handicapped Vocational Education Programs, as Perceived by the Local Administrator. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Ivan E.; Oshima, Asahi

    A study assessed and compared perceptions of local vocational educators toward delivery and evaluation of vocational education programs for the disadvantaged and handicapped. Emphasis was on identifying factors affecting vocational education for the special needs population and areas of concern relative to these factors. A survey instrument was…

  6. Does labour market disadvantage help to explain why childhood circumstances are related to quality of life at older ages? Results from SHARE.

    PubMed

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Blane, David

    2015-07-01

    There is robust evidence that childhood circumstances are related to quality of life in older ages, but the role of possible intermediate factors is less explored. In this paper, we examine to what extent associations between deprived childhood circumstances and quality of life at older ages are due to experienced labour market disadvantage during adulthood. Analyses are based on the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), with detailed retrospective information on individual life courses collected among 10,272 retired men and women in 13 European countries (2008-2009). Our assumption is that those who have spent their childhood in deprived circumstances may also have had more labour market disadvantage with negative consequences for quality of life beyond working life. Results demonstrate that advantaged circumstances during childhood are associated with lower levels of labour market disadvantage and higher quality of life in older ages. Furthermore, results of multivariate analyses support the idea that part of the association between childhood circumstances and later quality of life is explained by labour market disadvantage during adulthood.

  7. Does labour market disadvantage help to explain why childhood circumstances are related to quality of life at older ages? Results from SHARE

    PubMed Central

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Blane, David

    2015-01-01

    There is robust evidence that childhood circumstances are related to quality of life in older ages, but the role of possible intermediate factors is less explored. In this paper, we examine to what extent associations between deprived childhood circumstances and quality of life at older ages are due to experienced labour market disadvantage during adulthood. Analyses are based on the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), with detailed retrospective information on individual life courses collected among 10,272 retired men and women in 13 European countries (2008–2009). Our assumption is that those who have spent their childhood in deprived circumstances may also have had more labour market disadvantage with negative consequences for quality of life beyond working life. Results demonstrate that advantaged circumstances during childhood are associated with lower levels of labour market disadvantage and higher quality of life in older ages. Furthermore, results of multivariate analyses support the idea that part of the association between childhood circumstances and later quality of life is explained by labour market disadvantage during adulthood. PMID:25033373

  8. In Vitro Tumor Models: Advantages, Disadvantages, Variables, and Selecting the Right Platform

    PubMed Central

    Katt, Moriah E.; Placone, Amanda L.; Wong, Andrew D.; Xu, Zinnia S.; Searson, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    In vitro tumor models have provided important tools for cancer research and serve as low-cost screening platforms for drug therapies; however, cancer recurrence remains largely unchecked due to metastasis, which is the cause of the majority of cancer-related deaths. The need for an improved understanding of the progression and treatment of cancer has pushed for increased accuracy and physiological relevance of in vitro tumor models. As a result, in vitro tumor models have concurrently increased in complexity and their output parameters further diversified, since these models have progressed beyond simple proliferation, invasion, and cytotoxicity screens and have begun recapitulating critical steps in the metastatic cascade, such as intravasation, extravasation, angiogenesis, matrix remodeling, and tumor cell dormancy. Advances in tumor cell biology, 3D cell culture, tissue engineering, biomaterials, microfabrication, and microfluidics have enabled rapid development of new in vitro tumor models that often incorporate multiple cell types, extracellular matrix materials, and spatial and temporal introduction of soluble factors. Other innovations include the incorporation of perfusable microvessels to simulate the tumor vasculature and model intravasation and extravasation. The drive toward precision medicine has increased interest in adapting in vitro tumor models for patient-specific therapies, clinical management, and assessment of metastatic potential. Here, we review the wide range of current in vitro tumor models and summarize their advantages, disadvantages, and suitability in modeling specific aspects of the metastatic cascade and drug treatment. PMID:26904541

  9. The Incredible Years parenting program in Ireland: a qualitative analysis of the experience of disadvantaged parents.

    PubMed

    Furlong, Mairéad; McGilloway, Sinéad

    2012-10-01

    Controlled trials demonstrate that parenting programs work, but less is known about the processes of change, contextual factors or intervention characteristics that influence trial outcomes. This qualitative study assessed the experiences of Irish parents involved in a randomized controlled trial of the Incredible Years BASIC parenting program, with a view to understanding how and why the program works, or does not work, within disadvantaged settings. Data from 33 parents of young children (aged 3-7 years) with conduct problems were collected by semi-structured interviews and analysed using constructivist grounded theory. Emerging themes indicated that parents perceived the program to have produced positive changes through learning key parenting skills (e.g. positive attention, empathy and problem-solving skills) and through enhanced parental mood/confidence, derived primarily from gaining non-judgmental support from the group. Parents also experienced cultural, personal and environmental challenges in learning the new skills, including discomfort with praise and positive attention, conflict with their partner and parenting within an antisocial environment. Parents dropped out of the course for largely circumstantial reasons. These findings should help to inform the future implementation of this well-known parenting program both in Ireland and elsewhere.

  10. Troubled times, troubled relationships: how economic resources, gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Golden, Shelley D; Perreira, Krista M; Durrance, Christine Piette

    2013-07-01

    We evaluate race/ethnicity and nativity-based disparities in three different types of intimate partner violence (IPV) and examine how economic hardship, maternal economic dependency, maternal gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence these disparities. Using nationally representative data from urban mothers of young children who are living with their intimate partners (N = 1,886), we estimate a series of unadjusted and adjusted logit models on mothers' reports of physical assault, emotional abuse, and coercion. When their children were age 3, more than one in five mothers were living with a partner who abused them. The prevalence of any IPV was highest among Hispanic (26%) and foreign-born (35%) mothers. Economic hardship, economic dependency on a romantic partner, and traditional gender beliefs each increased women's risk for exposure to one or more types of IPV, whereas neighborhood conditions were not significantly related to IPV in adjusted models. These factors also explained most of the racial/ethnic and nativity disparities in IPV. Policies and programs that reduce economic hardship among women with young children, promote women's economic independence, and foster gender equity in romantic partnerships can potentially reduce multiple forms of IPV.

  11. Troubled Times, Troubled Relationships: How Economic Resources, Gender Beliefs, and Neighborhood Disadvantage Influence Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Shelley D.; Perreira, Krista M.; Durrance, Christine Piette

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate race/ethnicity and nativity-based disparities in three different types of intimate partner violence (IPV), and examine how economic hardship, maternal economic dependency, maternal gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence these disparities. Using nationally representative data from urban mothers of young children who are living with their intimate partners (N=1,886), we estimate a series of unadjusted and adjusted logit models on mother’s reports of physical assault, emotional abuse, and coercion. When their children were age three, more than one in five mothers were living with a partner who abused them. The prevalence of any IPV was highest among Hispanic (26%) and foreign-born (35%) mothers. Economic hardship, economic dependency on a romantic partner, and traditional gender beliefs each increased women’s risk for exposure to one or more types of IPV, whereas neighborhood conditions were not significantly related to IPV in adjusted models. These factors also explained most of the race/ethnic and nativity disparities in IPV. Policies and programs that reduce economic hardship among women with young children, promote women’s economic independence, and foster gender equity in romantic partnerships can potentially reduce multiple forms of IPV. PMID:23300198

  12. Condition-dependent mate choice and a reproductive disadvantage for MHC-divergent male tiger salamanders.

    PubMed

    Bos, David H; Williams, Rod N; Gopurenko, David; Bulut, Zafer; DeWoody, J Andrew

    2009-08-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles likely have adaptive value because of overdominance, in which case MHC heterozygous individuals have increased fitness relative to homozygotes. Because of this potential benefit, the evolution of sexual reproduction between MHC-divergent individuals (i.e. negative assortative mating, NAM) may be favoured. However, the strongest evidence for MHC-based NAM comes from inbred animals, and context-dependent mating preferences have rarely been evaluated although they often occur in nature. We assessed the extent MHC-based mating preferences among wild tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) using multiple molecular approaches. We genotyped 102 adults and 864 larvae from 36 breeding trials at both microsatellite and MHC loci. Parentage analysis revealed that reproductive success among males was positively associated with increased tail length and that with respect to the focal female, MHC-similar males sired a significantly higher number of offspring than more dissimilar males. This trend was consistent, even under context-dependent scenarios that favour traditional MHC-based NAM. These results suggest that the most MHC-divergent males may be at a reproductive disadvantage in pairwise breeding trials. Our data add to a growing body of evidence that suggests where it exists, MHC-based choice is probably dynamic and mediated by many factors that vary in the wild, notably signals from other indicator traits and by the quality and quantity of potential mates. PMID:19508451

  13. No man is an island: living in a disadvantaged neighborhood influences chronic pain development after motor vehicle collision.

    PubMed

    Ulirsch, Jacob C; Weaver, Mark A; Bortsov, Andrey V; Soward, April C; Swor, Robert A; Peak, David A; Jones, Jeffrey S; Rathlev, Niels K; Lee, David C; Domeier, Robert M; Hendry, Phyllis L; McLean, Samuel A

    2014-10-01

    Living in a lower socioeconomic status neighborhood has been shown to alter stress system function and is associated with a number of adverse health outcomes, but its influence on musculoskeletal pain (MSP) outcomes after traumatic stress exposures such as motor vehicle collision (MVC) has not been assessed. We performed a multicenter, prospective study that enrolled 948 European-American individuals within 24 hours of MVC who were discharged home after emergency department evaluation. Follow-up evaluations were completed via telephone or Internet survey 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year after MVC on 91%, 89%, and 91% of participants, respectively. A robust aggregate measure of census tract neighborhood disadvantage was derived, and individual-level characteristics assessed included socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, pain prior to MVC, litigation status, and opioid use. MSP was assessed in the emergency department; MSP and pain interference with daily activity were assessed at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year. After adjustment for individual-level factors, living in more disadvantaged neighborhoods was associated with increased MSP (P=0.0009) and increased pain interference with daily function (P<0.0001). The relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and MSP was moderated by a common single nucleotide polymorphism, rs2817038, 5' of the gene encoding FKBP5, a functional regulator of glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity (interaction P-value=0.0015). These data support the hypothesis that low neighborhood socioeconomic status increases the likelihood of worse MSP outcomes after traumatic stress exposures such as MVC, and that this influence is mediated in part via its influence on stress system function. PMID:25107859

  14. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Access to Health Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, James B.; Kaneda, Toshiko

    2005-01-01

    Most research on access to health care focuses on individual-level determinants such as income and insurance coverage. The role of community-level factors in helping or hindering individuals in obtaining needed care, however, has not received much attention. We address this gap in the literature by examining how neighborhood socioeconomic…

  15. Job Sprawl, Spatial Mismatch, and Black Employment Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between job sprawl and the spatial mismatch between blacks and jobs. Using data from a variety of sources, including the 1990 and 2000 U.S. Census and U.S. Department of Commerce's ZIP Code Business Patterns, I control extensively for metropolitan area characteristics and other factors. In addition, I use…

  16. Full Service and Extended Schools, Disadvantage, and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Despite successive waves of school reform, the English education system, like many others, continues to be characterized by marked inequalities of outcome. These seem to be related to factors in students' family, community and wider societal contexts that schools traditionally have been powerless to tackle. This paper argues, however, that schools…

  17. Leadership in Disadvantaged Primary Schools: Two Narratives of Contrasting Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, Marietjie; Engelbrecht, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Research has indicated that schools should be developed as inclusive learning communities that would support collaborative learning and problem solving in order to address learner diversity more effectively. This article explores school leadership as one determining factor which either affords or constrains collaborative teacher learning for…

  18. Cumulative advantage/disadvantage and the life course: cross-fertilizing age and social science theory.

    PubMed

    Dannefer, Dale

    2003-11-01

    Age and cumulative advantage/disadvantage theory have obvious logical, theoretical, and empirical connections, because both are inherently and irreducibly related to the passage of time. Over the past 15 years, these connections have resulted in the elaboration and application of the cumulative advantage-disadvantage perspective in social gerontology, especially in relation to issues of heterogeneity and inequality. However, its theoretical origins, connections, and implications are not widely understood. This article reviews the genesis of the cumulative advantage/disadvantage perspective in studies of science, its initial articulation with structural-functionalism, and its expanding importance for gerontology. It discusses its intellectual relevance for several other established theoretical paradigms in sociology, psychology, and economics. On the basis of issues deriving from these perspectives and from the accumulating body of work on cumulative advantage and disadvantage, I identify several promising directions for further research in gerontology.

  19. Improving the Reading Comprehension Skills of Minority Adults from Educationally Disadvantaged Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Gina; Verhulst, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a synergistic reading comprehension program to help minority adults from educationally disadvantaged backgrounds improve their reading skills in preparation for academics, standardized testing, and medical school. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

  20. 48 CFR 726.7006 - Determination of status as a disadvantaged enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... disadvantaged business (as defined in 726.7002), an historically black college or university, a college or university in which more than 40 percent of the students are Hispanic Americans, or a private...

  1. Perpetuating one's own disadvantage: intergroup contact enables the ideological legitimation of inequality.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Nikhil K; Sibley, Chris G

    2013-11-01

    Contact with the dominant group can increase opposition, among the disadvantaged, to social policies that would benefit their group. This effect can be explained in terms of contact promoting support for an ideology of meritocracy, which privileges the distribution of societal resources based on individual merit, rather than group-level disadvantage. We tested this ideological mechanism in a large, nationally representative sample of Māori (a disadvantaged group in New Zealand; N = 1,008). Positive intergroup contact with the dominant group (New Zealand Europeans) predicted increased opposition to a topical reparative policy (Māori ownership of the foreshore), and this was fully mediated by increased support for the ideology of meritocracy. Intergroup contact may enable the ideological legitimation of inequality among members of disadvantaged groups, engendering political attitudes that are detrimental to their group's interests. Contact with ingroup members had the opposite effect, increasing support for reparative policy by reducing subscription to meritocratic ideology. PMID:23963970

  2. Violence, Older Peers, and the Socialization of Adolescent Boys in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Harding, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Most theoretical perspectives on neighborhood effects on youth assume that neighborhood context serves as a source of socialization, but the exact sources and processes underlying adolescent socialization in disadvantaged neighborhoods are largely unspecified and unelaborated. This paper proposes that cross-cohort socialization by older neighborhood peers is one source of socialization for adolescent boys in such neighborhoods. Data from the National Educational Longitudinal Survey suggest that adolescents in disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to spend time with older individuals. Qualitative interview data from 60 adolescent boys in three neighborhoods in Boston are analyzed to understand the causes and consequences of these interactions and relationships. I find that some of the strategies these adolescents employ to cope with violence in disadvantaged neighborhoods promote interaction with older peers, particularly those who are most disadvantaged, and that such interactions can expose adolescents to local, “unconventional,” or “alternative” cultural models. PMID:20161350

  3. Area Disadvantage and Intimate Partner Homicide: An Ecological Analysis of North Carolina Counties, 2004–2006

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Martin, Sandra L.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Schoenbach, Victor J.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the North Carolina Violent Death Reporting System and other sources, we examined ecologic relationships between county (n=100) disadvantage and intimate partner homicide (IPH), variability by victim gender and county urbanicity, and potential mediators. County disadvantage was related to female-victim homicide only in metropolitan counties (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.25); however, disadvantage was associated with male-victim IPH regardless of county urbanicity (IRR 1.17). None of the potential intervening variables examined (shelter availability, intimate partner violence services’ funding), was supported as a mediator. Results suggest disparities across North Carolina counties in IPH according to county disadvantage. Future research should explore other potential mediators (i.e., service accessibility and law enforcement responses), as well as test the robustness of findings using additional years of data. PMID:20565007

  4. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Residential Stability, and Perceptions of Instrumental Support among New Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Turney, Kristin; Harknett, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study (N = 4,211), we examine neighborhood disadvantage and perceptions of instrumental support among mothers with young children. We find that: (a) living in a disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with less instrumental support, particularly financial assistance, from family and friends; (b) residential stability is associated with stronger personal safety nets irrespective of neighborhood quality; and (c) mothers who move to a more disadvantaged neighborhood experience a small but significant decline in perceived instrumental support compared to those who do not move. In interpreting these results, we suggest instrumental support may be either a cause or consequence of living in an advantaged neighborhood, but, in either case, neighborhood and social network disadvantages go hand in hand. PMID:22102766

  5. Career Maturity and the Achievement of Community College Students and Disadvantaged University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Charles C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined the relationship of career maturity and academic achievement in 182 community college students and 126 disadvantaged college freshmen. The modest relationship found suggests that counselors can increase retention by helping students achieve career maturity. (JAC)

  6. 75 FR 5369 - Approved Information Collection Extension Request; Disadvantaged Business Enterprise

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Approved Information Collection Extension Request; Disadvantaged Business Enterprise AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DOT. ACTION: Notice and Request for Comments. SUMMARY:...

  7. Area disadvantage and intimate partner homicide: an ecological analysis of North Carolina counties, 2004-2006.

    PubMed

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Martin, Sandra L; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Schoenbach, Victor J

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the North Carolina Violent Death Reporting System and other sources, we examined ecologic relationships between county (n = 100) disadvantage and intimate partner homicide (IPH), variability by victim gender and county urbanicity, and potential mediators. County disadvantage was related to female-victim homicide only in metropolitan counties (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.25); however, disadvantage was associated with male-victim IPH regardless of county urbanicity (IRR 1.17). None of the potential intervening variables examined (shelter availability, intimate partner violence services' funding) was supported as a mediator. Results suggest disparities across North Carolina counties in IPH according to county disadvantage. Future research should explore other potential mediators (i.e., service accessibility and law enforcement responses), as well as test the robustness of findings using additional years of data.

  8. "It Really Takes a Village": A Socio-Ecological Model of Resilience for Prevention Among Economically Disadvantaged Ethnic Minority Youth.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Dawn X; DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica; Gill, Vandna

    2016-10-01

    Promoting resilience prevents maladaptation among economically disadvantaged ethnic minority (EDEM) youth. EDEM youth need access to a variety of assets and promotive factors (i.e., resources) in the family, school, and community system to counter risks and promote positive adaptation. However, the field lacks a socio-ecological model of resilience for prevention targeted towards EDEM youth. We aim to review assets and promotive factors in the family, school, and community systems to present a socio-ecological model of resilience for the prevention of negative educational and health outcomes among EDEM youth. We reorient the social ecologies of EDEM youth from "at risk" to "at promise" focusing on family and community-centered prevention models. We discuss implications for the design of prevention strategies as well as their implementation and methodological challenges.

  9. 13 CFR 125.13 - May 8(a) Program participants, HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO SBCs..., HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO SBCs? Yes, 8(a) Program participants, HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, and Women-Owned...

  10. 13 CFR 125.13 - May 8(a) Program participants, HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO SBCs..., HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO SBCs? Yes, 8(a) Program participants, HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, and Women-Owned...

  11. 13 CFR 125.13 - May 8(a) Program participants, HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO SBCs..., HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO SBCs? Yes, 8(a) Program participants, HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, and Women-Owned...

  12. 13 CFR 125.13 - May 8(a) Program participants, HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO SBCs..., HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO SBCs? Yes, 8(a) Program participants, HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, and Women-Owned...

  13. 13 CFR 125.13 - May 8(a) Program participants, HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO SBCs..., HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, or Women-Owned Small Businesses qualify as SDVO SBCs? Yes, 8(a) Program participants, HUBZone SBCs, Small and Disadvantaged Businesses, and Women-Owned...

  14. 48 CFR 970.1907 - Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Small, Small Disadvantaged and Women-Owned Small Business Concerns 970.1907 Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business... Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business Concerns. 970.1907 Section...

  15. 49 CFR 23.35 - What is the personal net worth standard for disadvantaged owners of ACDBEs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... disadvantaged owners of ACDBEs? 23.35 Section 23.35 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PARTICIPATION OF DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS ENTERPRISE IN AIRPORT CONCESSIONS Certification and Eligibility of ACDBEs § 23.35 What is the personal net worth standard for disadvantaged owners of ACDBEs? The...

  16. Teaching Culturally Disadvantaged Pupils (Grades K-12). Unit IV: The Culturally Disadvantaged Mexican-American, Puerto Rican, Caucasian, and American Indian Pupil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kenneth R.

    The fourth in a series of teacher education units on the disadvantaged pupil discusses Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, Appalachians and Southern white migrants, and American Indians. It is noted that the Negroes and whites are members of a subculture of the dominant culture, whereas the Spanish background and Indian pupils are products of…

  17. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Disadvantage and 30 Day Rehospitalizations: An Analysis of Medicare Data

    PubMed Central

    Kind, Amy JH; Jencks, Steve; Brock, Jane; Yu, Menggang; Bartels, Christie; Ehlenbach, William; Greenberg, Caprice; Smith, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Background Measures of socioeconomic disadvantage may enable improved targeting of programs to prevent rehospitalizations, but obtaining such information directly from patients can be difficult. Measures of US neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage are more readily available, although rarely employed clinically. Objective To evaluate the association between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage at the census block-group level, as measured by Singh’s validated Area Deprivation Index (ADI), and 30-day rehospitalization. Design Retrospective cohort study Setting United States Patients Random 5% national sample of fee-for-service Medicare patients discharged with congestive heart failure, pneumonia or myocardial infarction, 2004–2009 (N = 255,744) Measurements 30-day rehospitalizations. Medicare data were linked to 2000 Census data to construct an ADI for each patient’s census block-group, which were then sorted into percentiles by increasing ADI. Relationships between neighborhood ADI grouping and rehospitalization were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression models, controlling for patient sociodemographics, comorbidities/severity, and index hospital characteristics. Results The 30-day rehospitalization rate did not vary significantly across the least disadvantaged 85% of neighborhoods, which had an average rehospitalization rate=21%. However, within the most disadvantaged 15% of neighborhoods, rehospitalization rates rose from 22% to 27% with worsening ADI. This relationship persisted after full adjustment, with the most disadvantaged neighborhoods having a rehospitalization risk (adjusted risk ratio = 1.09, confidence interval 1.05–1.12) similar to that of chronic pulmonary disease (1.06, 1.04–1.08) and greater than that of diabetes (0.95, 0.94–0.97). Limitations No direct markers of care quality, access Conclusions Residence within a disadvantaged US neighborhood is a rehospitalization predictor of magnitude similar to chronic pulmonary

  18. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Structural Disadvantage and Crime: White, Black, and Hispanic Comparisons*

    PubMed Central

    Ulmer, Jeffery T.; Harris, Casey T.; Steffensmeier, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study is to advance knowledge on racial/ethnic disparities in violence and the structural sources of those disparities. We do so by extending scarce and limited research exploring the relationship between race/ethnic gaps in disadvantage and differences in violent crime across groups. Methods Using census place-level data from California and New York, we construct White, Black, and Hispanic “gap” measures that take as a given the existence of disparities across race/ethnic groups in structural disadvantage and crime and subsequently utilize seemingly unrelated regression models to assess the extent to which gaps in disadvantage are predictive of gaps in homicide and index violence. Results Our results suggest that (1) there is considerable heterogeneity in the size of White-Black, White-Hispanic, and Black-Hispanic gaps in structural disadvantage and crime and (2) that race/ethnic disparities in structural disadvantage, particularly poverty and female headship, are positively associated with race/ethnic gaps in homicide and index violence. Conclusion In light of recent scholarship on the racial invariance hypothesis and on the relationship between structural inequality and crime, the current study demonstrates that disparities in disadvantage, particularly family structure and poverty, are important in driving racial and ethnic disparities in crime. PMID:25035523

  19. Theorizing alternative pathways through adulthood: unequal social arrangements in the lives of young disadvantaged men.

    PubMed

    Roy, Kevin; Jones, Nikki

    2014-03-01

    This chapter introduces the innovative field-based studies on disadvantaged men that are featured in this volume. Together, these studies of disadvantaged men from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds and both urban and nonurban settings complement and extend recent discussions of emerging adulthood, which typically conceptualizes the transition to adulthood as a normative and linear process. The authors offer that the research presented here provides a more accurate rendering of the transition to adulthood for young disadvantaged men. For disadvantaged young men, the transition to adulthood is often complex and nonlinear, and features a diversity of pathways that are often overlooked in contemporary research on transitions to adulthood. The chapter ends with a call for research and theory that better reflects the precarious nature of pathways to adulthood for disadvantaged men in urban and nonurban settings. Researchers are encouraged to draw on findings from field-based studies to inform policies and practices directed at minimizing the marginalization of disadvantaged men from mainstream society. PMID:24677645

  20. Identifying solutions to increase participation in physical activity interventions within a socio-economically disadvantaged community: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need to increase population levels of physical activity, particularly amongst those who are socio-economically disadvantaged. Multiple factors influence physical activity behaviour but the generalisability of current evidence to such ‘hard-to-reach’ population subgroups is limited by difficulties in recruiting them into studies. Also, rigorous qualitative studies of lay perceptions and perceptions of community leaders about public health efforts to increase physical activity are sparse. We sought to explore, within a socio-economically disadvantaged community, residents’ and community leaders’ perceptions of physical activity (PA) interventions and issues regarding their implementation, in order to improve understanding of needs, expectations, and social/environmental factors relevant to future interventions. Methods Within an ongoing regeneration project (Connswater Community Greenway), in a socio-economically disadvantaged community in Belfast, we collaborated with a Community Development Agency to purposively sample leaders from public- and voluntary-sector community groups and residents. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 leaders. Residents (n = 113), of both genders and a range of ages (14 to 86 years) participated in focus groups (n = 14) in local facilities. Interviews and focus groups were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a thematic framework. Results Three main themes were identified: awareness of PA interventions; factors contributing to intervention effectiveness; and barriers to participation in PA interventions. Participants reported awareness only of interventions in which they were involved directly, highlighting a need for better communications, both inter- and intra-sectoral, and with residents. Meaningful engagement of residents in planning/organisation, tailoring to local context, supporting volunteers, providing relevant resources and an ‘exit strategy

  1. Racial Disparities in Intimate Partner Violence Examined Through the Multiple Disadvantage Model.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tyrone C; Lo, Celia C

    2016-07-01

    This research adopted the perspective of the multiple disadvantage model to explore racial disparities in intimate partner violence (IPV) against women and IPV's links to social structural factors, social relationships, substance use, and health/mental health and access to related services. The study used data from 6,588 women who completed the National Violence Against Women Survey; linear regression was conducted separately for four ethnic groups. Results consistently showed physical assaults to increase with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. For African Americans, increases in assaults were linked to injury, disclosing IPV to friends/family as well as medical professionals, Medicaid use, and drug use; decreases, in turn, were linked to past assault by ex-partners. For Latinas, increases in assaults were associated with eight factors: being married, number of ex-partners, depression, disclosing IPV to friends/family and disclosing to mental-health professionals, drug use, alcohol abstinence, and partner's frequent alcohol use. For European Americans, increases in assaults were linked to number of ex-partners, injury, low income, Medicaid use, disclosing IPV to friends/family as well as mental-health professionals, and alcohol abstinence; decreases were associated with age and with other health insurance coverages. For women of other ethnicity, increases were linked to number of ex-partners, disclosing IPV to mental-health professionals, Medicaid use, drug use, and woman's own as well as partner's alcohol abstinence; decreases in this ethnicity category were linked to past assault by ex-partners. Intervention and policy implications are discussed. PMID:25716196

  2. Racial Differences in Follow-up of Abnormal Mammography Findings Among Economically Disadvantaged Women

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Swann Arp; Smith, Emily Rose; Hardin, James; Das, Irene Prabhu; Fulton, Jeanette; Hebert, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Background In the United States and particularly South Carolina, African-American women suffer disproportionately higher mortality rates than do European-American women. The timeliness of patient adherence to the follow-up of mammographic abnormalities may influence prognosis and survival. Consequently, the purpose of the present investigation was to examine racial differences in the completion and completion time of a diagnostic work-up following a finding of a suspicious breast abnormality. Methods Study participants of the Best Chance Network, a state-wide service program that provides free mammography screenings to economically disadvantaged and medically underserved women, were included in the study. Racial differences in tumor characteristics and adherence to recommended work-up were tested using Chi-square and t-tests. Logistic and Cox regression modeling was used to assess the relationship between work-up completion and other factors among African-American and European-American women. Results Completion of the work-up was associated with the number of previous procedures and income, with no significant differences noted by race. The amount of time to completion of the work-up was influenced by previous procedures, income, and race. After accounting for completion time, African-American women were 12% less likely than European-American women to complete the recommended work-up (HR=0.88, p-value=0.01). Conclusion This study established a racial disparity in the time to completion of a diagnostic work-up among Best Chance Network participants. These findings highlight the importance of understanding factors associated with delays and adherence in completion of recommended work-up when breast abnormalities are detected in mammograms. PMID:19859902

  3. Piloting proactive marketing to recruit disadvantaged adults to a community-wide obesity prevention program.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Blythe J; Eggins, Dianne; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Milat, Andrew J; Bauman, Adrian E; Wiggers, John

    2015-01-01

    Population-wide obesity prevention and treatment programs are fundamental to addressing the increasing overweight and obesity rates in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Innovative recruitment strategies, including proactive marketing strategies, are needed to ensure such programs have universal reach and target vulnerable populations. This study aimed to determine the success of proactive recruitment to Australia's Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service® (GHS) and to assess whether the recruitment strategy influenced participants' outcomes. Sociodemographic information was collected from all GHS participants who joined the service between February 2009 and August 2013, and anthropometric information regarding behavioural risk factors was collected from all GHS coaching participants at baseline and six months. Data were analysed according to the participants' referral source (self-referral and secondary referral versus proactive recruitment). Participants recruited through proactive marketing were more likely to be male, aged 50 years or older, have high school education, not be in paid employment and be from the lowest three quintiles of socioeconomic advantage. The risk factor profile of coaching participants recruited through proactive marketing did not vary significantly from those recruited via other mechanisms, although they were less likely to be obese and less likely to have a higher 'at risk' waist circumference measurement. Proactively recruited coaching participants reported significant improvements from baseline to six months (consistent with improvements made by participants recruited through other strategies), although they were significantly more likely to withdraw from coaching before they completed the six-month program.Proactive marketing facilitated use of an obesity prevention service; similar services may have greater reach if proactive marketing recruitment strategies are used. These strategies could be encouraged to assist

  4. Piloting proactive marketing to recruit disadvantaged adults to a community-wide obesity prevention program.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Blythe J; Eggins, Dianne; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Milat, Andrew J; Bauman, Adrian E; Wiggers, John

    2015-01-01

    Population-wide obesity prevention and treatment programs are fundamental to addressing the increasing overweight and obesity rates in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Innovative recruitment strategies, including proactive marketing strategies, are needed to ensure such programs have universal reach and target vulnerable populations. This study aimed to determine the success of proactive recruitment to Australia's Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service® (GHS) and to assess whether the recruitment strategy influenced participants' outcomes. Sociodemographic information was collected from all GHS participants who joined the service between February 2009 and August 2013, and anthropometric information regarding behavioural risk factors was collected from all GHS coaching participants at baseline and six months. Data were analysed according to the participants' referral source (self-referral and secondary referral versus proactive recruitment). Participants recruited through proactive marketing were more likely to be male, aged 50 years or older, have high school education, not be in paid employment and be from the lowest three quintiles of socioeconomic advantage. The risk factor profile of coaching participants recruited through proactive marketing did not vary significantly from those recruited via other mechanisms, although they were less likely to be obese and less likely to have a higher 'at risk' waist circumference measurement. Proactively recruited coaching participants reported significant improvements from baseline to six months (consistent with improvements made by participants recruited through other strategies), although they were significantly more likely to withdraw from coaching before they completed the six-month program.Proactive marketing facilitated use of an obesity prevention service; similar services may have greater reach if proactive marketing recruitment strategies are used. These strategies could be encouraged to assist

  5. School-level economic disadvantage and obesity in middle school children in central Texas, USA: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Although children of lower socio-economic status (SES) in the United States have generally been found to be at greater risk for obesity, the SES-obesity association varies when stratified by racial/ethnic groups-with no consistent association found for African American and Hispanic children. Research on contextual and setting-related factors may provide further insights into ethnic and SES disparities in obesity. We examined whether obesity levels among central Texas 8th grade students (n=2682) vary by school-level economic disadvantage across individual-level family SES and racial/ethnicity groups. As a secondary aim, we compared the association of school-level economic disadvantage and obesity by language spoken with parents (English or Spanish) among Hispanic students. Methods Multilevel regression models stratified by family SES and ethnicity were run using cross-sectional baseline data from five school districts participating in the Central Texas CATCH Middle School project. For family SES, independent multi-level logistic regression models were run for total sample and by gender for each family SES stratum (poor/near poor/just getting by, living comfortably, and very well off), adjusting for age, ethnicity, and gender. Similarly, multi-level regression models were run by race/ethnic group (African American, Hispanic, and White), adjusting for age, family SES, and gender. Results Students attending highly economically disadvantaged (ED) schools were between 1.7 (95% CI: 1.1-2.6) and 2.4 (95% CI: 1.2-4.8) times more likely to be obese as students attending low ED schools across family SES groups (p<.05). African American (ORAdj =3.4, 95% CI: 1.1-11.4), Hispanic (ORAdj=1.8, 95% CI 1.1-3.0) and White (ORAdj=3.8, 95% CI: 1.6-8.9) students attending high ED schools were more likely to be obese as counterparts at low ED schools (p<.05). Gender-stratified findings were similar to findings for total sample, although fewer results reached significance. While

  6. Ecological context, concentrated disadvantage, and youth reoffending: identifying the social mechanisms in a sample of serious adolescent offenders.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kevin A; Kim, Byungbae; Chassin, Laurie; Losoya, Sandra H; Piquero, Alex R

    2014-10-01

    Serious youthful offenders are presented with a number of significant challenges when trying to make a successful transition from adolescence to adulthood. One of the biggest obstacles for these youth to overcome concerns their ability to desist from further antisocial behavior, and although an emerging body of research has documented important risk and protective factors associated with desistance, the importance of the neighborhoods within which these youth reside has been understudied. Guided by the larger neighborhood effects on crime literature, the current study examines the direct and indirect effects of concentrated disadvantage on youth reoffending among a sample of highly mobile, serious youthful offenders. We use data from Pathways to Desistance, a longitudinal study of serious youthful offenders (N = 1,354; 13.6% female; 41.4% African American, 33.5% Hispanic, 20.2% White), matched up with 2000 Census data on neighborhood conditions for youth's main residence location during waves 7 and 8 of the study. These waves represent the time period in which youth are navigating the transition to adulthood (aged 18-22; average age = 20). We estimate structural equation models to determine direct effects of concentrated disadvantage on youth reoffending and also to examine the possible indirect effects working through individual-level mechanisms as specified by theoretical perspectives including social control (e.g., unsupervised peer activities), strain (e.g., exposure to violence), and learning (e.g., exposure to antisocial peers). Additionally, we estimate models that take into account the impact that a change in neighborhood conditions may have on the behavior of youth who move to new residences during the study period. Our results show that concentrated disadvantage is indirectly associated with youth reoffending primarily through its association with exposure to deviant peers. Taking into account youth mobility during the study period produced an additional

  7. Residential Selection across the Life Course: Adolescent Contextual and Individual Determinants of Neighborhood Disadvantage in Mid-Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Per E.; San Sebastian, Miguel; Janlert, Urban; Theorell, Töres; Westerlund, Hugo; Hammarström, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Background Numerous cross-sectional studies have examined neighborhood effects on health. Residential selection in adulthood has been stressed as an important cause of selection bias but has received little empirical attention, particularly its determinants from the earlier life course. The present study aims to examine whether neighborhood, family, school, health behaviors and health in adolescence are related to socioeconomic disadvantage of one's neighborhood of residence in adulthood. Methods Based on the prospective Northern Swedish Cohort (analytical N = 971, 90.6% retention rate), information was collected at age 16 years concerning family circumstances, school adjustment, health behaviors and mental and physical health. Neighborhood register data was linked to the cohort and used to operationalize aggregated measures of neighborhood disadvantage (ND) at age 16 and 42. Data was analyzed with linear mixed models, with ND in adulthood regressed on adolescent predictors and neighborhood of residence in adolescence as the level-2 unit. Results Neighborhood disadvantage in adulthood was clustered by neighborhood of residence in adolescence (ICC = 8.6%). The clustering was completely explained by ND in adolescence. Of the adolescent predictors, ND (b = .14 (95% credible interval = .07–.22)), final school marks (b = −.18 (−.26–−.10)), socioeconomic disadvantage (b = .07 (.01–.14)), and, with borderline significance, school peer problems (b = .07 (−.00–.13)), were independently related to adulthood ND in the final adjusted model. In sex-stratified analyses, the most important predictors were school marks (b = −.21 (−.32–−.09)) in women, and neighborhood of residence (ICC = 15.5%) and ND (b = .20 (.09–.31)) in men. Conclusions These findings show that factors from adolescence – which also may impact on adult health – could influence the neighborhood context in which one will live in adulthood. This

  8. Wanting to attend isn’t just wanting to quit: why some disadvantaged smokers regularly attend smoking cessation behavioural therapy while others do not: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Attendance of a behavioural support programme facilitates smoking cessation. Disadvantaged smokers have been shown to attend less than their more affluent peers. We need to gain in-depth insight into underlying reasons for differing attendance behaviour in disadvantaged smokers, to better address this issue. This study aims to explore the underlying motivations, barriers and social support of smokers exhibiting different patterns of attendance at a free smoking cessation behavioural support programme in a disadvantaged neighbourhood of The Netherlands. Methods In 29 smokers undertaking smoking cessation group therapy or telephone counselling in a disadvantaged neighbourhood, qualitative interviews were completed, coded and analysed. Major themes were motivations, barriers to attend and social support. Motivations and social support were analysed with reference to the self-determination theory. Results Two distinct patterns of attendance emerged: those who missed up to two sessions (“frequent attenders”), and those who missed more than two sessions (“infrequent attenders”). The groups differed in their motivations to attend, barriers to attendance, and in the level of social support they received. In comparison with the infrequent attenders, frequent attenders more often had intrinsic motivation to attend (e.g. enjoyed attending), and named more self-determined extrinsic motivations to attend, such as commitment to attendance and wanting to quit. Most of those mentioning intrinsic motivation did not mention a desire to quit as a motivation for attendance. No organizational barriers to attendance were mentioned by frequent attenders, such as misunderstandings around details of appointments. Frequent attenders experienced more social support within and outside the course. Conclusion Motivation to attend behavioural support, as distinct from motivation to quit smoking, is an important factor in attendance of smoking cessation courses in disadvantaged

  9. Self-Exempting Beliefs and Intention to Quit Smoking within a Socially Disadvantaged Australian Sample of Smokers.

    PubMed

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine; D'Este, Catherine; Twyman, Laura; Palazzi, Kerrin; Oldmeadow, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of beliefs used to rationalise smoking will have important implications for the content of anti-smoking programs targeted at socioeconomically disadvantaged groups, who show the lowest rates of cessation in the population. This study aimed to assess the types of self-exempting beliefs reported by a sample of socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers, and identify associations between these beliefs and other smoking-related factors with quit intentions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from March-December 2012 with smokers seeking welfare assistance in New South Wales (NSW), Australia (n = 354; response rate 79%). Responses to a 16-item self-exempting beliefs scale and intention to quit, smoker identity, and enjoyment of smoking were assessed. Most participants earned

  10. Self-Exempting Beliefs and Intention to Quit Smoking within a Socially Disadvantaged Australian Sample of Smokers.

    PubMed

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine; D'Este, Catherine; Twyman, Laura; Palazzi, Kerrin; Oldmeadow, Christopher

    2016-01-11

    An investigation of beliefs used to rationalise smoking will have important implications for the content of anti-smoking programs targeted at socioeconomically disadvantaged groups, who show the lowest rates of cessation in the population. This study aimed to assess the types of self-exempting beliefs reported by a sample of socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers, and identify associations between these beliefs and other smoking-related factors with quit intentions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from March-December 2012 with smokers seeking welfare assistance in New South Wales (NSW), Australia (n = 354; response rate 79%). Responses to a 16-item self-exempting beliefs scale and intention to quit, smoker identity, and enjoyment of smoking were assessed. Most participants earned

  11. Self-Exempting Beliefs and Intention to Quit Smoking within a Socially Disadvantaged Australian Sample of Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine; D’Este, Catherine; Twyman, Laura; Palazzi, Kerrin; Oldmeadow, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of beliefs used to rationalise smoking will have important implications for the content of anti-smoking programs targeted at socioeconomically disadvantaged groups, who show the lowest rates of cessation in the population. This study aimed to assess the types of self-exempting beliefs reported by a sample of socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers, and identify associations between these beliefs and other smoking-related factors with quit intentions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from March–December 2012 with smokers seeking welfare assistance in New South Wales (NSW), Australia (n = 354; response rate 79%). Responses to a 16-item self-exempting beliefs scale and intention to quit, smoker identity, and enjoyment of smoking were assessed. Most participants earned

  12. Perceived barriers to exercise and healthy eating among women from disadvantaged neighborhoods: results from a focus groups assessment.

    PubMed

    Baruth, Meghan; Sharpe, Patricia A; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Wilcox, Sara

    2014-01-01

    This study explored perceptions and experiences with barriers to exercise and healthy eating among women from predominately African American, disadvantaged neighborhoods. Four focus groups (n = 28) were conducted between April and May 2008 with overweight or obese women (93% African American; 34.3 ± 8.9 years; body mass index [BMI] 40.4 ± 8.5). Individual, social, and environmental factors were frequently mentioned as barriers to exercise and healthy eating. Insults from strangers about their body size (e.g., from children or people at the gym), and feelings of intimidation and embarrassment about not being able to complete exercises due to their body size were described as barriers to exercise. Lack of support and pressure from family, friends, and co-workers were barriers to healthy eating; participants experienced pressure from family and friends to eat more and were told they did not need to lose weight. Participants discussed the importance of not losing their curves; this concern needs to be considered when developing weight control programs for African American women. The findings of this qualitative study guided the development of a weight loss intervention for women from disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:24617795

  13. Perceived barriers to exercise and healthy eating among women from disadvantaged neighborhoods: Results from a focus groups assessment

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Patricia A.; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Wilcox, Sara

    2014-01-01

    This study explored perceptions and experiences with barriers to exercise and healthy eating among women from predominately African American, disadvantaged neighborhoods. Four focus groups (n=28) were conducted between April and May 2008 with overweight or obese women (93% African American; 34.3±8.9 years; BMI 40.4±8.5). Individual, social, and environmental factors were frequently mentioned as barriers to exercise and healthy eating. Insults from strangers about their body size (e.g. from children, people at the gym), and feelings of intimidation and embarrassment about not being able to complete exercises due to their body size were described as barriers to exercise. Lack of support and pressure from family, friends, and co-workers were barriers to healthy eating; participants experienced pressure from family and friends to eat more and were told they did not need to lose weight. Participants discussed the importance of not losing their curves; this concern needs to be considered when developing weight control programs for African American women. The findings of this qualitative study guided the development of a weight loss intervention for women from disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:24617795

  14. Perceived barriers to exercise and healthy eating among women from disadvantaged neighborhoods: results from a focus groups assessment.

    PubMed

    Baruth, Meghan; Sharpe, Patricia A; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Wilcox, Sara

    2014-01-01

    This study explored perceptions and experiences with barriers to exercise and healthy eating among women from predominately African American, disadvantaged neighborhoods. Four focus groups (n = 28) were conducted between April and May 2008 with overweight or obese women (93% African American; 34.3 ± 8.9 years; body mass index [BMI] 40.4 ± 8.5). Individual, social, and environmental factors were frequently mentioned as barriers to exercise and healthy eating. Insults from strangers about their body size (e.g., from children or people at the gym), and feelings of intimidation and embarrassment about not being able to complete exercises due to their body size were described as barriers to exercise. Lack of support and pressure from family, friends, and co-workers were barriers to healthy eating; participants experienced pressure from family and friends to eat more and were told they did not need to lose weight. Participants discussed the importance of not losing their curves; this concern needs to be considered when developing weight control programs for African American women. The findings of this qualitative study guided the development of a weight loss intervention for women from disadvantaged neighborhoods.

  15. 48 CFR 519.1202 - Evaluation factor or subfactor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation factor or... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program 519.1202 Evaluation factor or subfactor....

  16. Relation between economic disadvantage and psychosocial morbidity in children.

    PubMed Central

    Lipman, E L; Offord, D R; Boyle, M H

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between low income and child psychosocial morbidity cross-sectionally and longitudinally. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey with follow-up. SETTING: Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Children aged 4 to 16 years from families selected by means of stratified, clustered and random sampling of 1981 Canada Census data. Results were based on the responses of 2503 children interviewed in 1983 and 1076 re-interviewed in 1987. OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders, poor school performance and social impairment. RESULTS: There was a significant relation between low income and psychosocial morbidity, with a threshold at an income level of less than $10,000. Poor children 4 to 11 years of age were at greater risk of morbidity than poor children 12 to 16, but there were no significant age differences. Logistic regression revealed that low income and noneconomic factors (low maternal education and family dysfunction) shared significant independent influences on the prevalence of psychosocial morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Low income is strongly associated with psychosocial morbidity in children. Both economic and noneconomic factors showed independent influences on morbidity. These findings have important clinical, scientific and policy implications. PMID:8055403

  17. Sociopolitical development of private school children mobilising for disadvantaged others

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeg, Darren; Lemelin, Nathalie; Bencze, John Lawrence

    2015-12-01

    A contemporary focus on democratic decision-making has occurred in school science through curricular developments such as socioscientific issues (SSIs) and Science, Technology, Society and Environment (STSE), creates opportunities for inclusion of activist education. However, it appears these components are often taught, if at all, as simply add-on content. Private schools represent a domain of education that has received relatively little attention in research literature regarding sociopolitical activism for addressing SSIs. In this study, we aimed to document the extent to which private school students were able to implement socioscientific activism and to map their socio-political development in the context of a project on child labour. Data collected from student projects and interviews indicate, in many cases, dramatic development of socially critical views and activist orientations that took place over time, and in various steps. A discussion of the factors enabling students' activist development, such as the school culture, the curriculum, and their teacher, are discussed.

  18. Pathways between Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Childhood Growth in the Scottish Longitudinal Study, 1991–2001

    PubMed Central

    Silverwood, Richard J.; Williamson, Lee; Grundy, Emily M.; De Stavola, Bianca L.

    2016-01-01

    Socioeconomically disadvantaged children are more likely to be of shorter stature and overweight, leading to greater risk of obesity in adulthood. Disentangling the mediatory pathways between socioeconomic disadvantage and childhood size may help in the development of appropriate policies aimed at reducing these health inequalities. We aimed to elucidate the putative mediatory role of birth weight using a representative sample of the Scottish population born 1991–2001 (n = 16,628). Estimated height and overweight/obesity at age 4.5 years were related to three measures of socioeconomic disadvantage (mother’s education, Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation, synthetic weekly income). Mediation was examined using two approaches: a ‘traditional’ mediation analysis and a counterfactual-based mediation analysis. Both analyses identified a negative effect of each measure of socioeconomic disadvantage on height, mediated to some extent by birth weight, and a positive ‘direct effect’ of mother’s education and Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation on overweight/obesity, which was partly counterbalanced by a negative ‘indirect effect’. The extent of mediation estimated when adopting the traditional approach was greater than when adopting the counterfactual-based approach because of inappropriate handling of intermediate confounding in the former. Our findings suggest that higher birth weight in more disadvantaged groups is associated with reduced social inequalities in height but also with increased inequalities in overweight/obesity. PMID:27736963

  19. Can personality traits and intelligence compensate for background disadvantage? Predicting status attainment in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Damian, Rodica Ioana; Su, Rong; Shanahan, Michael; Trautwein, Ulrich; Roberts, Brent W

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the interplay of family background and individual differences, such as personality traits and intelligence (measured in a large U.S. representative sample of high school students; N = 81,000) in predicting educational attainment, annual income, and occupational prestige 11 years later. Specifically, we tested whether individual differences followed 1 of 3 patterns in relation to parental socioeconomic status (SES) when predicting attained status: (a) the independent effects hypothesis (i.e., individual differences predict attainments independent of parental SES level), (b) the resource substitution hypothesis (i.e., individual differences are stronger predictors of attainments at lower levels of parental SES), and (c) the Matthew effect hypothesis (i.e., "the rich get richer"; individual differences are stronger predictors of attainments at higher levels of parental SES). We found that personality traits and intelligence in adolescence predicted later attained status above and beyond parental SES. A standard deviation increase in individual differences translated to up to 8 additional months of education, $4,233 annually, and more prestigious occupations. Furthermore, although we did find some evidence for both the resource substitution and the Matthew effect hypotheses, the most robust pattern across all models supported the independent effects hypothesis. Intelligence was the exception, the interaction models being more robust. Finally, we found that although personality traits may help compensate for background disadvantage to a small extent, they do not usually lead to a "full catch-up" effect, unlike intelligence. This was the first longitudinal study of status attainment to test interactive models of individual differences and background factors.

  20. Can Personality Traits and Intelligence Compensate for Background Disadvantage? Predicting Status Attainment in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Damian, Rodica Ioana; Su, Rong; Shanahan, Michael; Trautwein, Ulrich; Roberts, Brent W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the interplay of family background and individual differences, such as personality traits and intelligence (measured in a large US representative sample of high school students; N = 81,000) in predicting educational attainment, annual income, and occupational prestige eleven years later. Specifically, we tested whether individual differences followed one of three patterns in relation to parental SES when predicting attained status: (a) the independent effects hypothesis (i.e., individual differences predict attainments independent of parental SES level), (b) the resource substitution hypothesis (i.e., individual differences are stronger predictors of attainments at lower levels of parental SES), and (c) the Matthew effect hypothesis (i.e., “the rich get richer,” individual differences are stronger predictors of attainments at higher levels of parental SES). We found that personality traits and intelligence in adolescence predicted later attained status above and beyond parental SES. A standard deviation increase in individual differences translated to up to 8 additional months of education, $4,233 annually, and more prestigious occupations. Furthermore, although we did find some evidence for both the resource substitution and the Matthew effect hypotheses, the most robust pattern across all models supported the independent effects hypothesis. Intelligence was the exception, where interaction models were more robust. Finally, we found that although personality traits may help compensate for background disadvantage to a small extent, they do not usually lead to a “full catch up” effect, unlike intelligence. This was the first longitudinal study of status attainment to test interactive models of individual differences and background factors. PMID:25402679

  1. Neighbourhood disadvantage, network capital and restless sleep: is the association moderated by gender in urban-dwelling adults?

    PubMed

    Bassett, Emma; Moore, Spencer

    2014-05-01

    Despite evidence suggesting that social and neighbourhood contexts may relate to sleep in adults, the underlying social and demographic mechanisms involved remain relatively unexplored. This study proposes a conceptual framework for examining the link between social environments and restless sleep, and assesses whether associations among restless sleep, social capital, and neighbourhood environments differ by gender. Data come from the 2008 Montreal Neighborhood Networks and Healthy Aging Study (n = 2707). Participants self-reported restless sleep. Network and cognitive dimensions of social capital were examined. Neighbourhood disadvantage and population density were measured using 2006 Canada Census data. Multilevel logistic analyses adjusting for socio-economic and -demographic variables were used to estimate associations among study variables. The final sample size for this study was 2643 adults (nmen = 930; nwomen = 1713). Women were more likely to experience restless sleep than men (OR: 1.29; 95% CIs: 1.07, 1.55). Network capital increased the likelihood of restless sleep in men (OR = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.04-1.50) but not women. High generalized trust decreased the odds of restless sleep in women (OR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.59-0.94); neighbourhood disadvantage increased the odds of restless sleep in women but not men (OR = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.01-1.38). The association among restless sleep, social capital, and neighbourhood environmental factors differed in male and female Montreal adults. This study contributes to a greater understanding of possible differential associations between social environments and health in men and women. Greater knowledge of the social and environmental factors that contribute to poor sleep in men and women can aid in the design of interventions to improve sleep patterns in the general population. Social and health promotion interventions might aim to improve general neighbourhood environmental conditions to improve the sleep health of

  2. Consequences of socioeconomic disadvantage across three generations: parenting behavior and child externalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Scaramella, Laura V; Neppl, Tricia K; Ontai, Lenna L; Conger, Rand D

    2008-10-01

    This study considers the intergenerational consequences of experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage within the family of origin. Specifically, the influence of socioeconomic disadvantage experienced during adolescence on the timing of parenthood and the association between early parenthood and risk for harsh parenting and emerging child problem behavior was evaluated. Participants included 154 3-generation families, followed prospectively over a 12-year period. Results indicated that exposure to poverty during adolescence, not parents' (first generation, or G1) education, predicted an earlier age of parenthood in G2. Younger G2 parents were observed to be harsher during interactions with their own 2-year-old child (G3), and harsh parenting predicted increases in G3 children's externalizing problems from age 2 to age 3. Finally, G3 children's externalizing behavior measured at age 3 predicted increases in harsh parenting from ages 3 to 4, suggesting that G3 children's behavior may exacerbate the longitudinal effects of socioeconomic disadvantage.

  3. Safety and Security Technologies of Importance to Transportation-Disadvantaged Populations Using Public Transit

    SciTech Connect

    Truett, Lorena Faith; Boundy, Robert Gary

    2006-01-01

    All travelers have concerns about safety and security. For transportation-disadvantaged persons (i.e., older adults, persons with disabilities, and low-income individuals), these concerns are amplified by the vulnerability of the individuals. Safety and security can be improved for transportation-disadvantaged populations through the use of technology. Specific technologies include vehicle tracking systems, silent alarm systems, security cameras, and way-finding navigation systems. Other innovative safety devices and programs provide additional safety and security. Five sites across the United States were visited to determine how agencies of different sizes using different approaches meet the needs of these special populations. The agencies noted that technologies of benefit to the transportation-disadvantaged communities generally benefit all users of public transportation.

  4. Rethinking the Cultural Context of Schooling Decisions in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods: From Deviant Subculture to Cultural Heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Harding, David J

    2011-10-01

    The literature on neighborhood effects on schooling theorizes that neighborhood cultural context is an important mechanism generating such effects. However, explanations that rely on subcultural theories, such as oppositional culture, have met with considerable criticism on empirical grounds, and no alternative account of the cultural context of disadvantaged neighborhoods has been developed in the education literature. This study develops a new account of the cultural context of schooling decisions in disadvantaged neighborhoods based on the concept of cultural heterogeneity, defined as the presence of a wide array of competing and conflicting cultural models. It applies this concept to neighborhood effects on college enrollment. Using survey data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study shows that disadvantaged neighborhoods exhibit greater heterogeneity in college goals and that adolescents in more heterogeneous neighborhoods are less likely to act in concert with the college goals that they articulate.

  5. New oral anticoagulants: their advantages and disadvantages compared with vitamin K antagonists in the prevention and treatment of patients with thromboembolic events

    PubMed Central

    Mekaj, Ymer H; Mekaj, Agon Y; Duci, Shkelzen B; Miftari, Ermira I

    2015-01-01

    Despite the discovery and application of many parenteral (unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparins) and oral anticoagulant vitamin K antagonist (VKA) drugs, the prevention and treatment of venous and arterial thrombotic phenomena remain major medical challenges. Furthermore, VKAs are the only oral anticoagulants used during the past 60 years. The main objective of this study is to present recent data on non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) and to analyze their advantages and disadvantages compared with those of VKAs based on a large number of recent studies. NOACs are novel direct-acting medications that are selective for one specific coagulation factor, either thrombin (IIa) or activated factor X (Xa). Several NOACs, such as dabigatran (a direct inhibitor of FIIa) and rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban (direct inhibitors of factor Xa), have been used for at least 5 years but possibly 10 years. Unlike traditional VKAs, which prevent the coagulation process by suppressing the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent factors, NOACs directly inhibit key proteases (factors IIa and Xa). The important indications of these drugs are the prevention and treatment of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolisms, and the prevention of atherothrombotic events in the heart and brain of patients with acute coronary syndrome and atrial fibrillation. They are not fixed, and dose-various strengths are available. Most studies have reported that more advantages than disadvantages for NOACs when compared with VKAs, with the most important advantages of NOACs including safety issues (ie, a lower incidence of major bleeding), convenience of use, minor drug and food interactions, a wide therapeutic window, and no need for laboratory monitoring. Nonetheless, there are some conditions for which VKAs remain the drug of choice. Based on the available data, we can conclude that NOACs have greater advantages and fewer disadvantages compared with VKAs. New studies are required

  6. Perspective Taking Explains Gender Differences in Late Adolescents' Attitudes Toward Disadvantaged Groups.

    PubMed

    Smith, Colin Tucker; Shepperd, James A; Miller, Wendi A; Graber, Julia A

    2016-07-01

    Adolescents' attitudes toward disadvantaged groups are surprisingly understudied. What we know from these few studies is that adolescents' attitudes tend to become more favorable over time and that adolescent girls display more favorable attitudes than do adolescent boys. However, researchers have not offered explanations for why these effects occur. We proposed that changes in social-cognitive abilities that accompany adolescent development increase perspective taking and that the increased perspective taking facilitates more favorable attitudes toward disadvantaged groups. Because girls develop social-cognitive abilities earlier than boys, girls should show greater perspective taking and thus more positive attitudes toward disadvantaged groups than should boys. Importantly, we propose that these more positive attitudes are explained better by perspective taking than by gender. Participants were late adolescents (n = 803, 53.3 % female, ages 15-19) from high schools in north-central Florida (United States) participating in an ongoing, multi-wave study. Participants completed a measure of perspective-taking and reported their attitudes toward three disadvantaged groups (Black, gay, and poor people) during their third year of high school and, again, 6 months later during their fourth year of high school. Our findings provided strong support for our theorizing. Girls generally reported warmer attitudes than did boys toward disadvantaged groups, with the gender differences in warmth tending to diminish across time. Similarly, girls were higher than boys in perspective-taking abilities at both time points, although boys increased over time whereas girls did not. Crucially, perspective taking mediated observed gender differences in attitudes, suggesting that perspective taking is a mechanism for improving attitudes toward disadvantaged groups during late adolescence. PMID:26519366

  7. Is the onset of disabling chronic conditions in later childhood associated with exposure to social disadvantage in earlier childhood? a prospective cohort study using the ONS Longitudinal Study for England and Wales

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aetiology of disabling chronic conditions in childhood in high income countries is not fully understood, particularly the association with socio-economic status (SES). Very few studies have used longitudinal datasets to examine whether exposure to social disadvantage in early childhood increases the risk of developing chronic conditions in later childhood. Here we examine this association, and its temporal ordering, with onset of all-cause disabling chronic later childhood in children reported as free from disability in early childhood. Methods The study comprised a prospective cohort study, using data from the Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study (ONSLS) for England and Wales. The study sample included 52,839 children with complete data born between 1981–1991 with no disabling chronic condition/s in 1991. Index cases were children with disability recorded in 2001. Comparison cases were children with no recorded disability in 1991. A socio-economic disadvantage index (SDI) was constructed from data on social class, housing tenure and car/van access. Associations were explored with logistic regression modelling controlling sequentially for potentially confounding factors; age, gender, ethnicity and lone parenthood. Results By 2001, 2049 (4%) had at least one disability. Socio-economic disadvantage, age, gender and lone parenthood but not ethnicity were significantly associated with onset of disabling chronic conditions. The SDI showed a finely graded association with onset of disabling chronic conditions in the index group (most disadvantaged OR 2·11 [CI 1·76 to 2·53]; disadvantaged in two domains OR 1·45 [CI 1·20 to 1·75]; disadvantaged in one domain OR 1·14 [CI 0·93 to 1·39] that was unaffected by age, gender and ethnicity and slightly attenuated by lone parenthood. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify socio-economic disadvantage in earlier childhood as a predisposing factor for onset of all

  8. Economic Disadvantage in Complex Family Systems: Expansion of Family Stress Models

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Economic disadvantage is associated with multiple risks to early socioemotional development. This paper reviews research regarding family stress frameworks to model the pathways from economic disadvantage to negative child outcomes via family processes. Future research in this area should expand definitions of family and household to incorporate diversity and instability. This expansion would be particularly relevant for research among low-income ethnic minority families and families with young children. This line of research would highlight specific pathways to target to prevent the onset of early parental and child dysfunction. PMID:18491229

  9. Family and Personal Adjustment of Economically Disadvantaged Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Tsui, Pik Fong

    2012-01-01

    This study attempted to examine the relationship between poverty and adolescent developmental outcomes in the family and personal domains in 3,328 Chinese secondary school students in Hong Kong. Developmental outcomes included positive youth development constructs, problem behaviors, perceived family interaction, and parental parenting. Results showed that adolescents experiencing poverty did not differ from nonpoor adolescents in terms of risk behavior and in most indicators of positive youth development. On the other hand, adolescents with economic disadvantage displayed lower levels of positive identity, family interaction, and perceived paternal parenting than did those without economic disadvantage. PMID:22919290

  10. Inequality as ingroup privilege or outgroup disadvantage: the impact of group focus on collective guilt and interracial attitudes.

    PubMed

    Powell, Adam A; Branscombe, Nyla R; Schmitt, Michael T

    2005-04-01

    Among members of privileged groups, social inequality is often thought of in terms of the disadvantages associated with outgroup membership. Yet inequality also can be validly framed in terms of ingroup privilege. These different framings have important psychological and social implications. In Experiment 1 (N = 110), White American participants assessed 24 statements about racial inequality framed as either White privileges or Black disadvantages. In Experiment 2 (N = 122), White participants generated examples of White privileges or Black disadvantages. In both experiments, a White privilege framing resulted in greater collective guilt and lower racism compared to a Black disadvantage framing. Collective guilt mediated the manipulation's effect on racism. In addition, in Experiment 2, a White privilege framing decreased White racial identification compared to a Black disadvantage framing. These findings suggest that representing inequality in terms of outgroup disadvantage allows privileged group members to avoid the negative psychological implications of inequality and supports prejudicial attitudes.

  11. Question Number Two: How Many Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwyn, Fara

    2012-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis involves five key decisions. The second decision, how many factors to retain, is the focus of the current paper. Extracting too many or too few factors often leads to devastating effects on study results. The advantages and disadvantages of the most effective and/or most utilized strategies to determine the number of…

  12. Social Work and the Training of Teachers of the Disadvantaged: A Final Report - Part V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Raymond S.; And Others

    The potential relevance of social work in the development of a teacher training program for teachers of disadvantaged children is investigated. Outcomes of the investigation are presented in the following discussions: (1) the deliberations of a Social Work consortium; (2) a condensed version of the material abstracted in the literature search; (3)…

  13. Psychology and the Training of Teachers of the Disadvantaged: A Final Report - Part III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Raymond S.; And Others

    The potential relevance of psychology in the development of a program for training teachers of the disadvantaged is the focus of this report. Strategy employed to examine the psychology area consisted of: (1) a consortium, made up of five leaders in the field and a moderator; (2) an extensive search of contemporary literature, with abstracts of…

  14. Special Environmental Education Project for Disadvantaged Gifted Primary Grade Students: 1980-81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballagas, Linda D.

    The Outdoor Activity Center (Atlanta, Georgia) provides enriched experiences in a natural environment for economically disadvantaged gifted primary grade students and has developed materials incorporating creative activities used at the Center to expand the elementary science curriculum of the Atlanta Public Schools. Fifty-eight gifted students…

  15. Raising School Performance in the League Tables (Part 1): Disentangling the Effects of Social Disadvantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levacic, Rosalind; Woods, Philip A.

    2002-01-01

    Uses existing data to investigate differences in the rate that schools improved General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) examination results from 1991-98. Finds two variables impacted examination improvement: (1) low concentration of social disadvantage relative to other local schools; and (2) starting from a low base level of GCSE…

  16. Counselor Preferences of Disabled and Disadvantaged College Students for Personal Versus Vocational Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohmer, Douglas C.; Phillips, Susan D.

    1985-01-01

    Examined the preferred counselor characteristics of two groups: students with disabilities and students who were educationally and economically disadvantaged. Counselor characteristics were examined in terms of how preferences are differentially expressed for help with personal-social versus vocational-educational concerns. (Author/BH)

  17. Barker's Ecology of Disadvantage and Educational Equity: Issues of Redistribution and Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffo, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    As Barker notes, the link between disadvantage and poor educational attainments is an enduring one. Educational policy over the last 40 years or so has tended to respond to educational inequality in predominately one of two ways--attempts to raise standards across the system as a whole and attempts to redistribute resources to families, schools…

  18. 48 CFR 752.219-8 - Utilization of small business concerns and small disadvantaged business concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... business concerns and small disadvantaged business concerns. 752.219-8 Section 752.219-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 752.219-8 Utilization of small business...

  19. Introduction: lesbians and work: the advantages and disadvantages of comfortable shoes.

    PubMed

    Brand, Pamela A

    2008-01-01

    This collection of research articles and personal essays on Lesbians and Work is introduced, highlighting some of the advantages and disadvantages that lesbians experience when they engage in paid work outside the home. Although lesbians in the U.S. and elsewhere experience similar workplace discrimination and stress, there are many different ways in which lesbian women respond to discrimination and manage stress.

  20. Developing Argument Skills in Severely Disadvantaged Adolescent Males in a Residential Correctional Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Fuccio, MaryAnne; Kuhn, Deanna; Udell, Wadiya; Callender, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    We investigate whether the intervention designed by Kuhn and Udell (2003) to develop argument skills could be implemented productively among adolescent males in a residential juvenile detention facility--boys who were educationally disengaged and severely disadvantaged academically as well as socially. Compared to a control group from the same…

  1. Engagement in community music classes sparks neuroplasticity and language development in children from disadvantaged backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Nina; Hornickel, Jane; Strait, Dana L; Slater, Jessica; Thompson, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Children from disadvantaged backgrounds often face impoverished auditory environments, such as greater exposure to ambient noise and fewer opportunities to participate in complex language interactions during development. These circumstances increase their risk for academic failure and dropout. Given the academic and neural benefits associated with musicianship, music training may be one method for providing auditory enrichment to children from disadvantaged backgrounds. We followed a group of primary-school students from gang reduction zones in Los Angeles, CA, USA for 2 years as they participated in Harmony Project. By providing free community music instruction for disadvantaged children, Harmony Project promotes the healthy development of children as learners, the development of children as ambassadors of peace and understanding, and the development of stronger communities. Children who were more engaged in the music program-as defined by better attendance and classroom participation-developed stronger brain encoding of speech after 2 years than their less-engaged peers in the program. Additionally, children who were more engaged in the program showed increases in reading scores, while those less engaged did not show improvements. The neural gains accompanying music engagement were seen in the very measures of neural speech processing that are weaker in children from disadvantaged backgrounds. Our results suggest that community music programs such as Harmony Project provide a form of auditory enrichment that counteracts some of the biological adversities of growing up in poverty, and can further support community-based interventions aimed at improving child health and wellness. PMID:25566109

  2. Methods and Strategies: Oral Science Stories. Using Culturally Responsive Storytelling to Teach Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Renard; Hall, Cynthia; Hawkins, Tristan; Hartley, Megan; McCray, Willie; Sirleaf, Hammed

    2016-01-01

    T.A.L.E.S., Teaching And Learning with Engaging Stories, is an alternative teaching method that focuses on enhancing learning by teaching science, math, ELA, and social studies through story. A six-week research study investigating socioeconomically disadvantaged students' responses to oral stories was conducted during an afterschool tutoring…

  3. Bender Gestalt Test Performance and the Word Recognition Skills of Disadvantaged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, E. H.; Thurber, Steven

    1976-01-01

    The Bender Gestalt Test and the WRAT reading section were administered to 147 disadvantaged children. The zero-order correlation of -.62 was found to be moderated by the variable of age. For younger subjects, highly significant first- and second-order partial correlations were obtained with age and/or WISC information scores held constant. (Author)

  4. Subject to Background: What Promotes Better Achievement for Bright but Disadvantaged Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammons, Pam; Toth, Katalin; Sylva, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    This report looks at children's education careers by drawing on data from a sample of more than 3,000 young people who have been tracked through school since the age of three. In particular, this research identified a group of disadvantaged children, establishing what predicted their academic success at the age of 11 and following them up to age…

  5. IFLA General Conference, 1986. Libraries Serving the General Public Division. Section: Libraries for Disadvantaged People. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on libraries for disadvantaged people presented at the 1986 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "The Hearing Impaired Persons and Libraries--The Status Quo in Japan" (Shuuichi Matsunobu, Japan); (2) "A Production System of Captioned Video Tapes Using Japanese Word Processors" (Satoshi Nishikawa,…

  6. SECOND-YEAR REPORT ON AN EVALUATIVE STUDY OF PREKINDERGARTEN PROGRAMS FOR EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DI LORENZO, LOUIS T.; SALTER, RUTH

    PREKINDERGARTENS IN 8 NEW YORK STATE SCHOOL SYSTEMS WERE EVALUATED TO FIND OUT IF THE CHILDREN INVOLVED SHOWED INCREASED CAPACITY TO LEARN, AND IMPROVEMENT IN LANGUAGE AND COGNITIVE SKILLS. 1010 DISADVANTAGED AND 225 NONDISADVANTAGED SUBJECTS WERE RANDOMLY ASSIGNED TO EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS AND PRE- AND POST-TESTED WITH THE STANFORD-BINET…

  7. The Social-Emotional Impact of Instrumental Music Performance on Economically Disadvantaged South African Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devroop, Karendra

    2012-01-01

    Within the literature there exists a large volume of research studies attesting to the positive relationships between studying music and various psychological and sociological variables. A close examination of these studies reveals that only a handful were conducted on disadvantaged populations. Accordingly, it remains unclear to what extent these…

  8. Prospects for the Future: The Use of Participatory Action Research to Study Educational Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Emily Alana

    2005-01-01

    Of all the varieties of educational disadvantage, issues involving students who are homeless, or who move frequently because of poverty, are perhaps some of the most difficult for public school educators in the US to address. Using a pragmatic mixed methods design, this study evaluates the efficacy of participatory action research (PAR): (1) as a…

  9. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Social Comparisons, and the Subjective Assessment of Ambient Problems among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schieman, Scott; Pearlin, Leonard I.

    2006-01-01

    Using data from adults age 65 and older in the District of Columbia and two adjoining counties in Maryland, we examine the association between community-level structural disadvantage and individuals' subjective assessments of neighborhood problems. In addition, we test whether or not perceptions of relative financial equality or inequality with…

  10. Education for Rural Development - A Portfolio of Studies. Volume 2: Education for Disadvantaged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naik, Chitra; And Others

    The volume contains two studies from India and Thailand on the education of women, and rural women especially, who are deprived or disadvantaged. The Indian study, "Education of Girls and Women in Deprived Groups," presents a viewpoint on deprivation in society in general, and India specifically. The concomitant of deprivation is defined as the…

  11. Work Evaluation for Economically and Educationally Disadvantaged Families of Barron County. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Esther

    This is the report of a project designed to bring a coordinated service program to rural disadvantaged by providing career cluster workshops for youth and marriage and family counseling for families. In the first of three chapters the summary, purpose, objectives, rational, and literature review are presented. Two project purposes are to assess…

  12. Building Equitable Literate Futures: Home and School Computer-Mediated Literacy Practices and Disadvantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Ilana; Angus, Lawrence; Sutherland-Smith, Wendy

    2002-01-01

    Examines the complex connections among literacy practices, the use of information, and communication technologies (ICTs) and disadvantage. Reports findings of a year-long Australian study, which investigated ways that four families use ICTs to engage in formal and informal literacy learning in home and school settings. (BT)

  13. Targeting Educational Disadvantage by Area: Continuity and Change in Urban Areas in England, 1968-2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, George; Smith, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on data and policies from England, trends in educational disadvantage by area are traced from the late 1960s when the first pilot projects were established in the UK, to the present. The origins of these developments and the subsequent rises and falls of such area-based policies in England are reviewed. Specially collected data for the…

  14. Identification of Strategies to Increase Retention of Disadvantaged Students in Nontraditional Programs in Florida. Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Hollie B.; And Others

    This manual is designed to assist school personnel in their efforts to increase the number of women and nontraditional students who are recruited into and retained in nontraditional occupational preparation programs. Discussed first are the nature and scope of the problem of retaining disadvantaged students in nontraditional vocational programs,…

  15. Investigation of Systematic Instructional Procedures to Facilitate Academic Achievement in Mentally Retarded Disadvantaged Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle. Child Development and Mental Retardation Center.

    Investigators applied the techniques of precision teaching (systematic arrangement of instructional cues, the technology of programed learning, careful management of reinforcement contingencies, and continuous measurement of performance) to improve the academic performance of disadvantaged children who had been labeled mentally retarded. The…

  16. Empowering Educationally Disadvantaged Mathematics Students through a Strategies-Based Problem Solving Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramnarain, Umesh

    2014-01-01

    A major impediment to problem solving in mathematics in the great majority of South African schools is that disadvantaged students from seriously impoverished learning environments are lacking in the necessary informal mathematical knowledge to develop their own strategies for solving non-routine problems. A randomized pretest-posttest control…

  17. RETENTION IN READING OF DISADVANTAGED MEXICAN-AMERICAN CHILDREN DURING THE SUMMER MONTHS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ARNOLD, RICHARD D.

    THREE GROUPS OF DISADVANTAGED MEXICAN-AMERICAN CHILDREN WERE TESTED TO DETERMINE CHANGES IN READING ACHIEVEMENT BETWEEN SECOND AND THIRD GRADE. DURING THE SCHOOL YEAR, AN ORAL-AURAL ENGLISH GROUP OF 102 CHILDREN WERE GIVEN INTENSIVE ENGLISH LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION WHILE AN ORAL-AURAL SPANISH GROUP OF 67 CHILDREN WERE GIVEN INTENSIVE SPANISH LANGUAGE…

  18. Exploring the Link between Caregiver Affect and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Does Neighborhood Disadvantage Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Margo; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of urban youth (N = 1,070), we examined the links between primary caregiver affect (i.e., warmth and hostility) and two measures of sexual behavior in adolescence--early sexual initiation and sex with multiple partners. We also examined the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage moderated associations between caregiver affect and…

  19. A Functional Assessment of the Impact of Advantages and Disadvantages on Breastfeeding Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Acker, Frederik; Bakker, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Although health and other benefits of breastfeeding for mother and child have been repeatedly shown, there is still a large proportion of women who do not initiate or continue breastfeeding. The aim of the current study is to analyze the contribution of the presentation of advantages and disadvantages of breastfeeding in developing an attitude…

  20. 48 CFR 52.219-26 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Incentive Subcontracting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Commerce. (b) If the Contractor exceeds its total monetary target for subcontracting to small disadvantaged... excess of the monetary target, unless the Contracting Officer determines that the excess was not due to the Contractor's efforts (e.g., a subcontractor cost overrun caused the actual subcontract amount...

  1. 48 CFR 52.219-26 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program-Incentive Subcontracting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Commerce. (b) If the Contractor exceeds its total monetary target for subcontracting to small disadvantaged... excess of the monetary target, unless the Contracting Officer determines that the excess was not due to the Contractor's efforts (e.g., a subcontractor cost overrun caused the actual subcontract amount...

  2. 48 CFR 1552.219-72 - Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Small Disadvantaged Business Participation Program. 1552.219-72 Section 1552.219-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts...

  3. Opportunities for the Disadvantaged; a Report to the State Secondary Education Act of 1965 in Michigan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Board of Education, Lansing.

    This report briefly describes Federally-financed compsensatory education activities for disadvantaged students in Michigan public and private schools during the 1966-67 academic year. Types of projects, fiscal policy, and use of grants are discussed. Illustrative projects, including a preschool program, reading improvement instruction, and a…

  4. The Achievement of Economically Disadvantaged Fifth Graders in Summer Enrichment Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulden, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    The achievement gap between economically disadvantaged students and their traditional counterparts has continued to be a problem in education. Based on cognitive constructivist theory and enrichment theory, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between scores on a high-stakes achievement test and participation in a summer…

  5. TV Characters at Work: Television's Role in the Occupational Aspirations of Economically Disadvantaged Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffner, Cynthia A.; Levine, Kenneth J.; Sullivan, Quintin E.; Crowell, Dennis; Pedrick, Laura; Berndt, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Television regularly depicts work-related activities of fictional characters and is one of several important sources of occupational information for young people. However, no research appears to have examined the influence of televised occupational portrayals on economically disadvantaged youths, although television may be an especially important…

  6. Pilot Evaluation of Parent and Child Enhancement Program for Disadvantaged Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Cynthia; Tsang, Sandra; Leung, Iona

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study was a pilot evaluation of the effectiveness of the Parent and Child Enhancement (PACE) program in enhancing child development for disadvantaged families with children aged 2 to 3. Method: Participants included 23 parent-child dyads who attended 2-hr sessions twice weekly for 20 weeks. Parents and children were assessed…

  7. Gaining Access or Losing Ground? Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Students in Undergraduate Engineering, 1994-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy-Wagner, Valerie C.; Veenstra, Cindy P.; Orr, Marisa K.; Ramirez, Nichole M.; Ohland, Matthew W.; Long, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    Expanding access to engineering for underrepresented groups has by and large focused on ethnicity/race and gender, with little understanding of socioeconomic disadvantages. In this study, we use economic, human, and cultural capital theories to frame and then describe access to undergraduate engineering degree programs and bachelor's degrees.…

  8. Perceived Advantages and Disadvantages of Being a Female Graduate Student in the US and the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Clare Marie; Keener, Emily; Shrier, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    We build on Diana Leonard's work on gender and graduate education by qualitatively investigating the perceived advantages and disadvantages of being a female graduate student in the USA and the UK. We interviewed six female students (ages 22-30) pursuing master's degrees in psychology or social sciences in the USA and the UK. Students…

  9. A Parent-Based Book-Reading Intervention for Disadvantaged Children with Language Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colmar, Susan Hilary

    2014-01-01

    Children with delayed language skills, who were from a socio-economic area defined as disadvantaged, made significant improvements in language skills after their parents were trained in easily learned strategies, enabling them to make simple changes in the way they interacted with their children. The 36 children, mean age five years, were…

  10. "Free Primary Education" in Lesotho and the Disadvantages of the Highlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urwick, James

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the effects of national policies associated with "Education for All" on a disadvantaged region, the highlands of Lesotho. Since 2000 a programme of "Free Primary Education" has improved the position of the highlands in access to primary schooling; nevertheless, highland primary schools compare poorly with those in the…

  11. Advantages and Disadvantages of Cross Grade Level Collaboration to Improve Collegial Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Fidelia

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have connected student achievement to teacher collaboration; however, there is a paucity of studies conducted on how teachers use identified advantages and disadvantages of cross grade level collaboration to improve collegial interactions to achieve better student performance, professional development, teacher effectiveness, and job…

  12. 28 CFR 0.18a - Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. 0.18a Section 0.18a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of the Deputy Attorney General § 0.18a Office of Small and...

  13. 28 CFR 0.18a - Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. 0.18a Section 0.18a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of the Deputy Attorney General § 0.18a Office of Small and...

  14. Advantages and Disadvantages of Native- and Nonnative-English-Speaking Teachers: Student Perceptions in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Lai Ping Florence

    2012-01-01

    The Native English Teachers (NETs) Scheme has been in place for over 20 years in secondary schools in Hong Kong and yet how students perceive these teachers is under-researched. This article reports a study which analyses student perceptions of the advantage and disadvantages of learning English from NETs and their non-native counterparts, local…

  15. Affiliation to Youth Gangs during Adolescence: The Interaction between Childhood Psychopathic Tendencies and Neighborhood Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupere, Veronique; Lacourse, Eric; Willms, J. Douglas; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    Because youth gangs tend to cluster in disadvantaged neighborhoods, adolescents living in such neighborhoods are more likely to encounter opportunities to join youth gangs. However, in the face of these opportunities, not all adolescents respond in the same manner. Those with preexisting psychopathic tendencies might be especially likely to join.…

  16. Walker Readiness Test for Disadvantaged Pre-School Children; Forms A and B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Wanda

    This instrument assesses readiness for school in preschool disadvantaged children. Two forms, A and B, are available and it is recommended that one be used as a diagnostic pretest and the other as a progress measure. The test is an individually administered, non-verbal, untimed, but paced instrument. The child responds to questions, given in…

  17. A Summer Reading and Study Skills Program for Socially Disadvantaged College Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kling, Martin

    This report deals with a 2-week reading and study program developed for socially disadvantaged incoming freshmen at Rutgers University. Of the group studied, 84 percent were black, and the rest were white boys. Of the blacks, 53 percent were female. The organization of the skills acquisition program is described. Also given are informal and formal…

  18. Is Concentrated Advantage the Cause? The Relative Contributions of Neighborhood Advantage and Disadvantage to Educational Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Odis, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Supported by persistent educational inequality and growth of the field of neighborhood effects research, this meta-analysis investigates the relative association of neighborhood advantage and disadvantage to educational outcomes; the consistency of associations across different educational indicators; and the moderating influence of model…

  19. Helping Disadvantaged Children Learn to Read by Teaching Them Phoneme Identification Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallach, Michael A.; Wallach, Lise

    The rationale, development, and implementation of a reading program designed to teach disadvantaged children the skills prerequisite to learning to read are discussed in this paper. Of particular importance are skills in the recognition and manipulation of basic speech sounds, phonemes. The first of the program's three parts takes two and one-half…

  20. The Effectiveness of the Sound Reading Program with the Culturally Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Barbara Carter

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relative effectiveness of a programed linguistically-based reading approach with an eclectic approach when used with disadvantaged children in grades one and two in a rural county of northern Florida. The children, 137 first and second grade students, were stratified according to sex and race and…