Science.gov

Sample records for discarded fishing gear

  1. Damage and partitioned mortality of teleosts discarded from two Australian penaeid fishing gears.

    PubMed

    Uhlmann, Sebastian S; Broadhurst, Matt K

    2007-07-16

    Six field experiments were perfromed to (1) quantify the scale loss and partitioned (immediate and short-term) mortality of key teleosts discarded from a penaeid seiner and trawler operating in 2 estuaries in southeastern Australia, and (2) assess the utility of modified operational and/or onboard handling procedures for maximising survival. For both gears, several non-target species were caught, handled and discarded according to 2 general categories of treatment ('mild' and 'extreme') representing the plausible limits of severity of commercial operations. The mild treatments involved the shortest conventional deployments of the gears followed by the immediate sorting of catches in water-filled trays, while the extreme treatments comprised the longest conventional deployments and sorting in dry trays. Discards were examined for immediate mortalities and scale loss before sorting onboard, while live individuals of key species, along with appropriate numbers of controls, were released into sea cages and monitored for mortalities up to 5 d. For both gears, there was a trend of higher percentages of immediate mortalities in the extreme treatments, and more scale loss from dead than live seined and trawled silver biddy Gerres subfasciatus, seined tarwhine Rhabdosargus sarba and trawled yellowfin bream Acanthopagrus australis. Despite considerable interspecific variabilities, few intraspecific differences were detected between treatments for the short-term mortalities of live discards; however, for all species, these deaths were greater than those incurred by the controls (most of which survived). The partitioned mortality estimates were combined to provide a range of total mortalities for seined (95.97 and 99.07%, respectively) and trawled (71.74 and 97.64%) G. subfasciatus, seined R. sarba (23.95 and 100%) and trawled southern herring Herklotsichthys castelnaui (100%) and A. australis (3.40 and 35.01%). Because most deaths occurred irrespective of onboard handling

  2. Understanding the sources and effects of abandoned, lost, and discarded fishing gear on marine turtles in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Chris; Heathcote, Grace; Goldberg, Jennifer; Gunn, Riki; Peel, David; Hardesty, Britta Denise

    2015-02-01

    Globally, 6.4 million tons of fishing gear are lost in the oceans annually. This gear (i.e., ghost nets), whether accidently lost, abandoned, or deliberately discarded, threatens marine wildlife as it drifts with prevailing currents and continues to entangle marine organisms indiscriminately. Northern Australia has some of the highest densities of ghost nets in the world, with up to 3 tons washing ashore per kilometer of shoreline annually. This region supports globally significant populations of internationally threatened marine fauna, including 6 of the 7 extant marine turtles. We examined the threat ghost nets pose to marine turtles and assessed whether nets associated with particular fisheries are linked with turtle entanglement by analyzing the capture rates of turtles and potential source fisheries from nearly 9000 nets found on Australia's northern coast. Nets with relatively larger mesh and smaller twine sizes (e.g., pelagic drift nets) had the highest probability of entanglement for marine turtles. Net size was important; larger nets appeared to attract turtles, which further increased their catch rates. Our results point to issues with trawl and drift-net fisheries, the former due to the large number of nets and fragments found and the latter due to the very high catch rates resulting from the net design. Catch rates for fine-mesh gill nets can reach as high as 4 turtles/100 m of net length. We estimated that the total number of turtles caught by the 8690 ghost nets we sampled was between 4866 and 14,600, assuming nets drift for 1 year. Ghost nets continue to accumulate on Australia's northern shore due to both legal and illegal fishing; over 13,000 nets have been removed since 2005. This is an important and ongoing transboundary threat to biodiversity in the region that requires attention from the countries surrounding the Arafura and Timor Seas.

  3. Fish discards management: pollution levels and best available removal techniques.

    PubMed

    Antelo, Luis T; Lopes, Carla; Franco-Uría, Amaya; Alonso, Antonio A

    2012-07-01

    Fish discards and by-catch issues are highly topical subjects that are permanently under a social focus. Two main approaches are being considered to address this discard problem: reducing the by-catch and increasing by-catch utilization. Interest in increased by-catch valorization may arise from a greater demand for fish products, such as the development of new markets for previously discarded species, the use of low-value specimens for aquaculture or the creation of value-added fish products for the food, pharmaceutical or cosmetic industries. However, contaminants present in fish discards may be transferred to their valorized products, leading to possible long-term bioaccumulation and subsequent adverse health effects. In this valorization framework, the aim is to promote responsible and sustainable management of marine resources. The pollutant levels in catches from European fisheries and the best available decontamination techniques for marine valorized discards/by-products are compiled and analyzed in this work.

  4. Fishing gear-related injury in California marine wildlife.

    PubMed

    Dau, Brynie Kaplan; Gilardi, Kirsten V K; Gulland, Frances M; Higgins, Ali; Holcomb, Jay B; Leger, Judy St; Ziccardi, Michael H

    2009-04-01

    not detected between seasons for pinnipeds. Derelict fishing gear-lost, abandoned or discarded sport and commercial line, nets, traps, etc.-in the marine environment is a significant cause of injury in California coastal marine wildlife. We evaluated data for stranded animals only; our results may underestimate the true number of coastal marine animals injured by lost or discarded fishing gear in California.

  5. From discard ban to exemption: How can gear technology help reduce catches of undersized Nephrops and hake in the Bay of Biscay trawling fleet?

    PubMed

    Vogel, Camille; Kopp, Dorothée; Méhault, Sonia

    2017-01-15

    On January 1st, 2016, the French mixed Nephrops and hake fishery of the Grande Vasière, an area located in the Bay of Biscay, fell under the discard ban implemented as part of the new European Common Fisheries Policy. The fleet records historically high levels of discard despite numerous gear selectivity studies. Together with high discards survival, new technological solutions to minimize catches of undersized individuals could justify local exemptions from the discard ban. Our study focuses on the effects of two selective devices, a square mesh cylinder (SMC) and a grid, on the escapement of undersized individuals and discard reduction. Relative catch probability of the modified gear compared with the traditional gear was modelled using the catch comparison method. Potential losses from the commercial fraction of the catch were taken into account to assess their influence on the economic viability of fishing with the modified gears. The two devices had similar effects on undersized Nephrops escapement and on discard reduction, with median values of 26.5% and 23.6% for the SMC and of 30.4% and 21.4% for the grid, respectively. Only the grid was efficient for undersized hake, recording median values of escapement and discard reduction equal to 25.0% and 20.6%, respectively. Some loss from the commercial fraction of the catch was to be expected with both devices, which could be compensated for in the long term by the contribution of undersized individuals to the stock biomass. Our results support the use of selective gears technology as part of an integrated framework including control and management measures to mitigate the effect of the discard ban both for fishers and for the ecosystem. Further work is needed to quantify the effect of additional escapement from the gear on stock dynamics.

  6. A multi-criteria assessment of fishing gear impacts in demersal fisheries.

    PubMed

    Innes, James P; Pascoe, Sean

    2010-01-01

    Fishing gears have multiple impacts on the marine environment, and policies to reduce these impacts through modifying fishing gears are becoming common place. Different modifications result in different changes in the set of environmental impacts, and imply different sets of costs and benefits for different stakeholder groups. In this study, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used to quantify the relative importance of the environmental impacts of fishing to different stakeholder groups. Forty eight individuals representing six different stakeholder groups (ecologists, biologists, economists, gear technologists, fishers and fisheries managers) were surveyed. As expected, fishers and gear technologists placed substantially greater importance on reducing discarding of commercial fish species than on habitat damage. Priorities of other stakeholder groups varied, but all placed greater priority on habitats than the commercial sector. The results suggest that management aimed at reducing environmental impacts of fishing broader than just discarding is appropriate, but such moves are likely to be opposed by the fishing industry. The derived weights also have a direct application to fisheries management, as they allow otherwise non-commensurate impacts to be aggregated into an overall impact to compare environmental benefits from alternative modifications of fishing gear.

  7. 50 CFR 622.30 - Required fishing gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Required fishing gear. 622.30 Section 622... Resources of the Gulf of Mexico § 622.30 Required fishing gear. For a person on board a vessel to fish for Gulf reef fish in the Gulf EEZ, the vessel must possess on board and such person must use the gear...

  8. 50 CFR 622.30 - Required fishing gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Required fishing gear. 622.30 Section 622... Resources of the Gulf of Mexico § 622.30 Required fishing gear. For a person on board a vessel to fish for Gulf reef fish in the Gulf EEZ, the vessel must possess on board and such person must use the gear...

  9. Quantifying the environmental impacts of artisanal fishing gear on Kenya's coral reef ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Mangi, S C; Roberts, C M

    2006-12-01

    The environmental impacts of artisanal fishing gear on coral reef ecosystems were studied in the multi-gear fishery of southern Kenya to evaluate which types of gear have the greatest impact on coral reef biodiversity. The gear types studied were large and small traps, gill nets, beach seines, hand lines and spear guns. Levels of coral damage, proportion of juvenile fish and discards, size and maturity stage at first capture were quantified and compared amongst the gear types. Results indicate that fishers using beach seines, spears and gill nets cause the most direct physical damage to corals. Spear fishers showed the highest number of contacts to live corals per unit catch followed by fishers using gill nets (12.6+/-1.8 and 5.9+/-2.0 coral contacts per kg fish caught per trip respectively). Apart from discarding 6.5% of their daily catch in the sea, as it was too small, beach seine fishers also landed the highest percentage of juvenile fish (68.4+/-15.7%), a proportion significantly higher (p<0.001) than in any other gear. The size and maturity stage at first capture for 150 of 195 species caught by all gear types was well below the lengths at which they mature. For example, 100% of Lethrinus xanthochilus, 99% of Lethrinus nebulosus and 94% of Lethrinus harak caught were juveniles. Across all gear types, 50.1+/-22.7% of the catch consisted of juvenile fish, indicating serious growth overfishing. Field assessment of levels of coral density showed that fishing grounds where beach seines were still in use had a significantly lower density than where beach seining was not used. This correlation is likely to arise in part because seines cannot be used in the most coral rich areas, and in part because coral loss is a consequence of seine use. On a per gear basis therefore, beach seines had the most impact on coral reef biodiversity. This study emphasizes the need to enforce restrictions on destructive gear and mesh sizes.

  10. Lost fishing gear and litter at Gorringe Bank (NE Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Rui P.; Raposo, Isabel P.; Sobral, Paula; Gonçalves, Jorge M. S.; Bell, Katherine L. C.; Cunha, Marina R.

    2015-06-01

    Studies concerning marine litter have received great attention over the last several years by the scientific community mainly due to their ecological and economic impacts in marine ecosystems, from coastal waters to the deep ocean seafloor. The distribution, type and abundance of marine litter in Ormonde and Gettysburg, the two seamounts of Gorringe Bank, were analyzed from photo and video imagery obtained during ROV-based surveys carried out at 60-3015 m depths during the E/V Nautilus cruise NA017. Located approximately 125 nm southwest of Portugal, Gorringe Bank lays at the crossroad between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean and is therefore characterized by an intense maritime traffic and fishing activities. The high frequency of lost or discarded fishing gear, such as cables, longlines and nets, observed on Gorringe Bank suggests an origin mostly from fishing activities, with a clear turnover in the type of litter (mostly metal, glass and to a much lesser extent, plastic) with increasing depth. Litter was more abundant at the summit of Gorringe Bank (ca. 4 items·km- 1), decreasing to less than 1 item·km- 1 at the flanks and to ca. 2 items·km- 1 at greater depths. Nevertheless, litter abundance appeared to be lower than in continental margin areas. The results presented herein are a contribution to support further actions for the conservation of vulnerable habitats on Gorringe Bank so that they can continue contributing to fishery productivity in the surrounding region.

  11. Significant effects of fishing gear selectivity on fish life history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhenlin; Sun, Peng; Yan, Wei; Huang, Liuyi; Tang, Yanli

    2014-06-01

    Over the past few decades, extreme changes have occurred in the characters of exploited fish populations. The majority of these changes have affected the growth traits of fish life history, which include a smaller size-at-age, an earlier age-at-maturation and among others. Currently, the causes of these life history traits changes still require systematic analyses and empirical studies. The explanations that have been cited are merely expressed in terms of fish phenotypic adaptation. It has been claimed that the original traits of fish can be recovered once the intensity of exploitation of the fish is controlled. Sustained environmental and fishing pressure will change the life history traits of most fish species, so the fish individual's traits are still in small size-at-age and at earlier age-at-maturation in exploited fish populations. In this paper, we expressed our view of points that fishing gear has imposed selectivity on fish populations and individuals as various other environmental factors have done and such changes are unrecoverable. According to the existing tend of exploited fish individual's life history traits, we suggested further researches in this field and provided better methods of fishery management and thereby fishery resources protection than those available early.

  12. Estimating reef fish discard mortality using surface and bottom tagging: effects of hook injury and barotrauma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rudershausen, Paul J.; Buckel, Jeffrey A.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    We estimated survival rates of discarded black sea bass (Centropristis striata) in various release conditions using tag–recapture data. Fish were captured with traps and hook and line from waters 29–34 m deep off coastal North Carolina, USA, marked with internal anchor tags, and observed for release condition. Fish tagged on the bottom using SCUBA served as a control group. Relative return rates for trap-caught fish released at the surface versus bottom provided an estimated survival rate of 0.87 (95% credible interval 0.67–1.18) for surface-released fish. Adjusted for results from the underwater tagging experiment, fish with evidence of external barotrauma had a median survival rate of 0.91 (0.69–1.26) compared with 0.36 (0.17–0.67) for fish with hook trauma and 0.16 (0.08–0.30) for floating or presumably dead fish. Applying these condition-specific estimates of survival to non-tagging fishery data, we estimated a discard survival rate of 0.81 (0.62–1.11) for 11 hook and line data sets from waters 20–35 m deep and 0.86 (0.67–1.17) for 10 trap data sets from waters 11–29 m deep. The tag-return approach using a control group with no fishery-associated trauma represents a method to accurately estimate absolute discard survival of physoclistous reef species.

  13. Bile acid binding capacity of fish protein hydrolysates from discard species of the West Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gálvez, Raúl; García-Moreno, Pedro J; Morales-Medina, Rocío; Guadix, Antonio; Guadix, Emilia M

    2015-04-01

    Fish protein hydrolysates (FPH), produced from the six main discard species from the West Mediterranean Sea (sardine, horse mackerel, axillary seabream, bogue, small-spotted catshark and blue whiting) were tested for their bile acid binding capacity. This capacity is directly linked to the ability to inhibit bile reabsorption in the ileum and therefore to lower cholesterol levels in the bloodstream. From each species, FPH were obtained by three different enzymatic treatments employing two serine endoproteases (subtilisin and trypsin) sequentially or in combination. The results show statistically significant differences among the fish species, attaining interesting average values of bile acid binding capacity for blue whiting (27.32% relative to cholestyramine on an equal protein basis) and horse mackerel (27.42% relative to cholestyramine on an equal protein basis). The enzymatic treatments did not significantly affect the ability of a given species to bind bile acids. These results are similar to other protein sources, such as soy protein or casein, of proven hypocholesterolemic effect. It can be concluded that fish protein hydrolysates from these discard species are suitable as ingredients in the formulation of cholesterol-lowering supplements.

  14. Impact of discards of beam trawl fishing on the nematode community from the Tagus estuary (Portugal).

    PubMed

    Franco, M A; Steyaert, M; Cabral, H N; Tenreiro, R; Chambel, L; Vincx, M; Costa, M J; Vanaverbeke, J

    2008-10-01

    The impact of dead discards, originating from beam trawl fishing on the nematode community from the Tagus estuary was investigated in terms of vertical distribution of the dominant nematode groups. Sediment cores were collected from a mud-flat from the Tagus estuary. Crangoncrangon (Linnaeus, 1758) carcasses were added to the surface of the cores, simulating the settling of dead discards on the sediment. The vertical distribution of the dominant nematode groups was determined up to 4cm deep at four different moments in time post deposition (0, 2, 4 and 6h) and compared to control cores. The C.crangon addition to the sediment led to the formation of black spots and therefore oxygen depleted areas at the sediment surface. The Chromadora/Ptycholaimellus group, normally dominant at the surface layer, migrated downwards due to their high sensibility to toxic conditions. Sabatieria presented the opposite trend and became the dominant group at the surface layer. Since Sabatieria is tolerant to oxygen stressed conditions and high sulphide concentrations, we suggest that it migrated opportunistically towards an unoccupied niche. Daptonema, Metachromadora and Terschellingia did not show any vertical migration, reflecting their tolerance to anoxic and high sulphidic conditions. Our study showed that an accumulation of dead discards at the sediment surface might therefore alter the nematode community vertical distribution. This effect is apparently closely related to toxic conditions in the sediment, induced by the deposition of C.crangon at the sediment surface. These alterations might be temporal and reflect an adaptation of the nematode community to dynamic intertidal environments.

  15. Mobile fishing gear reduces benthic megafaunal production on Georges Bank

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hermsen, J.M.; Collie, J.S.; Valentine, P.C.

    2003-01-01

    This study addresses the effect of mobile fishing gear disturbance on benthic megafaunal production on the gravel pavement of northern Georges Bank. From 1994 to 2000, we sampled benthic megafauna with a 1 m Naturalists' dredge at shallow (47 to 62 m) and deep (80 to 90 m) sites. The cessation of fishing in large areas of Georges Bank in January 1995 allowed us to monitor changes in production at a previously disturbed site. Production at a shallow disturbed site varied little over the sampling period (32 to 57 kcal m-2 yr-1) and was markedly lower than production at the nearby recovering site, where production increased from 17 kcal m-2yr -1 in 1994 before the closure to 215 kcal m-2 yr -1 in 2000. Atlantic sea scallops Placopecten magellanicus and green sea urchins Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis dominated production at the recovering site. The community production:biomass ratio decreased over time at the recovering site as the sea scallop population matured. At the deep sites, production remained significantly higher at undisturbed sites (174 to 256 kcal m-2 yr-1) than at disturbed sites (30 to 52 kcal m -2 yr-1). The soft-bodied tube-building polychaete Thelepus cincinnatus dominated production at the undisturbed site, while hard-shelled bivalve molluscs Astarte spp. and P. magellanicus were prevalent at the disturbed site. Mobile fishing gear disturbance has a conspicuous effect on benthic megafaunal production in this hard-bottom habitat. Cessation of mobile fishing has resulted in a marked increase in benthic megafaunal production. These findings should help fishery managers to gauge the costs and benefits of management tools such as area closures and low-impact fishing gears.

  16. A strategy for detecting derelict fishing gear at sea.

    PubMed

    McElwee, Kris; Donohue, Mary J; Courtney, Catherine A; Morishige, Carey; Rivera-Vicente, Ariel

    2012-01-01

    Derelict fishing gear (DFG) is a highly persistent form of marine pollution known to cause environmental and economic damage. At-sea detection of DFG would support pelagic removal of this gear to prevent and minimize impacts on marine environments and species. In 2008, experts in marine debris, oceanography, remote sensing, and marine policy outlined a strategy to develop the capability to detect and ultimately remove DFG from the open ocean. The strategy includes three interrelated components: understanding the characteristics of the targeted DFG, indirectly detecting DFG by modeling likely locations, and directly detecting pelagic DFG using remote sensing. Together, these components aim to refine the search area, increase the likelihood of detection, and decrease mitigation response time, thereby providing guidance for removal operations. Here, we present this at-sea detection strategy, relate it to relevant extant research and technology, and identify gaps that currently prevent successful at-sea detection and removal of DFG.

  17. Financial comparisons of fishing gear used in Kenya's coral reef lagoons.

    PubMed

    Mangi, Stephen C; Roberts, Callum M; Rodwell, Lynda D

    2007-12-01

    The cost of fishing and the income earned by fishers using small and large traps, gill nets, beach seines, hand lines, and spearguns were assessed in the multigear fishery of southern Kenya to establish a financial rationale for fishing gear use. Direct observations and key-informant interviews with fish leaders and boat captains were used to gather data on fish catch, cost of fishing gear, boats, and the price of fish. Among the fishing gear used, spearguns had the lowest monthly cost (USD 1 mo(-1)) while big traps had the highest (USD 13 mo(-1)). Income was highest among capital cost beach seine fishers (USD 183 mo(-1)) and lowest among noncapital cost beach seine fishers (USD 20 mo(-1)). There was a direct positive correlation between income earned and profitability of gear. Correlation of the financial measure for each gear to four categories of damage to fish and habitats showed that low cost fishing gear were associated with the highest environmental damage indicating a trade-off between cost of gear and environmental health.

  18. 50 CFR 648.104 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Flounder Fisheries § 648.104 Gear restrictions. (a) General. (1) Otter trawlers whose owners are issued a... of sea sampling data, that vessels fishing under the exemption are discarding more than 10 percent.... (ii) (2) Vessels fishing with a two-seam otter trawl fly net with the following...

  19. Dynamic hypoxic zones in Lake Erie compress fish habitat, altering vulnerability to fishing gears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraus, Richard T.; Knight, Carey T.; Farmer, Troy M.; Gorman, Ann Marie; Collingsworth, Paris D.; Warren, Glenn J.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Conroy, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal degradation of aquatic habitats from hypoxia occurs in numerous freshwater and coastal marine systems and can result in direct mortality or displacement of fish. Yet, fishery landings from these systems are frequently unresponsive to changes in the severity and extent of hypoxia, and population-scale effects have been difficult to measure except in extreme hypoxic conditions with hypoxia-sensitive species. We investigated fine-scale temporal and spatial variability in dissolved oxygen in Lake Erie as it related to fish distribution and catch efficiencies of both active (bottom trawls) and passive (trap nets) fishing gears. Temperature and dissolved oxygen loggers placed near the edge of the hypolimnion exhibited much higher than expected variability. Hypoxic episodes of variable durations were frequently punctuated by periods of normoxia, consistent with high-frequency internal waves. High-resolution interpolations of water quality and hydroacoustic surveys suggest that fish habitat is compressed during hypoxic episodes, resulting in higher fish densities near the edges of hypoxia. At fixed locations with passive commercial fishing gear, catches with the highest values occurred when bottom waters were hypoxic for intermediate proportions of time. Proximity to hypoxia explained significant variation in bottom trawl catches, with higher catch rates near the edge of hypoxia. These results emphasize how hypoxia may elevate catch rates in various types of fishing gears, leading to a lack of association between indices of hypoxia and fishery landings. Increased catch rates of fish at the edges of hypoxia have important implications for stock assessment models that assume catchability is spatially homogeneous.

  20. Lethal lesions and amputation caused by plastic debris and fishing gear on the loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758). Three case reports from Terceira Island, Azores (NE Atlantic).

    PubMed

    Barreiros, João P; Raykov, Violin S

    2014-09-15

    In this note we report and discuss three cases involving two serious injuries and one death on three specimens of the loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta, found in Terceira Island, Azores (NE Atlantic). Plastic debris and lost/discarded fishing gear caused these accidents. In fact, these types of marine litter are known to cause several accidents all over the world involving many taxa. However, we think that this issue has probably a much wider impact and detected cases such as those reported here are but just a small sample of the whole unknown dimension of this serious marine pollution problem.

  1. Effects of fisheries closures and gear restrictions on fishing income in a Kenyan coral reef.

    PubMed

    McClanahan, Timothy R

    2010-12-01

    The adoption of fisheries closures and gear restrictions in the conservation of coral reefs may be limited by poor understanding of the economic profitability of competing economic uses of marine resources. Over the past 12 years, I evaluated the effects of gear regulation and fisheries closures on per person and per area incomes from fishing in coral reefs of Kenya. In two of my study areas, the use of small-meshed beach seines was stopped after 6 years; one of these areas was next to a fishery closure. In my third study area, fishing was unregulated. Fishing yields on per capita daily wet weight basis were 20% higher after seine-net fishing was stopped. The per person daily fishing income adjacent to the closed areas was 14 and 22% higher than the fishing income at areas with only gear restrictions before and after the seine-net restriction, respectively. Incomes differed because larger fish were captured next to the closed area and the price per weight (kilograms) increased as fish size increased and because catches adjacent to the closure contained fish species of higher market value. Per capita incomes were 41 and 135% higher for those who fished in gear-restricted areas and near-closed areas, respectively, compared with those who fished areas with no restrictions. On a per unit area basis (square kilometers), differences in fishing income among the three areas were not large because fishing effort increased as the number of restrictions decreased. Changes in catch were, however, larger and often in the opposite direction expected from changes in effort alone. For example, effort declined 21% but nominal profits per square kilometer (not accounting for inflation) increased 29% near the area with gear restrictions. Gear restrictions also reduced the cost of fishing and increased the proportion of self-employed fishers.

  2. The influence of demersal trawl fishing gears on the resuspension of dinoflagellate cysts.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lyndsay; Bresnan, Eileen; Summerbell, Keith; O'Neill, Finbarr Gerard

    2013-01-15

    To investigate the influence of towed demersal fishing gears on dinoflagellate cyst resuspension, towing trials with four gear components were carried out at three sites of differing sediment type in the Moray Firth, Scotland. Samples of sediment plumes were collected using plankton nets mounted on a towed sledge. Diversity of resuspended dinoflagellate cysts was similar at all sites and included Protoperidinium and Gonyaulax spp., Proroceratium reticulatum and unidentified 'round brown' cysts. Cyst concentrations per gram of resuspended sediment varied by gear component and sediment particle size distribution. Gear components with lower hydrodynamic drag generated wakes with smaller shear stresses, mobilising fewer larger sand particles, giving larger concentrations of cysts. Muddy sediments contained higher cyst concentrations which declined with increasing grain size. This study has shown that fishing gear and sediment type can influence the redistribution of dinoflagellate cysts and highlights the importance this may have in relation to dinoflagellate blooms.

  3. Predicting lethal entanglements as a consequence of drag from fishing gear.

    PubMed

    van der Hoop, Julie M; Corkeron, Peter; Henry, Allison G; Knowlton, Amy R; Moore, Michael J

    2017-02-15

    Large whales are frequently entangled in fishing gear and sometimes swim while carrying gear for days to years. Entangled whales are subject to additional drag forces requiring increased thrust power and energy expenditure over time. To classify entanglement cases and aid potential disentanglement efforts, it is useful to know how long an entangled whale might survive, given the unique configurations of the gear they are towing. This study establishes an approach to predict drag forces on fishing gear that entangles whales, and applies this method to ten North Atlantic right whale cases to estimate the resulting increase in energy expenditure and the critical entanglement duration that could lead to death. Estimated gear drag ranged 11-275N. Most entanglements were resolved before critical entanglement durations (mean±SD 216±260days) were reached. These estimates can assist real-time development of disentanglement action plans and U.S. Federal Serious Injury assessments required for protected species.

  4. Gearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, J. J.; Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    Gearing technology in its modern form has a history of only 100 years. However, the earliest form of gearing can probably be traced back to fourth century B.C. Greece. Current gear practice and recent advances in the technology are drawn together. The history of gearing is reviewed briefly in the Introduction. Subsequent sections describe types of gearing and their geometry, processing, and manufacture. Both conventional and more recent methods of determining gear stress and deflections are considered. The subjects of life prediction and lubrication are additions to the literature. New and more complete methods of power loss predictions as well as an optimum design of spur gear meshes are described. Conventional and new types of power transmission systems are presented.

  5. Gearing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    earliest written descriptions of gears are said to (ref. 3), appear in the sketchbooks of Leonardo da Vinci , . . - have been made by Aristotle in the fourth... Vinci , Leonardo (L. Reti, transl.): The Madrid Codices. American Gear Manufacturers Association, Aug. 1966. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1974. 33... Leonardo da Vinci’s manuscripts, lost in the "’ ppassage attributed by some to Aristotle, in "Mechanical National Library in Madrid since 1830., were

  6. Cascading ecological effects of eliminating fishery discards

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Michael R.; Cook, Robin M.; Cameron, Angus I.; Morris, David J.; Speirs, Douglas C.

    2014-01-01

    Discarding by fisheries is perceived as contrary to responsible harvesting. Legislation seeking to end the practice is being introduced in many jurisdictions. However, discarded fish are food for a range of scavenging species; so, ending discarding may have ecological consequences. Here we investigate the sensitivity of ecological effects to discarding policies using an ecosystem model of the North Sea—a region where 30–40% of trawled fish catch is currently discarded. We show that landing the entire catch while fishing as usual has conservation penalties for seabirds, marine mammals and seabed fauna, and no benefit to fish stocks. However, combining landing obligations with changes in fishing practices to limit the capture of unwanted fish results in trophic cascades that can benefit birds, mammals and most fish stocks. Our results highlight the importance of considering the broader ecosystem consequences of fishery management policy, since species interactions may dissipate or negate intended benefits. PMID:24820200

  7. The environmental impacts of three different queen scallop (Aequipecten opercularis) fishing gears.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Hilmar; Murray, Lee G; Malcolm, Fraser R; Kaiser, Michel J

    2012-02-01

    The negative impact of demersal fishing gears on the marine environment may be mitigated by utilizing less damaging fishing gears. Within this context three queen scallop fishing gears were tested for their catch efficiencies and their environmental impact on benthos: a traditional 'Newhaven' dredge, a new dredge design with a rubber lip instead of the traditional teeth as its main new design feature and an otter trawl. Both, the new dredge and the otter trawl showed high catches and relatively low by-catches. Catches made with the traditional dredge were lower and contained larger amounts of non-target species. Both dredges primarily caught invertebrate species, while by-catches of the otter trawl were dominated by demersal fish. The impact of these gears on the benthic biota demonstrated that while no effects were detected for the otter trawl both dredges showed similar negative effects. Clear negative effects were evident for the brittlestar Ophiura ophiura while positive trends for the common starfish Asterias rubens and the hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus indicated scavenging effects. Due to its higher catch efficiency the new dredge caused less damage per unit catch compared to the traditional dredge, yet compared to the otter trawl it appears less environmentally friendly. However, the new dredge may be an alternative to the otter trawls for fisheries where the by-catch of demersal fish has been identified as a significant problem.

  8. Predation Risk within Fishing Gear and Implications for South Australian Rock Lobster Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Briceño, Felipe; Linnane, Adrian Joseph; Quiroz, Juan Carlos; Gardner, Caleb; Pecl, Gretta Tatyana

    2015-01-01

    Depredation of southern rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii) within fishing gear by the Maori octopus (Pinnoctopus cordiformis) has economic and ecological impacts on valuable fisheries in South Australia. In addition, depredation rates can be highly variable resulting in uncertainties for the fishery. We examined how in-pot lobster predation was influenced by factors such as lobster size and sex, season, fishing zone, and catch rate. Using mixed modelling techniques, we found that in-pot predation risk increased with lobster size and was higher for male lobsters. In addition, the effect of catch rate of lobsters on predation risk by octopus differed among fishing zones. There was both a seasonal and a spatial component to octopus predation, with an increased risk within discrete fishing grounds in South Australia at certain times of the year. Information about predation within lobster gear can assist fishery management decision-making, potentially leading to significant reduction in economic losses to the fishery. PMID:26489035

  9. Predation Risk within Fishing Gear and Implications for South Australian Rock Lobster Fisheries.

    PubMed

    Briceño, Felipe; Linnane, Adrian Joseph; Quiroz, Juan Carlos; Gardner, Caleb; Pecl, Gretta Tatyana

    2015-01-01

    Depredation of southern rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii) within fishing gear by the Maori octopus (Pinnoctopus cordiformis) has economic and ecological impacts on valuable fisheries in South Australia. In addition, depredation rates can be highly variable resulting in uncertainties for the fishery. We examined how in-pot lobster predation was influenced by factors such as lobster size and sex, season, fishing zone, and catch rate. Using mixed modelling techniques, we found that in-pot predation risk increased with lobster size and was higher for male lobsters. In addition, the effect of catch rate of lobsters on predation risk by octopus differed among fishing zones. There was both a seasonal and a spatial component to octopus predation, with an increased risk within discrete fishing grounds in South Australia at certain times of the year. Information about predation within lobster gear can assist fishery management decision-making, potentially leading to significant reduction in economic losses to the fishery.

  10. The hydrodynamic drag and the mobilisation of sediment into the water column of towed fishing gear components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, F. G.; Summerbell, K. J.

    2016-12-01

    The hydrodynamic drag of towed fishing gears leads to direct impacts on the benthic environment, and can play a major role in the overall economic efficiency of the fishing operation and emissions of nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and greenhouse gases such as CO2. Here we investigate some of the underpinning processes which govern these issues and make direct hydrodynamic drag measurements and calculate the hydrodynamic drag coefficients for a range of well-defined gear components that, when fished, are in contact with the seabed. We measure the concentration and particle size distribution of the sediment mobilised into the water column in the wake of these gear elements, at a range of towing speeds, and demonstrate that as the hydrodynamic drag increases the amount of sediment mobilised also increases. We also vary the weight of the elements and show that this does not influence the amount of sediment put into the water column. These results provide a better understanding of the physical and mechanical processes that take place when a towed fishing gear interacts with the seabed. They will permit the development of more fuel efficient gears and gears of reduced benthic impact and will improve the empirical modelling of the sediment mobilised into the turbulent wake behind towed fishing gears which will lead to better assessments of the environmental and ecological impact of fishing gears.

  11. Prevalence and composition of fishing gear debris in the nests of northern gannets (Morus bassanus) are related to fishing effort.

    PubMed

    Bond, Alexander L; Montevecchi, William A; Guse, Nils; Regular, Paul M; Garthe, Stefan; Rail, Jean-François

    2012-05-01

    Bycatch and indirect mortality associated with global fishing operations affect non-target species. Northern gannets (Morus bassanus) and other seabirds incorporate marine debris, much of it originating in fisheries, into their nests, at times resulting in entanglement. We compared the prevalence and composition of marine debris in nests at two gannet colonies in Newfoundland before and after a basin-wide ground fish closure in 1992, and at the species' largest colony in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, where fishing effort is low. The proportion of nests with marine debris decreased following the fishery closure, and the proportion of nests with fishing gear was related exponentially to the number of gillnets set around breeding colonies. Assessing the composition of gannet nests could provide a useful index of the prevalence of fishing debris and could be used to assess entanglement risk of other animals in the marine environment over decadal scales.

  12. Derelict fishing gear in Chesapeake Bay, Virginia: spatial patterns and implications for marine fauna.

    PubMed

    Bilkovic, Donna Marie; Havens, Kirk; Stanhope, David; Angstadt, Kory

    2014-03-15

    Derelict fishing gear is a source of mortality for target and non-target marine species. A program employing commercial watermen to remove marine debris provided a novel opportunity to collect extensive spatially-explicit information for four consecutive winters (2008-2012) on the type, distribution, and abundance of derelict fishing gear and bycatch in Virginia waters of Chesapeake Bay. The most abundant form of derelict gear recovered was blue crab pots with almost 32,000 recovered. Derelict pots were widely distributed, but with notable hotspot areas, capturing 40 species and over 31,000 marine organisms. The target species, blue crab, experienced the highest mortality from lost pots with an estimated 900,000 animals killed each year, a potential annual economic loss to the fishery of $300,000. Important fishery species were captured and killed in derelict pots including Atlantic croaker and black sea bass. While some causes of gear loss are unavoidable, others can be managed to minimize loss.

  13. Opposite selection on behavioural types by active and passive fishing gears in a simulated guppy Poecilia reticulata fishery.

    PubMed

    Diaz Pauli, B; Wiech, M; Heino, M; Utne-Palm, A C

    2015-03-01

    This study assessed whether fishing gear was selective on behavioural traits, such as boldness and activity, and how this was related with a productivity trait, growth. Female guppies Poecilia reticulata were screened for their behaviour on the shy-bold axis and activity, and then tested whether they were captured differently by passive and active fishing gear, here represented by a trap and a trawl. Both gears were selective on boldness; bold individuals were caught faster by the trap, but escaped the trawl more often. Boldness and gear vulnerability showed weak correlations with activity and growth. The results draw attention to the importance of the behavioural dimension of fishing: selective fishing on behavioural traits will change the trait composition of the population, and might eventually affect resilience and fishery productivity.

  14. Severe mutilation of a Critically Endangered Taiwanese humpback dolphin Sousa chinensis taiwanensis by fishing gear.

    PubMed

    Wang, John Y; Araújo-Wang, Claryana

    2017-03-21

    Direct observations of the causes of injuries to cetaceans are rare events. For very small and declining populations, such events may be even less likely to be observed because of the few individuals that remain. A long-term monitoring program using photographic identification of individuals resulted in the documentation of an individual Taiwanese humpback dolphin Sousa chinensis taiwanensis that survived a harmful interaction with fishing gear. An adult female that was accompanied by a young calf sustained massive damage to several tissue types on her dorsal surface. From the injuries, it is clear that the animal had suffered intense trauma that likely caused pain for several months as the fishing gear sliced through its dorsal hump and fin. Given the incredible mutilation, the animal is likely compromised at some level and probably continues to experience ongoing pain. This case, along with observations of other individuals in this population bearing serious injuries or being entangled in fishing gear, is direct evidence that the impacts of local fisheries on this subspecies are almost certainly unsustainable.

  15. Potential for electropositive metal to reduce the interactions of Atlantic sturgeon with fishing gear.

    PubMed

    Bouyoucos, Ian; Bushnell, Peter; Brill, Richard

    2014-02-01

    Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrhynchus) populations have been declared either endangered or threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Effective measures to repel sturgeon from fishing gear would be beneficial to both fish and fishers because they could reduce both fishery-associated mortality and the need for seasonal and area closures of specific fisheries. Some chondrostean fishes (e.g., sturgeons and paddlefishes) can detect weak electric field gradients (possibly as low as 5 Μv/cm) due to arrays of electroreceptors (ampullae of Lorenzini) on their snout and gill covers. Weak electric fields, such as those produced by electropositive metals (typically mixtures of the lanthanide elements), could therefore potentially be used as a deterrent. To test this idea, we recorded the behavioral responses of juvenile Atlantic sturgeon (31-43 cm fork length) to electropositive metal (primarily a mixture of the lanthanide elements neodymium and praseodymium) both in the presence and absence of food stimuli. Trials were conducted in an approximately 2.5 m diameter × 0.3 m deep tank, and fish behaviors were recorded with an overhead digital video camera. Video records were subsequently digitized (x, y coordinate system), the distance between the fish and the electropositive metal calculated, and data summarized by compiling frequency distributions with 5-cm bins. Juvenile sturgeon showed clear avoidance of electropositive metal but only when food was present. On the basis of our results, we conclude that the electropositive metals, or other sources of weak electric fields, may eventually be used to reduce the interactions of Atlantic sturgeon with fishing gear, but further investigation is needed.

  16. 50 CFR Table 1b to Part 679 - Discard and Disposition Codes1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... discarded fish 89 Whole fish/discard, infested. Flea-infested fish, parasite-infested fish 88 Whole fish... Confiscation or seized 63 Deadloss (crab only) 79 Overage 62 Retained for future sale 87 Tagged IFQ Fish (Exempt from debit) 64 Whole fish/bait, not sold. Used as bait onboard vessel 92 Whole fish/bait, sold...

  17. Using multiple gears to assess acoustic detectability and biomass of fish species in lake superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yule, D.L.; Adams, J.V.; Stockwell, J.D.; Gorman, O.T.

    2007-01-01

    Recent predator demand and prey supply studies suggest that an annual daytime bottom trawl survey of Lake Superior underestimates prey fish biomass. A multiple-gear (acoustics, bottom trawl, and midwater trawl) nighttime survey has been recommended, but before abandoning a long-term daytime survey the effectiveness of night sampling of important prey species must be verified. We sampled three bottom depths (30, 60, and 120 m) at a Lake Superior site where the fish community included all commercially and ecologically important species. Day and night samples were collected within 48 h at all depths during eight different periods (one new and one full moon period during both early summer and late summer to early fall over 2 years). Biomass of demersal and benthic species was higher in night bottom trawl samples than in day bottom trawl samples. Night acoustic collections showed that pelagic fish typically occupied water cooler than 15°C and light levels less than 0.001 lx. Using biomass in night bottom trawls and acoustic biomass above the bottom trawl path, we calculated an index of acoustic detectability for each species. Ciscoes Coregonus artedi, kiyis C. kiyi, and rainbow smeltOsmerus mordax left the bottom at night, whereas bloaters C. hoyi stayed nearer the bottom. We compared the biomass of important prey species estimated with two survey types: day bottom trawls and night estimates of the entire water column (bottom trawl biomass plus acoustic biomass). The biomass of large ciscoes (>200 mm) was significantly greater when measured at night than when measured during daylight, but the differences for other sizes of important species did not vary significantly by survey type. Nighttime of late summer is a period when conditions for biomass estimation are largely invariant, and all important prey species can be sampled using a multiple-gear approach.

  18. The impacts of mobile fishing gear on seafloor habitats in the gulf of maine (Northwest Atlantic): Implications for conservation of fish populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Auster, P.J.; Malatesta, R.J.; Langton, R.W.; Watling, Les; Valentine, P.C.; Donaldson, C.L.S.; Langton, E.W.; Shepard, A.N.; Babb, Ivar G.

    1996-01-01

    Fishing gear alters seafloor habitats, but the extent of these alterations, and their effects, have not been quantified extensively in the northwest Atlantic. Understanding the extent of these impacts, and their effects on populations of living marine resources, is needed to properly manage current and future levels of fishing effort and fishing power. For example, the entire U.S. side of the Gulf of Maine was impacted annually by mobile fishing gear between 1984 and 1990, based on calculations of area swept by trawl and dredge gear. Georges Bank was impacted three to nearly four times annually during the same period. Studies at three sites in the Gulf of Maine (off Swans Island, Jeffreys Bank, and Stellwagen Bank) showed that mobile fishing gear altered the physical structure (=complexity) of benthic habitats. Complexity was reduced by direct removal of biogenic (e.g., sponges, hydrozoans, bryozoans, amphipod tubes, holothurians, shell aggregates) and sedimentary (e.g., sand waves, depressions) structures. Also, removal of organisms that create structures (e.g., crabs, scallops) indirectly reduced complexity. Reductions in habitat complexity may lead to increased predation on juveniles of harvested species and ultimately recruitment to the harvestable stock. Because of a lack of reference sites, where use of mobile fishing is prohibited, no empirical studies have yet been conducted on a scale that could demonstrate population level effects of habitat-management options. If marine fisheries management is to evolve toward an ecosystem or habitat management approach, experiments are required on the effects of habitat change, both anthropogenic and natural.

  19. The impacts of mobile fishing gear on seafloor habitats in the Gulf of Maine (Northwest Atlantic): implications for conservation of fish populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Auster, Peter J.; Malatesta, Richard J.; Langton, Richard W.; Watting, Les; Valentine, Page C.; Donaldson, Carol Lee S.; Langton, Elizabeth W.; Shepard, Andrew N.; Babb, War G.

    1997-01-01

    Fishing gear alters seafloor habitats, but the extent of these alterations, and their effects, have not been quantified extensively in the northwest Atlantic. Understanding the extent of these impacts, and their effects on populations of living marine resources, is needed to properly manage current and future levels of fishing effort and fishing power. For example, the entire U.S. side of the Gulf of Maine was impacted annually by mobile fishing gear between 1984 and 1990, based on calculations of area swept by trawl and dredge gear. Georges Bank was imparted three to nearly four times annually during the same period. Studies at three sites in the Gulf of Maine (off Swans Island, Jeffreys Bank, and Stellwagen Bank) showed that mobile fishing gear altered the physical structure (=complexity) of benthic habitats. Complexity was reduced by direct removal of biogenic (e.g., sponges, hydrozoans, bryozoans, amphipod tubes, holothurians, shell aggregates) and‐ sedimentary (e.g., sand waves, depressions) structures. Also, removal of organisms that create.structures (e.g., crabs, scallops) indirectly reduced complexity. Reductions in habitat complexity may lead to increased predation on juveniles of harvested species and ultimately recruitment to the harvestable stock. Because of a lack of reference sites, where use of mobile fishing is prohibited, no empirical studies have yet been conducted on a scale that could demonstrate population level effects of habitat‐management options. If marine fisheries management is to evolve toward an ecosystem or habitat management approach, experiments are required on the effects of habitat change, both anthropogenic and natural.

  20. Emergy evaluation of management measures for derelict fishing gears in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sunwook; Lee, Jongmyoung; Kang, Daeseok

    2015-09-01

    Derelict fishing gears (DFGs) have been recognized as an important marine debris issue that requires urgent action in Korea. This study used the emergy methodology to evaluate the cost efficiency of three DFG management measures of Korea from a biophysical perspective. Selected measures were the cleanup-using-ships (CL) program, the buyback (BB) program, and the floating reception barge (FB) program that ranged from more preventive approaches to curative ones in the management spectrum of DFGs. Among three measures, the CL program was the costliest one to implement both in emergy and monetary terms. The FB program that is closest to the preventive side of the spectrum required the least emergy input and monetary cost. The emergy requirements per ton of DFGs collected for the CL and BB programs were 4.4 and 3.6 times that of the FB program, respectively. The CL and BB program also required more inputs in monetary terms - 8.6 and 6.8 times higher, respectively, than the FB program did. The closer a measure is to the preventive side of the management spectrum, the less costly its implementation. This suggests that in terms of cost to implement, the current DFG management policy needs to be reorganized so that preventive measures can play a larger role in dealing with DFG issues in Korea.

  1. Linking fishery management and conservation in a tropical estuarine lagoon: biological and physical effects of an artisanal fishing gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueda, M.; Defeo, O.

    2003-04-01

    Information coming from fishery monitoring, surveys and experimental fishing with participation of fishers was employed to determine the impact of an artisanal gear, 'boliche', on the biodiversity of the Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta (CGSM), an estuarine lagoon on the Caribbean coast of Colombia. Fishery monitoring (catch data) included landings before (1968 and 1978) and after (1994-1996) the introduction of the boliche in the CGSM (1985), whereas surveys were conducted seasonally during 1993-1994. Fishing experiments involved evaluating different mesh sizes and the short-term effect of physical disturbance by the boliche. Monitoring suggested potential trophic effects of this fishing gear: the catch of large, long-lived, carnivorous species declined after the introduction of the boliche in the CGSM, whereas catch rates of smaller, shorter-lived, and lower trophic level species increased. Surveys revealed that the boliche retained 41 species. The by-catch made up 62% of the total catch and the remaining 38% involved the three target species Eugerres plumieri, Mugil incilis and Cathorops spixii. Selectivity experiments showed that 2.5 in. stretched mesh size gill nets caught more species than the 3.0-in. mesh. The smaller mesh also increased the risk of a critical reduction in the spawning stock of target species (notably E. plumieri); a situation that could affect the fish community if mesh sizes lower than 2.5 in. were intensively used. Suspended particulate matter significantly increased after fishing activity, with higher resuspension on mud-shells and mud substrata, whereas dissolved oxygen showed no appreciable changes after fishing operations. Notwithstanding, the activity of the boliche would generate sediment resuspension between 382 and 470 t day -1, which could lead to potential cascade impacts on water quality. We propose a framework of redundancy in management measures in order to simultaneously reach management and conservation goals.

  2. A description of the nearshore fish communities in the Huron-Erie Corridor using multiple gear types

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francis, James T.; Chiotti, Justin A.; Boase, James C.; Thomas, Mike V.; Manny, Bruce A.; Roseman, Edward F.

    2013-01-01

    Great Lakes coastal wetlands provide a critical habitat for many fish species throughout their life cycles. Once home to one of the largest wetland complexes in the Great Lakes, coastal wetlands in the Huron–Erie Corridor (HEC) have decreased dramatically since the early 1900s. We characterized the nearshore fish communities at three different wetland complexes in the HEC using electrofishing, seines, and fyke nets. Species richness was highest in the Detroit River (63), followed by the St. Clair Delta (56), and Western Lake Erie (47). The nearshore fish communities in the Detroit River and St. Clair Delta consisted primarily of shiners, bluntnose minnow, centrarchids, and brook silverside, while the Western Lake Erie sites consisted of high proportions of non-native taxa including common carp, gizzard shad, goldfish, and white perch. Species richness estimates using individual-based rarefaction curves were higher when using electrofishing data compared to fyke nets or seine hauls at each wetland. Twelve fish species were captured exclusively during electrofishing assessments, while one species was captured exclusively in fyke nets, and none exclusively during seine hauls. Western Lake Erie wetlands were more indicative of degraded systems with lower species richness, lower proportion of turbidity intolerant species, and increased abundance of non-native taxa. This work highlights the importance of coastal wetlands in the HEC by capturing 69 different fish species utilizing these wetlands to fulfill life history requirements and provides insight when selecting gears to sample nearshore littoral areas.

  3. Toward an ecosystem approach to fisheries in the Mediterranean Sea: Multi-gear/multi-species implications from an ecosystem model of the Greek Ionian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moutopoulos, Dimitrios K.; Libralato, Simone; Solidoro, Cosimo; Stergiou, Konstantinos I.

    2013-03-01

    A mass-balance food web model was developed for the Greek Ionian Sea ecosystem, including 39 functional groups and 6 fisheries at depths between 50 and 1100 m during the 1990s. The study area is among the most oligotrophic in the Mediterranean, having a complex food web structure, high numbers of energy pathways, trophic levels and functional groups and high rates of matter cycling, all of which are indicative of a mature system. To separate the effects of discards and landings, analyses and indicators were estimated through two models with the same parameterization: one included all catches and the other only landings. The primary production required to sustain the fisheries was low, and approximately half of it was used for sustaining by-catches and discards. Discards have greater impacts than landings on the flows and energy necessary to support the fisheries. Although fishing mortality by each gear type was moderate, the cumulative fishing impact estimated from all gears combined exceeded safe limits, thus enhancing the benefits of moving toward a multi-gear/multi-species approach to fisheries. This study is a first step toward quantifying discards in a multispecies/multigear system and considering the uncertainties in quantifying discard quantities, especially for low trophic levels.

  4. Ignoring discards biases the assessment of fisheries' ecological fingerprint.

    PubMed

    Viana, Mafalda; McNally, Luke; Graham, Norman; Reid, David G; Jackson, Andrew L

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the pressures of fisheries on the ecosystem is crucial for effective management. Fishery removals, or catch, are composed of both landings and discards. However, the use of discards data in studies investigating the effect of the fishing pressures is sparse. Here, we explore the individual contribution of both these catch components to the overall pressure of fisheries on the ecosystem metrics. Using Irish observer data, we compare the linear relationship between several ecological metrics calculated for landings and discards with those of catch. Our results show that in fisheries with high discarding rates, discards can drive the fisheries' ecological fingerprint and highlight the need to rectify landings-based estimates to make them representative of those of catch in order to gain a robust picture of the impact of fisheries.

  5. Gear bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A gear bearing having a first gear and a second gear, each having a plurality of teeth. Each gear operates on two non-parallel surfaces of the opposing gear teeth to perform both gear and bearing functions simultaneously. The gears are moving at substantially the same speed at their contact points. The gears may be roller gear bearings or phase-shifted gear bearings, and may be arranged in a planet/sun system or used as a transmission.

  6. 50 CFR Table 1b to Part 679 - Discard and Disposition Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discard and Disposition Codes 1b Table 1b... ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 1b Table 1b to Part 679—Discard and Disposition Codes Description Code Confiscation... bait. 95 Whole fish/sold, for human consumption. 60 NOTE: When using whole fish codes, record...

  7. Environmental cost-effectiveness analysis in intertemporal natural resource policy: evaluation of selective fishing gear.

    PubMed

    Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Vestergaard, Niels

    2013-12-15

    In most decision-making involving natural resources, the achievements of a given policy (e.g., improved ecosystem or biodiversity) are rather difficult to measure in monetary units. To address this problem, the current paper develops an environmental cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA) to include intangible benefits in intertemporal natural resource problems. This approach can assist managers in prioritizing management actions as least cost solutions to achieve quantitative policy targets. The ECEA framework is applied to a selective gear policy case in Danish mixed trawl fisheries in Kattegat and Skagerrak. The empirical analysis demonstrates how a policy with large negative net benefits might be justified if the intangible benefits are included.

  8. 50 CFR 697.23 - Restricted gear areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Measures § 697.23 Restricted gear areas. (a) Resolution of lobster gear conflicts with fisheries managed... all mobile gear is on board the vessel while inside the area. (ii) Lobster trap gear. From June 16 through September 30 of each fishing year, no fishing vessel with lobster trap gear or person on a...

  9. 50 CFR 697.23 - Restricted gear areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Measures § 697.23 Restricted gear areas. (a) Resolution of lobster gear conflicts with fisheries managed... all mobile gear is on board the vessel while inside the area. (ii) Lobster trap gear. From June 16 through September 30 of each fishing year, no fishing vessel with lobster trap gear or person on a...

  10. 50 CFR 697.23 - Restricted gear areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Measures § 697.23 Restricted gear areas. (a) Resolution of lobster gear conflicts with fisheries managed... all mobile gear is on board the vessel while inside the area. (ii) Lobster trap gear. From June 16 through September 30 of each fishing year, no fishing vessel with lobster trap gear or person on a...

  11. 50 CFR 697.23 - Restricted gear areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Measures § 697.23 Restricted gear areas. (a) Resolution of lobster gear conflicts with fisheries managed... all mobile gear is on board the vessel while inside the area. (ii) Lobster trap gear. From June 16 through September 30 of each fishing year, no fishing vessel with lobster trap gear or person on a...

  12. 50 CFR 697.23 - Restricted gear areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Measures § 697.23 Restricted gear areas. (a) Resolution of lobster gear conflicts with fisheries managed... all mobile gear is on board the vessel while inside the area. (ii) Lobster trap gear. From June 16 through September 30 of each fishing year, no fishing vessel with lobster trap gear or person on a...

  13. Report on a workshop on fisheries-generated marine debris and derelict fishing gear: Oceans of plastic. Held in Portland, Oregon on February 9-11, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Eliassen, M.

    1988-12-01

    Fishermen, marine researchers, educators, plastics manufacturers and government representatives--more than 80 in all--met in Portland, Oregon February 9-11, 1988, for 'Oceans of Plastic,' a workshop to address problems caused by fisheries-generated plastic debris and derelict fishing gear. The workshop examined ways to reduce marine plastic debris and explained new laws intended to halt plastic pollution in the ocean. The Portland workshop was planned to accomplish the following objectives: Contribute to the understanding of fisheries-generated marine plastic debris, investigate ways to reduce the amount of fisheries-generated marine debris, identify effective ways--including possible incentives--to reduce derelict fishing gear, and contribute to the nation's marine debris education program.

  14. 50 CFR 600.510 - Gear avoidance and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gear avoidance and disposal. 600.510... Gear avoidance and disposal. (a) Vessel and gear avoidance. (1) FFV's arriving on fishing grounds where fishing vessels are already fishing or have set their gear for that purpose must ascertain the...

  15. 50 CFR 600.510 - Gear avoidance and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gear avoidance and disposal. 600.510... Gear avoidance and disposal. (a) Vessel and gear avoidance. (1) FFV's arriving on fishing grounds where fishing vessels are already fishing or have set their gear for that purpose must ascertain the...

  16. 50 CFR 600.510 - Gear avoidance and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gear avoidance and disposal. 600.510... Gear avoidance and disposal. (a) Vessel and gear avoidance. (1) FFV's arriving on fishing grounds where fishing vessels are already fishing or have set their gear for that purpose must ascertain the...

  17. Habitat use and diel vertical migration of bigeye thresher shark: Overlap with pelagic longline fishing gear.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Rui; Fernandez-Carvalho, Joana; Santos, Miguel N

    2015-12-01

    Pelagic longliners targeting swordfish and tunas in oceanic waters regularly capture sharks as bycatch, including currently protected species as the bigeye thresher, Alopias superciliosus. Fifteen bigeye threshers were tagged with pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) in 2012-2014 in the tropical northeast Atlantic, with successful transmissions received from 12 tags for a total of 907 tracking days. Marked diel vertical movements were recorded on all specimens, with most of the daytime spent in deeper colder water (mean depth = 353 m, SD = 73; mean temperature = 10.7 °C, SD = 1.8) and nighttime spent in warmer water closer to the surface (mean depth = 72 m, SD = 54; mean temperature = 21.9 °C, SD = 3.7). The operating depth of the pelagic longline gear was measured with Minilog Temperature and Depth Recorders (TDRs), and the overlap with habitat utilization was calculated. Overlap is taking place mainly during the night and is higher for juveniles. The results presented herein can be used as inputs for Ecological Risk Assessments for bigeye threshers captured in oceanic tuna fisheries, and serve as a basis for efficient management and conservation of this vulnerable shark species.

  18. Aerodynamic Interference During Sabot Discard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-09-01

    J. Mik.WNe, - -desirc4 trajoctory. For the rouns tested , the impulse due to aerodynsmic interaction during sabot discard is of the sae magnitude as...TABLE OF CONiENTS Page LIST OFILLUSTRATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1, INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II...Figure Page 1. Test Projectile (60mm, AAAC). . . . . . ... . 19 2. Schematic of Test Set-Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 3. Sample X-ray Exposure

  19. 50 CFR 622.248 - Authorized gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Authorized gear. 622.248 Section 622.248... the South Atlantic Region § 622.248 Authorized gear. (a) Traps. Traps are the only fishing gear... Atlantic EEZ may not be retained on board a vessel possessing or using unauthorized gear. (b) Buoy line...

  20. 50 CFR 622.248 - Authorized gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Authorized gear. 622.248 Section 622.248... the South Atlantic Region § 622.248 Authorized gear. (a) Traps. Traps are the only fishing gear... Atlantic EEZ may not be retained on board a vessel possessing or using unauthorized gear. (b) Buoy line...

  1. 50 CFR 300.109 - Gear disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gear disposal. 300.109 Section 300.109... Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.109 Gear disposal. (a) The operator of a harvesting vessel may not... fishing vessels or gear, or that may catch fish or cause damage to any marine resource, including...

  2. 50 CFR 300.109 - Gear disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gear disposal. 300.109 Section 300.109... Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.109 Gear disposal. (a) The operator of a harvesting vessel may not... fishing vessels or gear, or that may catch fish or cause damage to any marine resource, including...

  3. 50 CFR 300.109 - Gear disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gear disposal. 300.109 Section 300.109... Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.109 Gear disposal. (a) The operator of a harvesting vessel may not... fishing vessels or gear, or that may catch fish or cause damage to any marine resource, including...

  4. 50 CFR 300.109 - Gear disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gear disposal. 300.109 Section 300.109... Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.109 Gear disposal. (a) The operator of a harvesting vessel may not... fishing vessels or gear, or that may catch fish or cause damage to any marine resource, including...

  5. 76 FR 50180 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Northwest Region Gear Identification Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... Region Gear Identification Requirements AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... management programs depends significantly on regulatory compliance. The requirements that fishing gear be marked are essential to facilitate enforcement. The ability to link fishing gear to the vessel owner...

  6. 50 CFR 622.375 - Authorized and unauthorized gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Authorized and unauthorized gear. 622.375... unauthorized gear. (a) Authorized gear. Subject to the prohibitions on gear/methods specified in § 622.9, the following are the only fishing gears that may be used in the Gulf, Mid-Atlantic, and South Atlantic EEZ...

  7. 50 CFR 622.375 - Authorized and unauthorized gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Authorized and unauthorized gear. 622.375... unauthorized gear. (a) Authorized gear. Subject to the prohibitions on gear/methods specified in § 622.9, the following are the only fishing gears that may be used in the Gulf, Mid-Atlantic, and South Atlantic EEZ...

  8. Fish biodiversity sampling in stream ecosystems: a process for evaluating the appropriate types and amount of gear

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Joseph M.; Wells, Sarah P.; Mather, Martha E.; Muth, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    When researchers and managers initiate sampling on a new stream or river system, they do not know how effective each gear type is and whether their sampling effort is adequate. Although the types and amount of gear may be different for other studies, systems, and research questions, the five-step process described here for making sampling decisions and evaluating sampling efficiency can be applied widely to any system to restore, manage, and conserve aquatic ecosystems. It is believed that incorporating this gear-evaluation process into a wide variety of studies and ecosystems will increase rigour within and across aquatic biodiversity studies.

  9. Commercial fishing gear modifications to reduce interactions between Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) and the southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) fishery in North Carolina (USA)

    PubMed Central

    Hager, Christian; Diaddorio, Eric; Dickey, R. Jason

    2016-01-01

    Bycatch of protected species in commercial fishing operations is a primary concern to fishery managers because it threatens the conservation, protection, and recovery of fragile species, such as the Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus). One potential solution to reduce the risk associated with commercial fishing operations is to design commercial fishing gear that is more selective in terms of interactions between Atlantic sturgeon and commercial fisheries. Given this conservation and management need, the overarching goal was to reduce Atlantic sturgeon fishery interactions and maintain southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) catch in North Carolina. The specific objectives of this study were to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a modified gillnet. Overall, the results proved that lowering the profile and amount of webbing had a beneficial impact at reducing Atlantic sturgeon incidental encounters and bycatch. The modified gillnet reduced bycatch and Atlantic sturgeon encounters by 39.6% and 60.9%, respectively. Our design entangled 51.6% fewer southern flounder, which corresponded to a 48.9% reduction in total weight; the modified gear entangled slightly larger southern flounder than the control gear. Our findings showed the number of Atlantic sturgeon encounters was positively associated with mean water depth, with more Atlantic sturgeon encountered in deeper (5.1–6.3 m) than shallower waters; 75% were encountered at depths between 4.6 and 6.1 m. Most southern flounder (n = 518, 39.7%) were taken at a water depth between 3.76 and 5.0 m. This observation suggests that southern flounder prefer slightly shallower waters than Atlantic sturgeon. PMID:27547524

  10. Commercial fishing gear modifications to reduce interactions between Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) and the southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) fishery in North Carolina (USA).

    PubMed

    Levesque, Juan C; Hager, Christian; Diaddorio, Eric; Dickey, R Jason

    2016-01-01

    Bycatch of protected species in commercial fishing operations is a primary concern to fishery managers because it threatens the conservation, protection, and recovery of fragile species, such as the Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus). One potential solution to reduce the risk associated with commercial fishing operations is to design commercial fishing gear that is more selective in terms of interactions between Atlantic sturgeon and commercial fisheries. Given this conservation and management need, the overarching goal was to reduce Atlantic sturgeon fishery interactions and maintain southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) catch in North Carolina. The specific objectives of this study were to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a modified gillnet. Overall, the results proved that lowering the profile and amount of webbing had a beneficial impact at reducing Atlantic sturgeon incidental encounters and bycatch. The modified gillnet reduced bycatch and Atlantic sturgeon encounters by 39.6% and 60.9%, respectively. Our design entangled 51.6% fewer southern flounder, which corresponded to a 48.9% reduction in total weight; the modified gear entangled slightly larger southern flounder than the control gear. Our findings showed the number of Atlantic sturgeon encounters was positively associated with mean water depth, with more Atlantic sturgeon encountered in deeper (5.1-6.3 m) than shallower waters; 75% were encountered at depths between 4.6 and 6.1 m. Most southern flounder (n = 518, 39.7%) were taken at a water depth between 3.76 and 5.0 m. This observation suggests that southern flounder prefer slightly shallower waters than Atlantic sturgeon.

  11. Hybrid Gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  12. Subcaliber discarding sabot airgun projectiles.

    PubMed

    Frank, Matthias; Schönekeß, Holger; Herbst, Jörg; Staats, Hans-Georg; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Nguyen, Thanh Tien; Bockholdt, Britta

    2014-03-01

    Medical literature abounds with reports on injuries and fatalities caused by airgun projectiles. While round balls or diabolo pellets have been the standard projectiles for airguns for decades, today, there are a large number of different airgun projectiles available. A very uncommon--and until now unique--discarding sabot airgun projectile (Sussex Sabo Bullet) was introduced into the market in the 1980s. The projectile, available in 0.177 (4.5 mm) and 0.22 (5.5 mm) caliber, consists of a plastic sabot cup surrounding a subcaliber copper-coated lead projectile in typical bullet shape. Following the typical principle of a discarding sabot projectile, the lightweight sabot is supposed to quickly loose velocity and to fall to the ground downrange while the bullet continues on target. These sabot-loaded projectiles are of special forensic interest due to their non-traceability and ballistic parameters. Therefore, it is the aim of this work to investigate the ballistic performance of these sabot airgun projectiles by high-speed video analyses and by measurement of the kinetic parameters of the projectile parts by a transient recording system as well as observing their physical features after being fired. While the sabot principle worked properly in high-energy airguns (E > 17 J), separation of the core projectile from the sabot cup was also observed when discharged in low-energy airguns (E < 7.5 J). While the velocity of the discarded Sussex Sabo core projectile was very close to the velocity of a diabolo-type reference projectile (RWS Meisterkugel), energy density was up to 60 % higher. To conclude, this work is the first study to demonstrate the regular function of this uncommon type of airgun projectile.

  13. 50 CFR 654.25 - Prevention of gear conflicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prevention of gear conflicts. 654.25... Measures § 654.25 Prevention of gear conflicts. (a) No person may knowingly place in the management area any article, including fishing gear, that interferes with fishing or obstructs or damages fishing...

  14. 50 CFR 622.46 - Prevention of gear conflicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prevention of gear conflicts. 622.46... Management Measures § 622.46 Prevention of gear conflicts. (a) No person may knowingly place in the Gulf EEZ any article, including fishing gear, that interferes with fishing or obstructs or damages fishing...

  15. 78 FR 68817 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Northeast Region Gear Identification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... Region Gear Identification AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and.... Abstract This notice is for the extension of Paperwork Reduction Act requirements regarding fishing gear... fishing gear mark the gear with specified information. The gear marking requirements provide vessel...

  16. 50 CFR 665.427 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Archipelago Fisheries § 665.427 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) Mariana coral reef ecosystem MUS may... vehicles/submersibles. (b) Mariana coral reef ecosystem MUS may not be taken by means of poisons... subpart who is established to be fishing for Mariana coral reef ecosystem MUS in the management area...

  17. 50 CFR 665.227 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Fisheries § 665.227 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) Hawaii coral reef ecosystem MUS may be taken.../submersibles. (b) Hawaii coral reef ecosystem MUS may not be taken by means of poisons, explosives, or... established to be fishing for Hawaii coral reef ecosystem MUS in the Hawaii management area is prohibited....

  18. 50 CFR 665.127 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Fisheries § 665.127 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) American Samoa coral reef ecosystem MUS may be.../submersibles. (b) American Samoa coral reef ecosystem MUS may not be taken by means of poisons, explosives, or... established to be fishing for coral reef ecosystem MUS in the management area is prohibited. (c) Existing...

  19. 50 CFR 665.127 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Fisheries § 665.127 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) American Samoa coral reef ecosystem MUS may be.../submersibles. (b) American Samoa coral reef ecosystem MUS may not be taken by means of poisons, explosives, or... established to be fishing for coral reef ecosystem MUS in the management area is prohibited. (c) Existing...

  20. 50 CFR 665.427 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Archipelago Fisheries § 665.427 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) Mariana coral reef ecosystem MUS may... vehicles/submersibles. (b) Mariana coral reef ecosystem MUS may not be taken by means of poisons... subpart who is established to be fishing for Mariana coral reef ecosystem MUS in the management area...

  1. 50 CFR 665.427 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Archipelago Fisheries § 665.427 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) Mariana coral reef ecosystem MUS may... vehicles/submersibles. (b) Mariana coral reef ecosystem MUS may not be taken by means of poisons... subpart who is established to be fishing for Mariana coral reef ecosystem MUS in the management area...

  2. 50 CFR 665.427 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Archipelago Fisheries § 665.427 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) Mariana coral reef ecosystem MUS may... vehicles/submersibles. (b) Mariana coral reef ecosystem MUS may not be taken by means of poisons... subpart who is established to be fishing for Mariana coral reef ecosystem MUS in the management area...

  3. 50 CFR 665.227 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Fisheries § 665.227 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) Hawaii coral reef ecosystem MUS may be taken.../submersibles. (b) Hawaii coral reef ecosystem MUS may not be taken by means of poisons, explosives, or... established to be fishing for Hawaii coral reef ecosystem MUS in the Hawaii management area is prohibited....

  4. 50 CFR 665.227 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Fisheries § 665.227 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) Hawaii coral reef ecosystem MUS may be taken.../submersibles. (b) Hawaii coral reef ecosystem MUS may not be taken by means of poisons, explosives, or... established to be fishing for Hawaii coral reef ecosystem MUS in the Hawaii management area is prohibited....

  5. 50 CFR 665.227 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Fisheries § 665.227 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) Hawaii coral reef ecosystem MUS may be taken.../submersibles. (b) Hawaii coral reef ecosystem MUS may not be taken by means of poisons, explosives, or... established to be fishing for Hawaii coral reef ecosystem MUS in the Hawaii management area is prohibited....

  6. 50 CFR 665.127 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Fisheries § 665.127 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) American Samoa coral reef ecosystem MUS may be.../submersibles. (b) American Samoa coral reef ecosystem MUS may not be taken by means of poisons, explosives, or... established to be fishing for coral reef ecosystem MUS in the management area is prohibited. (c) Existing...

  7. 50 CFR 665.127 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Fisheries § 665.127 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) American Samoa coral reef ecosystem MUS may be.../submersibles. (b) American Samoa coral reef ecosystem MUS may not be taken by means of poisons, explosives, or... established to be fishing for coral reef ecosystem MUS in the management area is prohibited. (c) Existing...

  8. 50 CFR 665.427 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Archipelago Fisheries § 665.427 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) Mariana coral reef ecosystem MUS may... vehicles/submersibles. (b) Mariana coral reef ecosystem MUS may not be taken by means of poisons... subpart who is established to be fishing for Mariana coral reef ecosystem MUS in the management area...

  9. 50 CFR 665.127 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Fisheries § 665.127 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) American Samoa coral reef ecosystem MUS may be.../submersibles. (b) American Samoa coral reef ecosystem MUS may not be taken by means of poisons, explosives, or... established to be fishing for coral reef ecosystem MUS in the management area is prohibited. (c) Existing...

  10. 50 CFR 665.227 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Fisheries § 665.227 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) Hawaii coral reef ecosystem MUS may be taken.../submersibles. (b) Hawaii coral reef ecosystem MUS may not be taken by means of poisons, explosives, or... established to be fishing for Hawaii coral reef ecosystem MUS in the Hawaii management area is prohibited....

  11. 50 CFR 660.506 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 660.506 Section 660.506 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... § 660.506 Gear restrictions. The only fishing gear authorized for use in the reduction fishery...

  12. 50 CFR 665.104 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.104 Section 665... § 665.104 Gear restrictions. (a) Bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets. Fishing for American Samoa bottomfish MUS with bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets is prohibited. (b) Possession of gear....

  13. 50 CFR 665.406 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.406 Section 665.406... Gear restrictions. (a) Bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets. Fishing for bottomfish with bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets is prohibited. (b) Possession of gear. Possession of a bottom trawl and...

  14. 50 CFR 665.605 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.605 Section 665... Fisheries § 665.605 Gear restrictions. (a) Bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets. Fishing for PRIA bottomfish MUS with bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets is prohibited. (b) Possession of gear....

  15. 50 CFR 648.163 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 648.163 Section 648.163... Bluefish Fishery § 648.163 Gear restrictions. If the Council determines through its annual review or framework adjustment process that gear restrictions are necessary to assure that the fishing mortality...

  16. 50 CFR 665.104 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.104 Section 665... § 665.104 Gear restrictions. (a) Bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets. Fishing for American Samoa bottomfish MUS with bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets is prohibited. (b) Possession of gear....

  17. 50 CFR 665.605 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.605 Section 665... Fisheries § 665.605 Gear restrictions. (a) Bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets. Fishing for PRIA bottomfish MUS with bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets is prohibited. (b) Possession of gear....

  18. 50 CFR 660.506 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 660.506 Section 660.506 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... § 660.506 Gear restrictions. The only fishing gear authorized for use in the reduction fishery...

  19. 50 CFR 665.605 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.605 Section 665... Fisheries § 665.605 Gear restrictions. (a) Bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets. Fishing for PRIA bottomfish MUS with bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets is prohibited. (b) Possession of gear....

  20. 50 CFR 665.406 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.406 Section 665... § 665.406 Gear restrictions. (a) Bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets. Fishing for bottomfish with bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets is prohibited. (b) Possession of gear. Possession of a bottom...

  1. 50 CFR 665.406 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.406 Section 665... § 665.406 Gear restrictions. (a) Bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets. Fishing for bottomfish with bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets is prohibited. (b) Possession of gear. Possession of a bottom...

  2. 50 CFR 665.104 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.104 Section 665... § 665.104 Gear restrictions. (a) Bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets. Fishing for American Samoa bottomfish MUS with bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets is prohibited. (b) Possession of gear....

  3. 50 CFR 665.104 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.104 Section 665... § 665.104 Gear restrictions. (a) Bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets. Fishing for American Samoa bottomfish MUS with bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets is prohibited. (b) Possession of gear....

  4. 50 CFR 665.605 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.605 Section 665... Fisheries § 665.605 Gear restrictions. (a) Bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets. Fishing for PRIA bottomfish MUS with bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets is prohibited. (b) Possession of gear....

  5. 50 CFR 665.605 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.605 Section 665.605... § 665.605 Gear restrictions. (a) Bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets. Fishing for PRIA bottomfish MUS with bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets is prohibited. (b) Possession of gear. Possession of...

  6. 50 CFR 665.406 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.406 Section 665... § 665.406 Gear restrictions. (a) Bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets. Fishing for bottomfish with bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets is prohibited. (b) Possession of gear. Possession of a bottom...

  7. 50 CFR 665.406 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.406 Section 665... § 665.406 Gear restrictions. (a) Bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets. Fishing for bottomfish with bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets is prohibited. (b) Possession of gear. Possession of a bottom...

  8. Hind-Casting the Quantity and Composition of Discards by Mixed Demersal Fisheries in the North Sea

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Michael R.; Cook, Robin M.

    2015-01-01

    Many commercial fisheries seek to maximise the economic value of the catch that they bring ashore and market for human consumption by discarding undersize or low value fish. Information on the quantity, size and species composition of discarded fish is vital for stock assessments and for devising legislation to minimise the practice. However, except for a few major species, data are usually extremely sparse and reliant on observers aboard a small sample of fishing vessels. Expanding these data to estimate total regional discards is highly problematic. Here, we develop a method for utilising additional information from scientific trawl surveys to model the quantities of fish discarded by the commercial fisheries. As a case-study, we apply the model to the North Sea over the period 1978-2011, and show a long-term decline in the overall quantity of fish discarded, but an increase in the proportion of catch which is thrown away. The composition of discarded catch has shifted from predominantly (∼80%) roundfish, to >50% flatfish. Undersized plaice constitute the largest single fraction of discards, unchanged from the beginning of the 20th century. Overall, around 60% of discarded fish are rejected on the basis of size rather than for reasons of species value or quota restrictions. The analysis shows that much more information can be gained on discarding by utilising additional sources of data rather than relying solely on information gathered by observers. In addition, it is clear that reducing fishing intensity and rebuilding stocks is likely to be more effective at reducing discards in the long term, than any technical legislation to outlaw the practice in the short term. PMID:25774938

  9. Hind-casting the quantity and composition of discards by mixed demersal fisheries in the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Heath, Michael R; Cook, Robin M

    2015-01-01

    Many commercial fisheries seek to maximise the economic value of the catch that they bring ashore and market for human consumption by discarding undersize or low value fish. Information on the quantity, size and species composition of discarded fish is vital for stock assessments and for devising legislation to minimise the practice. However, except for a few major species, data are usually extremely sparse and reliant on observers aboard a small sample of fishing vessels. Expanding these data to estimate total regional discards is highly problematic. Here, we develop a method for utilising additional information from scientific trawl surveys to model the quantities of fish discarded by the commercial fisheries. As a case-study, we apply the model to the North Sea over the period 1978-2011, and show a long-term decline in the overall quantity of fish discarded, but an increase in the proportion of catch which is thrown away. The composition of discarded catch has shifted from predominantly (∼80%) roundfish, to >50% flatfish. Undersized plaice constitute the largest single fraction of discards, unchanged from the beginning of the 20th century. Overall, around 60% of discarded fish are rejected on the basis of size rather than for reasons of species value or quota restrictions. The analysis shows that much more information can be gained on discarding by utilising additional sources of data rather than relying solely on information gathered by observers. In addition, it is clear that reducing fishing intensity and rebuilding stocks is likely to be more effective at reducing discards in the long term, than any technical legislation to outlaw the practice in the short term.

  10. Differential gearing

    SciTech Connect

    Tamiya, S.

    1986-07-29

    A differential for motor vehicles is described and the like comprising, an input drive shaft, a pair of coaxially spaced drive gears simultaneously driven by the input shaft in a same direction at a same speed of rotation about a common axis of rotation, a driven gear driven peripherally by the pair of drive gears for transmission of power from the input drive shaft, two coaxial opposed bevel sun gears having an axis of rotation concentric with an axis of rotation of the driven gear, two planetary gears disposed between the sun gears for differential driving thereof during turns of the vehicle to the right and to the left of each meshing with the sun gears for driving the suns gears. Each planetary gear has a separate axis of rotation carried by the driven gear disposed therein radially and symmetrically relative to the axis of rotation of the sun gears, and each sun gear having a respective power output shaft connected thereto for rotation therewith.

  11. Gear Tooth Scoring Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-01

    C. Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication 20 D. Boundary Lubrication 23 E. Lubrication-Limited Gear Performance 24 F. Impact of Gear Mechanics 25...III. SPUR GEAR MECHANICS 28 A. Spur Gear Kinematics 28 B. Spur Gear Statics 31 C. Spur Gear Dynamics 38 IV. HELICAL GEAR MECHANICS 46 A...Helical Gear Kinematics 46 B. Helical Gear Statics 48 C. Helical Gear Dynamics 50 V. SPIRAL BEVEL GEAR MECHANICS 53 A. Spiral Bevel Gear

  12. 50 CFR 622.35 - Gear restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gear restricted areas. 622.35 Section 622... Resources of the Gulf of Mexico § 622.35 Gear restricted areas. (a) Reef fish stressed area. The stressed... to the footrope, which makes it possible to fish the gear over rough bottom, that is, in...

  13. 50 CFR 622.59 - Prevention of gear conflicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prevention of gear conflicts. 622.59... ATLANTIC Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico § 622.59 Prevention of gear conflicts. (a) No person may knowingly place in the Gulf EEZ any article, including fishing gear, that interferes with fishing...

  14. 50 CFR 622.35 - Gear restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gear restricted areas. 622.35 Section 622... Resources of the Gulf of Mexico § 622.35 Gear restricted areas. (a) Reef fish stressed area. The stressed... to the footrope, which makes it possible to fish the gear over rough bottom, that is, in...

  15. Seabird use of discards from a nearshore shrimp fishery in the South Atlantic Bight, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jodice, Patrick G.; Wickliffe, Lisa C.; Sachs, Elena B.

    2011-01-01

    Shrimp trawling is common throughout the southeastern and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the USA and is the primary contributor to fisheries discards in these regions. Tens of thousands of nearshore seabirds nest near shrimp trawling grounds in the USA, but to date, there has been no assessment of the relationship between seabirds and shrimp trawlers. We examined the taxonomic composition of bycatch, rate at which seabirds scavenged bycatch, and energy density of discarded bycatch in a nearshore commercial shrimp fishery. Bycatch was primarily comprised of demersal fish that are not typically accessible to the plunge-diving and surface-feeding seabirds that occur in the area. Hence, seabird diets in the region appear to be broadened taxonomically by the availability of discards. Results from discard experiments indicated that 70% of the nearly 5,500 items discarded by hand were scavenged by seabirds and that the fate of a discarded item was most strongly predicted by its taxonomic order. Laughing gulls scavenged the greatest proportion of discards, although brown pelicans were the only species to scavenge more discards than predicted based upon their abundance. Because this is the first such study in the region, it is difficult to ascertain the extent or intensity of the impact that discards have on nearshore seabirds. Nonetheless, our results suggest that it will be difficult for managers to clearly understand fluctuations in local seabird population dynamics without first understanding the extent to which these species rely upon discards. This may be especially problematic in situations where seabird populations are recovering following natural or anthropogenic stressors.

  16. 13. Detail view of drum screen short shaft gears, journal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Detail view of drum screen short shaft gears, journal bearing, rotation drive chain, upper sprocket gear, and drum screen edge in background, facing southeast (downstream) from drum screen cover. - Congdon Canal, Fish Screen, Naches River, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  17. 75 FR 55301 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Northeast Region Gear Identification Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... Region Gear Identification Requirements AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... fishing permit holders using specified fishing gear mark that gear with specified information for the... methods identified in the regulations). The regulations also specify how the gear is to be marked for...

  18. Effects of Gear Restriction on the Abundance of Juvenile Fishes along Sandy Beaches in Hawai‘i

    PubMed Central

    Friedlander, Alan M.; Usseglio, Paolo; Goodell, Whitney; Iglesias, Ily; Schemmel, Eva M.; Stamoulis, Kostantinos A.; Filous, Alexander; Giddens, Jonatha; Kamikawa, Keith; Koike, Haruko; McCoy, Kaylyn; Wall, Christopher B.

    2016-01-01

    In 2007, due to growing concerns of declines in nearshore fisheries in Hawai‘i, a ban on gillnets was implemented in designated areas around the island of O‘ahu in the main Hawaiian Islands. Utilizing a 17 year time-series of juvenile fish abundance beginning prior to the implementation of the gillnet ban, we examined the effects of the ban on the abundance of juveniles of soft-bottom associated fish species. Using a Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) sampling design, we compared the abundance of targeted fishery species in a bay where gillnet fishing was banned (Kailua, O‘ahu), and an adjacent bay where fishing is still permitted (Waimānalo, O‘ahu). Our results show that when multiple juvenile fish species were combined, abundance declined over time in both locations, but the pattern varied for each of the four species groups examined. Bonefishes were the only species group with a significant BACI effect, with higher abundance in Kailua in the period after the gillnet ban. This study addressed a need for scientific assessment of a fisheries regulation that is rarely possible due to lack of quality data before enactment of such restrictions. Thus, we developed a baseline status of juveniles of an important fishery species, and found effects of a fishery management regulation in Hawai‘i. PMID:27171404

  19. Effects of Gear Restriction on the Abundance of Juvenile Fishes along Sandy Beaches in Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Mary K; Friedlander, Alan M; Usseglio, Paolo; Goodell, Whitney; Iglesias, Ily; Schemmel, Eva M; Stamoulis, Kostantinos A; Filous, Alexander; Giddens, Jonatha; Kamikawa, Keith; Koike, Haruko; McCoy, Kaylyn; Wall, Christopher B

    2016-01-01

    In 2007, due to growing concerns of declines in nearshore fisheries in Hawai'i, a ban on gillnets was implemented in designated areas around the island of O'ahu in the main Hawaiian Islands. Utilizing a 17 year time-series of juvenile fish abundance beginning prior to the implementation of the gillnet ban, we examined the effects of the ban on the abundance of juveniles of soft-bottom associated fish species. Using a Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) sampling design, we compared the abundance of targeted fishery species in a bay where gillnet fishing was banned (Kailua, O'ahu), and an adjacent bay where fishing is still permitted (Waimānalo, O'ahu). Our results show that when multiple juvenile fish species were combined, abundance declined over time in both locations, but the pattern varied for each of the four species groups examined. Bonefishes were the only species group with a significant BACI effect, with higher abundance in Kailua in the period after the gillnet ban. This study addressed a need for scientific assessment of a fisheries regulation that is rarely possible due to lack of quality data before enactment of such restrictions. Thus, we developed a baseline status of juveniles of an important fishery species, and found effects of a fishery management regulation in Hawai'i.

  20. Occupancy Models for Monitoring Marine Fish: A Bayesian Hierarchical Approach to Model Imperfect Detection with a Novel Gear Combination

    PubMed Central

    Coggins, Lewis G.; Bacheler, Nathan M.; Gwinn, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    Occupancy models using incidence data collected repeatedly at sites across the range of a population are increasingly employed to infer patterns and processes influencing population distribution and dynamics. While such work is common in terrestrial systems, fewer examples exist in marine applications. This disparity likely exists because the replicate samples required by these models to account for imperfect detection are often impractical to obtain when surveying aquatic organisms, particularly fishes. We employ simultaneous sampling using fish traps and novel underwater camera observations to generate the requisite replicate samples for occupancy models of red snapper, a reef fish species. Since the replicate samples are collected simultaneously by multiple sampling devices, many typical problems encountered when obtaining replicate observations are avoided. Our results suggest that augmenting traditional fish trap sampling with camera observations not only doubled the probability of detecting red snapper in reef habitats off the Southeast coast of the United States, but supplied the necessary observations to infer factors influencing population distribution and abundance while accounting for imperfect detection. We found that detection probabilities tended to be higher for camera traps than traditional fish traps. Furthermore, camera trap detections were influenced by the current direction and turbidity of the water, indicating that collecting data on these variables is important for future monitoring. These models indicate that the distribution and abundance of this species is more heavily influenced by latitude and depth than by micro-scale reef characteristics lending credence to previous characterizations of red snapper as a reef habitat generalist. This study demonstrates the utility of simultaneous sampling devices, including camera traps, in aquatic environments to inform occupancy models and account for imperfect detection when describing factors

  1. 50 CFR 648.80 - NE Multispecies regulated mesh areas and restrictions on gear and methods of fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... The net must have an outlet or hole to allow fish or other objects that are too large to pass between the bars of the grate to exit the net. The aftermost edge of this outlet or hole must be at least as wide as the grate at the point of attachment. The outlet or hole must extend forward from the...

  2. 50 CFR 648.80 - NE Multispecies regulated mesh areas and restrictions on gear and methods of fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... outlet or hole to allow fish or other objects that are too large to pass between the bars of the grate to exit the net. The aftermost edge of this outlet or hole must be at least as wide as the grate at the point of attachment. The outlet or hole must extend forward from the grate toward the mouth of the...

  3. 50 CFR 648.80 - NE Multispecies regulated mesh areas and restrictions on gear and methods of fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... section. The net must have an outlet or hole to allow fish or other objects that are too large to pass between the bars of the grate to exit the net. The aftermost edge of this outlet or hole must be at least as wide as the grate at the point of attachment. The outlet or hole must extend forward from...

  4. 50 CFR 648.80 - NE Multispecies regulated mesh areas and restrictions on gear and methods of fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... The net must have an outlet or hole to allow fish or other objects that are too large to pass between the bars of the grate to exit the net. The aftermost edge of this outlet or hole must be at least as wide as the grate at the point of attachment. The outlet or hole must extend forward from the...

  5. 50 CFR 648.80 - NE Multispecies regulated mesh areas and restrictions on gear and methods of fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... outlet or hole to allow fish or other objects that are too large to pass between the bars of the grate to exit the net. The aftermost edge of this outlet or hole must be at least as wide as the grate at the point of attachment. The outlet or hole must extend forward from the grate toward the mouth of the...

  6. 50 CFR 648.91 - Monkfish regulated mesh areas and restrictions on gear and methods of fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-inch (25.4-cm) square or 12-inch (30.5-cm) diamond mesh throughout the codend for at least 45... gillnets used by a vessel fishing under a monkfish DAS is 10-inch (25.4-cm) diamond mesh, unless...

  7. 50 CFR 648.91 - Monkfish regulated mesh areas and restrictions on gear and methods of fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-inch (25.4-cm) square or 12-inch (30.5-cm) diamond mesh throughout the codend for at least 45... gillnets used by a vessel fishing under a monkfish DAS is 10-inch (25.4-cm) diamond mesh, unless...

  8. 50 CFR 648.91 - Monkfish regulated mesh areas and restrictions on gear and methods of fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-inch (25.4-cm) square or 12-inch (30.5-cm) diamond mesh throughout the codend for at least 45... gillnets used by a vessel fishing under a monkfish DAS is 10-inch (25.4-cm) diamond mesh, unless...

  9. Environmental and Water Quality Operational Studies: Evaluation of Larval Fish Sampling Gears for Use on Large Rivers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    sampled water. Larvae Trap d* 32. Collins (1975) developed an emergent larvae trap for lake spawning salmonids. The trap Is a pyramid constructed of...the holding box. The emergence trap was held in place with stakes and supported by steel rods . The holding box was designed to prevent fish mortality...trap to determine nocturnal distribution patterns in Rough River Lake, Ky. % The trap was constructed of 1-mm-mesh wire screen and was 0.3 m in diam

  10. Differential gear

    SciTech Connect

    Shibuya, K.; Hamada, T.; Masuda, K.; Shimada, K.

    1989-05-02

    A differential gear for permitting a difference in rotational speed between two output shafts is described, the differential gear including an input shaft and two output shafts. The improvement consists of means for limiting the difference in rotational speed between the two output shafts in response to the rotational speed of the input shaft, the rotational speed limiting means comprising a differential casing coupled to the input shaft and adapted to be rotated by the input shaft, a differential pinion shaft radially extending within the differential casing and rotatably mounted at its opposite ends in the differential casing. A plurality of differential pinion gears rotatably mounted on the differential pinion shaft is also included, and also a pair of side gears having a rotational axis common to that of the differential casing, wherein the side gears mesh with the differential pinion gears and the two output shafts are fixed to the side gears, the means for limiting the difference in rotational speed between the two output shafts comprising a weight means radially movable in the differential casing, the weight means limiting the difference in rotational speed between the two output shafts in response to the centrifugal force applied to the weight means, the weight means being slidably mounted on the differential pinion shaft and being biased radially inwardly.

  11. 50 CFR 622.430 - Gear identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gear identification. 622.430 Section 622.430 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.430 Gear identification. (a) Fish traps...

  12. 50 CFR 622.430 - Gear identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gear identification. 622.430 Section 622.430 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.430 Gear identification. (a) Fish traps...

  13. 50 CFR 660.20 - Vessel and gear identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vessel and gear identification. 660.20... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.20 Vessel and gear identification. (a) Vessel identification—(1) Display. The... its fishing gear obstructs the view of the official number from an enforcement vessel or aircraft....

  14. 50 CFR 660.20 - Vessel and gear identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel and gear identification. 660.20... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.20 Vessel and gear identification. (a) Vessel identification—(1) Display. The... its fishing gear obstructs the view of the official number from an enforcement vessel or aircraft....

  15. 50 CFR 622.182 - Gear-restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gear-restricted areas. 622.182 Section...-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.182 Gear-restricted areas. (a) Special management zones...)(xxii) through (li) Fishing may only be conducted with handline, rod and reel, and spearfishing gear....

  16. 50 CFR 660.20 - Vessel and gear identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vessel and gear identification. 660.20... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.20 Vessel and gear identification. (a) Vessel identification—(1) Display. The... its fishing gear obstructs the view of the official number from an enforcement vessel or aircraft....

  17. 50 CFR 622.32 - Prohibited gear and methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prohibited gear and methods. 622.32... ATLANTIC Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico § 622.32 Prohibited gear and methods. Also see § 622.9 for additional prohibited gear and methods that apply more broadly to multiple fisheries or in...

  18. 50 CFR 600.503 - Vessel and gear identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vessel and gear identification. 600.503... Vessel and gear identification. (a) Vessel identification. (1) The operator of each FFV assigned an IRCS... 81). (c) Gear identification. (1) The operator of each FFV must ensure that all deployed fishing...

  19. 50 CFR 622.32 - Prohibited gear and methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prohibited gear and methods. 622.32... ATLANTIC Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico § 622.32 Prohibited gear and methods. Also see § 622.9 for additional prohibited gear and methods that apply more broadly to multiple fisheries or in...

  20. 50 CFR 648.296 - Gear restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear restricted areas. 648.296 Section 648... Tilefish Fishery § 648.296 Gear restricted areas. No vessel of the United States may fish with bottom-tending mobile gear within the areas bounded by the following coordinates: Canyon N. Lat. Degrees...

  1. 50 CFR 660.20 - Vessel and gear identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vessel and gear identification. 660.20... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.20 Vessel and gear identification. (a) Vessel identification—(1) Display. The... its fishing gear obstructs the view of the official number from an enforcement vessel or aircraft....

  2. 50 CFR 648.297 - Tilefish gear restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tilefish gear restricted areas. 648.297... Measures for the Tilefish Fishery § 648.297 Tilefish gear restricted areas. No vessel of the United States may fish with bottom-tending mobile gear within the areas bounded by the following coordinates:...

  3. 50 CFR 648.297 - Tilefish gear restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tilefish gear restricted areas. 648.297... Measures for the Tilefish Fishery § 648.297 Tilefish gear restricted areas. No vessel of the United States may fish with bottom-tending mobile gear within the areas bounded by the following coordinates:...

  4. 50 CFR 600.503 - Vessel and gear identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vessel and gear identification. 600.503... Vessel and gear identification. (a) Vessel identification. (1) The operator of each FFV assigned an IRCS... 81). (c) Gear identification. (1) The operator of each FFV must ensure that all deployed fishing...

  5. 50 CFR 648.297 - Tilefish gear restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tilefish gear restricted areas. 648.297... Measures for the Tilefish Fishery § 648.297 Tilefish gear restricted areas. No vessel of the United States may fish with bottom-tending mobile gear within the areas bounded by the following coordinates:...

  6. 50 CFR 600.503 - Vessel and gear identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vessel and gear identification. 600.503... Vessel and gear identification. (a) Vessel identification. (1) The operator of each FFV assigned an IRCS... 81). (c) Gear identification. (1) The operator of each FFV must ensure that all deployed fishing...

  7. 50 CFR 622.433 - Prohibited gear and methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prohibited gear and methods. 622.433... ATLANTIC Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.433 Prohibited gear and methods. Also see § 622.9 for additional prohibited gear and methods that apply more broadly to...

  8. 50 CFR 622.433 - Prohibited gear and methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prohibited gear and methods. 622.433... ATLANTIC Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.433 Prohibited gear and methods. Also see § 622.9 for additional prohibited gear and methods that apply more broadly to...

  9. 50 CFR 648.297 - Tilefish gear restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tilefish gear restricted areas. 648.297... Measures for the Tilefish Fishery § 648.297 Tilefish gear restricted areas. No vessel of the United States may fish with bottom-tending mobile gear within the areas bounded by the following coordinates:...

  10. 50 CFR 648.296 - Gear restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gear restricted areas. 648.296 Section... Tilefish Fishery § 648.296 Gear restricted areas. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 60647, Sept. 29, 2011. No vessel of the United States may fish with bottom-tending mobile gear within the areas...

  11. Geared power transmission technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    The historical path of the science and art of gearing is reviewed. The present state of gearing technology is discussed along with examples of some of the NASA-sponsored contributions to gearing technology. Future requirements in gearing are summarized.

  12. 50 CFR 300.109 - Gear disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... articles and substances include, but are not limited to, fishing gear, net scraps, bale straps, plastic bags, oil drums, petroleum containers, oil, toxic chemicals or any manmade items retrieved in...

  13. Transmission gearing arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Klemen, D.

    1987-08-04

    A gearing arrangement is described for an automotive power transmission comprising: an input shaft and an output shaft; first, second, and third simple planetary gear sets. Each has a sun gear, a ring gear, and a planet gears meshing with the sun and the ring gears and rotatably supported on a planet carrier; means rigidly interconnecting the ring gear of the third gear set and the carrier of the second gear set; means rigidly interconnecting the ring gear of the second gear set and the carrier of the first gear set; means rigidly connecting the output shaft and the carrier of the third gear set; a first intermediate shaft rigidly interconnecting the sun gears of the second and the third gear sets for unitary rotation; a second intermediate shaft rigidly connected to the carrier of the second gear set; a third intermediate shaft continuously connected to the input shaft and to the sun gear of the first gear set; first, second, and third brake means operative to selectively brake rotation of the ring gears of the first, the second, and the third gear sets, respectively; a first rotating clutch selectively operable to connect the input shaft and the first intermediate shaft for unitary rotation; a second rotating clutch selectively operable to connect the input shaft and the second intermediate shaft for unitary rotation; a fourth simple planetary gear set including a sun gear and a ring gear and planet gears meshing with the sun and the ring gears and rotatably supported on a planet carrier; means rigidly connecting the sun gear of the fourth gear set to the third intermediate shaft; means rigidly connecting the ring gear of the fourth gear set to the carrier of the first gear set; and a fourth brake means selectively operable to brake the carrier of the fourth gear set. The nine forward ratios are obtainable while preserving a single transition shifting over the entire nine forward ratios.

  14. Zero-inflated modeling of fish catch per unit area resulting from multiple gears: Application to channel catfish and shovelnose sturgeon in the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arab, A.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Wikle, C.K.; Gentry, C.N.

    2008-01-01

    Fisheries studies often employ multiple gears that result in large percentages of zero values. We considered a zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) model with random effects to address these excessive zeros. By employing a Bayesian ZIP model that simultaneously incorporates data from multiple gears to analyze data from the Missouri River, we were able to compare gears and make more year, segment, and macrohabitat comparisons than did the original data analysis. For channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, our results rank (highest to lowest) the mean catch per unit area (CPUA) for gears (beach seine, benthic trawl, electrofishing, and drifting trammel net); years (1998 and 1997); macrohabitats (tributary mouth, connected secondary channel, nonconnected secondary channel, and bend); and river segment zones (channelized, inter-reservoir, and least-altered). For shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, the mean CPUA was significantly higher for benthic trawls and drifting trammel nets; 1998 and 1997; tributary mouths, bends, and connected secondary channels; and some channelized or least-altered inter-reservoir segments. One important advantage of our approach is the ability to reliably infer patterns of relative abundance by means of multiple gears without using gear efficiencies. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  15. Gear optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderplaats, G. N.; Chen, Xiang; Zhang, Ning-Tian

    1988-01-01

    The use of formal numerical optimization methods for the design of gears is investigated. To achieve this, computer codes were developed for the analysis of spur gears and spiral bevel gears. These codes calculate the life, dynamic load, bending strength, surface durability, gear weight and size, and various geometric parameters. It is necessary to calculate all such important responses because they all represent competing requirements in the design process. The codes developed here were written in subroutine form and coupled to the COPES/ADS general purpose optimization program. This code allows the user to define the optimization problem at the time of program execution. Typical design variables include face width, number of teeth and diametral pitch. The user is free to choose any calculated response as the design objective to minimize or maximize and may impose lower and upper bounds on any calculated responses. Typical examples include life maximization with limits on dynamic load, stress, weight, etc. or minimization of weight subject to limits on life, dynamic load, etc. The research codes were written in modular form for easy expansion and so that they could be combined to create a multiple reduction optimization capability in future.

  16. 46 CFR 28.545 - Intact stability when using lifting gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Intact stability when using lifting gear. 28.545 Section... COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Stability § 28.545 Intact stability when using lifting gear. (a) Each vessel which lifts a weight over the side, or that uses fishing gear that can impose an...

  17. 76 FR 54737 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Southeast Region Gear Identification Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... Region Gear Identification Requirements AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... for this collection of information. Requirements that fishing gear be marked are essential to facilitate enforcement. The ability to link fishing gear to the vessel owner is crucial to enforcement...

  18. 46 CFR 28.545 - Intact stability when using lifting gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Intact stability when using lifting gear. 28.545 Section... COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Stability § 28.545 Intact stability when using lifting gear. (a) Each vessel which lifts a weight over the side, or that uses fishing gear that can impose an...

  19. Post-release behavior and movement patterns of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) after capture using alternative commercial fish gear, lower Columbia River, Washington and Oregon, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liedtke, Theresa L.; Kock, Tobias J.; Evans, Scott D.; Hansen, Gabriel S.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2014-01-01

    In 2011 and 2012, WDFW conducted post-release mortality studies of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) that were captured using beach or purse seines. These studies were comprised of two groups of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags): (1) treatment fish that were captured by one of the gear types 9–25 river kilometers (rkm) downstream of Bonneville Dam (rkm 234); and (2) control fish that were captured at the Adult Fish Facility near the Washington shore fish ladder at Bonneville Dam, and then transported and released 8 rkm downstream of the Bonneville Dam. Fish were confirmed to have survived if they moved upstream and were detected on PIT-tag antennas at or upstream of Bonneville Dam, were recovered at hatcheries or at the dam, or were captured by commercial or sport fishers. Post-release survival estimates were higher for steelhead (89–98 percent) than for Chinook salmon and coho salmon (50–90 percent; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, unpub. data, 2014). However, some Chinook salmon and coho salmon return to hatcheries, or spawn in the mainstem Columbia River and in tributaries downstream of Bonneville Dam. The proportion of Chinook salmon and coho salmon in the treatment group that were destined for areas downstream of Bonneville Dam likely was higher than in the control group because the control fish were collected as they were attempting to pass the dam. If this assertion was true, mortality would have been overestimated in these studies, so WDFW developed a study plan to determine the post-release movements and intended location of Chinook salmon and coho salmon collected with beach and purse seines in the lower Columbia River.

  20. Flex-Gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Lung-Wen; Peritt, Jonathan

    1993-01-01

    Flex-Gears are being developed as an alternative to brushes and slip rings to conduct electricity across a rotating joint. Flex-Gears roll in the annulus of sun and ring gears for electrical contact while maintaining their position by using a novel application of involute gears. A single Flex-Gear is predicted to transfer up to 2.8 amps, thereby allowing a six inch diameter device, holding 30 Flex-Gears, to transfer over 80 amps. Semi-rigid Flex-Gears are proposed to decrease Flex-Gear stress and insure proper gear meshing.

  1. {sup 237}Np in Hemp-palm leaves of Bontenchiku for fishing gear used by the Fifth Fukuryu-Maru: 40 year after {open_quotes}Bravo{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Komura, Kazuhisa; Ueno, Kaoru

    1996-05-01

    The alpha radioactive components in the Hemp-palm leaves of Bontenchiku were determined with emphasis on the measurement of low-level {sup 237}Np by alpha-ray spectrometry after chemical separation. Bontenchiku is a kind of fishing gear for long-line fishing used by the Fifth Fukuryu-Maru (Lucky Dragon). This gear was exposed to fallout from the second thermonuclear test explosion (Bravo) at Bikini Atoll in March 1954. The {sup 237}Np content in the Bontenchiku sample was determined to be 11.5 {plus_minus}0.8 mBq g{sup {minus}1} with an activity ratio of {sup 237}Np: {sup 239,240}Pu and an atom ratio of {sup 237}Np: {sup 239}Pu estimated to be (2.2 {plus_minus}0.2) x 10{sup {minus}3} and 0.42 {plus_minus}0.04, respectively. The data showed the existence of a chain reaction of {sup 238}U and its ratio to be {sup 237}Np: {sup 239}Pu, as well as the presence of {sup 237}U at the time of fallout from Bravo event in March 1954. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Gear box assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Harrod, L.R.; Siebern, M.R.

    1989-04-25

    This patent describes a gearbox assembly for a vehicle which includes a driven axle shaft extending transversely of the vehicle having wheels secured thereto: a drive gear concentric with the axle shaft nonrotatably connected to the shaft, the drive gear having an integral hub on each of opposite sides thereof, a pinion gear shiftably mounted above the drive gear having one position engaging the drive gear and shiftable laterally to disengage from the drive gear, a shift lever mounted in a position projecting upwardly from the pinion gear actuatable to shift the pinion gear, an electric motor with output shaft mounted with the output shaft paralleling the axle shaft and having a driving gear mounted thereon, a multiple gear gear train mounted so as to establish a driving connection between the driving gear and the pinion gear, and a transmission housing enclosing the driving gar, gear train, pinion gear and drive gear, the housing including sleeve portions rotatably receiving the hubs of the drive gear and thus rotatably mounting the drive gear and the axle shaft connected to the drive gear.

  3. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, Max J.; Townsend, Timothy G.

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Electronic cigarettes were tested using TCLP and WET. • Several electronic cigarette products leached lead at hazardous waste levels. • Lead was the only element that exceeded hazardous waste concentration thresholds. • Nicotine solution may cause hazardous waste classification when discarded unused. - Abstract: The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50 mg/L by WET and 40 mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers.

  4. Two variants of minimum discarded fill ordering

    SciTech Connect

    D'Azevedo, E.F. ); Forsyth, P.A.; Tang, Wei-Pai . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-01-01

    It is well known that the ordering of the unknowns can have a significant effect on the convergence of Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) methods. There has been considerable experimental work on the effects of ordering for regular finite difference problems. In many cases, good results have been obtained with preconditioners based on diagonal, spiral or natural row orderings. However, for finite element problems having unstructured grids or grids generated by a local refinement approach, it is difficult to define many of the orderings for more regular problems. A recently proposed Minimum Discarded Fill (MDF) ordering technique is effective in finding high quality Incomplete LU (ILU) preconditioners, especially for problems arising from unstructured finite element grids. Testing indicates this algorithm can identify a rather complicated physical structure in an anisotropic problem and orders the unknowns in the preferred'' direction. The MDF technique may be viewed as the numerical analogue of the minimum deficiency algorithm in sparse matrix technology. At any stage of the partial elimination, the MDF technique chooses the next pivot node so as to minimize the amount of discarded fill. In this work, two efficient variants of the MDF technique are explored to produce cost-effective high-order ILU preconditioners. The Threshold MDF orderings combine MDF ideas with drop tolerance techniques to identify the sparsity pattern in the ILU preconditioners. These techniques identify an ordering that encourages fast decay of the entries in the ILU factorization. The Minimum Update Matrix (MUM) ordering technique is a simplification of the MDF ordering and is closely related to the minimum degree algorithm. The MUM ordering is especially for large problems arising from Navier-Stokes problems. Some interesting pictures of the orderings are presented using a visualization tool. 22 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Effects of Modified Handling on the Physiological Stress of Trawled-and-Discarded Yellowfin Bream (Acanthopagrus australis).

    PubMed

    Uhlmann, Sven Sebastian; Broadhurst, Matt Kenyon; Millar, Russell Brian

    2015-01-01

    Modified handling is often claimed to reduce (sub-)lethal impacts among organisms caught-and-released in fisheries. Improving welfare of discarded fish warrants investigation, when their survival is of both economic and ecological importance. In this study, juvenile yellowfin bream (Acanthopagrus australis) were trawled in an Australian penaeid fishery and then discarded after on-board sorting in either dry or water-filled (modified) trays and with delays in starting sorting of either 2 or 15 mins. Blood plasma cortisol, glucose and potassium were sampled immediately from some yellowfin bream, while others were placed into cages (with controls) and sampled after five days. Irrespective of their on-board handling, all trawled fish incurred a relatively high acute stress response (i.e. an increase in Mean ± SE cortisol from a baseline of <4 to 122.0 ± 14.9 ng/mL) that was mostly attributed to the trawling process, and exacerbated by variation in key parameters (low salinity, changes in water temperature and the presence of jellyfish Catostylus mosaicus in catches). When C. mosaicus was present, the potassium concentrations of fish sampled immediately after sorting were significantly elevated, possibly due to nematocyst contact and subsequent inhibition of ion pumps or cytolysis. Stress also increased during handling in response to warmer air temperatures and longer exposure. While most fish had substantially recovered by 120 hours after discarding, deploying selective trawls (to reduce jellyfish) for short periods and then quickly sorting catches in water would benefit discard welfare.

  6. Planetary gear train

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraiwa, K.

    1988-10-04

    A planetary gear train is described comprising: an input member; an output member; a first planetary gear set including a first sun gear, a first ring gear, and a first pinion carrier rotatably supporting first planet pinions; a secondary planetary gear set including a second sun gear, and second ring gear and a second pinion carrier rotatably supporting second planet pinions; first drive means for connecting the input member with the first ring gear; second drive means for connecting the input member with the first sun gear; third drive means for constantly connecting the first sun gear with the second sun gear and establishing a force transmitting positive drive from the first sun gear to the second sun gear, whereby the first sun gear rotates at a speed different from the second sun gear; first brake means for braking the second sun gear; second brake means for braking the second pinion carrier; fourth drive means for connecting the second ring gear with the output member and providing a first speed ratio therebetween; and fifth drive means for connecting the first pinion carrier with the output member and providing a second speed ratio therebetween, the second speed ratio being different from the first speed ratio.

  7. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Krause, Max J; Townsend, Timothy G

    2015-05-01

    The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50mg/L by WET and 40mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers.

  8. Injuries from Non-Retention in Gillnet Fisheries Suppress Reproductive Maturation in Escaped Fish

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Matthew R.; Swanson, Penny; Young, Graham

    2013-01-01

    Exploitation of fisheries resources has unintended consequences, not only in the bycatch and discard of non-target organisms, but also in damage to targeted fish that are injured by gear but not landed (non-retention). Delayed mortality due to non-retention represents lost reproductive potential in exploited stocks, while not contributing to harvest. Our study examined the physiological mechanisms by which delayed mortality occurs and the extent to which injuries related to disentanglement from commercial gear compromise reproductive success in spawning stocks of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). We found evidence for elevated stress in fish injured via non-retention in gillnet fisheries. Plasma cortisol levels correlated with the severity of disentanglement injury and were elevated in fish that developed infections related to disentanglement injuries. We also analyzed sex steroid concentrations in females (estradiol-17β and 17,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one) to determine whether non-retention impairs reproductive potential in escaped individuals. We demonstrate evidence for delayed or inhibited maturation in fish with disentanglement injuries. These findings have important implications for effective conservation and management of exploited fish stocks and suggest means to improve spawning success in such stocks if retention in commercial fisheries is improved and incidental mortality reduced. PMID:23894510

  9. Entanglement of Australian sea lions and New Zealand fur seals in lost fishing gear and other marine debris before and after Government and industry attempts to reduce the problem.

    PubMed

    Page, Brad; McKenzie, Jane; McIntosh, Rebecca; Baylis, Alastair; Morrissey, Adam; Calvert, Norna; Haase, Tami; Berris, Mel; Dowie, Dave; Shaughnessy, Peter D; Goldsworthy, Simon D

    2004-07-01

    In recent years, Australian governments and fishing industry associations have developed guiding principles aimed at reducing the impact of fishing on non-target species and the benthos and increasing community awareness of their efforts. To determine whether they reduced seal entanglement in lost fishing gear and other marine debris, we analysed Australian sea lion and New Zealand fur seal entanglement data collected from Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Contrary to our expectations, we found that entanglement rates did not decrease in recent years. The Australian sea lion entanglement rate (1.3% in 2002) and the New Zealand fur seal entanglement rate (0.9% in 2002) are the third and fourth highest reported for any seal species. Australian sea lions were most frequently entangled in monofilament gillnet that most likely originated from the shark fishery, which operates in the region where sea lions forage--south and east of Kangaroo Island. In contrast, New Zealand fur seals were most commonly entangled in loops of packing tape and trawl net fragments suspected to be from regional rock lobster and trawl fisheries. Based on recent entanglement studies, we estimate that 1478 seals die from entanglement each year in Australia. We discuss remedies such as education programs and government incentives that may reduce entanglements.

  10. Antibacklash gears including rack and pinion gears

    SciTech Connect

    Kerkoff, E.F.

    1989-11-14

    This patent describes a meshing gear construction comprising a first gear having a plurality of fixed teeth extending therefrom. The teeth alternatingly separated by a plurality of roots each having a radial centerline, faces on either side of each fixed tooth, each root being a continuation of a pair of faces of two adjacent teeth, a second gear having a plurality of rollers thereon rotatable relative to the second gear. The rollers meshing with the fixed teeth of the first gear. The meshing comprising rolling contact of at least two rollers with one first gear fixed tooth at all instants of motion. Wherein the rollers comprise cylindrical rollers and the faces of the fixed teeth comprise circular arcs in profile and wherein a radial centers of fixed tooth circular arc face lies outside a pitch circle of the first gear and between the circular arc face and the radial centerline of an adjacent root.

  11. A Bird’s Eye View of Discard Reforms: Bird-Borne Cameras Reveal Seabird/Fishery Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Votier, Stephen C.; Bicknell, Anthony; Cox, Samantha L.; Scales, Kylie L.; Patrick, Samantha C.

    2013-01-01

    Commercial capture fisheries produce huge quantities of offal, as well as undersized and unwanted catch in the form of discards. Declines in global catches and legislation to ban discarding will significantly reduce discards, but this subsidy supports a large scavenger community. Understanding the potential impact of declining discards for scavengers should feature in an eco-system based approach to fisheries management, but requires greater knowledge of scavenger/fishery interactions. Here we use bird-borne cameras, in tandem with GPS loggers, to provide a unique view of seabird/fishery interactions. 20,643 digital images (one min−1) from ten bird-borne cameras deployed on central place northern gannets Morus bassanus revealed that all birds photographed fishing vessels. These were large (>15 m) boats, with no small-scale vessels. Virtually all vessels were trawlers, and gannets were almost always accompanied by other scavenging birds. All individuals exhibited an Area-Restricted Search (ARS) during foraging, but only 42% of ARS were associated with fishing vessels, indicating much ‘natural’ foraging. The proportion of ARS behaviours associated with fishing boats were higher for males (81%) than females (30%), although the reasons for this are currently unclear. Our study illustrates that fisheries form a very important component of the prey-landscape for foraging gannets and that a discard ban, such as that proposed under reforms of the EU Common Fisheries Policy, may have a significant impact on gannet behaviour, particularly males. However, a continued reliance on ‘natural’ foraging suggests the ability to switch away from scavenging, but only if there is sufficient food to meet their needs in the absence of a discard subsidy. PMID:23483906

  12. 50 CFR 648.108 - Summer flounder gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Otter trawlers whose owners are issued a summer flounder permit and that land or possess 100 lb (45.4 kg... a review of sea sampling data, that vessels fishing under the exemption are discarding more than 10.... (ii) (2) Vessels fishing with a two-seam otter trawl fly net with the following...

  13. 50 CFR 648.108 - Summer flounder gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Otter trawlers whose owners are issued a summer flounder permit and that land or possess 100 lb (45.4 kg... a review of sea sampling data, that vessels fishing under the exemption are discarding more than 10.... (ii) (2) Vessels fishing with a two-seam otter trawl fly net with the following...

  14. 50 CFR 648.108 - Summer flounder gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Otter trawlers whose owners are issued a summer flounder permit and that land or possess 100 lb (45.4 kg... a review of sea sampling data, that vessels fishing under the exemption are discarding more than 10.... (ii) (2) Vessels fishing with a two-seam otter trawl fly net with the following...

  15. Development of a new Lake-wide Multiple Gear Survey to Assess Status and Trends of the Lake Superior Fish Community and Lower Trophic Levels

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Geological Survey Great Lakes Science Center has developed a plan to implement revision of its annual fish community survey of Lake Superior. The primary objective of the revision is improvement of the sampling design to be more representative of the Lake Superior fish c...

  16. Seabird movement reveals the ecological footprint of fishing vessels.

    PubMed

    Bodey, Thomas W; Jessopp, Mark J; Votier, Stephen C; Gerritsen, Hans D; Cleasby, Ian R; Hamer, Keith C; Patrick, Samantha C; Wakefield, Ewan D; Bearhop, Stuart

    2014-06-02

    Exploitation of the seas is currently unsustainable, with increasing demand for marine resources placing intense pressure on the Earth's largest ecosystem [1]. The scale of anthropogenic effects varies from local to entire ocean basins [1-3]. For example, discards of commercial capture fisheries can have both positive and negative impacts on scavengers at the population and community-level [2-6], although this is driven by individual foraging behaviour [3,7]. Currently, we have little understanding of the scale at which individual animals initiate such behaviours. We use the known interaction between fisheries and a wide-ranging seabird, the Northern gannet Morus bassanus[3], to investigate how fishing vessels affect individual birds' behaviours in near real-time. We document the footprint of fishing vessels' (≥15 m length) influence on foraging decisions (≤11 km), and a potential underlying behavioural mechanism, by revealing how birds respond differently to vessels depending on gear type and activity. Such influences have important implications for fisheries, including the proposed discard ban [8]), and wider marine management.

  17. 50 CFR 300.35 - Vessel and gear identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vessel and gear identification. 300.35 Section 300.35 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS South Pacific Tuna Fisheries § 300.35 Vessel and gear identification. While a vessel is in...

  18. 50 CFR 300.35 - Vessel and gear identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vessel and gear identification. 300.35 Section 300.35 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS South Pacific Tuna Fisheries § 300.35 Vessel and gear identification. While a vessel is in...

  19. 50 CFR 300.35 - Vessel and gear identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vessel and gear identification. 300.35 Section 300.35 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS South Pacific Tuna Fisheries § 300.35 Vessel and gear identification. While a vessel is in...

  20. 50 CFR 300.130 - Vessel and gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vessel and gear restrictions. 300.130 Section 300.130 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL... gear restrictions. (a) Factory vessels. Factory vessels are prohibited from operating in treaty...

  1. 50 CFR 300.130 - Vessel and gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel and gear restrictions. 300.130 Section 300.130 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL... gear restrictions. (a) Factory vessels. Factory vessels are prohibited from operating in treaty...

  2. 50 CFR 300.130 - Vessel and gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vessel and gear restrictions. 300.130 Section 300.130 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL... gear restrictions. (a) Factory vessels. Factory vessels are prohibited from operating in treaty...

  3. 50 CFR 300.35 - Vessel and gear identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vessel and gear identification. 300.35 Section 300.35 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS South Pacific Tuna Fisheries § 300.35 Vessel and gear identification. While a vessel is in...

  4. 50 CFR 300.130 - Vessel and gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vessel and gear restrictions. 300.130 Section 300.130 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL... gear restrictions. (a) Factory vessels. Factory vessels are prohibited from operating in treaty...

  5. Gear tooth topological modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kish, Jules G. (Inventor); Isabelle, Charles (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The topology of parallel axis gears, such as spur and helical gears is modified to produce quieter and more smoothly operating gear sets with more uniform load distribution. A finite element analysis of the gear in its operating mode is made to produce a plot of radial and tangential deflections of the pinion and gear tooth surfaces which will occur when the gears are loaded during operation. The resultant plot is then inverted to produce a plot, or set of coordinates, which will define the path of travel of the gear tooth grinding wheel, which path is a mirror image of the plot of the finite element analysis. The resulting gears, when subjected to operating loads, will thus be deflected tangentially and radially to their optimum operating, or theoretical true involute, positions so as to produce quieter, smoother, and more evenly loaded gear trains.

  6. Recovery and disposal of discarded tires in the Taiwan area.

    PubMed

    Hwang, J S; Roam, G D

    1994-12-01

    Urbanization and industrialization has resulted in a vast amount of artificial water containers in Taiwan, especially discarded automobile tires. 3.5 million automobile tires and several million motorcycle tires are discarded annually. The discarded tires contaminate the environment and also become a substantial number of breeding sites for the dengue vector mosquitoes. In order to establish a sound system for the recovery and disposal of discarded tires and to control dengue fever through source reduction, it has been emphasized that users must pay for their waste. It is necessary to recover and properly dispose of these discarded tired. The commercial firms which sell or manufacture tires are therefore advised to cooperate with the Environmental Protection Administration of the Executive Yuan, R.O.C. and follow the "Regulations of Recovery and Disposal of Discarded Tires". They are requested to establish foundations for the recovery of discarded tires. Those who are willing to join should prepay a deposit or related charge by the size of tire, which is imported or locally manufactured. The foundation utilizes the deposits for the recovery and disposal of discarded tires. From 1991 to 1993 the commercial tire firms had already achieved the 80% recovery rates declared by the authorities concerned. Some of the tires, after having been recovered, were recycled in the original form and the rest were cut into small pieces for recycling after physical treatment. It should be mentioned that the Department of Environmental Protection of Kaohsiung City has collected 80 thousand discarded automobile tires to be used as ocean jetty.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. 76 FR 16610 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Vessel and Gear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... Islands Region Vessel and Gear Identification Requirements AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Western Pacific fishery management unit species display identification markings on the vessel and gear, as... require that certain fishing gear must be marked. In the pelagic longline fisheries, the vessel...

  8. 77 FR 6785 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; List of Gear by Fisheries and Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ... Gear by Fisheries and Fishery Management Council AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... (Council) and all such fishing gear used in such fisheries (see section 305(a) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act). The list has been published and appears in 50 CFR 600.725(v). Any person wishing to use gear not...

  9. Modular gear bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A gearing system using modular gear bearing components. Each component is composed of a core, one or more modules attached to the core and two or more fastening modules rigidly attaching the modules to the core. The modules, which are attached to the core, may consist of gears, rollers or gear bearing components. The core orientation affects the orientation of the modules attached to the core. This is achieved via the keying arrangement of the core and the component modules that attach to the core. Such an arrangement will also facilitate the phase tuning of gear modules with respect to the core and other gear modules attached to the core.

  10. Anti-backlash gear bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A gear bearing having a first gear and a second gear, each having a plurality of teeth. Each gear operates on two non-parallel surfaces of the opposing gear teeth to perform both gear and bearing functions simultaneously. The gears are moving at substantially the same speed at their contact points. The gears may be roller gear bearings or phase-shifted gear bearings, and may be arranged in a planet/sun system or used as a transmission. One preferred embodiment discloses and describes an anti-backlash feature to counter ''dead zones'' in the gear bearing movement.

  11. Ground discarded tires remove naphthalene, toluene, and mercury from water.

    PubMed

    Gunasekara, A S; Donovan, J A; Xing, B

    2000-10-01

    Ground discarded tires adsorb naphthalene, toluene, and mercury ions (Hg2+) from aqueous solutions. Their sorption properties and kinetics were determined by batch equilibration techniques at 20 degrees C. The isotherms were linear for naphthalene and toluene and their sorption coefficients were about 1340 and 255 (ml/g), respectively. Sorption of the organic compounds by the ground rubber particles was relatively fast (within 30 min). However, the mercury isotherms were non-linear, and its sorption was slow as compared to the sorption of the organics. The rubber particles had a strong affinity for Hg2+. These results show that ground discarded tires are effective in removing organic compounds and Hg2+ from wastewater and other contaminated environments. In addition it would be a useful, environmentally friendly use of discarded tires (one tire per year per capita is discarded in the United States).

  12. New Solutions to Reduce Discard of Kidneys Donated for Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Reese, Peter P; Harhay, Meera N; Abt, Peter L; Levine, Matthew H; Halpern, Scott D

    2016-04-01

    Kidney transplantation is a cost-saving treatment that extends the lives of patients with ESRD. Unfortunately, the kidney transplant waiting list has ballooned to over 100,000 Americans. Across large areas of the United States, many kidney transplant candidates spend over 5 years waiting and often die before undergoing transplantation. However, more than 2500 kidneys (>17% of the total recovered from deceased donors) were discarded in 2013, despite evidence that many of these kidneys would provide a survival benefit to wait-listed patients. Transplant leaders have focused attention on transplant center report cards as a likely cause for this discard problem, although that focus is too narrow. In this review, we examine the risks associated with accepting various categories of donated kidneys, including discarded kidneys, compared with the risk of remaining on dialysis. With the goal of improving access to kidney transplant, we describe feasible proposals to increase acceptance of currently discarded organs.

  13. Magnetic gear backup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shefke, R. A.

    1970-01-01

    Backup clutch for magnetic gear operates only in case of slippage. Contacting a pin arrangement in the driven gear, the clutch provides extra force for continuing output. It does not interfere with normal, noncontact action.

  14. Gear bearing drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Brian (Inventor); Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  15. Offset Compound Gear Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The Offset Compound Gear Drive is an in-line, discrete, two-speed device utilizing a special offset compound gear that has both an internal tooth configuration on the input end and external tooth configuration on the output end, thus allowing it to mesh in series, simultaneously, with both a smaller external tooth input gear and a larger internal tooth output gear. This unique geometry and offset axis permits the compound gear to mesh with the smaller diameter input gear and the larger diameter output gear, both of which are on the same central, or primary, centerline. This configuration results in a compact in-line reduction gear set consisting of fewer gears and bearings than a conventional planetary gear train. Switching between the two output ratios is accomplished through a main control clutch and sprag. Power flow to the above is transmitted through concentric power paths. Low-speed operation is accomplished in two meshes. For the purpose of illustrating the low-speed output operation, the following example pitch diameters are given. A 5.0 pitch diameter (PD) input gear to 7.50 PD (internal tooth) intermediate gear (0.667 reduction mesh), and a 7.50 PD (external tooth) intermediate gear to a 10.00 PD output gear (0.750 reduction mesh). Note that it is not required that the intermediate gears on the offset axis be of the same diameter. For this example, the resultant low-speed ratio is 2:1 (output speed = 0.500; product of stage one 0.667 reduction and stage two 0.750 stage reduction). The design is not restricted to the example pitch diameters, or output ratio. From the output gear, power is transmitted through a hollow drive shaft, which, in turn, drives a sprag during which time the main clutch is disengaged.

  16. 50 CFR 665.206 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... seamount groundfish MUS with bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets is prohibited. (b) Possession of gear... otherwise established to be fishing for Hawaii bottomfish or seamount groundfish MUS in the management... intoxicating substances for the purpose of harvesting Hawaii bottomfish and seamount groundfish MUS...

  17. 50 CFR 665.206 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... seamount groundfish MUS with bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets is prohibited. (b) Possession of gear... otherwise established to be fishing for Hawaii bottomfish or seamount groundfish MUS in the management... intoxicating substances for the purpose of harvesting Hawaii bottomfish and seamount groundfish MUS...

  18. 50 CFR 665.206 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... seamount groundfish MUS with bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets is prohibited. (b) Possession of gear... otherwise established to be fishing for Hawaii bottomfish or seamount groundfish MUS in the management... intoxicating substances for the purpose of harvesting Hawaii bottomfish and seamount groundfish MUS...

  19. 50 CFR 665.206 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... seamount groundfish MUS with bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets is prohibited. (b) Possession of gear... otherwise established to be fishing for Hawaii bottomfish or seamount groundfish MUS in the management... intoxicating substances for the purpose of harvesting Hawaii bottomfish and seamount groundfish MUS...

  20. Gear mesh stiffness and load sharing in planetary gearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasuba, R.; August, R.

    1984-01-01

    An interactive computerized analysis was developed for determining load sharing among planetary gears. The load sharing is established as a function of transmitted torque, degree of sun gear fixity, component flexibility, gear tooth quality, and phasing of individual planet gears. A nonlinear variable gear tooth mesh stiffness model was used to simulate the sun/plant and planet/ring gear meshes. The determined load sharing and gear mesh stiffness parameters then can be used for the subsequent assessment of dynamic load factors.

  1. Landing gear noise attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  2. Phase-Oriented Gear Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Phase-oriented gear systems are differential planetary transmissions in which each planet gear has two sets of unequal numbers of teeth indexed at prescribed relative angles (phases). The figure illustrates an application of the phase-oriented gearing concept to a relatively simple speed-reducing differential planetary transmission that includes a sun gear, an idler gear, three identical planet gears, a ground internal ring gear, and an output internal ring gear. Typically, the ground internal ring gear and output internal ring gear have different numbers of teeth, giving rise to a progressive and periodic phase shift between the corresponding pairs of teeth engaged by each successive planet gear. To accommodate this phase shift, it is necessary to introduce a compensating phase shift between the ground-gear-engaging and output-gearengaging sections of each planet gear. This is done by individually orienting each planet gear

  3. 50 CFR Table 15 to Part 679 - Gear Codes, Descriptions, and Use

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., power gurdy TROLL X X 15 X X All other gear types OTH X X ADF&G GEAR CODES Diving 11 X X Dredge 22 X X Dredge, hydro/mechanical 23 X X Fish ladder/raceway 77 X X Fish wheel 08 X X Gillnet, drift 03 X...

  4. 50 CFR Table 15 to Part 679 - Gear Codes, Descriptions, and Use

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., power gurdy TROLL X X 15 X X All other gear types OTH X X ADF&G GEAR CODES Diving 11 X X Dredge 22 X X Dredge, hydro/mechanical 23 X X Fish ladder/raceway 77 X X Fish wheel 08 X X Gillnet, drift 03 X...

  5. Modelling polymer draft gears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qing; Yang, Xiangjian; Cole, Colin; Luo, Shihui

    2016-09-01

    This paper developed a new and simple approach to model polymer draft gears. Two types of polymer draft gears were modelled and compared with experimental data. Impact characteristics, in-train characteristics and frequency responses of these polymer draft gears were studied and compared with those of a friction draft gear. The impact simulations show that polymer draft gears can withstand higher impact speeds than the friction draft gear. Longitudinal train dynamics simulations show that polymer draft gears have significantly longer deflections than friction draft gears in normal train operations. The maximum draft gear working velocities are lower than 0.2 m/s, which are significantly lower than the impact velocities during shunting operations. Draft gears' in-train characteristics are similar to their static characteristics but are very different from their impact characteristics; this conclusion has also been reached from frequency response simulations. An analysis of gangway bridge plate failures was also conducted and it was found that they were caused by coupler angling behaviour and long draft gear deflections.

  6. RCRA designation of discarded americium/beryllium sealed sources

    SciTech Connect

    Kirner, N.P.

    1994-09-01

    Many sealed sources containing americium and beryllium are used throughout construction, industry, and research, and will eventually require disposal. For planning purposes it is necessary to determine whether these sources, when disposed, constitute a mixed waste, i.e., a waste containing hazardous constituents regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and radioactive constituents regulated under the Atomic Energy Act. Waste designation criteria contained in 40 CFR 261 are evaluated in detail in this report. It is determined that discarded americium/beryllium sealed sources do not contain any wastes listed in Subpart D of 40 CFR 261, nor do the discarded sources exhibit any hazardous characteristics. Therefore, it is concluded that discarded americium/beryllium sealed sources are not a mixed waste under regulations established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Hazardous waste regulatory programs delegated to States, however, may have regulations that differ from those of the Federal government.

  7. 77 FR 67580 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Jig Gear in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Jig Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf... directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels using jig gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of...) apportioned to vessels using jig gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200...

  8. 12. TRANSMISSION GEARING SHOWING RELATION TO SEGMENT GEAR ON WATERWHEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. TRANSMISSION GEARING SHOWING RELATION TO SEGMENT GEAR ON WATERWHEEL william E. Barrett, photographer, 1973 (copy negative) - Thomas Shepherd's Grist Mill, High Street Vicinity, Shepherdstown, Jefferson County, WV

  9. Shoes on the Highway: Discarded Footwear Inspires a Playwriting Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Maureen Brady

    2003-01-01

    Explains a drama assignment based on pictures of discarded shoes. Notes that through character creation, imaginative storytelling, and strong conflicting objectives, students write a 10-minute play about how the shoe got where it was. Outlines the final project, in which these plays would then be presented in a dramatic reading session. (PM)

  10. Liquid rocket engine turbopump gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Design and fabrication of gear drives for rocket engine turbopumps are described in the sequence encountered during the design process as follows: (1) selection of overall arrangement; (2) selection of gear type; (3) preliminary sizing; (4) lubrication system design; (5) detail tooth design; (6) selection of gear materials; and (7) gear fabrication and testing as it affects the design. The description is oriented towards the use of involute spur gears, although reference material for helical gears is also cited.

  11. Planetary gear train ring gear and support structure investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valco, Mark J.

    1992-01-01

    Most helicopter transmissions utilize a planetary gear train as the final speed reduction stage. Due to weight constraints these transmissions have high power-to-weight ratios and relatively flexible structures. This investigation addresses the analysis of planetary gear trains with the ring gear mounted on a flexible support structure. The approach utilizes recent advances in automated contact methods for nonlinear finite element analysis. Rather than using a line of action spring to model gear pair mesh stiffness, finite element models of complete gears are developed, and the elastic gear members are engaged and rolled through mesh. The procedure includes detailed gear tooth geometry with profile modifications. A nonlinear approach is required due to large displacements associated with gear rotation and nonlinear boundary conditions associated with the gear tooth surface contact. The updated Lagrangian formulation and the MARC K-4.1 automated contact features are applied in the analysis. The ring gear support structure is modeled by an elastic foundation linking the ring gear to a rigid support. Calculation of gear pair deflections, stresses, transmission error, and mesh stiffness through the gear meshing cycle are demonstrated for external and internal spur gear pairs and a planetary gear train. Issues relating to the accuracy of the nonlinear finite element contact method, gear mesh stiffness, transmission error, and the planetary gear train elastic support structure are discussed.

  12. Airplane landing gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiorca, Salvatore

    1931-01-01

    This report presents an investigation of the design and construction of various types of landing gears. Some of the items discussed include: chassises, wheels, shock absorbers (rubber disk and rubber cord), as well as oleopneumatic shock absorbers. Various types of landing gears are also discussed such as the Messier, Bendix, Vickers, and Bleriot.

  13. Gear Crack Propagation Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Reduced weight is a major design goal in aircraft power transmissions. Some gear designs incorporate thin rims to help meet this goal. Thin rims, however, may lead to bending fatigue cracks. These cracks may propagate through a gear tooth or into the gear rim. A crack that propagates through a tooth would probably not be catastrophic, and ample warning of a failure could be possible. On the other hand, a crack that propagates through the rim would be catastrophic. Such cracks could lead to disengagement of a rotor or propeller from an engine, loss of an aircraft, and fatalities. To help create and validate tools for the gear designer, the NASA Lewis Research Center performed in-house analytical and experimental studies to investigate the effect of rim thickness on gear-tooth crack propagation. Our goal was to determine whether cracks grew through gear teeth (benign failure mode) or through gear rims (catastrophic failure mode) for various rim thicknesses. In addition, we investigated the effect of rim thickness on crack propagation life. A finite-element-based computer program simulated gear-tooth crack propagation. The analysis used principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics, and quarter-point, triangular elements were used at the crack tip to represent the stress singularity. The program had an automated crack propagation option in which cracks were grown numerically via an automated remeshing scheme. Crack-tip stress-intensity factors were estimated to determine crack-propagation direction. Also, various fatigue crack growth models were used to estimate crack-propagation life. Experiments were performed in Lewis' Spur Gear Fatigue Rig to validate predicted crack propagation results. Gears with various backup ratios were tested to validate crack-path predictions. Also, test gears were installed with special crack-propagation gages in the tooth fillet region to measure bending-fatigue crack growth. From both predictions and tests, gears with backup ratios

  14. Final reduction gear apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Yasui, Y.; Hori, H.

    1987-04-21

    A final reduction gear apparatus is described comprising: a differential carrier which houses a gear assembly; an oil seal attached to a side gear shaft opening in the differential carrier, the oil seal having a main lip which may contact a periphery of a side gear shaft; and a guide member located outside of the oil seal at the side gear shaft opening, the guide member being formed as a member separate from the oil seal, the guide member having a slightly larger inner diameter than that of the main lip of the oil seal, and having guide surface concentric to the main lip, wherein 1/2 of the difference between the inner diameter of the guide member and the inner diameter of the main lip of the oil seal is within the limit of the elastic deformability of the main lip.

  15. Partial tooth gear bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  16. Gear noise origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, W. D.

    1985-01-01

    Each pair of meshing gears in a transmission gives rise to a source of vibratory excitation that can result in the radiation of sound. Each such source is most conveniently characterized as a displacement form of excitation generally referred to as the static transmission error of the gear pair. Contributions to the frequency spectrum of the static transmission error of spur and helical gears arising from tooth and gear body elastic deformations and from deviations of tooth surfaces from perfect involute surfaces are considered. Tooth surface deviations are decomposed into contributions giving rise to tooth meshing harmonic excitations and rotational harmonic or sideband excitations. Various types of gear tooth errors are defined and the contributions of these errors to different parts of the frequency spectrum are described. The attenuating effect on the static transmission error spectrum arising from the smoothing action of multiple tooth contact is explained.

  17. Design of Gear Drives With High Gear Ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Fuentes, Alfonso; Vecchiato, Daniele; Gonzalez-Perez, Ignacio

    2005-01-01

    A three part paper to describe the results of several gear drive types with a high gear ratio is presented. A single stage planetary gear train with double helical gears is described with methods to reduce transmission errors and improve load distribution by regulating backlash during assembly. A new arrangement for face gear is also described. This new mechanism can perform rotations between axes that are collinear and intersected. Finally the design and simulation of an isostatic planetary gear train is presented. Conditions that can lead to noise and vibration of the planetary gear drive are described.

  18. High-Ratio Gear Train

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefever, A. E.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed arrangement of two connected planetary differentials results in gear ratio many times that obtainable in conventional series gear assembly of comparable size. Ratios of several thousand would present no special problems. Selection of many different ratios is available with substantially similar gear diameters. Very high gear ratios would be obtained from small mechanism.

  19. Gear assembly for automobile transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ikemoto, K.; Tera Kura, Y.; Miyake, T.

    1986-03-25

    This patent describes a gear assembly including a pair of driving and driven gears permanently in meshing engagement with each other to provide a torque transmission therebetween. The driven gear is formed at one side thereof with a boss portion, and an additional gear axially slidable and rotatable on the boss portion of the driven gear and is permanently in meshing engagement with the driving gear to rotate at a gear ratio different from that of the driving and driven gears, additional gear is also resiliently in contact with a synchronizer mechanism assembled adjaecnt to the additional gear and having a spline piece fixed to the boss portion of the driven gear. The improvement wherein a toothed portion of the driven gear is formed at one end thereof with an annual stepped portion for provision of a predetermined annular gap between the additional gear and the one end face of the toothed portion of the driven gear. The resilient means is a waveshaped ring spring arranged in surrounding relationship with the boss portion of the driven gear and is engaged at its one end face with the additional gear and at its other end face with the spline piece of the synchronizer mechanism.

  20. Aircraft landing gear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, John A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Topics presented include the laboratory simulation of landing gear pitch-plane dynamics, a summary of recent aircraft/ground vehicle friction measurement tests, some recent aircraft tire thermal studies, and an evaluation of critical speeds in high-speed aircraft. Also presented are a review of NASA antiskid braking research, titanium matrix composite landing gear development, the current methods and perspective of aircraft flotation analysis, the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire, and spin-up studies of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire.

  1. Computing Stresses In Spur Gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, F. B.; Lin, H. H.

    1995-01-01

    Dynamic Analysis of Spur Gear Transmissions (DANST) developed as easy-to-use program for static and dynamic analysis of spur-gear systems. Used for parametric studies to predict effects of operating speed, torque, stiffness, damping, inertia, and tooth profile on dynamic loads and tooth-bending stresses in spur gears. Performs geometric modeling and dynamic analysis for low- or high-contact-ratio spur gears. Simulates gear systems with contact ratios ranging from one to three. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  2. Gear Fatigue Diagnostics and Prognostics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    one for single gear tooth fatigue, and one for gear-on-gear dynamometer-based tester ) we have been collecting crack initiation and crack propagation...fatigue tester ); and torque, angular speed, vibration, temperature, and crack-propagation (gear-on-gear dynamometer-based tester ). The main outcome...Description The test consists of two set of tests on a dynamometer and one set of test on the fatigue tester and some additional activities. Fig

  3. 50 CFR 622.188 - Required gear, authorized gear, and unauthorized gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO..., sea bass pot, and spearfishing gear. (c) Unauthorized gear. All gear types other than those specified... unauthorized gear on board may not be transferred at sea, regardless of where such transfer takes place,...

  4. 50 CFR 622.188 - Required gear, authorized gear, and unauthorized gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO..., sea bass pot, and spearfishing gear. (c) Unauthorized gear. All gear types other than those specified... unauthorized gear on board may not be transferred at sea, regardless of where such transfer takes place,...

  5. The Dilemma of Derelict Gear

    PubMed Central

    Scheld, A. M.; Bilkovic, D. M.; Havens, K. J.

    2016-01-01

    Every year, millions of pots and traps are lost in crustacean fisheries around the world. Derelict fishing gear has been found to produce several harmful environmental and ecological effects, however socioeconomic consequences have been investigated less frequently. We analyze the economic effects of a substantial derelict pot removal program in the largest estuary of the United States, the Chesapeake Bay. By combining spatially resolved data on derelict pot removals with commercial blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) harvests and effort, we show that removing 34,408 derelict pots led to significant gains in gear efficiency and an additional 13,504 MT in harvest valued at US $21.3 million—a 27% increase above that which would have occurred without removals. Model results are extended to a global analysis where it is seen that US $831 million in landings could be recovered annually by removing less than 10% of the derelict pots and traps from major crustacean fisheries. An unfortunate common pool externality, the degradation of marine environments is detrimental not only to marine organisms and biota, but also to those individuals and communities whose livelihoods and culture depend on profitable and sustainable marine resource use. PMID:26790394

  6. The Dilemma of Derelict Gear.

    PubMed

    Scheld, A M; Bilkovic, D M; Havens, K J

    2016-01-21

    Every year, millions of pots and traps are lost in crustacean fisheries around the world. Derelict fishing gear has been found to produce several harmful environmental and ecological effects, however socioeconomic consequences have been investigated less frequently. We analyze the economic effects of a substantial derelict pot removal program in the largest estuary of the United States, the Chesapeake Bay. By combining spatially resolved data on derelict pot removals with commercial blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) harvests and effort, we show that removing 34,408 derelict pots led to significant gains in gear efficiency and an additional 13,504 MT in harvest valued at US $21.3 million--a 27% increase above that which would have occurred without removals. Model results are extended to a global analysis where it is seen that US $831 million in landings could be recovered annually by removing less than 10% of the derelict pots and traps from major crustacean fisheries. An unfortunate common pool externality, the degradation of marine environments is detrimental not only to marine organisms and biota, but also to those individuals and communities whose livelihoods and culture depend on profitable and sustainable marine resource use.

  7. The Dilemma of Derelict Gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheld, A. M.; Bilkovic, D. M.; Havens, K. J.

    2016-01-01

    Every year, millions of pots and traps are lost in crustacean fisheries around the world. Derelict fishing gear has been found to produce several harmful environmental and ecological effects, however socioeconomic consequences have been investigated less frequently. We analyze the economic effects of a substantial derelict pot removal program in the largest estuary of the United States, the Chesapeake Bay. By combining spatially resolved data on derelict pot removals with commercial blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) harvests and effort, we show that removing 34,408 derelict pots led to significant gains in gear efficiency and an additional 13,504 MT in harvest valued at US $21.3 million—a 27% increase above that which would have occurred without removals. Model results are extended to a global analysis where it is seen that US $831 million in landings could be recovered annually by removing less than 10% of the derelict pots and traps from major crustacean fisheries. An unfortunate common pool externality, the degradation of marine environments is detrimental not only to marine organisms and biota, but also to those individuals and communities whose livelihoods and culture depend on profitable and sustainable marine resource use.

  8. 78 FR 77430 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Foreign Fishing Vessel Permits, Vessel, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... Fishing Vessel Permits, Vessel, and Gear Identification, and Reporting Requirements AGENCY: National... associated regulations at 50 CFR Part 600 requires applications for the permits, vessels and certain gear be... permit, mark their vessels and gear, or submit information about their fishing activities. To...

  9. Planetary gear unit

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, S.

    1986-10-07

    This patent describes a planetary gear unit for the transmission of a motor vehicle, comprising: a first planetary gear unit which includes a pinion shaft, a planet pinion rotatably mounted on the pinion shaft, a sun gear engaging the planet pinion, and an arm member supporting the pinion shaft and having an extending portion extending to a point adjacent the sun gear; a thrust washer contacting the arm member, the thrust washer having radiating conduit means formed on a contacting surface thereof so as to communicate an inner circumference of the extending portion of the arm member with the pinion shaft, the pinion shaft having a conduit formed therein so as to communicate with the radiating conduit means with an inner surface of the planet pinion wherein the radiating conduit means further comprises uniform spaced bevel surfaces and grooves in communication with the bevel surfaces.

  10. Communication: Molecular gears.

    PubMed

    Burnell, E Elliott; de Lange, Cornelis A; Meerts, W Leo

    2016-09-07

    The (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of hexamethylbenzene orientationally ordered in the nematic liquid crystal ZLI-1132 is analysed using covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy. The spectrum contains over 350 000 lines with many overlapping transitions, from which four independent direct dipolar couplings are obtained. The rotations of the six methyl groups appear to be correlated due to mutual steric hindrance. Adjacent methyl groups show counter-rotating or geared motion. Hexamethylbenzene thus behaves as a molecular hexagonal gear.

  11. High post-capture survival for sharks, rays and chimaeras discarded in the main shark fishery of Australia?

    PubMed

    Braccini, Matias; Van Rijn, Jay; Frick, Lorenz

    2012-01-01

    Most sharks, rays and chimaeras (chondrichthyans) taken in commercial fisheries are discarded (i.e. returned to the ocean either dead or alive). Quantifying the post-capture survival (PCS) of discarded species is therefore essential for the improved management and conservation of this group. For all chondrichthyans taken in the main shark fishery of Australia, we quantified the immediate PCS of individuals reaching the deck of commercial shark gillnet fishing vessels and applied a risk-based method to semi-quantitatively determine delayed and total PCS. Estimates of immediate, delayed and total PCS were consistent, being very high for the most commonly discarded species (Port Jackson shark, Australian swellshark, and spikey dogfish) and low for the most important commercial species (gummy and school sharks). Increasing gillnet soak time or water temperature significantly decreased PCS. Chondrichthyans with bottom-dwelling habits had the highest PCS whereas those with pelagic habits had the lowest PCS. The risk-based approach can be easily implemented as a standard practice of on-board observing programs, providing a convenient first-step assessment of the PCS of all species taken in commercial fisheries.

  12. Effects of Mesh Size and Escape Gaps on Discarding in an Australian Giant Mud Crab (Scylla serrata) Trap Fishery

    PubMed Central

    Broadhurst, Matt K.; Butcher, Paul A.; Cullis, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    In response to concerns over excessive discarding from Australian recreational round traps (with four funnel entrances) used to target giant mud crabs, Scylla serrata, an experiment was done to assess the independent and cumulative utility of paired, bottom-located horizontal escape gaps (46×120 mm) and increasing mesh size (from 51 to 101 mm). Compared to conventional traps comprising 51-mm mesh throughout, those with the same mesh size and escape gaps caught significantly fewer (by 95%) undersize (<85 mm carapace length – CL) crabs while maintaining legal catches. Traps made from 101-mm mesh (but with the same funnel entrances as conventional designs) and with and without escape gaps similarly retained fewer undersize crabs and also yellowfin bream Acanthopagrus australis (the key bycatch species) by up to 94%, but there were concomitant reductions in fishing power for legal sizes of S. serrata. Although there were no immediate mortalities among any discarded crabs, there was a greater bias towards wounding among post molts than late inter-molts and less damage to individuals in the 101-mm conventional than 51-mm conventional traps (without escape gaps). The results support retrospectively fitting escape gaps in conventional S. serrata traps as a means for reducing discarding, but additional work is required to determine appropriate mesh sizes/configurations that maximize species and size selectivity. PMID:25180770

  13. High Post-Capture Survival for Sharks, Rays and Chimaeras Discarded in the Main Shark Fishery of Australia?

    PubMed Central

    Braccini, Matias; Van Rijn, Jay; Frick, Lorenz

    2012-01-01

    Most sharks, rays and chimaeras (chondrichthyans) taken in commercial fisheries are discarded (i.e. returned to the ocean either dead or alive). Quantifying the post-capture survival (PCS) of discarded species is therefore essential for the improved management and conservation of this group. For all chondrichthyans taken in the main shark fishery of Australia, we quantified the immediate PCS of individuals reaching the deck of commercial shark gillnet fishing vessels and applied a risk-based method to semi-quantitatively determine delayed and total PCS. Estimates of immediate, delayed and total PCS were consistent, being very high for the most commonly discarded species (Port Jackson shark, Australian swellshark, and spikey dogfish) and low for the most important commercial species (gummy and school sharks). Increasing gillnet soak time or water temperature significantly decreased PCS. Chondrichthyans with bottom-dwelling habits had the highest PCS whereas those with pelagic habits had the lowest PCS. The risk-based approach can be easily implemented as a standard practice of on-board observing programs, providing a convenient first-step assessment of the PCS of all species taken in commercial fisheries. PMID:22384270

  14. Recovery of discarded sulfated lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, Hassan; Asadi, Raziyeh

    The aim of this research is to recover discarded sulfated lead-acid batteries. In this work, the effect of two methods (inverse charge and chemical charge) on the reactivation of sulfated active materials was investigated. At the inverse charge, the battery is deeply discharged and the electrolyte of battery is replaced with a new sulfuric acid solution of 1.28 g cm -3. Then, the battery is inversely charged with constant current method (2 A for the battery with the nominal capacity of 40 Ah) for 24 h. At the final stage, the inversely charged battery is directly charged for 48 h. Through these processes, a discarded battery can recover its capacity to more than 80% of a similar fresh and non-sulfated battery. At the chemical charge method, there are some effective parameters that including ammonium persulfate [(NH 4) 2S 2O 8] concentration, recovery temperature and recovery time. The effect of all parameters was optimized by one at a time method. The sulfated battery is deeply discharged and then, its electrolyte was replaced by a 40% ammonium persulfate solution (as oxidant) at temperature of 50 °C. By adding of oxidant solution, the chemical charging of positive and negative plates was performed for optimum time of 1 h. The chemically charged batteries were charged with constant voltage method (2.66 V for the battery with nominal voltage and nominal capacity of 2 V and 10 Ah, respectively) for 24 h. By performing of these processes, a discarded battery can recovers its capacity to more than 84% of the similar fresh and non-sulfated battery. Discharge and cyclelife behaviors of the recovered batteries were investigated and compared with similar healthy battery. The morphology and structure of plates was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after recovery.

  15. 16. CELLAR, UNDER WEST MEETING ROOM, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. Discarded marble ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. CELLAR, UNDER WEST MEETING ROOM, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. Discarded marble range top incorporated into a low brick partition. It is possible the range originally stood between the two brick walls beyond to the right. There appears to be a bricked-up fire box opening in the far wall. The fragments of the marble range top have been catalogued into the Architectural Study Collection of Independence National Historical Park. Dimensions recorded in Field Records. - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. 76 FR 29718 - Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; American Samoa Longline Gear Modifications To Reduce Turtle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... Fisheries; American Samoa Longline Gear Modifications To Reduce Turtle Interactions AGENCY: National Marine... Pacific green sea turtles, which will enable American Samoa longline fishing vessels to continue... turtle populations. DATES: Comments on Amendment 5, including an environmental assessment, must...

  17. 50 CFR 660.230 - Fixed gear fishery-management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) designed to approximate specific depth contours, where fishing for groundfish with nontrawl gear is..., subpart E, and § 660.330, subpart F. The crossover provisions in § 660.60(h)(7), subpart C, do not...

  18. LIME KILN BUILDING, KILN BOTTOM SHOWING ROTATOR GEAR. (GEAR IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LIME KILN BUILDING, KILN BOTTOM SHOWING ROTATOR GEAR. (GEAR IS POINTED DOWN FOR PROPER ORIENTATION). - Solvay Process Company, Lime Kiln Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  19. Impacts of discarded coffee waste on human and environmental health.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, A S; Mello, F V C; Thode Filho, S; Carpes, R M; Honório, J G; Marques, M R C; Felzenszwalb, I; Ferraz, E R A

    2017-03-13

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages throughout the world. So far, many studies have shown the properties of coffee beverages, but little is known about its impacts on human and environmental health from its discard in the environment. So, the present work aims to investigate the mutagenic, genotoxic, cytotoxic and ecotoxic effects of leached (LE) and solubilized (SE) extracts from coffee waste, simulating the disposal of this residue in landfills and via sewage systems, respectively. Chemical analyses were also carried out. LE and SE induced mutagenicity in the TA98 Salmonella strain with and without exogenous metabolization (S9). In the TA100 only SE induced mutagenicity, what was observed without S9. An increase in the frequency of micronuclei was observed in HepG2 cell line after 3 and 24h of exposure to both extracts. No cytotoxic effects were observed in HepG2 cells by WST-1 assay. The EC50 values for the LE and SE were 1.5% and 11.26% for Daphnia similis, 0.12% and 1.39% for Ceriodaphnia dubia and 6.0% and 5.5% for Vibrio fischeri, respectively. Caffeine and several transition metals were found in both extracts. Coffee waste discarded in the environment may pose a risk to human and environmental health, since this compound can cause DNA damage and present toxicity to aquatic organisms.

  20. Magnetic Gearing Versus Conventional Gearing in Actuators for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puchhammer, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic geared actuators (MGA) are designed to perform highly reliable, robust and precise motion on satellite platforms or aerospace vehicles. The design allows MGA to be used for various tasks in space applications. In contrast to conventional geared drives, the contact and lubrication free force transmitting elements lead to a considerable lifetime and range extension of drive systems. This paper describes the fundamentals of magnetic wobbling gears (MWG) and the deduced inherent characteristics, and compares conventional and magnetic gearing.

  1. Gear crack propagation investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G.; Ballarini, Roberto

    1996-01-01

    Analytical and experimental studies were performed to investigate the effect of gear rim thickness on crack propagation life. The FRANC (FRacture ANalysis Code) computer program was used to simulate crack propagation. The FRANC program used principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics, finite element modeling, and a unique re-meshing scheme to determine crack tip stress distributions, estimate stress intensity factors, and model crack propagation. Various fatigue crack growth models were used to estimate crack propagation life based on the calculated stress intensity factors. Experimental tests were performed in a gear fatigue rig to validate predicted crack propagation results. Test gears were installed with special crack propagation gages in the tooth fillet region to measure bending fatigue crack growth. Good correlation between predicted and measured crack growth was achieved when the fatigue crack closure concept was introduced into the analysis. As the gear rim thickness decreased, the compressive cyclic stress in the gear tooth fillet region increased. This retarded crack growth and increased the number of crack propagation cycles to failure.

  2. Catch, bycatch and discards of the Galapagos Marine Reserve small-scale handline fishery

    PubMed Central

    Schuhbauer, Anna C.; Usseglio, Paolo; Heel, Lena C.; Salinas-de-León, Pelayo

    2015-01-01

    Fisheries bycatch is a significant marine conservation issue as valuable fish are wasted and protected species harmed with potential negative ecological and socio-economic consequences. Even though there are indications that the small-scale handline fishery of the Galapagos Marine Reserve has a low selectivity, information on its bycatch has never been published. We used onboard monitoring and interview data to assess the bycatch of the Galapagos handline fishery by estimating the bycatch ratio, determining species compositions of landings and bycatch, identifying fishers’ reasons for discarding certain individuals, and revealing historical trends in the bycatch ratio. The estimated bycatch ratio as a function of biomass of 0.40 and a diverse species composition of target catch and bycatch confirmed the low selectivity of this fishery. Most individuals were not landed for economic motivations, either because species (77.4%) or sizes (17.7%) are unmarketable or for regulatory reasons (5.9%). We found that bycatch contributes to growth overfishing of some target species because they are discarded or used as bait before reaching their first maturity. Moreover, over half of interviewees perceived a historical decrease in bycatch ratios that was explained by a diversification of the target catch due to the reduction in abundance of the traditionally most important target species. As some target species show signs of overfishing and to date there are no specific regulations for the finfish fishery species in place, we recommend the implementation of a series of management measures to protect critical life stages of overexploited species and to improve the selectivity of the Galapagos handline fishery. PMID:26082874

  3. Catch, bycatch and discards of the Galapagos Marine Reserve small-scale handline fishery.

    PubMed

    Zimmerhackel, Johanna S; Schuhbauer, Anna C; Usseglio, Paolo; Heel, Lena C; Salinas-de-León, Pelayo

    2015-01-01

    Fisheries bycatch is a significant marine conservation issue as valuable fish are wasted and protected species harmed with potential negative ecological and socio-economic consequences. Even though there are indications that the small-scale handline fishery of the Galapagos Marine Reserve has a low selectivity, information on its bycatch has never been published. We used onboard monitoring and interview data to assess the bycatch of the Galapagos handline fishery by estimating the bycatch ratio, determining species compositions of landings and bycatch, identifying fishers' reasons for discarding certain individuals, and revealing historical trends in the bycatch ratio. The estimated bycatch ratio as a function of biomass of 0.40 and a diverse species composition of target catch and bycatch confirmed the low selectivity of this fishery. Most individuals were not landed for economic motivations, either because species (77.4%) or sizes (17.7%) are unmarketable or for regulatory reasons (5.9%). We found that bycatch contributes to growth overfishing of some target species because they are discarded or used as bait before reaching their first maturity. Moreover, over half of interviewees perceived a historical decrease in bycatch ratios that was explained by a diversification of the target catch due to the reduction in abundance of the traditionally most important target species. As some target species show signs of overfishing and to date there are no specific regulations for the finfish fishery species in place, we recommend the implementation of a series of management measures to protect critical life stages of overexploited species and to improve the selectivity of the Galapagos handline fishery.

  4. A Program for Gear Calculations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisbee, Kolak K.; Hawkins, Harry M.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a microcomputer program (designed for Apple II but it can be modified) used to calculate various dimensions relative to a spur gear. Basic terms are identified and a program listing for gear calculations is included. (CT)

  5. Kinematic precision of gear trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Goldrich, R. N.; Coy, J. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1982-01-01

    Kinematic precision is affected by errors which are the result of either intentional adjustments or accidental defects in manufacturing and assembly of gear trains. A method for the determination of kinematic precision of gear trains is described. The method is based on the exact kinematic relations for the contact point motions of the gear tooth surfaces under the influence of errors. An approximate method is also explained. Example applications of the general approximate methods are demonstrated for gear trains consisting of involute (spur and helical) gears, circular arc (Wildhaber-Novikov) gears, and spiral bevel gears. Gear noise measurements from a helicopter transmission are presented and discussed with relation to the kinematic precision theory.

  6. Kinematic precision of gear trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Goldrich, R. N.; Coy, J. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1983-01-01

    Kinematic precision is affected by errors which are the result of either intentional adjustments or accidental defects in manufacturing and assembly of gear trains. A method for the determination of kinematic precision of gear trains is described. The method is based on the exact kinematic relations for the contact point motions of the gear tooth surfaces under the influence of errors. An approximate method is also explained. Example applications of the general approximate methods are demonstrated for gear trains consisting of involute (spur and helical) gears, circular arc (Wildhaber-Novikov) gears, and spiral bevel gears. Gear noise measurements from a helicopter transmission are presented and discussed with relation to the kinematic precision theory. Previously announced in STAR as N82-32733

  7. LSRA with Shuttle main gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A space shuttle landing gear system is visible between the two main landing gear components on this NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft. The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance.

  8. Topology of modified helical gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Zhang, J.; Handschuh, R. F.; Coy, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    The topology of several types of modified surfaces of helical gears is proposed. The modified surfaces allow absorption of a linear or almost linear function of transmission errors. These errors are caused by gear misalignment and an improvement of the contact of gear tooth surfaces. Principles and corresponding programs for computer aided simulation of meshing and contact of gears have been developed. The results of this investigation are illustrated with numerical examples.

  9. A superconducting magnetic gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, A. M.

    2016-05-01

    A comparison is made between a magnetic gear using permanent magnets and superconductors. The objective is to see if there are any fundamental reasons why superconducting magnets should not provide higher power densities than permanent magnets. The gear is based on the variable permeability design of Attilah and Howe (2001 IEEE Trans. Magn. 37 2844-46) in which a ring of permanent magnets surrounding a ring of permeable pole pieces with a different spacing gives an internal field component at the beat frequency. Superconductors can provide much larger fields and forces but will saturate the pole pieces. However the gear mechanism still operates, but in a different way. The magnetisation of the pole pieces is now constant but rotates with angle at the beat frequency. The result is a cylindrical Halbach array which produces an internal field with the same symmetry as in the linear regime, but has an analytic solution. In this paper a typical gear system is analysed with finite elements using FlexPDE. It is shown that the gear can work well into the saturation regime and that the Halbach array gives a good approximation to the results. Replacing the permanent magnets with superconducting tapes can give large increases in torque density, and for something like a wind turbine a combined gear and generator is possible. However there are major practical problems. Perhaps the most fundamental is the large high frequency field which is inevitably present and which will cause AC losses. Also large magnetic fields are required, with all the practical problems of high field superconducting magnets in rotating machines. Nevertheless there are ways of mitigating these difficulties and it seems worthwhile to explore the possibilities of this technology further.

  10. Estimating fisheries-induced selection: traditional gear selectivity research meets fisheries-induced evolution.

    PubMed

    Kuparinen, Anna; Kuikka, Sakari; Merilä, Juha

    2009-05-01

    The study of fisheries-induced evolution is a research field which is becoming recognized both as an important and interesting problem in applied evolution, as well as a practical management problem in fisheries. Much of the research in fisheries-induced evolution has focussed on quantifying and proving that an evolutionary response has taken place, but less effort has been invested on the actual processes and traits underlying capture of a fish by a fishing gear. This knowledge is not only needed to understand possible phenotypic selection associated to fishing but also to help to device sustainable fisheries and management strategies. Here, we draw attention to the existing knowledge about selectivity of fishing gears and outline the ways in which this information could be utilized in the context of fisheries-induced evolution. To these ends, we will introduce a mathematical framework commonly applied to quantify fishing gear selectivity, illustrate the link between gear selectivity and the change in the distribution of phenotypes induced by fishing, review what is known about selectivity of commonly used fishing gears, and discuss how this knowledge could be applied to improve attempts to predict evolutionary impacts of fishing.

  11. Theory of gearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, Faydor L.

    1989-01-01

    Basic mathematical problems on the theory of gearing are covered in this book, such as the necessary and sufficient conditions of envelope existence, relations between principal curvatures and directions for surfaces of mating gears. Also included are singularities of surfaces accompanied by undercutting the process of generation, the phenomena of envelope of lines of contact, and the principles for generation of conjugate surfaces. Special attention is given to the algorithms for computer aided simulation of meshing and tooth contact. This edition was complemented with the results of research recently performed by the author and his doctoral students. The book contains sample problems and also problems for the reader to solve.

  12. 50 CFR 600.503 - Vessel and gear identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vessel and gear identification. 600.503 Section 600.503 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing §...

  13. 50 CFR 600.510 - Gear avoidance and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear avoidance and disposal. 600.510 Section 600.510 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing §...

  14. 50 CFR 600.503 - Vessel and gear identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel and gear identification. 600.503 Section 600.503 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing §...

  15. 50 CFR 600.510 - Gear avoidance and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gear avoidance and disposal. 600.510 Section 600.510 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing §...

  16. 50 CFR 300.224 - Longline fishing restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... used to fish in the Pacific Ocean using longline gear both inside and outside the Convention Area... fish in the Pacific Ocean using longline gear outside the Convention Area and the vessel enters the... FISHERIES REGULATIONS Western and Central Pacific Fisheries for Highly Migratory Species § 300.224...

  17. 50 CFR 300.224 - Longline fishing restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... used to fish in the Pacific Ocean using longline gear both inside and outside the Convention Area... fish in the Pacific Ocean using longline gear outside the Convention Area and the vessel enters the... FISHERIES REGULATIONS Western and Central Pacific Fisheries for Highly Migratory Species § 300.224...

  18. 50 CFR 600.508 - Fishing operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....508 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... of any species or species group for which there is an unfilled national allocation. All fish caught will be counted against the national allocation, even if the fish are discarded, unless exempted by...

  19. 50 CFR 600.508 - Fishing operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....508 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... of any species or species group for which there is an unfilled national allocation. All fish caught will be counted against the national allocation, even if the fish are discarded, unless exempted by...

  20. Miniature sonar fish tag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovelady, R. W.; Ferguson, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Self-powered sonar device may be implanted in body of fish. It transmits signal that can be detected with portable tracking gear or by automatic detection-and-tracking system. Operating life of over 4000 hours may be expected. Device itself may be used almost indefinitely.

  1. Colwater fish in rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    A standard sampling protocol to assess the fish assemblages and abundances in large, coldwater rivers is most accurate and precise if consistent gears and levels of effort are used at each site. This requires thorough crew training, quality control audits, and replicate sampling...

  2. Electronic automatic gear transmission control apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Koshizawa, T.

    1989-04-25

    This patent describes an electronic automatic gear transmission control apparatus having a shift schedule map for commanding an optimum gear position based on a vehicle speed signal and an accelerator opening signal, the electronic automatic gear transmission control apparatus comprising: first means for comparing a gear position commanded by the shift schedule map with a present gear position; second means for effecting a gear shift to a gear position which is one gear position higher than the present gear position and for restraining a gear shift to the commanded gear position for a prescribed period of time, if the commanded gear position requires an upshift to a gear position which is two or more gear positions higher than the present gear position as a result of the comparison performed by the first means; and third means for holding the gear position which is one gear position higher than the present gear position until an accelerator pedal is depressed again, when the accelerator opening signal indicates an idling position while the gear shift up to the gear position which is one gear position higher than the present gear position, is being effected by the second means.

  3. Bacteria turn tiny gears

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Swarms of bacteria turn two 380-micron long gears, opening the possibility of building hybrid biological machines at the microscopic scale. Read more at Wired: http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2009/12/bacterial-micro-machine/#more-15684 or Scientific American: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=brownian-motion-bacteria

  4. Side gear mounting for differential assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Pederson, H.

    1989-02-21

    A differential gear assembly is described of the type which includes a differential gear housing having means for receiving a pair of axle ends together with a pair of substantially axially aligned side gears coupled to the pair of axle ends for rotation therewith, the side gears having helix angles inclined in the same direction with respect to the axes of rotation thereof, characterized in that the gear assembly includes means for preventing axial thrust forces developed by one of the side gears from loading the other of the side gears. The preventing means includes means for separating the side gears such that there is no direct or indirect engagement between confronting end faces of the side gears when thrust forces of one of the side gears are directed toward the other of the side gears; and the means for axially separating the side gears includes a pair of overlapping elements associated with one of the side gears of the gear housing.

  5. Improve planetary gear vibration analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, M.S. )

    1993-05-01

    To diagnose problems in rotating machinery, an analyst must be able to identify the frequencies present in the data. In the case of two gears with fixed centerlines, the generated gearmesh frequency is simply calculated as the number of teeth on one gear times its rotational speed (in Hz, cpm, etc.) But when the shaft centerlines move relative to each other, as with a planet gear orbiting around a sun gear, gearmesh frequency is no longer equal to gear rotational sped times the gear's number of teeth. In this case, you must calculate the relative speed between planet carrier and gear with the fixed centerline to obtain gearmesh frequency. The paper presents the equations necessary to calculate gearmesh frequencies in order to diagnose problems.

  6. Displaceable Gear Torque Controlled Driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for a torque driver including a displaceable gear to limit torque transfer to a fastener at a precisely controlled torque limit. A biasing assembly biases a first gear into engagement with a second gear for torque transfer between the first and second gear. The biasing assembly includes a pressurized cylinder controlled at a constant pressure that corresponds to a torque limit. A calibrated gage and valve is used to set the desired torque limit. One or more coiled output linkages connect the first gear with the fastener adaptor which may be a socket for a nut. A gear tooth profile provides a separation force that overcomes the bias to limit torque at the desired torque limit. Multiple fasteners may be rotated simultaneously to a desired torque limit if additional output spur gears are provided. The torque limit is adjustable and may be different for fasteners within the same fastener configuration.

  7. The design of worm gear sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Razzaghi, Andrea I.

    1987-01-01

    A method is presented for designing worm gear sets to meet torque multiplication requirements. First, the fundamentals of worm gear design are discussed, covering worm gear set nomenclature, kinematics and proportions, force analysis, and stress analysis. Then, a suggested design method is discussed, explaining how to take a worm gear set application, and specify a complete worm gear set design. The discussions are limited to cylindrical worm gear sets that have a 90 deg shaft angle between the worm and the mating gear.

  8. Planetary gear train for automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraiwa, K.

    1987-04-28

    A planetary gear train is described for an automatic transmission, the planetary gear train having gear ratios including a first forward gear ratio and a reverse, the planetary gear train comprising: an input shaft; a basic planetary gearing including a first rotary element which is to be held stationary when the first gear ratio is established and also when the reverse is established, and a second rotary element which is to serve as an output member of the basic planetary gearing; an output planetary gear set including a ring gear, a sun gear and a pinion carrier; change speed means for establishing any desired one of the gear ratios; a clutch means for establishing a connection between the other one of the ring gear and the sun gear of the output planetary gear set and the first rotary element of the basic planetary gearing during operation with the first gear ratio and also during operation with the reverse, and a brake means for anchoring the other one of the ring gear and the sun gear of the output planetary gear set during operation with the reverse; and an output shaft connected to the pinion carrier of the output planetary gear set.

  9. Scoring of precision spur gears

    SciTech Connect

    Budinski, K.G. )

    1994-09-01

    A group of manufacturing machines employed precision spur gears as the timing mechanism for machine operations. These machines had worked successfully for about ten years with little or no problems with gear wear or deterioration. When new machines were brought on line with recently made gears there were immediate problems with gear tooth scoring. A laboratory study was conducted to determine if metallurgical conditions were related to the gear scoring. Recent gears were made from a modification of the alloy used in early gears. The new alloy has been modified to make it more resistant to softening in coating operations. Reciprocating wear tests and galling tests were conducted to compare the tribological characteristics of the old and new gear steels. It was determined that the threshold galling stress of the gear steels was strongly dependent on the hardness. The reciprocating wear tests indicated that the wear resistance was affected by the volume fraction of hard phases in the steels. The recommended short-term solution was to alter the tempering procedure for the steel to keep Rockwell C hardness above 60; the long-term solution was to change the gear material and lubrication.

  10. 49 CFR 230.89 - Reverse gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reverse gear. 230.89 Section 230.89 Transportation... Reversing Gear § 230.89 Reverse gear. (a) General provisions. Reverse gear, reverse levers, and quadrants... quadrant. Proper counterbalance shall be provided for the valve gear. (b) Air-operated power reverse...

  11. 46 CFR 28.885 - Cargo gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo gear. 28.885 Section 28.885 Shipping COAST GUARD... Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.885 Cargo gear. (a) The safe working load (SWL) for the assembled gear... the load the gear is approved to lift, excluding the weight of the gear itself. (b) All wire...

  12. 46 CFR 28.885 - Cargo gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo gear. 28.885 Section 28.885 Shipping COAST GUARD... Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.885 Cargo gear. (a) The safe working load (SWL) for the assembled gear... the load the gear is approved to lift, excluding the weight of the gear itself. (b) All wire...

  13. 46 CFR 28.885 - Cargo gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo gear. 28.885 Section 28.885 Shipping COAST GUARD... Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.885 Cargo gear. (a) The safe working load (SWL) for the assembled gear... the load the gear is approved to lift, excluding the weight of the gear itself. (b) All wire...

  14. 49 CFR 230.89 - Reverse gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reverse gear. 230.89 Section 230.89 Transportation... Reversing Gear § 230.89 Reverse gear. (a) General provisions. Reverse gear, reverse levers, and quadrants... quadrant. Proper counterbalance shall be provided for the valve gear. (b) Air-operated power reverse...

  15. 49 CFR 230.89 - Reverse gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reverse gear. 230.89 Section 230.89 Transportation... Reversing Gear § 230.89 Reverse gear. (a) General provisions. Reverse gear, reverse levers, and quadrants... quadrant. Proper counterbalance shall be provided for the valve gear. (b) Air-operated power reverse...

  16. 49 CFR 230.89 - Reverse gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reverse gear. 230.89 Section 230.89 Transportation... Reversing Gear § 230.89 Reverse gear. (a) General provisions. Reverse gear, reverse levers, and quadrants... quadrant. Proper counterbalance shall be provided for the valve gear. (b) Air-operated power reverse...

  17. 46 CFR 28.885 - Cargo gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo gear. 28.885 Section 28.885 Shipping COAST GUARD... Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.885 Cargo gear. (a) The safe working load (SWL) for the assembled gear... the load the gear is approved to lift, excluding the weight of the gear itself. (b) All wire...

  18. 49 CFR 230.89 - Reverse gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reverse gear. 230.89 Section 230.89 Transportation... Reversing Gear § 230.89 Reverse gear. (a) General provisions. Reverse gear, reverse levers, and quadrants... quadrant. Proper counterbalance shall be provided for the valve gear. (b) Air-operated power reverse...

  19. 46 CFR 28.885 - Cargo gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo gear. 28.885 Section 28.885 Shipping COAST GUARD... Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.885 Cargo gear. (a) The safe working load (SWL) for the assembled gear... the load the gear is approved to lift, excluding the weight of the gear itself. (b) All wire...

  20. Gear Performance Improved by Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, Timothy L.

    2004-01-01

    Gears, bearings, and other mechanical elements transmit loads through contacting surfaces. Even if properly designed, manufactured, installed, and maintained, gears and bearings will eventually fail because of the fatigue of the working surfaces. Economical means for extending the fatigue lives of gears and bearings are highly desired, and coatings offer the opportunity to engineer surfaces to extend the fatigue lives of mechanical components. A tungsten-containing diamondlike-carbon coating exhibiting high hardness, low friction, and good toughness was evaluated for application to spur gears. Fatigue testing was done at the NASA Glenn Research Center on both uncoated and coated spur gears. The results showed that the coating extended the surface fatigue lives of the gears by a factor of about 5 relative to the uncoated gears. For the experiments, a lot of spur test gears made from AISI 9310 gear steel were case-carburized and ground to aerospace specifications. The geometries of the 28-tooth, 8-pitch gears were verified as meeting American Gear Manufacturing Association (AGMA) quality class 12. One-half of the gears were randomly selected for coating. The method of coating was selected to achieve desired adherence, toughness, hardness, and low-friction characteristics. First the gears to be coated were prepared by blasting (vapor honing) with Al2O3 particles and cleaning. Then, the gears were provided with a thin adhesion layer of elemental chromium followed by magnetron sputtering of the outer coating consisting of carbon (70 at.%), hydrogen (15 at.%), tungsten (12 at.%), and nickel (3 at.%) (atomic percent at the surface). In total, the coating thickness was about 2.5 to 3 microns. As compared with the steel substrate, the coated surface was harder by a factor of about 2 and had a smaller elastic modulus. All gears were tested using a 5-centistoke synthetic oil, a 10,000-rpm rotation speed, and a hertzian contact stress of at least 1.7 GPa (250 ksi). Tests were

  1. Remedy for Radiation Fear — Discard the Politicized Science

    PubMed Central

    Cuttler, Jerry M.

    2014-01-01

    Seeking a remedy for the radiation fear in Japan, the author re-examined an article on radiation hormesis. It describes the background for this fear and evidence in the first UNSCEAR report of a reduction in leukemia of the Hiroshima survivors in the low dose zone. The data are plotted and dose-response models are drawn. While UNSCEAR suggested the extra leukemia incidence is proportional to radiation dose, the data are consistent with a hormetic J-shape and a threshold at about 100 rem (1 Sv). UNSCEAR data on lifespan reduction of mammals exposed continuously to gamma rays indicate a 2 gray/year threshold. This contradicts the conceptual basis for radiation protection and risk determination established in 1956–58. In this paper, beneficial effects and thresholds for harmful effects are discussed, and the biological mechanism is explained. The key point: the rate of DNA damage (double-strand breaks) caused by background radiation is 1000 times less than the endogenous (spontaneous) rate. It is the effect of radiation on an organism’s very powerful adaptive protection systems that determines the dose-response characteristic. Low radiation up-regulates the protection systems, while high radiation impairs these systems. The remedy for radiation fear is to expose and discard the politicized science. PMID:24910587

  2. 77 FR 65640 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf... directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels using pot gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to fully use the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch...

  3. Gear Drive Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Philadelphia Gear Corporation used two COSMIC computer programs; one dealing with shrink fit analysis and the other with rotor dynamics problems in computerized design and test work. The programs were used to verify existing in-house programs to insure design accuracy by checking its company-developed computer methods against procedures developed by other organizations. Its specialty is in custom units for unique applications, such as Coast Guard ice breaking ships, steel mill drives, coal crusher, sewage treatment equipment and electricity.

  4. Worm Gear With Hydrostatic Engagement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaiko, Lev I.

    1994-01-01

    In proposed worm-gear transmission, oil pumped at high pressure through meshes between teeth of gear and worm coil. Pressure in oil separates meshing surfaces slightly, and oil reduces friction between surfaces. Conceived for use in drive train between gas-turbine engine and rotor of helicopter. Useful in other applications in which weight critical. Test apparatus simulates and measures some loading conditions of proposed worm gear with hydrostatic engagement.

  5. High-performance magnetic gears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atallah, Kais; Calverley, Stuart D.; Howe, David

    2004-05-01

    Magnetic gearing may offer significant advantages such as reduced maintenance and improved reliability, inherent overload protection, and physical isolation between input and output shafts. Despite these advantages, it has received relatively little attention, to date, probably due to the poor torque transmission capability of proposed magnetic gears. The paper describes a magnetic gear topology, which combines a significantly higher torque transmission capability and a very high efficiency.

  6. 50 CFR 660.231 - Limited entry fixed gear sablefish primary fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... primary fishery. This section applies to the sablefish primary season for the limited entry fixed gear... for use with that vessel. Permits with sablefish endorsements are assigned to one of three tiers, as... primary and when fishing against primary season cumulative limits, each vessel authorized to fish in...

  7. Gears Based on Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Richard; Han, Jie; Globus, Al; Deardorff, Glenn

    2005-01-01

    Gears based on carbon nanotubes (see figure) have been proposed as components of an emerging generation of molecular- scale machines and sensors. In comparison with previously proposed nanogears based on diamondoid and fullerene molecules, the nanotube-based gears would have simpler structures and are more likely to be realizable by practical fabrication processes. The impetus for the practical development of carbon-nanotube- based gears arises, in part, from rapid recent progress in the fabrication of carbon nanotubes with prescribed diameters, lengths, chiralities, and numbers of concentric shells. The shafts of the proposed gears would be made from multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The gear teeth would be rigid molecules (typically, benzyne molecules), bonded to the nanotube shafts at atomically precise positions. For fabrication, it may be possible to position the molecular teeth by use of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) or other related techniques. The capability to position individual organic molecules at room temperature by use of an STM tip has already been demonstrated. Routes to the chemical synthesis of carbon-nanotube-based gears are also under investigation. Chemical and physical aspects of the synthesis of molecular scale gears based on carbon nanotubes and related molecules, and dynamical properties of nanotube- based gears, have been investigated by computational simulations using established methods of quantum chemistry and molecular dynamics. Several particularly interesting and useful conclusions have been drawn from the dynamical simulations performed thus far: The forces acting on the gears would be more sensitive to local molecular motions than to gross mechanical motions of the overall gears. Although no breakage of teeth or of chemical bonds is expected at temperatures up to at least 3,000 K, the gears would not work well at temperatures above a critical range from about 600 to about 1,000 K. Gear temperature could probably be controlled by

  8. Recovery of indium from LCD screens of discarded cell phones.

    PubMed

    Silveira, A V M; Fuchs, M S; Pinheiro, D K; Tanabe, E H; Bertuol, D A

    2015-11-01

    Advances in technological development have resulted in high consumption of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE), amongst which are cell phones, which have LCD (liquid crystal display) screens as one of their main components. These multilayer screens are composed of different materials, some with high added value, as in the case of the indium present in the form of indium tin oxide (ITO, or tin-doped indium oxide). Indium is a precious metal with relatively limited natural reserves (Dodbida et al., 2012), so it can be profitable to recover it from discarded LCD screens. The objective of this study was to develop a complete process for recovering indium from LCD screens. Firstly, the screens were manually removed from cell phones. In the next step, a pretreatment was developed for removal of the polarizing film from the glass of the LCD panels, because the adherence of this film to the glass complicated the comminution process. The choice of mill was based on tests using different equipment (knife mill, hammer mill, and ball mill) to disintegrate the LCD screens, either before or after removal of the polarizing film. In the leaching process, it was possible to extract 96.4 wt.% of the indium under the following conditions: 1.0M H2SO4, 1:50 solid/liquid ratio, 90°C, 1h, and stirring at 500 rpm. The results showed that the best experimental conditions enabled extraction of 613 mg of indium/kg of LCD powder. Finally, precipitation of the indium with NH4OH was tested at different pH values, and 99.8 wt.% precipitation was achieved at pH 7.4.

  9. Precise low cost chain gears for heliostats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liedke, Phillip; Lewandowski, Arkadiusz; Pfahl, Andreas; Hölle, Erwin

    2016-05-01

    This work investigates the potential of chain gears as precise and low cost driving systems for rim drive heliostats. After explaining chain gear basics the polygon effect and chain lengthening are investigated. The polygon effect could be measured by a heliostat with chain rim gear and the chain lengthening with an accordant test set up. Two gear stages are scope of this work: a rim gear and an intermediate gear. Dimensioning, pretensioning and designing for both stages are explained.

  10. High Pressure Angle Gears: Comparison to Typical Gear Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Zabrajsek, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    A preliminary study has been completed to determine the feasibility of using high-pressure angle gears in aeronautic and space applications. Tests were conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Spur Gear Test Facility at speeds up to 10,000 rpm and 73 N*m (648 in.*lb) for 3.18, 2.12, and 1.59 module gears (8, 12, and 16 diametral pitch gears), all designed to operate in the same test facility. The 3.18 module (8-diametral pitch), 28 tooth, 20deg pressure angle gears are the GRC baseline test specimen. Also, 2.12 module (12-diametral pitch), 42 tooth, 25deg pressure angle gears were tested. Finally 1.59 module (16-diametral pitch), 56 tooth, 35deg pressure angle gears were tested. The high-pressure angle gears were the most efficient when operated in the high-speed aerospace mode (10,000 rpm, lubricated with a synthetic turbine engine oil), and produced the lowest wear rates when tested with a perfluoroether-based grease. The grease tests were conducted at 150 rpm and 71 N*m (630 in.*lb).

  11. 50 CFR 665.627 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Island Area Fisheries § 665.627 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) Coral reef ecosystem MUS may be...) Hand net/dip net; (5) Hoop net for Kona crab; (6) Throw net; (7) Barrier net; (8) Surround/purse net....) in the U.S. EEZ waters around Howland Island, Baker Island, Jarvis Island, Wake Island, Kingman...

  12. 50 CFR 665.627 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Island Area Fisheries § 665.627 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) Coral reef ecosystem MUS may be...) Hand net/dip net; (5) Hoop net for Kona crab; (6) Throw net; (7) Barrier net; (8) Surround/purse net....) in the U.S. EEZ waters around Howland Island, Baker Island, Jarvis Island, Wake Island, Kingman...

  13. 50 CFR 665.627 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Island Area Fisheries § 665.627 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) Coral reef ecosystem MUS may be...) Hand net/dip net; (5) Hoop net for Kona crab; (6) Throw net; (7) Barrier net; (8) Surround/purse net....) in the U.S. EEZ waters around Howland Island, Baker Island, Jarvis Island, Wake Island, Kingman...

  14. 50 CFR 665.627 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Island Area Fisheries § 665.627 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) Coral reef ecosystem MUS may be...) Hand net/dip net; (5) Hoop net for Kona crab; (6) Throw net; (7) Barrier net; (8) Surround/purse net....) in the U.S. EEZ waters around Howland Island, Baker Island, Jarvis Island, Wake Island, Kingman...

  15. 50 CFR 665.627 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Island Area Fisheries § 665.627 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) Coral reef ecosystem MUS may be...) Hand net/dip net; (5) Hoop net for Kona crab; (6) Throw net; (7) Barrier net; (8) Surround/purse net....) in the U.S. EEZ waters around Howland Island, Baker Island, Jarvis Island, Wake Island, Kingman...

  16. Double Helical Gear Performance Results in High Speed Gear Trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Ehinger, Ryan; Sinusas, Eric; Kilmain, Charles

    2010-01-01

    The operation of high speed gearing systems in the transmissions of tiltrotor aircraft has an effect on overall propulsion system efficiency. Recent work has focused on many aspects of high-speed helical gear trains as would be used in tiltrotor aircraft such as operational characteristics, comparison of analytical predictions to experimental data and the affect of superfinishing on transmission performance. Baseline tests of an aerospace quality system have been conducted in the NASA Glenn High-Speed Helical Gear Train Test Facility and have been described in earlier studies. These earlier tests had utilized single helical gears. The results that will be described in this study are those attained using double helical gears. This type of gear mesh can be configured in this facility to either pump the air-oil environment from the center gap between the meshing gears to the outside of tooth ends or in the reverse direction. Tests were conducted with both inward and outward air-oil pumping directions. Results are compared to the earlier baseline results of single helical gears.

  17. Double Helical Gear Performance Results in High Speed Gear Trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Ehinger, Ryan; Sinusas, Eric; Kilmain, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The operation of high speed gearing systems in the transmissions of tiltrotor aircraft has an effect on overall propulsion system efficiency. Recent work has focused on many aspects of high-speed helical gear trains as would be used in tiltrotor aircraft such as operational characteristics, comparison of analytical predictions to experimental data and the affect of superfinishing on transmission performance. Baseline tests of an aerospace quality system have been conducted in the NASA Glenn High-Speed Helical Gear Train Test Facility and have been described in earlier studies. These earlier tests had utilized single helical gears. The results that will be described in this study are those attained using double helical gears. This type of gear mesh can be configured in this facility to either pump the air-oil environment from the center gap between the meshing gears to the outside of tooth ends or in the reverse direction. Tests were conducted with both inward and outward air-oil pumping directions. Results are compared to the earlier baseline results of single helical gears.

  18. Planetary gear train for automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraiwa, K.

    1987-03-31

    A planetary gear train is described comprising: a first planetary gear set having rotary elements including a first sun gear, a first ring gear and a first pinion carrier rotatably supporting a plurality of first pinions meshing with the first sun gear and the first ring gear; a second planetary gear set having rotary elements including a second sun gear, a second ring gear and a second pinion carrier rotatably supporting a plurality of second pinions meshing with the second sun gear and the second ring gear; an input shaft drivingly-connected with the first ring gear; an output shaft; first drive connection establishing means for connecting the second ring gear with the output shaft; the first drive connection establishing means comprising: a third planetary gear set including a third sun gear constantly connected with the second ring gear, a third ring gear, and a third pinion carrier constantly connected with the output shaft. The third pinion carrier rotatably supports third pinions meshing with the third sun and ring gears.

  19. An optimised multi-host trematode life cycle: fishery discards enhance trophic parasite transmission to scavenging birds.

    PubMed

    Born-Torrijos, Ana; Poulin, Robert; Pérez-Del-Olmo, Ana; Culurgioni, Jacopo; Raga, Juan Antonio; Holzer, Astrid Sibylle

    2016-10-01

    Overlapping distributions of hosts and parasites are critical for successful completion of multi-host parasite life cycles and even small environmental changes can impact on the parasite's presence in a host or habitat. The generalist Cardiocephaloides longicollis was used as a model for multi-host trematode life cycles in marine habitats. This parasite was studied to quantify parasite dispersion and transmission dynamics, effects of biological changes and anthropogenic impacts on life cycle completion. We compiled the largest host dataset to date, by analysing 3351 molluscs (24 species), 2108 fish (25 species) and 154 birds (17 species) and analysed the resultant data based on a number of statistical models. We uncovered extremely low host specificity at the second intermediate host level and a preference of the free-swimming larvae for predominantly demersal but also benthic fish. The accumulation of encysted larvae in the brain with increasing fish size demonstrates that parasite numbers level off in fish larger than 140mm, consistent with parasite-induced mortality at these levels. The highest infection rates were detected in host species and sizes representing the largest fraction of Mediterranean fishery discards (up to 67% of the total catch), which are frequently consumed by seabirds. Significantly higher parasite densities were found in areas with extensive fishing activity than in those with medium and low activity, and in fish from shallow lagoons than in fish from other coastal areas. For the first time, C. longicollis was also detected in farmed fish in netpens. Fishing generally drives declines in parasite abundance, however, our study suggests an enhanced transmission of generalist parasites such as C. longicollis, an effect that is further amplified by the parasite's efficient host-finding mechanisms and its alteration of fish host behaviour by larvae encysted in the brain. The anthropogenic impact on the distribution of trophically

  20. Materials for helicopter gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Some of the power train transmission gears in helicopter drive systems can become critical components as performance requirements are increased; accordingly, increasing attention must be paid to new alloys in order to obtain required performance reliability and survivability. Candidate advanced alloys, with improved high temperature properties, while increasing the resistance to scoring and scuffing, tend to have lower ductility and fracture toughness. An attempt is made to identify design materials, and process problems and requirements. In addition, it is recommended that the characterization of candidate steels be accelerated; preliminary investigation indicates that new alloys may provide improved capability against surface distress.

  1. Torque-Splitting Gear Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kish, J.

    1991-01-01

    Geared drive train transmits torque from input shaft in equal parts along two paths in parallel, then combines torques in single output shaft. Scheme reduces load on teeth of meshing gears while furnishing redundancy to protect against failures. Such splitting and recombination of torques common in design of turbine engines.

  2. Investigating Vibration Properties of a Planetary Gear Set with a Cracked Tooth in a Planet Gear

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-23

    Investigating Vibration Properties of a Planetary Gear Set with a Cracked Tooth in a Planet Gear Xihui Liang 1 and Ming J. Zuo 2 1,2...rotation of the carrier. To facilitate fault detection of a planetary gearbox and avoid catastrophic consequences caused by gear failures, it is...properties of a planetary gear set when there is a cracked tooth in a planet gear . Displacement signals of the sun gear and the planet gear , and

  3. Kidneys at higher risk of discard: expanding the role of dual kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tanriover, B; Mohan, S; Cohen, D J; Radhakrishnan, J; Nickolas, T L; Stone, P W; Tsapepas, D S; Crew, R J; Dube, G K; Sandoval, P R; Samstein, B; Dogan, E; Gaston, R S; Tanriover, J N; Ratner, L E; Hardy, M A

    2014-02-01

    Half of the recovered expanded criteria donor (ECD) kidneys are discarded in the United States. A new kidney allocation system offers kidneys at higher risk of discard, Kidney Donor Profile Index (KDPI)>85%, to a wider geographic area to promote broader sharing and expedite utilization. Dual kidney transplantation (DKT) based on the KDPI is a potential option to streamline allocation of kidneys which otherwise would have been discarded. To assess the clinical utility of the KDPI in kidneys at higher risk of discard, we analyzed the OPTN/UNOS Registry that included the deceased donor kidneys recovered between 2002 and 2012. The primary outcomes were allograft survival, patient survival and discard rate based on different KDPI categories (<80%, 80-90% and >90%). Kidneys with KDPI>90% were associated with increased odds of discard (OR=1.99, 95% CI 1.74-2.29) compared to ones with KDPI<80%. DKTs of KDPI>90% were associated with lower overall allograft failure (HR=0.74, 95% CI 0.62-0.89) and better patient survival (HR=0.79, 95% CI 0.64-0.98) compared to single ECD kidneys with KDPI>90%. Kidneys at higher risk of discard may be offered in the up-front allocation system as a DKT. Further modeling and simulation studies are required to determine a reasonable KDPI cutoff percentile.

  4. Quality indicators for discarding blood in the National Blood Center, Kuala Lumpur

    PubMed Central

    Morish, Mohammed; Ayob, Yasmin; Naim, Noris; Salman, Huda; Muhamad, Nor Asiah; Yusoff, Narazah Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective: The implementation of quality system and continuous evaluation of all activities of the Blood Transfusion Services (BTS) can help to achieve the maximum quantity and quality of safe blood. Optimizing blood collection and processing would reduce the rate of discard and improve the efficiency of the BTS. The objective of this study is to determine the rate of discard of blood and blood component and identify its reasons at the National Blood Centre (NBC), Kuala Lumpur, during the year of 2007 in order to introduce appropriate intervention. Study Designs and Methods: Data on the number of discarded whole blood units and its components, reasons for discard, and the number of blood components processed as well as the number of collected blood units were obtained from the Blood Bank Information System - NBC database. These were analyzed. Results: The total number of blood units collected in 2007 was 171169 from which 390636 units of components were prepared. The total number of discarded whole blood units and its components was 8968 (2.3%). Platelet concentrate recorded the highest of discard at 6% (3909) followed by whole blood at 3.7% (647), fresh frozen plasma (FFP) at 2.5% (2839), and cryoprecipitate at 2% (620). The rate of discarded packed red blood cells RBCs, plasma aphaeresis, and PLT aphaeresis was less than 1% at 0.6% (902), 0.6% (37), and 0.29% (14), respectively. RBC contamination of PLT and plasma were the major cause of discard at 40% (3558). Other causes include leakage (26% - 2306), lipemia (25% - 2208), and underweight (4% - 353). Conclusion: Good donor selection, training and evaluation of the staff, as well as implementation of automation will help to improve processes and output of BTS. This would reduce discard of blood components and wastage caused by non conformance. PMID:22623837

  5. Reliability model for planetary gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Paridon, C. A.; Coy, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    A reliability model is presented for planetary gear trains in which the ring gear is fixed, the Sun gear is the input, and the planet arm is the output. The input and output shafts are coaxial and the input and output torques are assumed to be coaxial with these shafts. Thrust and side loading are neglected. This type of gear train is commonly used in main rotor transmissions for helicopters and in other applications which require high reductions in speed. The reliability model is based on the Weibull distribution of the individual reliabilities of the transmission components. The transmission's basic dynamic capacity is defined as the input torque which may be applied for one million input rotations of the Sun gear. Load and life are related by a power law. The load life exponent and basic dynamic capacity are developed as functions of the component capacities.

  6. Installing and maintaining gear pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Whitmire, K.

    1996-03-01

    While not as common as centrifugal pumps in the CPI, gear pumps play important roles in handling many of today`s more difficult-to-pump fluids. Because they operate at lower speeds -- generally, 900 rpm or less -- their seals and bearings tend to last longer than those of centrifugal models. In addition, unlike centrifugal pumps, gear pumps` flows are independent of their systems` pressure curves, and they can handle a wider range of viscosities. Although high-flow, low-head applications remain the domain of centrifugal pumps, the use of gear pumps is increasing in the chemical process industries (CPI). While some application boundaries between gears and centrifugals are blurring, there are some crucial differences between the way the two are operated and maintained -- for example, where pressure relief is concerned. This article provides a general summary of gear pump characteristics and applications, highlighting critical aspects of installation, operation and maintenance.

  7. Multi-decadal changes in the megabenthos of the Bay of Fundy: The effects of fishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenchington, Ellen L.; Kenchington, Trevor J.; Henry, Lea-Anne; Fuller, Susanna; Gonzalez, Patricia

    2007-10-01

    Analysis of presence / absence records from two comparable megabenthic surveys of scallop grounds in the Bay of Fundy, Canada, in 1966-67 and 1997 showed profound change over three decades. There were no indications that any species were lost and the average number of taxa per station remained steady. However, spatial heterogeneities in the community were reduced and species composition changed significantly. Some taxa widespread in 1966-67 declined while others expanded, with frequencies of occurrence of individual taxa changing by up to 71%. The whelks Buccinum undatum and Colus spp., the bivalves Astarte spp. and Cyclocardia borealis, the toad crabs Hyas spp., the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis and the brittle stars (Ophiurida) showed particular increases. Corresponding declines were seen in the boring sponges Cliona spp., the horse mussel Modiolus modiolus, the scallop Chlamys islandica, the fan worm Pseudopotamilla reniformis and the stalked tunicate Boltenia ovifera. Replacement of attached, fragile, epifaunal, filter-feeding taxa by a combination of motile scavengers, motile filter-feeders and robust, burrowing filter-feeders suggests that the primary cause of the temporal change was physical impacts by fishing gear, even though trawling and scallop dragging in the area were neither intense nor new developments. Secondary causes of change may have included other ecosystem effects of fishing (supply of discards and bait), a mass mortality of scallops and a range expansion of a bryozoan ( Flustra foliacea).

  8. Dynamic gearing in running dogs.

    PubMed

    Carrier, D R; Gregersen, C S; Silverton, N A

    1998-12-01

    Dynamic gearing is a mechanism that has been suggested to enhance the performance of skeletal muscles by maintaining them at the shortening velocities that maximize their power or efficiency. We investigated this hypothesis in three domestic dogs during trotting and galloping. We used ground force recordings and kinematic analysis to calculate the changes in gear ratio that occur during the production of the external work of locomotion. We also monitored length changes of the vastus lateralis muscle, an extensor muscle of the knee, using sonomicrometry in four additional dogs to determine the nature and rate of active shortening of this muscle. During both trotting and galloping, the gear ratios of the extensor muscles of the elbow, wrist and ankle joints were relatively constant early in limb support, but decreased rapidly during the second half of support. The gear ratio at the hip exerted an extensor moment initially, but decreased throughout limb support and became negative midway through support. This pattern of decreasing gear ratio during the second half of support indicates that dynamic gearing does not maximize muscle power or efficiency at the elbow, wrist, hip and ankle joints. In contrast, the extensor muscles of the shoulder and knee joints exhibited an increase in gear ratio during limb support. In two dogs, the vastus lateralis muscle shortened at a relatively constant rate of 3.7-4 lengths s-1 during intermediate-speed galloping. This pattern of increasing gear ratio and constant velocity of muscle shortening at the knee joint is consistent with the hypothesis of dynamic gearing. Given the amount of work done at the knee and shoulder joints of running dogs, dynamic gearing may contribute to the economy of constant-speed running and may be important to integrated limb function.

  9. Improved Gear Shapes for Face Worm Gear Drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Nava, Alessandro; Fan, Qi; Fuentes, Alfonso

    2005-01-01

    Shapes different from the traditional ones have been proposed for face worm gears and for conical and cylindrical worms that mesh with them. The proposed shapes are based on the concept of generating a face worm gear surface by use of a tilted head cutter instead of by the traditional use of a hob. (As used here, head cutter is also meant to signify, alternatively, a head grinding tool.) The gear-surface-generation equipment would be similar to that used for generation of spiral bevel and hypoid gears. In comparison with the corresponding traditional hob, a tilted head cutter according to the proposal would be larger, could be fabricated with greater precision, and would enable the generation of gear surfaces with greater precision and greater productivity. A face worm gear would be generated (see figure) by use of a tilted head cutter, the blades or grinding surfaces of which would have straight-line profiles. The tilt of the head cutter would prevent interference with teeth adjacent to the groove being cut or ground. A worm to mesh with the face worm gear would be generated by use of a tilted head cutter mounted on the cradle of a generating machine. The blades or grinding surfaces of the head cutter would have a parabolic profile and would deviate from the straight-line profiles of the head cutter for the face worm gear. The shortest distance between the worm and the cradle would follow a parabolic function during the cycle of meshing in the generating process to provide a parabolic function of transmission errors to the gear drive. The small mismatch between the profiles of the face-worm-gear and worm head cutters would make it possible to localize the bearing contact in the worm gear drive. The parabolic function of transmission errors could absorb discontinuous linear functions of transmission errors caused by errors of alignment; this could afford a significant benefit, in that such errors are main sources of noise and vibration in gear drives. The main

  10. 50 CFR 648.84 - Gear-marking requirements and gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gear-marking requirements and gear... Management Measures for the NE Multispecies and Monkfish Fisheries § 648.84 Gear-marking requirements and gear restrictions. (a) Bottom-tending fixed gear, including, but not limited to, gillnets and...

  11. 50 CFR 648.84 - Gear-marking requirements and gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gear-marking requirements and gear... Management Measures for the NE Multispecies and Monkfish Fisheries § 648.84 Gear-marking requirements and gear restrictions. (a) Bottom-tending fixed gear, including, but not limited to, gillnets and...

  12. 50 CFR 648.84 - Gear-marking requirements and gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear-marking requirements and gear... Management Measures for the NE Multispecies and Monkfish Fisheries § 648.84 Gear-marking requirements and gear restrictions. (a) Bottom-tending fixed gear, including, but not limited to, gillnets and...

  13. 50 CFR 648.84 - Gear-marking requirements and gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gear-marking requirements and gear... Management Measures for the NE Multispecies and Monkfish Fisheries § 648.84 Gear-marking requirements and gear restrictions. (a) Bottom-tending fixed gear, including, but not limited to, gillnets and...

  14. Gear shift controller for automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Nishikawa, M.; Sakai, S.; Sakurai, T.

    1987-01-20

    A gear shift controller is described for an automatic transmission having a gear shift, comprising: a hydraulic torque converter; a gear change group, having a plurality of gears, each gear providing a different transmission ratio for the transmission of power from the hydraulic torque converter to the output of the transmission, each of the gears comprising a gear train; a one-way clutch interposed in at least one of the gear trains; a plurality of clutch means operatively connected with the gear trains for actuating each of the gear trains selectively; a gear change determination circuit operatively connected with the clutch means to control the operation of each of the clutch means according to a predetermined gear shifting program for engaging a gear train selected by the program; a coasting detection circuit for detecting a car in the coasting state; a gear shift limiting circuit, operatively connected with the gear change determination circuit and with the coasting detection circuit. The circuit is for actuating only the gear train in which the one-way clutch is interposed immediately, regardless of the selected gear train and of the operation of the gear change determination circuit, when the coasting detection circuit has determined the car to be coasting; and an operation transfer control system including a brake operation detecting means and a mode selector switch means for transferring the operation of the gear shift limiting circuit. The operation transfer control system is adapted to stop, upon detection of one of the brake operation and a reset state of the mode selector switch, the operation of the gear shift limiting circuit and to place the plurality of clutch means under the control of the gear change determination circuit.

  15. Functioning of reduction gears on airplane engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matteucci, Raffaelli

    1926-01-01

    In undertaking to analyze the functioning conditions of a reduction gear on an aviation engine, we will consider an ordinary twelve-cylinder V-engine. The reduction gear employed consists either of a pair of spur gears, one of which is integral with the engine shaft and the other with the propeller shaft, or of a planetary system of gears.

  16. Automated Inspection And Precise Grinding Of Gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frint, Harold; Glasow, Warren

    1995-01-01

    Method of precise grinding of spiral bevel gears involves automated inspection of gear-tooth surfaces followed by adjustments of machine-tool settings to minimize differences between actual and nominal surfaces. Similar to method described in "Computerized Inspection of Gear-Tooth Surfaces" (LEW-15736). Yields gears of higher quality, with significant reduction in manufacturing and inspection time.

  17. Computerized Inspection Of Gear-Tooth Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, R. F.; Litvin, F. L.; Zhang, Y.; Kuan, C.

    1994-01-01

    Method of manufacturing gears with precisely shaped teeth involves computerized inspection of gear-tooth surfaces followed by adjustments of machine-tool settings to minimize deviations between real and theoretical versions of surfaces. Thus, iterated cycles of cutting gear teeth, inspection, and adjustments help increase and/or maintain precision of subsequently manufactured gears.

  18. 29 CFR 1918.54 - Rigging gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rigging gear. 1918.54 Section 1918.54 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Vessel's Cargo Handling Gear § 1918.54 Rigging gear. (a... other alternate device shall be provided to allow trimming of the gear and to prevent employees...

  19. 29 CFR 1918.54 - Rigging gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rigging gear. 1918.54 Section 1918.54 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Vessel's Cargo Handling Gear § 1918.54 Rigging gear. (a... other alternate device shall be provided to allow trimming of the gear and to prevent employees...

  20. 29 CFR 1918.54 - Rigging gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rigging gear. 1918.54 Section 1918.54 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Vessel's Cargo Handling Gear § 1918.54 Rigging gear. (a... other alternate device shall be provided to allow trimming of the gear and to prevent employees...

  1. 29 CFR 1918.54 - Rigging gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rigging gear. 1918.54 Section 1918.54 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Vessel's Cargo Handling Gear § 1918.54 Rigging gear. (a... other alternate device shall be provided to allow trimming of the gear and to prevent employees...

  2. 50 CFR 648.203 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 648.203 Section 648.203... Herring Fishery § 648.203 Gear restrictions. (a) Midwater trawl gear may only be used by a vessel issued a... Lightship Area as described in § 648.81(c)(1), provided it complies with the midwater trawl gear...

  3. 29 CFR 1918.54 - Rigging gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rigging gear. 1918.54 Section 1918.54 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Vessel's Cargo Handling Gear § 1918.54 Rigging gear. (a... other alternate device shall be provided to allow trimming of the gear and to prevent employees...

  4. Variable gearing in pennate muscles.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Emanuel; Brainerd, Elizabeth L; Roberts, Thomas J

    2008-02-05

    Muscle fiber architecture, i.e., the physical arrangement of fibers within a muscle, is an important determinant of a muscle's mechanical function. In pennate muscles, fibers are oriented at an angle to the muscle's line of action and rotate as they shorten, becoming more oblique such that the fraction of force directed along the muscle's line of action decreases throughout a contraction. Fiber rotation decreases a muscle's output force but increases output velocity by allowing the muscle to function at a higher gear ratio (muscle velocity/fiber velocity). The magnitude of fiber rotation, and therefore gear ratio, depends on how the muscle changes shape in the dimensions orthogonal to the muscle's line of action. Here, we show that gear ratio is not fixed for a given muscle but decreases significantly with the force of contraction (P < 0.0001). We find that dynamic muscle-shape changes promote fiber rotation at low forces and resist fiber rotation at high forces. As a result, gearing varies automatically with the load, to favor velocity output during low-load contractions and force output for contractions against high loads. Therefore, muscle-shape changes act as an automatic transmission system allowing a pennate muscle to shift from a high gear during rapid contractions to low gear during forceful contractions. These results suggest that variable gearing in pennate muscles provides a mechanism to modulate muscle performance during mechanically diverse functions.

  5. Numerical Simulation Of Cutting Of Gear Teeth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Huston, Ronald L.; Mavriplis, Dimitrios

    1994-01-01

    Shapes of gear teeth produced by gear cutters of specified shape simulated computationally, according to approach based on principles of differential geometry. Results of computer simulation displayed as computer graphics and/or used in analyses of design, manufacturing, and performance of gears. Applicable to both standard and non-standard gear-tooth forms. Accelerates and facilitates analysis of alternative designs of gears and cutters. Simulation extended to study generation of surfaces other than gears. Applied to cams, bearings, and surfaces of arbitrary rolling elements as well as to gears. Possible to develop analogous procedures for simulating manufacture of skin surfaces like automobile fenders, airfoils, and ship hulls.

  6. Development in Geared Turbofan Aeroengine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Tobi, A. L.; Ismail, A. E.

    2016-05-01

    This paper looks into the implementation of epicyclic gear system to the aeroengine in order to increase the efficiency of the engine. The improvement made is in the direction of improving fuel consumption, reduction in pollutant gasses and perceived noise. Introduction of epicyclic gear system is capable to achieve bypass ratio of up to 15:1 with the benefits of weight and noise reduction. Radical new aircraft designs and engine installation are being studied to overcome some of the challenges associated with the future geared turbofan and open-rotor engine.

  7. Bearing, gearing, and lubrication technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Results of selected NASA research programs on rolling-element and fluid-film bearings, gears, and elastohydrodynamic lubrication are reported. Advances in rolling-element bearing material technology, which have resulted in a significant improvement in fatigue life, and which make possible new applications for rolling bearings, are discussed. Research on whirl-resistant, fluid-film bearings, suitable for very high-speed applications, is discussed. An improved method for predicting gear pitting life is reported. An improved formula for calculating the thickness of elastohydrodynamic films (the existence of which help to define the operating regime of concentrated contact mechanisms such as bearings, gears, and cams) is described.

  8. Discarding of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) in the Danish North Sea trawl fishery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Niels; Feekings, Jordan; Lewy, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) plays an important role in the North Sea benthic ecosystem and is by weight the most important commercial flatfish species in the North Sea demersal fishery. There is a high discarding of plaice in the active demersal fisheries in the North Sea. The change in fisheries management towards a more ecosystem based approach, together with a greater focus on sustainability, has caused a severe need for action. Subsequently, the European Commission is preparing regulations to reduce or even ban discards. The trawl fisheries are commercially the most important Danish fishery targeting plaice. Here we analyse discard data collected onboard Danish vessels in the period from 1998 to 2008. We describe the general patterns in these data by dividing them into three mesh size categories: 80-99 mm, 100-119 mm and ≥ 120 mm to reflect implemented technical measures of relevance. We analyse the landed and discarded portions in these mesh size categories and link the discarding to the minimum landing size. We employed a GAM model to assess how discarding of plaice below the minimum landing size is connected to relevant factors that could be of relevance from a management perspective. We identified a statistical significant effect of mesh size category and area. We discuss the results in relation to potential mitigation measures to be implemented in future fisheries management strategies.

  9. Death in the clinic: Women's perceptions and experiences of discarding supernumerary IVF embryos.

    PubMed

    de Lacey, Sheryl

    2016-10-22

    Perspectives on the status of human embryos and whether they should be discarded differ globally. Some countries protect embryos in law while in other countries embryos 'die' or 'succumb' in assisted reproductive technology clinics on a daily basis. This study analyses interview data drawn from a larger qualitative study conducted in South Australia from 2004-2007. 21 women and 12 of 21 partners were interviewed about the decision they made to discard their embryos. The analysis reported here sought to examine the ways in which women constructed and experienced the decision to discard embryos. The article highlights the ways in which embryo discard is a contested discursive space. Embryo death is sequestered through their confinement in the laboratory and their invisibility to the naked eye. The clinic treated embryo discard as disposal of biological waste and failed to acknowledge the meaning of the event. By contrast women experienced emotional bereavement described as similar to early pregnancy loss, and described experiences of attachment and grief. For sensitive and compassionate care these differences in perceptions of embryo discard need to be addressed.

  10. Enhanced Automated Spiral Bevel Gear Inspection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    in excessive wear, scoring, or even tooth breakage. This is as true for spiral bevel gears as it is for spur and helical gears. The elemental...conformity inspection of tooth profiles that is commonly performed on spur and helical gears, however, is not practical for spiral bevel gears because the size...AD-A250 770 NASA AVSCOM Contractor Report 189125 Technical Report 91-C-048 Enhanced Automated Spiral Bevel Gear Inspection DTIC Harold K. Frint and

  11. 50 CFR 300.223 - Purse seine fishing restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... regulations. (f) Sea turtle take mitigation measures. (1) Possession and use of required mitigation gear. Any... net is intended to facilitate safe handling of sea turtles and access to sea turtles for purposes of removing sea turtles from fishing gear, bringing sea turtles aboard the vessel when appropriate,...

  12. 50 CFR 300.223 - Purse seine fishing restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... § 300.215 or other applicable regulations. (f) Sea turtle take mitigation measures. (1) Possession and... following gear: (i) Dip net. A dip net is intended to facilitate safe handling of sea turtles and access to sea turtles for purposes of removing sea turtles from fishing gear, bringing sea turtles aboard...

  13. 50 CFR 300.223 - Purse seine fishing restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... (f) Sea turtle take mitigation measures. (1) Possession and use of required mitigation gear. Any... net is intended to facilitate safe handling of sea turtles and access to sea turtles for purposes of removing sea turtles from fishing gear, bringing sea turtles aboard the vessel when appropriate,...

  14. 50 CFR 300.223 - Purse seine fishing restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... (f) Sea turtle take mitigation measures. (1) Possession and use of required mitigation gear. Any... net is intended to facilitate safe handling of sea turtles and access to sea turtles for purposes of removing sea turtles from fishing gear, bringing sea turtles aboard the vessel when appropriate,...

  15. 50 CFR 300.223 - Purse seine fishing restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... regulations. (f) Sea turtle take mitigation measures. (1) Possession and use of required mitigation gear. Any... net is intended to facilitate safe handling of sea turtles and access to sea turtles for purposes of removing sea turtles from fishing gear, bringing sea turtles aboard the vessel when appropriate,...

  16. Converting Alaska Fish Byproducts into Compost

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alaska’s commercial fishing industry, sportfishing and subsistence fisheries generate over one million metric tons of processing waste each year. Composting is a practical alternative for salvaging some of these discarded materials. Rural and remote coastal communities can benefit from these sources...

  17. LSRA with Shuttle main gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A space shuttle landing gear system is visible between the two main landing gear components on this NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA). The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance. The series of 155 test missions for the space shuttle program, conducted at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided extensive data about the life and endurance of the shuttle tire systems and helped raise the shuttle crosswind landing limits at Kennedy.

  18. A study of the optimum configuration of injection molded plastic gear by modification of gear tooth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dae-Suep; Kwon, Young-Doo; Doc, Jin-Uk; Leed, Jun-Hyuk

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the gear system is optimized by modifying the tooth configuration of the plastic gears. Plastic gear is widely used as a machine element in industries of electric and electronic parts, automotive parts etc. Unlike the steel gear, the plastic gear has low load- transmission, durability and reliability. On the other hand, it is light-weight, low-noise, operable without a lubricant, shock absorptive, and anti-corrosive. The gear characteristics are calculated and analyzed by Hexagon and FEM (Finite Element Method) tools, and the characteristics of the standard gear and the addendum modified gear of the steel gear and the plastic gear are compared. When torque is applied to these gear systems, the system using the addendum modified gear can realize soft contact between gears. So, the noise of the addendum modified gear system was less than that of the common normal gear system. However, this is not applicable to any material, such as steel which is governed by DIN (Deuteshe Industrie Norm) recommendation. This study adopted the narrow tip tooth plastic gear, and proposed the optimum addendum modified gear with respect to stress, noise and contact ratio. To calculate and analyze the simulation of gear matching, we used commercial tools like CATIA, Auto-CAD, MARC for simulation and Hexagon for calculation.

  19. 50 CFR 679.27 - Improved Retention/Improved Utilization Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... limited to bleeding codends and shaking or otherwise removing fish from longline gear. (e) At-sea discard of product. Any product from an IR/IU species may not be discarded at sea, unless such discarding is..., whether harvested by that vessel or transferred from another vessel. At-sea discard of IR/IU species...

  20. 50 CFR 648.160 - Catch quotas and other restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... regulations; discards; sea sampling data; impact of gear other than otter trawls and gill nets on the... minimum fish size. (7) Recreational season. (8) Restrictions on gear other than otter trawls and gill...

  1. Association between Organ Procurement Organization Social Network Centrality and Kidney Discard and Transplant Outcomes1

    PubMed Central

    Butala, Neel M.; King, Marissa D.; Reitsma, William; Formica, Richard N.; Abt, Peter L.; Reese, Peter P.; Parikh, Chirag R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Given growth in kidney transplant waitlists and discard rates, donor kidney acceptance is an important problem. We used network analysis to examine whether organ procurement organization (OPO) network centrality affects discard and outcomes. Methods We identified 106,160 deceased-donor kidneys recovered for transplant from 2000–2010 in SRTR. We constructed the transplant network by year with each OPO representing a node and each kidney-sharing relationship between OPOs representing a directed tie between nodes. Primary exposures were the number of different OPOs to which an OPO has given a kidney or from which an OPO has received a kidney in year preceding procurement year. Primary outcomes were discard, cold-ischemia time, delayed graft function, and 1-year graft loss. We used multivariable regression, restricting analysis to the 50% of OPOs with highest discard and stratifying remaining OPOs by kidney volume. Models controlled for kidney donor risk index, waitlist time, and kidney pumping. Results An increase in one additional OPO to which a kidney was given by a procuring OPO in a year was associated with 1.4% lower likelihood of discard for a given kidney (odds ratio, 0.986; 95% confidence interval, 0.974-0.998) among OPOs procuring high kidney volume, but 2% higher likelihood of discard (OR:1.021, CI:1.006, 1.037) among OPOs procuring low kidney volume, with mixed associations with recipient outcomes. Conclusions Our study highlights the value of network analysis in revealing how broader kidney sharing is associated with levels of organ acceptance. We conclude interventions to promote broader inter-OPO sharing could be developed to reduce discard for a subset of OPOs. PMID:26102610

  2. 50 CFR 648.124 - Minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... following non-exempt species: Loligo squid; black sea bass; and silver hake (whiting). (b) Northern Gear... that are fishing for, or in possession of, the following non-exempt species: Loligo squid; black...

  3. Gear shift control mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Janson, D.A.

    1987-03-10

    A gear shift control mechanism is described comprising: multiple shift rods directed substantially parallel to one another, each rod carrying a shift fork for axial movement; a shift lever supported for pivotal movement about a first axis directed parallel to the axes of the shift rods and for pivotal movement about a second axis directed substantially perpendicular to the axes of the shift rods. The lever is moveable about the first axis and the second axis into engagement with a selected shift fork; interlock means located on each lateral side of the shift lever and mounted for pivotal movement about the first axis for blocking engagement with the shift forks; detent means for holding the shift lever in multiple predetermined angular positions about the second axis; and spring means located on a lateral side of the shift lever and mounted for pivotal movement about the first axis into interference contact with the shift forks for producing a force tending to resiliently bias the shift lever out of engagement with the selected shift fork.

  4. Molecular gearing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gakh, Andrei A.; Sachleben, Richard A.; Bryan, Jeff C.

    1997-11-01

    The race to create smaller devices is fueling much of the research in electronics. The competition has intensified with the advent of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), in which miniaturization is already reaching the dimensional limits imposed by physics of current lithographic techniques. Also, in the realm of biochemistry, evidence is accumulating that certain enzyme complexes are capable of very sophisticated modes of motion. Complex synergistic biochemical complexes driven by sophisticated biomechanical processes are quite common. Their biochemical functions are based on the interplay of mechanical and chemical processes, including allosteric effects. In addition, the complexity of this interplay far exceeds that of typical chemical reactions. Understanding the behavior of artificial molecular devices as well as complex natural molecular biomechanical systems is difficult. Fortunately, the problem can be successfully resolved by direct molecular engineering of simple molecular systems that can mimic desired mechanical or electronic devices. These molecular systems are called technomimetics (the name is derived, by analogy, from biomimetics). Several classes of molecular systems that can mimic mechanical, electronic, or other features of macroscopic devices have been successfully synthesized by conventional chemical methods during the past two decades. In this article we discuss only one class of such model devices: molecular gearing systems.

  5. Molecular gearing systems

    DOE PAGES

    Gakh, Andrei A.; Sachleben, Richard A.; Bryan, Jeff C.

    1997-11-01

    The race to create smaller devices is fueling much of the research in electronics. The competition has intensified with the advent of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), in which miniaturization is already reaching the dimensional limits imposed by physics of current lithographic techniques. Also, in the realm of biochemistry, evidence is accumulating that certain enzyme complexes are capable of very sophisticated modes of motion. Complex synergistic biochemical complexes driven by sophisticated biomechanical processes are quite common. Their biochemical functions are based on the interplay of mechanical and chemical processes, including allosteric effects. In addition, the complexity of this interplay far exceeds thatmore » of typical chemical reactions. Understanding the behavior of artificial molecular devices as well as complex natural molecular biomechanical systems is difficult. Fortunately, the problem can be successfully resolved by direct molecular engineering of simple molecular systems that can mimic desired mechanical or electronic devices. These molecular systems are called technomimetics (the name is derived, by analogy, from biomimetics). Several classes of molecular systems that can mimic mechanical, electronic, or other features of macroscopic devices have been successfully synthesized by conventional chemical methods during the past two decades. In this article we discuss only one class of such model devices: molecular gearing systems.« less

  6. Flex-gear power transmission system for transmitting EMF between Sun and ring gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A plurality of flexible cylindrical members, termed flex-gears and having gear tooth type perimeters are located in an annular space between two concentric rotating gear members, one an inner gear member and the other an outer ring gear member, both of which have mutually facing toothed surfaces which engage the flex-gears. The flex-gears rotate and orbit around the annular space as planetary gears when the inner and outer gear members rotate with respect to one another. Pairs of these elements located in two mutually parallel planes and separated by insulators provide two electrical conductor paths across which an electrical signal source, AC or DC, can be connected and coupled to an electrical device. Alternatively, one set of elements including outer gears segmented into mutually insulated semicircles and inner gears segmented into mutually insulated quadrants can be used.

  7. Spliceosome discards intermediates via the DEAH box ATPase Prp43p.

    PubMed

    Mayas, Rabiah M; Maita, Hiroshi; Semlow, Daniel R; Staley, Jonathan P

    2010-06-01

    To promote fidelity in nuclear pre-mRNA splicing, the spliceosome rejects and discards suboptimal substrates that have engaged the spliceosome. Whereas DExD/H box ATPases have been implicated in rejecting suboptimal substrates, the mechanism for discarding suboptimal substrates has remained obscure. Corroborating evidence that suboptimal, mutated lariat intermediates can be exported to the cytoplasm for turnover, we have found that the ribosome can translate mutated lariat intermediates. By glycerol gradient analysis, we have found that the spliceosome can dissociate mutated lariat intermediates in vivo in a manner that requires the DEAH box ATPase Prp43p. Through an in vitro assay, we demonstrate that Prp43p promotes the discard of suboptimal and optimal 5' exon and lariat intermediates indiscriminately. Finally, we demonstrate a requirement for Prp43p in repressing splicing at a cryptic splice site. We propose a model for the fidelity of exon ligation in which the DEAH box ATPase Prp22p slows the flow of suboptimal intermediates through exon ligation and Prp43p generally promotes discard of intermediates, thereby establishing a pathway for turnover of stalled intermediates. Because Prp43p also promotes spliceosome disassembly after exon ligation, this work establishes a parallel between the discard of suboptimal intermediates and the dissociation of a genuine excised intron product.

  8. Advanced Face Gear Surface Durability Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G.; Heath, Gregory F.

    2016-01-01

    The surface durability life of helical face gears and isotropic super-finished (ISF) face gears was investigated. Experimental fatigue tests were performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Endurance tests were performed on 10 sets of helical face gears in mesh with tapered involute helical pinions, and 10 sets of ISF-enhanced straight face gears in mesh with tapered involute spur pinions. The results were compared to previous tests on straight face gears. The life of the ISF configuration was slightly less than that of previous tests on straight face gears. The life of the ISF configuration was slightly greater than that of the helical configuration.

  9. Contact Stress of Modified Curvilinear Gears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Cheng; Gu, Ming-Lune

    2010-10-01

    The contact characteristics of a modified curvilinear gear set were investigated based on finite element analysis in this study. Firstly, the mathematical model of the modified curvilinear gears was developed based on the theory of gearing. Then a solid model of a modified curvilinear gear set was built by utilizing computer-aided design software. Finite element analysis enabled us to investigate the contact stress of a contact teeth pair. The variation and distribution of the contact stresses and bending stresses are also studied under different gear design parameters. Finally, illustrative examples were presented to demonstrate the contact characteristics of the modified curvilinear gears.

  10. Proposal of an Axial Gap Magnetic Gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Katsuhiro; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Muramatsu, Masari

    Magnetic gears have some benefits such as low noise, low vibration, and they are maintenance free as opposed to mechanical gears. In the view of these advantages, some high-performance magnetic gears have been proposed; however, these gears have a complex structure because they require several magnets. In this paper, we propose a new magnetic gear with a high reduction ratio comprising only two magnets. From the result of 3D-FE analysis, it was found that our model generated large transmitted torque and less cogging torque despite its thin compact size. This result shows the possibility of the application of the proposed gear in various industries.

  11. 32. DETAIL VIEW OF PIVOT SPAN TURNTABLE, SHOWING MORTISE GEAR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. DETAIL VIEW OF PIVOT SPAN TURNTABLE, SHOWING MORTISE GEAR, GEAR SHAFT, DRIVE GEAR AND BULL GEAR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Alton Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River between IL & MO, Alton, Madison County, IL

  12. 75 FR 5951 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ..., and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... fishing gear under his commercial reef fish permit and individual fishing quota allocation for one year... intended to provide detailed information and disposition of reef fish caught by Mr. Haugen's...

  13. Transmission with two parallel driving shafts bearing two driving gears each meshed with same driven gear on parallel driven shaft

    SciTech Connect

    Akashi, T.; Ito, H.; Yamada, S.

    1986-06-17

    A transmission mechanism for a vehicle is described for receiving input of rotational power from a power supply member which rotates in a particular rotational direction and for outputting rotational power to a power receiving member which includes: an input member connected to the power supply member and which is rotatably mounted and receives supplying of the rotational power from the power supply member; a first driving gear wheel shaft; a second driving gear wheel shaft mounted generally parallel to the first driving gear wheel shaft; a driven gear wheel shaft mounted generally parallel to the first and second driving gear wheel shafts, the driven gear wheel shaft being rotationally connected to the power receiving member; a first driven gear wheel fixedly mounted on the driven gear wheel shaft; a first driving gear wheel which is rotatably mounted on the first driving gear wheel shaft and is constant mesh with the driven gear wheel, the first driving and driven gear wheels providing a first reduction gear ratio from the first driving gear wheel shaft to the driven gear wheel shaft; a second driven gear wheel fixedly mounted on the driven gear wheel shaft; a second driving gear wheel which is rotatably mounted on the second driving gear wheel shaft and is in constant mesh with the first driven gear wheel, the second driving and the first driven gear wheels providing a second reduction gear ratio smaller than the first reduction gear ratio from the second driving gear wheel shaft to the driven gear wheel shaft; a third driving gear wheel which is rotatably mounted on the first driving gear wheel shaft and is in constant mesh with the second driven gear wheel, the third driving and the second driven gear wheels providing a third reduction gear ratio smaller than the second reduction gear ratio from the first driving gear wheel shaft to the driven gear wheel shaft.

  14. Planetary gear train of automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraiwa, K.

    1987-03-31

    A planetary gear train is described for an automatic transmission having input and output shafts, comprising: a first planetary gear unit including a first sun gear, a first internal gear and a first pinion carrier; a second planetary gear unit including a second sun gear, a second internal gear and a second pinion carrier, the first internal gear and the second pinion carrier being constantly connected to the output shaft; a first brake unit capable of braking the first and second sun gears which are connected to each other to rotate together; a clutch through which the first pinion carrier is connectable to the input shaft; a second brake unit capable of braking the first pinion carrier; a third brake unit capable of braking the second internal gear; and first and second groups of one-way means which are parallelly interposed between the input shaft and the first sun gear and arranged in a mutually reversed relationship so that the power transmission from the input shaft to the first sun gear and that from the first sun gear to the input shaft are respectively carried out by the first and second groups of one-way means.

  15. An artificial vision solution for reusing discarded parts resulted after a manufacturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohal, V.; Cohal, A.

    2016-08-01

    The profit of a factory can be improved by reusing the discarded components produced. This paper is based on the case of a manufacturing process where rectangular metallic sheets of different sizes are produced. Using an artificial vision system, the shapes and the sizes of the produced parts can be determined. Those sheets which do not respect the requirements imposed are labeled as discarded. Instead of throwing these parts, a decision algorithm can analyze if another metallic sheet with smaller dimensions can be obtained from these. Two methods of decision are presented in this paper, considering the restriction that the sides of the new sheet has to be parallel with the axis of the coordinate system. The coordinates of each new part obtained from a discarded sheet are computed in order to be delivered to a milling machine. Details about implementing these algorithms (image processing and decision respectively) in the MATLAB environment using Image Processing Toolbox are given.

  16. Investigation into nitrided spur gears

    SciTech Connect

    Yilbas, B.S.; Coban, A.; Nickel, J.; Sunar, M.; Sami, M.; Abdul Aleem, B.J.

    1996-12-01

    The cold forging method has been widely used in industry to produce machine parts. In general, gears are produced by shaping or hobbing. One of the shaping techniques is precision forging, which has several advantages over hobbing. In the present study, cold forging of spur gears from Ti-6Al-4V material is introduced. To improve the surface properties of the resulting gears, plasma nitriding was carried out. Nuclear reaction analysis was carried out to obtain the nitrogen concentration, while the micro-PIXE technique was used to determine the elemental distribution in the matrix after forging and nitriding processes. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray powder diffraction were used to investigate the metallurgical changes and formation of nitride components in the surface region. Microhardness and friction tests were carried out to measure the hardness depth profile and friction coefficient at the surface. Finally, scoring failure tests were conducted to determine the rotational speed at which the gears failed. Three distinct regions were obtained in the nitride region, and at the initial stages of the scoring tests, failure in surface roughness was observed in the vicinity of the tip of the gear tooth. This occurred at a particular rotational speed and work input.

  17. Detection of viruses using discarded plants from wild mountain gorillas and golden monkeys.

    PubMed

    Smiley Evans, Tierra; Gilardi, Kirsten V K; Barry, Peter A; Ssebide, Benard Jasper; Kinani, Jean Felix; Nizeyimana, Fred; Noheri, Jean Bosco; Byarugaba, Denis K; Mudakikwa, Antoine; Cranfield, Michael R; Mazet, Jonna A K; Johnson, Christine K

    2016-11-01

    Infectious diseases pose one of the most significant threats to the survival of great apes in the wild. The critically endangered mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) is at high risk for contracting human pathogens because approximately 60% of the population is habituated to humans to support a thriving ecotourism program. Disease surveillance for human and non-human primate pathogens is important for population health and management of protected primate species. Here, we evaluate discarded plants from mountain gorillas and sympatric golden monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis kandti), as a novel biological sample to detect viruses that are shed orally. Discarded plant samples were tested for the presence of mammalian-specific genetic material and two ubiquitous DNA and RNA primate viruses, herpesviruses, and simian foamy virus. We collected discarded plant samples from 383 wild human-habituated mountain gorillas and from 18 habituated golden monkeys. Mammalian-specific genetic material was recovered from all plant species and portions of plant bitten or chewed by gorillas and golden monkeys. Gorilla herpesviral DNA was most consistently recovered from plants in which leafy portions were eaten by gorillas. Simian foamy virus nucleic acid was recovered from plants discarded by golden monkeys, indicating that it is also possible to detect RNA viruses from bitten or chewed plants. Our findings show that discarded plants are a useful non-invasive sampling method for detection of viruses that are shed orally in mountain gorillas, sympatric golden monkeys, and potentially other species. This method of collecting specimens from discarded plants is a new non-invasive sampling protocol that can be combined with collection of feces and urine to evaluate the most common routes of viral shedding in wild primates. Am. J. Primatol. 78:1222-1234, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Development of a gear vibration indicator and its application in gear wear monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chongqing; Smith, Wade A.; Randall, Robert B.; Peng, Zhongxiao

    2016-08-01

    Gear tooth wear is an inevitable phenomenon and has a significant influence on gear dynamic features. Although vibration analysis has been widely used to diagnose localised gear tooth faults, its techniques for gear wear monitoring have not been well-established. This paper aims at developing a vibration indicator to evaluate the effects of wear on gear performance. For this purpose, a gear state vector is extracted from time synchronous averaged gear signals to describe the gear state. This gear state vector consists of the sideband ratios obtained from a number of tooth meshing harmonics and their sidebands. Then, two averaged logarithmic ratios, ALR and mALR, are defined with fixed and moving references, respectively, to provide complementary information for gear wear monitoring. Since a fixed reference is utilised in the definition of ALR, it reflects the cumulated wear effects on the gear state. An increase in the ALR value indicates that the gear state deviates further from its reference condition. With the use of a moving reference, the indicator mALR shows changes in the gear state within short time intervals, making it suitable for wear process monitoring. The efficiency of these vibration indicators is demonstrated using experimental results from two sets of tests, in which the gears experienced different wear processes. In addition to gear wear monitoring, the proposed indicators can be used as general parameters to detect the occurrence of other faults, such as a tooth crack or shaft misalignment, because these faults would also change the gear vibrations.

  19. School Counseling Programs: Comparing GEAR UP Schools with Non-GEAR UP Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorngren, Jill M.; Nelson, Mark D.; Baker, Larry J.

    2004-01-01

    A survey was conducted using qualitative means to assess school counseling programs in Montana. Schools that were demonstration schools in a federal initiative, Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP) were compared to non-GEAR UP schools. Several differences between GEAR UP and non-GEAR UP schools are noted and…

  20. Speed reducing or increasing planetary gear apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Minegishi, K.; Ishida, T.

    1989-07-04

    This patent describes a planetary gear apparatus. It includes: an external gear mounted on an input shaft with an eccentric member and a bearing fitted onto the eccentric member therebetween; an internal gear engaging with the external gear, the internal gear being coaxial with respect to the input shaft; an output shaft for outputting a reduced rotational force; and a drive for coupling the external gear and the output shaft, the planetary gear apparatus being adapted to transmit the rotational force of the input shaft to the output shaft after it has reduced the speed of the rotational force, or to transmit the rotational force of the output shaft to the input shaft after it has increased the speed of the rotational force by fixing the internal gear.

  1. Swimming bacteria power microscopic gears.

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolov, A.; Apodaca, M. M.; Grzybowski, B. A.; Aranson, I. S.; Materials Science Division; Princeton Univ.; Northwestern Univ.

    2010-01-19

    Whereas the laws of thermodynamics prohibit extraction of useful work from the Brownian motion of particles in equilibrium, these motions can be 'rectified' under nonequilibrium conditions, for example, in the presence of asymmetric geometrical obstacles. Here, we describe a class of systems in which aerobic bacteria Bacillus subtilis moving randomly in a fluid film power submillimeter gears and primitive systems of gears decorated with asymmetric teeth. The directional rotation is observed only in the regime of collective bacterial swimming and the gears angular velocities depend on and can be controlled by the amount of oxygen available to the bacteria. The ability to harness and control the power of collective motions appears an important requirement for further development of mechanical systems driven by microorganisms.

  2. Swimming bacteria power microscopic gears.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, Andrey; Apodaca, Mario M; Grzybowski, Bartosz A; Aranson, Igor S

    2010-01-19

    Whereas the laws of thermodynamics prohibit extraction of useful work from the Brownian motion of particles in equilibrium, these motions can be "rectified" under nonequilibrium conditions, for example, in the presence of asymmetric geometrical obstacles. Here, we describe a class of systems in which aerobic bacteria Bacillus subtilis moving randomly in a fluid film power submillimeter gears and primitive systems of gears decorated with asymmetric teeth. The directional rotation is observed only in the regime of collective bacterial swimming and the gears' angular velocities depend on and can be controlled by the amount of oxygen available to the bacteria. The ability to harness and control the power of collective motions appears an important requirement for further development of mechanical systems driven by microorganisms.

  3. Sequencing device utilizing planetary gear set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleberry, W. T. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A planetary (epicyclic) gear set is provided with a reversible rotating input shaft and individual outputs shafts actuated, respectively, by the ring gear and planet gear carrier. Latch means is positioned to selectively and automatically stop the ring gear or carrier member while releasing the other to provide the desired sequential output operation. The output shafts are reversed in sequence and direction of rotation by reversing rotational direction of the input shaft.

  4. Avoiding troubles in large gear boxes

    SciTech Connect

    Abou-Haidar, A.N.

    1995-05-08

    This article describes how attention to details such as moisture, contamination, and mechanical loading pays off in troublefree service. Most problems in large gear boxes occur with gears and bearings. Their failure modes and causes should be carefully analyzed to determine the proper corrective action. If gears are selected properly and maintained while in operation, they should last 20 or 30 yr. Gears usually fail because an interruption in operation causes wear and surface fatigue.

  5. Computer simulation of gear tooth manufacturing processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavriplis, Dimitri; Huston, Ronald L.

    1990-01-01

    The use of computer graphics to simulate gear tooth manufacturing procedures is discussed. An analytical basis for the simulation is established for spur gears. The simulation itself, however, is developed not only for spur gears, but for straight bevel gears as well. The applications of the developed procedure extend from the development of finite element models of heretofore intractable geometrical forms, to exploring the fabrication of nonstandard tooth forms.

  6. Maximum life spur gear design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Mackulin, M. J.; Coe, H. H.; Coy, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    Optimization procedures allow one to design a spur gear reduction for maximum life and other end use criteria. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial guess values. The optimization algorithm is described, and the models for gear life and performance are presented. The algorithm is compact and has been programmed for execution on a desk top computer. Two examples are presented to illustrate the method and its application.

  7. 50 CFR 622.272 - Authorized gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Dolphin and Wahoo Fishery Off the Atlantic States § 622.272 Authorized gear. (a) Atlantic dolphin and wahoo—(1) Authorized gear. The following are the only authorized gear types in the fisheries for dolphin and wahoo in...

  8. 50 CFR 622.272 - Authorized gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Dolphin and Wahoo Fishery Off the Atlantic States § 622.272 Authorized gear. (a) Atlantic dolphin and wahoo—(1) Authorized gear. The following are the only authorized gear types in the fisheries for dolphin and wahoo in...

  9. Modification Of Gear Teeth To Reduce Vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Dennis P.; Oswald, Fred B.; Lin, Hsiang Hsi

    1990-01-01

    Computer simulations yield data useful in designing for low noise. Effects of modifications in shape of gear teeth upon static transmission error and dynamic loading of gears now analyzed systematically. Design curves generated by conducting numerical simulations of dynamic effects at successive incremental modifications of gear systems operated at various applied loads. Modifications that result in minimum dynamic effect determined from design curves.

  10. 50 CFR 665.804 - Gear identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gear identification. 665.804 Section 665... Fisheries § 665.804 Gear identification. (a) Identification. The operator of each permitted vessel in the... action. Longline gear not marked in compliance with paragraph (a) of this section and found deployed...

  11. 50 CFR 665.464 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.464 Section 665.464 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... § 665.464 Gear restrictions. Only selective gear may be used to harvest coral from any precious...

  12. 50 CFR 665.664 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.664 Section 665.664 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Fisheries § 665.664 Gear restrictions. Only selective gear may be used to harvest coral from any...

  13. 50 CFR 665.664 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.664 Section 665.664 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Fisheries § 665.664 Gear restrictions. Only selective gear may be used to harvest coral from any...

  14. 50 CFR 665.264 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.264 Section 665.264 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Gear restrictions. Only selective gear may be used to harvest coral from any precious coral permit area....

  15. 50 CFR 665.264 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.264 Section 665.264 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Gear restrictions. Only selective gear may be used to harvest coral from any precious coral permit area....

  16. 50 CFR 665.164 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.164 Section 665.164 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... § 665.164 Gear restrictions. Only selective gear may be used to harvest coral from any precious...

  17. 50 CFR 665.164 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.164 Section 665.164 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... § 665.164 Gear restrictions. Only selective gear may be used to harvest coral from any precious...

  18. 50 CFR 665.664 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.664 Section 665.664 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Fisheries § 665.664 Gear restrictions. Only selective gear may be used to harvest coral from any...

  19. 50 CFR 665.664 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.664 Section 665.664 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Fisheries § 665.664 Gear restrictions. Only selective gear may be used to harvest coral from any...

  20. 50 CFR 665.104 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.104 Section 665.104..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC American Samoa Fisheries § 665.104 Gear... trawls and bottom set gillnets is prohibited. (b) Possession of gear. The possession of a bottom trawl...

  1. 50 CFR 665.804 - Gear identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gear identification. 665.804 Section 665... Fisheries § 665.804 Gear identification. (a) Identification. The operator of each permitted vessel in the... action. Longline gear not marked in compliance with paragraph (a) of this section and found deployed...

  2. 50 CFR 665.664 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.664 Section 665.664 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... § 665.664 Gear restrictions. Only selective gear may be used to harvest coral from any precious...

  3. 50 CFR 665.264 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.264 Section 665.264 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Gear restrictions. Only selective gear may be used to harvest coral from any precious coral permit area....

  4. 50 CFR 648.203 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 648.203 Section 648... Atlantic Herring Fishery § 648.203 Gear restrictions. (a) Midwater trawl gear may only be used by a vessel... Nantucket Lightship Area as described in § 648.81(c)(1), provided it complies with the midwater trawl...

  5. 50 CFR 665.804 - Gear identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gear identification. 665.804 Section 665... Fisheries § 665.804 Gear identification. (a) Identification. The operator of each permitted vessel in the... action. Longline gear not marked in compliance with paragraph (a) of this section and found deployed...

  6. 50 CFR 665.464 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.464 Section 665.464 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... § 665.464 Gear restrictions. Only selective gear may be used to harvest coral from any precious...

  7. 50 CFR 665.164 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.164 Section 665.164 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... § 665.164 Gear restrictions. Only selective gear may be used to harvest coral from any precious...

  8. 50 CFR 665.264 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.264 Section 665.264..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.264 Gear restrictions. Only selective gear may be used to harvest coral from any precious coral permit area....

  9. 50 CFR 665.804 - Gear identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gear identification. 665.804 Section 665... Fisheries § 665.804 Gear identification. (a) Identification. The operator of each permitted vessel in the... action. Longline gear not marked in compliance with paragraph (a) of this section and found deployed...

  10. 50 CFR 665.164 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.164 Section 665.164 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... § 665.164 Gear restrictions. Only selective gear may be used to harvest coral from any precious...

  11. 50 CFR 665.464 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.464 Section 665.464 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Gear restrictions. Only selective gear may be used to harvest coral from any precious coral permit area....

  12. 50 CFR 665.464 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.464 Section 665.464 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... § 665.464 Gear restrictions. Only selective gear may be used to harvest coral from any precious...

  13. 50 CFR 665.164 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.164 Section 665.164..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC American Samoa Fisheries § 665.164 Gear restrictions. Only selective gear may be used to harvest coral from any precious coral permit area....

  14. 50 CFR 665.264 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.264 Section 665.264 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Gear restrictions. Only selective gear may be used to harvest coral from any precious coral permit area....

  15. 50 CFR 648.203 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 648.203 Section 648... Atlantic Herring Fishery § 648.203 Gear restrictions. (a) Midwater trawl gear may only be used by a vessel... Nantucket Lightship Area as described in § 648.81(c)(1), provided it complies with the midwater trawl...

  16. 50 CFR 648.203 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 648.203 Section 648... Atlantic Herring Fishery § 648.203 Gear restrictions. (a) Midwater trawl gear may only be used by a vessel... Nantucket Lightship Area as described in § 648.81(c)(1), provided it complies with the midwater trawl...

  17. 50 CFR 665.464 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.464 Section 665.464 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... § 665.464 Gear restrictions. Only selective gear may be used to harvest coral from any precious...

  18. 50 CFR 648.203 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 648.203 Section 648... Atlantic Herring Fishery § 648.203 Gear restrictions. (a) Midwater trawl gear may only be used by a vessel... Nantucket Lightship Area as described in § 648.81(c)(1), provided it complies with the midwater trawl...

  19. 50 CFR 665.804 - Gear identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear identification. 665.804 Section 665... Fisheries § 665.804 Gear identification. (a) Identification. The operator of each permitted vessel in the... action. Longline gear not marked in compliance with paragraph (a) of this section and found deployed...

  20. Casimir torque on a cylindrical gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidya, Varun

    2014-08-01

    I utilize effective field theory(EFT) techniques to calculate the Casimir torque on a cylindrical gear in the presence of a polarizable but neutral object and present results for the energy and torque as a function of angle for a gear with multiple cogs, as well as for the case of a concentric cylindrical gear.

  1. 76 FR 52888 - Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; American Samoa Longline Gear Modifications To Reduce Turtle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... Fisheries; American Samoa Longline Gear Modifications To Reduce Turtle Interactions AGENCY: National Marine... Pacific green sea turtles. This final rule also makes administrative clarifications to the names of..., and other pelagic fish. The fishery interacts with (hooks or entangles) Pacific green sea...

  2. 76 FR 32929 - Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; American Samoa Longline Gear Modifications To Reduce Turtle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... Fisheries; American Samoa Longline Gear Modifications To Reduce Turtle Interactions AGENCY: National Marine... interactions between longline fishing and Pacific green sea turtles. DATES: Comments on the proposed rule must..., mitigation, handling, and release techniques for sea turtles, seabirds, and marine mammals. Fishermen...

  3. Gear teeth impacts in hydrodynamic conjunctions promoting idle gear rattle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiades, S.; Tangasawi, O.; Rahnejat, H.

    2007-06-01

    The rattle phenomenon in vehicular transmissions and its impact on the automotive industry have been widely reported in the literature. A variety of palliative measures have been suggested for attenuation of rattle such as use of backlash eliminators, clutch dampers or dual-mass flywheels. These palliative measures incur further costs and can have untoward implications in powertrain noise and vibration problems. A fundamental investigation of the dynamics of impacting gears is undoubtedly the way forward for a root cause solution. This paper introduces a new approach for understanding the interactions between the transmission gears during engine idle conditions by taking into account the effect of lubrication. Gear impacting surfaces are treated as lubricated conjunctions rather than the usually reported dry impacting solids. Depending on load and speed of entraining motion of the lubricant into the contact domains, the regime of lubrication alters. In this paper, the influence of lubricant in torsional vibration of lightly loaded idling gears is examined which promotes iso-viscous hydrodynamic conditions. It is shown that the lubricant film under these conditions behaves as a time-varying nonlinear spring-damper element. Spectral analysis of the system response is compared to the findings of the linearised system.

  4. Comparison of three embryo culture methods for derivation of human embryonic stem cells from discarded embryos.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Li, Yang; Hwang, Andrew; Wang, Shu-yu; Jia, Chan-wei; Yu, Lan; Li, Jian

    2011-06-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) are self-renewing and pluripotent cells that hold great promise. Our objective was to compare the effect of three different embryo culture methods for derivation of human embryonic stem cells from discarded embryos. A prospective and randomized trial was conducted using 381 discarded human embryos at days 2-3 postfertilization in Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital IVF center. After removal of the zona pellucida, discarded human embryos were cultured by three different methods as multiple embryo aggregates, single embryo, and blastomeres. Outgrowth of embryos and hESC derivation were observed. The outgrowth rate of embryos cultured as multiple embryo aggregates was higher than that of those cultured as single embryos or blastomeres (p < 0.05). Three propagating hESC lines were derived from poor quality day 2-3 postfertilization nonblastocyst embryos cultured as multiple embryo aggregates. Derived hESC lines expressed hESC-specific markers of pluripotency and had normal diploid karyotype. The cells were able to form derivatives of all three germ layers in vivo as teratomas. Our results demonstrate that culturing these discarded embryos as multiple embryo aggregates was more profitable for outgrowth and derivation of ESC line than culturing these as single embryo or blastomeres.

  5. Engine starter with a planetary reduction gear

    SciTech Connect

    Yabunaka, K.

    1987-06-09

    This patent describes an engine starter having a motor and a planetary reduction gear comprising: a rotor having a rotor shaft; an output shaft drivingly connected to the rotor shaft through the planetary reducing gear; a yoke having a cylindrical portion surrounding the stator and a support portion rotatably supporting the output shaft; a sun gear located on an outer surface of the rotor shaft; a ring gear formed on an inner surface of the yoke; and the yoke, support portion, and the ring gear comprise one-piece.

  6. Recent manufacturing advances for spiral bevel gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Bill, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command (AVSCOM), through the Propulsion Directorate at NASA Lewis Research Center, has recently sponsored projects to advance the manufacturing process for spiral bevel gears. This type of gear is a critical component in rotary-wing propulsion systems. Two successfully completed contracted projects are described. The first project addresses the automated inspection of spiral bevel gears through the use of coordinate measuring machines. The second project entails the computer-numerical-control (CNC) conversion of a spiral bevel gear grinding machine that is used for all aerospace spiral bevel gears. The results of these projects are described with regard to the savings effected in manufacturing time.

  7. Asymmetric gear rectifies random robot motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, He; Zhang, H. P.

    2013-06-01

    We experimentally study the dynamics of centimetric robots and their interactions with rotary gears through inelastic collisions. Under the impacts of self-propelled robots, a gear with symmetric teeth diffuses with no preferred direction of motion. An asymmetric gear, however, rectifies random motion of nearby robots which, in return, exert a torque on the gear and drive it into unidirectional motion. Rectification efficiency increases with the degree of gear asymmetry. Our work demonstrates that asymmetric environments can be used to rectify and extract energy from random motion of macroscopic self-propelled particles.

  8. Recent manufacturing advances for spiral bevel gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Bill, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command (AVSCOM), through the Propulsion Directorate at NASA LRC, has recently sponsored projects to advance the manufacturing process for spiral bevel gears. This type of gear is a critical component in rotary-wing propulsion systems. Two successfully completed contracted projects are described. The first project addresses the automated inspection of spiral bevel gears through the use of coordinate measuring machines. The second project entails the computer-numerical-control (CNC) conversion of a spiral bevel gear grinding machine that is used for all aerospace spiral bevel gears. The results of these projects are described with regard to the savings effected in manufacturing time.

  9. Driving gear for front and rear wheels of automobile

    SciTech Connect

    Ashikawa, N.; Sakuma, S.

    1986-10-21

    A driving gear is described for front and rear wheels of an automobile, comprising an engine with a crank shaft disposed in a direction of width of a body of the automobile, a transmission supported on an engine case at one side axially of the crank shaft, and a clutch provided between the engine and the transmission. The driving gear includes a first differential gear of a planetary gear type coupled to the transmission via a reduction gear, a second differential gear of a bevel gear type transmission an output of the first differential gear to left and right front wheels of the automobile, and a third differential gear transmitting an output of the first differential gear to left and right rear wheels of the automobile. The first differential gear is disposed adjacent to the reduction gear and comprises a sun gear, a ring gear and planet gears engaging with the sun and ring gears. The planet gears are pivoted directly on and driven by the reduction gear; the first and second differential gears are provided on opposite sides of a plane perpendicular to the crankshaft and including the clutch. The first and second differential gears also lie along a common axis parallel to the crank shaft. The sun gear and the ring gear are coupled individually to the front and rear wheels respectively.

  10. GEAR UP Aspirations Project Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Brad A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a formative evaluation of the first two years of the Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP) Aspirations Project (Aspirations) using a Context, Input, Process, and Product (CIPP) model so as to gain an in-depth understanding of the project during the middle school…

  11. Illinois Shifting Gears Policy Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitzel, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Illinois Shifting Gears is a multilevel initiative that has simultaneously created bridge programs in the field and altered state policy to facilitate the creation of more programs in the future. These efforts have informed each other, giving policymakers the opportunity to interact with practitioners, troubleshoot bridge programs, and make…

  12. Living donor bone banking: processing and discarding--from procurement to therapeutic use.

    PubMed

    Hovanyecz, Paula; Lorenti, Alicia; Lucero, José Manuel Juan; Gorla, Adrián; Castiglioni, Alejandro Enrique

    2015-12-01

    Skeletal muscle and osteoarticular tissue banks are responsible to procure, process, store and distribute tissues, from living and cadaveric donors. The procedures involve the application of protocols covering all aspects of the banking, ensuring the best tissue quality and maximum safety for the recipient. An analysis on the causes of bone tissue discarded by Biotar Tissue Bank between January 2005 and December 2012 was carried. Bone tissue was obtained from both hip and knee replacement (femoral heads and tibial plateau respectively) in living donors treated at different medical-surgical institutions in Argentina. These tissues were processed at the Bank to produce both frozen and lyophilized cancellous bone. Out of 3413 donated bones received by the Bank, 77.55 % resulted in final product, while the remaining 22.44 % was discarded in compliance with the quality standards of both the Bank and the regulatory authority. Comparing the last and the first year of the studied period, the number of discarded tissue increased 3.6 times, while the number of collected bones was approximately 10 times higher. Related to total disposed tissue, reactive serology was the most frequent cause (62.14 %), followed by inappropriate collection/storage of blood sample (30.81 %). A progressive reduction in the percentages of total discard was observed, and this was proportional to inappropriate collection/storage of blood sample. No significant differences were found in the discard rates due to positive serology throughout all the years studied. The success of a tissue bank requires full commitment of all the personnel especially the team members responsible for donor selection and the processing of allografts. It is important to critically screen donors in the early stages of donor recruitment. All of the procedures carried out by the tissue bank are parts of the quality control system which must be strictly carried out. Biotar Tissue Bank is continuously committed to ensure

  13. A study of polymer quenching on gears

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, H.; Yi, T.

    1996-12-31

    The quenching oil was widely used as a quenchant for the carburized gear direct hardening. With the progress of the quenching technology, however, the oil quenching of gears has been successfully replaced by the polymer quenching in the production. This paper will investigate the principle and application of gear quenching to replace oil, with aqueous polymer quenchants. During the direct quenching of carburized gear and precision forging gear, cracking and distortion reduction, and maximum and uniformity hardness can be achieved. From the quenching process and economic, advantages and limitations of polymer quenching of gears will be discussed. The data of production indicate that it is suitable for gear hardening to use polymer quenchant. The characteristics of polymer quenching are the improved performance, reduced fire hazards and environmental safety, processing flexibility and lower process costs.

  14. Three dimensional finite element stress predictions of spur gears compared to gear fatigue rig measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ozkul, M.

    1989-01-01

    A three dimensional finite element analysis technique has been developed for evaluating the gear tooth contact and fillet bending stresses. The method is based on an isoparametric formulation using 20-noded solid elements and the sub-structure approach to minimize computer core usage. The analysis has been applied to a test case of LCR spur gears specifically designed for pitting endurance testing on a gear fatigue rig. The analysis results are compared with strain gauge results obtained from gear fatigue rig to determine allowables for gear tooth stressing. They are finally compared to the tooth stresses obtained using a gear teeth dynamic model for further substantiation.

  15. Expansion of epicyclic gear dynamic analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Linda Smith; Pike, James A.

    1987-01-01

    The multiple mesh/single stage dynamics program is a gear tooth analysis program which determines detailed geometry, dynamic loads, stresses, and surface damage factors. The program can analyze a variety of both epicyclic and single mesh systems with spur or helical gear teeth including internal, external, and buttress tooth forms. The modifications refine the options for the flexible carrier and flexible ring gear rim and adds three options: a floating Sun gear option; a natural frequency option; and a finite element compliance formulation for helical gear teeth. The option for a floating Sun incorporates two additional degrees of freedom at the Sun center. The natural frequency option evaluates the frequencies of planetary, star, or differential systems as well as the effect of additional springs at the Sun center and those due to a flexible carrier and/or ring gear rim. The helical tooth pair finite element calculated compliance is obtained from an automated element breakup of the helical teeth and then is used with the basic gear dynamic solution and stress postprocessing routines. The flexible carrier or ring gear rim option for planetary and star spur gear systems allows the output torque per carrier and ring gear rim segment to vary based on the dynamic response of the entire system, while the total output torque remains constant.

  16. Geared-neutral continuously variable transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Macey, J.P.; Vahabzadeh, H.

    1987-02-24

    A continuously variable transmission is described comprising: input drive means; output drive means, a variable ratio friction belt drive means drivingly connected to the input drive means and including a driven shaft; fixed ratio drive means having an input shaft and an output shaft; selectively engageable first clutch means for connecting the input drive means to the input shaft; planetary gear means having a sun gear connected to the driven shaft, a ring gear drivingly connected with the output drive means and carrier and pinion gear means drivingly connected between the sun gear and the ring gear; second clutch means being selectively engageable for connecting the sun gear to the output drive means; third clutch means being selectively engageable for connecting the output shaft to the carrier and pinion gear means; and oneway clutch means disposed in parallel drive relation with the third clutch means for transmitting torque to the carrier and pinion gear means when the third clutch means is disengaged and the output shaft is attempting to rotate faster than the carrier and pinion gear means.

  17. Precision of spiral-bevel gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Goldrich, R. N.; Coy, J. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1983-01-01

    The kinematic errors in spiral bevel gear trains caused by the generation of nonconjugate surfaces, by axial displacements of the gears during assembly, and by eccentricity of the assembled gears were determined. One mathematical model corresponds to the motion of the contact ellipse across the tooth surface, (geometry I) and the other along the tooth surface (geometry II). The following results were obtained: (1) kinematic errors induced by errors of manufacture may be minimized by applying special machine settings, the original error may be reduced by order of magnitude, the procedure is most effective for geometry 2 gears, (2) when trying to adjust the bearing contact pattern between the gear teeth for geometry I gears, it is more desirable to shim the gear axially; for geometry II gears, shim the pinion axially; (3) the kinematic accuracy of spiral bevel drives are most sensitive to eccentricities of the gear and less sensitive to eccentricities of the pinion. The precision of mounting accuracy and manufacture are most crucial for the gear, and less so for the pinion. Previously announced in STAR as N82-30552

  18. Precision of spiral-bevel gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Goldrich, R. N.; Coy, J. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1982-01-01

    The kinematic errors in spiral bevel gear trains caused by the generation of nonconjugate surfaces, by axial displacements of the gears during assembly, and by eccentricity of the assembled gears were determined. One mathematical model corresponds to the motion of the contact ellipse across the tooth surface, (geometry I) and the other along the tooth surface (geometry II). The following results were obtained: (1) kinematic errors induced by errors of manufacture may be minimized by applying special machine settings, the original error may be reduced by order of magnitude, the procedure is most effective for geometry 2 gears, (2) when trying to adjust the bearing contact pattern between the gear teeth for geometry 1 gears, it is more desirable to shim the gear axially; for geometry II gears, shim the pinion axially; (3) the kinematic accuracy of spiral bevel drives are most sensitive to eccentricities of the gear and less sensitive to eccentricities of the pinion. The precision of mounting accuracy and manufacture are most crucial for the gear, and less so for the pinion.

  19. 50 CFR 648.51 - Gear and crew restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gear and crew restrictions. 648.51... Measures for the Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery § 648.51 Gear and crew restrictions. (a) Trawl vessel gear... long axis of the net. (3) Chafing gear and other gear obstructions—(i) Net obstruction or...

  20. 50 CFR 648.51 - Gear and crew restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gear and crew restrictions. 648.51... Measures for the Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery § 648.51 Gear and crew restrictions. (a) Trawl vessel gear... long axis of the net. (3) Chafing gear and other gear obstructions—(i) Net obstruction or...

  1. 29 CFR 1919.19 - Gear requiring welding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gear requiring welding. 1919.19 Section 1919.19 Labor... (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels' Cargo Gear § 1919.19 Gear requiring welding. Chains or other gear which have been lengthened, altered or repaired by welding shall be properly...

  2. 49 CFR 230.92 - Draw gear and draft systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Draw gear and draft systems. 230.92 Section 230.92... Tenders Draw Gear and Draft Systems § 230.92 Draw gear and draft systems. Couplers, draft gear and... condition for service. Driving Gear...

  3. 29 CFR 1919.19 - Gear requiring welding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gear requiring welding. 1919.19 Section 1919.19 Labor... (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels' Cargo Gear § 1919.19 Gear requiring welding. Chains or other gear which have been lengthened, altered or repaired by welding shall be properly...

  4. 29 CFR 1919.19 - Gear requiring welding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gear requiring welding. 1919.19 Section 1919.19 Labor... (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels' Cargo Gear § 1919.19 Gear requiring welding. Chains or other gear which have been lengthened, altered or repaired by welding shall be properly...

  5. 50 CFR 660.219 - Fixed gear identification and marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed gear identification and marking... West Coast Groundfish-Limited Entry Fixed Gear Fisheries § 660.219 Fixed gear identification and marking. (a) Gear identification. (1) Limited entry fixed gear (longline, trap or pot) must be marked...

  6. 50 CFR 660.219 - Fixed gear identification and marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed gear identification and marking... West Coast Groundfish-Limited Entry Fixed Gear Fisheries § 660.219 Fixed gear identification and marking. (a) Gear identification. (1) Limited entry fixed gear (longline, trap or pot) must be marked...

  7. 50 CFR 660.219 - Fixed gear identification and marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed gear identification and marking. 660... Groundfish-Limited Entry Fixed Gear Fisheries § 660.219 Fixed gear identification and marking. (a) Gear identification. (1) Limited entry fixed gear (longline, trap or pot) must be marked at the surface and at...

  8. 49 CFR 230.92 - Draw gear and draft systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Draw gear and draft systems. 230.92 Section 230.92... Tenders Draw Gear and Draft Systems § 230.92 Draw gear and draft systems. Couplers, draft gear and... condition for service. Driving Gear...

  9. 49 CFR 230.92 - Draw gear and draft systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Draw gear and draft systems. 230.92 Section 230.92... Tenders Draw Gear and Draft Systems § 230.92 Draw gear and draft systems. Couplers, draft gear and... condition for service. Driving Gear...

  10. 49 CFR 230.92 - Draw gear and draft systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Draw gear and draft systems. 230.92 Section 230.92... Tenders Draw Gear and Draft Systems § 230.92 Draw gear and draft systems. Couplers, draft gear and... condition for service. Driving Gear...

  11. 29 CFR 1919.19 - Gear requiring welding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gear requiring welding. 1919.19 Section 1919.19 Labor... (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels' Cargo Gear § 1919.19 Gear requiring welding. Chains or other gear which have been lengthened, altered or repaired by welding shall be properly...

  12. 49 CFR 230.92 - Draw gear and draft systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Draw gear and draft systems. 230.92 Section 230.92... Tenders Draw Gear and Draft Systems § 230.92 Draw gear and draft systems. Couplers, draft gear and... condition for service. Driving Gear...

  13. 29 CFR 1919.19 - Gear requiring welding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gear requiring welding. 1919.19 Section 1919.19 Labor... (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels' Cargo Gear § 1919.19 Gear requiring welding. Chains or other gear which have been lengthened, altered or repaired by welding shall be properly...

  14. Swimming bacteria power microscopic gears

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolov, Andrey; Apodaca, Mario M.; Grzybowski, Bartosz A.; Aranson, Igor S.

    2010-01-19

    Whereas the laws of thermodynamics prohibit extraction of useful work from the Brownian motion of particles in equilibrium, these motions can be “rectified” under nonequilibrium conditions, for example, in the presence of asymmetric geometrical obstacles. Here, we describe a class of systems in which aerobic bacteria Bacillus subtilis moving randomly in a fluid film power submillimeter gears and primitive systems of gears decorated with asymmetric teeth. The directional rotation is observed only in the regime of collective bacterial swimming and the gears’ angular velocities depend on and can be controlled by the amount of oxygen available to the bacteria. The ability to harness and control the power of collective motions appears an important requirement for further development of mechanical systems driven by microorganisms.

  15. Swimming bacteria power microscopic gears

    PubMed Central

    Sokolov, Andrey; Apodaca, Mario M.; Grzybowski, Bartosz A.; Aranson, Igor S.

    2010-01-01

    Whereas the laws of thermodynamics prohibit extraction of useful work from the Brownian motion of particles in equilibrium, these motions can be “rectified” under nonequilibrium conditions, for example, in the presence of asymmetric geometrical obstacles. Here, we describe a class of systems in which aerobic bacteria Bacillus subtilis moving randomly in a fluid film power submillimeter gears and primitive systems of gears decorated with asymmetric teeth. The directional rotation is observed only in the regime of collective bacterial swimming and the gears’ angular velocities depend on and can be controlled by the amount of oxygen available to the bacteria. The ability to harness and control the power of collective motions appears an important requirement for further development of mechanical systems driven by microorganisms. PMID:20080560

  16. Zero torque gear head wrench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdougal, A. R.; Norman, R. M. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A gear head wrench particularly suited for use in applying torque to bolts without transferring torsional stress to bolt-receiving structures is introduced. The wrench is characterized by a coupling including a socket, for connecting a bolt head with a torque multiplying gear train, provided within a housing having an annulus concentrically related to the socket and adapted to be coupled with a spacer interposed between the bolt head and the juxtaposed surface of the bolt-receiving structure for applying a balancing counter-torque to the spacer as torque is applied to the bolt head whereby the bolt-receiving structure is substantially isolated from torsional stress. As a result of the foregoing, the operator of the wrench is substantially isolated from any forces which may be imposed.

  17. Phenology of larval fish in the St. Louis River estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little work has been done on the phenology of fish larvae in Great Lakes coastal wetlands. As part of an aquatic invasive species early detection study, we conducted larval fish surveys in the St. Louis River estuary (SLRE) in 2012 and 2013. Using multiple gears in a spatially ba...

  18. 15. CYLINDRICAL FISH SCALER Remnants of the wire screen remain, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. CYLINDRICAL FISH SCALER Remnants of the wire screen remain, through which the fish tumbled as the cylinder revolved. Note geared ring around cylinder, and the small drive shaft by which it was driven. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  19. Bacteria turn a tiny gear

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Thousands of tiny Bacillus subtillis bacteria turn a single gear, just 380 microns across. (A human hair is about 100 microns across.) The method could be used to create micro-machines. Argonne National Laboratory scientist Igor Aronson pioneered this technique. Read more at the New York Times: http://ow.ly/ODfI or at Argonne: http://ow.ly/ODfa Video courtesy Igor Aronson.

  20. Associations of deceased donor kidney injury with kidney discard and function after transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hall, I E; Schröppel, B; Doshi, M D; Ficek, J; Weng, F L; Hasz, R D; Thiessen-Philbrook, H; Reese, P P; Parikh, C R

    2015-06-01

    Deceased donor kidneys with acute kidney injury (AKI) are often discarded due to fear of poor outcomes. We performed a multicenter study to determine associations of AKI (increasing admission-to-terminal serum creatinine by AKI Network stages) with kidney discard, delayed graft function (DGF) and 6-month estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). In 1632 donors, kidney discard risk increased for AKI stages 1, 2 and 3 (compared to no AKI) with adjusted relative risks of 1.28 (1.08-1.52), 1.82 (1.45-2.30) and 2.74 (2.0-3.75), respectively. Adjusted relative risk for DGF also increased by donor AKI stage: 1.27 (1.09-1.49), 1.70 (1.37-2.12) and 2.25 (1.74-2.91), respectively. Six-month eGFR, however, was similar across AKI categories but was lower for recipients with DGF (48 [interquartile range: 31-61] vs. 58 [45-75] ml/min/1.73m(2) for no DGF, p < 0.001). There was significant favorable interaction between donor AKI and DGF such that 6-month eGFR was progressively better for DGF kidneys with increasing donor AKI (46 [29-60], 49 [32-64], 52 [36-59] and 58 [39-71] ml/min/1.73m(2) for no AKI, stage 1, 2 and 3, respectively; interaction p = 0.05). Donor AKI is associated with kidney discard and DGF, but given acceptable 6-month allograft function, clinicians should consider cautious expansion into this donor pool.

  1. High-torque quiet gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, Paul E.

    1995-07-01

    A high-torque quiet gear construction consists of an inner hub having a plurality of circumferentially spaced arms extending radially outwardly therefrom, and an outer ring member having a plurality of circumferentially spaced-teeth extending radially inwardly therefrom. The ring member further includes a plurality of gear formations on an outer surface thereof for intermeshing with other gears. The teeth of the ring member are received in spaced relation in corresponding spaces formed between adjacent arms of the hub. An elastomeric member is received in the space formed between the hub and the ring member to form a resilient correction between the arms of the hub and the teeth of the ring member. The side surfaces of the arms and the teeth extend generally parallel to each other and at least partially overlap in a longitudinal direction. The purpose of this configuration is to place the elastomeric member in compression when torque is applied to the hub. Since elastomeric material is relatively incompressible, the result is low shear loads on the adhesive bonds which hold the elastomeric member to both the hub and outer ring member.

  2. Automatic transmission's Ravigneaux type planetary gear train having two ring gears

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraiwa, K.

    1989-02-07

    A planetary gear system is described comprising: a stationary member; input means for receiving a driving torque; an output shaft; a compound planetary gear train; a clutch group including a first clutch disposed between the input means and the first sun gear for connection and disconnection therebetween, a second clutch disposed between the input means and the second sun gear for connection and disconnection therebetween, and a third clutch disposed between the input means and the pinion carrier for connection and disconnection therebetween; and a holding device group including a first holding device disposed between the first sun gear and the stationary member for holding the first sun gear, a second holding device disposed between the pinion carrier and the stationary member for holding the pinion carrier, and a third holding device disposed between the second ring gear and the stationary member for holding the second ring gear.

  3. Effects of gear box vibration and mass imbalance on the dynamics of multistage gear transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choy, F. K.; Tu, Y. K.; Zakrajsek, J. J.; Townsend, D. P.

    1991-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of multistage gear transmission system, with the effects of gear-box-induced vibrations and rotor mass-imbalances is analyzed. The model method, using undamped frequencies and planar mode shapes, is used to reduce the degree-of-freedom of the system. The various rotor-bearing stages as well as lateral and torsional vibrations of each individual stage are coupled through localized gear-mesh-tooth interactions. Gear-box vibrations are coupled to the gear stage dynamics through bearing support forces. Transient and steady state dynamics of lateral and torsional vibrations of the geared system are examined in both time and frequency domain. A typical three-staged geared system is used as an example. Effects of mass-imbalance and gear box vibrations on the system dynamic behavior are presented in terms of modal excitation functions for both lateral and torsional vibrations. Operational characteristics and conclusions are drawn from the results presented.

  4. Human fallopian tube: a new source of multipotent adult mesenchymal stem cells discarded in surgical procedures

    PubMed Central

    Jazedje, Tatiana; Perin, Paulo M; Czeresnia, Carlos E; Maluf, Mariangela; Halpern, Silvio; Secco, Mariane; Bueno, Daniela F; Vieira, Natassia M; Zucconi, Eder; Zatz, Mayana

    2009-01-01

    Background The possibility of using stem cells for regenerative medicine has opened a new field of investigation. The search for sources to obtain multipotent stem cells from discarded tissues or through non-invasive procedures is of great interest. It has been shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) obtained from umbilical cords, dental pulp and adipose tissue, which are all biological discards, are able to differentiate into muscle, fat, bone and cartilage cell lineages. The aim of this study was to isolate, expand, characterize and assess the differentiation potential of MSCs from human fallopian tubes (hFTs). Methods Lineages of hFTs were expanded, had their karyotype analyzed, were characterized by flow cytometry and underwent in vitro adipogenic, chondrogenic, osteogenic, and myogenic differentiation. Results Here we show for the first time that hFTs, which are discarded after some gynecological procedures, are a rich additional source of MSCs, which we designated as human tube MSCs (htMSCs). Conclusion Human tube MSCs can be easily isolated, expanded in vitro, present a mesenchymal profile and are able to differentiate into muscle, fat, cartilage and bone in vitro. PMID:19538712

  5. Materials Discarded in the U.S. Municipal Waste Stream, 1960 to 2009 (in tons)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has collected and reported data on the generation and disposal of waste in the United States for more than 30 years. We use this information to measure the success of waste reduction and recycling programs across the country. Our trash, or municipal solid waste (MSW), is made up of the things we commonly use and then throw away. These materials include items such as packaging, food scraps, grass clippings, sofas, computers, tires, and refrigerators. MSW does not include industrial, hazardous, or construction waste. The data on Materials Discarded in the Municipal Waste Stream, 1960 to 2009, provides estimated data in thousands of tons discarded after recycling and compost recovery for the years 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2007, 2008, and 2009. In this data set, discards include combustion with energy recovery. This data table does not include construction & demolition debris, industrial process wastes, or certain other wastes. The Other category includes electrolytes in batteries and fluff pulp, feces, and urine in disposable diapers. Details may not add to totals due to rounding.

  6. Recovery and separation of high-value plastics from discarded household appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Karvelas, D.E.; Jody, B.J.; Poykala, J.A. Jr.; Daniels, E.J.; Arman, B. |

    1996-03-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is conducting research to develop a cost- effective and environmentally acceptable process for the separation of high-value plastics from discarded household appliances. The process under development has separated individual high purity (greater than 99.5%) acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and high- impact polystyrene (HIPS) from commingled plastics generated by appliance-shredding and metal-recovery operations. The process consists of size-reduction steps for the commingled plastics, followed by a series of gravity-separation techniques to separate plastic materials of different densities. Individual plastics of similar densities, such as ABS and HIPS, are further separated by using a chemical solution. By controlling the surface tension, the density, and the temperature of the chemical solution we are able to selectively float/separate plastics that have different surface energies. This separation technique has proven to be highly effective in recovering high-purity plastics materials from discarded household appliances. A conceptual design of a continuous process to recover high-value plastics from discarded appliances is also discussed. In addition to plastics separation research, Argonne National Laboratory is conducting research to develop cost-effective techniques for improving the mechanical properties of plastics recovered from appliances.

  7. Discarded human kidneys as a source of ECM scaffold for kidney regeneration technologies.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Giuseppe; Booth, Christopher; Wang, Zhan; Totonelli, Giorgia; Ross, Christina L; Moran, Emma; Salvatori, Marcus; Maghsoudlou, Panagiotis; Turmaine, Mark; Delario, Ginger; Al-Shraideh, Yousef; Farooq, Umar; Farney, Alan C; Rogers, Jeffrey; Iskandar, Samy S; Burns, Alan; Marini, Frank C; De Coppi, Paolo; Stratta, Robert J; Soker, Shay

    2013-08-01

    In the United States, more than 2600 kidneys are discarded annually, from the total number of kidneys procured for transplant. We hypothesized that this organ pool may be used as a platform for renal bioengineering and regeneration research. We previously showed that decellularization of porcine kidneys yields renal extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds that maintain their basic components, support cell growth and welfare in vitro and in vivo, and show an intact vasculature that, when such scaffolds are implanted in vivo, is able to sustain physiological blood pressure. The purpose of the current study was to test if the same strategy can be applied to discarded human kidneys in order to obtain human renal ECM scaffolds. The results show that the sodium dodecylsulfate-based decellularization protocol completely cleared the cellular compartment in these kidneys, while the innate ECM framework retained its architecture and biochemical properties. Samples of human renal ECM scaffolds stimulated angiogenesis in a chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. Importantly, the innate vascular network in the human renal ECM scaffolds retained its compliance. Collectively, these results indicate that discarded human kidneys are a suitable source of renal scaffolds and their use for tissue engineering applications may be more clinically applicable than kidneys derived from animals.

  8. Damage sustained by epibenthic invertebrates discarded in the Nephrops fishery of the Clyde Sea area, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, M.; Beare, D. J.; Moore, P. G.

    2001-05-01

    The Clyde Sea Nephrops fishery produces ca. 25 000 t y -1 discards with invertebrates accounting for up to 90% of the number of animals discarded. Trawling and handling of the (by-)catch often results in physical injury, the extent of which was previously unknown. Damage sustained by invertebrate discards was assessed following commercial trawling (of 62-270 min duration) and sorting on deck. Brittlestars Ophiura ophiura were most vulnerable with 100% incurring damage, followed by squat lobsters Munida rugosa (57%) and starfish Astropecten irregularis (56%). Harder-shelled species such as hermit crabs Pagurus bernhardus and queen scallops Aequipecten opercularis sustained fewer injuries (14 and 2%, respectively). Shell chipping, loss and damage of limbs were the most frequent types of injury incurred. The severity and frequency of damage was mainly correlated with species-specific morphological and behavioural characteristics. Vessel type, tow duration and animal size had a major influence on damage to the epibenthic invertebrates caught. While damage may potentially be repaired, survival is adversely affected and sublethal effects might significantly impair fitness of frequently trawled individuals and populations.

  9. Commercially laid eggs vs. discarded hatching eggs: contamination by Salmonella spp.

    PubMed

    Kottwitz, Luciana B M; Leão, Joice Aparecida; Back, Alberto; Rodrigues, Dalia dos P; Magnani, Marciane; de Oliveira, Tereza C R M

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is frequently associated with outbreaks of human salmonellosis, and products of avian origin, such as eggs and chicken meat, are the main vehicles of its transmission. The present study describes the occurrence of different serovars of Salmonella enterica and phagotypes of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis in eggs destined for human consumption. Four thousand eggs obtained from commercial egg laying farms and one thousand discarded hatching eggs from broiler farms, which were acquired at farmers' markets and informal shops, were analyzed. Salmonella spp. was isolated from 52.0% of the discarded hatching eggs, in which the predominant serovar was Enteritidis (84.6%), and the predominant Salmonella Enteritidis phagotype (PT) was PT7 (26.9%). Salmonella spp. was not isolated from eggs obtained from commercial egg laying farms. The antimicrobial resistance profile showed that 23.1% (n = 6) of the SE strains were resistant to nalidixic acid. The results suggest that the consumption of discarded hatching eggs represents an important source of Salmonella transmission to humans.

  10. Commercially laid eggs vs. discarded hatching eggs: contamination by Salmonella spp

    PubMed Central

    Kottwitz, Luciana B.M.; Leão, Joice Aparecida; Back, Alberto; Rodrigues, Dalia dos P.; Magnani, Marciane; de Oliveira, Tereza C.R.M.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is frequently associated with outbreaks of human salmonellosis, and products of avian origin, such as eggs and chicken meat, are the main vehicles of its transmission. The present study describes the occurrence of different serovars of Salmonella enterica and phagotypes of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis in eggs destined for human consumption. Four thousand eggs obtained from commercial egg laying farms and one thousand discarded hatching eggs from broiler farms, which were acquired at farmers’ markets and informal shops, were analyzed. Salmonella spp. was isolated from 52.0% of the discarded hatching eggs, in which the predominant serovar was Enteritidis (84.6%), and the predominant Salmonella Enteritidis phagotype (PT) was PT7 (26.9%). Salmonella spp. was not isolated from eggs obtained from commercial egg laying farms. The antimicrobial resistance profile showed that 23.1% (n = 6) of the SE strains were resistant to nalidixic acid. The results suggest that the consumption of discarded hatching eggs represents an important source of Salmonella transmission to humans. PMID:24294223

  11. Lubrication and cooling for high speed gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.

    1985-01-01

    The problems and failures occurring with the operation of high speed gears are discussed. The gearing losses associated with high speed gearing such as tooth mesh friction, bearing friction, churning, and windage are discussed with various ways shown to help reduce these losses and thereby improve efficiency. Several different methods of oil jet lubrication for high speed gearing are given such as into mesh, out of mesh, and radial jet lubrication. The experiments and analytical results for the various methods of oil jet lubrication are shown with the strengths and weaknesses of each method discussed. The analytical and experimental results of gear lubrication and cooling at various test conditions are presented. These results show the very definite need of improved methods of gear cooling at high speed and high load conditions.

  12. Topological and parametric optimization of gear trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swantner, Albert; Campbell, Matthew I.

    2012-11-01

    A method for automating the design of gear trains comprised of simple, compound, bevel and worm is described. The search process combines topological changes, discrete variable choices and continuous variable optimization. By combing best-first search, implicit enumeration, automated optimization invocation and gradient-based optimization, a near guarantee of the optimal solution can be made. While the combination of methods is specific to gear trains, there are aspects of the work that make it amenable to other engineering design problems. In addition, the topological and discrete modifications to the candidate solutions are specific to gear trains, but the graph grammar methodology that is adopted has been tailored to other problems. This article presents details on the rules that generate feasible gear trains, the evaluation routines used in determining the objective functions and constraints, and the interaction among the three search methods. Resulting gear trains are presented for a variety of gear problems.

  13. Converting Alaska fish byproducts into compost: a review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alaska's commercial fishing industry, sportfishing and susbsistence fisheries generate over one million metric tons of processing waste each year. Composting is a practical alternative for salvaging some of these discarded materials. Rural and remote coastal communities can benefit from these source...

  14. Noncircular Gears: Geometry and Visualization MODEL Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES david.stringer@us.army.mil 14. ABSTRACT Circular gears are optimized to provide constant torque and speed ratio with low...noise. In conventional automotive applications, a transmission provides the required power, torque , and speed settings using a finite arrangement of...a noncircular gear pair of desired velocity and torque ratio distribution. Finally, to graphically depict the noncircular effects on gear motion

  15. 50 CFR 679.24 - Gear limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gear limitations. 679.24 Section 679.24... § 679.24 Gear limitations. Regulations pertaining to vessel and gear markings are set forth in this... § 300.62 of chapter III of this title. (a) Marking of hook-and-line, longline pot, and pot-and-line...

  16. 50 CFR 679.24 - Gear limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gear limitations. 679.24 Section 679.24... § 679.24 Gear limitations. Regulations pertaining to vessel and gear markings are set forth in this... § 300.62 of chapter III of this title. (a) Marking of hook-and-line, longline pot, and pot-and-line...

  17. Tool Gear: Infrastructure for Parallel Tools

    SciTech Connect

    May, J; Gyllenhaal, J

    2003-04-17

    Tool Gear is a software infrastructure for developing performance analysis and other tools. Unlike existing integrated toolkits, which focus on providing a suite of capabilities, Tool Gear is designed to help tool developers create new tools quickly. It combines dynamic instrumentation capabilities with an efficient database and a sophisticated and extensible graphical user interface. This paper describes the design of Tool Gear and presents examples of tools that have been built with it.

  18. 50 CFR 679.24 - Gear limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear limitations. 679.24 Section 679.24... § 679.24 Gear limitations. Regulations pertaining to vessel and gear markings are set forth in this... § 300.62 of chapter III of this title. (a) Marking of hook-and-line, longline pot, and pot-and-line...

  19. 50 CFR 679.24 - Gear limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gear limitations. 679.24 Section 679.24... § 679.24 Gear limitations. Regulations pertaining to vessel and gear markings are set forth in this... § 300.62 of chapter III of this title. (a) Marking of hook-and-line, longline pot, and pot-and-line...

  20. 50 CFR 679.24 - Gear limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gear limitations. 679.24 Section 679.24... § 679.24 Gear limitations. Regulations pertaining to vessel and gear markings are set forth in this... § 300.62 of chapter III of this title. (a) Marking of hook-and-line, longline pot, and pot-and-line...

  1. Dynamic loading on parallel shaft gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, H. H. (edward); Huston, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    A computer-based analysis of the dynamic effects of spur gear systems is presented. The method of analysis with its associated computer code is capable of determining the dynamic response of spur gear systems having involute tooth profiles and standard contact ratios. Various parameters affecting the system dynamic behavior are examined. Numerical results of the analysis are compared with semi-empirical formulae, AGMA (American Gear Manufacturers Association) formulae, and experimental data. A close correlation with the experimental data is obtained.

  2. Effects of human population density and proximity to markets on coral reef fishes vulnerable to extinction by fishing.

    PubMed

    Brewer, T D; Cinner, J E; Green, A; Pressey, R L

    2013-06-01

    Coral reef fisheries are crucial to the livelihoods of tens of millions of people; yet, widespread habitat degradation and unsustainable fishing are causing severe depletion of stocks of reef fish. Understanding how social and economic factors, such as human population density, access to external markets, and modernization interact with fishing and habitat degradation to affect fish stocks is vital to sustainable management of coral reef fisheries. We used fish survey data, national social and economic data, and path analyses to assess whether these factors explain variation in biomass of coral reef fishes among 25 sites in Solomon Islands. We categorized fishes into 3 groups on the basis of life-history characteristics associated with vulnerability to extinction by fishing (high, medium, and low vulnerability). The biomass of fish with low vulnerability was positively related to habitat condition. The biomass of fishes with high vulnerability was negatively related to fishing conducted with efficient gear. Use of efficient gear, in turn, was strongly and positively related to both population density and market proximity. This result suggests local population pressure and external markets have additive negative effects on vulnerable reef fish. Biomass of the fish of medium vulnerability was not explained by fishing intensity or habitat condition, which suggests these species may be relatively resilient to both habitat degradation and fishing.

  3. Optimum weight design of functionally graded material gears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Shikai; Zhang, He; Zhou, Jingtao; Song, Guohua

    2015-11-01

    Traditional gear weight optimization methods consider gear tooth number, module, face width or other dimension parameters of gear as design variables. However, due to the complicated form and geometric features peculiar to the gear, there will be large amounts of design parameters in gear design, and the influences of gear parameters changing on gear trains, transmission system and the whole equipment have to be taken into account, which increases the complexity of optimization problem. This paper puts forward to apply functionally graded materials (FGMs) to gears and then conduct the optimization. According to the force situation of gears, the material distribution form of FGM gears is determined. Then based on the performance parameters analysis of FGMs and the practical working demands for gears, a multi-objective optimization model is formed. Finally by using the goal driven optimization (GDO) method, the optimal material distribution is achieved, which makes gear weight and the maximum deformation be minimum and the maximum bending stress do not exceed the allowable stress. As an example, the applying of FGM to automotive transmission gear is conducted to illustrate the optimization design process and the result shows that under the condition of keeping the normal working performance of gear, the method achieves in greatly reducing the gear weight. This research proposes a FGM gears design method that is able to largely reduce the weight of gears by optimizing the microscopic material parameters instead of changing the macroscopic dimension parameters of gears, which reduces the complexity of gear weight optimization problem.

  4. Fishery gear interactions from stranded bottlenose dolphins, Florida manatees and sea turtles in Florida, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Adimey, Nicole M; Hudak, Christine A; Powell, Jessica R; Bassos-Hull, Kim; Foley, Allen; Farmer, Nicholas A; White, Linda; Minch, Karrie

    2014-04-15

    Documenting the extent of fishery gear interactions is critical to wildlife conservation efforts, especially for reducing entanglements and ingestion. This study summarizes fishery gear interactions involving common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus truncatus), Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) and sea turtles: loggerhead (Caretta caretta), green turtle (Chelonia mydas), leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea), hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii), and olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) stranding in Florida waters during 1997-2009. Fishery gear interactions for all species combined were 75.3% hook and line, 18.2% trap pot gear, 4.8% fishing nets, and 1.7% in multiple gears. Total reported fishery gear cases increased over time for dolphins (p<0.05), manatees (p<0.01), loggerheads (p<0.05) and green sea turtles (p<0.05). The proportion of net interaction strandings relative to total strandings for loggerhead sea turtles increased (p<0.05). Additionally, life stage and sex patterns were examined, fishery gear interaction hotspots were identified and generalized linear regression modeling was conducted.

  5. Load Sharing Behavior of Star Gearing Reducer for Geared Turbofan Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Shuai; Zhang, Yidu; Wu, Qiong; Wang, Feiming; Matsumura, Shigeki; Houjoh, Haruo

    2017-03-01

    Load sharing behavior is very important for power-split gearing system, star gearing reducer as a new type and special transmission system can be used in many industry fields. However, there is few literature regarding the key multiple-split load sharing issue in main gearbox used in new type geared turbofan engine. Further mechanism analysis are made on load sharing behavior among star gears of star gearing reducer for geared turbofan engine. Comprehensive meshing error analysis are conducted on eccentricity error, gear thickness error, base pitch error, assembly error, and bearing error of star gearing reducer respectively. Floating meshing error resulting from meshing clearance variation caused by the simultaneous floating of sun gear and annular gear are taken into account. A refined mathematical model for load sharing coefficient calculation is established in consideration of different meshing stiffness and supporting stiffness for components. The regular curves of load sharing coefficient under the influence of interactions, single action and single variation of various component errors are obtained. The accurate sensitivity of load sharing coefficient toward different errors is mastered. The load sharing coefficient of star gearing reducer is 1.033 and the maximum meshing force in gear tooth is about 3010 N. This paper provides scientific theory evidences for optimal parameter design and proper tolerance distribution in advanced development and manufacturing process, so as to achieve optimal effects in economy and technology.

  6. Effects of gear crack propagation paths on vibration responses of the perforated gear system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hui; Pang, Xu; Zeng, Jin; Wang, Qibin; Wen, Bangchun

    2015-10-01

    This paper investigates the dynamic behaviors of a perforated gear system considering effects of the gear crack propagation paths and this study focuses on the effects of a crack propagating through the rim on the time-varying mesh stiffness (TVMS) and vibration responses. Considering the effects of the extended tooth contact, a finite element (FE) model of a gear pair is established based on ANSYS software. TVMS of the perforated gear with crack propagating through tooth and rim are calculated by using the FE model. Furthermore, a lumped mass model is adopted to investigate the vibration responses of the perforated gear system. The results show that there exist three periods related to slots of the gear body in a rotating period of the perforated gear. Gear cracks propagating through tooth and rim both reduce the gear body stiffness and lead to reduction of TVMS besides the crack tooth contact moment, and the TVMS weakening for the former is less than that for the latter. Moreover, the results also show that the gear crack propagating through the rim (CPR) has a greater effect on vibration responses than the gear crack propagating through the tooth (CPT) under the same crack level. Vibration level increases with the increasing crack depth, especially for the gear with CPR.

  7. Design of spur gears for improved efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, N. E.; Loewenthal, S. H.

    1981-01-01

    A method to calculate spur gear system power loss for a wide range of gear geometries and operating conditions is used to determine design requirements for an efficient gearset. The effects of spur gear size, pitch, ratio, pitch-line-velocity and load on efficiency are shown. A design example is given to illustrate how the method is to be applied. In general, peak efficiencies were found to be greater for larger diameter and fine pitched gears and tare (no-load) losses were found to be significant.

  8. Evaluation of Carburized and Ground Face Gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Heath, Gregory F.; Sheth, Vijay

    1999-01-01

    Experimental durability tests were performed on carburized and ground AIS19310 steel face gears. The tests were in support of a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Technology Reinvestment Program (TRP) to enhance face-gear technology. The tests were conducted in the NASA Glenn spiral-bevel-gear/face-gear test facility. Tests were run at 2300 rpm face gear speed and at loads of 64, 76, 88, 100, and 112-percent of the design torque of 377 N-m (3340 in-lb). The carburized and ground face gears demonstrated the required durability when run for ten-million cycles at each of the applied loads. Proper installation was critical for the successful operation of the spur pinions and face gears. A large amount of backlash produced tooth contact patterns that approached the inner-diameter edge of the face-gear tooth. Low backlash produced tooth contact patterns that approached the outer-diameter edge of the face-gear tooth. Measured backlashes in the range of 0.178 to 0.254 mm (0.007 to 0.010 in) produced acceptable tooth contact patterns.

  9. New Gear Transmission Error Measurement System Designed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.

    2001-01-01

    The prime source of vibration and noise in a gear system is the transmission error between the meshing gears. Transmission error is caused by manufacturing inaccuracy, mounting errors, and elastic deflections under load. Gear designers often attempt to compensate for transmission error by modifying gear teeth. This is done traditionally by a rough "rule of thumb" or more recently under the guidance of an analytical code. In order for a designer to have confidence in a code, the code must be validated through experiment. NASA Glenn Research Center contracted with the Design Unit of the University of Newcastle in England for a system to measure the transmission error of spur and helical test gears in the NASA Gear Noise Rig. The new system measures transmission error optically by means of light beams directed by lenses and prisms through gratings mounted on the gear shafts. The amount of light that passes through both gratings is directly proportional to the transmission error of the gears. A photodetector circuit converts the light to an analog electrical signal. To increase accuracy and reduce "noise" due to transverse vibration, there are parallel light paths at the top and bottom of the gears. The two signals are subtracted via differential amplifiers in the electronics package. The output of the system is 40 mV/mm, giving a resolution in the time domain of better than 0.1 mm, and discrimination in the frequency domain of better than 0.01 mm. The new system will be used to validate gear analytical codes and to investigate mechanisms that produce vibration and noise in parallel axis gears.

  10. Impact of discard mortality in Crangon fisheries on year-class strength of North Sea flatfish species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berghahn, R.; Purps, M.

    1998-09-01

    In the long-term by-catch sampling programme of the Federal Research Centre for Fisheries (Germany), four flatfish species occurred regularly and in large numbers in the catches depending on fishing ground and season: Pleuronectes platessa, Limanda limanda, Platichthys flesus, and Solea solea. Another five flatfish species were netted occasionally and in much lower numbers: Scophthalmus maximus, Scophthalmus rhombus, Buglossidium luteum, Microstomus kitt, and Glyptocephalus cynoglossus. Mortality estimates per year class for the Schleswig-Holstein part of the German North Sea coast regarding the impact of selective trawls and by-catch mortality were in the same order of magnitude as the ones based on a differently designed by-catch sampling programme (1982 and 1988-1992). The worst-case mortality estimate for 0-group plaice (e.g. lowest rate given for natural mortality, highest rate determined for by-catch mortality, no re-catch) based on Virtual Population Analysis (VPA) data for the I-group was in the order of 3 to 11% of the year class. For 0-group sole, the corresponding figures ranged from 1 to 8%. The shrimp fleet in Schleswig-Holstein represents 50% of the entire German shrimp fleet. However, catches in Schleswig-Holstein are generally higher than in Lower Saxony for biological reasons and due to differences in fleet structure. If the results for 0-group plaice obtained in Schleswig-Holstein were extrapolated to the total German shrimp fleet, the range would be 6 to 18%. In other words, even a complete stoppage of the German shrimp fishery is unlikely to have a detectable beneficial effect on the stock. However, the discard mortality caused by the combined German, Dutch and Danish shrimp fisheries, as well as by the sole and plaice fisheries, can be considered to have a significant effect.

  11. Detecting gear tooth fracture in a high contact ratio face gear mesh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrajsek, James J.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.; Decker, Harry J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarized the results of a study in which three different vibration diagnostic methods were used to detect gear tooth fracture in a high contact ratio face gear mesh. The NASA spiral bevel gear fatigue test rig was used to produce unseeded fault, natural failures of four face gear specimens. During the fatigue tests, which were run to determine load capacity and primary failure mechanisms for face gears, vibration signals were monitored and recorded for gear diagnostic purposes. Gear tooth bending fatigue and surface pitting were the primary failure modes found in the tests. The damage ranged from partial tooth fracture on a single tooth in one test to heavy wear, severe pitting, and complete tooth fracture of several teeth on another test. Three gear fault detection techniques, FM4, NA4*, and NB4, were applied to the experimental data. These methods use the signal average in both the time and frequency domain. Method NA4* was able to conclusively detect the gear tooth fractures in three out of the four fatigue tests, along with gear tooth surface pitting and heavy wear. For multiple tooth fractures, all of the methods gave a clear indication of the damage. It was also found that due to the high contact ratio of the face gear mesh, single tooth fractures did not significantly affect the vibration signal, making this type of failure difficult to detect.

  12. The Influence of Fisher Knowledge on the Susceptibility of Reef Fish Aggregations to Fishing

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jan; Cinner, Joshua E.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Reef fishes that exhibit predictable aggregating behaviour are often considered vulnerable to overexploitation. However, fisher knowledge of this behaviour is often heterogeneous and, coupled with socioeconomic factors that constrain demand for or access to aggregated fish, will influence susceptibility to fishing. At two case study locations in Papua New Guinea, Ahus and Karkar islands, we conducted interview-based surveys to examine how local context influenced heterogeneity in knowledge of fish aggregations. We then explored the role of fisher knowledge in conferring susceptibility to fishing relative to socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort. Local heterogeneity in knowledge of aggregating behaviour differed between our case studies. At Ahus, variable access rights among fishers and genders to the main habitats were sources of heterogeneity in knowledge. By contrast, knowledge was more homogenous at Karkar and the sole source of variation was gear type. Differences between locations in the susceptibility of aggregations to fishing depended primarily on socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort rather than catchability. While Ahus fishers were knowledgeable of fish aggregations and used more selective gears, Karkar fishers were less constrained by tenure in their access to aggregation habitat. However, fishing effort was greater at Ahus and likely related to high dependency on fishing, greater access to provincial capital markets than Karkar and a weakening of customary management. Moreover, highly efficient fishing techniques have emerged at Ahus to exploit the non-reproductive aggregating behaviour of target species. Understanding how knowledge is structured within fishing communities and its relation to socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort is important if customary practices for conservation, such as tambu areas, are to be supported. The findings of this study call for a holistic approach to assessing the risks posed to reef fish aggregations by fishing

  13. The influence of fisher knowledge on the susceptibility of reef fish aggregations to fishing.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jan; Cinner, Joshua E; Graham, Nicholas A J

    2014-01-01

    Reef fishes that exhibit predictable aggregating behaviour are often considered vulnerable to overexploitation. However, fisher knowledge of this behaviour is often heterogeneous and, coupled with socioeconomic factors that constrain demand for or access to aggregated fish, will influence susceptibility to fishing. At two case study locations in Papua New Guinea, Ahus and Karkar islands, we conducted interview-based surveys to examine how local context influenced heterogeneity in knowledge of fish aggregations. We then explored the role of fisher knowledge in conferring susceptibility to fishing relative to socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort. Local heterogeneity in knowledge of aggregating behaviour differed between our case studies. At Ahus, variable access rights among fishers and genders to the main habitats were sources of heterogeneity in knowledge. By contrast, knowledge was more homogenous at Karkar and the sole source of variation was gear type. Differences between locations in the susceptibility of aggregations to fishing depended primarily on socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort rather than catchability. While Ahus fishers were knowledgeable of fish aggregations and used more selective gears, Karkar fishers were less constrained by tenure in their access to aggregation habitat. However, fishing effort was greater at Ahus and likely related to high dependency on fishing, greater access to provincial capital markets than Karkar and a weakening of customary management. Moreover, highly efficient fishing techniques have emerged at Ahus to exploit the non-reproductive aggregating behaviour of target species. Understanding how knowledge is structured within fishing communities and its relation to socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort is important if customary practices for conservation, such as tambu areas, are to be supported. The findings of this study call for a holistic approach to assessing the risks posed to reef fish aggregations by fishing

  14. The transfer function method for gear system dynamics applied to conventional and minimum excitation gearing designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mark, W. D.

    1982-01-01

    A transfer function method for predicting the dynamic responses of gear systems with more than one gear mesh is developed and applied to the NASA Lewis four-square gear fatigue test apparatus. Methods for computing bearing-support force spectra and temporal histories of the total force transmitted by a gear mesh, the force transmitted by a single pair of teeth, and the maximum root stress in a single tooth are developed. Dynamic effects arising from other gear meshes in the system are included. A profile modification design method to minimize the vibration excitation arising from a pair of meshing gears is reviewed and extended. Families of tooth loading functions required for such designs are developed and examined for potential excitation of individual tooth vibrations. The profile modification design method is applied to a pair of test gears.

  15. Optimal sinusoidal modelling of gear mesh vibration signals for gear diagnosis and prognosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, Zhihong; Wang, Wenyi; Khoo, Suiyang; Yin, Juliang

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, the synchronous signal average of gear mesh vibration signals is modelled with the multiple modulated sinusoidal representations. The signal model parameters are optimised against the measured signal averages by using the batch learning of the least squares technique. With the optimal signal model, all components of a gear mesh vibration signal, including the amplitude modulations, the phase modulations and the impulse vibration component induced by gear tooth cracking, are identified and analysed with insight of the gear tooth crack development and propagation. In particular, the energy distribution of the impulse vibration signal, extracted from the optimal signal model, provides sufficient information for monitoring and diagnosing the evolution of the tooth cracking process, leading to the prognosis of gear tooth cracking. The new methodologies for gear mesh signal modelling and the diagnosis of the gear tooth fault development and propagation are validated with a set of rig test data, which has shown excellent performance.

  16. Observations of potential acoustic cues that attract sperm whales to longline fishing in the Gulf of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Thode, Aaron; Straley, Janice; Tiemann, Christopher O; Folkert, Kendall; O'Connell, Victoria

    2007-08-01

    Sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) have learned to remove fish from demersal longline gear deployments off the eastern Gulf of Alaska, and are often observed to arrive at a site after a haul begins, suggesting a response to potential acoustic cues like fishing-gear strum, hydraulic winch tones, and propeller cavitation. Passive acoustic recorders attached to anchorlines have permitted continuous monitoring of the ambient noise environment before and during fishing hauls. Timing and tracking analyses of sperm whale acoustic activity during three encounters indicate that cavitation arising from changes in ship propeller speeds is associated with interruptions in nearby sperm whale dive cycles and changes in acoustically derived positions. This conclusion has been tested by cycling a vessel engine and noting the arrival of whales by the vessel, even when the vessel is not next to fishing gear. No evidence of response from activation of ship hydraulics or fishing gear strum has been found to date.

  17. Helical Gears Modified To Decrease Transmission Errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, R. F.; Coy, J. J.; Litvin, F. L.; Zhang, J.

    1993-01-01

    Tooth surfaces of helical gears modified, according to proposed design concept, to make gears more tolerant of misalignments and to improve distribution of contact stresses. Results in smaller transmission errors, with concomitant decreases in vibrations and noise and, possibly, increases in service lives.

  18. 50 CFR 648.144 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... restrictions—(1) General. (i) Otter trawlers whose owners are issued a black sea bass moratorium permit and... Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.144 Gear restrictions. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 60637, Sept. 29, 2011. (a) Trawl gear restrictions—(1) General. (i) Otter trawlers whose owners are issued a...

  19. Gear Lubrication and Cooling Experiment and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Akin, L. S.

    1983-01-01

    A gear tooth temperature analysis was performed using a finite element method combined with a calculated heat input, a calculated oil jet impingement depth, and estimated heat transfer coefficients for the different parts of the gear tooth that are oil cooled and air cooled. Experimental measurements of gear tooth average surface temperature and gear tooth instantaneous surface temperature were made with a fast response, infrared, radiometric microscope. Increasing oil pressure has a significant effect on both average surface temperature and peak surface temperature at loads above 1895 N/cm(1083 lb/in) and speeds of 10,000 and 7500 rpm. Both increasing speed (from 5000 to 10,000 rpm) at constant speed cause a significant rise in the average surface temperature and in the instantaneous peak surface temperatures on the gear teeth. The oil jet pressure required to provide the best cooling for gears is the pressure required to obtain full gear tooth impingement. Calculated results for gear tooth temperatures were close to experimental results for various oil jet impingement depths for identical operating conditions.

  20. Computer aided design of spur gear teeth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, R. L.; Mavriplis, D.; Oswald, F. B.

    1989-01-01

    Procedures for computer-modeling of spur gear tooth fabrication are given. It is shown that the standard involute tooth form results from a cutter with an involute shape rolling onto a gear blank. Specifically, the envelope of an involute is an involute. Examples are given and applications are discussed.

  1. 50 CFR 665.246 - Gear identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gear identification. 665.246 Section 665.246 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Gear identification. In Permit Area 1, the vessel's official number must be marked legibly on all...

  2. 50 CFR 665.246 - Gear identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gear identification. 665.246 Section 665.246 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Gear identification. In Permit Area 1, the vessel's official number must be marked legibly on all...

  3. 50 CFR 622.243 - Gear identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gear identification. 622.243 Section 622.243 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.243 Gear identification. (a) Golden crab traps and...

  4. 50 CFR 665.246 - Gear identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear identification. 665.246 Section 665.246 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Gear identification. In Permit Area 1, the vessel's official number must be marked legibly on all...

  5. 50 CFR 665.246 - Gear identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gear identification. 665.246 Section 665.246 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Gear identification. In Permit Area 1, the vessel's official number must be marked legibly on all...

  6. 50 CFR 622.376 - Gear identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gear identification. 622.376 Section 622.376 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Migratory Pelagic Resources (Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic) § 622.376 Gear identification. (a)...

  7. 50 CFR 622.376 - Gear identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gear identification. 622.376 Section 622.376 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Migratory Pelagic Resources (Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic) § 622.376 Gear identification. (a)...

  8. 50 CFR 665.246 - Gear identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gear identification. 665.246 Section 665.246 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Gear identification. In Permit Area 1, the vessel's official number must be marked legibly on all...

  9. 50 CFR 622.243 - Gear identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gear identification. 622.243 Section 622.243 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.243 Gear identification. (a) Golden crab traps and...

  10. Modeling Noise in Geared Transmission Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subrahmanyam, C. V. S. R.

    2010-11-01

    Noise is an unwanted sound that affects human and environment if not controlled properly. In the present article an effort is made to reduce noise in geared transmission systems by modeling noise. Numerical solution methods are suggested at the end. Energy considerations in geared transmissions are discussed.

  11. One Fish Two Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Michele

    1998-01-01

    This activity explains fisheries resource management to seven-year olds. First-grade students learn concepts such as offspring viability, life expectancy, and distribution of species, which help to determine when, where, and how people fish and the importance of fishing responsibly. Lists materials, procedures, and extensions. (SJR)

  12. Environmental correlates of abundances of mosquito species and stages in discarded vehicle tires.

    PubMed

    Yee, Donald A; Kneitel, Jamie M; Juliano, Steven A

    2010-01-01

    Discarded vehicle tires are a common habitat for container mosquito larvae, although the environmental factors that may control their presence or abundance within a tire are largely unknown. We sampled discarded vehicle tires in six sites located within four counties of central Illinois during the spring and summer of 2006 to determine associations between a suite of environmental factors and community composition of container mosquitoes. Our goal was to find patterns of association between environmental factors and abundances of early and late instars. We hypothesized that environmental factors correlated with early instars would be indicative of oviposition cues, whereas environmental factors correlated with late instars would be those important for larval survival. We collected 13 species of mosquitoes, with six species (Culex restuans, Cx. pipiens, Aedes albopictus, Cx. salinarius, Ae. atropalpus, and Ae. triseriatus) accounting for r95% of all larvae. There were similar associations between congenerics and environmental factors, with Aedes associated with detritus type (fine detritus, leaves, seeds) and Culex associated with factors related to the surrounding habitat (human population density, canopy cover, tire size) or microorganisms (bacteria, protozoans). Although there was some consistency in factors that were important for early and late instar abundance, there were few significant associations between early and late instars for individual species. Lack of correspondence between factors that explain variation in early versus late instars, most notable for Culex, suggests a difference between environmental determinants of oviposition and survival within tires. Environmental factors associated with discarded tires are important for accurate predictions of mosquito occurrence at the generic level.

  13. The optimal design of involute gear teeth with unequal addenda

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Coy, J. J.; Townsend, D. P.

    1982-01-01

    The design of a gear mesh is treated with the objective of minimizing the gear size for a given gear ratio, pinion torque, pressure angle, and allowable tooth lengths. Tooth strengths considered include scoring, pitting fatigue, and bending fatigue. Kinematic involute interference is avoided. The design variation on standard spur gear teeth called the long and short addendum system, is considered. In this system the mesh center distance and pressure angle are maintained as is the ability to manufacture the teeth with standard tooling. However, the pinion and gear tooth proportions are altered in order to obtain fewer teeth numbers for the same ratio as standard gears without kinematic involute interference. The effect of this nonstandard gearing geometry with on tooth strengths and gear mesh size are studied. For a 2:1 gearing ratio, the optimal nonstandard gear design is compared with the optimal standard gear design.

  14. Analysis of Landing-Gear Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milwitzky, Benjamin; Cook, Francis E

    1953-01-01

    This report presents a theoretical study of the behavior of the conventional type of oleo-pneumatic landing gear during the process of landing impact. The basic analysis is presented in a general form and treats the motions of the landing gear prior to and subsequent to the beginning of shock-strut deflection. The applicability of the analysis to actual landing gears has been investigated for the particular case of a vertical landing gear in the absence of drag loads by comparing calculated results with experimental drop-test data for impacts with and without tire bottoming. The calculated behavior of the landing gear was found to be in good agreement with the drop-test data.

  15. HIP diffusion bonding for gear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, M.A.; Jacobs, M.H.; Armstrong, G.R.; Freeman, R.; Rickinson, B.A.; King, S.

    1996-12-31

    Mechanical actuators used on aircraft flight control systems contain highly stressed gears which are made from low alloy steels; either through or surface hardened. Corrosion protection has traditionally been provided by cadmium plating. Conventional stainless steels, even when given surface treatments do not provide the necessary strength, wear and corrosion properties for such gears. HIP processing has been used on cobalt based alloy powders as a new approach to produce gears for mechanical and corrosion testing. The technology has been used both to consolidate the powder and HIP diffusion bond the alloy to conventional stainless steels. The microstructure and properties of the consolidated alloy are presented together with preliminary results from component testing. The diffusion bonding route has produced gears which have much better wear and corrosion resistance than conventional steel gears whilst retaining equivalent fatigue properties. The economics of the process are discussed together with the concept of using the HIP process to shape as well as consolidate the material.

  16. Vibration signature analysis of multistage gear transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choy, F. K.; Tu, Y. K.; Savage, M.; Townsend, D. P.

    1989-01-01

    An analysis is presented for multistage multimesh gear transmission systems. The analysis predicts the overall system dynamics and the transmissibility to the gear box or the enclosed structure. The modal synthesis approach of the analysis treats the uncoupled lateral/torsional model characteristics of each stage or component independently. The vibration signature analysis evaluates the global dynamics coupling in the system. The method synthesizes the interaction of each modal component or stage with the nonlinear gear mesh dynamics and the modal support geometry characteristics. The analysis simulates transient and steady state vibration events to determine the resulting torque variations, speeds, changes, rotor imbalances, and support gear box motion excitations. A vibration signature analysis examines the overall dynamic characteristics of the system, and the individual model component responses. The gear box vibration analysis also examines the spectral characteristics of the support system.

  17. [Sulfur-fumigation, maintenance method of Chinese herbal medicine-discard or inheritance].

    PubMed

    Duan, Yu; Qin, Kun-Ming; Zou, Nuo-Shu; Lou, Ya-Jing; Cai, Hao; Cai, Bao-Chang

    2013-10-01

    Sulfur-fumigation processing technology is an ancient maintenance method, which plays a certain role in storage and preservation for Chinese herbal medicine. But in recent years, with the further explanation of sulfur-fumigation processing mechanism and more attention to the safety of drugs, such traditional maintenance method of Chinese herbal medicine is now being questioned by more and more people. The authors think we should have selective inheritance rather than abslute discard to this ancient processing technology after reviewing the literatures published in recent 20 years, and some suggestions are also put forward, which can supply some references for related drug supervision departments.

  18. Dynamics of early planetary gear trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    August, R.; Kasuba, R.; Frater, J. L.; Pintz, A.

    1984-01-01

    A method to analyze the static and dynamic loads in a planetary gear train was developed. A variable-variable mesh stiffness (VVMS) model was used to simulate the external and internal spur gear mesh behavior, and an equivalent conventional gear train concept was adapted for the dynamic studies. The analysis can be applied either involute or noninvolute spur gearing. By utilizing the equivalent gear train concept, the developed method may be extended for use for all types of epicyclic gearing. The method is incorporated into a computer program so that the static and dynamic behavior of individual components can be examined. Items considered in the analysis are: (1) static and dynamic load sharing among the planets; (2) floating or fixed Sun gear; (3) actual tooth geometry, including errors and modifications; (4) positioning errors of the planet gears; (5) torque variations due to noninvolute gear action. A mathematical model comprised of power source, load, and planetary transmission is used to determine the instantaneous loads to which the components are subjected. It considers fluctuating output torque, elastic behavior in the system, and loss of contact between gear teeth. The dynamic model has nine degrees of freedom resulting in a set of simultaneous second order differential equations with time varying coefficients, which are solved numerically. The computer program was used to determine the effect of manufacturing errors, damping and component stiffness, and transmitted load on dynamic behavior. It is indicated that this methodology offers the designer/analyst a comprehensive tool with which planetary drives may be quickly and effectively evaluated.

  19. Is There a Fishing Program in Your Future? Resources for Fishing and Aquatics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce E., Comp.

    This list of organizations, resources, and services is designed to help those interested in establishing a fishing recreation or education program. It contains 43 entries, each including the program title and mailing address. Entries include conservation programs, mapping companies, gear manufacturers, and distributors, as well as fishing…

  20. Dynamic simulation of planetary gear set with flexible spur ring gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zaigang; Shao, Yimin; Su, Daizhong

    2013-12-01

    Ring gear is a key element for vibration transmission and noise radiation in the planetary gear system which has been widely employed in different areas, such as wind turbine transmissions. Its flexibility has a great influence on the mesh stiffness of internal gear pair and the dynamic response of the planetary gear system, especially for the thin ring cases. In this paper, the flexibility of the internal ring gear is considered based on the uniformly curved Timoshenko beam theory. The ring deformation is coupled into the mesh stiffness model, which enables the investigation on the effects of the ring flexibility on the mesh stiffness and the dynamic responses of the planetary gear. A method about how to synthesize the total mesh stiffness of the internal gear pairs in multi-tooth region together with the ring deformation and the tooth errors is proposed. Numerical results demonstrate that the ring thickness has a great impact on the shape and magnitude of the mesh stiffness of the internal gear pair. It is noted that the dynamic responses of the planetary gear set with equally spaced supports for the ring gear are modulated due to the cyclic variation of the mesh stiffness resulted from the presence of the supports, which adds more complexity in the frequency structure.