Science.gov

Sample records for discarded vehicle tires

  1. Environmental correlates of abundances of mosquito species and stages in discarded vehicle tires.

    PubMed

    Yee, Donald A; Kneitel, Jamie M; Juliano, Steven A

    2010-01-01

    Discarded vehicle tires are a common habitat for container mosquito larvae, although the environmental factors that may control their presence or abundance within a tire are largely unknown. We sampled discarded vehicle tires in six sites located within four counties of central Illinois during the spring and summer of 2006 to determine associations between a suite of environmental factors and community composition of container mosquitoes. Our goal was to find patterns of association between environmental factors and abundances of early and late instars. We hypothesized that environmental factors correlated with early instars would be indicative of oviposition cues, whereas environmental factors correlated with late instars would be those important for larval survival. We collected 13 species of mosquitoes, with six species (Culex restuans, Cx. pipiens, Aedes albopictus, Cx. salinarius, Ae. atropalpus, and Ae. triseriatus) accounting for r95% of all larvae. There were similar associations between congenerics and environmental factors, with Aedes associated with detritus type (fine detritus, leaves, seeds) and Culex associated with factors related to the surrounding habitat (human population density, canopy cover, tire size) or microorganisms (bacteria, protozoans). Although there was some consistency in factors that were important for early and late instar abundance, there were few significant associations between early and late instars for individual species. Lack of correspondence between factors that explain variation in early versus late instars, most notable for Culex, suggests a difference between environmental determinants of oviposition and survival within tires. Environmental factors associated with discarded tires are important for accurate predictions of mosquito occurrence at the generic level.

  2. Recovering Zinc From Discarded Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc sulfate monohydrate sold at profit. Shredded tire material steeped in three sulfuric acid baths to extract zinc. Final product removed by evaporating part of solution until product crystallizes out. Recovered as zinc sulfate monohydrate and sold as fertilizer or for general use.

  3. Larval mosquito communities in discarded vehicle tires in a forested and unforested site: detritus type, amount, and water nutrient differences.

    PubMed

    Kling, Lindsey J; Juliano, Steven A; Yee, Donald A

    2007-12-01

    Discarded tires are an important habitat for larvae of multiple species of disease-transmitting mosquitoes. Although tire locations likely influence composition and abundance of vectors, there are few data linking vector populations to the characteristics of the aquatic tire environment. We sampled water-filled tires at three times at a forested and an unforested site to evaluate how differences in detritus inputs or nutrients in these two macrohabitats may be associated with composition of mosquito-dominated invertebrate communities. The forested site had significantly greater inputs of leaves, twigs, seeds, and fine detritus at the first sampling, but subsequent sampling indicated no differences in inputs of any detritus type. Total phosphorous levels were significantly greater in the forested site, but there was no difference in total nitrogen or total ion concentrations during any sampling. Chlorophyll a levels were not different between sites, even though light levels were greater and canopy cover was less at the unforested site. Culex restuans dominated at the unforested site, and Ochlerotatus triseriatus, Anopheles barberi, and Orthopodomyia signifera were found primarily in the forest. Tires at the forested site had significantly more species but not more individuals than at the unforested site. Leaf amount was a good predictor of densities of Oc. triseriatus and overall abundance of mosquitoes in the forest, whereas the amount of seeds was a good predictor of overall invertebrate richness and of Oc. triseriatus numbers in the unforested site. Differences in mosquito assemblage composition between forested and unforested locations may be explained by greater inputs of plant-based detritus and some nutrients, but other factors, such as macrohabitat or host preferences of adult mosquitoes, also may be important.

  4. Recovery and disposal of discarded tires in the Taiwan area.

    PubMed

    Hwang, J S; Roam, G D

    1994-12-01

    Urbanization and industrialization has resulted in a vast amount of artificial water containers in Taiwan, especially discarded automobile tires. 3.5 million automobile tires and several million motorcycle tires are discarded annually. The discarded tires contaminate the environment and also become a substantial number of breeding sites for the dengue vector mosquitoes. In order to establish a sound system for the recovery and disposal of discarded tires and to control dengue fever through source reduction, it has been emphasized that users must pay for their waste. It is necessary to recover and properly dispose of these discarded tired. The commercial firms which sell or manufacture tires are therefore advised to cooperate with the Environmental Protection Administration of the Executive Yuan, R.O.C. and follow the "Regulations of Recovery and Disposal of Discarded Tires". They are requested to establish foundations for the recovery of discarded tires. Those who are willing to join should prepay a deposit or related charge by the size of tire, which is imported or locally manufactured. The foundation utilizes the deposits for the recovery and disposal of discarded tires. From 1991 to 1993 the commercial tire firms had already achieved the 80% recovery rates declared by the authorities concerned. Some of the tires, after having been recovered, were recycled in the original form and the rest were cut into small pieces for recycling after physical treatment. It should be mentioned that the Department of Environmental Protection of Kaohsiung City has collected 80 thousand discarded automobile tires to be used as ocean jetty.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Ground discarded tires remove naphthalene, toluene, and mercury from water.

    PubMed

    Gunasekara, A S; Donovan, J A; Xing, B

    2000-10-01

    Ground discarded tires adsorb naphthalene, toluene, and mercury ions (Hg2+) from aqueous solutions. Their sorption properties and kinetics were determined by batch equilibration techniques at 20 degrees C. The isotherms were linear for naphthalene and toluene and their sorption coefficients were about 1340 and 255 (ml/g), respectively. Sorption of the organic compounds by the ground rubber particles was relatively fast (within 30 min). However, the mercury isotherms were non-linear, and its sorption was slow as compared to the sorption of the organics. The rubber particles had a strong affinity for Hg2+. These results show that ground discarded tires are effective in removing organic compounds and Hg2+ from wastewater and other contaminated environments. In addition it would be a useful, environmentally friendly use of discarded tires (one tire per year per capita is discarded in the United States).

  6. Application of Novel Lateral Tire Force Sensors to Vehicle Parameter Estimation of Electric Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kanghyun

    2015-11-11

    This article presents methods for estimating lateral vehicle velocity and tire cornering stiffness, which are key parameters in vehicle dynamics control, using lateral tire force measurements. Lateral tire forces acting on each tire are directly measured by load-sensing hub bearings that were invented and further developed by NSK Ltd. For estimating the lateral vehicle velocity, tire force models considering lateral load transfer effects are used, and a recursive least square algorithm is adapted to identify the lateral vehicle velocity as an unknown parameter. Using the estimated lateral vehicle velocity, tire cornering stiffness, which is an important tire parameter dominating the vehicle's cornering responses, is estimated. For the practical implementation, the cornering stiffness estimation algorithm based on a simple bicycle model is developed and discussed. Finally, proposed estimation algorithms were evaluated using experimental test data.

  7. Application of Novel Lateral Tire Force Sensors to Vehicle Parameter Estimation of Electric Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Kanghyun

    2015-01-01

    This article presents methods for estimating lateral vehicle velocity and tire cornering stiffness, which are key parameters in vehicle dynamics control, using lateral tire force measurements. Lateral tire forces acting on each tire are directly measured by load-sensing hub bearings that were invented and further developed by NSK Ltd. For estimating the lateral vehicle velocity, tire force models considering lateral load transfer effects are used, and a recursive least square algorithm is adapted to identify the lateral vehicle velocity as an unknown parameter. Using the estimated lateral vehicle velocity, tire cornering stiffness, which is an important tire parameter dominating the vehicle’s cornering responses, is estimated. For the practical implementation, the cornering stiffness estimation algorithm based on a simple bicycle model is developed and discussed. Finally, proposed estimation algorithms were evaluated using experimental test data. PMID:26569246

  8. Rolling resistance of electric vehicle tires from track tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dustin, M. O.; Slavik, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Special low-rolling-resistance tires were made for DOE's ETV-1 electric vehicle. Tests were conducted on these tires and on a set of standard commercial automotive tires to determine the rolling resistance as a function of time during both constant-speed tires and SAE J227a driving cycle tests. The tests were conducted on a test track at ambient temperatures that ranged from 15 to 32 C (59 to 89 F) and with tire pressures of 207 to 276 kPa (30 to 40 psi). At a contained-air temperature of 38 C (100 F) and a pressure of 207 kPa (30 psi) the rolling resistances of the electric vehicle tires and the standard commercial tires, respectively, were 0.0102 and 0.0088 kilogram per kilogram of vehicle weight. At a contained-air temperature of 38 C (100 F) and a pressure of 276 kPa (40 psi) the rolling resistances were 0.009 and 0.0074 kilogram per kilogram of vehicle weight, respectively.

  9. An evaluation: The potential of discarded tires as a source of fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, L. W.; Downs, W. R.; Gibson, E. K.; Moore, G. W.

    1974-01-01

    The destructive distillation of rubber tire samples was studied by thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, combustion calorimetry, and mass spectroscopy. The decomposition reaction was found to be exothermic and produced a mass loss of 65 percent. The gas evolution curves that were obtained indicate that a variety of organic materials are evolved simultaneously during the decomposition of the rubber polymer.

  10. An evaluation of discarded tires as a potential source of fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, L. W.; Downs, W. R.; Gibson, E. K.; Moore, G. W.

    1974-01-01

    The destructive distillation of rubber tire samples was studied by thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, combustion calorimetry, and mass spectroscopy. The decomposition reaction was found to be exothermic and produced a mass loss of 65%. The products from the distillation process were a solid residue with a heating value of about -30 MJ/kg, a liquid with a heating value of about -40 MJ/kg, and a combustible gas of undetermined heating value. The gas evolution curves which were obtained indicate that a variety of organic materials are evolved simultaneously during decomposition of the rubber polymer.

  11. Characterization of asphalt cements modified with crumbed rubber from discarded tires. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, W.H.; Negulescu, I.I.

    1994-11-01

    The potential legislative requirement for incorporation of scrap rubber into asphalt blends mandated a thorough evaluation of the influence of scrap rubber additives on the physical properties and aging characteristics of rubber/asphalt blends. Blends with up to 20 percent ground vulcanized rubber (both crumb and 200 mesh powder particles) from recycled tires were prepared with asphalt cements of various grades (AC5 - AC30) and evaluated using DMA. Blends produced from powdered rubber particles exhibited Newtonian behavior at high temperatures; similar behavior was not observed with crumb rubber blends. The mechanical properties of asphalt-rubber blends depend upon the concentration of rubber additives, the particle dimensions, and the chemical composition of the asphalt.

  12. 75 FR 73998 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a Gross...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR... Federal motor vehicle safety standard (FMVSS) that applies to new pneumatic tires for use on vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) greater than 10,000 pounds and motorcycles. In the...

  13. Field efficacy of fipronil 3G, lambda-cyhalothrin 10%CS, and sumithion 50EC against the dengue vector Aedes albopictus in discarded tires.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, S; Pawanchee, Z A; Wahab, A; Jamal, J; Sohadi, A R

    1999-12-01

    The efficacy of three insecticides, fipronil 3G, lambda-cyhalothrin 10%CS, and sumithion 50EC were evaluated against the dengue vector Aedes albopictus in discarded tires in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The dosage given for each insecticide was 0.01 g of active ingredient/m2. Fipronil 3G was the most effective larvicide with a residual activity of up to two weeks, causing 88% mortality in Aedes albopictus. Lambda-cyhalothrin 10%CS was effective for one week causing 92% larval mortality and two weeks with 63% larval mortality. Sumithion 50EC had a residual efficacy of one week with 79% larval mortality.

  14. Energy Efficiency in Heavy Vehicle Tires, Drivetrains, and Braking Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Peter J. Blau

    2000-04-26

    This document was prepared to support the primary goals of the Department of Energy, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies. These were recently stated as follows: ''Develop by 2004 the enabling technologies for a class 7-8 truck with a fuel efficiency of 10 mpg (at 65 mph) which will meet prevailing emission standards. For Class 3-6 trucks operating on an urban driving cycle, develop by 2004 commercially viable vehicles that achieve at least double the fuel economy of comparable current vehicles (1999), and as a research goal, reduce criteria pollutants to 30% below EPA standards. Develop by 2004 the diesel engine enabling technologies to support large-scale industry dieselization of Class 1 and 2 trucks, achieving a 35 % fuel efficiency improvement over comparable gasoline-fueled trucks, while meeting applicable emissions standards.'' The enabling technologies for improving the fuel efficiency of trucks, include not only engine technologies but also technologies involved with lowering the rolling resistance of tires, reducing vehicle aerodynamic drag, improving thermal management, and reducing parasitic frictional losses in drive train components. Opportunities also exist for making better use of the energy that might ordinarily be dissipated during vehicle braking. Braking systems must be included in this evaluation since safety in truck operations is vital, and braking requirements are greater for vehicles having lowered resistance to rolling. The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies has initiated a program to improve the aerodynamics of heavy vehicles through wind tunnel testing, computational modeling, and on-road evaluations. That activity is described in a separate multi-year plan; therefore, emphasis in this document will be on tires, drive trains, and braking systems. Recent, dramatic fluctuations in diesel fuel prices have emphasized the importance of effecting savings in truck fuel economy by implementing new component designs and materials.

  15. 78 FR 3843 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic and Certain Specialty Tires

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... Pneumatic Tyres For Passenger-Use Motor Vehicles, Annex, 1-2-5. We believed that existing 60-psi T-type... Standards; New Pneumatic and Certain Specialty Tires AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 109, New pneumatic and certain specialty tires, to change...

  16. 41 CFR 101-25.110-3 - Tires accompanying new motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 101-25.110-3 Section 101-25.110-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.110-3 Tires accompanying new motor vehicles. The tire identifications and recordkeeping regulations issued by the Department of Transportation require each...

  17. 41 CFR 101-25.110-3 - Tires accompanying new motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 101-25.110-3 Section 101-25.110-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.110-3 Tires accompanying new motor vehicles. The tire identifications and recordkeeping regulations issued by the Department of Transportation require each...

  18. Passenger vehicle tire rolling resistance can be predicted from a flat-belt test rig

    SciTech Connect

    Ivens, J.

    1989-01-01

    The rolling resistance of fifteen different types of tire was determined on-road by coastdown tests, using several vehicles variously fitted with 14 and 15 inch wheels. Corrections for tire pressure, and for external temperature, were deduced by data regression. The rolling resistance of the same tires was measured on a flat-belt tire test machine, and correction for tire pressure was determined in a like manner. In this paper, the results, in terms of the characteristic rolling resistance, are compared between rig and road. The various test procedures are discussed.

  19. Tire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benzing, II, James Alfred (Inventor); Kish, James Christopher (Inventor); Asnani, Vivake Manohar (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A tire includes a plurality of helical springs. Each helical spring includes a first end portion, a second end portion, and an arching middle portion. Each helical spring is interlaced with at least one other helical spring thereby forming a laced toroidal structure extending about an entire circumference of the tire.

  20. 75 FR 60036 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a GVWR of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ...This NPRM proposes to upgrade Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 119, which specifies requirements for new truck tires. We propose to amend FMVSS No. 119 to adopt more stringent endurance test requirements and a new high speed test for several heavy load range tires for vehicles with gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of more than 4,536 kilograms (10,000 pounds). We are also......

  1. Demonstration of improved vehicle fuel efficiency through innovative tire design, materials, and weight reduction technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Donley, Tim

    2014-12-31

    Cooper completed an investigation into new tire technology using a novel approach to develop and demonstrate a new class of fuel efficient tires using innovative materials technology and tire design concepts. The objective of this work was to develop a new class of fuel efficient tires, focused on the “replacement market” that would improve overall passenger vehicle fuel efficiency by 3% while lowering the overall tire weight by 20%. A further goal of this project was to accomplish the objectives while maintaining the traction and wear performance of the control tire. This program was designed to build on what has already been accomplished in the tire industry for rolling resistance based on the knowledge and general principles developed over the past decades. Cooper’s CS4 (Figure #1) premium broadline tire was chosen as the control tire for this program. For Cooper to achieve the goals of this project, the development of multiple technologies was necessary. Six technologies were chosen that are not currently being used in the tire industry at any significant level, but that showed excellent prospects in preliminary research. This development was divided into two phases. Phase I investigated six different technologies as individual components. Phase II then took a holistic approach by combining all the technologies that showed positive results during phase one development.

  2. 78 FR 15920 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Tire Selection and Rims

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL24 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... to amend Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 110 to make it clear that special trailer (ST) tires are permitted to be installed on new trailers with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR)...

  3. Vehicle Tire and Wheel Creation in BRL-CAD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    when raytracing . Creating more complex models to better approximate the tire’s shape almost always requires more resources than can be justified...patterns can slow down a raytrace considerably. A strategy for models that will have a variety of uses is to include both treaded and slick (nontreaded...insert the default tire model. 12 8. Structure of a Tire Model Although it is not visible to the eye in normal raytracing , the tire models do include

  4. T.R.I.C.K.-Tire/Road Interaction Characterization & Knowledge - A tool for the evaluation of tire and vehicle performances in outdoor test sessions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farroni, Flavio

    2016-05-01

    The most powerful engine, the most sophisticated aerodynamic devices or the most complex control systems will not improve vehicle performances if the forces exchanged with the road are not optimized by proper employment and knowledge of tires. The vehicle interface with the ground is constituted by the sum of small surfaces, wide about as one of our palms, in which tire/road interaction forces are exchanged. From this it is clear to see how the optimization of tire behavior represents a key-factor in the definition of the best setup of the whole vehicle. Nowadays, people and companies playing a role in automotive sector are looking for the optimal solution to model and understand tire's behavior both in experimental and simulation environments. The studies carried out and the tool developed herein demonstrate a new approach in tire characterization and in vehicle simulation procedures. This enables the reproduction of the dynamic response of a tire through the use of specific track sessions, carried out with the aim to employ the vehicle as a moving lab. The final product, named TRICK tool (Tire/Road Interaction Characterization and Knowledge), comprises of a vehicle model which processes experimental signals acquired from vehicle CAN bus and from sideslip angle estimation additional instrumentation. The output of the tool is several extra "virtual telemetry" channels, based on the time history of the acquired signals and containing force and slip estimations, useful to provide tire interaction characteristics. TRICK results can be integrated with the physical models developed by the Vehicle Dynamics UniNa research group, providing a multitude of working solutions and constituting an ideal instrument for the prediction and the simulation of the real tire dynamics.

  5. All-Metal Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickler, Donald B.; Sword, Lee F.; Lindemann, Randel A.

    1994-01-01

    Tires used where elastomeric and pneumatic tires would not function. Metal tires withstand extreme temperatures. Used on Earth for vehicles and robots that fight fires or clean up dangerous chemicals.

  6. Spring Tire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Benzing, Jim; Kish, Jim C.

    2011-01-01

    The spring tire is made from helical springs, requires no air or rubber, and consumes nearly zero energy. The tire design provides greater traction in sandy and/or rocky soil, can operate in microgravity and under harsh conditions (vastly varying temperatures), and is non-pneumatic. Like any tire, the spring tire is approximately a toroidal-shaped object intended to be mounted on a transportation wheel. Its basic function is also similar to a traditional tire, in that the spring tire contours to the surface on which it is driven to facilitate traction, and to reduce the transmission of vibration to the vehicle. The essential difference between other tires and the spring tire is the use of helical springs to support and/or distribute load. They are coiled wires that deform elastically under load with little energy loss.

  7. 49 CFR 571.110 - Tire selection and rims and motor home/recreation vehicle trailer load carrying capacity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the vehicle next to the driver's seating position. This information shall be in the English language... language, lettered in block capitals and numerals not less than 2.4 millimeters high and in the following... line at a speed of 97 kilometers per hour, retain the deflated tire until the vehicle can be...

  8. 49 CFR 571.110 - Tire selection and rims and motor home/recreation vehicle trailer load carrying capacity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the vehicle next to the driver's seating position. This information shall be in the English language... language, lettered in block capitals and numerals not less than 2.4 millimeters high and in the following... line at a speed of 97 kilometers per hour, retain the deflated tire until the vehicle can be...

  9. Transport of fecal bacteria by boots and vehicle tires in a rural Alaskan community.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Molly K; Ford, Malcolm R; White, Daniel M; Barnes, David L; Schiewer, Silke

    2009-02-01

    People living without piped water and sewer can be at increased risk for diseases transmitted via the fecal-oral route. One rural Alaskan community that relies on hauling water into homes and sewage from homes was studied to determine the pathways of fecal contamination of drinking water and the human environment so that barriers can be established to protect health. Samples were tested for the fecal indicator, Escherichia coli, and the less specific indicator group, total coliforms. Shoes transported fecal contamination from outside to floor material inside buildings. Contamination in puddles on the road, in conjunction with contamination found on all-terrain vehicle (ATV) tires, supports vehicle traffic as a mechanism for transporting contamination from the dumpsite or other source areas to the rest of the community. The abundance of fecal bacteria transported around the community on shoes and ATV tires suggests that centralized measures for waste disposal as well as shoe removal in buildings could improve sanitation and health in the community.

  10. Integrated optimal dynamics control of 4WD4WS electric ground vehicle with tire-road frictional coefficient estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rongrong; Hu, Chuan; Wang, Zejiang; Yan, Fengjun; Chen, Nan

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents an integrated optimal dynamics control of four-wheel driving and four-wheel steering (4WD4WS) electric ground vehicles via hierarchical control methodology. In the higher-level design, an LQR controller is proposed to obtain the integrated lateral force and yaw moment, according to their respective reference values. The lower-level controller is designed to ensure all the tires work in the stable region while realizing the tracking control of the vehicle dynamics. The tire-road friction coefficient is estimated through the integrated longitudinal force and lateral force, respectively, using a brush tire model. To reduce the estimation error, a novel data fusion function is employed to generate the final estimation value. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed control and estimation strategies is validated via CarSim-Simulink joint simulation.

  11. Tire Recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

  12. 49 CFR 570.62 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... each front tire of any vehicle other than a trailer and not less than two thirty-seconds of an inch on... the vehicle or tire manufacturer, is a cause for rejection. On a dual-tire arrangement the diameter of... allowable on tires other than front-mounted tires. (1) Inspection procedure. Examine visually for...

  13. 49 CFR 570.62 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... each front tire of any vehicle other than a trailer and not less than two thirty-seconds of an inch on... the vehicle or tire manufacturer, is a cause for rejection. On a dual-tire arrangement the diameter of... allowable on tires other than front-mounted tires. (1) Inspection procedure. Examine visually for...

  14. 49 CFR 570.62 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... each front tire of any vehicle other than a trailer and not less than two thirty-seconds of an inch on... the vehicle or tire manufacturer, is a cause for rejection. On a dual-tire arrangement the diameter of... allowable on tires other than front-mounted tires. (1) Inspection procedure. Examine visually for...

  15. Mobility potential of a robotic six-wheeled omnidirectional drive vehicle (ODV) with z-axis and tire inflation control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witus, Gary

    2000-07-01

    Robot vehicle mobility is the product of the physical configuration, mechatronics (sensors, actuators, and control) and the motion programs for different obstacles, terrain conditions, and maneuver objectives. This paper examines the mobility potential of a robotic 6-by-6 wheeled omni-directional drive vehicle (ODV) with z-axis and tire inflation control. Ad ODV can steer and drive all wheels independently. The direction of motion is independent of the orientation of the body. Z- axis control refers to independent control of the suspension elevation at each wheel. Pneumatic tire inflation control provides the ability to inflate and deflate individual tires. The paper describes motion programs for various discrete obstacles and challenging terrain conditions. The paper illustrates how ODV control, z-axis control and tire inflation control interact to provide high mobility with respect to cornering, maneuvering on slopes, negotiating vertical step and horizontal gap obstacles, and braking/acceleration on soft soil and slick surfaces. The paper derives guidelines for the physical dimensions of the vehicle needed to achieve these capabilities.

  16. Tires as habitats for mosquitoes: a review of studies within the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Yee, Donald A

    2008-07-01

    Discarded vehicle tires are a common habitat for a variety of container mosquito species. I reviewed the literature from the last 50 yr on mosquitoes collected within tires in the eastern United States with four objectives: to examine the historical and contemporary issues of tires as a habitat for mosquitoes, to identify tire-inhabiting species, to summarize findings from studies that focused on biotic and abiotic characteristics of tires, and to offer future directions to aid our understanding of tire-inhabiting mosquitoes. Thirty-two species have been documented, including seven invasives, with the most frequently encountered being Aedes triseriatus, Ae. albopictus, Ae. atropalpus, Culex restuans, Cx. pipiens, Cx. territans, Anopheles punctipennis, and Toxorhynchites rutilus. The proclivity of these species to occupy small containers is one possible explanation for their occurrence in tires. The native species Ae. triseriatus was abundant and the most often collected, particularly in central and northern regions, whereas the invasive Ae. albopictus was most abundant in the south. One half of the studies investigating aspects of the tire environment compared mosquito populations between sunlit and shaded tires, with the general finding that this factor alone led to dramatic differences in larval species composition and abundance patterns. Less frequently investigated factors, e.g., tire orientation, detritus, and proximity to humans, also were found to affect patterns of occupancy by mosquitoes. For the future, I suggest more surveys are needed in understudied areas, as well as quantitative experiments to determine habitat associations and community dynamics in tires, which are especially necessary to assist in understanding invasions. Discarded tires are important for studies of vector dynamics, because of their abundance near human populations and because they expand the habitat range of mosquitoes that vector pathogens.

  17. Stereo Vision Inside Tire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-21

    measures the three dimensional deformation of the inside of a tire as it rolls over the terrain. The system is designed to work in conjunction with...the inside of a tire as it rolls over the terrain. The system is designed to work in conjunction with the previously developed Vehicle Dynamics Group...tire. The complete T2-CAM system, in conjunction with the VDG wheel force transducer, is mounted on a test vehicle as indicated in Figure 6. Several

  18. 49 CFR 571.139 - Standard No. 139; New pneumatic radial tires for light vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... breaking away of pieces of the tread or sidewall. Cord means the strands forming the plies in the tire... section width and overall width by caliper at six points approximately equally spaced around the..., cracking, or broken cords. (b) The tire pressure, when measured at any time between 15 minutes and...

  19. 49 CFR 571.139 - Standard No. 139; New pneumatic radial tires for light vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... breaking away of pieces of the tread or sidewall. Cord means the strands forming the plies in the tire... section width and overall width by caliper at six points approximately equally spaced around the..., cracking, or broken cords. (b) The tire pressure, when measured at any time between 15 minutes and...

  20. 49 CFR 571.139 - Standard No. 139; New pneumatic radial tires for light vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... breaking away of pieces of the tread or sidewall. Cord means the strands forming the plies in the tire... section width and overall width by caliper at six points approximately equally spaced around the..., cracking, or broken cords. (b) The tire pressure, when measured at any time between 15 minutes and...

  1. 49 CFR 571.139 - Standard No. 139; New pneumatic radial tires for light vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... breaking away of pieces of the tread or sidewall. Cord means the strands forming the plies in the tire... section width and overall width by caliper at six points approximately equally spaced around the..., cracking, or broken cords. (b) The tire pressure, when measured at any time between 15 minutes and...

  2. 49 CFR 571.139 - Standard No. 139; New pneumatic radial tires for light vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... breaking away of pieces of the tread or sidewall. Cord means the strands forming the plies in the tire... section width and overall width by caliper at six points approximately equally spaced around the..., cracking, or broken cords. (b) The tire pressure, when measured at any time between 15 minutes and...

  3. Tire/runway friction interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of NASA Langley's tire/runway pavement interface studies. The National Tire Modeling Program, evaluation of new tire and landing gear designs, tire wear and friction tests, and tire hydroplaning studies are examined. The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility is described along with some ground friction measuring vehicles. The major goals and scope of several joint FAA/NASA programs are identified together with current status and plans.

  4. 78 FR 2236 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a GVWR of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    .... The tire strength test was designed to evaluate the strength of the reinforcing materials in bias ply... that the strength test stringency was comparable for different tire cord materials.\\4\\ As a result... requirements, including a strength test. When FMVSS No. 119 was established in 1973, it adopted the...

  5. Camera that takes pictures of aircraft and ground vehicle tires can save lives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Yair

    2013-10-01

    Damaged tires cause many fatal car accidents that claim lives worldwide. The use of a regular digital camera that can generate JPEG images, so as to become aware of damaged tires, is proposed. The digital camera repeatedly takes pictures of the car's tires. When there is a drastic change in a particular block of JPEG, the value of many of its frequency coefficients will be high and it will be compressed into many more bits; therefore, if the image is overly large, an embedded computer system will turn on a noticeable light-emitting diode in the car. The driver will be aware of the damaged tire before a severe accident would possibly happen.

  6. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans' waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans' waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city's limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city's waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city's ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  7. New approaches to recycling tires

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, R.

    1991-03-01

    Steel-belted radial tires are potentially one of the most recyclable products created by modern industry, although the potential has been barely tapped. Discarded tires pile up at an astonishing rate each year - 234 million in the US and 26 million passenger tire equivalents in Canada. They represent a mother lode of raw material waiting for modern day miners to transform them into recycled rubber, steel, fiber and energy. The tremendous increase in use of steel belted radials since the early 1970s has complicated their recyclability compared to the bias ply tire, but it has also accomplished waste reduction by tripling tire service life. Part one of this report describes processes being developed to convert tires to crumb rubber, as well as some potential uses of recycled rubber. Part two, to appear next month, will examine such uses as rubberized athletic tracks and highway asphalt.

  8. Dynamic interactions of an integrated vehicle-electromagnetic energy harvester-tire system subject to uneven road excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Jing Tang; Sun, Zhe; Zhou, Sulian; Tan, Mingyi

    2017-03-01

    An investigation is undertaken of an integrated mechanical-electromagnetic coupling system consisting of a rigid vehicle with heave, roll, and pitch motions, four electromagnetic energy harvesters and four tires subject to uneven road excitations in order to improve the passengers' riding comfort and harvest the lost engine energy due to uneven roads. Following the derived mathematical formulations and the proposed solution approaches, the numerical simulations of this interaction system subject to a continuous sinusoidal road excitation and a single ramp impact are completed. The simulation results are presented as the dynamic response curves in the forms of the frequency spectrum and the time history, which reveals the complex interaction characteristics of the system for vibration reductions and energy harvesting performance. It has addressed the coupling effects on the dynamic characteristics of the integrated system caused by: (1) the natural modes and frequencies of the vehicle; (2) the vehicle rolling and pitching motions; (3) different road excitations on four wheels; (4) the time delay of a road ramp to impact both the front and rear wheels, etc., which cannot be tackled by an often used quarter vehicle model. The guidelines for engineering applications are given. The developed coupling model and the revealed concept provide a means with analysis idea to investigate the details of four energy harvester motions for electromagnetic suspension designs in order to replace the current passive vehicle isolators and to harvest the lost engine energy. Potential further research directions are suggested for readers to consider in the future.

  9. 49 CFR 325.93 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tires. 325.93 Section 325.93 Transportation Other... Systems and Tires § 325.93 Tires. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a motor vehicle does not conform to the visual tire inspection requirements, 40 CFR 202.23, of the Interstate...

  10. 30 CFR 57.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tire repairs. 57.14104 Section 57.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and...

  11. 30 CFR 56.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tire repairs. 56.14104 Section 56.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and...

  12. 75 FR 15893 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... Final Rule, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems, Controls and.... \\5\\ See National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, NHTSA Tire Rolling Resistance Rating System... Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 575 Tire Fuel Efficiency...

  13. Tire Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, J. A. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    The workshop was organized into six sessions dealing with finite element developments, applications to tire dynamic problems, solution techniques for tire contact problems, experimental data, tire thermal studies, and current design practices.

  14. Haul truck tire dynamics due to tire condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaghar Anzabi, R.; Nobes, D. S.; Lipsett, M. G.

    2012-05-01

    Pneumatic tires are costly components on large off-road haul trucks used in surface mining operations. Tires are prone to damage during operation, and these events can lead to injuries to personnel, loss of equipment, and reduced productivity. Damage rates have significant variability, due to operating conditions and a range of tire fault modes. Currently, monitoring of tire condition is done by physical inspection; and the mean time between inspections is often longer than the mean time between incipient failure and functional failure of the tire. Options for new condition monitoring methods include off-board thermal imaging and camera-based optical methods for detecting abnormal deformation and surface features, as well as on-board sensors to detect tire faults during vehicle operation. Physics-based modeling of tire dynamics can provide a good understanding of the tire behavior, and give insight into observability requirements for improved monitoring systems. This paper describes a model to simulate the dynamics of haul truck tires when a fault is present to determine the effects of physical parameter changes that relate to faults. To simulate the dynamics, a lumped mass 'quarter-vehicle' model has been used to determine the response of the system to a road profile when a failure changes the original properties of the tire. The result is a model of tire vertical displacement that can be used to detect a fault, which will be tested under field conditions in time-varying conditions.

  15. Rubber tire leachates in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Evans, J J

    1997-01-01

    Tires have a deleterious effect on the environment. This review discusses the background of scrap tires discarded in the environment, including tire composition, adverse environmental effects, threats to public health and safety, and solid waste management. Despite the widespread use of scrap tires in environmental applications, both land-based and aquatic, data on the indicators of environmental degradation are extremely scarce. Indicators of environmental degradation include analysis of chemicals within the water and sediment, analysis of contaminants within organisms, and analysis of the biological effects of these compounds on plants, animals, microbes, and organelles. Although these indicators are most useful when used in parallel, a review of the available information on chemical characterization of tire leachate from tire storage facilities, manufacturing, usage in recycling applications, and toxicity exposure studies, of vegetation surveys from waste tire areas and reviews of mammalian tire product toxicity, and of toxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity of tire exposure in experimental aquatic animals, microbes, and organelles is presented. The major characteristics of these studies are discussed in specific sections. The "Discussion and Conclusions" section discusses and summarizes the biological effects and chemical characterization of tire leachates. A global environmental perspective is included to improve our understanding of the deficiency of the current knowledge of tire leachate toxicity from various sources and to encourage interdisciplinary studies to establish the pattern of pollution associated with waste tire management.

  16. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans` waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans` waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city`s limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city`s waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city`s ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  17. 49 CFR 325.93 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) The tire did not have that type of tread pattern when it was originally manufactured or newly... does not conform to the visual tire inspection requirements, 40 CFR 202.23, of the Interstate Motor Carrier Noise Emissions Standards, if inspection of any tire on which the vehicle is operating...

  18. 26 CFR 48.4073-1 - Exemption of tires of certain sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-1 Exemption of tires of certain sizes....

  19. 26 CFR 48.4073-1 - Exemption of tires of certain sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-1 Exemption of tires of certain sizes....

  20. 26 CFR 48.4073-1 - Exemption of tires of certain sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-1 Exemption of tires of certain sizes....

  1. 26 CFR 48.4073-1 - Exemption of tires of certain sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-1 Exemption of tires of certain sizes....

  2. Tire condition and drivers' practice in maintaining tires in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Ratrout, Nedal T

    2005-01-01

    Tire blowouts and tread separation are a very hot safety issue in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Recent statistics compiled by the special forces for road security in the kingdom revealed that in the year 2001, 13% of the traffic accidents they attended to resulted from tire failure. This paper aims to assess the extent to which drivers are aware of the correct procedure for selecting and maintaining tires on their vehicles and evaluate the in-use condition of these tires. This was fulfilled via a field study in which a random sample of vehicles was stopped to check the condition of their tires and at the same time to interview their drivers on tire-related issues. It was concluded that drivers need proper education on how to select, use, and maintain tires. Hopefully, this will reduce the percentage of under-inflated tires and other incorrect practices found in this study.

  3. 49 CFR 571.138 - Standard No. 138; Tire pressure monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... vehicle's tires is significantly under-inflated and illuminates a low tire pressure warning telltale... system must: (a) Illuminate a low tire pressure warning telltale not more than 20 minutes after the... type of tire, whichever is higher; (b) Continue to illuminate the low tire pressure warning telltale...

  4. 49 CFR 571.138 - Standard No. 138; Tire pressure monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... vehicle's tires is significantly under-inflated and illuminates a low tire pressure warning telltale... system must: (a) Illuminate a low tire pressure warning telltale not more than 20 minutes after the... type of tire, whichever is higher; (b) Continue to illuminate the low tire pressure warning telltale...

  5. 49 CFR 397.17 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... is driven. However, the vehicle may be driven to the nearest safe place to perform the required... overheated tire to be removed and placed at a safe distance from the vehicle. The driver shall not...

  6. Processing Satellite Imagery To Detect Waste Tire Piles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skiles, Joseph; Schmidt, Cynthia; Wuinlan, Becky; Huybrechts, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    A methodology for processing commercially available satellite spectral imagery has been developed to enable identification and mapping of waste tire piles in California. The California Integrated Waste Management Board initiated the project and provided funding for the method s development. The methodology includes the use of a combination of previously commercially available image-processing and georeferencing software used to develop a model that specifically distinguishes between tire piles and other objects. The methodology reduces the time that must be spent to initially survey a region for tire sites, thereby increasing inspectors and managers time available for remediation of the sites. Remediation is needed because millions of used tires are discarded every year, waste tire piles pose fire hazards, and mosquitoes often breed in water trapped in tires. It should be possible to adapt the methodology to regions outside California by modifying some of the algorithms implemented in the software to account for geographic differences in spectral characteristics associated with terrain and climate. The task of identifying tire piles in satellite imagery is uniquely challenging because of their low reflectance levels: Tires tend to be spectrally confused with shadows and deep water, both of which reflect little light to satellite-borne imaging systems. In this methodology, the challenge is met, in part, by use of software that implements the Tire Identification from Reflectance (TIRe) model. The development of the TIRe model included incorporation of lessons learned in previous research on the detection and mapping of tire piles by use of manual/ visual and/or computational analysis of aerial and satellite imagery. The TIRe model is a computational model for identifying tire piles and discriminating between tire piles and other objects. The input to the TIRe model is the georeferenced but otherwise raw satellite spectral images of a geographic region to be surveyed

  7. Wheels and Tires: Understanding the Numbers on the Sides of Tires Might Lead to Longer Life Tires and Improved Driving Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritz, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Automotive wheels and tires require knowledge to understand their specifications and use. While the durability and useful life of tires have increased substantially over the last several decades, in all probability consumers will purchase a number of vehicle tires over their lifetime. Knowing how they are made and what the numbers mean will assist…

  8. 49 CFR 571.119 - Standard No. 119; New pneumatic tires for motor vehicles with a GVWR of more than 4,536 kilograms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... designated in S5.1. (d) The maximum load rating and corresponding inflation pressure of the tire, shown as... assembly and inflate it to the inflation pressure corresponding to the maximum load rating marked on the... without interruption. (e) Immediately after running the tire the required time, measure the tire...

  9. Tire and runway surface research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1986-01-01

    The condition of aircraft tires and runway surfaces can be crucial in meeting the stringent demands of aircraft ground operations, particularly under adverse weather conditions. Gaining a better understanding of the factors influencing the tire/pavement interface is the aim of several ongoing NASA Langley research programs which are described in this paper. Results from several studies conducted at the Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility, tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and some recent aircraft accident investigations are summarized to indicate effects of different tire and runway properties. The Joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program is described together with some preliminary test findings. The scope of future NASA Langley research directed towards solving aircraft ground operational problems related to the tire/pavement interface is given.

  10. Rubber friction and tire dynamics.

    PubMed

    Persson, B N J

    2011-01-12

    We propose a simple rubber friction law, which can be used, for example, in models of tire (and vehicle) dynamics. The friction law is tested by comparing numerical results to the full rubber friction theory (Persson 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 7789). Good agreement is found between the two theories. We describe a two-dimensional (2D) tire model which combines the rubber friction model with a simple mass-spring description of the tire body. The tire model is very flexible and can be used to accurately calculate μ-slip curves (and the self-aligning torque) for braking and cornering or combined motion (e.g. braking during cornering). We present numerical results which illustrate the theory. Simulations of anti-blocking system (ABS) braking are performed using two simple control algorithms.

  11. Tire blow-outs and motorway accidents.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jean-Louis; Laumon, Bernard

    2005-03-01

    During the period from 1996 to 2002, 60,397 vehicles were involved in crashes with property damage and/or injury on a French motorway network of 2000 km. It was observed that 6.7% of these accidents involved tire blow-outs. In 87% of cases, only one vehicle was involved in the accident. Tire blow-outs occurred in 6.5% of cars that represented more than 80% of the vehicles involved in crashes. The occurrence of this phenomenon is very high for vans (22%), though it concerns trucks less (2.5%). The proportion of tire blow-outs decreased from 1997, when it was 8.0%, to 5.9% in 2002. However, two main facts require examination: (1) On inter-urban motorways, crashes involving blow-outs of rear tires occur four times more frequently than for blow-outs of front tires. (2) The frequency of tire blow-outs is especially high for vans, and almost always involves rear tires. This higher frequency for rear tires is the result of two phenomena, which are indistinguishable given the data available: firstly, a four-wheel vehicle is more difficult to control if a blow-out occurs on a rear tire (confirmed experimentally); secondly, rear tires may be in poor condition more often than front tires, and so more prone to blow-outs. Consequently, users are strongly recommended to install the best tires on rear wheels. In practice, if only the front tires are replaced, which often occurs because they tend to be worn out more quickly than the rear ones (especially for front wheel drive vehicles), it is necessary to move the rear tires to the front and fit the new ones on the rear wheels. Very interesting technological developments are in progress that should reduce the number of tire blow-outs. However, considering the time necessary to renew the number of cars on the roads, this very simple and inexpensive recommendation should apply to all cars and especially to vans.

  12. 49 CFR 573.10 - Reporting the sale or lease of defective or noncompliant tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... noncompliant tires. 573.10 Section 573.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... noncompliant tires. (a) Reporting requirement. Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, any person who knowingly and willfully sells or leases for use on a motor vehicle a defective tire or a tire that is...

  13. 26 CFR 48.4071-4 - Original equipment tires on imported articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4071-4 Original equipment tires on imported articles. The tax imposed by section 4071(a) applies with respect to tires and inner tubes...

  14. 26 CFR 48.4071-4 - Original equipment tires on imported articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4071-4 Original equipment tires on imported articles. The tax imposed by section 4071(a) applies with respect to tires and inner tubes...

  15. 26 CFR 48.4071-4 - Original equipment tires on imported articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4071-4 Original equipment tires on imported articles. The tax imposed by section 4071(a) applies with respect to tires and inner tubes...

  16. 26 CFR 48.4071-4 - Original equipment tires on imported articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4071-4 Original equipment tires on imported articles. The tax imposed by section 4071(a) applies with respect to tires and inner tubes...

  17. Robot Drills Holes To Relieve Excess Tire Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrott, David T.

    1996-01-01

    Small, relatively inexpensive, remotely controlled robot called "tire assault vehicle" (TAV) developed to relieve excess tire pressures to protect ground crew, aircraft equipment, and nearby vehicles engaged in landing tests of CV-990 Landing System Research Aircraft. Reduces costs and saves time in training, maintenance, and setup related to "yellow" and "red" tire conditions. Adapted to any heavy-aircraft environment in which ground-crew safety at risk because of potential for tire explosions. Also ideal as scout vehicle for performing inspections in hazardous locations.

  18. Traction Boot for Tires

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-08

    34AD-D0 15 390 IN THE UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE Patent Application NAME Or INVENTOR : Joseph G. Warner DLECTI TITLE Of INVENTION...this nature include tiro chains or a loop of track connecting fore and aft wh#ls of a tandem axle assembly. There are disadvqstages with these known...vehicles with tandeo axles . o ed imfd pubr𔃾fl1a 99214-255191 92 9 14 085 SUNMARX My invention ii a boot or temporary recap for a tire that can be

  19. 49 CFR 571.119 - Standard No. 119; New pneumatic tires for motor vehicles with a GVWR of more than 4,536 kilograms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... less marked load range A, B, C, or D. S6.4Treadwear indicators. Except as specified in this paragraph, each tire shall have at least six treadwear indicators spaced approximately equally around the... smaller shall have at least three such treadwear indicators. Motorcycle tires shall have at least...

  20. 26 CFR 48.4071-3 - Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered to manufacturer's retail outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered... EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4071-3 Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered to manufacturer's retail outlet. (a)...

  1. 26 CFR 48.4071-3 - Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered to manufacturer's retail outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered... EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4071-3 Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered to manufacturer's retail outlet. (a)...

  2. 26 CFR 48.4071-3 - Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered to manufacturer's retail outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered... EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4071-3 Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered to manufacturer's retail outlet. (a)...

  3. 26 CFR 48.4071-3 - Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered to manufacturer's retail outlet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered... EXCISE TAXES Motor Vehicles, Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4071-3 Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered to manufacturer's retail outlet. (a)...

  4. Aerodynamic Interference During Sabot Discard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-09-01

    J. Mik.WNe, - -desirc4 trajoctory. For the rouns tested , the impulse due to aerodynsmic interaction during sabot discard is of the sae magnitude as...TABLE OF CONiENTS Page LIST OFILLUSTRATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1, INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II...Figure Page 1. Test Projectile (60mm, AAAC). . . . . . ... . 19 2. Schematic of Test Set-Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 3. Sample X-ray Exposure

  5. Scrap tires: Black gold or fool`s gold?

    SciTech Connect

    Glaz, S.

    1995-10-01

    Three years ago, a US EPA report estimated there were between 2 and 3 billion tires stockpiled in the US. Currently, according to the Scrap Tire Management Council (STMC, Washington, DC), the number of stockpiled tires totals 850 million. However, this reduction is not due to federal or state legislation; simply, the number was overestimated. Whatever the actual number, scrap tire mounds have been large enough to prompt 34 states to developed scrap tire funding programs aimed at eliminating the stockpiling of the some 250 million tires generated per year, while gradually eliminating the tires already stockpiled. However, of the 34 states, only Illinois, Oregon, Florida, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, are aggressively tackling the problem. In each of these five cases, state officials claim, the only viable way to reduce large quantities of tires quickly is through energy reuse, and, like any other disposal method, it costs money. To compensate for the costs of elimination, states are developing funding for scrap tire reduction programs by placing fees on tire disposal, tire purchase, or vehicle title transfer and registration.

  6. Simulation of Thermal Signature of Tires and Tracks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    34.2255 36.4 34.69769 37.83 REFERENCES [1] T. G. Ebbott, R. L. Hohman, J. P. Jeusette, V. Kerchman,“Tire Temperatureand Rolling Resistance ... Prediction with Finite Element Analysis,” Tire Sci Technol, Vol. 27, 1999, pp. 2-21. [2] Wong, J. Y., Theory of Ground Vehicles, 3rd Ed., Wiley

  7. Scrap tire recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lula, J.W.; Bohnert, G.W.

    1997-03-01

    As the automobile tire technology has grown and met the need for safer and more durable tires, stronger reinforcement and more chemically resistant rubber compounds have made recycling tires more difficult. In an effort to resolve this problem, techniques and equipment were developed to grind tires into small pieces, and new markets were sought to utilize the crumb rubber product streams from ground tires. Industrial combustion processes were modified to accept scrap tires as fuel. These efforts have been beneficial, steadily increasing the percentage of scrap tires recycled to about 10% in 1985, and reaching 72% in 1995. By the end of 1997, fully 100% of tires generated in the U.S. are expected to be recycled.

  8. A Novel Strain-Based Method to Estimate Tire Conditions Using Fuzzy Logic for Intelligent Tires.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Pozuelo, Daniel; Olatunbosun, Oluremi; Yunta, Jorge; Yang, Xiaoguang; Diaz, Vicente

    2017-02-10

    The so-called intelligent tires are one of the most promising research fields for automotive engineers. These tires are equipped with sensors which provide information about vehicle dynamics. Up to now, the commercial intelligent tires only provide information about inflation pressure and their contribution to stability control systems is currently very limited. Nowadays one of the major problems for intelligent tire development is how to embed feasible and low cost sensors to obtain reliable information such as inflation pressure, vertical load or rolling speed. These parameters provide key information for vehicle dynamics characterization. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm based on fuzzy logic to estimate the mentioned parameters by means of a single strain-based system. Experimental tests have been carried out in order to prove the suitability and durability of the proposed on-board strain sensor system, as well as its low cost advantages, and the accuracy of the obtained estimations by means of fuzzy logic.

  9. A lateral dynamics of a wheelchair: identification and analysis of tire parameters.

    PubMed

    Silva, L C A; Corrêa, F C; Eckert, J J; Santiciolli, F M; Dedini, F G

    2017-02-01

    In vehicle dynamics studies, the tire behaviour plays an important role in planar motion of the vehicle. Therefore, a correct representation of tire is a necessity. This paper describes a mathematical model for wheelchair tire based on the Magic Formula model. This model is widely used to represent forces and moments between the tire and the ground; however some experimental parameters must be determined. The purpose of this work is to identify the tire parameters for the wheelchair tire model, implementing them in a dynamic model of the wheelchair. For this, we developed an experimental test rig to measure the tires parameters for the lateral dynamics of a wheelchair. This dynamic model was made using a multi-body software and the wheelchair behaviour was analysed and discussed according to the tire parameters. The result of this work is one step further towards the understanding of wheelchair dynamics.

  10. The generation of tire cornering forces in aircraft with a free-swiveling nose gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, R. H.; Stubbs, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effect of various parameters on the cornering forces produced by a rolling aircraft tire installed on a tilted, free-swiveling nose gear. The parameters studied included tilt angle, trial, tire inflation pressure, rake angle, vertical load, and whether or not a twin tire configuration corotates. These parameters were evaluated by measuring the cornering force produced by an aircraft tire installed on the nose gear of a modified vehicle as it was towed slowly. Cornering force coefficient increased with increasing tilt angle. Increasing trial or rake angle decreased the magnitude of the cornering force coefficient. Tire inflation pressure had no effect on the cornering force coefficient. Increasing vertical load decreased the cornering force coefficient. When the tires of a twin tire system rotated independently, the cornering force coefficients were the same as those for the single-tire configuration. When the twin tire system was made to corotate, however, the cornering force coefficients increased significantly.

  11. Subcaliber discarding sabot airgun projectiles.

    PubMed

    Frank, Matthias; Schönekeß, Holger; Herbst, Jörg; Staats, Hans-Georg; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Nguyen, Thanh Tien; Bockholdt, Britta

    2014-03-01

    Medical literature abounds with reports on injuries and fatalities caused by airgun projectiles. While round balls or diabolo pellets have been the standard projectiles for airguns for decades, today, there are a large number of different airgun projectiles available. A very uncommon--and until now unique--discarding sabot airgun projectile (Sussex Sabo Bullet) was introduced into the market in the 1980s. The projectile, available in 0.177 (4.5 mm) and 0.22 (5.5 mm) caliber, consists of a plastic sabot cup surrounding a subcaliber copper-coated lead projectile in typical bullet shape. Following the typical principle of a discarding sabot projectile, the lightweight sabot is supposed to quickly loose velocity and to fall to the ground downrange while the bullet continues on target. These sabot-loaded projectiles are of special forensic interest due to their non-traceability and ballistic parameters. Therefore, it is the aim of this work to investigate the ballistic performance of these sabot airgun projectiles by high-speed video analyses and by measurement of the kinetic parameters of the projectile parts by a transient recording system as well as observing their physical features after being fired. While the sabot principle worked properly in high-energy airguns (E > 17 J), separation of the core projectile from the sabot cup was also observed when discharged in low-energy airguns (E < 7.5 J). While the velocity of the discarded Sussex Sabo core projectile was very close to the velocity of a diabolo-type reference projectile (RWS Meisterkugel), energy density was up to 60 % higher. To conclude, this work is the first study to demonstrate the regular function of this uncommon type of airgun projectile.

  12. Computational Modeling of Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Tanner, John A. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    This document contains presentations and discussions from the joint UVA/NASA Workshop on Computational Modeling of Tires. The workshop attendees represented NASA, the Army and Air force, tire companies, commercial software developers, and academia. The workshop objectives were to assess the state of technology in the computational modeling of tires and to provide guidelines for future research.

  13. Tests to Determine the Adhesive Power of Passenger-Car Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foerster, B.

    1956-01-01

    The concept of the adhesive power of a tire with respect to the road involves several properties which result from the purpose of the tire; namely, connecting link between vehicle and road: (1) The tire must transfer the tractive and braking forces acting in the direction of travel (tractive and braking adhesion); (2) The tire is to prevent lateral deviations of the vehicle from the desired direction of travel (track adhesion). Moreover, the rubber tire provides part of the springing of the vehicle. Above all, it has to level out the minor road irregularities; thus it smoothes, as it were, the road and simultaneously reduces the noise of driving. The springing properties of the tire affect the adhesive power. The tests described below comprise a determination of the braking and track adhesion of individual tires. The adhesion of driven wheels has not been investigated so far.

  14. 26 CFR 48.4221-8 - Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread rubber used on intercity, local, and school buses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread... RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Exemptions, Registration, Etc. § 48.4221-8 Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread... importer of tires of the type used on highway vehicles or inner tubes for tires sold for use by...

  15. 26 CFR 48.4221-8 - Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread rubber used on intercity, local, and school buses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread... RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Exemptions, Registration, Etc. § 48.4221-8 Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread... importer of tires of the type used on highway vehicles or inner tubes for tires sold for use by...

  16. 26 CFR 48.4221-8 - Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread rubber used on intercity, local, and school buses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread... RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Exemptions, Registration, Etc. § 48.4221-8 Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread... importer of tires of the type used on highway vehicles or inner tubes for tires sold for use by...

  17. 26 CFR 48.4221-8 - Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread rubber used on intercity, local, and school buses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread rubber... RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Exemptions, Registration, Etc. § 48.4221-8 Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread... importer of tires of the type used on highway vehicles or inner tubes for tires sold for use by...

  18. A Tire Air Maintenance Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Improperly inflated car tires can reduce gas mileage and car performance, speed up tire wear, and even cause a tire to blow out. The AAA auto club recommends that someone check the air pressure of one's car's tires at least once a month. Wouldn't it be nice, though, if someone came up with a tire pressure-monitoring system that automatically kept…

  19. CV-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) flight #145 drilling of shuttle tire using Tire Assa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Created from a 1/16th model of a German World War II tank, the TAV (Tire Assault Vehicle) was an important safety feature for the Convair 990 Landing System Research Aircraft, which tested space shuttle tires. It was imperative to know the extreme conditions the shuttle tires could tolerate at landing without putting the shuttle and its crew at risk. In addition, the CV990 was able to land repeatedly to test the tires. The TAV was built from a kit and modified into a radio controlled, video-equipped machine to drill holes in aircraft test tires that were in imminent danger of exploding because of one or more conditions: high air pressure, high temperatures, and cord wear. An exploding test tire releases energy equivalent to two and one-half sticks of dynamite and can cause severe injuries to anyone within 50 ft. of the explosion, as well as ear injury - possibly permanent hearing loss - to anyone within 100 ft. The degree of danger is also determined by the temperature pressure and cord wear of a test tire. The TAV was developed by David Carrott, a PRC employee under contract to NASA.

  20. 76 FR 28502 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, (Cooper),\\1\\ has determined...\\ Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company (Cooper) is a replacement equipment manufacturer incorporated in...

  1. Tire footprint studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawla, Mangal; Medzorian, John

    1995-08-01

    This presentation covers the results of tire footprint studies conducted in the Landing Gear Development Facility of the USAF Wright Laboratory at the Wright Patterson Air force Base, OH. Tire footprint studies are essential in understanding tire wear mechanisms and computing tire tread wear rates. The power input into the tread is the driving force for tread wear. Variables needed for power input calculations include the footprint pressure and slip velocity distributions. Studies were performed on the effects of power input distributions due to vertical load, camber, yaw, inflation pressure, and tire construction. For the present study, two tire constructions, one radial and the other bias, were selected. These tires were for the F-16 Block 30 fighter aircraft, both of which were previously worn. The present study was limited to steady straight roll with a 14,000 lb vertical load, a 310 psi inflation pressure, and zero yaw and camber. All tests were conducted on the Tire Force Machine (TFM) with a specialized sensor plate with embedded pressure sensors (X, Y, and Z) and slip sensors (X and Y). All tests were conducted for a table speed of 1 in/s. Tests on the TFM show that the power intensity distributions and total power for both tire constructions are quite similar for straight roll. Later on, tests were also conducted on a modified dynamometer which was overlaid with a grit wear surface. The tire speed was maintained at 40 miles per hour and yaw was set to four degrees. Dynamometer tests showed that radial tires have more tread wear than the bias tire; however, in the field, radial tires have longer life.

  2. Tire footprint studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chawla, Mangal; Medzorian, John

    1995-01-01

    This presentation covers the results of tire footprint studies conducted in the Landing Gear Development Facility of the USAF Wright Laboratory at the Wright Patterson Air force Base, OH. Tire footprint studies are essential in understanding tire wear mechanisms and computing tire tread wear rates. The power input into the tread is the driving force for tread wear. Variables needed for power input calculations include the footprint pressure and slip velocity distributions. Studies were performed on the effects of power input distributions due to vertical load, camber, yaw, inflation pressure, and tire construction. For the present study, two tire constructions, one radial and the other bias, were selected. These tires were for the F-16 Block 30 fighter aircraft, both of which were previously worn. The present study was limited to steady straight roll with a 14,000 lb vertical load, a 310 psi inflation pressure, and zero yaw and camber. All tests were conducted on the Tire Force Machine (TFM) with a specialized sensor plate with embedded pressure sensors (X, Y, and Z) and slip sensors (X and Y). All tests were conducted for a table speed of 1 in/s. Tests on the TFM show that the power intensity distributions and total power for both tire constructions are quite similar for straight roll. Later on, tests were also conducted on a modified dynamometer which was overlaid with a grit wear surface. The tire speed was maintained at 40 miles per hour and yaw was set to four degrees. Dynamometer tests showed that radial tires have more tread wear than the bias tire; however, in the field, radial tires have longer life.

  3. Mosquito Larvae in Tires from Mississippi, United States: The Efficacy of Abiotic and Biotic Parameters in Predicting Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Mosquito Populations and Communities

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Donald A.; Abuzeineh, Alisa A.; Ezeakacha, Nnaemeka F.; Schelble, Stephanie S.; Glasgow, William C.; Flanagan, Stephen D.; Skiff, Jeffrey J.; Reeves, Ashton; Kuehn, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Container systems, including discarded vehicle tires, which support populations of mosquitoes, have been of interest for understanding the variables that produce biting adults that serve as both nuisances and as public health threats. We sampled tires in six sites at three times in 2012 across the state of Mississippi to understand the biotic and abiotic variables responsible for explaining patterns of larvae of common species, species richness, and total abundance of mosquitoes. From 498 tires sampled, we collected >58,000 immatures representing 16 species, with the most common species including Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Culex quinquefasciatus (L.), Orthopodomyia signifera (Coquillett), Aedes triseriatus (Say), Toxorhynchites rutilus septentrionalis (Coquillett), and Culex territans (Walker) accounting for ∼97% of all larvae. We also documented 32 new county records for resident species and recent arrivals in the state, including Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) and Culex coronator (Dyar & Knab). Cluster analysis, which was used to associate sites and time periods based on similar mosquito composition, did reveal patterns across the state; however, there also were more general patterns between species and genera and environmental factors. Broadly, Aedes was often associated with factors related to detritus, whereas Culex was frequently associated with habitat variables (e.g., tire size and water volume) and microorganisms. Some Culex did lack factors connecting variation in early and late instars, suggesting differences between environmental determinants of oviposition and survival. General patterns between the tire environment and mosquito larvae do appear to exist, especially at the generic level, and point to inherent differences between genera that may aid in predicting vector locations and populations. PMID:26334813

  4. Mosquito Larvae in Tires from Mississippi, United States: The Efficacy of Abiotic and Biotic Parameters in Predicting Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Mosquito Populations and Communities.

    PubMed

    Yee, Donald A; Abuzeineh, Alisa A; Ezeakacha, Nnaemeka F; Schelble, Stephanie S; Glasgow, William C; Flanagan, Stephen D; Skiff, Jeffrey J; Reeves, Ashton; Kuehn, Kevin

    2015-05-01

    Container systems, including discarded vehicle tires, which support populations of mosquitoes, have been of interest for understanding the variables that produce biting adults that serve as both nuisances and as public health threats. We sampled tires in six sites at three times in 2012 across the state of Mississippi to understand the biotic and abiotic variables responsible for explaining patterns of larvae of common species, species richness, and total abundance of mosquitoes. From 498 tires sampled, we collected >58,000 immatures representing 16 species, with the most common species including Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Culex quinquefasciatus (L.), Orthopodomyia signifera (Coquillett), Aedes triseriatus (Say), Toxorhynchites rutilus septentrionalis (Coquillett), and Culex territans (Walker) accounting for ∼97% of all larvae. We also documented 32 new county records for resident species and recent arrivals in the state, including Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) and Culex coronator (Dyar & Knab). Cluster analysis, which was used to associate sites and time periods based on similar mosquito composition, did reveal patterns across the state; however, there also were more general patterns between species and genera and environmental factors. Broadly, Aedes was often associated with factors related to detritus, whereas Culex was frequently associated with habitat variables (e.g., tire size and water volume) and microorganisms. Some Culex did lack factors connecting variation in early and late instars, suggesting differences between environmental determinants of oviposition and survival. General patterns between the tire environment and mosquito larvae do appear to exist, especially at the generic level, and point to inherent differences between genera that may aid in predicting vector locations and populations.

  5. A new tire model for aircraft landing gear dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsley, Ned J.

    1999-12-01

    The aircraft landing gear is, by nature of its function and subsequent design, a complex, multi-degree-of-freedom system. The stability of such a system requires further study, particularly at the tire-runway boundary condition. Presented here is an extensive literature search on previous work concerning the shimmy phenomenon, followed by a course of work defining the role which the tire plays. The tasks performed included deriving and discretizing the equations of motion for the tire, developing an empirical model for the tire's inflation loading characteristics, loading and rolling the tire in the vertical plane, laterally deflecting and twisting the tire's vertical plane, and discussing interaction of the tire model with landing gear dynamics models. Given identical inflation pressure and target vertical load, the dominant factor on out-of-plane stability response is the nonlinear softening effect of increasing air vehicle velocity. The most significant contribution of this work is the development of the tire model into a physically accurate, computationally inexpensive and fast desktop computer product for use as a landing gear system component in air vehicle ground operations simulations.

  6. 49 CFR 571.117 - Standard No. 117; Retreaded pneumatic tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.117 Standard No. 117; Retreaded pneumatic tires. S1. Scope... passenger car tires. S2. Purpose. The purpose of this standard is to require retreaded pneumatic...

  7. Cascading ecological effects of eliminating fishery discards

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Michael R.; Cook, Robin M.; Cameron, Angus I.; Morris, David J.; Speirs, Douglas C.

    2014-01-01

    Discarding by fisheries is perceived as contrary to responsible harvesting. Legislation seeking to end the practice is being introduced in many jurisdictions. However, discarded fish are food for a range of scavenging species; so, ending discarding may have ecological consequences. Here we investigate the sensitivity of ecological effects to discarding policies using an ecosystem model of the North Sea—a region where 30–40% of trawled fish catch is currently discarded. We show that landing the entire catch while fishing as usual has conservation penalties for seabirds, marine mammals and seabed fauna, and no benefit to fish stocks. However, combining landing obligations with changes in fishing practices to limit the capture of unwanted fish results in trophic cascades that can benefit birds, mammals and most fish stocks. Our results highlight the importance of considering the broader ecosystem consequences of fishery management policy, since species interactions may dissipate or negate intended benefits. PMID:24820200

  8. A study of the cornering forces generated by aircraft tires on a tilted, free-swiveling nose gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, R. H.; Stubbs, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effect of various parameters on the cornering forces produced by a rolling aircraft tire installed on a tilted, free-swiveling nose gear. The parameters studied included tilt angle, trial, tire inflation pressure, rake angle, vertical load, and whether or not a twin tire configuration corotates. These parameters were evaluated by measuring the cornering force produced by an aircraft tire installed on the nose gear of a modified vehicle as it was towed slowly. Cornering force coefficient increased with increasing tilt angle. Increasing trial or rake angle decreased the magnitude of the cornering force coefficient. Tire inflation pressure had no effect on the cornering force coefficient. Increasing vertical load decreased the cornering force coefficient. When the tires of a twin tire system rotated independently, the cornering force coefficients were the same as those for the single-tire configuration. When the twin tire system was made to corotate, however, the cornering force coefficients increased significantly.

  9. Dynamic tire pressure sensor for measuring ground vibration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; McDaniel, James Gregory; Wang, Ming L

    2012-11-07

    This work presents a convenient and non-contact acoustic sensing approach for measuring ground vibration. This approach, which uses an instantaneous dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS), possesses the capability to replace the accelerometer or directional microphone currently being used for inspecting pavement conditions. By measuring dynamic pressure changes inside the tire, ground vibration can be amplified and isolated from environmental noise. In this work, verifications of the DTPS concept of sensing inside the tire have been carried out. In addition, comparisons between a DTPS, ground-mounted accelerometer, and directional microphone are made. A data analysis algorithm has been developed and optimized to reconstruct ground acceleration from DTPS data. Numerical and experimental studies of this DTPS reveal a strong potential for measuring ground vibration caused by a moving vehicle. A calibration of transfer function between dynamic tire pressure change and ground acceleration may be needed for different tire system or for more accurate application.

  10. Dynamic Tire Pressure Sensor for Measuring Ground Vibration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; McDaniel, James Gregory; Wang, Ming L.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a convenient and non-contact acoustic sensing approach for measuring ground vibration. This approach, which uses an instantaneous dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS), possesses the capability to replace the accelerometer or directional microphone currently being used for inspecting pavement conditions. By measuring dynamic pressure changes inside the tire, ground vibration can be amplified and isolated from environmental noise. In this work, verifications of the DTPS concept of sensing inside the tire have been carried out. In addition, comparisons between a DTPS, ground-mounted accelerometer, and directional microphone are made. A data analysis algorithm has been developed and optimized to reconstruct ground acceleration from DTPS data. Numerical and experimental studies of this DTPS reveal a strong potential for measuring ground vibration caused by a moving vehicle. A calibration of transfer function between dynamic tire pressure change and ground acceleration may be needed for different tire system or for more accurate application. PMID:23202206

  11. Rolling tires into rubber

    SciTech Connect

    Malloy, M.G.

    1997-06-01

    For Envirotire (Lillington, North Carolina), producing quality crumb rubber this summer is all in a night`s work. The tire recycling facility has operated in Lillington, which is about an hour south of Raleigh, North Carolina, for about a year and a half, since October 1995. In the summer, the plant runs at night to save money in electricity costs by operating during off-peak hours; in the winter, daytime hours also can be off-peak. In contrast to the cryogenic systems used elsewhere to recycle tires, Envirotire`s system works on mechanical principles. Before the tires are even shredded, a worker cuts the white-walls out of the tires manually, so the white does not contaminate the black end-product. A worker places the tires manually on a conveyor, which feed them up to an initial shredder that sections them quickly into pieces. While the tires are on the conveyor, dividing strips on the conveyor mark off a place for each tire. The system takes nine new tires per minute.

  12. Materials Approach to Fuel Efficient Tires

    SciTech Connect

    Votruba-Drzal, Peter; Kornish, Brian

    2015-06-30

    The objective of this project was to design, develop, and demonstrate fuel efficient and safety regulation compliant tire filler and barrier coating technologies that will improve overall fuel efficiency by at least 2%. The program developed and validated two complementary approaches to improving fuel efficiency through tire improvements. The first technology was a modified silica-based product that is 15% lower in cost and/or enables a 10% improvement in tread wear while maintaining the already demonstrated minimum of 2% improvement in average fuel efficiency. The second technology was a barrier coating with reduced oxygen transmission rate compared to the state-of-the-art halobutyl rubber inner liners that will provide extended placarded tire pressure retention at significantly reduced material usage. A lower-permeance, thinner inner liner coating which retains tire pressure was expected to deliver the additional 2% reduction in fleet fuel consumption. From the 2006 Transportation Research Board Report1, a 10 percent reduction in rolling resistance can reduce consumer fuel expenditures by 1 to 2 percent for typical vehicles. This savings is equivalent to 6 to 12 gallons per year. A 1 psi drop in inflation pressure increases the tire's rolling resistance by about 1.4 percent.

  13. Yawed-Rolling Tire Mechanical Properties Testing of the Navy T-45 Aircraft Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Robert H.

    2000-01-01

    The T-45 Goshawk is a United States Navy Jet aircraft used primarily as a trainer. The aircraft design makes use of "off the shelf" hardware as much as possible and was found to have unusual directional control issues during around operations. The aircraft was involved in numerous pilot-induced-oscillation incidents as well as observed to have unusual directional control reactions to failed main gear tires, a condition that is normally handled relatively easily by conventional aircraft steering control techniques. The behavior of the aircraft's tires had previously been modeled in simulators as a result of approximations provided in 40-year-old reference publications. Since knowledge of the true tire cornering and braking behavior is essential to modeling, understanding, and fixing directional control problems, the United States Navy requested assistance from the NASA Langley Research Center's (LARC) Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) to define the yawed-rolling mechanical properties of the T-45 aircraft tires. The purpose of this report is to document the results of testing the subject tires at the NASA LaRC ALDF in September 1998. Brief descriptions of the Instrumented Tire Test Vehicle (ITTV) are included to familiarize the reader with the ITTV capabilities, data acquisition system, test and measurement techniques, data accuracy, and analysis and presentation of the testing results.

  14. Pneumatic tire-based piezoelectric power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makki, Noaman; Pop-Iliev, Remon

    2011-03-01

    Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) and Extended Range Electric Vehicles (EREVs) currently mainly rely on Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) utilizing conventional fuels to recharge batteries in order to extend their range. Even though Piezo-based power generation devices have surfaced in recent years harvesting vibration energy, their output has only been sufficient to power up sensors and other such smaller devices. The permanent need for a cleaner power generation technique still remains. This paper investigates the possibility of using piezoceramics for power generation within the vehicle's wheel assembly by exploiting the rotational motion of the wheel and the continuously variable contact point between the pneumatic tire and the road.

  15. Wireless Monitoring of Automobile Tires for Intelligent Tires.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Todoroki, Akira

    2008-12-09

    This review discusses key technologies of intelligent tires focusing on sensors and wireless data transmission. Intelligent automobile tires, which monitor their pressure, deformation, wheel loading, friction, or tread wear, are expected to improve the reliability of tires and tire control systems. However, in installing sensors in a tire, many problems have to be considered, such as compatibility of the sensors with tire rubber, wireless transmission, and battery installments. As regards sensing, this review discusses indirect methods using existing sensors, such as that for wheel speed, and direct methods, such as surface acoustic wave sensors and piezoelectric sensors. For wireless transmission, passive wireless methods and energy harvesting are also discussed.

  16. Wireless Monitoring of Automobile Tires for Intelligent Tires

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Todoroki, Akira

    2008-01-01

    This review discusses key technologies of intelligent tires focusing on sensors and wireless data transmission. Intelligent automobile tires, which monitor their pressure, deformation, wheel loading, friction, or tread wear, are expected to improve the reliability of tires and tire control systems. However, in installing sensors in a tire, many problems have to be considered, such as compatibility of the sensors with tire rubber, wireless transmission, and battery installments. As regards sensing, this review discusses indirect methods using existing sensors, such as that for wheel speed, and direct methods, such as surface acoustic wave sensors and piezoelectric sensors. For wireless transmission, passive wireless methods and energy harvesting are also discussed. PMID:27873979

  17. Numerical analysis of tire/contact pressure using finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pranoto, Sarwo Edy; Hidayat, Royan; Tauviqirrahman, Mohammad; Bayuseno, Athanasius P.

    2016-04-01

    The interaction between the road surface and vehicle's tire may significantly determine the stability of a vehicle. We could study the tire contact-pressure to road surfaces through a numerical simulation in this present study. In particular, the main purpose of the study was to present an illustration of the effect of the varied loads to the tire, which would affect the contact pressure on the road surface sand stress distribution on the tire by employing a commercial ABAQUS software, based on the finite element method. To make the process of data analysis easier, the tire was assumed to be made from natural rubber which composition consisted of 2 layers of the inner tire and 1 layer of carcass. In pre-conditions, the tire was given air pressure as much as 17 psi, and loads as much as 2 KN, 6 KN, and 10 KN; then, the air pressure was increased to be 30 psi; consequently, the simulation results of stress distribution and deformation on each of loads condition would be acquired. The simulation results indicated that the loads carried by the tire on the vehicle were an important factor to determine the tire-stress profile.

  18. A Novel Strain-Based Method to Estimate Tire Conditions Using Fuzzy Logic for Intelligent Tires

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Pozuelo, Daniel; Olatunbosun, Oluremi; Yunta, Jorge; Yang, Xiaoguang; Diaz, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    The so-called intelligent tires are one of the most promising research fields for automotive engineers. These tires are equipped with sensors which provide information about vehicle dynamics. Up to now, the commercial intelligent tires only provide information about inflation pressure and their contribution to stability control systems is currently very limited. Nowadays one of the major problems for intelligent tire development is how to embed feasible and low cost sensors to obtain reliable information such as inflation pressure, vertical load or rolling speed. These parameters provide key information for vehicle dynamics characterization. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm based on fuzzy logic to estimate the mentioned parameters by means of a single strain-based system. Experimental tests have been carried out in order to prove the suitability and durability of the proposed on-board strain sensor system, as well as its low cost advantages, and the accuracy of the obtained estimations by means of fuzzy logic. PMID:28208631

  19. 49 CFR 571.119 - Standard No. 119; New pneumatic tires for motor vehicles with a GVWR of more than 4,536 kilograms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... energy for each test point by one of the two following formulas: (1) W = × 10−3 (joules) Where: W... trucks or multipurpose passenger vehicles. Model rim assembly means a test device that (a) includes a rim... to and met the endurance test (S6.1), strength test (S6.2), or high speed performance test (S6.3)....

  20. 49 CFR 571.119 - Standard No. 119; New pneumatic tires for motor vehicles with a GVWR of more than 4,536 kilograms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... energy for each test point by one of the two following formulas: (1) W = × 10−3 (joules) Where: W... trucks or multipurpose passenger vehicles. Model rim assembly means a test device that (a) includes a rim... to and met the endurance test (S6.1), strength test (S6.2), or high speed performance test (S6.3)....

  1. NASA evaluation of Type 2 chemical depositions. [effects of deicer deposition on aircraft tire friction performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Stubbs, Sandy M.; Howell, W. Edward; Webb, Granville L.

    1993-01-01

    Recent findings from NASA Langley tests to define effects of aircraft Type 2 chemical deicer depositions on aircraft tire friction performance are summarized. The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) is described together with the scope of the tire cornering and braking friction tests conducted up to 160 knots ground speed. Some lower speed 32 - 96 km/hr (20 - 60 mph) test run data obtained using an Instrumented Tire Test Vehicle (ITTV) to determine effects of tire bearing pressure and transverse grooving on cornering friction performance are also discussed. Recommendations are made concerning which parameters should be evaluated in future testing.

  2. Tire traces - discrimination and classification of pyrolysis-GC/MS profiles.

    PubMed

    Gueissaz, Line; Massonnet, Geneviève

    2013-07-10

    Tire traces can be observed on several crime scenes as vehicles are often used by criminals. The tread abrasion on the road, while braking or skidding, leads to the production of small rubber particles which can be collected for comparison purposes. This research focused on the statistical comparison of Py-GC/MS profiles of tire traces and tire treads. The optimisation of the analytical method was carried out using experimental designs. The aim was to determine the best pyrolysis parameters regarding the repeatability of the results. Thus, the pyrolysis factor effect could also be calculated. The pyrolysis temperature was found to be five time more important than time. Finally, a pyrolysis at 650°C during 15s was selected. Ten tires of different manufacturers and models were used for this study. Several samples were collected on each tire, and several replicates were carried out to study the variability within each tire (intravariability). More than eighty compounds were integrated for each analysis and the variability study showed that more than 75% presented a relative standard deviation (RSD) below 5% for the ten tires, thus supporting a low intravariability. The variability between the ten tires (intervariability) presented higher values and the ten most variant compounds had a RSD value above 13%, supporting their high potential of discrimination between the tires tested. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was able to fully discriminate the ten tires with the help of the first three principal components. The ten tires were finally used to perform braking tests on a racetrack with a vehicle equipped with an anti-lock braking system. The resulting tire traces were adequately collected using sheets of white gelatine. As for tires, the intravariability for the traces was found to be lower than the intervariability. Clustering methods were carried out and the Ward's method based on the squared Euclidean distance was able to correctly group all of the tire traces

  3. A hierarchical estimator development for estimation of tire-road friction coefficient

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xudong; Göhlich, Dietmar

    2017-01-01

    The effect of vehicle active safety systems is subject to the friction force arising from the contact of tires and the road surface. Therefore, an adequate knowledge of the tire-road friction coefficient is of great importance to achieve a good performance of these control systems. This paper presents a tire-road friction coefficient estimation method for an advanced vehicle configuration, four-motorized-wheel electric vehicles, in which the longitudinal tire force is easily obtained. A hierarchical structure is adopted for the proposed estimation design. An upper estimator is developed based on unscented Kalman filter to estimate vehicle state information, while a hybrid estimation method is applied as the lower estimator to identify the tire-road friction coefficient using general regression neural network (GRNN) and Bayes' theorem. GRNN aims at detecting road friction coefficient under small excitations, which are the most common situations in daily driving. GRNN is able to accurately create a mapping from input parameters to the friction coefficient, avoiding storing an entire complex tire model. As for large excitations, the estimation algorithm is based on Bayes' theorem and a simplified “magic formula” tire model. The integrated estimation method is established by the combination of the above-mentioned estimators. Finally, the simulations based on a high-fidelity CarSim vehicle model are carried out on different road surfaces and driving maneuvers to verify the effectiveness of the proposed estimation method. PMID:28178332

  4. A hierarchical estimator development for estimation of tire-road friction coefficient.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xudong; Göhlich, Dietmar

    2017-01-01

    The effect of vehicle active safety systems is subject to the friction force arising from the contact of tires and the road surface. Therefore, an adequate knowledge of the tire-road friction coefficient is of great importance to achieve a good performance of these control systems. This paper presents a tire-road friction coefficient estimation method for an advanced vehicle configuration, four-motorized-wheel electric vehicles, in which the longitudinal tire force is easily obtained. A hierarchical structure is adopted for the proposed estimation design. An upper estimator is developed based on unscented Kalman filter to estimate vehicle state information, while a hybrid estimation method is applied as the lower estimator to identify the tire-road friction coefficient using general regression neural network (GRNN) and Bayes' theorem. GRNN aims at detecting road friction coefficient under small excitations, which are the most common situations in daily driving. GRNN is able to accurately create a mapping from input parameters to the friction coefficient, avoiding storing an entire complex tire model. As for large excitations, the estimation algorithm is based on Bayes' theorem and a simplified "magic formula" tire model. The integrated estimation method is established by the combination of the above-mentioned estimators. Finally, the simulations based on a high-fidelity CarSim vehicle model are carried out on different road surfaces and driving maneuvers to verify the effectiveness of the proposed estimation method.

  5. Materials Discarded in the U.S. Municipal Waste Stream, 1960 to 2009 (in tons)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has collected and reported data on the generation and disposal of waste in the United States for more than 30 years. We use this information to measure the success of waste reduction and recycling programs across the country. Our trash, or municipal solid waste (MSW), is made up of the things we commonly use and then throw away. These materials include items such as packaging, food scraps, grass clippings, sofas, computers, tires, and refrigerators. MSW does not include industrial, hazardous, or construction waste. The data on Materials Discarded in the Municipal Waste Stream, 1960 to 2009, provides estimated data in thousands of tons discarded after recycling and compost recovery for the years 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2007, 2008, and 2009. In this data set, discards include combustion with energy recovery. This data table does not include construction & demolition debris, industrial process wastes, or certain other wastes. The Other category includes electrolytes in batteries and fluff pulp, feces, and urine in disposable diapers. Details may not add to totals due to rounding.

  6. Group photo to show NASA GRC's collaboration with Goodyear tires; The facility is called the

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Group photo to show NASA GRC's collaboration with Goodyear tires; The facility is called the Simulated Lunar Operations (SLOPE) Laboratory and the test-vehicle is called Modular Mobility-Technology Demonstrator (MMTD)

  7. Hybrid Soft Soil Tire Model (HSSTM). Part 1: Tire Material and Structure Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-28

    phenomenon is known as Mullin’s effect.  Instead of having a hysteresis loop in the stress-strain curves of the loading cycle, the hyperelastic... simulation results are plotted versus the test data across the entire simulation time span. Next, a linear line is curve -fitted to the resulted data points...commercially available vehicle simulation packages. Model parameters are obtained using a validated finite element tire model, modal analysis, and other

  8. TIRES, OPEN BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter describes available information on the health effects from open burning of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a small-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...

  9. Building with Tires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Eugenio, Terrance

    Text, drawings, and photographs show how tires, no longer usable for transportation, were assembled in a variety of ways to make swings, climbers, tunnels, and walls for a homemade playground. With the support of community representatives and a local high school class, a playground in Brockton, Massachusetts, was built in four days from tires…

  10. 14 CFR 23.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 23.733 Tires. (a) Each landing gear wheel must have a tire whose approved tire ratings (static and dynamic) are not exceeded— (1) By a load on each main wheel tire) to be compared to the static rating approved for such tires) equal to the corresponding static ground reaction under the design maximum...

  11. 14 CFR 23.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 23.733 Tires. (a) Each landing gear wheel must have a tire whose approved tire ratings (static and dynamic) are not exceeded— (1) By a load on each main wheel tire) to be compared to the static rating approved for such tires) equal to the corresponding static ground reaction under the design maximum...

  12. 14 CFR 23.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 23.733 Tires. (a) Each landing gear wheel must have a tire whose approved tire ratings (static and dynamic) are not exceeded— (1) By a load on each main wheel tire) to be compared to the static rating approved for such tires) equal to the corresponding static ground reaction under the design maximum...

  13. 14 CFR 23.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 23.733 Tires. (a) Each landing gear wheel must have a tire whose approved tire ratings (static and dynamic) are not exceeded— (1) By a load on each main wheel tire) to be compared to the static rating approved for such tires) equal to the corresponding static ground reaction under the design maximum...

  14. 14 CFR 23.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 23.733 Tires. (a) Each landing gear wheel must have a tire whose approved tire ratings (static and dynamic) are not exceeded— (1) By a load on each main wheel tire) to be compared to the static rating approved for such tires) equal to the corresponding static ground reaction under the design maximum...

  15. Proceedings of the ISTVS (International Society for Terrain-Vehicle Systems) Workshop on Measurement and Evaluation of Tire Performance under Winter Conditions, Alta, Utah, 11-14 April 1983.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    related phe- tire/snow surface interface, then one nomena reflect the snowpack history as could observe the mobilization of resis- such. tant forces... history of the processes will be described and dis- snowpack, solar and radiational/cooling cussed. effects, etc. These effects or phenomena . cannot...resistance of pneumatic tires. testing as seen by the independent test- Journal of Automotive Engineering (4). er. SAE Technical Paper 820344. 6. Yong

  16. A Multisensing Setup for the Intelligent Tire Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Coppo, Francesco; Pepe, Gianluca; Roveri, Nicola; Carcaterra, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The present paper offers the chance to experimentally measure, for the first time, the internal tire strain by optical fiber sensors during the tire rolling in real operating conditions. The phenomena that take place during the tire rolling are in fact far from being completely understood. Despite several models available in the technical literature, there is not a correspondently large set of experimental observations. The paper includes the detailed description of the new multi-sensing technology for an ongoing vehicle measurement, which the research group has developed in the context of the project OPTYRE. The experimental apparatus is mainly based on the use of optical fibers with embedded Fiber Bragg Gratings sensors for the acquisition of the circumferential tire strain. Other sensors are also installed on the tire, such as a phonic wheel, a uniaxial accelerometer, and a dynamic temperature sensor. The acquired information is used as input variables in dedicated algorithms that allow the identification of key parameters, such as the dynamic contact patch, instantaneous dissipation and instantaneous grip. The OPTYRE project brings a contribution into the field of experimental grip monitoring of wheeled vehicles, with implications both on passive and active safety characteristics of cars and motorbikes. PMID:28287503

  17. A Multisensing Setup for the Intelligent Tire Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Coppo, Francesco; Pepe, Gianluca; Roveri, Nicola; Carcaterra, Antonio

    2017-03-12

    The present paper offers the chance to experimentally measure, for the first time, the internal tire strain by optical fiber sensors during the tire rolling in real operating conditions. The phenomena that take place during the tire rolling are in fact far from being completely understood. Despite several models available in the technical literature, there is not a correspondently large set of experimental observations. The paper includes the detailed description of the new multi-sensing technology for an ongoing vehicle measurement, which the research group has developed in the context of the project OPTYRE. The experimental apparatus is mainly based on the use of optical fibers with embedded Fiber Bragg Gratings sensors for the acquisition of the circumferential tire strain. Other sensors are also installed on the tire, such as a phonic wheel, a uniaxial accelerometer, and a dynamic temperature sensor. The acquired information is used as input variables in dedicated algorithms that allow the identification of key parameters, such as the dynamic contact patch, instantaneous dissipation and instantaneous grip. The OPTYRE project brings a contribution into the field of experimental grip monitoring of wheeled vehicles, with implications both on passive and active safety characteristics of cars and motorbikes.

  18. Tire deflation device

    DOEpatents

    Barker, Stacey G [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-01-05

    A tire deflation device includes (1) a component having a plurality of bores, (2) a plurality of spikes removably insertable into the plurality of bores and (3) a keeper within each among the plurality of bores, the keeper being configured to contact a sidewall surface of a spike among the plurality of spikes and to exert force upon the sidewall surface. In an embodiment, the tire deflation device includes (a) a component including a bore in a material, the bore including a receiving region, a sidewall surface and a base surface, (b) a channel extending from the sidewall surface into the material, (c) a keeper having a first section housed within the channel and a second section which extends past the sidewall surface into the receiving region, and (d) a spike removably insertable into the bore.

  19. Heat generation in aircraft tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, S. K.

    1983-01-01

    A method was developed for calculating the internal temperature distribution in an aircraft tire while free rolling under load. The method uses an approximate stress analysis of each point in the tire as it rolls through the contact patch, and from this stress change the mechanical work done on each volume element may be obtained and converted into a heat release rate through a knowledge of material characteristics. The tire cross-section is then considered as a body with internal heat generation, and the diffusion equation is solved numerically with appropriate boundary conditions of the wheel and runway surface. Comparison with data obtained with buried thermocouples in tires shows good agreement.

  20. Heat generation in aircraft tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.

    1985-01-01

    A method was developed for calculating the internal temperature distribution in an aircraft tire while free rolling under load. The method uses an approximate stress analysis of each point in the tire as it rolls through the contact patch, and from this stress change the mechanical work done on each volume element may be obtained and converted into a heat release rate through a knowledge of material characteristics. The tire cross-section is then considered as a body with internal heat generation, and the diffusion equation is solved numerically with appropriate boundary conditions of the wheel and runway surface. Comparison with data obtained with buried thermocouples in tires shows good agreement.

  1. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Rhinehart Tire Fire Site, Winchester, Frederick County, Virginia (first remedial action) June 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-30

    The Rhinehart Tire Fire (RTF) site is located in a sparsely populated rural area in Western Frederick County, Virginia, approximately six miles east of the Town of Winchester. Between 1972 and 1983, the site owner, Mr. Rhinehart, conducted a tire disposal operation which consisted of transporting discarded tires from various locations and storing them on a wooded slope behind his home. By October 1983, an estimated five to seven million tires had accumulated, and on October 31, 1983 caught fire. EPA, through the Army Corps of Engineers, conducted a Remedial Investigation (RI) to characterize and define the extent of possible contaminants. The remedial action will address the control of contaminant migration off-site via surface water runoff. A subsequent remedial action will address source control at the site. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the ground water, soil, and surface water are metals including arsenic and lead. The selected remedial action for the site is included.

  2. Analysis of Physical Properties and Mineralogical of Pyrolysis Tires Rubber Ash Compared Natural Sand in Concrete material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syamir Senin, Mohamad; Shahidan, Shahiron; Syazani Leman, Alif; Izzati Raihan Ramzi Hannan, Nurul

    2016-11-01

    Waste tires pose significant health and environmental concerns if not recycled or discarded properly. At the same time, natural sand is becoming scarcer and costlier due to its non-availability. Waste tires as fine aggregate can be an economical and sustainable alternative to the natural sand. Recent years, the interest on recycling waste tires into civil engineering applications by the researchers has increased. In this research, the chemical and physical properties of the tires rubber ash and the natural sand have been analysed. The densities of the rubber ash are lower than the natural sand. Rubber ash had finer particle size compared to the natural sand. Almost all chemical in the natural sand had in rubber ash with the additional sulphur trioxide and zinc oxide in the rubber ash, made the rubber ash better than natural sand. Rubber ash seems to be a suitable material to use in concrete as sand replacement.

  3. Cornering and wear behavior of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Robert H.; Stubbs, Sandy M.

    1987-01-01

    One of the factors needed to describe the handling characteristics of the Space Shuttle Orbiter during the landing rollout is the response of the vehicle's tires to variations in load and yaw angle. An experimental investigation of the cornering characteristics of the Orbiter main gear tires was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility. This investigation compliments earlier work done to define the Orbiter nose tire cornering characteristics. In the investigation, the effects of load and yaw angle were evaluated by measuring parameters such as side load and drag load, and obtaining measurements of aligning torque. Because the tire must operate on an extremely rough runway at the Shuttle Landing Facility at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), tests were also conducted to describe the wear behavior of the tire under various conditions on a simulated KSC runway surface. Mathematical models for both the cornering and the wear behavior are discussed.

  4. Wear and related characteristics of an aircraft tire during braking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Wear and related characteristics of friction and temperature developed during braking of size 22 x 5.5, type aircraft tires are studied. The testing technique involved gearing the tire to a driving wheel of a ground vehicle to provide operations at constant slip ratios on asphalt, concrete, and slurry-seal surfaces. Data were obtained over the range of slip ratios generally attributed to an aircraft braking system during dry runway operations. The results show that the cumulative tire wear varies linearly with distance traveled and the wear rate increases with increasing slip ratio and is influenced by the runway-surface character. Differences in the wear rates associated with the various surfaces suggest that runways can be rated on the basis of tire wear. The results also show that the friction coefficients developed during fixed-slip-ratio operations are in good agreement with those obtained by other investigators during cyclic braking, in that the dry friction is insensitive to the tire tread temperature is shown to increase with increasing slip ratio and, at the higher ratios, to be greater during braking on asphalt and slurry seal than on concrete.

  5. 49 CFR 574.7 - Information requirements-new tire manufacturers, new tire brand name owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information requirements-new tire manufacturers, new tire brand name owners. 574.7 Section 574.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to..., new tire brand name owners. (a)(1) Each new tire manufacturer and each new tire brand name...

  6. 49 CFR 570.9 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tires. 570.9 Section 570.9 Transportation Other... § 570.9 Tires. (a) Tread depth. The tread on each tire shall be not less than two thirty-seconds of an inch deep. (1) Inspection procedure. Passenger car tires have tread depth indicators that...

  7. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, Max J.; Townsend, Timothy G.

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Electronic cigarettes were tested using TCLP and WET. • Several electronic cigarette products leached lead at hazardous waste levels. • Lead was the only element that exceeded hazardous waste concentration thresholds. • Nicotine solution may cause hazardous waste classification when discarded unused. - Abstract: The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50 mg/L by WET and 40 mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers.

  8. Two variants of minimum discarded fill ordering

    SciTech Connect

    D'Azevedo, E.F. ); Forsyth, P.A.; Tang, Wei-Pai . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-01-01

    It is well known that the ordering of the unknowns can have a significant effect on the convergence of Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) methods. There has been considerable experimental work on the effects of ordering for regular finite difference problems. In many cases, good results have been obtained with preconditioners based on diagonal, spiral or natural row orderings. However, for finite element problems having unstructured grids or grids generated by a local refinement approach, it is difficult to define many of the orderings for more regular problems. A recently proposed Minimum Discarded Fill (MDF) ordering technique is effective in finding high quality Incomplete LU (ILU) preconditioners, especially for problems arising from unstructured finite element grids. Testing indicates this algorithm can identify a rather complicated physical structure in an anisotropic problem and orders the unknowns in the preferred'' direction. The MDF technique may be viewed as the numerical analogue of the minimum deficiency algorithm in sparse matrix technology. At any stage of the partial elimination, the MDF technique chooses the next pivot node so as to minimize the amount of discarded fill. In this work, two efficient variants of the MDF technique are explored to produce cost-effective high-order ILU preconditioners. The Threshold MDF orderings combine MDF ideas with drop tolerance techniques to identify the sparsity pattern in the ILU preconditioners. These techniques identify an ordering that encourages fast decay of the entries in the ILU factorization. The Minimum Update Matrix (MUM) ordering technique is a simplification of the MDF ordering and is closely related to the minimum degree algorithm. The MUM ordering is especially for large problems arising from Navier-Stokes problems. Some interesting pictures of the orderings are presented using a visualization tool. 22 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Light Vehicle Preventive Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to instruct students in the performance of preventive maintenance on motor vehicles. Instructional materials are presented in three chapters as follows: (1) Major Maintenance Areas (maintenance system, tires, batteries, cooling systems, and vehicle lubrication; (2)…

  10. Interaction of In-wheel permanent magnet synchronous motor with tire dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ziyou; Li, Jianqiu; Wei, Yintao; Xu, Liangfei; Ouyang, Minggao

    2015-05-01

    Drive wheel systems combined with the in-wheel permanent magnet synchronous motor (I-PMSM) and the tire are highly electromechanical-coupled. However, the deformation dynamics of this system, which may influence the system performance, is neglected in most existing literatures. For this reason, a deformable tire and a detailed I-PMSM are modeled using Matlab/Simulink. Furthermore, the influence of tire/road contact interface is accurately described by the non-linear relaxation length-based model and magic formula pragmatic model. The drive wheel model used in this paper is closer to that of a real tire in contrast to the rigid tire model which is widely used. Based on the near-precise model mentioned above, the sensitivity of the dynamic tire and I-PMSM parameters to the relative error of slip ratio estimation is analyzed. Additionally, the torsional and longitudinal vibrations of the drive wheel are presented both in time and frequency domains when a quarter vehicle is started under conditions of a specific torque curve, which includes an abrupt torque change from 30 N · m to 200 N · m. The parameters sensitivity on drive wheel vibrations is also studied, and the parameters include the mass distribution ratio of tire, the tire torsional stiffness, the tire damping coefficient, and the hysteresis band of the PMSM current control algorithm. Finally, different target torque curves are compared in the simulation, which shows that the estimation error of the slip ratio gets violent, and the longitudinal force includes more fluctuation components with the increasing change rate of the torque. This paper analyzes the influence of the drive wheel deformation on the vehicle dynamic control, and provides useful information regarding the electric vehicle traction control.

  11. Tire Footprint Affects Hydroplaning On Wet Pavement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Recent investigations of tire hydroplaning at highway speeds reveal, in addition to inflation pressure, tire-footprint aspect ratio (FAR), defined as width divided by length of tire surface in contact with pavement, significantly influences speed at which dynamic hydroplaning begins. Tire speeds and forces developed during tests of up to 65 mi/h (105 km/h) were monitored on flooded test surface to identify development of hydroplaning. Study focused on automotive tires because FAR's of automotive tires vary more than those of aircraft tires.

  12. Energy dissipation in a rolling aircraft tire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielking, John T.

    1988-01-01

    The project is extending an existing finite element tire model to calculate the energy dissipation in a free-rolling aircraft tire and temperature buildup in the tire carcass. The model will provide a means of calculating the influence of tire design on the distribution of tire temperature. Current focus is on energy loss measurements of aircraft tire material. The feasibility of taking test specimens directly from the tire carcass for measurements of viscoelastic properties was demonstrated. The interaction of temperature and frequency effects on material loss properties was studied. The tire model was extended to calculate the cyclic energy change in a tire during rolling under load. Input data representing the 40 by 14 aircraft tire whose material loss properties were measured are being used.

  13. Optimization of an Optical Test Bench for Tire Properties Measurement and Tread Defects Characterization.

    PubMed

    Castillo Aguilar, Juan Jesús; Cabrera Carrillo, Juan Antonio; Guerra Fernández, Antonio Jesús; Postigo Pozo, Sergio

    2017-03-29

    Tire characteristics and behavior are of great importance in vehicle dynamics since the forces transmitted in the tire-road contact are the main contributors to global vehicle performance. Several research groups have focused on the study and modeling of tires. Some of the most important factors that need to be known are tread characteristics and pressure distribution in the tire-ground contact patch. In this work, a test bench has been used to adequately determine the aforementioned factors. The measurement principle of the test bench is the frustration of total internal reflection (FTIR) of light. It makes use of a laterally illuminated glass on which the tire leans. An interposed plastic interface between them causes the reflection of light. Finally, a video camera captures the bright image formed through the glass. The brightness level in each pixel of the image is related to existing normal pressure. A study of the parameters that affect the test bench calibration such as type of interface material used, diffuse light, hysteresis, creep and transverse light absorption is performed. Experimental tests are conducted to relate tire inflation pressure and camber angle to the pressure distribution. Furthermore, the test bench is used to detect and evaluate the influence of defects in the tire on the contact pressures.

  14. Admissible Shape Parameters for a Planar Quasi-Static Constraint Mode Tire Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-21

    Engineering Department b US Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) ABSTRACT The interaction between the tire and terrain...SHAPE PARAMETERS FOR A PLANAR QUASI-STATIC CONSTRAINT MODE TIRE MODEL 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...efficiency, there are ever increasing demands on vehicle engineers. Clearly there are more electronic and mechatronic systems, more sensors and more

  15. Frictionless contact of aircraft tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Kyun O.; Tanner, John A.; Noor, Ahmed K.

    1989-01-01

    A computational procedure for the solution of frictionless contact problems of spacecraft tires was developed using a two-dimensional laminated anisotropic shell theory incorporating the effects of variations in material and geometric parameters, transverse shear deformation, and geometric nonlinearities to model the nose-gear tire of a space shuttle. Numerical results are presented for the case when the nose-gear tire is subjected to inflation pressure and pressed against a rigid pavement. The results are compared with experimental results obtained at NASA Langley, demonstrating a high accuracy of the model and the effectiveness of the computational procedure.

  16. 49 CFR 571.129 - Standard No. 129; New non-pneumatic tires for passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.129 Standard No. 129; New non... to carry. Maximum tire width means the greater of either the linear distance between the...

  17. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Krause, Max J; Townsend, Timothy G

    2015-05-01

    The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50mg/L by WET and 40mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers.

  18. New uses for old tires

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    The creative juices of large and small companies alike are flowing in efforts to help solve the U.S. solid waste problem. One product that has received a great deal of attention is tires. Two Pennsylvania companies, Air Products and Chemicals of Allentown and a new company headed by John Kuc of Chester, have developed technologies that utilize the rubber from tires in conjunction with plastic to make new products. In the Air Products method, tires are finely ground and treated with a mixture of flourine and other gases, prior to bonding with a polymer such as epoxy. The resulting material can be used to make gaskets and hoses. Huc's methods rely on grinding tires to a powder and adding it to plastic. The mixture is heated and extruded under high pressure. According to Leslie Sandor of Widener Univ., who is working on the project, the final products cost less than a quarter as much as conventional PVC piping.

  19. Stress investigation on the rolling tires across the speed bump using finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayat, Royan; Pranoto, Sarwo Edy; Tauviqirrahman, Mohammad; Bayuseno, Athanasius P.

    2016-04-01

    The interaction between road surface and tire on a vehicle may strongly determine the vehicle's stability. This study was conducted to find out the stress distribution as a result of pressure on the tires rolling across the speed bumps. This study used Abaqus software to simulate the movement of the tire, which rolls across the speed bump to determine the stress distribution that may occur. The tire component material used was a full path rubber on a speed bump. For the boundary conditions of the study, it was assumed that the tires had load variations as much as 2 kN, 6 kN, 10 kN, as well as pressure variations as much as 17 Psi, 30 Psi, 40 Psi. The tires were then rolled 8 km/h crossing the speed bump. Modeling speed bumps also varied i.e. the first variation of speed bumps that have a height of 50 mm with a width of 250 mm, the second variation of height 75 mm with a width of 300 mm, and a third variation of height 100 mm with a width of 400 mm. The simulation was done by giving the tire pressures as much as 17 Psi, 30 Psi, 40 Psi and loads as much as 2 kN, 6 kN, 10 kN. Further, the tires were rolled three times. It was rolled crossing the first speed bump, the second, and the third, respectively. Results showed stress distribution's fig and graphs. From the analysis results and simulation, it was shown that the greater the load received by the tires, the higher stress they produced.

  20. Impacts of weathered tire debris on the development of Rana sylvatica larvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Camponelli, K.M.; Casey, R.E.; Snodgrass, J.W.; Lev, S.M.; Landa, E.R.

    2009-01-01

    Highway runoff has the potential to negatively impact receiving systems including stormwater retention ponds where highway particulate matter can accumulate following runoff events. Tire wear particles, which contain about 1% Zn by mass, make up approximately one-third of the vehicle derived particulates in highway runoff and therefore may serve as a stressor to organisms utilizing retention ponds as habitat. In this study, we focused on the potential contribution of tire debris to Zn accumulation by Rana sylvatica larvae and possible lethal or sublethal impacts resulting from exposure to weathered tire debris during development. Eggs and larvae were exposed to aged sediments (containing either ZnCl2 or tire particulate matter, both providing nominal concentrations of 1000 mg Zn kg-1) through metamorphosis. Water column Zn was elevated in both the ZnCl2 and tire treatments relative to the control treatment, indicating that aging allowed Zn leaching from tire debris to occur. Tissue Zn was also elevated for the ZnCl2 and tire treatments indicating that Zn in the treatments was available for uptake by the amphibians. Exposure to both ZnCl2 and tire treatments increased the time for larvae to complete metamorphosis in comparison with controls. We also observed that the longer the organisms took to complete metamorphosis, the smaller their mass at metamorphosis. Our results indicate that Zn leached from aged tire debris is bioavailable to developing R. sylvatica larvae and that exposure to tire debris amended sediments can result in measurable physiological outcomes to wood frogs that may influence population dynamics. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Ignoring discards biases the assessment of fisheries' ecological fingerprint.

    PubMed

    Viana, Mafalda; McNally, Luke; Graham, Norman; Reid, David G; Jackson, Andrew L

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the pressures of fisheries on the ecosystem is crucial for effective management. Fishery removals, or catch, are composed of both landings and discards. However, the use of discards data in studies investigating the effect of the fishing pressures is sparse. Here, we explore the individual contribution of both these catch components to the overall pressure of fisheries on the ecosystem metrics. Using Irish observer data, we compare the linear relationship between several ecological metrics calculated for landings and discards with those of catch. Our results show that in fisheries with high discarding rates, discards can drive the fisheries' ecological fingerprint and highlight the need to rectify landings-based estimates to make them representative of those of catch in order to gain a robust picture of the impact of fisheries.

  2. Fish discards management: pollution levels and best available removal techniques.

    PubMed

    Antelo, Luis T; Lopes, Carla; Franco-Uría, Amaya; Alonso, Antonio A

    2012-07-01

    Fish discards and by-catch issues are highly topical subjects that are permanently under a social focus. Two main approaches are being considered to address this discard problem: reducing the by-catch and increasing by-catch utilization. Interest in increased by-catch valorization may arise from a greater demand for fish products, such as the development of new markets for previously discarded species, the use of low-value specimens for aquaculture or the creation of value-added fish products for the food, pharmaceutical or cosmetic industries. However, contaminants present in fish discards may be transferred to their valorized products, leading to possible long-term bioaccumulation and subsequent adverse health effects. In this valorization framework, the aim is to promote responsible and sustainable management of marine resources. The pollutant levels in catches from European fisheries and the best available decontamination techniques for marine valorized discards/by-products are compiled and analyzed in this work.

  3. Vehicle Dynamics and Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajamani, Rajesh

    Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system topics covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire models and tire-road friction estimation. In developing the dynamic model for each application, an effort is made to both keep the model simple enough for control system design but at the same time rich enough to capture the essential features of the dynamics.

  4. Automobile tires--a potential source of highly carcinogenic dibenzopyrenes to the environment.

    PubMed

    Sadiktsis, Ioannis; Bergvall, Christoffer; Johansson, Christer; Westerholm, Roger

    2012-03-20

    Eight tires were analyzed for 15 high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), using pressurized fluid extraction. The variability of the PAH concentrations determined between different tires was large; a factor of 22.6 between the lowest and the highest. The relative abundance of the analytes was quite similar regardless of tire. Almost all (92.3%) of the total extractable PAH content was attributed to five PAHs: benzo[ghi]perylene, coronene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, benzo[e]pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene. The difference in the measured PAH content between summer and winter tires varied substantially across manufacturers, making estimates of total vehicle fleet emissions very uncertain. However, when comparing different types of tires from the same manufacturer they had significantly (p = 0.05) different PAH content. Previously, there have been no data available for carcinogenic dibenzopyrene isomers in automobile tires. In this study, the four dibenzopyrene isomers dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,e]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene constituted <2% of the sum of the 15 analyzed HMW PAHs. These findings show that automobile tires may be a potential previously unknown source of carcinogenic dibenzopyrenes to the environment.

  5. Magnetic fields from steel-belted radial tires: implications for epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Milham, S; Hatfield, J B; Tell, R

    1999-10-01

    Magnetic fields emanate from radial tires due to the presence of reinforcing belts which are made of magnetized steel wire. When these tires spin, they generate alternating magnetic fields of extremely low frequency (ELF), usually below 20 Hz. The fundamental frequency of these fields is determined by tire rotation rate and has a sinusoidal waveform with a high harmonic content. The static field of radial tires can exceed 500 microT at the tread, and the tire-generated alternating fields can exceed 2.0 microT at seat level in the passenger compartment of vehicles. Degaussing the tires reduces both the static and alternating fields to low levels, but the fields increase gradually over time after degaussing. The tire-generated fields are below the frequencies detected by most of the magnetic field meters used in previous studies of power frequency magnetic field health effects. If these fields are biologically active, failure to detect them could compromise exposure assessments associated with epidemiologic studies.

  6. 49 CFR 574.7 - Information requirements-new tire manufacturers, new tire brand name owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., new tire brand name owners. 574.7 Section 574.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to..., new tire brand name owners. (a)(1) Each new tire manufacturer and each new tire brand name owner.... (ii) On the address side of the form, be addressed with the name and address of the manufacturer...

  7. 77 FR 10615 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... considered. Although tire construction affects the strength and durability, neither the agency nor the tire industry provides information relating tire strength and durability to the number of plies and types of ply cord material in the tread and sidewall. Therefore, tire dealers and customers should consider the...

  8. AIR EMISSIONS FROM SCRAP TIRE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

  9. Radial fryers. [Used tire power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gawlicki, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Experience has shown that tires have their limits as a primary power generation fuel. As a supplemental fuel, however, they may prove to be cost effective. This article discusses the use of tires as a alternate fuel source.

  10. Effect of Tire Material on the Prediction of Optimum Tire-Tread Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, S. K. Deb; Reaz Ahmed, S.; Kim, S.-G.; Wong, C. H.

    2011-11-01

    The effect of tire material on the prediction of optimum shapes of tire treads is analyzed using the displacement potential based finite-difference technique. From the distribution of no-slip shearing stress along the contact surface of tire treads a relationship is established between the tire-tread sections and the frictional resistance required to keep the contact surface free from lateral slippage. Three different tire materials, such as natural rubber, original truck-tire rubber, and commercially available retreading tire-rubber, are considered for the present study. From the comparison of the calculated coefficient of friction with that available between the tire and road surface, optimum values of tire-tread sections are determined for three different tire materials, which ensure no lateral slippage of the contact surface on the road.

  11. Applications for activated carbons from waste tires: Natural gas storage and air pollution control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, T.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Natural gas storage for natural gas vehicles and the separation and removal of gaseous contaminants from gas streams represent two emerging applications for carbon adsorbents. A possible precursor for such adsorbents is waste tires. In this study, activated carbon has been developed from waste tires and tested for its methane storage capacity and SO2 removal from a simulated flue-gas. Tire-derived carbons exhibit methane adsorption capacities (g/g) within 10% of a relatively expensive commercial activated carbon; however, their methane storage capacities (Vm/Vs) are almost 60% lower. The unactivated tire char exhibits SO2 adsorption kinetics similar to a commercial carbon used for flue-gas clean-up. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  12. A nonlinear circular ring model with rotating effects for tire vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Trong Dai; Duhamel, Denis; Abbadi, Zouhir; Yin, Hai-Ping; Gaudin, Arnaud

    2017-02-01

    Rolling noise contributes significantly to the noise inside cars. This noise comes from the tire/road contact and for low frequencies (0-400 Hz), it is mainly transmitted into the cabin through structural vibrations. Thus estimating this noise requires modelling the tire vibrations by taking into account the rotating effects and the contact with rough surfaces. Concerning the model of rolling tire, a formulation of a deformable solid is constructed by using an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian approach. This formulation is applied on a new simplified tire model which is a circular ring including shear stresses and nonlinear effects due to the vehicle load. This model is successfully validated by comparison with FEM results.

  13. Three Three-Axis IEPE Accelerometers on the Inner Liner of a Tire for Finding the Tire-Road Friction Potential Indicators †

    PubMed Central

    Niskanen, Arto; Tuononen, Ari J.

    2015-01-01

    Direct tire-road contact friction estimation is essential for future autonomous cars and active safety systems. Friction estimation methods have been proposed earlier for driving conditions in the presence of a slip angle or slip ratio. However, the estimation of the friction from a freely-rolling tire is still an unsolved topic. Knowing the existing friction potential would be beneficial since vehicle control systems could be adjusted before any remarkable tire force has been produced. Since accelerometers are well-known and robust, and thus a promising sensor type for intelligent tires, this study uses three three-axis IEPE accelerometers on the inner liner of a tire to detect friction potential indicators on two equally smooth surfaces with different friction levels. The equal roughness was chosen for both surfaces in order to study the friction phenomena by neglecting the effect of surface texture on vibrations. The acceleration data before the contact is used to differentiate the two friction levels between the tire and the road. In addition, the contact lengths from the three accelerometers are used to validate the acceleration data. A method to differentiate the friction levels on the basis of the acceleration signal is also introduced. PMID:26251914

  14. A styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/carbon nanotube-based smart force sensor for automotive tire deformation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Min-Young; Kim, Ji-Sik; Lee, Ho-Geun; Choi, Seung-Bok; Kim, Gi-Woo

    2016-04-01

    This paper provides a preliminary study on the piezoresistive effect of a styrene-butadiene Rubber (SBR), one of the main ingredients of automotive tire, dispersed with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to explore its feasibility as a force sensor embedded in automotive tires. Typically, the application of CNTs has been successfully applied to the mechanical sensing technology such as a stress/strain and impact sensor. In this study, the potential of using the SBR/CNT as a force sensor for monitoring automotive tire deformation is evaluated for the first time. Experimental results show that the electrical resistance of the SBR/CNT composite changes in response to the sinusoidal loading, as well as static compressive load. These piezoresistive responses of the SBR/CNT composite will be used for sensing the tire deformation caused by the vehicle loading or cracks of tires.

  15. 14 CFR 25.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... reactions in paragraph (b) of this section, on the nose wheel tire, except as provided in paragraphs (b)(2) and (b)(3) of this section. (b) The applicable ground reactions for nose wheel tires are as follows: (1) The static ground reaction for the tire corresponding to the most critical combination...

  16. 49 CFR 393.75 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... is exposed. (b) Any tire on the front wheels of a bus, truck, or truck tractor shall have a tread... pounds) shall not be used on the front wheels of any truck or truck tractor. (f) Tire loading... on tires overloaded by 9 percent or more must not be operated at speeds exceeding 80 km/hr (50...

  17. 49 CFR 393.75 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... is exposed. (b) Any tire on the front wheels of a bus, truck, or truck tractor shall have a tread... pounds) shall not be used on the front wheels of any truck or truck tractor. (f) Tire loading... on tires overloaded by 9 percent or more must not be operated at speeds exceeding 80 km/hr (50...

  18. 49 CFR 393.75 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... is exposed. (b) Any tire on the front wheels of a bus, truck, or truck tractor shall have a tread... pounds) shall not be used on the front wheels of any truck or truck tractor. (f) Tire loading... on tires overloaded by 9 percent or more must not be operated at speeds exceeding 80 km/hr (50...

  19. 49 CFR 393.75 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... is exposed. (b) Any tire on the front wheels of a bus, truck, or truck tractor shall have a tread... pounds) shall not be used on the front wheels of any truck or truck tractor. (f) Tire loading... on tires overloaded by 9 percent or more must not be operated at speeds exceeding 80 km/hr (50...

  20. 49 CFR 393.75 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... is exposed. (b) Any tire on the front wheels of a bus, truck, or truck tractor shall have a tread... pounds) shall not be used on the front wheels of any truck or truck tractor. (f) Tire loading... on tires overloaded by 9 percent or more must not be operated at speeds exceeding 80 km/hr (50...

  1. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXV, I--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM D-8 AND 824 MODELS, II--TIRES AND TIRE HARDWARE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM AND TO PROVIDE A DESCRIPTION OF HEAVY TIRES AND WHEELS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) THEORY OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, (2) COOLING SYSTEM COMPONENTS, (3) MAINTENANCE TIPS (COOLING SYSTEM), (4)…

  2. New Solutions to Reduce Discard of Kidneys Donated for Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Reese, Peter P; Harhay, Meera N; Abt, Peter L; Levine, Matthew H; Halpern, Scott D

    2016-04-01

    Kidney transplantation is a cost-saving treatment that extends the lives of patients with ESRD. Unfortunately, the kidney transplant waiting list has ballooned to over 100,000 Americans. Across large areas of the United States, many kidney transplant candidates spend over 5 years waiting and often die before undergoing transplantation. However, more than 2500 kidneys (>17% of the total recovered from deceased donors) were discarded in 2013, despite evidence that many of these kidneys would provide a survival benefit to wait-listed patients. Transplant leaders have focused attention on transplant center report cards as a likely cause for this discard problem, although that focus is too narrow. In this review, we examine the risks associated with accepting various categories of donated kidneys, including discarded kidneys, compared with the risk of remaining on dialysis. With the goal of improving access to kidney transplant, we describe feasible proposals to increase acceptance of currently discarded organs.

  3. Commercially laid eggs vs. discarded hatching eggs: contamination by Salmonella spp.

    PubMed

    Kottwitz, Luciana B M; Leão, Joice Aparecida; Back, Alberto; Rodrigues, Dalia dos P; Magnani, Marciane; de Oliveira, Tereza C R M

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is frequently associated with outbreaks of human salmonellosis, and products of avian origin, such as eggs and chicken meat, are the main vehicles of its transmission. The present study describes the occurrence of different serovars of Salmonella enterica and phagotypes of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis in eggs destined for human consumption. Four thousand eggs obtained from commercial egg laying farms and one thousand discarded hatching eggs from broiler farms, which were acquired at farmers' markets and informal shops, were analyzed. Salmonella spp. was isolated from 52.0% of the discarded hatching eggs, in which the predominant serovar was Enteritidis (84.6%), and the predominant Salmonella Enteritidis phagotype (PT) was PT7 (26.9%). Salmonella spp. was not isolated from eggs obtained from commercial egg laying farms. The antimicrobial resistance profile showed that 23.1% (n = 6) of the SE strains were resistant to nalidixic acid. The results suggest that the consumption of discarded hatching eggs represents an important source of Salmonella transmission to humans.

  4. Commercially laid eggs vs. discarded hatching eggs: contamination by Salmonella spp

    PubMed Central

    Kottwitz, Luciana B.M.; Leão, Joice Aparecida; Back, Alberto; Rodrigues, Dalia dos P.; Magnani, Marciane; de Oliveira, Tereza C.R.M.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is frequently associated with outbreaks of human salmonellosis, and products of avian origin, such as eggs and chicken meat, are the main vehicles of its transmission. The present study describes the occurrence of different serovars of Salmonella enterica and phagotypes of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis in eggs destined for human consumption. Four thousand eggs obtained from commercial egg laying farms and one thousand discarded hatching eggs from broiler farms, which were acquired at farmers’ markets and informal shops, were analyzed. Salmonella spp. was isolated from 52.0% of the discarded hatching eggs, in which the predominant serovar was Enteritidis (84.6%), and the predominant Salmonella Enteritidis phagotype (PT) was PT7 (26.9%). Salmonella spp. was not isolated from eggs obtained from commercial egg laying farms. The antimicrobial resistance profile showed that 23.1% (n = 6) of the SE strains were resistant to nalidixic acid. The results suggest that the consumption of discarded hatching eggs represents an important source of Salmonella transmission to humans. PMID:24294223

  5. Commentary: legal minimum tread depth for passenger car tires in the U.S.A.--a survey.

    PubMed

    Blythe, William; Seguin, Debra E

    2006-06-01

    Available tire traction is a significant highway safety issue, particularly on wet roads. Tire-roadway friction on dry, clean roads is essentially independent of tread depth, and depends primarily on roadway surface texture. However, tire-wet-roadway friction, both for longitudinal braking and lateral cornering forces, depends on several variables, most importantly on water depth, speed and tire tread depth, and the roadway surface texture. The car owner-operator has control over speed and tire condition, but not on water depth or road surface texture. Minimum tire tread depth is legislated throughout most of the United States and Europe. Speed reduction for wet road conditions is not.A survey of state requirements for legal minimum tread depth for passenger vehicle tires in the United States is presented. Most states require a minimum of 2/32 of an inch (approximately 1.6 mm) of tread, but two require less, some have no requirements, and some defer to the federal criterion for commercial vehicle safety inspections. The requirement of 2/32 of an inch is consistent with the height of the tread-wear bars built in to passenger car tires sold in the United States, but the rationale for that requirement, or other existing requirements, is not clear. Recent research indicates that a minimum tread depth of 2/32 of an inch does not prevent significant loss of friction at highway speeds, even for minimally wet roadways. The research suggests that tires with less than 4/32 of an inch tread depth may lose approximately 50 percent of available friction in those circumstances, even before hydroplaning occurs. It is concluded that the present requirements for minimum passenger car tire tread depth are not based upon rational safety considerations, and that an increase in the minimum tread depth requirements would have a beneficial effect on highway safety.

  6. Measurement of whole tire profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yongyue; Jiao, Wenguang

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, a precision measuring device is developed for obtaining characteristic curve of tire profile and its geometric parameters. It consists of a laser displacement measurement unit, a closed-loop precision two-dimensional coordinate table, a step motor control system and a fast data acquisition and analysis system. Based on the laser trigonometry, a data map of tire profile and coordinate values of all points can be obtained through corresponding data transformation. This device has a compact structure, a convenient control, a simple hardware circuit design and a high measurement precision. Experimental results indicate that measurement precision can meet the customer accuracy requirement of +/-0.02 mm.

  7. Orbiter wheel and tire certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, C. C., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The orbiter wheel and tire development has required a unique series of certification tests to demonstrate the ability of the hardware to meet severe performance requirements. Early tests of the main landing gear wheel using conventional slow roll testing resulted in hardware failures. This resulted in a need to conduct high velocity tests with crosswind effects for assurance that the hardware was safe for a limited number of flights. Currently, this approach and the conventional slow roll and static tests are used to certify the wheel/tire assembly for operational use.

  8. Duration of activity of the microbial larvicide VectoLex CG (Bacillus sphaericus) in Illinois catch basins and waste tires.

    PubMed

    Siegel, J P; Novak, R J

    1999-09-01

    The duration of activity of a formulation of Bacillus sphaericus, VectoLex CG, for control of Culex species was evaluated in 338 catch basins in Urbana, IL, and compared to Altosid in 346 catch basins in Champaign, IL. The activity of VectoLex in car and truck waste tires was evaluated in a tire dump located in Pembroke Township, IL. In catch basins, 1 g of VectoLex per catch basin gave the same control as one Altosid briquet. Both larvicides were effective against Culex sp. in catch basins for 1 month, and the duration of control with VectoLex lasted 44 days in one catch basin. VectoLex was considerably cheaper to apply than Altosid briquets, at 0.64 cents per catch basin compared to 90.75 cents, respectively. However, the Altosid briquets were judged to be easier to apply from a vehicle than VectoLex granules. VectoLex (22.6 kg) was used to treat approximately 6,000 car and truck tires; some of the tires were in direct sunlight whereas others were shaded. Aedes triseriatus was the dominant species in these tires. Tires treated with VectoLex contained significantly fewer mosquitoes than control tires, and even 65 days after application, control tires were 16.7 times more likely to contain larvae. We conclude that VectoLex was effective when used in Illinois catch basins and tire dumps, and emphasize that it is more appropriate to base tire treatment rates on the total number of tires present than on a kilogram per hectare basis.

  9. Survivability Enhanced Run-Flat Variable Footprint Tires

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-17

    This run-flat technology is built directly into the tire, yet maintains the normal variable footprint of a normal pneumatic tire. This makes the tire...footprint of a normal pneumatic tire. This makes the tire/wheel assembly much lighter and far more survivable than normal military run-flat technology...carcass severely damaged/punctured, provide the same dynamic deflection as the normal pneumatic tire, and provide similar tread life. Could a tire be

  10. Zinc Leaching from Tire Crumb Rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, E. P.; Ren, J.; Mays, D. C.

    2010-12-01

    Recent estimates indicate that more than 2 billion scrap tires are currently stockpiled in the United States and approximately 280 million more tires are added annually. Various engineering applications utilize recycled tires in the form of shredded tire crumb rubber. However, the use of tire crumb rubber may have negative environmental impacts, especially when the rubber comes into contact with water. A review of the literature indicates that leaching of zinc from tire crumb rubber is the most significant water quality concern associated with using this material. Zinc is generally used in tire manufacturing, representing approximately 1.3% of the final product by mass. This study will report results from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure, batch leaching tests, and column leaching tests performed to quantify the process by which zinc leaches from tire crumb rubber into water. Results are interpreted with a first-order kinetic attachment/detachment model, implemented with the U.S. Agricultural Research Service software HYDRUS-1D, in order to determine the circumstances when zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber would be expected to comply with the applicable discharge limits. One potential application for recycled tires is replacing sand with tire crumb rubber in granular media filters used for stormwater pollution control. For this to be a viable application, the total zinc in the stormwater discharge must be below the EPA’s benchmark value of 0.117 mg/L.

  11. Metals associated with stormwater-relevant brake and tire samples

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Erica R.; Money, Jon E.; Green, Peter G.; Young, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    Properly apportioning the loads of metals in highway stormwater runoff to the appropriate sources requires accurate data on source composition, especially regarding constituents that help to distinguish among sources. Representative tire and brake samples were collected from privately owned vehicles and aqueous extracts were analyzed for twenty-eight elements. Correlation principal components analysis (PCA) revealed that tires were most influenced by Zn, Pb, and Cu, while brakes were best characterized by Na and Fe followed by Ba, Cu, Mg, Mn, and K; the latter three may be due to roadside soil contributions. Notably elevated Cd contributions were found in several brake samples. A targeted Cd-plated brake rotor was sampled, producing results consistent with the elevated levels found in the larger sample population. This enriched source of Cd is of particular concern due to high toxicity of Cd in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:19709720

  12. Effect of wheelchair mass, tire type and tire pressure on physical strain and wheelchair propulsion technique.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Sonja; Vegter, Riemer J K; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of wheelchair mass, solid vs. pneumatic tires and tire pressure on physical strain and wheelchair propulsion technique. 11 Able-bodied participants performed 14 submaximal exercise blocks on a treadmill with a fixed speed (1.11 m/s) within 3 weeks to determine the effect of tire pressure (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% of the recommended value), wheelchair mass (0 kg, 5 kg, or 10 kg extra) and tire type (pneumatic vs. solid). All test conditions (except pneumatic vs. solid) were performed with and without instrumented measurement wheels. Outcome measures were power output (PO), physical strain (heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), gross mechanical efficiency (ME)) and propulsion technique (timing, force application). At 25% tire pressure PO and subsequently VO2 were higher compared to 100% tire pressure. Furthermore, a higher tire pressure led to a longer cycle time and contact angle and subsequently lower push frequency. Extra mass did not lead to an increase in PO, physical strain or propulsion technique. Solid tires led to a higher PO and physical strain. The solid tire effect was amplified by increased mass (tire × mass interaction). In contrast to extra mass, tire pressure and tire type have an effect on PO, physical strain or propulsion technique of steady-state wheelchair propulsion. As expected, it is important to optimize tire pressure and tire type.

  13. High Value Scrap Tire Recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, B. D.

    2003-02-01

    The objectives of this project were to further develop and scale-up a novel technology for reuse of scrap tire rubber, to identify and develop end uses for the technology (products), and to characterize the technology's energy savings and environmental impact.

  14. 49 CFR 230.113 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 230.113 Section 230.113... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.113 Wheels and tire defects. Steam locomotive and tender wheels or tires.... Except as provided in § 230.114, welding on wheels and tires is prohibited. A wheel that has been...

  15. Tire-breeding mosquitoes of public health importance along an urbanisation gradient in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Alejandra; Cardo, María Victoria; Vezzani, Darío

    2011-09-01

    Used vehicle tires are a source of mosquito vectors and a means of their introduction and expansion. With the aim of assessing the effects of urbanisation on the main mosquito vectors in temperate Argentina, the infestation levels of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex pipiens L. were studied in used tires from highly urbanised cities to low-urbanised small towns in Buenos Aires. Immatures of both species accounted for 96% of the 9,722 individuals collected; the total individuals collected represented seven species. The percentage of water-filled tires containing mosquitoes [container index (CI)] was 33% and the percentage of infested sites [site index (SI)] was 65.2%. These indexes decreased significantly from low to high urbanisation levels for both mosquito species. The relative abundance (RA) of Ae. aegypti immatures was slightly higher toward large cities, but showed no difference for Cx. pipiens. The CI of shaded tires was significantly higher than the CI of exposed tires for both mosquito species. There was no difference in RA values between shaded and sunlit tires. The CI and the SI were highest during the summer across the urbanisation levels, except for Cx. pipiens, which continued to increase during the autumn in small towns. Results related to urbanisation gradient, sunlit exposure and seasonality are discussed.

  16. Development of Shear Deformable Laminated Shell Element and Its Application to ANCF Tire Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-24

    Conference on Multibody Systems , Nonlinear Dynamics, and Control (MSNDC) MSNDC-10 Vehicle Dynamics Technical Publication DEVELOPMENT OF SHEAR...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES ASME 2015 IDETC/CIE, 11th International Conference on Multibody Systems , Nonlinear Dynamics, and Control (MSNDC) 14. ABSTRACT See Report...United States. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 1. INTRODUCTION An accurate modeling of the complex tire geometry and the

  17. Assessing Risk Posed By Land Application Of Ash From The Combustion Of Wood And Tires

    EPA Science Inventory

    The total and leachable metal concentrations in ash from the combustion of waste wood and vehicle tires (WT ash) were characterized. These data were then used to examine a variety of issues associated with determining whether the WT ash could be beneficially used outside of a la...

  18. 49 CFR 571.138 - Standard No. 138; Tire pressure monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... manufacturer's recommended cold tire inflation pressure pursuant to § 571.110 of this Part. S4Requirements. S4... than either the pressure 25 percent below the vehicle manufacturer's recommended cold inflation... pressure warning telltale that: (a) Is mounted inside the occupant compartment in front of and in...

  19. 49 CFR 571.138 - Standard No. 138; Tire pressure monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... manufacturer's recommended cold tire inflation pressure pursuant to § 571.110 of this Part. S4Requirements. S4... than either the pressure 25 percent below the vehicle manufacturer's recommended cold inflation... pressure warning telltale that: (a) Is mounted inside the occupant compartment in front of and in...

  20. 49 CFR 571.138 - Standard No. 138; Tire pressure monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... manufacturer's recommended cold tire inflation pressure pursuant to § 571.110 of this Part. S4Requirements. S4... than either the pressure 25 percent below the vehicle manufacturer's recommended cold inflation... pressure warning telltale that: (a) Is mounted inside the occupant compartment in front of and in...

  1. RCRA designation of discarded americium/beryllium sealed sources

    SciTech Connect

    Kirner, N.P.

    1994-09-01

    Many sealed sources containing americium and beryllium are used throughout construction, industry, and research, and will eventually require disposal. For planning purposes it is necessary to determine whether these sources, when disposed, constitute a mixed waste, i.e., a waste containing hazardous constituents regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and radioactive constituents regulated under the Atomic Energy Act. Waste designation criteria contained in 40 CFR 261 are evaluated in detail in this report. It is determined that discarded americium/beryllium sealed sources do not contain any wastes listed in Subpart D of 40 CFR 261, nor do the discarded sources exhibit any hazardous characteristics. Therefore, it is concluded that discarded americium/beryllium sealed sources are not a mixed waste under regulations established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Hazardous waste regulatory programs delegated to States, however, may have regulations that differ from those of the Federal government.

  2. Research and application of online measurement system of tire tread profile in automobile tire production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pengyao; Chen, Xiangguang; Yang, Kai; Liu, Xuejiao

    2017-01-01

    To improve the measuring efficiency of width and thickness of tire tread in the process of automobile tire production, the actual condition for the tire production process is analyzed, and a fast online measurement system based on moving tire tread of tire specifications is established in this paper. The coordinate data of tire tread profile is acquired by 3D laser sensor, and we use C# language for programming which is an object-oriented programming language to complete the development of client program. The system with laser sensor can provide real-time display of tire tread profile and the data to require in the process of tire production. Experimental results demonstrate that the measuring precision of the system is <= 1mm, it can meet the measurement requirements of the production process, and the system has the characteristics of convenient installation and testing, system stable operation.

  3. Latex allergens in tire dust and airborne particles.

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, A G; Cass, G R; Weiss, J; Glovsky, M M

    1996-01-01

    The prevalence and severity of latex allergy has increased dramatically in the last 15 years due to exposure to natural rubber products. Although historically this health risk has been elevated in hospital personnel and patients, a recent survey has indicated a significant potential risk for the general population. To obtain a wide-spread source for latex exposure, we have considered tire debris. We have searched for the presence of latex allergens in passenger car and truck tire tread, in debris deposited from the atmosphere near a freeway, and in airborne particulate matter samples representative of the entire year 1993 at two sites in the Los Angeles basin (California). After extraction of the samples with phosphate buffered saline, a modified-ELISA inhibition assay was used to measure relative allergen potency and Western blot analyses were used to identify latex allergens. The inhibition studies with the human IgE latex assay revealed inhibition by the tire tread source samples and ambient freeway dust, as well as by control latex sap and latex glove extracts. Levels of extractable latex allergen per unit of protein extracted were about two orders of magnitude lower for tire tread as compared to latex gloves. Western blot analyses using binding of human IgE from latex-sensitive patients showed a band at 34-36 kDa in all tire and ambient samples. Long Beach and Los Angeles, California, air samples showed four additional bands between 50 and 135 kDa. Alternative Western blot analyses using rabbit IgG raised against latex proteins showed a broad band at 30-50 kDa in all samples, with additional bands in the urban air samples similar to the IgE results. A latex cross-reactive material was identified in mountain cedar. In conclusion, the latex allergens or latex cross-reactive material present in sedimented and airborne particulate material, derived from tire debris, and generated by heavy urban vehicle traffic could be important factors in producing latex allergy

  4. LSRA landing with tire test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A space shuttle landing gear system is visible between the two main landing gear components on this NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA). The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance. The series of 155 test missions for the space shuttle program, conducted at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided extensive data about the life and endurance of the shuttle tire systems and helped raise the shuttle crosswind landing limits at Kennedy.

  5. 49 CFR 574.10 - Requirements for motor vehicle manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for motor vehicle manufacturers. 574... RECORDKEEPING § 574.10 Requirements for motor vehicle manufacturers. Each motor vehicle manufacturer, or his designee, shall maintain a record of the new tires on or in each vehicle shipped by him or a motor...

  6. 49 CFR 574.10 - Requirements for motor vehicle manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for motor vehicle manufacturers. 574... RECORDKEEPING § 574.10 Requirements for motor vehicle manufacturers. Each motor vehicle manufacturer, or his designee, shall maintain a record of the new tires on or in each vehicle shipped by him or a motor...

  7. Properties of aircraft tire materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, Richard N.; Clark, Samuel K.

    1988-01-01

    A summary is presented of measured elastomeric composite response suitable for linear structural and thermoelastic analysis in aircraft tires. Both real and loss properties are presented for a variety of operating conditions including the effects of temperature and frequency. Suitable micro-mechanics models are used for predictions of these properties for other material combinations and the applicability of laminate theory is discussed relative to measured values.

  8. Tires fuel oil field cement manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Caveny, B.; Ashford, D.; Garcia, J.G.; Hammack, R.

    1998-08-31

    In a new process, waste automobile tires added to the fuel mix of gas, coal, and coke help fire kilns to produce API-quality oil field cement. Capital Cement uses this process in its cement-manufacturing plant in San Antonio, in which it also produces construction cement. The tires provide a lower-cost fuel and boost the temperature at a critical stage in the kiln burn process. Also, steel-belted tires add iron content to the mix. According to lab results, tire-burned cement slurries will perform the same as conventionally burned cement slurries. Actual field applications have proven that cement produced by burning tires performs no different than conventionally produced slurries. Capital`s plant uses both dry and wet processes, with separate kilns running both processes at the same time. Cement clinker is partially fired by waste tires in both kiln processes. The tires represent 12% of the fuel consumed by the plant, a number that is expected to increase. Capital burns about 200 tires/hr, or about 1.6 million tires/year.

  9. Efficient Computation Of Behavior Of Aircraft Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, John A.; Noor, Ahmed K.; Andersen, Carl M.

    1989-01-01

    NASA technical paper discusses challenging application of computational structural mechanics to numerical simulation of responses of aircraft tires during taxing, takeoff, and landing. Presents details of three main elements of computational strategy: use of special three-field, mixed-finite-element models; use of operator splitting; and application of technique reducing substantially number of degrees of freedom. Proposed computational strategy applied to two quasi-symmetric problems: linear analysis of anisotropic tires through use of two-dimensional-shell finite elements and nonlinear analysis of orthotropic tires subjected to unsymmetric loading. Three basic types of symmetry and combinations exhibited by response of tire identified.

  10. Aircraft radial-belted tire evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Stubbs, Sandy M.; Davis, Pamela A.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of the ongoing joint NASA/FAA/Industry Surface Traction And Radial Tire (START) Program being conducted at NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF). The START Program involves tests using three different tire sizes to evaluate tire rolling resistance, braking, and cornering performance throughout the aircraft ground operational speed range for both dry and wet runway surfaces. Preliminary results from recent 40 x 14 size bias-ply, radial-belted, and H-type aircraft tire tests are discussed. The paper concludes with a summary of the current program status and planned ALDF test schedule.

  11. Wet Traction Tests - Marcy Siped Tire.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    Force vs Slip Angle, Dry Test Surface, Tire Code Number 11-N (Siped 5/32" Deep X 1/8" Spacing) 67 26 Lateral Force vs Slip Angle, Damp Test Surface, 5...Slip Angle, Dry Test Surface, 5 MPH, Tire Code Number 24-N (Siped 8/32" Deep X 3/16" Spacing) 73 32 Lateral Force vs Slip Angle, Dry Test Surface, 10...MPH, Tire Code Number 24-N (Siped 8/32" Deep X 3/16" Spacing) 74 33 Lateral Force vs Slip Angle, Dry Test Surface, 30 MPH, Tire Code Number 24-N

  12. Current Research in Aircraft Tire Design and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, J. A.; Mccarthy, J. L.; Clark, S. K.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the tire research programs which address the various needs identified by landing gear designers and airplane users is presented. The experimental programs are designed to increase tire tread lifetimes, relate static and dynamic tire properties, establish the tire hydroplaning spin up speed, study gear response to tire failures, and define tire temperature profiles during taxi, braking, and cornering operations. The analytical programs are aimed at providing insights into the mechanisms of heat generation in rolling tires and developing the tools necessary to streamline the tire design process and to aid in the analysis of landing gear problems.

  13. Shoes on the Highway: Discarded Footwear Inspires a Playwriting Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Maureen Brady

    2003-01-01

    Explains a drama assignment based on pictures of discarded shoes. Notes that through character creation, imaginative storytelling, and strong conflicting objectives, students write a 10-minute play about how the shoe got where it was. Outlines the final project, in which these plays would then be presented in a dramatic reading session. (PM)

  14. Processing methods, characteristics and adsorption behavior of tire derived carbons: a review.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Tawfik A; Gupta, Vinod Kumar

    2014-09-01

    The remarkable increase in the number of vehicles worldwide; and the lack of both technical and economical mechanisms of disposal make waste tires to be a serious source of pollution. One potential recycling process is pyrolysis followed by chemical activation process to produce porous activated carbons. Many researchers have recently proved the capability of such carbons as adsorbents to remove various types of pollutants including organic and inorganic species. This review attempts to compile relevant knowledge about the production methods of carbon from waste rubber tires. The effects of various process parameters including temperature and heating rate, on the pyrolysis stage; activation temperature and time, activation agent and activating gas are reviewed. This review highlights the use of waste-tires derived carbon to remove various types of pollutants like heavy metals, dye, pesticides and others from aqueous media.

  15. Traction Characteristics of a 30 by 11.5-14.5, Type 8, Aircraft Tire on Dry, Wet and Flooded Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, T. J.; Dreher, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    A limited test program was conducted to extend and supplement the braking and cornering data on a 30 x 11.5-14.5, type VIII, aircraft tire to refine the tire/runway friction model for use in the development of an aircraft ground performance simulation. Tire traction data were obtained on dry, wet and flooded runway surfaces at ground speeds ranging from 5 to 100 knots and at yaw angles extending up to 12 deg. These friction coefficients are presented as a function of slip characteristics, namely, the maximum and skidding drag coefficients and the maximum cornering coefficients are presented as a function of both ground speed and yaw angle to extend existing data on that tire size. Tire braking and cornering capabilities were shown to be affected by vehicle ground speed, wheel yaw attitude and the extent of surface wetness.

  16. 14 CFR 25.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 25.733 Tires. (a) When a...) The loads on the main wheel tire, corresponding to the most critical combination of airplane weight... airplane weight (up to maximum ramp weight) and center of gravity position with a force of 1.0g...

  17. 14 CFR 25.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 25.733 Tires. (a) When a...) The loads on the main wheel tire, corresponding to the most critical combination of airplane weight... airplane weight (up to maximum ramp weight) and center of gravity position with a force of 1.0g...

  18. 14 CFR 25.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 25.733 Tires. (a) When a...) The loads on the main wheel tire, corresponding to the most critical combination of airplane weight... airplane weight (up to maximum ramp weight) and center of gravity position with a force of 1.0g...

  19. 14 CFR 25.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 25.733 Tires. (a) When a...) The loads on the main wheel tire, corresponding to the most critical combination of airplane weight... airplane weight (up to maximum ramp weight) and center of gravity position with a force of 1.0g...

  20. Tire containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A tire, tire lining or inner tube, containing a polymer composite, made of at least one rubber and/or at least one elastomer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g.

  1. 14 CFR 27.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 27.733 Tires. (a) Each landing gear wheel must have a tire— (1) That is a proper fit on the rim of the wheel; and (2) Of the proper... gravity. (c) Each tire installed on a retractable landing gear system must, at the maximum size of...

  2. 14 CFR 27.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 27.733 Tires. (a) Each landing gear wheel must have a tire— (1) That is a proper fit on the rim of the wheel; and (2) Of the proper... gravity. (c) Each tire installed on a retractable landing gear system must, at the maximum size of...

  3. 14 CFR 29.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... static ground reaction corresponding to the critical center of gravity; and (3) A load on nose wheel tires (to be compared with the dynamic rating established for those tires) equal to the reaction... gravity and exerts a force of 1.0 g downward and 0.25 g forward, the reactions being distributed to...

  4. Dynamics and Stability of Rolling Viscoelastic Tires

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, Trevor

    2013-04-30

    Current steady state rolling tire calculations often do not include treads because treads destroy the rotational symmetry of the tire. We describe two methodologies to compute time periodic solutions of a two-dimensional viscoelastic tire with treads: solving a minimization problem and solving a system of equations. We also expand on work by Oden and Lin on free spinning rolling elastic tires in which they disovered a hierachy of N-peak steady state standing wave solutions. In addition to discovering a two-dimensional hierarchy of standing wave solutions that includes their N-peak hiearchy, we consider the eects of viscoelasticity on the standing wave solutions. Finally, a commonplace model of viscoelasticity used in our numerical experiments led to non-physical elastic energy growth for large tire speeds. We show that a viscoelastic model of Govindjee and Reese remedies the problem.

  5. Computational strategies for tire monitoring and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, Kent T.; Noor, Ahmed K.; Green, James S.

    1995-01-01

    Computational strategies are presented for the modeling and analysis of tires in contact with pavement. A procedure is introduced for simple and accurate determination of tire cross-sectional geometric characteristics from a digitally scanned image. Three new strategies for reducing the computational effort in the finite element solution of tire-pavement contact are also presented. These strategies take advantage of the observation that footprint loads do not usually stimulate a significant tire response away from the pavement contact region. The finite element strategies differ in their level of approximation and required amount of computer resources. The effectiveness of the strategies is demonstrated by numerical examples of frictionless and frictional contact of the space shuttle Orbiter nose-gear tire. Both an in-house research code and a commercial finite element code are used in the numerical studies.

  6. Effect of Wide-Based Single Tires on Fuel Efficiency of Class 8 Combination Trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Franzese, Oscar; Knee, Helmut E; Slezak, Lee

    2010-01-01

    In 2007 and 2008, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in collaboration with several industry partners, collected real-world performance and situational data for long-haul operations of Class- 8 trucks from a fleet engaged in normal freight operations. Such data and information is useful to support Class-8 modeling of heavy-truck performance, technology evaluation efforts for energy efficiency, and to provide a means of accounting for real-world driving performance within heavy-truck research and analyses. This paper presents some general statistics, including distribution of idling times during long-haul trucking operations. However, the main focus is on the analysis of some of the extensive real-world information collected in this project, specifically on the assessment of the effect that different types of tires (i.e., dual tires vs. new generation single wide-based tires or NGSWBTs) have on the fuel efficiency of Class-8 trucks. The tire effect is also evaluated as a function of the vehicle load level. In all cases analyzed, the statistical tests performed strongly suggest that fuel efficiencies achieved when using all NGSWBTs or combinations of duals and NGSWBTs are higher than in the case of a truck equipped with all dual tires.

  7. Investigation on the potential generation of ultrafine particles from the tire-road interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathissen, Marcel; Scheer, Volker; Vogt, Rainer; Benter, Thorsten

    2011-11-01

    There has been some discussion in the literature on the generation of ultrafine particles from tire abrasion of studded and non-studded tires tested in the laboratory environment. In the present study, the potential generation of ultrafine particles from the tire road interface was investigated during real driving. An instrumented Sport Utility Vehicle equipped with summer tires was used to measure particle concentrations with high temporal resolution inside the wheel housing while driving on a regular asphalt road. Different driving conditions, i.e., straight driving, acceleration, braking, and cornering were applied. For normal driving conditions no enhanced particle number concentration in the size range 6-562 nm was found. Unusual maneuvers associated with significant tire slip resulted in measurable particle concentrations. The maximum of the size distribution was between 30 and 60 nm. An exponential increase of the particle concentration with velocity was measured directly at the disc brakes for full stop brakings. A tracer gas experiment was carried out to estimate the upper limit of the emission factor during normal straight driving.

  8. Practical Design of an Energy Harvester Considering Wheel Rotation for Powering Intelligent Tire Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Bing; Han, Jiayi; Zhao, Jian; Deng, Weiwen

    2017-04-01

    Intelligent tires are essentially a data acquisition system based on a number of complex intelligent sensors inside the tire. Intelligent tires which are capable of boosting the performance of the vehicle have the key problem of energy supply. A practical energy harvester was here designed to support the electric equipment in the intelligent tires and make it feasible for them to work steadily and constantly. This harvester takes the centrifugal force caused by the rotation of the wheel, which could affect the resonance frequency of the piezoelectric cantilever, into account. First, the vibration characteristics of the wheel were analyzed by road test, and the optimal arrangement for vibration energy usage was determined. Then, a piezoelectric vibration energy harvester was designed according to a series of formulas that took the effect of centrifugal force on resonance frequency into account. Finally, a road test was carried out to test the generated energy of the energy harvester excited by the vibration of the wheel. The results showed that the electric power meets the need of general low-power consumption triaxial accelerometers used in intelligent tires.

  9. ANSYS tools in modeling tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Ashraf; Lovell, Michael

    1995-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the capabilities in the ANSYS program that relate to the computational modeling of tires. The power and the difficulties associated with modeling nearly incompressible rubber-like materials using hyperelastic constitutive relationships are highlighted from a developer's point of view. The topics covered include a hyperelastic material constitutive model for rubber-like materials, a general overview of contact-friction capabilities, and the acoustic fluid-structure interaction problem for noise prediction. Brief theoretical development and example problems are presented for each topic.

  10. Truck Rollover Characterization for Class-8 Tractor-Trailers Utilizing Standard Dual Tires and New-Generation Single Tires

    SciTech Connect

    Capps, Gary; Knee, Bill; Franzese, Oscar; Pollock, Paul; Coleman, Daniel; Janajreh, Ibrahim; Haas, Steven; Frey, Norm; Law, Harry; Johnson, Eric; Lawson, Robert; Petrolino, Joe; Rice, Dave

    2005-07-30

    The Heavy Truck Rollover Characterization Project is a major research effort conducted by the National Transportation Research Center, Inc. (NTRCI) in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Dana Corporation (Dana), Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation (Michelin) and Clemson University (Clemson), under the NTRCIs Heavy Vehicle Safety Research Center (HVSRC) for the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). ORNL provided the day-to-day management of the project. The expertise mix of this team coupled with complementary research needs and interests, and a positive can-do attitude provided an extremely positive experimental research opportunity for all involved. Furthermore, this team supplied significant and valuable resources that provided a strong positive benchmark regarding the ability to conduct research within a public-private partnership. The work conducted by this team focused on initial efforts to generate data and information on heavy truck rollover not currently available in the industry. It reflects efforts within Phases 1 and 2 of a longer-term four-phase research program. A 1999 Peterbilt 379 class-8 tractor and 2004 Wabash dry freight van trailer were the test vehicles utilized in this effort. Both were instrumented with a number of sensors to capture the dynamics of the tractor and trailer as it engaged in various testing maneuvers that included: an evasive maneuver, swept sine, constant radius, and a run-off-the-road maneuver. The run-off-the-road maneuver was discontinued because the test track could not safety accommodate such a maneuver. These maneuvers were carried out utilizing both standard dual tires and new-generation dual tires in six test series. Two test series also included the use of a wider-slider suspension. Outriggers were placed on the test vehicle to assure that an actual rollover would not occur, however, the tests were designed to generate lift-off of tires during the tests. One of the main objectives

  11. 49 CFR 230.112 - Wheels and tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheels and tires. 230.112 Section 230.112... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.112 Wheels and tires. (a) Mounting. Wheels shall be securely mounted on... wheels mounted on the same axle shall not vary more than 1/4 inch. (d) Tire thickness. Wheels may...

  12. 49 CFR 229.75 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 229.75 Section 229.75....75 Wheels and tire defects. Wheels and tires may not have any of the following conditions: (a) A... measured from tread to the top of the flange. (i) Tires less than 11/2 inches thick. (j) Rims less than...

  13. Tests of two new polyurethane foam wheelchair tires.

    PubMed

    Gordon, J; Kauzlarich, J J; Thacker, J G

    1989-01-01

    The performance characteristics of four 24-inch wheelchair tires are considered; one pneumatic and three airless. Specifically, two new airless polyurethane foam tires (circular and tapered cross-section) were compared to both a molded polyisoprene tire and a rubber pneumatic tire. Rolling resistance, coefficient of static friction, spring rate, tire roll-off, impact absorption, wear resistance, and resistance to compression set were the characteristics considered for the basis of comparison. Although the pneumatic tire is preferred by many wheelchair users, the two new polyurethane foam tires were found to offer a performance similar to the high-pressure pneumatic tire. In addition, the foam tires are less expensive and lighter in weight than the other tires tested.

  14. Piezoelectric power generation for sensor applications: design of a battery-less wireless tire pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makki, Noaman; Pop-Iliev, Remon

    2011-06-01

    An in-wheel wireless and battery-less piezo-powered tire pressure sensor is developed. Where conventional battery powered Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems (TPMS) are marred by the limited battery life, TPMS based on power harvesting modules provide virtually unlimited sensor life. Furthermore, the elimination of a permanent energy reservoir simplifies the overall sensor design through the exclusion of extra circuitry required to sense vehicle motion and conserve precious battery capacity during vehicle idling periods. In this paper, two design solutions are presented, 1) with very low cost highly flexible piezoceramic (PZT) bender elements bonded directly to the tire to generate power required to run the sensor and, 2) a novel rim mounted PZT harvesting unit that can be used to power pressure sensors incorporated into the valve stem requiring minimal change to the presently used sensors. While both the designs eliminate the use of environmentally unfriendly battery from the TPMS design, they offer advantages of being very low cost, service free and easily replaceable during tire repair and replacement.

  15. Generation mechanisms of tire-pavement noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dare, Tyler P.

    Tire-pavement noise is the dominant source of traffic noise at highway speeds. It is the result of a combination of several noise generation mechanisms, including tire carcass vibration and tread block vibration. Because multiple mechanisms are involved, it is difficult to predict the effects of changes in pavement parameters on tire-pavement noise. In this research, a set of experimental techniques were developed to decompose a measured tire-pavement noise spectrum into a set of constituent spectra relating to each generation mechanism. Three principal mechanisms were identified: treadband vibration, sidewall vibration, and tangential tread block vibration. By combining the constituent spectra associated with these mechanisms, it was possible to accurately predict the total tire-pavement noise spectrum. The constituent spectra were fit to tire-pavement noise data measured on asphalt and concrete pavements at highway speeds. It was found that the constituent spectra fit the measured data well, and a two-parameter model was developed to predict tire-pavement noise levels from pavement texture data.

  16. NASA tire/runway friction projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    The paper reviews several aspects of NASA Langley Research Center's tire/runway friction evaluations directed towards improving the safety and economy of aircraft ground operations. The facilities and test equipment used in implementing different aircraft tire friction studies and other related aircraft ground performance investigations are described together with recent workshop activities at NASA Wallops Flight Facility. An overview of the pending Joint NASA/Transport Canada/FM Winter Runway Friction Program is given. Other NASA ongoing studies and on-site field tests are discussed including tire wear performance and new surface treatments. The paper concludes with a description of future research plans.

  17. Factors that influence tractive performance of wheels, tracks, and vehicles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traction of agricultural vehicles and other off-road vehicles is important in allowing these vehicles to perform their desired tasks. This book chapter describes factors affecting the off-road tractive performance of tires and rubber tracks. Tractive performance is affected by soil type, soil cond...

  18. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Rhinehart Tire Fire Dump, Operable Unit 2, Winchester, VA. (Second remedial action), September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-29

    The Rhinehart Tire Fire Dump site is located in a 22-acre drainage area of a sparsely populated rural area in western Frederick County, Virginia. Surface water runoff flows into a north-south tributary that discharges to Hogue Creek, which is 4,000 feet downstream. Bedrock is noted to be highly fractured, and the ground water flow in the overburden aquifer is toward Massey Run. From 1972 to 1983, the site owner conducted a tire disposal operation, which consisted of transporting discarded tires from various locations and storing them on a 5-acre wooded slope behind his home. An estimated 5 to 7 million tires that had been accumulated caught on fire in October 1983 and burned until July 1984. As a result of the fire, a free-flowing oily-tar, which contained anthracene, benzene, cadmium, chromium, ethylbenzene, napthalene, nickel, pyrene, toluene, and zinc, began to seep out of the tire pile into Massey Run and on to Hogue Creek.

  19. Feasibility of operating a solid-liquid bioreactor with used automobile tires as the sequestering phase for the biodegradation of inhibitory compounds.

    PubMed

    Tomei, M Concetta; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2013-08-15

    Finding new uses for waste or discarded material is an important environmental goal; being able to use a waste material to treat another waste is an even more attractive objective, and this was the purpose of the present work. We previously showed that used automobile tires have an affinity for a toxic contaminant, dichlorophenol (DCP), absorbing and releasing it based on concentration driving forces. Here we have exploited this phenomenon by using used tires as the sequestering phase in a Two-Phase Partitioning Bioreactor (TPPB) to treat otherwise-toxic levels of DCP, far out-performing single phase operation in a sequencing batch bioreactor. A comprehensive examination of substrate loading, reactor exchange ratio, and tire fraction used, demonstrated that the tire-TPPB system could handle a 40% higher influent substrate loading and an increase of the exchange ratio value from 0.5 (prohibitive for single phase operation) to 0.7. Such improvement was obtained with a tire fraction ≤9%, comparable to that for commercial polymers previously employed in TPPBs. This study has opened the door to the identification of other waste plastics suitable for use in TPPBs for the treatment of recalcitrant organic contaminants.

  20. Recovery of discarded sulfated lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, Hassan; Asadi, Raziyeh

    The aim of this research is to recover discarded sulfated lead-acid batteries. In this work, the effect of two methods (inverse charge and chemical charge) on the reactivation of sulfated active materials was investigated. At the inverse charge, the battery is deeply discharged and the electrolyte of battery is replaced with a new sulfuric acid solution of 1.28 g cm -3. Then, the battery is inversely charged with constant current method (2 A for the battery with the nominal capacity of 40 Ah) for 24 h. At the final stage, the inversely charged battery is directly charged for 48 h. Through these processes, a discarded battery can recover its capacity to more than 80% of a similar fresh and non-sulfated battery. At the chemical charge method, there are some effective parameters that including ammonium persulfate [(NH 4) 2S 2O 8] concentration, recovery temperature and recovery time. The effect of all parameters was optimized by one at a time method. The sulfated battery is deeply discharged and then, its electrolyte was replaced by a 40% ammonium persulfate solution (as oxidant) at temperature of 50 °C. By adding of oxidant solution, the chemical charging of positive and negative plates was performed for optimum time of 1 h. The chemically charged batteries were charged with constant voltage method (2.66 V for the battery with nominal voltage and nominal capacity of 2 V and 10 Ah, respectively) for 24 h. By performing of these processes, a discarded battery can recovers its capacity to more than 84% of the similar fresh and non-sulfated battery. Discharge and cyclelife behaviors of the recovered batteries were investigated and compared with similar healthy battery. The morphology and structure of plates was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after recovery.

  1. 16. CELLAR, UNDER WEST MEETING ROOM, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. Discarded marble ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. CELLAR, UNDER WEST MEETING ROOM, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. Discarded marble range top incorporated into a low brick partition. It is possible the range originally stood between the two brick walls beyond to the right. There appears to be a bricked-up fire box opening in the far wall. The fragments of the marble range top have been catalogued into the Architectural Study Collection of Independence National Historical Park. Dimensions recorded in Field Records. - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. Tire-wear particles as a source of zinc to the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Councell, T.B.; Duckenfield, K.U.; Landa, E.R.; Callender, E.

    2004-01-01

    Tire-tread material has a zinc (Zn) content of about 1 wt %. The quantity of tread material lost to road surfaces by abrasion has not been well characterized. Two approaches were used to assess the magnitude of this nonpoint source of Zn in the U.S. for the period 1936-1999. In the first approach, tread-wear rates from the automotive engineering literature were used in conjunction with vehicle distance-driven data from the U.S. Department of Transportation to determine Zn releases. A second approach calculated this source term from the volume of tread lost during lifetime tire wear. These analyses showed that the quantity of Zn released by tire wear in the mid-1990s was of the same magnitude as that released from waste incineration. For 1999, the quantity of Zn released by tire wear in the U.S. is estimated to be 10 000-11 000 metric tons. A specific case study focused on Zn sources and sinks in an urban-suburban watershed (Lake Anne) in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area for a time period of the late 1990s. The atmospheric flux of total Zn (wet deposition) to the watershed was 2 ??g/cm2/yr. The flux of Zn to the watershed estimated from tire wear was 42 ??g/cm2/yr. The measured accumulation rate of total Zn in age-dated sediment cores from Lake Anne was 27 ??g/cm2/yr. These data suggest that tire-wear Zn inputs to urban-suburban watersheds can be significantly greater than atmospheric inputs, although the watershed appears to retain appreciable quantities of vehicular Zn inputs.

  3. Rollover of Sport Utility Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, Desmond N.

    2004-02-01

    Recently, the PBS program "Frontline" examined the history of the development of the sport utility vehicle (SUV) and the efforts to force car makers to design SUVs that are less prone to rollover. The dangers of SUV rollovers were spotlighted in the fall of 2000, when the Ford-Firestone scandal prompted Congress to launch a series of hearings focusing on deaths and injuries related to faulty Firestone tires mounted on Ford Explorers. However, during the same 10-year period in which Ford-Firestone rollover crashes caused some 300 deaths, more than 12,000 people — 40 times as many — died in SUV rollovers unrelated to tire failure.

  4. 29 CFR 779.366 - Recapping or retreading tires for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Establishments Automotive Tire Establishments § 779.366 Recapping or retreading tires for sale. (a) Some automotive tire establishments engage in recapping and retreading work on tires which the...

  5. 29 CFR 779.366 - Recapping or retreading tires for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Establishments Automotive Tire Establishments § 779.366 Recapping or retreading tires for sale. (a) Some automotive tire establishments engage in recapping and retreading work on tires which the...

  6. 29 CFR 779.366 - Recapping or retreading tires for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Establishments Automotive Tire Establishments § 779.366 Recapping or retreading tires for sale. (a) Some automotive tire establishments engage in recapping and retreading work on tires which the...

  7. 29 CFR 779.366 - Recapping or retreading tires for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Establishments Automotive Tire Establishments § 779.366 Recapping or retreading tires for sale. (a) Some automotive tire establishments engage in recapping and retreading work on tires which the...

  8. 29 CFR 779.366 - Recapping or retreading tires for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Establishments Automotive Tire Establishments § 779.366 Recapping or retreading tires for sale. (a) Some automotive tire establishments engage in recapping and retreading work on tires which the...

  9. Experiments on spray from a rolling tire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radovich, Charles Anthony

    A novel laboratory apparatus has been built to understand the key mechanisms behind spray emerging from a rolling tire. Several researchers have assessed the performance of spray suppression devices; however, there are no known efforts that address the question "what needs to be suppressed?" This investigation into how water in a tire groove evolves into a droplet field will ultimately contribute to driver safety. Using high-speed imaging, water passing through a single circumferential groove was observed to leave the tire patch in the form of a thin liquid sheet, connecting the roadway and the tire. The sheet disintegrates into a droplet field and the breakup modes associated with this decay were identified with respect to Weber number. Weber numbers based on the properties of water, tire speed and tire groove width were tested at 2700, 10900 and 24400. Measurements for the breakup length of the liquid sheet showed a dependence on Weber number proportional to We-1/6. The lateral displacement of the water exiting the tire patch was also measured. These tests showed the overall size of the spray field grows with We; however, the maximum water volume for all We's was delivered to the same distance from the road. Downstream from the tire patch, a determination of the droplet field was performed. From this study, the distribution of droplet sizes was determined as a function of Weber number. At We = 2,700, droplet sizes between 80 and 9000 microm were detected, with a mean diameter near 800 microm. Both the range of droplet sizes and the mean diameter were found to decrease with Weber number by approximately We-1/2. Based on these size distributions, Correlation Image Velocimetry (CIV) was used to estimate the distribution of droplet velocities as function of their size. These results reveal a strong correlation between droplet diameter and velocity which is comparable to that predicted for a simple sphere.

  10. Nonlinear Analysis and Modeling of Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the study was to develop efficient modeling techniques and computational strategies for: (1) predicting the nonlinear response of tires subjected to inflation pressure, mechanical and thermal loads; (2) determining the footprint region, and analyzing the tire pavement contact problem, including the effect of friction; and (3) determining the sensitivity of the tire response (displacements, stresses, strain energy, contact pressures and contact area) to variations in the different material and geometric parameters. Two computational strategies were developed. In the first strategy the tire was modeled by using either a two-dimensional shear flexible mixed shell finite elements or a quasi-three-dimensional solid model. The contact conditions were incorporated into the formulation by using a perturbed Lagrangian approach. A number of model reduction techniques were applied to substantially reduce the number of degrees of freedom used in describing the response outside the contact region. The second strategy exploited the axial symmetry of the undeformed tire, and uses cylindrical coordinates in the development of three-dimensional elements for modeling each of the different parts of the tire cross section. Model reduction techniques are also used with this strategy.

  11. Off-Road Soft Soil Tire Model Development and Experimental Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-29

    deformed contact patch be- tween the tyre and soil” [14]. The substitute circle diameter is obtained from the equilibri- um between the vertical reaction...of maximum pressure for a pneumatic tire is somewhere between the entry and exit an- gles and its location is dependent on slip ratio [24]. Thus...Angle References [1] Rauh, J. and Mössner-Beigel, M., 2008, “ Tyre simulation challenges,” Vehicle Sys- tem Dynamics, Vol. 46, Supplement, pp. 49-62

  12. Impacts of discarded coffee waste on human and environmental health.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, A S; Mello, F V C; Thode Filho, S; Carpes, R M; Honório, J G; Marques, M R C; Felzenszwalb, I; Ferraz, E R A

    2017-03-13

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages throughout the world. So far, many studies have shown the properties of coffee beverages, but little is known about its impacts on human and environmental health from its discard in the environment. So, the present work aims to investigate the mutagenic, genotoxic, cytotoxic and ecotoxic effects of leached (LE) and solubilized (SE) extracts from coffee waste, simulating the disposal of this residue in landfills and via sewage systems, respectively. Chemical analyses were also carried out. LE and SE induced mutagenicity in the TA98 Salmonella strain with and without exogenous metabolization (S9). In the TA100 only SE induced mutagenicity, what was observed without S9. An increase in the frequency of micronuclei was observed in HepG2 cell line after 3 and 24h of exposure to both extracts. No cytotoxic effects were observed in HepG2 cells by WST-1 assay. The EC50 values for the LE and SE were 1.5% and 11.26% for Daphnia similis, 0.12% and 1.39% for Ceriodaphnia dubia and 6.0% and 5.5% for Vibrio fischeri, respectively. Caffeine and several transition metals were found in both extracts. Coffee waste discarded in the environment may pose a risk to human and environmental health, since this compound can cause DNA damage and present toxicity to aquatic organisms.

  13. Runway drainage characteristics related to tire friction performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    The capability of a runway pavement to rapidly drain water buildup during periods of precipitation is crucial to minimize tire hydroplaning potential and maintain adequate aircraft ground operational safety. Test results from instrumented aircraft, ground friction measuring vehicles, and NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) track have been summarized to indicate the adverse effects of pavement wetness conditions on tire friction performance. Water drainage measurements under a range of rainfall rates have been evaluated for several different runway surface treatments including the transversely grooved and longitudinally grinded concrete surfaces at the Space Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) runway at NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The major parameters influencing drainage rates and extent of flooding/drying conditions are identified. Existing drainage test data are compared to a previously derived empirical relationship and the need for some modification is indicated. The scope of future NASA Langley research directed toward improving empirical relationships to properly define runway drainage capability and consequently, enhance aircraft ground operational safety, is given.

  14. 49 CFR 575.106 - Tire fuel efficiency consumer information program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... tires, deep tread, winter-type snow tires, space-saver or temporary use spare tires, tires with nominal... deep tread, winter-type snow tires and limited production tires that it manufactures which are exempt... to have included in the database of information available to consumers on NHTSA's Web site....

  15. 49 CFR 575.106 - Tire fuel efficiency consumer information program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... tires, deep tread, winter-type snow tires, space-saver or temporary use spare tires, tires with nominal... deep tread, winter-type snow tires and limited production tires that it manufactures which are exempt... to have included in the database of information available to consumers on NHTSA's Web site....

  16. 49 CFR 575.106 - Tire fuel efficiency consumer information program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... tires, deep tread, winter-type snow tires, space-saver or temporary use spare tires, tires with nominal... deep tread, winter-type snow tires and limited production tires that it manufactures which are exempt... to have included in the database of information available to consumers on NHTSA's Web site....

  17. 77 FR 9916 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Mobile Cargo...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... activities and includes, but is not limited to, yard trucks, top handlers, rubber- tired gantry (RTG) cranes... or vehicles: Basic cargo handling equipment, bulk cargo handling equipment and rubber-tired gantry (RTG) cranes. Basic cargo handling equipment consists of top handlers, side handlers, reach...

  18. Reprocessing and reuse of waste tire rubber to solve air-quality related problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lehmann, C.M.B.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.; Sun, Jielun

    1998-01-01

    There is a potential for using waste tire rubber to make activated-carbon adsorbents for air-quality control applications. Such an approach provides a recycling path for waste tires and the production of new adsorbents from a low-cost waste material. Tire-derived activated carbons (TDACs) were prepared from waste tires. The resulting products are generally mesoporous, with N2-BET specific surface areas ranging from 239 to 1031 m2/g. TDACs were tested for their ability to store natural gas and remove organic compounds and mercury species from gas streams. TDACs are able to achieve 36% of the recommended adsorbed natural gas (methane) storage capacity for natural-gas-fueled vehicles. Equilibrium adsorption capacities for CH4 achieved by TDACs are comparable to Calgon BPL, a commercially available activated-carbon adsorbent. The acetone adsorption capacity for a TDAC is 67% of the adsorption capacity achieved by BPL at 1 vol % acetone. Adsorption capacities of mercury in simulated flue-gas streams are, in general, larger than adsorption capacities achieved by coal-derived activated carbons (CDACs) and BPL. Although TDACs may not perform as well as commercial adsorbents in some air pollution control applications, the potential lower cost of TDACS should be considered when evaluating economics.

  19. Measurement Of Water Sprays Generated By Airplane Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Robert H.; Stubbs, Sandy M.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental investigation conducted at NASA Langley Research Center to measure rate of flow and trajectory of water spray generated by tire operating on flooded runway. Potential application to both aircraft and automotive industries, with particular application to manufacturers of tires.

  20. Federal Research on Recycled Tire Crumb Used on Playing Fields

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ground rubber is recovered from scrap tires or from the tire retreading process. It is used in road construction and in athletic and recreational applications,like ground cover under playground equipment, running track material, and as a soil additive.

  1. 49 CFR 230.113 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.113 Wheels and tire defects. Steam locomotive and tender wheels or...

  2. Reduction technique for tire contact problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Peters, Jeanne M.

    1995-01-01

    A reduction technique and a computational procedure are presented for predicting the tire contact response and evaluating the sensitivity coefficients of the different response quantities. The sensitivity coefficients measure the sensitivity of the contact response to variations in the geometric and material parameters of the tire. The tire is modeled using a two-dimensional laminated anisotropic shell theory with the effects of variation in geometric and material parameters, transverse shear deformation, and geometric nonlinearities included. The contact conditions are incorporated into the formulation by using a perturbed Lagrangian approach with the fundamental unknowns consisting of the stress resultants, the generalized displacements, and the Lagrange multipliers associated with the contact conditions. The elemental arrays are obtained by using a modified two-field, mixed variational principle. For the application of the reduction technique, the tire finite element model is partitioned into two regions. The first region consists of the nodes that are likely to come in contact with the pavement, and the second region includes all the remaining nodes. The reduction technique is used to significantly reduce the degrees of freedom in the second region. The effectiveness of the computational procedure is demonstrated by a numerical example of the frictionless contact response of the space shuttle nose-gear tire, inflated and pressed against a rigid flat surface.

  3. 49 CFR 569.9 - Labeling of regroovable tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Labeling of regroovable tires. 569.9 Section 569.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY...) Regroovable tires. After August 30, 1969, each tire designed and constructed for regrooving shall be...

  4. Passive tire pressure sensor and method

    DOEpatents

    Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Williams, Robert Leslie; Waldschmidt, Robert Lee; Morgan, Catherine Hook

    2006-08-29

    A surface acoustic wave device includes a micro-machined pressure transducer for monitoring tire pressure. The device is configured having a micro-machined cavity that is sealed with a flexible conductive membrane. When an external tire pressure equivalent to the cavity pressure is detected, the membrane makes contact with ridges on the backside of the surface acoustic wave device. The ridges are electrically connected to conductive fingers of the device. When the detected pressure is correct, selected fingers on the device will be grounded producing patterned acoustic reflections to an impulse RF signal. When the external tire pressure is less than the cavity reference pressure, a reduced reflected signal to the receiver results. The sensor may further be constructed so as to identify itself by a unique reflected identification pulse series.

  5. Passive tire pressure sensor and method

    DOEpatents

    Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Williams, Robert Leslie; Waldschmidt, Robert Lee; Morgan, Catherine Hook

    2007-09-04

    A surface acoustic wave device includes a micro-machined pressure transducer for monitoring tire pressure. The device is configured having a micro-machined cavity that is sealed with a flexible conductive membrane. When an external tire pressure equivalent to the cavity pressure is detected, the membrane makes contact with ridges on the backside of the surface acoustic wave device. The ridges are electrically connected to conductive fingers of the device. When the detected pressure is correct, selected fingers on the device will be grounded producing patterned acoustic reflections to an impulse RF signal. When the external tire pressure is less than the cavity reference pressure, a reduced reflected signal to the receiver results. The sensor may further be constructed so as to identify itself by a unique reflected identification pulse series.

  6. Finite element modeling and analysis of tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, A. K.; Andersen, C. M.

    1983-01-01

    Predicting the response of tires under various loading conditions using finite element technology is addressed. Some of the recent advances in finite element technology which have high potential for application to tire modeling problems are reviewed. The analysis and modeling needs for tires are identified. Reduction methods for large-scale nonlinear analysis, with particular emphasis on treatment of combined loads, displacement-dependent and nonconservative loadings; development of simple and efficient mixed finite element models for shell analysis, identification of equivalent mixed and purely displacement models, and determination of the advantages of using mixed models; and effective computational models for large-rotation nonlinear problems, based on a total Lagrangian description of the deformation are included.

  7. Tire Development for Effective Transportation and Utilization of Used Tires, CRADA 01-N044, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Maley

    2004-03-31

    Scrap tires represent a significant disposal and recycling challenge for the United States. Over 280 million tires are generated on an annual basis, and several states have large stockpiles or abandoned tire piles that are slated for remediation. While most states have programs to address the accumulation and generation of scrap tires, most of these states struggle with creating and sustaining recycling or beneficial end use markets. One of the major issues with market development has been the costs associated with transporting and processing the tires into material for recycling or disposal. According to a report by the Rubber Manufactures Association tire-derived fuel (TDF) represents the largest market for scrap tires, and approximately 115 million tires were consumed in 2001 as TDF (U.S. Scrap Tire Markets, 2001, December 2002, www.rma.org/scraptires). This market is supported primarily by cement kilns, followed by various industries including companies that operate utility and industrial boilers. However the use of TDF has not increased and the amount of TDF used by boiler operators has declined. The work completed through this cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) has shown the potential of a mobile tire shredding unit to economically produce TDF and to provide an alterative low cost fuel to suitable coal-fired power systems. This novel system addresses the economic barriers by processing the tires at the retailer, thereby eliminating the costs associated with hauling whole tires. The equipment incorporated into the design allow for small 1-inch chunks of TDF to be produced in a timely fashion. The TDF can then be co-fired with coal in suitable combustion systems, such as a fluidized bed. Proper use of TDF has been shown to boost efficiency and reduce emissions from power generation systems, which is beneficial to coal utilization in existing power plants. Since the original scope of work outlined in the CRADA could not be completed because

  8. CATL (Cooperative Approval Tire List) Update

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-25

    10 . SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) TACOM/TARDEC 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 20567RC 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved...Company Group Expiration Date Test Reference Bridgestone/Firestone (USA) Inc. 1 28-Oct- 10 ACTS-CATL-T1-1/98-051 Bridgestone/Firestone (USA) Inc. 3 12-Jan... 10 ACTS-CATL-T1-1/98-009 Continental Tire North America 1 1-Aug- 10 ACTS-CATL-T1-1//98-021 Continental Tire North America 3 15-Dec- 10 ACTS-CATL-T1-1

  9. A Novel Approach for Combat Vehicle Mobility Definition and Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    solutions. Some of the major applications include washing machines, rice cookers , image processing applications, anti-lock brake controls, and steering...parameters 2. Fuzzy mobility assessment rules 3. Fuzzy mobility definition 4. Fuzzy mobility assessment algorithm In general, tire pressure , weight...on how fast a vehicle can move while traversing through soft soil. Lower tire pressure and increased weight influences how the brake responds. The

  10. Development of asphalts and pavements using recycled tire rubber. Phase 1, Technical feasibility. Technical progress report, September 1, 1994--August 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bullin, J.A.; Davison, R.R.; Glover, C.J.

    1996-06-01

    About 285 million tires are discarded every year; less than 100 million are currently being recycled, with the rest being placed in landfills and other waste sites. A solution to reduce the littering of the environment is to use ground tire rubber in road construction. Currently, about 27 million tons of asphalt are used each year in road construction and maintenance of the country`s 2 million miles of roads. If all of the waste tire rubber could be combined with asphalt in road construction, it would displace less than 6% of the total asphalt used each year, yet could save about 60 trillion Btus annually. Purpose of this project is to provide data needed to optimize the performance of rubber-asphalt concretes. The first phase is to develop asphalts and recycling agents tailored for compatibility with ground tire rubber. Chapter 2 presents results on Laboratory Testing and Evaluation: fractionate asphalt material, reblending for aromatic asphalts, verifying optimal curing parameters, aging of blends, and measuring ductilities of asphalt-rubber binders. Chapter 3 focuses on Evaluating Mixture Characteristics (modified binders). Chapter 4 covers Adhesion Test Development (water susceptibility is also covered). The final chapter focuses on the Performance/Economic Update and Commercialization Plan.

  11. 77 FR 54836 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards CFR...; New pneumatic tires for motor vehicles with a GVWR of more than 4,536 kilograms (10,000 pounds)...

  12. Apparatus for weighing and identifying characteristics of a moving vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Muhs, J.D.; Jordan, J.K.; Tobin, K.W. Jr.; LaForge, J.V.

    1993-11-09

    Apparatus for weighing a vehicle in motion is provided by employing a plurality of elongated fiber-optic sensors defined by an optical fiber embedded in an encasement of elastomeric material and disposed parallel to each other on the roadway in the path of moving vehicles. Each fiber-optic sensor is provided with contact grid means which can be selectively altered to provide the fiber-optic sensors with sensitivities to vehicular weight different from each other for weighing vehicles in an extended weight range. Switch means are used in conjunction with the fiber-optic sensors to provide signals indicative of the speed of the moving vehicle, the number of axles on the vehicle, weight distribution, tire position, and the wheelbase of the vehicle. The use of a generally N-shaped configuration of switch means also provides a determination of the number of tires on each axle and the tire footprint. When switch means in this configuration are formed of optical fibers, the extent of light transmission through the fibers during contact with the tires of the vehicle is indicative of the vehicle weight. 15 figures.

  13. Apparatus for weighing and identifying characteristics of a moving vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Jordan, John K.; Tobin, Jr., Kenneth W.; LaForge, John V.

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus for weighing a vehicle in motion is provided by employing a plurality of elongated fiber-optic sensors defined by an optical fiber embedded in an encasement of elastomeric material and disposed parallel to each other on the roadway in the path of moving vehicles. Each fiber-optic sensor is provided with contact grid means which can be selectively altered to provide the fiber-optic sensors with sensitivities to vehicular weight different from each other for weighing vehicles in an extended weight range. Switch means are used in conjunction with the fiber-optic sensors to provide signals indicative of the speed of the moving vehicle, the number of axles on the vehicle, weight distribution, tire position, and the wheelbase of the vehicle. The use of a generally N-shaped configuration of switch means also provides a determination of the number of tires on each axle and the tire footprint. When switch means in this configuration are formed of optical fibers, the extent of light transmission through the fibers during contact with the tires of the vehicle is indicative of the vehicle weight.

  14. Remedy for Radiation Fear — Discard the Politicized Science

    PubMed Central

    Cuttler, Jerry M.

    2014-01-01

    Seeking a remedy for the radiation fear in Japan, the author re-examined an article on radiation hormesis. It describes the background for this fear and evidence in the first UNSCEAR report of a reduction in leukemia of the Hiroshima survivors in the low dose zone. The data are plotted and dose-response models are drawn. While UNSCEAR suggested the extra leukemia incidence is proportional to radiation dose, the data are consistent with a hormetic J-shape and a threshold at about 100 rem (1 Sv). UNSCEAR data on lifespan reduction of mammals exposed continuously to gamma rays indicate a 2 gray/year threshold. This contradicts the conceptual basis for radiation protection and risk determination established in 1956–58. In this paper, beneficial effects and thresholds for harmful effects are discussed, and the biological mechanism is explained. The key point: the rate of DNA damage (double-strand breaks) caused by background radiation is 1000 times less than the endogenous (spontaneous) rate. It is the effect of radiation on an organism’s very powerful adaptive protection systems that determines the dose-response characteristic. Low radiation up-regulates the protection systems, while high radiation impairs these systems. The remedy for radiation fear is to expose and discard the politicized science. PMID:24910587

  15. 14 CFR 27.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... gear wheel must have a tire— (1) That is a proper fit on the rim of the wheel; and (2) Of the proper rating. (b) The maximum static load rating of each tire must equal or exceed the static ground reaction obtained at its wheel, assuming— (1) The design maximum weight; and (2) The most unfavorable center...

  16. 14 CFR 27.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... gear wheel must have a tire— (1) That is a proper fit on the rim of the wheel; and (2) Of the proper rating. (b) The maximum static load rating of each tire must equal or exceed the static ground reaction obtained at its wheel, assuming— (1) The design maximum weight; and (2) The most unfavorable center...

  17. 14 CFR 27.733 - Tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... gear wheel must have a tire— (1) That is a proper fit on the rim of the wheel; and (2) Of the proper rating. (b) The maximum static load rating of each tire must equal or exceed the static ground reaction obtained at its wheel, assuming— (1) The design maximum weight; and (2) The most unfavorable center...

  18. How Do Tubeless Tires Support an Auto?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperry, John; Jones, Evan

    1994-01-01

    Provides an explanation of how tubeless tires support the weight of an automobile with reference to the use of free body diagrams in physics. Presents a second activity in which an inexpensive laser pointer is used to obtain diffraction photographs. Offers project ideas for students. (ZWH)

  19. Michelin Tire Company Workplace Literacy Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery.

    This packet provides generic versions of curriculum developed for the Michelin Tire Corporation workplace literacy program, specifically the mathematics portion. Altered material included in the packet protects proprietary information; some lessons include lines that take the place of deleted information. Other companies are recommended to use…

  20. Chlorinolysis reclaims rubber of waste tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufresne, E. R.; Tervet, J. H.; Hull, G. G.

    1981-01-01

    Process reclaims rubber and reduces sulfur content by using chlorine gas to oxidize sulfur bonds in preference to other bonds. Rubber does not have poor hysteresis and abrasion resistance like conventionally reclaimed rubber and is suitable for premium radial tires. Chlorinated rubber is less susceptible to swelling by oils and may be used as paint ingredient.

  1. Tires and Tracks. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on tires and tracks servicing is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids on operation, diagnosis and repair of automotive and off-the-road agricultural and construction equipment. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. The…

  2. 50 CFR Table 1b to Part 679 - Discard and Disposition Codes1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... discarded fish 89 Whole fish/discard, infested. Flea-infested fish, parasite-infested fish 88 Whole fish... Confiscation or seized 63 Deadloss (crab only) 79 Overage 62 Retained for future sale 87 Tagged IFQ Fish (Exempt from debit) 64 Whole fish/bait, not sold. Used as bait onboard vessel 92 Whole fish/bait, sold...

  3. 50 CFR Table 1b to Part 679 - Discard and Disposition Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discard and Disposition Codes 1b Table 1b... ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 1b Table 1b to Part 679—Discard and Disposition Codes Description Code Confiscation... bait. 95 Whole fish/sold, for human consumption. 60 NOTE: When using whole fish codes, record...

  4. Preliminary data on the performance of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus immatures developing in water-filled tires in Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Honório, Nildimar Alves; Cabello, Pedro H; Codeço, Cláudia T; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo

    2006-03-01

    A monthly survey of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus immatures in discarded tires at a site in metropolitan Rio de Janeiro showed that Ae. albopictus was much more abundant in the rainy season, but Ae. aegypti abundance showed a less clear seasonal pattern. Pupal masses for Ae. albopictus showed a seasonal trend. In contrast, Ae. aegypti pupae did not show any clear trend in weight. Large Ae. albopictus pupae were found in the warmer months, when water volume was higher, pH lower and larval abundance lower. Further studies should be carried out to assess how seasonal variations in body size may impact vector competence of these species in Brazil.

  5. Monitoring Temperatures of Tires Using Luminescent Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bencic, Timothy J

    2006-01-01

    A method of noncontact, optical monitoring of the surface temperature of a tire has been devised to enable the use of local temperature rise as an indication of potential or impending failures. The method involves the use of temperature-sensitive paint (or filler): Temperature-sensitive luminescent dye molecules or other luminescent particles are incorporated into a thin, flexible material coating the tire surface of interest. (Alternatively, in principle, the luminescent material could be incorporated directly into the tire rubber, though this approach has not yet been tested.) The coated surface is illuminated with shorter-wavelength light to excite longer-wavelength luminescence, which is observed by use of a charge-coupled-device camera or a photodetector (see Figure 1). If temporally constant illumination is used, then the temperature can be deduced from the known temperature dependence of the intensity response of the luminescence. If pulsed illumination is used, then the temperature can be deduced from the known temperature dependence of the time or frequency response of the luminescence. If sinusoidally varying illumination is used, then the temperature can be deduced from the known temperature dependence of the phase response of the luminescence. Unlike a prior method of monitoring the temperature at a fixed spot on a tire by use of a thermocouple, this method is not restricted to one spot and can, therefore, yield information on the spatial distribution of temperature: in particular, it enables the discovery of newly forming hot spots where damage may be starting. Also unlike in the thermocouple method, the measurements in this method are not vulnerable to breakage of wires in repeated flexing of the tire. Moreover, unlike in another method in which infrared radiation is monitored as an indication of surface temperature, the luminescence measurements in this method are not significantly affected by changes in infrared emissivity. This method has been

  6. Seabird use of discards from a nearshore shrimp fishery in the South Atlantic Bight, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jodice, Patrick G.; Wickliffe, Lisa C.; Sachs, Elena B.

    2011-01-01

    Shrimp trawling is common throughout the southeastern and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the USA and is the primary contributor to fisheries discards in these regions. Tens of thousands of nearshore seabirds nest near shrimp trawling grounds in the USA, but to date, there has been no assessment of the relationship between seabirds and shrimp trawlers. We examined the taxonomic composition of bycatch, rate at which seabirds scavenged bycatch, and energy density of discarded bycatch in a nearshore commercial shrimp fishery. Bycatch was primarily comprised of demersal fish that are not typically accessible to the plunge-diving and surface-feeding seabirds that occur in the area. Hence, seabird diets in the region appear to be broadened taxonomically by the availability of discards. Results from discard experiments indicated that 70% of the nearly 5,500 items discarded by hand were scavenged by seabirds and that the fate of a discarded item was most strongly predicted by its taxonomic order. Laughing gulls scavenged the greatest proportion of discards, although brown pelicans were the only species to scavenge more discards than predicted based upon their abundance. Because this is the first such study in the region, it is difficult to ascertain the extent or intensity of the impact that discards have on nearshore seabirds. Nonetheless, our results suggest that it will be difficult for managers to clearly understand fluctuations in local seabird population dynamics without first understanding the extent to which these species rely upon discards. This may be especially problematic in situations where seabird populations are recovering following natural or anthropogenic stressors.

  7. Recovery of indium from LCD screens of discarded cell phones.

    PubMed

    Silveira, A V M; Fuchs, M S; Pinheiro, D K; Tanabe, E H; Bertuol, D A

    2015-11-01

    Advances in technological development have resulted in high consumption of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE), amongst which are cell phones, which have LCD (liquid crystal display) screens as one of their main components. These multilayer screens are composed of different materials, some with high added value, as in the case of the indium present in the form of indium tin oxide (ITO, or tin-doped indium oxide). Indium is a precious metal with relatively limited natural reserves (Dodbida et al., 2012), so it can be profitable to recover it from discarded LCD screens. The objective of this study was to develop a complete process for recovering indium from LCD screens. Firstly, the screens were manually removed from cell phones. In the next step, a pretreatment was developed for removal of the polarizing film from the glass of the LCD panels, because the adherence of this film to the glass complicated the comminution process. The choice of mill was based on tests using different equipment (knife mill, hammer mill, and ball mill) to disintegrate the LCD screens, either before or after removal of the polarizing film. In the leaching process, it was possible to extract 96.4 wt.% of the indium under the following conditions: 1.0M H2SO4, 1:50 solid/liquid ratio, 90°C, 1h, and stirring at 500 rpm. The results showed that the best experimental conditions enabled extraction of 613 mg of indium/kg of LCD powder. Finally, precipitation of the indium with NH4OH was tested at different pH values, and 99.8 wt.% precipitation was achieved at pH 7.4.

  8. Tire Force Estimation using a Proportional Integral Observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat, Ahmad; Koenig, Damien; Hernandez-Alcantara, Diana; Morales-Menendez, Ruben

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses a method for detecting critical stability situations in the lateral vehicle dynamics by estimating the non-linear part of the tire forces. These forces indicate the road holding performance of the vehicle. The estimation method is based on a robust fault detection and estimation approach which minimize the disturbance and uncertainties to residual sensitivity. It consists in the design of a Proportional Integral Observer (PIO), while minimizing the well known H ∞ norm for the worst case uncertainties and disturbance attenuation, and combining a transient response specification. This multi-objective problem is formulated as a Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMI) feasibility problem where a cost function subject to LMI constraints is minimized. This approach is employed to generate a set of switched robust observers for uncertain switched systems, where the convergence of the observer is ensured using a Multiple Lyapunov Function (MLF). Whilst the forces to be estimated can not be physically measured, a simulation scenario with CarSimTM is presented to illustrate the developed method.

  9. 76 FR 6603 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for the period... on OTR tires from the PRC. See Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic...

  10. Kidneys at higher risk of discard: expanding the role of dual kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tanriover, B; Mohan, S; Cohen, D J; Radhakrishnan, J; Nickolas, T L; Stone, P W; Tsapepas, D S; Crew, R J; Dube, G K; Sandoval, P R; Samstein, B; Dogan, E; Gaston, R S; Tanriover, J N; Ratner, L E; Hardy, M A

    2014-02-01

    Half of the recovered expanded criteria donor (ECD) kidneys are discarded in the United States. A new kidney allocation system offers kidneys at higher risk of discard, Kidney Donor Profile Index (KDPI)>85%, to a wider geographic area to promote broader sharing and expedite utilization. Dual kidney transplantation (DKT) based on the KDPI is a potential option to streamline allocation of kidneys which otherwise would have been discarded. To assess the clinical utility of the KDPI in kidneys at higher risk of discard, we analyzed the OPTN/UNOS Registry that included the deceased donor kidneys recovered between 2002 and 2012. The primary outcomes were allograft survival, patient survival and discard rate based on different KDPI categories (<80%, 80-90% and >90%). Kidneys with KDPI>90% were associated with increased odds of discard (OR=1.99, 95% CI 1.74-2.29) compared to ones with KDPI<80%. DKTs of KDPI>90% were associated with lower overall allograft failure (HR=0.74, 95% CI 0.62-0.89) and better patient survival (HR=0.79, 95% CI 0.64-0.98) compared to single ECD kidneys with KDPI>90%. Kidneys at higher risk of discard may be offered in the up-front allocation system as a DKT. Further modeling and simulation studies are required to determine a reasonable KDPI cutoff percentile.

  11. Quality indicators for discarding blood in the National Blood Center, Kuala Lumpur

    PubMed Central

    Morish, Mohammed; Ayob, Yasmin; Naim, Noris; Salman, Huda; Muhamad, Nor Asiah; Yusoff, Narazah Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective: The implementation of quality system and continuous evaluation of all activities of the Blood Transfusion Services (BTS) can help to achieve the maximum quantity and quality of safe blood. Optimizing blood collection and processing would reduce the rate of discard and improve the efficiency of the BTS. The objective of this study is to determine the rate of discard of blood and blood component and identify its reasons at the National Blood Centre (NBC), Kuala Lumpur, during the year of 2007 in order to introduce appropriate intervention. Study Designs and Methods: Data on the number of discarded whole blood units and its components, reasons for discard, and the number of blood components processed as well as the number of collected blood units were obtained from the Blood Bank Information System - NBC database. These were analyzed. Results: The total number of blood units collected in 2007 was 171169 from which 390636 units of components were prepared. The total number of discarded whole blood units and its components was 8968 (2.3%). Platelet concentrate recorded the highest of discard at 6% (3909) followed by whole blood at 3.7% (647), fresh frozen plasma (FFP) at 2.5% (2839), and cryoprecipitate at 2% (620). The rate of discarded packed red blood cells RBCs, plasma aphaeresis, and PLT aphaeresis was less than 1% at 0.6% (902), 0.6% (37), and 0.29% (14), respectively. RBC contamination of PLT and plasma were the major cause of discard at 40% (3558). Other causes include leakage (26% - 2306), lipemia (25% - 2208), and underweight (4% - 353). Conclusion: Good donor selection, training and evaluation of the staff, as well as implementation of automation will help to improve processes and output of BTS. This would reduce discard of blood components and wastage caused by non conformance. PMID:22623837

  12. 75 FR 36472 - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, (Goodyear),\\1\\ has determined... 573, Defect and Noncompliance Responsibility and Reports. \\1\\ Goodyear Tire and Rubber...

  13. 75 FR 81712 - The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company (Goodyear) \\1\\ has determined... Noncompliance Responsibility and Reports, dated August 12, 2010. \\1\\ The Goodyear Tire & Rubber...

  14. 78 FR 9775 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for.... ACTION: Receipt of Petition. SUMMARY: Cooper Tire & Rubber Company (Cooper),\\1\\ has determined that..., Defect and Noncompliance Responsibility and Reports. \\1\\ Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, is a...

  15. Dispersal of 10-14-mesh corncob granules in stacked tires.

    PubMed

    Siegel, J P; Cieslik, R; Thennisch, J; Clarke, L; Novak, R J

    1996-06-01

    Dispersal of 10-14-mesh corncob granules was evaluated in 2 random-stacked tire piles, one shingle-stacked tire pile, and one column-stacked tire pile located in a used-tire storage facility in Chicago, IL. Ninety percent and 98%, respectively, of the tires in the 2 random-stacked piles contained granules. In the shingle-stacked tire pile 87% of the tires sampled contained granules, and the number of granules per tire was dependent on depth. The 2 bottom rows of tires were 73.9% less likely to contain granules than the 5 rows above them. In the column-stacked tire pile 91.2% of the tires contained granules and the relationship between granule recovery and tire depth was logarithmic. Overall, the dispersal of 10-14-mesh corncob granules was comparable to that of 8-mesh corncob granules evaluated in a previous study at this site.

  16. Bridging the experience gap: Burning tires in a utility boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Denhof, D.

    1993-03-01

    For many communities, a solution to waste tire management problems may be no farther than the nearest coal-fired utility or industrial boiler. Sending waste tires to be used as a fuel in existing boilers is one way communities can prevent tires from creating problems in landfills, or from growing into nuisances and potentially dangerous stockpiles while waiting for recycling markets to develop. For utilities, using tire-derived fuel can help control fuel costs and conserve coal. When the State of Wisconsin sought alternatives to disposing of waste tires in its landfills, Wisconsin Power & Light came forward to meet the challenge. Now, the electric utility is shredding and burning more than 1 million tires a year at its coal-fired generating station in southern Wisconsin.

  17. Orbiter post-tire failure and skid testing results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Robert H.; Stubbs, Sandy M.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) to define the post-tire failure drag characteristics of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main tire and wheel assembly. Skid tests on various materials were also conducted to define their friction and wear rate characteristics under higher speed and bearing pressures than any previous tests. The skid tests were conducted to support a feasibility study of adding a skid to the orbiter strut between the main tires to protect an intact tire from failure due to overload should one of the tires fail. Roll-on-rim tests were conducted to define the ability of a standard and a modified orbiter main wheel to roll without a tire. Results of the investigation are combined into a generic model of strut drag versus time under failure conditions for inclusion into rollout simulators used to train the shuttle astronauts.

  18. 49 CFR 579.21 - Reporting requirements for manufacturers of 5,000 or more light vehicles annually.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... power train, 11 electrical system, 12 exterior lighting, 13 visibility, 14 air bags, 15 seat belts, 16 structure, 17 latch, 18 vehicle speed control, 19 tires, 20 wheels, 22 seats, 23 fire, 24 rollover, 98...

  19. Quasi-Static Viscoelasticity Loading Measurements of an Aircraft Tire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Angela J.; Tanner, John A.; Johnson, Arthur R.

    1997-01-01

    Stair-step loading, cyclic loading, and long-term relaxation tests were performed on an aircraft tire to observe the quasi-static viscoelastic response of the tire. The data indicate that the tire continues to respond viscoelastically even after it has been softened by deformation. Load relaxation data from the stair-step test at the 15,000-lb loading was fit to a monotonically decreasing Prony series.

  20. Hybrid Control of Electric Vehicle Lateral Dynamics Stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabti, Khatir; Bourahla, Mohamend; Mostefai, Lotfi

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for motion control applied to driver stability system of an electric vehicle with independently driven wheels. By formulating the vehicle dynamics using an approximating the tire-force characteristics into piecewise affine functions, the vehicle dynamics cen be described as a linear hybrid dynamical system to design a hybrid model predictive controller. This controller is expected to make the yaw rate follow the reference ensuring the safety of the car passengers. The vehicle speed is estimated using a multi-sensor data fusion method. Simulation results in Matlab/Simulink have shown that the proposed control scheme takes advantages of electric vehicle and enhances the vehicle stability.

  1. Experimental Evaluation of the Scale Model Method to Simulate Lunar Vehicle Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kyle; Asnani, Vivake; Polack, Jeff; Plant, Mark

    2016-01-01

    As compared to driving on Earth, the presence of lower gravity and uneven terrain on planetary bodies makes high speed driving difficult. In order to maintain ground contact and control vehicles need to be designed with special attention to dynamic response. The challenge of maintaining control on the Moon was evident during high speed operations of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) on Apollo 16, as at one point all four tires were off the ground; this event has been referred to as the Lunar Grand Prix. Ultimately, computer simulation should be used to examine these phenomena during the vehicle design process; however, experimental techniques are required for the validation and elucidation of key issues. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the methodology for developing a scale model of a lunar vehicle using similitude relationships and to test how vehicle configuration, six or eight wheel pods, and local tire compliance, soft or stiff, affect the vehicles dynamic performance. A wheel pod consists of a drive and steering transmission and wheel. The Lunar Electric Rover (LER), a human driven vehicle with a pressurized cabin, was selected as an example for which a scale model was built. The scaled vehicle was driven over an obstacle and the dynamic response was observed and then scaled to represent the full-size vehicle in lunar gravity. Loss of ground contact, in terms of vehicle travel distance with tires off the ground, was examined. As expected, local tire compliance allowed ground contact to be maintained over a greater distance. However, switching from a six-tire configuration to an eight-tire configuration with reduced suspension stiffness had a negative effect on ground contact. It is hypothesized that this was due to the increased number or frequency of impacts. The development and testing of this scale model provided practical lessons for future low-gravity vehicle development.

  2. Comparison of three Parse method studies on feeling very tired.

    PubMed

    Bunkers, Sandra Schmidt

    2003-10-01

    This article compares three human becoming studies on feeling very tired. The studies were conducted by Dr. Rosemarie Rizzo Parse, Dr. Mary H. Huch and Dr. Debra A. Bournes, and Dr. Steven Baumann. The comparison is conducted through the lens of the following questions: What have we learned about feeling very tired from these studies? What are similarities in the three studies? What are differences in the three studies? And, what new questions can be posed concerning feeling very tired? Unique knowledge for nursing is explicated on feeling very tired as a universal lived experience of health.

  3. Exploiting symmetries in the modeling and analysis of tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Andersen, Carl M.; Tanner, John A.

    1987-01-01

    A simple and efficient computational strategy for reducing both the size of a tire model and the cost of the analysis of tires in the presence of symmetry-breaking conditions (unsymmetry in the tire material, geometry, or loading) is presented. The strategy is based on approximating the unsymmetric response of the tire with a linear combination of symmetric and antisymmetric global approximation vectors (or modes). Details are presented for the three main elements of the computational strategy, which include: use of special three-field mixed finite-element models, use of operator splitting, and substantial reduction in the number of degrees of freedom. The proposed computational stategy is applied to three quasi-symmetric problems of tires: linear analysis of anisotropic tires, through use of semianalytic finite elements, nonlinear analysis of anisotropic tires through use of two-dimensional shell finite elements, and nonlinear analysis of orthotropic tires subjected to unsymmetric loading. Three basic types of symmetry (and their combinations) exhibited by the tire response are identified.

  4. 78 FR 66655 - Consumer Information; Uniform Tire Quality Grading Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... information about the treadwear, traction, and temperature resistance of passenger car tires. To ensure the..., and temperature resistance. This information aids consumers in making informed choices in the...

  5. Zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Emily P; Ren, Zhiyong; Mays, David C

    2012-12-04

    Because tires contain approximately 1-2% zinc by weight, zinc leaching is an environmental concern associated with civil engineering applications of tire crumb rubber. An assessment of zinc leaching data from 14 studies in the published literature indicates that increasing zinc leaching is associated with lower pH and longer leaching times, but the data display a wide range of zinc concentrations, and do not address the effect of crumb rubber size or the dynamics of zinc leaching during flow through porous crumb rubber. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of crumb rubber size using the synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP), the effect of exposure time using quiescent batch leaching tests, and the dynamics of zinc leaching using column tests. Results indicate that zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber increases with smaller crumb rubber and longer exposure time. Results from SPLP and quiescent batch leaching tests are interpreted with a single-parameter leaching model that predicts a constant rate of zinc leaching up to 96 h. Breakthrough curves from column tests displayed an initial pulse of elevated zinc concentration (~3 mg/L) before settling down to a steady-state value (~0.2 mg/L), and were modeled with the software package HYDRUS-1D. Washing crumb rubber reduces this initial pulse but does not change the steady-state value. No leaching experiment significantly reduced the reservoir of zinc in the crumb rubber.

  6. LSRA STS Tire Test - on rim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    From 1993 to 1995, in conjunction with other NASA centers, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, used a Convair CV-990 airplane as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) to perform Space Shuttle tire tests. The results provided the Space Shuttle Program with data to support its flight rules and enabled it to resurface a grooved runway at Kennedy Space Center that had added unnecessary wear to the Space Shuttle tires. Tests were done using a unique fixture mounted in the center of the CV-990 fuselage, between the main landing gear. Landing gear systems from other aircraft could be attached to the test fixture, which lowered them to the runway surface during actual landings. The LSRA had the ability to reproduce the loads and speeds of the other aircraft, as well as simulate crosswind landing conditions in a safe, controlled environment. The video clip shows a landing on the concrete runway at Edwards, California on August 11, 1995, which concluded the Space Shuttle gear research program. As the Space Shuttle tire was lowered onto the surface, it was destroyed almost instantly. The rim scraped on the concrete, and stopped rolling as it became flat. It heated up and left a flaming trail of hot rubber and aluminum alloy particles. Notice how the fire quickly went out as the test gear was raised, indicating a safer condition than prevailed in a lakebed landing.

  7. Pressure Control In A Tyre Of Moving Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawande, Kshitij P.; Jawanjal, Vaishakh A.

    2012-08-01

    We always try to make everything perfect around us and there is major problem still remaining in our automobiles, a puncture in a tire while running. We have developed tubeless tires but thatís not a perfect solution, so there is a serious need of improvement in this area. In this paper the compressed air is used to maintain the pressure in the tire using pneumatic pipes. This is a very basic concept which uses compressor power to maintain the pressure of a tire, while running using pressure gauges and leak proof connection. This technique allows us to drive a punctured vehicle which increases safety, comfort & saves time. This paper suggests a new technique towards one more improvement in our automobile industry.

  8. Mechanics based model for predicting structure-induced rolling resistance (SRR) of the tire-pavement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakiba, Maryam; Ozer, Hasan; Ziyadi, Mojtaba; Al-Qadi, Imad L.

    2016-11-01

    The structure-induced rolling resistance of pavements, and its impact on vehicle fuel consumption, is investigated in this study. The structural response of pavement causes additional rolling resistance and fuel consumption of vehicles through deformation of pavement and various dissipation mechanisms associated with inelastic material properties and damping. Accurate and computationally efficient models are required to capture these mechanisms and obtain realistic estimates of changes in vehicle fuel consumption. Two mechanistic-based approaches are currently used to calculate vehicle fuel consumption as related to structural rolling resistance: dissipation-induced and deflection-induced methods. The deflection-induced approach is adopted in this study, and realistic representation of pavement-vehicle interactions (PVIs) is incorporated. In addition to considering viscoelastic behavior of asphalt concrete layers, the realistic representation of PVIs in this study includes non-uniform three-dimensional tire contact stresses and dynamic analysis in pavement simulations. The effects of analysis type, tire contact stresses, pavement viscoelastic properties, pavement damping coefficients, vehicle speed, and pavement temperature are then investigated.

  9. Fuel Economy and Emissions Effects of Low Tire Pressure, Open Windows, Roof Top and Hitch-Mounted Cargo, and Trailer

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H

    2014-01-01

    To quantify the fuel economy (FE) effect of some common vehicle accessories or alterations, a compact passenger sedan and a sport utility vehicle (SUV) were subjected to SAE J2263 coastdown procedures. Coastdowns were conducted with low tire pressure, all windows open, with a roof top or hitch-mounted cargo carrier, and with the SUV pulling an enclosed cargo trailer. From these coastdowns, vehicle dynamometer coefficients were developed which enabled the execution of vehicle dynamometer experiments to determine the effect of these changes on vehicle FE and emissions over standard drive cycles and at steady highway speeds. The FE penalty associated with the rooftop cargo box mounted on the compact sedan was as high as 25-27% at higher speeds, where the aerodynamic drag is most pronounced. For both vehicles, use of a hitch mounted cargo tray carrying a similar load resulted in very small FE penalties, unlike the rooftop cargo box. The results for the SUV pulling a 3500 pound enclosed cargo trailer were rather dramatic, resulting in FE penalties ranging from 30%, for the city cycle, to 50% at 80 mph, at which point significant CO generation indicated protective enrichment due to high load. Low tire pressure cases resulted in negligible to 10% FE penalty depending on the specific case and test point. Driving with all four windows open decreased FE by 4-8.5% for the compact sedan, and 1-4% for the SUV.

  10. Identification of tire leachate toxicants and a risk assessment of water quality effects using tire reefs in canals

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.M.; Mueller, G. ); Hemphill, D.C. )

    1994-08-01

    Cover is important to aquatic habitat and fisheries often try to improve habitats by addition of natural and artificial material to improve cover diversity and complexity. Habitat-improvement programs range from submerging used Christmas trees to more complex programs. Used automobile tires have been employed in the large scale construction of reefs and fish attractors in marine environments and to a lesser extent in freshwater and have been recognized as a durable, inexpensive and long-lasting material benefiting fishery communities. Recent studies by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation have quantified the importance of tire reefs to enhancing freshwater canal fisheries in the southwestern United States. These studies have demonstrated that fishes and aquatic macroinvertebrates are attracted to these structures, increasing species diversity, densities and biomass where reefs are placed in canals. However, the use of tire reefs in aquatic environments which have relatively small volumes compared to marine or reservoir environments has raised water quality concerns. Effects of tires on water quality have not typically been studied in the past because of the obvious presence of fishes and other aquatic organisms that make use of tire reefs; the implication being that tires are inert and non-toxic. Little information on effects of tires on water quality is in the literature. Stone demonstrated that tire exposure had no detrimental effects on two species of marine fish while results of Kellough's freshwater tests were inconclusive, but suggested that some factor in tire leachate was toxic to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Nozaka et al. found no harmful substances leached from tire material soaked in fresh water. Because there are few data on toxicity associated with tires, this became the focus of our study. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) procedures developed by the EPA were used to evaluate water quality impacted by tires. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Passive detection of vehicle loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Troy R.; Salvaggio, Carl; Faulring, Jason W.; Salvaggio, Philip S.; McKeown, Donald M.; Garrett, Alfred J.; Coleman, David H.; Koffman, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  12. PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, A.

    2012-01-03

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  13. Discarding of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) in the Danish North Sea trawl fishery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Niels; Feekings, Jordan; Lewy, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) plays an important role in the North Sea benthic ecosystem and is by weight the most important commercial flatfish species in the North Sea demersal fishery. There is a high discarding of plaice in the active demersal fisheries in the North Sea. The change in fisheries management towards a more ecosystem based approach, together with a greater focus on sustainability, has caused a severe need for action. Subsequently, the European Commission is preparing regulations to reduce or even ban discards. The trawl fisheries are commercially the most important Danish fishery targeting plaice. Here we analyse discard data collected onboard Danish vessels in the period from 1998 to 2008. We describe the general patterns in these data by dividing them into three mesh size categories: 80-99 mm, 100-119 mm and ≥ 120 mm to reflect implemented technical measures of relevance. We analyse the landed and discarded portions in these mesh size categories and link the discarding to the minimum landing size. We employed a GAM model to assess how discarding of plaice below the minimum landing size is connected to relevant factors that could be of relevance from a management perspective. We identified a statistical significant effect of mesh size category and area. We discuss the results in relation to potential mitigation measures to be implemented in future fisheries management strategies.

  14. Death in the clinic: Women's perceptions and experiences of discarding supernumerary IVF embryos.

    PubMed

    de Lacey, Sheryl

    2016-10-22

    Perspectives on the status of human embryos and whether they should be discarded differ globally. Some countries protect embryos in law while in other countries embryos 'die' or 'succumb' in assisted reproductive technology clinics on a daily basis. This study analyses interview data drawn from a larger qualitative study conducted in South Australia from 2004-2007. 21 women and 12 of 21 partners were interviewed about the decision they made to discard their embryos. The analysis reported here sought to examine the ways in which women constructed and experienced the decision to discard embryos. The article highlights the ways in which embryo discard is a contested discursive space. Embryo death is sequestered through their confinement in the laboratory and their invisibility to the naked eye. The clinic treated embryo discard as disposal of biological waste and failed to acknowledge the meaning of the event. By contrast women experienced emotional bereavement described as similar to early pregnancy loss, and described experiences of attachment and grief. For sensitive and compassionate care these differences in perceptions of embryo discard need to be addressed.

  15. Leaching of DOC, DN, and inorganic constituents from scrap tires.

    PubMed

    Selbes, Meric; Yilmaz, Ozge; Khan, Abdul A; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-11-01

    One concern for recycle and reuse of scrap tires is the leaching of tire constituents (organic and inorganic) with time, and their subsequent potential harmful impacts in environment. The main objective of this study was to examine the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved nitrogen (DN), and selected inorganic constituents from scrap tires. Different sizes of tire chips and crumb rubber were exposed to leaching solutions with pH's ranging from 3.0 to 10.0 for 28days. The leaching of DOC and DN were found to be higher for smaller size tire chips; however, the leaching of inorganic constituents was independent of the size. In general, basic pH conditions increased the leaching of DOC and DN, whereas acidic pH conditions led to elevated concentrations of metals. Leaching was minimal around the neutral pH values for all the monitored parameters. Analysis of the leaching rates showed that components associated with the rubbery portion of the tires (DOC, DN, zinc, calcium, magnesium, etc.) exhibited an initial rapid followed by a slow release. On the other hand, a constant rate of leaching was observed for iron and manganese, which are attributed to the metal wires present inside the tires. Although the total amounts that leached varied, the observed leaching rates were similar for all tire chip sizes and leaching solutions. Operation under neutral pH conditions, use of larger size tire chips, prewashing of tires, and removal of metal wires prior to application will reduce the impact of tire recycle and reuse.

  16. A Planar Quasi-Static Constraint Mode Tire Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-10

    UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Cleared for public release A PLANAR QUASI- STATIC CONSTRAINT MODE TIRE MODEL Rui Maa John B. Ferris...demands efficiency in the simulation of suspension loads. Toward that end, a computationally efficient, linear, planar, quasi- static tire model is...bridging properties via component mode synthesis originated by Hurty and Gladwell and the Guyan static reduction method decouples active constraints

  17. Final Scientific Report - "Improved Fuel Efficiency from Nanocomposite Tire Tread"

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Andrew Myers

    2005-12-30

    Rolling resistance, a measure of the energy lost as a tire rotates while moving, is a significant source of power and fuel loss. Recently, low rolling resistant tires have been formulated by adding silica to tire tread. These "Green Tires" (so named from the environmental advantages of lower emissions and improved fuel economy) have seen some commercial success in Europe, where high fuel prices and performance drive tire selection. Unfortunately, the higher costs of the silica and a more complicated manufacturing process have prevented significant commercialization - and the resulting fuel savings - in the U.S. In this project, TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) prepared an inexpensive alternative to silica that leads to tire components with lower rolling resistance. These new tire composite materials were processed with traditional rubber processing equipment. We prepared specially designed nanoparticle additives, based on a high purity, inorganic mineral whose surface can be easily modified for compatibility with tire tread formulations. Our nanocomposites decreased energy losses to hysteresis, the loss of energy from the compression and relaxation of an elastic material, by nearly 20% compared to a blank SBR sample. We also demonstrated better performance than a leading silica product, with easier production of our final rubber nanocomposite.

  18. 40 CFR 202.23 - Visual tire inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visual tire inspection. 202.23 Section 202.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS... Visual tire inspection. No motor carrier subject to these regulations shall at any time operate any...

  19. 14 CFR 27.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 27.475 Section... be in their static position and the shock absorbers to be in their most critical position. ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 27.475 Tires and...

  20. 14 CFR 27.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 27.475 Section... be in their static position and the shock absorbers to be in their most critical position. ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 27.475 Tires and...

  1. 14 CFR 29.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 29.475 Section... shock absorbers. Unless otherwise prescribed, for each specified landing condition, the tires must be assumed to be in their static position and the shock absorbers to be in their most critical position....

  2. 14 CFR 29.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 29.475 Section... shock absorbers. Unless otherwise prescribed, for each specified landing condition, the tires must be assumed to be in their static position and the shock absorbers to be in their most critical position....

  3. 14 CFR 29.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 29.475 Section... shock absorbers. Unless otherwise prescribed, for each specified landing condition, the tires must be assumed to be in their static position and the shock absorbers to be in their most critical position....

  4. 14 CFR 27.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 27.475 Section... be in their static position and the shock absorbers to be in their most critical position. ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 27.475 Tires and...

  5. 14 CFR 27.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 27.475 Section... be in their static position and the shock absorbers to be in their most critical position. ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 27.475 Tires and...

  6. 14 CFR 27.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 27.475 Section... be in their static position and the shock absorbers to be in their most critical position. ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 27.475 Tires and...

  7. 14 CFR 29.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 29.475 Section... shock absorbers. Unless otherwise prescribed, for each specified landing condition, the tires must be assumed to be in their static position and the shock absorbers to be in their most critical position....

  8. 14 CFR 29.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 29.475 Section... shock absorbers. Unless otherwise prescribed, for each specified landing condition, the tires must be assumed to be in their static position and the shock absorbers to be in their most critical position....

  9. 76 FR 79114 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... differences in the fuel efficiency (rolling resistance), safety (wet traction), and durability (treadwear) of... test methods for rolling resistance (fuel efficiency), and the existing uniform tire quality grading... measure three aspects of tire performance: rolling resistance, wet traction, and treadwear life.\\3\\...

  10. 16 CFR 1512.10 - Requirements for tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for tires. 1512.10 Section 1512.10 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.10 Requirements for tires. The...

  11. Tire Production and Pollution Control. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    This unit was developed to introduce secondary students to the many facets of a typical, large manufacturing plant - the Topeka Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company - in an effort to increase awareness of sound environmental practices in industry. Its five major foci include the production of tires and quality control procedures; applications of…

  12. 77 FR 3726 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 575 RIN 2127-AK76 Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer... final rule specifying the test methods to be used for a new tire fuel efficiency consumer information... treadwear. The final rule did not include any of the requirements for the consumer information and...

  13. Preliminary measurements on heat balance in pneumatic tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nybakken, G. H.; Collart, D. Y.; Staples, R. J.; Lackey, J. I.; Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.

    1973-01-01

    A variety of tests was undertaken to determine the nature of heat generation associated with a pneumatic tire operating under various conditions. Tests were conducted to determine the magnitude and distribution of internally generated heat caused by hysteresis in the rubber and ply fabric in an automobile tire operating under conditions of load, pressure, and velocity representative of normal operating conditions. These included tests at various yaw angles and tests with braking applied. In other tests, temperature sensors were mounted on a road to measure the effect of a tire rolling over and an attempt was made to deduce the magnitude and nature of interfacial friction from the resulting information. In addition, tests were performed using the scratch plate technique to determine the nature of the motion between the tire and road. Finally, a model tire was tested on a roadwheel, the surface covering which could be changed, and an optical pyrometer was used to measure rubber surface temperatures.

  14. Association between Organ Procurement Organization Social Network Centrality and Kidney Discard and Transplant Outcomes1

    PubMed Central

    Butala, Neel M.; King, Marissa D.; Reitsma, William; Formica, Richard N.; Abt, Peter L.; Reese, Peter P.; Parikh, Chirag R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Given growth in kidney transplant waitlists and discard rates, donor kidney acceptance is an important problem. We used network analysis to examine whether organ procurement organization (OPO) network centrality affects discard and outcomes. Methods We identified 106,160 deceased-donor kidneys recovered for transplant from 2000–2010 in SRTR. We constructed the transplant network by year with each OPO representing a node and each kidney-sharing relationship between OPOs representing a directed tie between nodes. Primary exposures were the number of different OPOs to which an OPO has given a kidney or from which an OPO has received a kidney in year preceding procurement year. Primary outcomes were discard, cold-ischemia time, delayed graft function, and 1-year graft loss. We used multivariable regression, restricting analysis to the 50% of OPOs with highest discard and stratifying remaining OPOs by kidney volume. Models controlled for kidney donor risk index, waitlist time, and kidney pumping. Results An increase in one additional OPO to which a kidney was given by a procuring OPO in a year was associated with 1.4% lower likelihood of discard for a given kidney (odds ratio, 0.986; 95% confidence interval, 0.974-0.998) among OPOs procuring high kidney volume, but 2% higher likelihood of discard (OR:1.021, CI:1.006, 1.037) among OPOs procuring low kidney volume, with mixed associations with recipient outcomes. Conclusions Our study highlights the value of network analysis in revealing how broader kidney sharing is associated with levels of organ acceptance. We conclude interventions to promote broader inter-OPO sharing could be developed to reduce discard for a subset of OPOs. PMID:26102610

  15. STS-84 Crew inspect tires after Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FL - STS-84 crew members, from left, Mission Specialist Carlos I. Noriega, Commander Charles J. Precourt and Mission Specialist Jean-Francois Clervoy examine the tires of the Space Shuttle Atlantis after landing. Atlantis traveled about 3.6 million miles during the nine-day mission, which was the sixth of nine planned dockings of the Space Shuttle with the Russian Space Station Mir. The mission also included the exchange of STS-84 Mission Specialist C. Michael Foale for astronaut and Mir 23 crew member, Jerry M. Linenger, who spent the last four months on the Russian space station.

  16. STS-77 crew examine tires after landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-77 Mission Specialists Daniel W. Bursch, Andrew S. W. Thomas and Marc Garneau (who represents the Canadian Space Agency) examine the orbiter Endeavour's tires after an end-of-mission landing at 7:09:18 a.m. EDT, May 29, on Runway 33 of KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility. Assisting them at left is Lockheed Martin Space Operations mechanical technician Mark Seawright, who as a member of the Orbiter Recovery Convoy team is involved with post-landing safety assessments and landing gear checkout.

  17. 49 CFR 574.8 - Information requirements-tire distributors and dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... tire(s) sold or leased to the tire purchaser, and (B) The distributor's or dealer's name and street... address or Web site may be recorded. Other means of identifying the distributor or dealer known to the... tire purchaser and within 30 days of the date of sale or lease: (A) The purchaser's name and...

  18. 49 CFR 579.26 - Reporting requirements for manufacturers of tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... tires, tires with nominal rim diameters of 12 inches or less, or are not passenger car tires, light... death or injury, as specified in paragraph (b) of this section. For purposes of this section, the two... field. (b) Information on incidents involving death or injury. For all tires manufactured during...

  19. 49 CFR 579.26 - Reporting requirements for manufacturers of tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... tires, tires with nominal rim diameters of 12 inches or less, or are not passenger car tires, light... death or injury, as specified in paragraph (b) of this section. For purposes of this section, the two... field. (b) Information on incidents involving death or injury. For all tires manufactured during...

  20. 49 CFR 579.26 - Reporting requirements for manufacturers of tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... tires, tires with nominal rim diameters of 12 inches or less, or are not passenger car tires, light... death or injury, as specified in paragraph (b) of this section. For purposes of this section, the two... field. (b) Information on incidents involving death or injury. For all tires manufactured during...

  1. 49 CFR 579.26 - Reporting requirements for manufacturers of tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... tires, tires with nominal rim diameters of 12 inches or less, or are not passenger car tires, light... death or injury, as specified in paragraph (b) of this section. For purposes of this section, the two... field. (b) Information on incidents involving death or injury. For all tires manufactured during...

  2. 49 CFR 579.26 - Reporting requirements for manufacturers of tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... tires, tires with nominal rim diameters of 12 inches or less, or are not passenger car tires, light... death or injury, as specified in paragraph (b) of this section. For purposes of this section, the two... field. (b) Information on incidents involving death or injury. For all tires manufactured during...

  3. 78 FR 78384 - Certain Tires and Products Containing Same; Commission Determination Not to Review an Initial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... September 20, 2013, based on a complaint filed by Toyo Tire & Rubber Co., Ltd. of Japan; Toyo Tire Holdings... Tire Co., Ltd. of Guangzhou, China; Weifang Shunfuchang Rubber & Plastic Co., Ltd. of Shouguang City... China Tire and Rubber Co., Ltd. of Guangzhou City, China; American Omni Trading Co., LLC of...

  4. 76 FR 71434 - Continental Tire North America, Inc., Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... recycling industries must also be considered. Although tire construction affects the strength and durability, neither the agency nor the tire industry provides information relating tire strength and durability to the number of plies and types of ply cord material in the tread and sidewall. Therefore, tire dealers...

  5. 40 CFR 428.10 - Applicability; description of the tire and inner tube plants subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and inner tube plants subcategory. 428.10 Section 428.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Tire and Inner Tube Plants Subcategory § 428.10 Applicability; description of the tire and inner tube... pollutants resulting from the production of pneumatic tires and inner tubes in tire and inner tube plants....

  6. 40 CFR 428.10 - Applicability; description of the tire and inner tube plants subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and inner tube plants subcategory. 428.10 Section 428.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Tire and Inner Tube Plants Subcategory § 428.10 Applicability; description of the tire and inner tube... pollutants resulting from the production of pneumatic tires and inner tubes in tire and inner tube plants....

  7. Spliceosome discards intermediates via the DEAH box ATPase Prp43p.

    PubMed

    Mayas, Rabiah M; Maita, Hiroshi; Semlow, Daniel R; Staley, Jonathan P

    2010-06-01

    To promote fidelity in nuclear pre-mRNA splicing, the spliceosome rejects and discards suboptimal substrates that have engaged the spliceosome. Whereas DExD/H box ATPases have been implicated in rejecting suboptimal substrates, the mechanism for discarding suboptimal substrates has remained obscure. Corroborating evidence that suboptimal, mutated lariat intermediates can be exported to the cytoplasm for turnover, we have found that the ribosome can translate mutated lariat intermediates. By glycerol gradient analysis, we have found that the spliceosome can dissociate mutated lariat intermediates in vivo in a manner that requires the DEAH box ATPase Prp43p. Through an in vitro assay, we demonstrate that Prp43p promotes the discard of suboptimal and optimal 5' exon and lariat intermediates indiscriminately. Finally, we demonstrate a requirement for Prp43p in repressing splicing at a cryptic splice site. We propose a model for the fidelity of exon ligation in which the DEAH box ATPase Prp22p slows the flow of suboptimal intermediates through exon ligation and Prp43p generally promotes discard of intermediates, thereby establishing a pathway for turnover of stalled intermediates. Because Prp43p also promotes spliceosome disassembly after exon ligation, this work establishes a parallel between the discard of suboptimal intermediates and the dissociation of a genuine excised intron product.

  8. Indices and Computational Strategy for Unmanned Ground Wheeled Vehicle Mobility Estimation and Enhancement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    torque which value is limited by the tire-soil gripping condition weight of the vehicle lateral inclination longitudinal inclination peak...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Public Release 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 11 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b...here, is the current wheel torque, and is the maximal wheel torque which value is limited by the tire-soil UNCLASSIFIED            3  Copyright

  9. Study of heat production and transfer in shredded tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellassie, Kassahun G.

    The purpose of this study is to determine the cause(s) of initial exothermic reactions in shredded tire. The primary hypothesis was that the oxidation of exposed steel wires, the oxidation of rubber, or sulfur causes the exothermic reactions in shredded tire. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the heat transfer properties of the shredded tires by using a hot-plate apparatus. The experiments were conducted by varying the physical and environmental conditions as follows: (1) Tire size, (2) Wire content, (3) Water content, (4) Effective stress, (5) Air supply, (6) pH, (7) Humic Acid. First, laboratory testing was conducted to determine the effects of tire size on the heat transfer properties of shredded tires. The heat coefficient and diffusivity ranged from 3.0 to 3.5 W/m-K and 0.0002 to 0.00084 m 2/hour, respectively. Next, experiments were conducted to determine the effects of wire content on the exothermic reaction rate of tire shreds. When various amounts of wire (i.e., 5% to 15%) were exposed, the reaction rate increased, 2800 Btu for every lb of iron that is oxidized. In comparison, tire shreds with no wire were also tested under the same experimental conditions as above, however, no exothermic reaction occurred. These tests (i.e., with no wire) illustrate that carbon black in rubber molecule considers not oxidize. It was postulated that the reaction between iron in the wire and sulfur in the tire may be a potential cause of the exothermic reaction under low oxygen conditions. Experiments without air supply yielded no exothermic reaction. Thus, sulfur did not cause exotherm, because it is at low energy level and immobilized in the vulcanization process. In addition, experiments were conducted as the air supply was varied from 0 to 4 psi. With air pressure of less than 4-psi, no reaction occurred until 4-psi air was provided for the experiment. In conclusion, the design of an embankment with tire shreds should include shredded tires of bigger size

  10. Tire Crumb Research Study Literature Review / Gap ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In order to more fully understand data gaps in human exposure and toxicity to tire crumb materials, ATSDR, CPSC and EPA undertook a collaborative effort in the form of a scientific literature review and subsequent gaps analysis. The first objective of the Literature Review and Gap Analysis (LRGA) collaboration was to identify the existing body of literature related specifically to human exposure to tire crumb materials through the use of synthetic turf athletic fields and playgrounds. The second objective was to characterize and summarize the relevant data from the scientific literature. The final objective was to review the summary information and identify data gaps to build on the current understanding of the state-of-the-science and inform the development of specific research efforts that would be most impactful in the near-term. Because of the need for additional information, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) launched a multi-agency action plan to study key environmental human health questions. The Federal Research Action Plan includes numerous activities, including research studies (U.S. EPA, 2016). A key objective of the Action Plan is to identify key knowledge gaps.

  11. Noise control for motor vehicles. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning methods and equipment used to control noise generated by motor vehicles. Although emphasis is placed on noise control studies of trucks; automobiles, buses, and motorcycles are considered as well. Tire noise and specific vehicle demonstration projects are discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Noise control for motor vehicles. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning methods and equipment used to control noise generated by motor vehicles. Although emphasis is placed on noise control studies of trucks; automobiles, buses, and motorcycles are considered as well. Tire noise and specific vehicle demonstration projects are discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. 77 FR 4618 - NHTSA Activities Under the United Nations World Forum for the Harmonization of Vehicle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... conservation of energy (fuel consumption). Special Technical Considerations Informal Working Groups (IWGs) In.... Status of GTRs Under Development 1. Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicles 2. Light Vehicle Tires 3. Pole Side...; --Protecting the environment; --Promoting energy efficiency and --Increasing anti-theft performance....

  14. Discussion of and reply to ``Processing of scrap tires: Technology and market applications``

    SciTech Connect

    Cosulich, J.; Smisko, J.; Niessen, W.R.; Blumenthal, M.H.

    1995-11-01

    Publication of this paper by Michael H. Blumenthal provides an excellent overview of scrap tire market opportunities, processing options, and some legislative background. The authors present some comments and areas that need addition coverage or clarification. These include the following: durability of new tires made from recycled rubber; cost data; tire derived fuel; landfilling of tires; composition of tires; processing equipment; and processing problems. This article also contains Mr. Blumenthal`s reply to the comments and questions.

  15. On the pyrolysis kinetics of scrap automotive tires.

    PubMed

    Chen, J H; Chen, K S; Tong, L Y

    2001-06-01

    Pyrolysis kinetics of scrap tires of passenger car and truck have been investigated thermogravimetrically under heating rates of 5, 10, 20 and 30K/min and temperature range 373-1273K in nitrogen. The results show that the initial reaction temperatures are 482-521K for the tire of passenger car and 458-511K for truck tire. Both tires exhibit similar behaviors that the initial reaction temperature decreases, but reaction range and reaction rate increase when heating rate is increased. The overall rate equation for each tire can be modeled satisfactorily by a simple one equation from which the kinetic parameters such as the activation energy (E), the pre-exponential factor (A), and the reaction order (n) of unreacted material based on Arrhenius form are determined using Friedman's method. The results show that two tires behave similarly and the average kinetic parameters of two tires are E = 147.95 +/- 0.21kJ/mol, A = (6.295 +/- 1.275)x10(10)min(-1), and n = 1.81 +/- 0.18. The predicted rate equations compare fairly well with the measured data.

  16. An artificial vision solution for reusing discarded parts resulted after a manufacturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohal, V.; Cohal, A.

    2016-08-01

    The profit of a factory can be improved by reusing the discarded components produced. This paper is based on the case of a manufacturing process where rectangular metallic sheets of different sizes are produced. Using an artificial vision system, the shapes and the sizes of the produced parts can be determined. Those sheets which do not respect the requirements imposed are labeled as discarded. Instead of throwing these parts, a decision algorithm can analyze if another metallic sheet with smaller dimensions can be obtained from these. Two methods of decision are presented in this paper, considering the restriction that the sides of the new sheet has to be parallel with the axis of the coordinate system. The coordinates of each new part obtained from a discarded sheet are computed in order to be delivered to a milling machine. Details about implementing these algorithms (image processing and decision respectively) in the MATLAB environment using Image Processing Toolbox are given.

  17. Detection of viruses using discarded plants from wild mountain gorillas and golden monkeys.

    PubMed

    Smiley Evans, Tierra; Gilardi, Kirsten V K; Barry, Peter A; Ssebide, Benard Jasper; Kinani, Jean Felix; Nizeyimana, Fred; Noheri, Jean Bosco; Byarugaba, Denis K; Mudakikwa, Antoine; Cranfield, Michael R; Mazet, Jonna A K; Johnson, Christine K

    2016-11-01

    Infectious diseases pose one of the most significant threats to the survival of great apes in the wild. The critically endangered mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) is at high risk for contracting human pathogens because approximately 60% of the population is habituated to humans to support a thriving ecotourism program. Disease surveillance for human and non-human primate pathogens is important for population health and management of protected primate species. Here, we evaluate discarded plants from mountain gorillas and sympatric golden monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis kandti), as a novel biological sample to detect viruses that are shed orally. Discarded plant samples were tested for the presence of mammalian-specific genetic material and two ubiquitous DNA and RNA primate viruses, herpesviruses, and simian foamy virus. We collected discarded plant samples from 383 wild human-habituated mountain gorillas and from 18 habituated golden monkeys. Mammalian-specific genetic material was recovered from all plant species and portions of plant bitten or chewed by gorillas and golden monkeys. Gorilla herpesviral DNA was most consistently recovered from plants in which leafy portions were eaten by gorillas. Simian foamy virus nucleic acid was recovered from plants discarded by golden monkeys, indicating that it is also possible to detect RNA viruses from bitten or chewed plants. Our findings show that discarded plants are a useful non-invasive sampling method for detection of viruses that are shed orally in mountain gorillas, sympatric golden monkeys, and potentially other species. This method of collecting specimens from discarded plants is a new non-invasive sampling protocol that can be combined with collection of feces and urine to evaluate the most common routes of viral shedding in wild primates. Am. J. Primatol. 78:1222-1234, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Tires as larval habitats for mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in southern Manitoba, Canada.

    PubMed

    McMahon, T J Scott; Galloway, Terry D; Anderson, Robert A

    2008-06-01

    In 2003, a survey at waste management grounds and tire dealerships was conducted to determine the species composition of mosquitoes in tires in southern Manitoba, Canada. Over 25% of the 1,142 tires sampled contained a total of 32,474 mosquito larvae and pupae. Culex restuans made up at least 95% of the larvae collected for each month of the summer. Culiseta inornata and Culex tarsalis reached their greatest numbers in July and August, respectively, though they were never abundant. Ochlerotatus triseriatus was also found but never reached more than 1% of the total larvae collected in any given month. Mosquito prevalence was more than three times greater in August (36.1%) than in June (11.7%). Orientation affected prevalence of mosquitoes in tires: 31.4% of vertical tires (tires standing on their treads) contained mosquitoes, whereas mosquitoes were found in only 18.9% of horizontal tires (tires parallel to the ground). Tires in the eastern region of Manitoba contained mosquitoes more often (61.7%), irrespective of date, than Winnipeg (25.9%), the central region (29.1%), or the western region (19.8%). Mosquito prevalence was similar across three size categories of tires, car tires (18.8%), truck tires (19.8%), and semi-trailer tires (26.7%), though tractor tires (47.8%) contained significantly more mosquitoes than tires in the other categories.

  19. [Contamination of solid-cast rubber tires by microscopic fungi].

    PubMed

    Chuienko, A I; Subbota, A H; Olishevs'ka, S V; Zaslavs'kyĭ, V A; Zhdanova, N M

    2010-01-01

    The main peculiarities of fungal resistance of two types of unit cast rubber tires of domestic manufacture have been investigated. Rubber tires which contained synthetic plasticizer were non-resistant to fungal contamination in contrast to ones with natural plasticizer. Using the method of confocal laser-scanning microscopy, it was shown that inner layers of two types of rubber tires were contaminated with fungal mycelium. Our findings indicate that the investigation of microscopic fungi resistance of new materials is necessary for general mechanical rubber goods, especially exported to tropical climate countries.

  20. TPMS Data Analysis for Enhancing Intelligent Vehicle Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannan, M. A.; Hussain, A.; Mohamed, A.; Samad, S. A.

    The main objective of the study is to analyze Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) data that contributes significantly towards the enhancement of the intelligent vehicle performance evaluation. TPMS pressure and temperature data were collected from the prototype model of the MEMS Tire Pressure Module (TPM) that was fitted on to an intelligent tire rim through its receiver. In this study, we are focusing only analytical data analysis of TPMS. In the analytical study, a novel method for data classification, goodness of fit and hypothesis testing was proposed. A classification scheme was employed to classify the temperature and pressure data based on ID at the quadrant basis operating zone of the Front Right (FR), Front Left (FL), Rear Left (RL) and Rear Right (RR) tires. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) with polynomial fitting for exploring goodness of fit of tire data was also applied. Finally, hypothesis testing using Satterthwaite statistic was carried out. Results obtained are in agreement with the null hypothesis and as such validate the usefulness of the TPMS system in maintaining and enhancing vehicle performance.

  1. Use of shredded tire chips and tire crumbs as packing media in trickling filter systems for landfill leachate treatment.

    PubMed

    Mondal, B; Warith, M A

    2008-08-01

    Scrap tire stockpiles are breeding grounds for pests, mosquitoes and west Nile viruses and, thereby, become a potential health risk. This experimental study was carried out in six stages to determine the suitability of shredded tire materials in a trickling filter system to treat landfill leachate. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH3-N removals were obtained in the range of 81 to 96%, 76 to 90% and 15 to 68%, respectively. The removal of organics appears to be largely related to total dissolved solids reduction in leachate. A sudden increase, from time to time, in organic content of effluent could be attributed to biomass sloughing and clogging in the trickling filters. However, tire crumbs exhibited more consistent organics removal throughout the experimental program. Due to the high surface area of shredded tire chips and crumbs, a layer of biomass, 1-2 mm thick, was attached to them and was sloughed off at an interval of 21 days. Apart from that, as shredded tires are comparatively cheaper than any other usable packing material, tire chips and tire crumbs appeared to be quite promising as packing media in trickling filters for landfill leachate treatment.

  2. Study of the use of truck tire beads as drainage pipe and analysis of the economics of tire disposal in Oklahoma. Part 1. Culverts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, J.W.; Gattis, J.L.

    1994-07-01

    In an attempt to find alternate ways of dealing with waste truck tires, a private tire recycling company developed a pipe from the tire bead and sidewall. The tire-pipe has seen limited use as a roadway drainage culvert. To encourage wider use of this product, an evaluation of pipe performance was performed. The evaluation consisted of (1) inspections of existing installations; (2) structural tests; and (3) leakage tests. The study found that the majority of installations were performing well. Compared with corrugated steel and fiberglass pipes, the tire-pipe exhibited favorable structural performance. An individual tire-pipe section was found to be watertight. However, when tested in the open-air (not in the ground), the tire-pipe joints were found to leak. Development of an improved end connection would improve the utility of the tire-pipe.

  3. 76 FR 14906 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for the period... on OTR tires from the PRC. See Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of... the administrative review of the antidumping order on OTR tires from the PRC, resulting in a...

  4. Soil Models and Vehicle System Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-07

    drawbar-pull, tractive efficiency, motion resistance, and thrust. If the normal and shear stress distributions at the running gear -soil interface are...realistically simulated the manner in which the running gear of a vehicle traversed the terrain. This entailed using soil penetration plates comparable in...applications of the discrete element method to tire-soil interaction. As mobility of planetary rovers is of considerable contemporary interest, much work has

  5. State-of-the-art assessment of electric and hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Data are presented that were obtained from the electric and hybrid vehicles tested, information collected from users of electric vehicles, and data and information on electric and hybrid vehicles obtained on a worldwide basis from manufacturers and available literature. The data given include: (1) information and data base (electric and hybrid vehicle systems descriptions, sources of vehicle data and information, and sources of component data); (2) electric vehicles (theoretical background, electric vehicle track tests, user experience, literature data, and summary of electric vehicle status); (3) electric vehicle components (tires, differentials, transmissions, traction motors, controllers, batteries, battery chargers, and component summary); and (4) hybrid vehicles (types of hybrid vehicles, operating modes, hybrid vehicles components, and hybrid vehicles performance characteristics).

  6. Identification of tire leachate toxicants and a risk assessment of water quality effects using tire reefs in canals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, S. M.; Mueller, G.; Hemphill, D. C.

    1994-01-01

    Cover is an important component of aquatic habitat and fisheries management. Fisheries biologists often try to improve habitats through the addition of natural and artificial material to improve cover diversity and complexity. Habitat-improvement programs range from submerging used Christmas trees to more complex programs using sophisticated artificial habitat modules. Used automobile tires have been employed in the large scale construction of reefs and fish attractors in marine environments (D'Itri 1985) and to a lesser extent in freshwater (Johnson and Stein 1979) and have been recognized as a durable, inexpensive and long-lasting material which benefits fishery communities. Recent studies by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Mueller and Liston 1991) have quantified the importance of tire reeds to enhancing freshwater canal fisheries in the southwestern United States. These studies have demonstrated that fisheries and aquatic macroinvertebrates are attracted to these structures, increasing species diversity, densities and biomass where reefs are places in canals. Potential benefits to fishermen are great in the form of recreational fishing. However, the use of tire reefs in aquatic environments which have relatively small volumes compared to marine or reservoir environments has raised water quality concerns. Effects of tires on water quality have not typically been studied in the part because of the obvious presence of fishes and other aquatic organisms that make use of tire reefs; the implication being that tires are intert and non-toxic. Little information on effects of tires on water quality is contained in the literature. Stone et al. (1975) demonstrated that tire exposure had no detrimental effects on two species of marine fish while results of Kellough's (1991) freshwater tests were inconclusive, but suggested that some factor in tire leachate was toxic to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Nozaka et al. (1973) found no harmful substances leached from tire

  7. STS-70 Mission Commander Henricks inspects tire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    STS-70 Mission Commander Terence 'Tom' Henricks inspects the nose wheel landing gear tires of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery along with Mission Specialist Mary Ellen Weber after the spaceplane touched down on KSC's Runway 33 to successfully conclude the nearly nine-day space flight. Main gear touchdown was unofficially listed at 8:02 a.m. EDT on July 22, 1995 on the second landing attempt after the first opportunity was waved off. The orbiter was originally scheduled to land on the 21st, but fog and low visibility at the Shuttle Landing Facility led to the one-day extension. This was the 24th landing at KSC and the 70th Space Shuttle mission. During the space flight, the five-member crew deployed the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-G (TDRS- G). The other crew members were Pilot Kevin R. Kregel and Mission Specialists Nancy Jane Currie and Donald A. Thomas.

  8. The tether inspection and repair experiment (TIRE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, George M.; Loria, Alberto; Harrison, James K.

    1988-01-01

    The successful development and deployment of reusable tethers for space applications will require methods for detecting, locating, and repairing damage to the tether. This requirement becomes especially important whenever the safety of the STS or the Space Station may be diminished or when critical supplies or systems would be lost in the event of a tether failure. A joint NASA/PSN study endeavor has recently been initiated to evaluate and address the problems to be solved for such an undertaking. The objectives of the Tether Inspection and Repair Experiment (TIRE) are to develop instrumentation and repair technology for specific classes of tethers defined as standards, and to demonstrate the technologies in ground-based and in-flight testing on the STS.

  9. Sticky bomb detection with other implications for vehicle security.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R. G.; Vetrone, J.; Warner, J. S.

    2010-01-01

    A 'sticky bomb' is a type of improvised explosive device (IED) placed on a motor vehicle by (for example) a terrorist. The bomb is typically attached with adhesive ('duct') tape, or with magnets. This paper reports some preliminary results for a very rudimentary demonstration of two techniques for detecting the placement of a sticky bomb on a motor vehicle. The two techniques are tire pressure and magnetic measurements. There are other possible security applications for these techniques as well.

  10. Exploiting symmetries in the modeling and analysis of tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Andersen, C. M.; Tanner, John A.

    1989-01-01

    A computational procedure is presented for reducing the size of the analysis models of tires having unsymmetric material, geometry and/or loading. The two key elements of the procedure when applied to anisotropic tires are: (1) decomposition of the stiffness matrix into the sum of an orthotropic and nonorthotropic parts; and (2) successive application of the finite-element method and the classical Rayleigh-Ritz technique. The finite-element method is first used to generate few global approximation vectors (or modes). Then the amplitudes of these modes are computed by using the Rayleigh-Ritz technique. The proposed technique has high potential for handling practical tire problems with anisotropic materials, unsymmetric imperfections and asymmetric loading. It is also particularly useful for use with three-dimensional finite-element models of tires.

  11. Blast overpressure after tire explosion: a fatal case.

    PubMed

    Pomara, Cristoforo; D'Errico, Stefano; Riezzo, Irene; Perilli, Gabriela; Volpe, Umberto; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2013-12-01

    Fatal blast injuries are generally reported in literature as a consequence of the detonation of explosives in war settings. The pattern of lesion depends on the position of the victim in relation to the explosion, on whether the blast tracks through air or water, and whether it happens in the open air or within an enclosed space and the distance from the explosion. Tire explosion-related injuries are rarely reported in literature. This study presents a fatal case of blast overpressure due to the accidental explosion of a truck tire occurring in a tire repair shop. A multidisciplinary approach to the fatality involving forensic pathologists and engineers revealed that the accidental explosion, which caused a series of primary and tertiary blast wave injuries, was due to tire deterioration.

  12. Time domain BEM for sound radiation of tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banz, Lothar; Gimperlein, Heiko; Nezhi, Zouhair; Stephan, Ernst P.

    2016-07-01

    This work investigates a time domain boundary element method for the acoustic wave equation in an exterior domain in the half-space mathbb {R}^3_+. The Neumann problem is formulated as a boundary integral equation of the second kind, and the convergence and stability of conforming Galerkin approximations is studied in the complex geometry of a car or truck tire above a street. After a validation experiment, numerical results are presented in time or frequency domain for realistic benchmarks in traffic noise: the sound emission of vibrating tires, noise amplification in the horn-like geometry between the tire and the road, as well as the Doppler effect of a moving tire. The results are compared with calculations in frequency domain.

  13. Aircraft tire behavior during high-speed operations in soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leland, T. J. W.; Smith, E. G.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation to determine aircraft tire behavior and operating problems in soil of different characteristics was conducted at the Langley landing-loads track with a 29 x 110.0-10, 8-ply-rating, type 3 tire. Four clay test beds of different moisture content and one sand test bed were used to explore the effects on axle drag loads developed during operation at different tire inflation pressures in free rolling, locked-wheel braking, and yawed (cornering) modes, all at forward speeds up to 95 knots. The test results indicated a complicated drag-load--velocity relationship, with a peak in the drag-load curve occurring near 40 knots for most test conditions. The magnitude of this peak was found to vary with tire inflation pressure and soil character and, in certain cases, might prove large enough to make take-off hazardous.

  14. Temperature distribution in an aircraft tire at low ground speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, J. L.; Tanner, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to define temperature profiles of 22 x 5.5, type 7, bias ply aircraft tires subjected to freely rolling, yawed rolling, and light braking conditions. Temperatures along the inner wall of freely rolling tires were greater than those near the outer surface. The effect of increasing tire deflection was to increase the temperature within the shoulder and sidewall areas of the tire carcass. The effect of cornering and braking was to increase the treat temperature. For taxi operations at fixed yaw angles, temperature profiles were not symmetric. Increasing the ground speed produced only moderate increases in tread temperature, whereas temperatures in the carcass shoulder and sidewall were essentially unaffected.

  15. Advances in contact algorithms and their application to tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Tanner, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Currently used techniques for tire contact analysis are reviewed. Discussion focuses on the different techniques used in modeling frictional forces and the treatment of contact conditions. A status report is presented on a new computational strategy for the modeling and analysis of tires, including the solution of the contact problem. The key elements of the proposed strategy are: (1) use of semianalytic mixed finite elements in which the shell variables are represented by Fourier series in the circumferential direction and piecewise polynomials in the meridional direction; (2) use of perturbed Lagrangian formulation for the determination of the contact area and pressure; and (3) application of multilevel iterative procedures and reduction techniques to generate the response of the tire. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of a proposed procedure for generating the tire response associated with different Fourier harmonics.

  16. Federal Research Action Plan on Recycled Tire Crumb Used ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Over the past several years, parents, athletes, schools, and communities have raised concerns about the safety of recycled tire crumb rubber used as infill for playing fields and playgrounds in the United States. The public has expressed concerns that the use of these fields could potentially be related to certain health effects. Studies to date have not shown an elevated health risk from playing on fields with tire crumb rubber, but these studies have limitations and do not comprehensively evaluate the concerns about health risks from exposure to tire crumb rubber. This status report provides a summary of activities to date, including: (1) stakeholder outreach, (2) the tire crumb rubber manufacturing industry, (3) the final peer-reviewed Literature Review/Gaps Analysis (LRGA), (4) progress on the research activities, and (5) next steps and a timeline for completion of the final report. The status report does not include research findings.

  17. Heat generation in Aircraft tires under yawed rolling conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, Richard N.; Clark, Samuel K.

    1987-01-01

    An analytical model was developed for approximating the internal temperature distribution in an aircraft tire operating under conditions of yawed rolling. The model employs an assembly of elements to represent the tire cross section and treats the heat generated within the tire as a function of the change in strain energy associated with predicted tire flexure. Special contact scrubbing terms are superimposed on the symmetrical free rolling model to account for the slip during yawed rolling. An extensive experimental program was conducted to verify temperatures predicted from the analytical model. Data from this program were compared with calculation over a range of operating conditions, namely, vertical deflection, inflation pressure, yaw angle, and direction of yaw. Generally the analytical model predicted overall trends well and correlated reasonably well with individual measurements at locations throughout the cross section.

  18. A Probability Problem from Real Life: The Tire Exploded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Albert A.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the probability of seeing a tire explode or disintegrate while traveling down the highway. Suggests that a person observing 10 hours a day would see a failure on the average of once every 300 years. (MVL)

  19. MSC products for the simulation of tire behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muskivitch, John C.

    1995-01-01

    The modeling of tires and the simulation of tire behavior are complex problems. The MacNeal-Schwendler Corporation (MSC) has a number of finite element analysis products that can be used to address the complexities of tire modeling and simulation. While there are many similarities between the products, each product has a number of capabilities that uniquely enable it to be used for a specific aspect of tire behavior. This paper discusses the following programs: (1) MSC/NASTRAN - general purpose finite element program for linear and nonlinear static and dynamic analysis; (2) MSC/ADAQUS - nonlinear statics and dynamics finite element program; (3) MSC/PATRAN AFEA (Advanced Finite Element Analysis) - general purpose finite element program with a subset of linear and nonlinear static and dynamic analysis capabilities with an integrated version of MSC/PATRAN for pre- and post-processing; and (4) MSC/DYTRAN - nonlinear explicit transient dynamics finite element program.

  20. Experimental Evaluation of Waste Tires Utilization in Cement Kilns.

    PubMed

    Giugliano, Michèle; Cernuschi, Stefano; Ghezzi, Umberto; Grosso, Mario

    1999-12-01

    The present work outlines the main results of a full-scale study conducted on the utilization of waste tires as auxiliary fuel in cement production. Experimental tests were conducted for determining the influence of shredded tires on combustion conditions, emissions produced, and the characteristics of clinker obtained, for feeding ratios over 35% in terms of total heat input. The addition of tire chips did not lead to any appreciable modification in either the whole process or the quality of clinker produced; gaseous emissions were mostly unaffected, with significant improvements related to the reductions obtained in nitrogen and sulfur oxides concentrations. Experimental findings from tests conducted with tire chips exposed to kiln combustion flue gases compare favorably with the typical burnout times derived from theoretical approaches. These experimental data and calculations to estimate particle trajectories beyond the injection point, through proper theoretical analysis of the kinetic behavior, result in important indications for the shredding operation and for optimum injection modes.

  1. 12. FOURTH FLOOR ROASTING ROOM (NOW TIRE STORAGE). VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. FOURTH FLOOR ROASTING ROOM (NOW TIRE STORAGE). VIEW TO SOUTH. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, McFadden Coffee & Spice Company, Factory & Warehouse, 145 First Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  2. 10. THIRD FLOOR COFFEE AND SPICE MILLING ROOM (NOW TIRE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. THIRD FLOOR COFFEE AND SPICE MILLING ROOM (NOW TIRE STORAGE), LOOKING TOWARD ELEVATOR HALL. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, McFadden Coffee & Spice Company, Factory & Warehouse, 145 First Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  3. Comparison of three embryo culture methods for derivation of human embryonic stem cells from discarded embryos.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Li, Yang; Hwang, Andrew; Wang, Shu-yu; Jia, Chan-wei; Yu, Lan; Li, Jian

    2011-06-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) are self-renewing and pluripotent cells that hold great promise. Our objective was to compare the effect of three different embryo culture methods for derivation of human embryonic stem cells from discarded embryos. A prospective and randomized trial was conducted using 381 discarded human embryos at days 2-3 postfertilization in Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital IVF center. After removal of the zona pellucida, discarded human embryos were cultured by three different methods as multiple embryo aggregates, single embryo, and blastomeres. Outgrowth of embryos and hESC derivation were observed. The outgrowth rate of embryos cultured as multiple embryo aggregates was higher than that of those cultured as single embryos or blastomeres (p < 0.05). Three propagating hESC lines were derived from poor quality day 2-3 postfertilization nonblastocyst embryos cultured as multiple embryo aggregates. Derived hESC lines expressed hESC-specific markers of pluripotency and had normal diploid karyotype. The cells were able to form derivatives of all three germ layers in vivo as teratomas. Our results demonstrate that culturing these discarded embryos as multiple embryo aggregates was more profitable for outgrowth and derivation of ESC line than culturing these as single embryo or blastomeres.

  4. Advances and trends in the development of computational models for tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, A. K.; Tanner, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Status and some recent developments of computational models for tires are summarized. Discussion focuses on a number of aspects of tire modeling and analysis including: tire materials and their characterization; evolution of tire models; characteristics of effective finite element models for analyzing tires; analysis needs for tires; and impact of the advances made in finite element technology, computational algorithms, and new computing systems on tire modeling and analysis. An initial set of benchmark problems has been proposed in concert with the U.S. tire industry. Extensive sets of experimental data will be collected for these problems and used for evaluating and validating different tire models. Also, the new Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) at NASA Langley Research Center is described.

  5. Influence of different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires in embankment construction.

    PubMed

    Edinçliler, Ayşe; Baykal, Gökhan; Saygili, Altug

    2010-06-01

    Use of the processed used tires in embankment construction is becoming an accepted way of beneficially recycling scrap tires due to shortages of natural mineral resources and increasing waste disposal costs. Using these used tires in construction requires an awareness of the properties and the limitations associated with their use. The main objective of this paper is to assess the different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires-sand mixtures to improve the engineering properties of the available soil. In the first part, a literature study on the mechanical properties of the processed used tires such as tire shreds, tire chips, tire buffings and their mixtures with sand are summarized. In the second part, large-scale direct shear tests are performed to evaluate shear strength of tire crumb-sand mixtures where information is not readily available in the literature. The test results with tire crumb were compared with the other processed used tire-sand mixtures. Sand-used tire mixtures have higher shear strength than that of the sand alone and the shear strength parameters depend on the processing conditions of used tires. Three factors are found to significantly affect the mechanical properties: normal stress, processing techniques, and the used tire content.

  6. Tech Transfer Office discusses the finer points of tire recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's Technology Transfer Office at Stennis worked with a tire recycling company in St. Francisville, La., to help the company make better use of the cryogenics, or supercold fluids, in its recycling process. The process separates the rubber from the steel belts and other particles. The rubber is broken down into a material called crumb. Other parts of the tire particle removed is called fluff.

  7. Registrations and vehicle miles of travel of light duty vehicles, 1985--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, P.S.; Davis, S.C.; Schmoyer, R.L.

    1998-02-01

    To obtain vehicle registration data that consistently and accurately reflect the distinction between automobiles and light-duty trucks, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was asked by FHWA to estimate the current and historical vehicle registration numbers of automobiles and of other two-axle four-tire vehicles (i.e., light-duty trucks), and their associated travel. The term automobile is synonymous with passenger car. Passenger cars are defined as all sedans, coupes, and station wagons manufactured primarily for the purpose of carrying passengers. This includes taxicabs, rental cars, and ambulances and hearses on an automobile chassis. Light-duty trucks refer to all two-axle four-tire vehicles other than passenger cars. They include pickup trucks, panel trucks, delivery and passenger vans, and other vehicles such as campers, motor homes, ambulances on a truck chassis, hearses on a truck chassis, and carryalls. In this study, light-duty trucks include four major types: (1) pickup truck, (2) van, (3) sport utility vehicle, and (4) other 2-axle 4-tire truck. Specifically, this project re-estimates statistics that appeared in Tables MV-1 and MV-9 of the 1995 Highway Statistics. Given the complexity of the approach developed in this effort and the incompleteness and inconsistency of the state-submitted data, it is recommended that alternatives be considered by FHWA to obtain vehicle registration data. One alternative is the Polk`s NVPP data (via the US Department of Transportation`s annual subscription to Polk). The second alternative is to obtain raw registration files from individual states` Departments of Motor Vehicles and to decode individual VINs.

  8. Distribution of chemical warfare agent, energetics, and metals in sediments at a deep-water discarded military munitions site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Christian; Shjegstad, Sonia M.; Silva, Jeff A. K.; Edwards, Margo H.

    2016-06-01

    There is a strong need to understand the behavior of chemical warfare agent (CWA) at underwater discarded military munitions (DMM) sites to determine the potential threat to human health or the environment, yet few studies have been conducted at sites in excess of 250 m, the depth at which most U.S. chemical munitions were disposed. As part of the Hawai'i Undersea Military Munitions Assessment (HUMMA), sediments adjacent to chemical and conventional DMM at depths of 400-650 m were sampled using human occupied vehicles (HOVs) in order to quantify the distribution of CWA, energetics, and select metals. Sites in the same general area, with no munitions within 50 m in any direction were sampled as a control. Sulfur mustard (HD) and its degradation product 1,4-dithiane were detected at each CWA DMM site, as well as a single sample with the HD degradation product 1,4-thioxane. An energetic compound was detected in sediment to a limited extent at one CWA DMM site. Metals common in munitions casings (i.e., Fe, Cu, and Pb) showed similar trends at the regional and site-wide scales, likely reflecting changes in marine sediment deposition and composition. This study shows HD and its degradation products can persist in the deep-marine environment for decades following munitions disposal.

  9. Living donor bone banking: processing and discarding--from procurement to therapeutic use.

    PubMed

    Hovanyecz, Paula; Lorenti, Alicia; Lucero, José Manuel Juan; Gorla, Adrián; Castiglioni, Alejandro Enrique

    2015-12-01

    Skeletal muscle and osteoarticular tissue banks are responsible to procure, process, store and distribute tissues, from living and cadaveric donors. The procedures involve the application of protocols covering all aspects of the banking, ensuring the best tissue quality and maximum safety for the recipient. An analysis on the causes of bone tissue discarded by Biotar Tissue Bank between January 2005 and December 2012 was carried. Bone tissue was obtained from both hip and knee replacement (femoral heads and tibial plateau respectively) in living donors treated at different medical-surgical institutions in Argentina. These tissues were processed at the Bank to produce both frozen and lyophilized cancellous bone. Out of 3413 donated bones received by the Bank, 77.55 % resulted in final product, while the remaining 22.44 % was discarded in compliance with the quality standards of both the Bank and the regulatory authority. Comparing the last and the first year of the studied period, the number of discarded tissue increased 3.6 times, while the number of collected bones was approximately 10 times higher. Related to total disposed tissue, reactive serology was the most frequent cause (62.14 %), followed by inappropriate collection/storage of blood sample (30.81 %). A progressive reduction in the percentages of total discard was observed, and this was proportional to inappropriate collection/storage of blood sample. No significant differences were found in the discard rates due to positive serology throughout all the years studied. The success of a tissue bank requires full commitment of all the personnel especially the team members responsible for donor selection and the processing of allografts. It is important to critically screen donors in the early stages of donor recruitment. All of the procedures carried out by the tissue bank are parts of the quality control system which must be strictly carried out. Biotar Tissue Bank is continuously committed to ensure

  10. Damage and partitioned mortality of teleosts discarded from two Australian penaeid fishing gears.

    PubMed

    Uhlmann, Sebastian S; Broadhurst, Matt K

    2007-07-16

    Six field experiments were perfromed to (1) quantify the scale loss and partitioned (immediate and short-term) mortality of key teleosts discarded from a penaeid seiner and trawler operating in 2 estuaries in southeastern Australia, and (2) assess the utility of modified operational and/or onboard handling procedures for maximising survival. For both gears, several non-target species were caught, handled and discarded according to 2 general categories of treatment ('mild' and 'extreme') representing the plausible limits of severity of commercial operations. The mild treatments involved the shortest conventional deployments of the gears followed by the immediate sorting of catches in water-filled trays, while the extreme treatments comprised the longest conventional deployments and sorting in dry trays. Discards were examined for immediate mortalities and scale loss before sorting onboard, while live individuals of key species, along with appropriate numbers of controls, were released into sea cages and monitored for mortalities up to 5 d. For both gears, there was a trend of higher percentages of immediate mortalities in the extreme treatments, and more scale loss from dead than live seined and trawled silver biddy Gerres subfasciatus, seined tarwhine Rhabdosargus sarba and trawled yellowfin bream Acanthopagrus australis. Despite considerable interspecific variabilities, few intraspecific differences were detected between treatments for the short-term mortalities of live discards; however, for all species, these deaths were greater than those incurred by the controls (most of which survived). The partitioned mortality estimates were combined to provide a range of total mortalities for seined (95.97 and 99.07%, respectively) and trawled (71.74 and 97.64%) G. subfasciatus, seined R. sarba (23.95 and 100%) and trawled southern herring Herklotsichthys castelnaui (100%) and A. australis (3.40 and 35.01%). Because most deaths occurred irrespective of onboard handling

  11. Flexible Piezoresistive Sensors Embedded in 3D Printed Tires

    PubMed Central

    Emon, Md Omar Faruk; Choi, Jae-Won

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we report the development of a flexible, 3D printable piezoresistive pressure sensor capable of measuring force and detecting the location of the force. The multilayer sensor comprises of an ionic liquid-based piezoresistive intermediate layer in between carbon nanotube (CNT)-based stretchable electrodes. A sensor containing an array of different sensing units was embedded on the inner liner surface of a 3D printed tire to provide with force information at different points of contact between the tire and road. Four scaled tires, as well as wheels, were 3D printed using a flexible and a rigid material, respectively, which were later assembled with a 3D-printed chassis. Only one tire was equipped with a sensor and the chassis was driven through a motorized linear stage at different speeds and load conditions to evaluate the sensor performance. The sensor was fabricated via molding and screen printing processes using a commercially available 3D-printable photopolymer as 3D printing is our target manufacturing technique to fabricate the entire tire assembly with the sensor. Results show that the proposed sensors, inserted in the 3D printed tire assembly, could detect forces, as well as their locations, properly. PMID:28327533

  12. Flexible Piezoresistive Sensors Embedded in 3D Printed Tires.

    PubMed

    Emon, Md Omar Faruk; Choi, Jae-Won

    2017-03-22

    In this article, we report the development of a flexible, 3D printable piezoresistive pressure sensor capable of measuring force and detecting the location of the force. The multilayer sensor comprises of an ionic liquid-based piezoresistive intermediate layer in between carbon nanotube (CNT)-based stretchable electrodes. A sensor containing an array of different sensing units was embedded on the inner liner surface of a 3D printed tire to provide with force information at different points of contact between the tire and road. Four scaled tires, as well as wheels, were 3D printed using a flexible and a rigid material, respectively, which were later assembled with a 3D-printed chassis. Only one tire was equipped with a sensor and the chassis was driven through a motorized linear stage at different speeds and load conditions to evaluate the sensor performance. The sensor was fabricated via molding and screen printing processes using a commercially available 3D-printable photopolymer as 3D printing is our target manufacturing technique to fabricate the entire tire assembly with the sensor. Results show that the proposed sensors, inserted in the 3D printed tire assembly, could detect forces, as well as their locations, properly.

  13. Metal emissions from brake linings and tires: case studies of Stockholm, Sweden 1995/1998 and 2005.

    PubMed

    Hjortenkrans, David S T; Bergbäck, Bo G; Häggerud, Agneta V

    2007-08-01

    Road traffic has been highlighted as a major source of metal emissions in urban areas. Brake linings and tires are known emission sources of particulate matter to air; the aim of the current study was to follow the development of metal emissions from these sources over the period 1995/ 1998-2005, and to compare the emitted metal quantities to other metal emission sources. Stockholm, Sweden was chosen as a study site. The calculations were based on material metal concentrations, traffic volume, particle emission factors, and vehicle sales figures. The results for metal emissions from brake linings/tire tread rubber in 2005 were as follows: Cd 0.061/0.47 kg/year, Cu 3800/5.3 kg/year, Pb 35/3.7 kg/year, Sb 710/0.54 kg/year, and Zn 1000/4200 kg/ year. The calculated Cu and Zn emissions from brake linings were unchanged in 2005 compared to 1998, indicating that brake linings still remain one of the main emission sources for these metals. Further, brake linings are a source of antimony. In contrast, Pb and Cd emissions have decreased to one tenth compared to 1998. The results also showed that tires still are one of the main sources of Zn and Cd emissions in the city.

  14. Hind-Casting the Quantity and Composition of Discards by Mixed Demersal Fisheries in the North Sea

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Michael R.; Cook, Robin M.

    2015-01-01

    Many commercial fisheries seek to maximise the economic value of the catch that they bring ashore and market for human consumption by discarding undersize or low value fish. Information on the quantity, size and species composition of discarded fish is vital for stock assessments and for devising legislation to minimise the practice. However, except for a few major species, data are usually extremely sparse and reliant on observers aboard a small sample of fishing vessels. Expanding these data to estimate total regional discards is highly problematic. Here, we develop a method for utilising additional information from scientific trawl surveys to model the quantities of fish discarded by the commercial fisheries. As a case-study, we apply the model to the North Sea over the period 1978-2011, and show a long-term decline in the overall quantity of fish discarded, but an increase in the proportion of catch which is thrown away. The composition of discarded catch has shifted from predominantly (∼80%) roundfish, to >50% flatfish. Undersized plaice constitute the largest single fraction of discards, unchanged from the beginning of the 20th century. Overall, around 60% of discarded fish are rejected on the basis of size rather than for reasons of species value or quota restrictions. The analysis shows that much more information can be gained on discarding by utilising additional sources of data rather than relying solely on information gathered by observers. In addition, it is clear that reducing fishing intensity and rebuilding stocks is likely to be more effective at reducing discards in the long term, than any technical legislation to outlaw the practice in the short term. PMID:25774938

  15. Hind-casting the quantity and composition of discards by mixed demersal fisheries in the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Heath, Michael R; Cook, Robin M

    2015-01-01

    Many commercial fisheries seek to maximise the economic value of the catch that they bring ashore and market for human consumption by discarding undersize or low value fish. Information on the quantity, size and species composition of discarded fish is vital for stock assessments and for devising legislation to minimise the practice. However, except for a few major species, data are usually extremely sparse and reliant on observers aboard a small sample of fishing vessels. Expanding these data to estimate total regional discards is highly problematic. Here, we develop a method for utilising additional information from scientific trawl surveys to model the quantities of fish discarded by the commercial fisheries. As a case-study, we apply the model to the North Sea over the period 1978-2011, and show a long-term decline in the overall quantity of fish discarded, but an increase in the proportion of catch which is thrown away. The composition of discarded catch has shifted from predominantly (∼80%) roundfish, to >50% flatfish. Undersized plaice constitute the largest single fraction of discards, unchanged from the beginning of the 20th century. Overall, around 60% of discarded fish are rejected on the basis of size rather than for reasons of species value or quota restrictions. The analysis shows that much more information can be gained on discarding by utilising additional sources of data rather than relying solely on information gathered by observers. In addition, it is clear that reducing fishing intensity and rebuilding stocks is likely to be more effective at reducing discards in the long term, than any technical legislation to outlaw the practice in the short term.

  16. What`s available in industrial vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Holzhauer, R.

    1997-01-01

    A large assortment of material handling vehicles are available for transporting and lifting products. Equipment is offered with electric (battery) and internal combustion power, operator walking alongside or riding, and inside or outside applications. Factors such as load capacity, turning radius, aisle width, travel speed, lifting height, controls, and cost also enter the selection equation. The various types of vehicles serving the industrial truck market are broken into seven classes, according to guidelines established by the Industrial Truck Association (ITA). This association deals with issues of common interests to manufacturers of fork lifts, tow tractors, rough terrain vehicles, hand pallet trucks, automated guided vehicles, and their suppliers; develops voluntary engineering practices; and collects and disseminates statistical information relating to the industrial truck marketplace. The seven classes are: Electric Motor Rider Trucks; Electric Motor Narrow Aisle Trucks; Electric Motor Hand Trucks; Internal Combustion Engine Trucks, cushion tired; Internal Combustion Engine Trucks, pneumatic tired; Electric and Internal Combustion Engine Tractors; and Rough Terrain Fork Lift Trucks. The following pages present a descriptive and pictorial overview of the equipment available in the first five vehicle classes. The last two categories are not covered because of their limited industrial use.

  17. Optical strain measurement for fault detection in haul-truck tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotchon, A.; Nobes, D. S.; Lipsett, M. G.

    2012-05-01

    Tire condition is integral to the safe operation of heavy machinery, such as ultra-class haul trucks. A new approach to haul truck tire monitoring is being investigated based on optical strain measurement, which has the advantage of providing quantitative information from sensors that do not contact the tire. A laboratory-scale apparatus has been constructed to monitor a tire as it is subjected to various loads and pressures. Digital image correlation is used to calculate the deformation in the tire. Using this method, damage resulting from a horizontal and vertical cut created on the tire surface could be detected. A three-dimensional surface reconstruction of the tire was created to assist in the characterization of more complex damage types such as wear and fatigue. In addition to providing information for a possible industrial scale damage detection system, this apparatus will also further the understanding of damage mechanisms in tires.

  18. Static and yawed-rolling mechanical properties of two type 7 aircraft tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, J. A.; Stubbs, S. M.; Mccarty, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Selected mechanical properties of 18 x 5.5 and 49 x 17 size, type 7 aircraft tires were evaluated. The tires were subjected to pure vertical loads and to combined vertical and lateral loads under both static and rolling conditions. Parameters for the static tests consisted of tire load in the vertical and lateral directions, and parameters for the rolling tests included tire vertical load, yaw angle, and ground speed. Effects of each of these parameters on the measured tire characteristics are discussed and, where possible, compared with previous work. Results indicate that dynamic tire properties under investigation were generally insensitive to speed variations and therefore tend to support the conclusion that many tire dynamic characteristics can be obtained from static and low speed rolling tests. Furthermore, many of the tire mechanical properties are in good agreement with empirical predictions based on earlier research.

  19. Evaluation of wheelchair tire rolling resistance using dynamometer-based coast-down tests.

    PubMed

    Kwarciak, Andrew M; Yarossi, Mathew; Ramanujam, Arvind; Dyson-Hudson, Trevor A; Sisto, Sue Ann

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the rolling resistance of four common manual wheelchair tires (two pneumatic and two airless solid) and the solid tires used on a commercially available force- and moment-sensing wheel. Coast-down tests were performed with a wheelchair positioned on a two-drum dynamometer. Within each of three load conditions, tire type had a significant effect on rolling resistance (p < 0.001). The pneumatic tires had smaller rolling resistances and were less affected by load increases than the solid tires. Within the two tire types, higher air pressure or firmness and lower profile tread corresponded to less rolling resistance. Wheelchair users, clinicians, and researchers must consider the effect of tire type on wheelchair rolling resistance when selecting a manual wheelchair tire.

  20. Static Footprint Local Forces, Areas, and Aspect Ratios for Three Type 7 Aircraft Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, William E.; Perez, Sharon E.; Vogler, William A.

    1991-01-01

    The National Tire Modeling Program (NTMP) is a joint NASA/industry effort to improve the understanding of tire mechanics and develop accurate analytical design tools. This effort includes fundamental analytical and experimental research on the structural mechanics of tires. Footprint local forces, areas, and aspect ratios were measured. Local footprint forces in the vertical, lateral, and drag directions were measured with a special footprint force transducer. Measurements of the local forces in the footprint were obtained by positioning the transducer at specified locations within the footprint and externally loading the tires. Three tires were tested: (1) one representative of those used on the main landing gear of B-737 and DC-9 commercial transport airplanes, (2) a nose landing gear tire for the Space Shuttle Orbiter, and (3) a main landing gear tire for the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Data obtained for various inflation pressures and vertical loads are presented for two aircraft tires. The results are presented in graphical and tabulated forms.

  1. Associations of deceased donor kidney injury with kidney discard and function after transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hall, I E; Schröppel, B; Doshi, M D; Ficek, J; Weng, F L; Hasz, R D; Thiessen-Philbrook, H; Reese, P P; Parikh, C R

    2015-06-01

    Deceased donor kidneys with acute kidney injury (AKI) are often discarded due to fear of poor outcomes. We performed a multicenter study to determine associations of AKI (increasing admission-to-terminal serum creatinine by AKI Network stages) with kidney discard, delayed graft function (DGF) and 6-month estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). In 1632 donors, kidney discard risk increased for AKI stages 1, 2 and 3 (compared to no AKI) with adjusted relative risks of 1.28 (1.08-1.52), 1.82 (1.45-2.30) and 2.74 (2.0-3.75), respectively. Adjusted relative risk for DGF also increased by donor AKI stage: 1.27 (1.09-1.49), 1.70 (1.37-2.12) and 2.25 (1.74-2.91), respectively. Six-month eGFR, however, was similar across AKI categories but was lower for recipients with DGF (48 [interquartile range: 31-61] vs. 58 [45-75] ml/min/1.73m(2) for no DGF, p < 0.001). There was significant favorable interaction between donor AKI and DGF such that 6-month eGFR was progressively better for DGF kidneys with increasing donor AKI (46 [29-60], 49 [32-64], 52 [36-59] and 58 [39-71] ml/min/1.73m(2) for no AKI, stage 1, 2 and 3, respectively; interaction p = 0.05). Donor AKI is associated with kidney discard and DGF, but given acceptable 6-month allograft function, clinicians should consider cautious expansion into this donor pool.

  2. Human fallopian tube: a new source of multipotent adult mesenchymal stem cells discarded in surgical procedures

    PubMed Central

    Jazedje, Tatiana; Perin, Paulo M; Czeresnia, Carlos E; Maluf, Mariangela; Halpern, Silvio; Secco, Mariane; Bueno, Daniela F; Vieira, Natassia M; Zucconi, Eder; Zatz, Mayana

    2009-01-01

    Background The possibility of using stem cells for regenerative medicine has opened a new field of investigation. The search for sources to obtain multipotent stem cells from discarded tissues or through non-invasive procedures is of great interest. It has been shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) obtained from umbilical cords, dental pulp and adipose tissue, which are all biological discards, are able to differentiate into muscle, fat, bone and cartilage cell lineages. The aim of this study was to isolate, expand, characterize and assess the differentiation potential of MSCs from human fallopian tubes (hFTs). Methods Lineages of hFTs were expanded, had their karyotype analyzed, were characterized by flow cytometry and underwent in vitro adipogenic, chondrogenic, osteogenic, and myogenic differentiation. Results Here we show for the first time that hFTs, which are discarded after some gynecological procedures, are a rich additional source of MSCs, which we designated as human tube MSCs (htMSCs). Conclusion Human tube MSCs can be easily isolated, expanded in vitro, present a mesenchymal profile and are able to differentiate into muscle, fat, cartilage and bone in vitro. PMID:19538712

  3. Recovery and separation of high-value plastics from discarded household appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Karvelas, D.E.; Jody, B.J.; Poykala, J.A. Jr.; Daniels, E.J.; Arman, B. |

    1996-03-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is conducting research to develop a cost- effective and environmentally acceptable process for the separation of high-value plastics from discarded household appliances. The process under development has separated individual high purity (greater than 99.5%) acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and high- impact polystyrene (HIPS) from commingled plastics generated by appliance-shredding and metal-recovery operations. The process consists of size-reduction steps for the commingled plastics, followed by a series of gravity-separation techniques to separate plastic materials of different densities. Individual plastics of similar densities, such as ABS and HIPS, are further separated by using a chemical solution. By controlling the surface tension, the density, and the temperature of the chemical solution we are able to selectively float/separate plastics that have different surface energies. This separation technique has proven to be highly effective in recovering high-purity plastics materials from discarded household appliances. A conceptual design of a continuous process to recover high-value plastics from discarded appliances is also discussed. In addition to plastics separation research, Argonne National Laboratory is conducting research to develop cost-effective techniques for improving the mechanical properties of plastics recovered from appliances.

  4. Discarded human kidneys as a source of ECM scaffold for kidney regeneration technologies.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Giuseppe; Booth, Christopher; Wang, Zhan; Totonelli, Giorgia; Ross, Christina L; Moran, Emma; Salvatori, Marcus; Maghsoudlou, Panagiotis; Turmaine, Mark; Delario, Ginger; Al-Shraideh, Yousef; Farooq, Umar; Farney, Alan C; Rogers, Jeffrey; Iskandar, Samy S; Burns, Alan; Marini, Frank C; De Coppi, Paolo; Stratta, Robert J; Soker, Shay

    2013-08-01

    In the United States, more than 2600 kidneys are discarded annually, from the total number of kidneys procured for transplant. We hypothesized that this organ pool may be used as a platform for renal bioengineering and regeneration research. We previously showed that decellularization of porcine kidneys yields renal extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds that maintain their basic components, support cell growth and welfare in vitro and in vivo, and show an intact vasculature that, when such scaffolds are implanted in vivo, is able to sustain physiological blood pressure. The purpose of the current study was to test if the same strategy can be applied to discarded human kidneys in order to obtain human renal ECM scaffolds. The results show that the sodium dodecylsulfate-based decellularization protocol completely cleared the cellular compartment in these kidneys, while the innate ECM framework retained its architecture and biochemical properties. Samples of human renal ECM scaffolds stimulated angiogenesis in a chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. Importantly, the innate vascular network in the human renal ECM scaffolds retained its compliance. Collectively, these results indicate that discarded human kidneys are a suitable source of renal scaffolds and their use for tissue engineering applications may be more clinically applicable than kidneys derived from animals.

  5. Damage sustained by epibenthic invertebrates discarded in the Nephrops fishery of the Clyde Sea area, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, M.; Beare, D. J.; Moore, P. G.

    2001-05-01

    The Clyde Sea Nephrops fishery produces ca. 25 000 t y -1 discards with invertebrates accounting for up to 90% of the number of animals discarded. Trawling and handling of the (by-)catch often results in physical injury, the extent of which was previously unknown. Damage sustained by invertebrate discards was assessed following commercial trawling (of 62-270 min duration) and sorting on deck. Brittlestars Ophiura ophiura were most vulnerable with 100% incurring damage, followed by squat lobsters Munida rugosa (57%) and starfish Astropecten irregularis (56%). Harder-shelled species such as hermit crabs Pagurus bernhardus and queen scallops Aequipecten opercularis sustained fewer injuries (14 and 2%, respectively). Shell chipping, loss and damage of limbs were the most frequent types of injury incurred. The severity and frequency of damage was mainly correlated with species-specific morphological and behavioural characteristics. Vessel type, tow duration and animal size had a major influence on damage to the epibenthic invertebrates caught. While damage may potentially be repaired, survival is adversely affected and sublethal effects might significantly impair fitness of frequently trawled individuals and populations.

  6. 26 CFR 48.4221-7 - Tax-free sales of tires and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax-free sales of tires and tubes. 48.4221-7... Tax-free sales of tires and tubes. (a) In general. A manufacturer of tires or inner tubes that are... articles taxable under section 4071 may be sold tax free: (1) The tire or tube is sold for use by...

  7. 26 CFR 48.4221-7 - Tax-free sales of tires and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Tax-free sales of tires and tubes. 48.4221-7... Tax-free sales of tires and tubes. (a) In general. A manufacturer of tires or inner tubes that are... articles taxable under section 4071 may be sold tax free: (1) The tire or tube is sold for use by...

  8. 26 CFR 48.4221-7 - Tax-free sales of tires and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax-free sales of tires and tubes. 48.4221-7... Tax-free sales of tires and tubes. (a) In general. A manufacturer of tires or inner tubes that are... articles taxable under section 4071 may be sold tax free: (1) The tire or tube is sold for use by...

  9. 26 CFR 48.4221-7 - Tax-free sales of tires and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax-free sales of tires and tubes. 48.4221-7... Tax-free sales of tires and tubes. (a) In general. A manufacturer of tires or inner tubes that are... articles taxable under section 4071 may be sold tax free: (1) The tire or tube is sold for use by...

  10. Microwave induced fast pyrolysis of scrap rubber tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ani, Farid Nasir; Mat Nor, Nor Syarizan

    2012-06-01

    Pyrolysis is the thermal degradation of carbonaceous solid by heat in the absence of oxygen. The feedstocks, such as biomass or solid wastes are heated to a temperature between 400 and 600°C, without introducing oxygen to support the reaction. The reaction produces three products: gas, pyro-fuel oil and char. This paper presents the techniques of producing pyro-oil from waste tires, as well as investigation of the fuel properties suitable for diesel engine applications. In this study, microwave heating technique is employed to pyrolyse the used rubber tires into pyro-oil. Thermal treatment of as received used rubber tires is carried out in a modified domestic microwave heated fixed bed technology. It has been found that, rubber tires, previously used by various researchers, are poor microwave absorbers. Studies have shown that an appropriate microwave-absorbing material, such as biomass char or activated carbon, could be added to enhance the pyrolysis process; thus producing the pyro-oil. The characteristics of pyro-oil, as well as the effect of microwave absorber on its yield, are briefly described in this paper. The temperature profiles during the microwave heating process are also illustratively emphasized. The study provides a means of converting scrap tires into pyro-oil and pyrolytic carbon black production. The proposed microwave thermal conversion process therefore has the potentials of substantially saving time and energy.

  11. The fate of sulfur during rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongyun; Fang, Yuan; Liu, Huan; Yu, Ren; Luo, Guangqian; Liu, Wenqiang; Li, Aijun; Yao, Hong

    2014-02-01

    The fate of sulfur during rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires at temperatures from 673 to 1073K was investigated. Sulfur was predominant in the forms of thiophenic and inorganic sulfides in raw scrap tires. In the pyrolysis process, sulfur in organic forms was unstable and decomposed, leading to the sulfur release into tar and gases. At 673 and 773K, a considerable amount of sulfur was distributed in tar. Temperature increasing from 773 to 973K promoted tar decomposition and facilitated sulfur release into gases. At 1073K, the interactions between volatiles and char stimulated the formation of high-molecular-weight sulfur-containing compounds. After pyrolysis, almost half of the total content of sulfur in raw scrap tires still remained in the char and was mostly in the form of sulfides. Moreover, at temperatures higher than 873K, part of sulfur in the char was immobilized in the sulfates. In the pyrolysis gases, H2S was the main sulfur-containing gas. Increasing temperature stimulated the decomposition of organic polymers in scrap tires and more H2S was formed. Besides H2S, other sulfur-containing gases such as CH3SH, COS and SO2 were produced during the rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires.

  12. Advances in reduction techniques for tire contact problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    1995-01-01

    Some recent developments in reduction techniques, as applied to predicting the tire contact response and evaluating the sensitivity coefficients of the different response quantities, are reviewed. The sensitivity coefficients measure the sensitivity of the contact response to variations in the geometric and material parameters of the tire. The tire is modeled using a two-dimensional laminated anisotropic shell theory with the effects of variation in geometric and material parameters, transverse shear deformation, and geometric nonlinearities included. The contact conditions are incorporated into the formulation by using a perturbed Lagrangian approach with the fundamental unknowns consisting of the stress resultants, the generalized displacements, and the Lagrange multipliers associated with the contact conditions. The elemental arrays are obtained by using a modified two-field, mixed variational principle. For the application of reduction techniques, the tire finite element model is partitioned into two regions. The first region consists of the nodes that are likely to come in contact with the pavement, and the second region includes all the remaining nodes. The reduction technique is used to significantly reduce the degrees of freedom in the second region. The effectiveness of the computational procedure is demonstrated by a numerical example of the frictionless contact response of the space shuttle nose-gear tire, inflated and pressed against a rigid flat surface. Also, the research topics which have high potential for enhancing the effectiveness of reduction techniques are outlined.

  13. Tiree to Canada: How Information Technology Recreates Links from the Past and Develops Historical Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillis, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Explores how the CD-ROM "Tiree, Famine and Clearance 1840-1900" facilitates the development of inquiry skills. Recreates the history of Tiree (Scotland) between 1840 and 1900, and describes the experiences of Tiree emigrants in Canada. Features a range of historical sources including photographs, archival film, and personal…

  14. 26 CFR 48.4073-2 - Exemption of tires with internal wire fastening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exemption of tires with internal wire fastening... internal wire fastening. The tax does not apply to sales of tires of any size or dimension manufactured from extruded tiring that is fastened or held together by means of internal wire or other...

  15. 26 CFR 48.4073-2 - Exemption of tires with internal wire fastening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exemption of tires with internal wire fastening... internal wire fastening. The tax does not apply to sales of tires of any size or dimension manufactured from extruded tiring that is fastened or held together by means of internal wire or other...

  16. 26 CFR 48.4073-2 - Exemption of tires with internal wire fastening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Exemption of tires with internal wire fastening... internal wire fastening. The tax does not apply to sales of tires of any size or dimension manufactured from extruded tiring that is fastened or held together by means of internal wire or other...

  17. 26 CFR 48.4073-2 - Exemption of tires with internal wire fastening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exemption of tires with internal wire fastening... internal wire fastening. The tax does not apply to sales of tires of any size or dimension manufactured from extruded tiring that is fastened or held together by means of internal wire or other...

  18. 77 FR 69541 - Technical Report Evaluating the Effectiveness of Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems (TPMS) in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... Pressure Monitoring Systems (TPMS) in Proper Tire Pressure Maintenance AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... its existing Safety Standard 138, Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems. The report's title is: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of TPMS in Proper Tire Pressure Maintenance. DATES: Comments must be received...

  19. 26 CFR 48.4073-3 - Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping nonhighway tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping..., Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-3 Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping nonhighway tires. (a) Sold direct by manufacturer for nontaxable...

  20. 26 CFR 48.4073-3 - Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping nonhighway tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping..., Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-3 Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping nonhighway tires. (a) Sold direct by manufacturer for nontaxable...

  1. 26 CFR 48.4073-3 - Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping nonhighway tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping..., Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-3 Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping nonhighway tires. (a) Sold direct by manufacturer for nontaxable...

  2. 78 FR 57882 - Certain Tires and Products Containing Same; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, 19 U.S.C. 1337, on behalf of Toyo Tire & Rubber Co., Ltd... complainants are: Toyo Tire & Rubber Co., Ltd., 1-17-18 Edobori, Nishi-ku, Osaka 550- 8661, Japan Toyo Tire... Rubber & Plastic Co., Ltd., The West of JinGuang Street, Chenming Industrial Park, Shouguang...

  3. 26 CFR 48.4073-3 - Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping nonhighway tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping..., Tires, Tubes, Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4073-3 Exemption of tread rubber used for recapping nonhighway tires. (a) Sold direct by manufacturer for nontaxable...

  4. 77 FR 71678 - The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for.... ACTION: Receipt of petition. SUMMARY: The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company (GOODYEAR),\\1\\ has determined... to 49 CFR part 573, Defect and Noncompliance Responsibility and Reports. \\1\\ Goodyear Tire &...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10579 - Carbon black derived from the pyrolysis of rubber tire shreds (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pyrolysis of rubber tire shreds (generic). 721.10579 Section 721.10579 Protection of Environment... pyrolysis of rubber tire shreds (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... rubber tire shreds (PMN P-10-367) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10579 - Carbon black derived from the pyrolysis of rubber tire shreds (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pyrolysis of rubber tire shreds (generic). 721.10579 Section 721.10579 Protection of Environment... pyrolysis of rubber tire shreds (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... rubber tire shreds (PMN P-10-367) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  7. 76 FR 15045 - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, (Goodyear),\\1\\ has... Responsibility and Reports, dated December 16, 2010. \\1\\ Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company (Goodyear) is...

  8. 49 CFR 571.109 - Standard No. 109; New pneumatic and certain specialty tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... sidewall rubber. Chunking means the breaking away of pieces of the tread or sidewall. Cord means the... visual evidence of tread, sidewall, ply, cord, innerliner, or bead separation, chunking, broken cords... the tire. S4.2.2.4Tire strength. Each tire shall meet the requirements for minimum breaking...

  9. 49 CFR 571.109 - Standard No. 109; New pneumatic and certain specialty tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... sidewall rubber. Chunking means the breaking away of pieces of the tread or sidewall. Cord means the... visual evidence of tread, sidewall, ply, cord, innerliner, or bead separation, chunking, broken cords... the tire. S4.2.2.4Tire strength. Each tire shall meet the requirements for minimum breaking...

  10. 76 FR 73007 - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... have the correct material shown on the sidewall. In summation, Goodyear believes that the described... recycling industries must also be considered. Although tire construction affects the strength and durability, neither the agency nor the tire industry provides information relating tire strength and durability to...

  11. 40 CFR 63.5984 - What emission limits must I meet for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... tire production affected sources? 63.5984 Section 63.5984 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5984 What emission limits must I...

  12. 49 CFR 574.8 - Information requirements-tire distributors and dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information requirements-tire distributors and...) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) TIRE IDENTIFICATION AND RECORDKEEPING § 574.8 Information requirements—tire distributors and dealers. (a)...

  13. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Emission Limits for Tire Cord... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Emission Limits for Tire...

  14. 75 FR 28319 - Yokohama Tire Corporation, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Yokohama Tire Corporation, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Yokohama Tire Corporation, (YTC) \\1\\, has determined that approximately 8,238 of its P215/60R15 93H AVID H4S passenger car replacement tires, manufactured...

  15. 41 CFR 101-25.110 - Tire identification/registration program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Tire identification...-General Policies § 101-25.110 Tire identification/registration program. The regulations issued by the Department of Transportation in 49 CFR part 574, Tire Identification and Recordkeeping, require that...

  16. Traction and braking force on three surfaces of agricultural tire lug

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to determine the performance of an agricultural tractor drive tire on soil and in particular, to investigate performance aspects of tire lugs. A 160/85R14 radial-ply tractor drive tire was used. Pressure sensors were mounted in the leading lug side and the traili...

  17. 49 CFR 571.129 - Standard No. 129; New non-pneumatic tires for passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... passenger cars. 571.129 Section 571.129 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...-pneumatic tires for passenger cars. S1Scope. This standard specifies tire dimensions and laboratory test... applies to new temporary spare non-pneumatic tires for use on passenger cars. S3Definitions. Carcass...

  18. 49 CFR 571.129 - Standard No. 129; New non-pneumatic tires for passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... passenger cars. 571.129 Section 571.129 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...-pneumatic tires for passenger cars. S1Scope. This standard specifies tire dimensions and laboratory test... applies to new temporary spare non-pneumatic tires for use on passenger cars. S3Definitions. Carcass...

  19. 49 CFR 571.129 - Standard No. 129; New non-pneumatic tires for passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... passenger cars. 571.129 Section 571.129 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...-pneumatic tires for passenger cars. S1Scope. This standard specifies tire dimensions and laboratory test... applies to new temporary spare non-pneumatic tires for use on passenger cars. S3Definitions. Carcass...

  20. 49 CFR 571.129 - Standard No. 129; New non-pneumatic tires for passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... passenger cars. 571.129 Section 571.129 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...-pneumatic tires for passenger cars. S1Scope. This standard specifies tire dimensions and laboratory test... applies to new temporary spare non-pneumatic tires for use on passenger cars. S3Definitions. Carcass...

  1. Co-gasification of tire and biomass for enhancement of tire-char reactivity in CO2 gasification process.

    PubMed

    Lahijani, Pooya; Zainal, Zainal Alimuddin; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Mohammadi, Maedeh

    2013-06-01

    In this investigation, palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and almond shell (AS) were implemented as two natural catalysts rich in alkali metals, especially potassium, to enhance the reactivity of tire-char through co-gasification process. Co-gasification experiments were conducted at several blending ratios using isothermal Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under CO2. The pronounced effect of inherent alkali content of biomass-chars on promoting the reactivity of tire-char was proven when acid-treated biomass-chars did not exert any catalytic effect on improving the reactivity of tire-char in co-gasification experiments. In kinetic studies of the co-gasified samples in chemically-controlled regime, modified random pore model (M-RPM) was adopted to describe the reactive behavior of the tire-char/biomass-char blends. By virtue of the catalytic effect of biomass, the activation energy for tire-char gasification was lowered from 250 kJ/mol in pure form 203 to 187 kJ/mol for AS-char and EFB-char co-gasified samples, respectively.

  2. Award-winning cooperation: Missouri's waste tire to energy program

    SciTech Connect

    Galbraith, E.; Fester, D.

    1999-07-01

    Cooperation and planning among two state agencies and the University of Missouri produced benefits for all and gained national recognition for innovation. Abandoned waste Tire facilities in Missouri Pose a significant health threat to nearby residents. In addition to being mosquito breeding grounds, facilities have been set on fire. These fires have released enormous quantities of air toxics and particulate matter to the surrounding communities. Three Missouri institutions have created a unique partnership to begin cleaning up these facilities. The Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Missouri Department of Correction, and the University of Missouri- Columbia have transformed a waste stream into an emission reducing fuel stream. An air emission test at the university's coal fired power plant demonstrate that tire derived fuel (TDF) reduces emissions. Data presented will demonstrate a new method of reducing emission at coal-fired power plants while removing abandoned tires from the environment.

  3. Triaxial determination of shear strength of tire chips

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, W.Y.; Benda, C.C.; Cauley, R.F.

    1997-05-01

    Triaxial compression tests following stress paths of constant {sigma}{sub 1} were conducted to determine the shear strength of five processed scrap tire products having different gradations and particle shapes. The interparticle frictional component was separated from the total shear strength according to the energy correction concept proposed by researchers. The experimental results show that all five tire chip products have ultimate internal friction angles of 45{degree} to over 60{degree}. The interparticle frictional component of the strength was fully mobilized and nearly reached a constant value after approximately 5% axial strain. The experimental results confirmed that the strength parameter obtained with constant {sigma}{sub 1} was more reasonable. This finding is supported by field observation in which the tire chips have an angle of repose ranging from 37{degree} to 43{degree} (loosely stock piled) and up to 85{degree} (compacted). The engineering applications of the experimental results are discussed.

  4. Direct molding of pavement tiles made of ground tire rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quadrini, Fabrizio; Gagliardi, Donatella; Tedde, Giovanni Matteo; Santo, Loredana; Musacchi, Ettore

    2016-10-01

    Large rubber products can be molded by using only ground tire rubber (GTR) without any additive or binder due to a new technology called "direct molding". Rubber granules and powders from tire recycling are compression molded at elevated temperatures and pressures. The feasibility of this process was clearly shown in laboratory but the step to the industrial scale was missing. Thanks to an European Project (SMART "Sustainable Molding of Articles from Recycled Tires") this step has been made and some results are reported in this study. The press used for compression molding is described. Some tests were made to measure the energy consumption so as to evaluate costs for production in comparison with conventional technologies for GTR molding (by using binders). Results show that 1 m2 tiles can be easily molded with several thicknesses in a reasonable low time. Energy consumption is higher than conventional technologies but it is lower than the cost for binders.

  5. Tire shreds as lightweight retaining wall backfill: Active conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Tweedie, J.J.; Humphrey, D.N.; Sandford, T.C.

    1998-11-01

    A 4.88-m-high retaining wall test facility was constructed to test tire shreds as retaining wall backfill. The front wall of the facility could be rotated outward away from the fill and was instrumented to measure the horizontal stress. Measurement of movement within the backfill and settlement of the backfill surface during wall rotation allowed estimation of the pattern of movement within the fill. Tests were conducted with tire shreds from three suppliers. Moreover, horizontal stress at this rotation for tire shreds was about 35% less than the active stress expected for conventional granular backfill. Design parameters were developed using two procedures; the first used the coefficient of lateral earth pressure and the other was based on equivalent fluid pressure. The inclination of the sliding plane with respect to horizontal was estimated to range from 61{degree} to 70{degree} for the three types of shreds.

  6. Feasibility of Energy Harvesting Using a Piezoelectric Tire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malotte, Christopher

    While the piezoelectric effect has been around for some time, it has only recently caught interest as a potential sustainable energy harvesting device. Piezoelectric energy harvesting has been developed for shoes and panels, but has yet to be integrated into a marketable bicycle tire. For this thesis, the development and feasibility of a piezoelectric tire was done. This includes the development of a circuit that incorporates piezoceramic elements, energy harvesting circuitry, and an energy storage device. A single phase circuit was designed using an ac-dc diode rectifier. An electrolytic capacitor was used as the energy storage device. A financial feasibility was also done to determine targets for manufacturing cost and sales price. These models take into account market trends for high performance tires, economies of scale, and the possibility of government subsidies. This research will help understand the potential for the marketability of a piezoelectric energy harvesting tire that can create electricity for remote use. This study found that there are many obstacles that must be addressed before a piezoelectric tire can be marketed to the general public. The power output of this device is minuscule compared to an alkaline battery. In order for this device to approach the power output of an alkaline battery the weight of the device would also become an issue. Additionally this device is very costly compared to the average bicycle tire. Lastly, this device is extreme fragile and easily broken. In order for this device to become marketable the issues of power output, cost, weight, and durability must all be successfully overcome.

  7. A kinematically driven anisotropic viscoelastic constitutive model applied to tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Arthur R.; Tanner, John A.; Mason, Angela J.

    1995-08-01

    Aircraft tires are composite structures manufactured with viscoelastic materials such as carbon black filled rubber and nylon cords. When loaded they experience large deflections and moderately large strains. Detailed structural models of tires require the use of either nonlinear shell or nonlinear three dimensional solid finite elements. Computational predictions of the dynamic response of tires must consider the composite viscoelastic material behavior in a realistic fashion. We describe a modification to a nonlinear anisotropic shell finite element so it can be used to model viscoelastic stresses during general deformations. The model is developed by introducing internal variables of the type used to model elastic strain energy. The internal variables are strains, curvatures, and transverse shear angles which are in a one-to-one correspondence with the generalized coordinates used to model the elastic strain energy for nonlinear response. A difference-relaxation equation is used to relate changes in the observable strain field to changes in the internal strain field. The internal stress state is introduced into the equilibrium equations by converting it to nodal loads associated with the element's displacement degrees of freedom. In this form the tangent matrix in the Newton-Raphson solution algorithm is not modified from its form for the nonlinear statics problem. Only the gradient vector is modified and the modification is not computationally costly. The existing finite element model for the Space Shuttle nose gear tire is used to provide examples of the algorithm. In the first example, the tire's rim is displaced at a constant rate up to a fixed value. In the second example, the tire's rim is enforced to follow a saw tooth load and unload curve to generate hysteresis loops.

  8. A kinematically driven anisotropic viscoelastic constitutive model applied to tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Arthur R.; Tanner, John A.; Mason, Angela J.

    1995-01-01

    Aircraft tires are composite structures manufactured with viscoelastic materials such as carbon black filled rubber and nylon cords. When loaded they experience large deflections and moderately large strains. Detailed structural models of tires require the use of either nonlinear shell or nonlinear three dimensional solid finite elements. Computational predictions of the dynamic response of tires must consider the composite viscoelastic material behavior in a realistic fashion. We describe a modification to a nonlinear anisotropic shell finite element so it can be used to model viscoelastic stresses during general deformations. The model is developed by introducing internal variables of the type used to model elastic strain energy. The internal variables are strains, curvatures, and transverse shear angles which are in a one-to-one correspondence with the generalized coordinates used to model the elastic strain energy for nonlinear response. A difference-relaxation equation is used to relate changes in the observable strain field to changes in the internal strain field. The internal stress state is introduced into the equilibrium equations by converting it to nodal loads associated with the element's displacement degrees of freedom. In this form the tangent matrix in the Newton-Raphson solution algorithm is not modified from its form for the nonlinear statics problem. Only the gradient vector is modified and the modification is not computationally costly. The existing finite element model for the Space Shuttle nose gear tire is used to provide examples of the algorithm. In the first example, the tire's rim is displaced at a constant rate up to a fixed value. In the second example, the tire's rim is enforced to follow a saw tooth load and unload curve to generate hysteresis loops.

  9. Vacuum pyrolyzed tire oil as a coal solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, E.C.; Shi, Y.; Ji, Q.

    1995-12-31

    Coal liquefaction is highly dependent upon the type of coal liquefaction solvent used. The solvent must readily solubilize the coal and must act as an effective hydrogen donor or shuttler. Oil derived from the vacuum pyrolysis of used rubber tires has recently been used as a coal solvent with good conversion of coal to liquids in a hydrogen atmosphere. All experiments were completed in shaken tubing reactors at 450{degrees}C utilizing a bituminous coal. Results show the effectiveness of the pyrolyzed tire oil as a coal liquefaction solvent depends upon hydrogen pressure. Electron probe microanalysis data reveal good dispersion of the molybdenum catalyst in coal particles taken from liquefaction experiments.

  10. X-34 Vehicle Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brauckmann, Gregory J.

    1998-01-01

    The X-34, being designed and built by the Orbital Sciences Corporation, is an unmanned sub-orbital vehicle designed to be used as a flying test bed to demonstrate key vehicle and operational technologies applicable to future reusable launch vehicles. The X-34 will be air-launched from an L-1011 carrier aircraft at approximately Mach 0.7 and 38,000 feet altitude, where an onboard engine will accelerate the vehicle to speeds above Mach 7 and altitudes to 250,000 feet. An unpowered entry will follow, including an autonomous landing. The X-34 will demonstrate the ability to fly through inclement weather, land horizontally at a designated site, and have a rapid turn-around capability. A series of wind tunnel tests on scaled models was conducted in four facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the X-34. Analysis of these test results revealed that longitudinal trim could be achieved throughout the design trajectory. The maximum elevon deflection required to trim was only half of that available, leaving a margin for gust alleviation and aerodynamic coefficient uncertainty. Directional control can be achieved aerodynamically except at combined high Mach numbers and high angles of attack, where reaction control jets must be used. The X-34 landing speed, between 184 and 206 knots, is within the capabilities of the gear and tires, and the vehicle has sufficient rudder authority to control the required 30-knot crosswind.

  11. 75 FR 49459 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-The-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Amended...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... International Trade Administration A-570-912 Certain New Pneumatic Off-The-Road Tires from the People's Republic... determination in the antidumping investigation on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'') from.... See Certain New Pneumatic Off-The-Road-Tires from the People's Republic of China: Final...

  12. 75 FR 31422 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-The-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Decision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... International Trade Administration A-570-912 Certain New Pneumatic Off-The-Road Tires from the People's Republic... antidumping investigation on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'') from the People's... Pneumatic Off-The-Road-Tires from the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative Determination of...

  13. 75 FR 24884 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ...., Tianjin Wanda Tyre Co., Ltd., and Triangle Tyre Co., Ltd. See Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China... Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires (OTR Tires) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) for the period...

  14. 41 CFR 101-25.110-2 - Tires obtained through Federal Supply Schedules or regional term contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Tires obtained through... REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 25-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.110-2 Tires obtained through Federal Supply Schedules or regional term contracts. When tire manufacturers ship tires direct...

  15. 77 FR 26508 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China...-the-road tires (``tires'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''), received on March 30, 2012... notice announcing the antidumping duty order on tires from the PRC was published in the Federal...

  16. 40 CFR 63.5999 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire cord production...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5999 Section 63.5999 Protection... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5999 How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire...

  17. 75 FR 56991 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status Michelin North America, Inc. (Tire Distribution and Wheel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status Michelin North America, Inc. (Tire... for activity related to tire and tire accessories warehousing and distribution and wheel assembly at..., including Section 400.28, and further subject to the following condition: Tires subject to temporary...

  18. 40 CFR 63.5987 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5987 Section 63.5987 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5987 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?...

  19. 40 CFR 63.6006 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire cord production...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... compliance with the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.6006 Section 63.6006... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Continuous Compliance Requirements for Tire Cord... tire cord production affected sources? (a) You must demonstrate continuous compliance with...

  20. System interface for an integrated intelligent safety system (ISS) for vehicle applications.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Mahammad A; Hussain, Aini; Samad, Salina A

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the interface-relevant activity of a vehicle integrated intelligent safety system (ISS) that includes an airbag deployment decision system (ADDS) and a tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS). A program is developed in LabWindows/CVI, using C for prototype implementation. The prototype is primarily concerned with the interconnection between hardware objects such as a load cell, web camera, accelerometer, TPM tire module and receiver module, DAQ card, CPU card and a touch screen. Several safety subsystems, including image processing, weight sensing and crash detection systems, are integrated, and their outputs are combined to yield intelligent decisions regarding airbag deployment. The integrated safety system also monitors tire pressure and temperature. Testing and experimentation with this ISS suggests that the system is unique, robust, intelligent, and appropriate for in-vehicle applications.

  1. System Interface for an Integrated Intelligent Safety System (ISS) for Vehicle Applications

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, Mahammad A.; Hussain, Aini; Samad, Salina A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the interface-relevant activity of a vehicle integrated intelligent safety system (ISS) that includes an airbag deployment decision system (ADDS) and a tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS). A program is developed in LabWindows/CVI, using C for prototype implementation. The prototype is primarily concerned with the interconnection between hardware objects such as a load cell, web camera, accelerometer, TPM tire module and receiver module, DAQ card, CPU card and a touch screen. Several safety subsystems, including image processing, weight sensing and crash detection systems, are integrated, and their outputs are combined to yield intelligent decisions regarding airbag deployment. The integrated safety system also monitors tire pressure and temperature. Testing and experimentation with this ISS suggests that the system is unique, robust, intelligent, and appropriate for in-vehicle applications. PMID:22205861

  2. Thermal conductance of and heat generation in tire-pavement interface and effect on aircraft braking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. D.

    1976-01-01

    A finite-difference analysis was performed on temperature records obtained from a free rolling automotive tire and from pavement surface. A high thermal contact conductance between tire and asphalt was found on a statistical basis. Average slip due to squirming between tire and asphalt was about 1.5 mm. Consequent friction heat was estimated as 64 percent of total power absorbed by bias-ply, belted tire. Extrapolation of results to aircraft tire indicates potential braking improvement by even moderate increase of heat absorbing capacity of runway surface.

  3. Analytical studies of the Space Shuttle orbiter nose-gear tire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Tanner, John A.; Peters, Jeanne M.; Robinson, Martha P.

    1991-01-01

    A computational procedure is presented for evaluating the analytic sensitivity derivatives of the tire response with respect to material and geometrical properties of the tire. The tire is modeled by using a two-dimensional laminated anisotropic shell theory with the effects of variation in material and geometric parameters included. The computational procedure is applied to the case of the Space Shuttle orbiter nose-gear tire subjected to uniform inflation pressure. Numerical results are presented which show the sensitivity of the different tire response quantities to variations in the material characteristics of both the cord and rubber.

  4. A laser-based sensor system for tire tread deformation measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yi; Tuononen, Ari

    2014-11-01

    Optical tire sensors are powerful engineering tools that can reveal the mechanisms behind tire-road interactions. This paper presents a laser-based sensor system to measure tire-tread block deformation. The methodology and corresponding procedure for the system are introduced. Practical issues, such as tire sensor localization, are discussed. Validation experiments were conducted on a chassis dynamometer, and an asymmetric tire tread deformation along the contact patch was observed. It is proposed that asymmetric tread deformation is due to rolling resistance. The measurements under different operational conditions, including the rolling direction, wheel load, rolling velocity, and inflation pressure, were analyzed in the context of rolling resistance.

  5. Rate of Dissipation of the Energy of Low-Frequency Mechanical Disturbances in a Tire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinchuk, P. S.; Fisenko, S. P.

    2016-11-01

    An expression for the rate of dissipation of the energy of low-frequency mechanical disturbances in a tire, accounting for the tired wheel radius, velocity of motion, and loading, has been derived. After processing experimental data on heating the tread rubber of an oversize tire by the proposed method, it has been revealed that about 30% of the energy of deformations appearing in motion of a loaded tire is converted into heat, and the coefficient of heat transfer between the tire and air has been derived.

  6. Recycling of electronic control units from end-of-life vehicles in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junjun; Chen, Ming

    2011-08-01

    In China, electronic control units (ECUs) from end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) are either discarded carelessly or smashed into pieces along with the vehicles for material recycling. With the rapid growth of vehicle population and ECUs in automobiles in China, this recycling scheme poses a serious pollution threat to the environment and wastes resources. This paper presents a new high value-added reuse scheme of ECUs from ELVs and develops a technology roadmap in accordance with China's actual conditions.

  7. Impact of discards of beam trawl fishing on the nematode community from the Tagus estuary (Portugal).

    PubMed

    Franco, M A; Steyaert, M; Cabral, H N; Tenreiro, R; Chambel, L; Vincx, M; Costa, M J; Vanaverbeke, J

    2008-10-01

    The impact of dead discards, originating from beam trawl fishing on the nematode community from the Tagus estuary was investigated in terms of vertical distribution of the dominant nematode groups. Sediment cores were collected from a mud-flat from the Tagus estuary. Crangoncrangon (Linnaeus, 1758) carcasses were added to the surface of the cores, simulating the settling of dead discards on the sediment. The vertical distribution of the dominant nematode groups was determined up to 4cm deep at four different moments in time post deposition (0, 2, 4 and 6h) and compared to control cores. The C.crangon addition to the sediment led to the formation of black spots and therefore oxygen depleted areas at the sediment surface. The Chromadora/Ptycholaimellus group, normally dominant at the surface layer, migrated downwards due to their high sensibility to toxic conditions. Sabatieria presented the opposite trend and became the dominant group at the surface layer. Since Sabatieria is tolerant to oxygen stressed conditions and high sulphide concentrations, we suggest that it migrated opportunistically towards an unoccupied niche. Daptonema, Metachromadora and Terschellingia did not show any vertical migration, reflecting their tolerance to anoxic and high sulphidic conditions. Our study showed that an accumulation of dead discards at the sediment surface might therefore alter the nematode community vertical distribution. This effect is apparently closely related to toxic conditions in the sediment, induced by the deposition of C.crangon at the sediment surface. These alterations might be temporal and reflect an adaptation of the nematode community to dynamic intertidal environments.

  8. Estimating reef fish discard mortality using surface and bottom tagging: effects of hook injury and barotrauma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rudershausen, Paul J.; Buckel, Jeffrey A.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    We estimated survival rates of discarded black sea bass (Centropristis striata) in various release conditions using tag–recapture data. Fish were captured with traps and hook and line from waters 29–34 m deep off coastal North Carolina, USA, marked with internal anchor tags, and observed for release condition. Fish tagged on the bottom using SCUBA served as a control group. Relative return rates for trap-caught fish released at the surface versus bottom provided an estimated survival rate of 0.87 (95% credible interval 0.67–1.18) for surface-released fish. Adjusted for results from the underwater tagging experiment, fish with evidence of external barotrauma had a median survival rate of 0.91 (0.69–1.26) compared with 0.36 (0.17–0.67) for fish with hook trauma and 0.16 (0.08–0.30) for floating or presumably dead fish. Applying these condition-specific estimates of survival to non-tagging fishery data, we estimated a discard survival rate of 0.81 (0.62–1.11) for 11 hook and line data sets from waters 20–35 m deep and 0.86 (0.67–1.17) for 10 trap data sets from waters 11–29 m deep. The tag-return approach using a control group with no fishery-associated trauma represents a method to accurately estimate absolute discard survival of physoclistous reef species.

  9. [Sulfur-fumigation, maintenance method of Chinese herbal medicine-discard or inheritance].

    PubMed

    Duan, Yu; Qin, Kun-Ming; Zou, Nuo-Shu; Lou, Ya-Jing; Cai, Hao; Cai, Bao-Chang

    2013-10-01

    Sulfur-fumigation processing technology is an ancient maintenance method, which plays a certain role in storage and preservation for Chinese herbal medicine. But in recent years, with the further explanation of sulfur-fumigation processing mechanism and more attention to the safety of drugs, such traditional maintenance method of Chinese herbal medicine is now being questioned by more and more people. The authors think we should have selective inheritance rather than abslute discard to this ancient processing technology after reviewing the literatures published in recent 20 years, and some suggestions are also put forward, which can supply some references for related drug supervision departments.

  10. Analysis and control of high-speed wheeled vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velenis, Efstathios

    In this work we reproduce driving techniques to mimic expert race drivers and obtain the open-loop control signals that may be used by auto-pilot agents driving autonomous ground wheeled vehicles. Race drivers operate their vehicles at the limits of the acceleration envelope. An accurate characterization of the acceleration capacity of the vehicle is required. Understanding and reproduction of such complex maneuvers also require a physics-based mathematical description of the vehicle dynamics. While most of the modeling issues of ground-vehicles/automobiles are already well established in the literature, lack of understanding of the physics associated with friction generation results in ad-hoc approaches to tire friction modeling. In this work we revisit this aspect of the overall vehicle modeling and develop a tire friction model that provides physical interpretation of the tire forces. The new model is free of those singularities at low vehicle speed and wheel angular rate that are inherent in the widely used empirical static models. In addition, the dynamic nature of the tire model proposed herein allows the study of dynamic effects such as transients and hysteresis. The trajectory-planning problem for an autonomous ground wheeled vehicle is formulated in an optimal control framework aiming to minimize the time of travel and maximize the use of the available acceleration capacity. The first approach to solve the optimal control problem is using numerical techniques. Numerical optimization allows incorporation of a vehicle model of high fidelity and generates realistic solutions. Such an optimization scheme provides an ideal platform to study the limit operation of the vehicle, which would not be possible via straightforward simulation. In this work we emphasize the importance of online applicability of the proposed methodologies. This underlines the need for optimal solutions that require little computational cost and are able to incorporate real, unpredictable

  11. Aircraft and ground vehicle friction correlation test results obtained under winter runway conditions during joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Vogler, William A.; Baldasare, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Aircraft and ground vehicle friction data collected during the Joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program under winter runway conditions are discussed and test results are summarized. The relationship between the different ground vehicle friction measurements obtained on compacted snow- and ice-covered conditions is defined together with the correlation to aircraft tire friction performance under similar runway conditions.

  12. 75 FR 11806 - Notice of Public Meeting; Tire Fuel Efficiency

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... and consumer education program for replacement tires. The program would inform consumers about the... proposed in the NPRM. After the NPRM was issued, NHTSA conducted an internet survey to further explore what... consumers. To further refine the consumer education portion of this new program, NHTSA intends to...

  13. Proceedings of Four Symposia on Nondestructive Testing of Tires

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-05-25

    Command AMSTA-RKMT Warren, Ml 48090 Yarnall, Chandler P. Aircraft Tire Group Naval Air Development Center Warminster, PA 18974 Voshida, Dr. David M...grabbing brakes. 100. Uneven wear due to wobbly wheel. 101. Heel and toe wear. 102. Angle wear. 103. Edge compression. 104. Rasp wear. 105. Trend

  14. 77 FR 52203 - Airworthiness Directives; Goodyear Aviation Tires

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 [Docket No. FAA-2012-0881; Directorate Identifier 2012-CE-029-AD; Amendment 39-17164; AD 2012-17-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Goodyear Aviation Tires AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; request for...

  15. Perfect sound insulation property of reclaimed waste tire rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubaidillah, Harjana, Yahya, Iwan; Kristiani, Restu; Muqowi, Eki; Mazlan, Saiful Amri

    2016-03-01

    This article reports an experimental investigation of sound insulation and absorption performance of a materials made of reclaimed ground tire rubber which is known as un-recyclable thermoset. The bulk waste tire is processed using single step recycling methods namely high-pressure high-temperature sintering (HPHTS). The bulk waste tire is simply placed into a mold and then a pressure load of 3 tons and a heating temperature of 200°C are applied to the mold. The HPHTS conducted for an hour and then it is cooled in room temperature. The resulted product is then evaluated the acoustical properties namely sound transmission loss (STL) and sound absorption coefficient using B&K Tube Kit Type 4206-T based on ISO 10534-2, ASTM E1050 and ASTM E2611. The sound absorption coefficient is found about 0.04 until 0.08 while STL value ranges between 50 to 60 dB. The sound absorption values are found to be very low (<0.1), while the average STL is higher than other elastomeric matrix found in previous work. The reclaimed tire rubber through HPHTS technique gives good soundproof characteristic.

  16. Test of Narrow Tires on M198 Towed Howitzer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    following road opera- tions. 3. The proposed tires shall not experience any abnormal wear, tread splitting, stone cutting, bead chaffing, or rubber...c],t (’r iorlt ion , falt i(tle I i fe shortened, strenqth properties lcx rcdi, 42 tread w.er increased, a reduction in tonsil strcnqIth of body

  17. Rubber Tire Dozer Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This training outline for rubber tire dozer operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  18. Recycling tires? Reversible crosslinking of poly(butadiene).

    PubMed

    Trovatti, Eliane; Lacerda, Talita M; Carvalho, Antonio J F; Gandini, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Furan-modified poly(butadiene) prepared by the thiol-ene click reaction is crosslinked with bismaleimides through the Diels-Alder reaction, giving rise to a novel recyclable elastomer. This is possible because of the thermal reversibility of the adducts responsible for the formation of the network. The use of this strategy provides the possibility to produce recyclable tires.

  19. Modern technologies of waste utilization from industrial tire production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimov, Yusuf; Gilmanshin, Iskander; Gilmanshina, Suriya

    2016-06-01

    The innovative technology of waste tire production recovery from JSC "Nizhnekamskshina", which determines the possibility of obtaining a new type of composite material in the form fiber filled rubber compound (FFRC) as the raw material, production of rubber products with high technical and operational characteristics.

  20. 16 CFR 1512.10 - Requirements for tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... recommended inflation pressure shall be molded into or onto the sidewall of the tire in lettering no less than 3.2 mm (1/8 in.) in height. The statement of recommended inflation pressure shall be in the English language utilizing Arabic numerals. (The following language is suggested to indicate recommended...

  1. The energy saving research of the flat tire vulcanization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, X.; He, J.-Y.; Zhang, J. Y.; An, Y.; Yang, W.-M.; Tan, J.

    2015-07-01

    Vulcanization was an important step in tire production process, directly determining the mechanical properties of the tire which was the most energy-intensive link. The traditional vulcanization process of a flat tire did not consider the post curing effect, which may result in a waste of energy. Early finite element simulation showed that the traditional process caused excessive vulcanization. In order to find ways to improve the curing process, in the paper effect of process parameters on the flat tire vulcanization had been studied. Curing parameters included heating temperature, curing time and preheating temperature. Corresponding to these three factors, the three-dimensional model was established by ABAQUS finite element software to carry out three groups of simulation. Result showed that heat source temperature on the maximum temperature was the largest, effect of preheating temperature was the lowest; heat source temperature on the curing degree was the largest, effect of the curing time was lowest. According to the data analysis the optimal process parameters had been raised.

  2. 49 CFR 230.112 - Wheels and tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wheels and tires. 230.112 Section 230.112 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives...

  3. Vehicle Rustproofing,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    Corrosion Areas - G.M.) 11. Vehicle Rustproofing Guide for Vehicle Maintenance Managers 12. Chart - Vehicle Buy Program FY 83-87 13. Vehicle ...on the Vehicle Buy Program. k. The impact of a total fleet rustproofing policy on industry. I. Potential problems in Quality Control and Warranty...FY83-87, the Air Force intends to buy $2.5 billion worth of vehicles (Atch 12); thus, a total fleet treatment program for that period could cost as

  4. Hybrid options for light-duty vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    An, F., Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.

    1999-07-19

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) offer great promise in improving fuel economy. In this paper, we analyze why, how, and by how much vehicle hybridization can reduce energy consumption and improve fuel economy. Our analysis focuses on efficiency gains associated solely with vehicle hybridization. We do not consider such other measures as vehicle weight reduction or air- and tire-resistance reduction, because such measures would also benefit conventional technology vehicles. The analysis starts with understanding the energy inefficiencies of light-duty vehicles associated with different operation modes in US and Japanese urban and highway driving cycles, with the corresponding energy-saving potentials. The potential for fuel economy gains due to vehicle hybridization can be estimated almost exclusively on the basis of three elements: the reducibility of engine idling operation, the recoverability of braking energy losses, and the capability of improving engine load profiles to gain efficiency associated with specific HEV configurations and control strategies. Specifically, we evaluate the energy efficiencies and fuel economies of a baseline MY97 Corolla-like conventional vehicle (CV), a hypothetical Corolla-based minimal hybrid vehicle (MHV), and a MY98 Prius-like full hybrid vehicle (FHV). We then estimate energy benefits of both MHVs and FHVs over CVs on a performance-equivalent basis. We conclude that the energy benefits of hybridization vary not only with test cycles, but also with performance requirements. The hybrid benefits are greater for ''Corolla (high) performance-equivalent'' vehicles than for ''Prius (low) performance-equivalent'' vehicles. An increasing acceleration requirement would result in larger fuel economy benefits from vehicle hybridization.

  5. 29 CFR 1917.44 - General rules applicable to vehicles. 4

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... entrances and exits of structures where visibility is impaired, and at blind intersections, unless direct...)(xii)). (1) Scope. This paragraph applies to the servicing of vehicle wheels containing tube-type tires... Precautions for Mounting and Demounting Tube-Type Truck/Bus Tires” and “Multi-Piece Rim Wheel Matching...

  6. 76 FR 68260 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Chrysler

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... RFHM receives LF and/or RF signals from the Sentry Key transponder which is integral to the FOBIK. The RFHM contains a radio frequency (RF) transceiver, a microprocessor and serves as the Remote Keyless Entry RF receiver. The RFHM also acts as a receiver if the vehicle is equipped with a Tire...

  7. Dynamic performances analysis of a real vehicle driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, M. A.; Jamil, J. F.; Salim, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Vehicle dynamic is the effects of movement of a vehicle generated from the acceleration, braking, ride and handling activities. The dynamic behaviours are determined by the forces from tire, gravity and aerodynamic which acting on the vehicle. This paper emphasizes the analysis of vehicle dynamic performance of a real vehicle. Real driving experiment on the vehicle is conducted to determine the effect of vehicle based on roll, pitch, and yaw, longitudinal, lateral and vertical acceleration. The experiment is done using the accelerometer to record the reading of the vehicle dynamic performance when the vehicle is driven on the road. The experiment starts with weighing a car model to get the center of gravity (COG) to place the accelerometer sensor for data acquisition (DAQ). The COG of the vehicle is determined by using the weight of the vehicle. A rural route is set to launch the experiment and the road conditions are determined for the test. The dynamic performance of the vehicle are depends on the road conditions and driving maneuver. The stability of a vehicle can be controlled by the dynamic performance analysis.

  8. Bile acid binding capacity of fish protein hydrolysates from discard species of the West Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gálvez, Raúl; García-Moreno, Pedro J; Morales-Medina, Rocío; Guadix, Antonio; Guadix, Emilia M

    2015-04-01

    Fish protein hydrolysates (FPH), produced from the six main discard species from the West Mediterranean Sea (sardine, horse mackerel, axillary seabream, bogue, small-spotted catshark and blue whiting) were tested for their bile acid binding capacity. This capacity is directly linked to the ability to inhibit bile reabsorption in the ileum and therefore to lower cholesterol levels in the bloodstream. From each species, FPH were obtained by three different enzymatic treatments employing two serine endoproteases (subtilisin and trypsin) sequentially or in combination. The results show statistically significant differences among the fish species, attaining interesting average values of bile acid binding capacity for blue whiting (27.32% relative to cholestyramine on an equal protein basis) and horse mackerel (27.42% relative to cholestyramine on an equal protein basis). The enzymatic treatments did not significantly affect the ability of a given species to bind bile acids. These results are similar to other protein sources, such as soy protein or casein, of proven hypocholesterolemic effect. It can be concluded that fish protein hydrolysates from these discard species are suitable as ingredients in the formulation of cholesterol-lowering supplements.

  9. Recombinant bovine somatotropin and clinical mastitis: incidence, discarded milk following therapy, and culling.

    PubMed

    Judge, L J; Erskine, R J; Bartlett, P C

    1997-12-01

    Holstein cows (n = 555) from four Michigan dairy farms were randomly assigned to receive bovine somatotropin (bST) or to serve as untreated controls. Bovine somatotropin (500 mg) was administered every 14 d beginning at 63 to 69 d of lactation and continuing until approximately 21 d prior to dry-off or until the cow was removed from the herd. Trial objectives were to determine the effect of bST on the incidence of clinical mastitis, number of days that milk was discarded because of therapy for clinical mastitis, and culling for mastitis. A total of 127 (22.9%) cases of clinical mastitis occurred during lactation. In the pretrial period (before 63 to 69 d of lactation), 42 (33.1%) cases occurred, and 85 (66.9%) cases occurred during the trial. Of the 42 pretrial cases, 57.1% occurred in control cows, and 42.9% occurred in treated cows. Of the 85 trial cases 47.1% occurred in control cows, and 52.9% occurred in treated cows. Using logistic regression, the odds ratio for the occurrence of clinical mastitis in treated cows was 1.06 (95% confidence interval = 0.62 to 1.81). The number of days that milk was discarded following therapy for clinical mastitis and the culling rate for mastitis did not differ between study groups.

  10. Performance of growing rabbits fed increasing levels of discarded Salvia hispanica L. (chia) seed.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Abello, Diana; Ramírez-Avilés, Luis; Navarro-Alberto, Jorge; Zamora-Bustillos, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of including five levels of discarded chia seed (DCS) on growth, energy, and economic efficiency in rabbits. Fifty crossbred (New Zealand × Californian) weaning rabbits, weighing 798 ± 170 g, were randomly assigned to the following treatments: 0 % (control), 10 % (Ch10), 20 % (Ch20), 30 % (Ch30), and 40 % (Ch40) of DCS. Ten unsexed rabbits were allocated to each treatment and housed individually in cages; the experimental period was 6 weeks. There were no statistically significant differences between treatments in final body weight (2050 g), body weight gain (30 g/rabbit/day), and carcass weight (1010 g); however, feed intake (91 g/rabbit/day in Ch20 vs. 80 g/rabbit/day in Ch40), feed conversion ratio (2.77 in control and Ch40 vs. 2.95 in Ch10, Ch20, and Ch30), energy conversion ratio (32 MJ/kg in Ch20 vs. 29 MJ/kg on average in control, Ch10, Ch20, Ch30, and Ch40), and economic efficiency (358 % in control vs. 433 % in Ch40) showed differences (P < 0.05) between treatments. Discarded chia seed can be included up to 40 % in growing rabbit diets without any adverse effects on growth and carcass weight, and increased economic efficiency.

  11. Robust lateral control of highway vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, R.H.; Abdallah, C.

    1994-08-01

    Vehicle lateral dynamics are affected by vehicle mass, longitudinal velocity, vehicle inertia, and the cornering stiffness of the tires. All of these parameters are subject to variation, even over the course of a single trip. Therefore, a practical lateral control system must guarantee stability, and hopefully ride comfort, over a wide range of parameter changes. This paper describes a robust controller which theoretically guarantees stability over a wide range of parameter changes. The robust controller is designed using a frequency domain transfer function approach. An uncertainty band in the frequency domain is determined using simulations over the range of expected parameter variations. Based on this bound, a robust controller is designed by solving the Nevanlinna-Pick interpolation problem. The performance of the robust controller is then evaluated over the range of parameter variations through simulations.

  12. Detection of tire tread particles using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochazka, David; Bilík, Martin; Prochazková, Petra; Klus, Jakub; Pořízka, Pavel; Novotný, Jan; Novotný, Karel; Ticová, Barbora; Bradáč, Albert; Semela, Marek; Kaiser, Jozef

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this paper is a study of the potential of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for detection of tire tread particles. Tire tread particles may represent pollutants; simultaneously, it is potentially possible to exploit detection of tire tread particles for identification of optically imperceptible braking tracks at locations of road accidents. The paper describes the general composition of tire treads and selection of an element suitable for detection using the LIBS method. Subsequently, the applicable spectral line is selected considering interferences with lines of elements that might be present together with the detected particles, and optimization of measurement parameters such as incident laser energy, gate delay and gate width is performed. In order to eliminate the matrix effect, measurements were performed using 4 types of tires manufactured by 3 different producers. An adhesive tape was used as a sample carrier. The most suitable adhesive tape was selected from 5 commonly available tapes, on the basis of their respective LIBS spectra. Calibration standards, i.e. an adhesive tape with different area content of tire tread particles, were prepared for the selected tire. A calibration line was created on the basis of the aforementioned calibration standards. The linear section of this line was used for determination of the detection limit value applicable to the selected tire. Considering the insignificant influence of matrix of various types of tires, it is possible to make a simple recalculation of the detection limit value on the basis of zinc content in a specific tire.

  13. Measurements of Flow Rate and Trajectory of Aircraft Tire-Generated Water Spray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Robert H.; Stubbs, Sandy M.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center to measure the flow rate and trajectory of water spray generated by an aircraft tire operating on a flooded runway. Tests were conducted in the Hydrodynamics Research Facility and made use of a partial airframe and a nose tire from a general aviation aircraft. Nose tires from a commercial transport aircraft were also used. The effects of forward speed, tire load, and water depth on water spray patterns were evaluated by measuring the amount and location of water captured by an array of tubes mounted behind the test tire. Water ejected from the side of the tire footprint had the most significant potential for ingestion into engine inlets. A lateral wake created on the water surface by the rolling tire can dominate the shape of the spray pattern as the distance aft of the tire is increased. Forward speed increased flow rates and moved the spray pattern inboard. Increased tire load caused the spray to become less dense. Near the tire, increased water depths caused flow rates to increase. Tests using a fuselage and partial wing along with the nose gear showed that for certain configurations, wing aerodynamics can cause a concentration of spray above the wing.

  14. Construction of a test embankment using a sand-tire shred mixture as fill material.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sungmin; Prezzi, Monica; Siddiki, Nayyar Zia; Kim, Bumjoo

    2006-01-01

    Use of tire shreds in construction projects, such as highway embankments, is becoming an accepted way of beneficially recycling scrap tires. However, in the last decade there was a decline in the use of pure tire shreds as fill materials in embankment construction, as they are susceptible to fire hazards due to the development of exothermic reactions. Tire shred-sand mixtures, on the other hand, were found to be effective in inhibiting exothermic reactions. When compared with pure tire shreds, tire shred-sand mixtures are less compressible and have higher shear strength. However, the literature contains limited information on the use of tire shred-soil mixtures as a fill material. The objectives of this paper are to discuss and evaluate the feasibility of using tire shred-sand mixtures as a fill material in embankment construction. A test embankment constructed using a 50/50 mixture, by volume, of tire shreds and sand was instrumented and monitored to: (a) determine total and differential settlements; (b) evaluate the environmental impact of the embankment construction on the groundwater quality due to leaching of fill material; and (c) study the temperature variation inside the embankment. The findings in this research indicate that mixtures of tire shreds and sand are viable materials for embankment construction.

  15. Tread wear and footprint geometrical characters of truck bus radial tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Chen; Wang, Guolin; An, Dengfeng; Ma, Yinwei

    2013-05-01

    Wear and mileage performance are the foremost performances for truck bus radial (TBR) tires. There are a lot of researches about the tire wear performance as well as the contact patch phenomenon by using finite element analysis (FEA) method or testing. But there is little published data on the correlations between the footprint geometry and the tread wear performance of tires. In this paper, an experiment on tire-ground performance of TBR tires is carried out by using Tekscan. The real-time changes of contact-area pressure distribution that occurred during the process of continuous load and unload are recorded. Three types of tires that act differently in behavior under normal usage are analyzed. A new method of researching in tire tread wear, which focuses on the geometrical characters of the footprint, is put forward. The experimental results of the three tires are described by using footprint geometrical characters. On the basis of studying the changing laws of footprint geometrical characters during the loading process and considering consumer survey and factory feedback information, the correlations between the geometrical character of footprints and tread destruction form are built. The analyzed results show that a greater contact area coefficient and a steady coefficient of contact result in a better wear performance for TBR tires. The footprint-shape coefficient changing laws in the process of loading are found to have a very good coincidence with the tread wear of the three types of tires. Tires with a smaller footprint-shape coefficient are likely to have an average tread wear while avoiding the shoulder wear first. The proposed research provides a new solution to predict tire-ground performance at the point of footprint and several useful references for improving tire design.

  16. The analysis of tire rubber traces collected after braking incidents using Pyrolysis-GasChromatography/Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sarkissian, Garry

    2007-09-01

    Automobile tire marks can routinely be found at the scenes of crime, particularly hit-and-run accidents and are left on road surfaces because of sudden braking or the wheels spinning. The tire marks are left due to the friction between the tire rubber and the solid road surface, and do not always demonstrate the tire tread pattern. However, the tire mark will contain traces of the tire. In this study, Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry was used to analyze 12 tires from different manufacturer's and their traces collected after braking incidents. Tire marks were left on a conglomerate road surface with sudden braking. The samples were pyrolysed without removal of contaminant in a micro-furnace type pyrolyser. Quantitative and qualitative analysis were performed on all the samples. All 12 samples were distinguished from each other. Each of the tire traces were identified as coming from there original source.

  17. Skin donors and human skin allografts: evaluation of an 11-year practice and discard in a referral tissue bank.

    PubMed

    Gaucher, Sonia; Khaznadar, Zena; Gourevitch, Jean-Claude; Jarraya, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    The Saint Louis hospital tissue bank provides skin allografts to pediatric and adult burn units in the Paris area. The aim of this study was to analyze our activity during the last 11 years focusing on the reasons for skin discard. Skin is procured solely from the back of the body, which is divided into 10 zones that are harvested and processed separately. This retrospective study included all skin donors harvested between June 2002 and June 2013, representing a total of 336 donors and 2770 zones. The donors were multiorgan heart-beating donors in 91 % of cases (n = 307). The main reason for discarding harvested skin was microbial contamination, detected in 99 donors (29 %). Most contaminants were of low pathogenicity. Other reasons for discard included positive serologic tests for 2 donors [17 zones (0.61 %)], unsuitable physical skin characteristics for 3 zones (0.11 %), the donor's medical history for 53 zones (1.91 %), and technical issues with processing or distribution for 61 zones (2.2 %). In our experience, microbial contamination continues to be the main reason for discarding potential skin allografts. However, discards are limited by separate harvesting and processing of multiple zones in each donor.

  18. Analysis of blastocyst culture of discarded embryos and its significance for establishing human embryonic stem cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Kong, Hui-Juan; Kan, Quan-Cheng; Liang, Ju-Yan; Zhao, Fang; Bai, Ai-Hong; Li, Peng-Fen; Sun, Ying-Pu

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, applications of stem cells have already involved in all domains of life science and biomedicine. People try to establish human embryonic stem cell lines (hESCs) in order to carry out hESC-related studies. In this study, we explored what embryos are conducive to the establishment of hESCs. The discarded embryos from in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) cycles were sequentially incubated into blastocysts, and then the inner cell mass (ICM) was isolated and incubated in the mixed feeder layer. The cell lines which underwent serial passage were identified. After a total of 1,725 discarded embryos from 754 patients were incubated, 448 blastocysts were formed with 123 high-quality blastocysts. The blastulation rate was significantly higher in the discarded embryos with non-pronucleus (0PN) or 1PN than in the discarded embryos with 2PN or ≥3PN. The blastulation rate of the D3 embryos with 7-9 blastomeres was higher. Among the originally incubated 389 ICMs, 22 hESCs with normal karyotype were established, and identified to be ESCs. Therefore, in establishing hESCs with discarded embryos, D(3) 0PN or 1PN embryos with 7-9 blastomeres should be first selected, because they can improve high-quality blastulation rate which can increase the efficiency of hESC establishment.

  19. Some effects of grooved runway configurations on aircraft tire braking traction under flooded runway conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrdsong, T. A.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effect of grooved runway configurations on aircraft tire braking traction on flooded runway surfaces. The investigation was performed, utilizing size 49 x 17, type VII, aircraft tires with an inflation pressure of 170 lb per square inch at ground speeds up to approximately 120 knots. The results of this investigation indicate that when the runway is flooded, grooved surfaces provide better braking traction than an ungrooved surface and, in general, the level of braking traction was found to improve as the tire bearing pressure was increased because of an increase in the groove area of either the surface or the tire tread. Rounding the groove edges tended to degrade the tire braking capability from that developed on the same groove configuration with sharp edges. Results also indicate that braking friction coefficients for the test tires and runway surfaces decreased as ground speed was increased because of the hydroplaning effects.

  20. Risk of fatal rollover in utility vehicles relative to static stability.

    PubMed

    Robertson, L S

    1989-03-01

    The risk of fatal rollover of utility vehicles per 100,000 registered vehicles relative to cars during 1982-87 was strongly correlated to the static stability of the vehicles. Distance between the center of the tires divided by twice the height of center of gravity explained 62 per cent of the variation in fatal rollover rates where rollover was the first harmful event. Statistical controls for 20 major risk factors indicated no correlations that would deflate the correlation between stability and rollover. Low stability utility vehicles roll over more often on the road suggesting that the lateral force of turning is often the tipping force.