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Sample records for disco articular adherido

  1. Modelo de galaxia disco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledesma, M.; Mosconi, M.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar la formación de galaxias anillo, a través de simulaciones numéricas. En el estudio numérico es necesario construir el modelo de una galaxia disco normal, en condición de equilibrio estable, que se ajuste a los parámetros observacionales disponibles de estos objetos. En dicho modelo se considera la galaxia constituída por un halo de materia oscura, un bulge y el disco propiamente dicho. A partir de perfiles de densidad obtenidos de las observaciones, se lleva a cabo la distribución espacial de las partículas, a través del ``Método del rechazo". La asignación de velocidades se realiza considerando que las partículas del disco están aproximadamente en equilibrio rotacional, y se agregan dispersiones de velocidad de acuerdo con el parámetro de Toomre Q=1.5.

  2. The Art of Disco Dancing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Dennis

    This book offers a structured approach to disco dancing, and is designed for use in group instruction. After a brief historical look at popular dance in America, the basic fundamentals of disco steps are explored. Dance terms are explained in a glossary, and a section on music introduces notation, rhythm and meter, and time signatures. In the…

  3. Reflections on a Disco Ball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Jair Lúcio Prados

    2016-01-01

    A disco ball is a spherical object covered with small plane mirrors. When light reflects on these mirrors, it is scattered in many directions, producing a novel effect. The mirror globe is usually set to rotate, creating a profusion of moving spots (Fig. 1). In this article, we present a geometrical description of the movement of these spots and…

  4. Reflections on a Disco Ball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Jair Lúcio Prados

    2016-01-01

    A disco ball is a spherical object covered with small plane mirrors. When light reflects on these mirrors, it is scattered in many directions, producing a novel effect. The mirror globe is usually set to rotate, creating a profusion of moving spots (Fig. 1). In this article, we present a geometrical description of the movement of these spots and…

  5. Reflections on a Disco Ball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Jair Lúcio Prados

    2016-12-01

    A disco ball is a spherical object covered with small plane mirrors. When light reflects on these mirrors, it is scattered in many directions, producing a novel effect. The mirror globe is usually set to rotate, creating a profusion of moving spots (Fig. 1). In this article, we present a geometrical description of the movement of these spots and an experimental activity to test the model.

  6. DISCOS- Current Status and Future Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flohrer, T.; Lemmens, S.; Bastida Virgili, B.; Krag, H.; Klinkrad, H.; Parrilla, E.; Sanchez, N.; Oliveira, J.; Pina, F.

    2013-08-01

    We present ESA's Database and Information System Characterizing Objects in Space (DISCOS). DISCOS not only plays an essential role in the collision avoidance and re-entry prediction services provided by ESA's Space Debris Office, it is also providing input to numerous and very differently scoped engineering activities, within ESA and throughout industry. We introduce the central functionalities of DISCOS, present the available reporting capabilities, and describe selected data modelling features. Finally, we revisit the developments of the recent years and take a sneak preview of the on-going replacement of DISCOS web front-end.

  7. Signal processing for distributed sensor concept: DISCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafailov, Michael K.

    2007-04-01

    Distributed Sensor concept - DISCO proposed for multiplication of individual sensor capabilities through cooperative target engagement. DISCO relies on ability of signal processing software to format, to process and to transmit and receive sensor data and to exploit those data in signal synthesis process. Each sensor data is synchronized formatted, Signal-to-Noise Ration (SNR) enhanced and distributed inside of the sensor network. Signal processing technique for DISCO is Recursive Adaptive Frame Integration of Limited data - RAFIL technique that was initially proposed [1] as a way to improve the SNR, reduce data rate and mitigate FPA correlated noise of an individual sensor digital video-signal processing. In Distributed Sensor Concept RAFIL technique is used in segmented way, when constituencies of the technique are spatially and/or temporally separated between transmitters and receivers. Those constituencies include though not limited to two thresholds - one is tuned for optimum probability of detection, the other - to manage required false alarm rate, and limited frame integration placed somewhere between the thresholds as well as formatters, conventional integrators and more. RAFIL allows a non-linear integration that, along with SNR gain, provides system designers more capability where cost, weight, or power considerations limit system data rate, processing, or memory capability [2]. DISCO architecture allows flexible optimization of SNR gain, data rates and noise suppression on sensor's side and limited integration, re-formatting and final threshold on node's side. DISCO with Recursive Adaptive Frame Integration of Limited data may have flexible architecture that allows segmenting the hardware and software to be best suitable for specific DISCO applications and sensing needs - whatever it is air-or-space platforms, ground terminals or integration of sensors network.

  8. DISCO - A Wide Field Heliospheric Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    DISCO (Direct Imaging of the Solar Corona) is a concept for a compact, side-looking heliospheric imager that captures a wide field of view with a single camera and detector. The first optical element of DISCO is a convex reflector that tends to direct stray light away from the lenses and detector. The angular resolution of the system varies over the field of view and is higher at low elongation angeles where it is most needed to resolve the structure of coronal mass ejections and corotating interaction regions.

  9. The function of the disco-muscular apparatus in the human temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Bade, H

    1999-01-01

    The morphology and function of the disco-muscular apparatus of the human TMJ is a controversial subject. Connections between the muscles which move the mandible and the "disco-capsular complex" have been described in a contradictory way. The disco-muscular apparatus is also described as being more extensive than that of the M. pterygoideus alone to include to the Mm. temporalis and masseter. However, the involvement of the latter is considered to be a peripheral variation of the normal anatomy and of little, if any, functional significance. The existence of independent relationships between the deep portions of the masseter and temporal muscles and the disco-capsular apparatus of the human TMJ is rarely discussed or explained. The morphologic findings were derived from fixed and unfixed human temporomandibular joints (TMJ) of varying ages and both sexes, whereby the functional maturity of the masticatory apparatus was taken into consideration. The results of the study show that aside from fibers originating from the superior venter of the M. pterygoideus lateralis, additional muscle or connective tissue fibers from the perimysium of the M. masseter are inserted to varying extents into the disc. The same is true for the M. temporalis, which is also directly connected to the disc via muscular or fibrous elements, or indirectly via fibers from the M. masseter. The insertion of the M. pterygoideus lateralis is always in the medial portion of the Discus articularis and those of the Mm. temporalis and masseter in the middle and lateral portions of the disc respectively. It is highly probable that a direct force transfer through the Mm. temporalis and masseter to the articular disc takes place, and that these muscles contribute to the movement of the disc during jaw movement, whereas the size and form of the muscle insertions are subject to a great deal of individual variation.

  10. DISCO 10-year retrospective survey results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Edward J.; Sackett, William M.

    One hundred-eighty-eight new and prospective Ph.D.s have participated in a unique series of meetings designed to integrate young scientists into the research community and to foster interdisciplinary and interinstitutional research. These meetings, the Dissertations Symposia in Chemical Oceanography (DISCO), are sponsored by the Office of Naval Research, the National Science Foundation, and the Sea Grant Office of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Expenses for the young marine chemists from academic institutions in the United States are totally provided by the sponsoring agencies. A number of new Ph.D.s from foreign schools have also participated by invitation; their expenses have been paid in part by their home countries or by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

  11. NASDS- NASTRAN/DISCOS/SAMSAN DMAP BRIDGING PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1994-01-01

    The design of a controller for a flexible structure requires an ability to obtain flexible body data in a format compatible with design and performance evaluation methods. The control designer may have to work with several different programs to obtain all the data and capabilities he needs. The NASTRAN/DISCOS/SAMSAN bridging program and its associated data file processor provide the flexible structure control designer with a means of tying together the following programs: 1) the NASA Structural Analysis (NASTRAN) system which provides general finite element and matrix manipulation capabilities for the analysis of structures, 2) the Dynamic Interaction Simulation of Controls and Structure (DISCOS) program which provides for the time and frequency domain analysis of any dynamic system that can be modeled as a system of interconnected rigid and flexible bodies, and 3) the SAMSAN library which provides a self-consistent set of algorithms for the support of large-order controls system design and evaluation studies with an emphasis on sampled system analysis. The NASTRAN/DISCOS/SAMSAN bridging program allows the engineer to integrate these three programs into a complete package for the design and analysis of flexible structure controllers. The NASTRAN/DISCOS/SAMSAN bridging program and its associated data file processor may be used to obtain all of the data necessary for defining a flexible body to DISCOS or to any program developed using the SAMSAN library. The bridging program consists of a NASTRAN DMAP sequence which may be used to obtain a variety of different types of modal data including standard, Craig-Bampton, augmented body, and boundary compliance. The user may also request the generation of the following: mass, stiffness, damping, and constraint matrices; data for fine to coarse mesh mass distribution interpolation programs; modal damping, modal observability/ controllability matrices; coarse or fine mesh modal data; and an assortment of matrices useful for

  12. NASDS- NASTRAN/DISCOS/SAMSAN DMAP BRIDGING PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1994-01-01

    The design of a controller for a flexible structure requires an ability to obtain flexible body data in a format compatible with design and performance evaluation methods. The control designer may have to work with several different programs to obtain all the data and capabilities he needs. The NASTRAN/DISCOS/SAMSAN bridging program and its associated data file processor provide the flexible structure control designer with a means of tying together the following programs: 1) the NASA Structural Analysis (NASTRAN) system which provides general finite element and matrix manipulation capabilities for the analysis of structures, 2) the Dynamic Interaction Simulation of Controls and Structure (DISCOS) program which provides for the time and frequency domain analysis of any dynamic system that can be modeled as a system of interconnected rigid and flexible bodies, and 3) the SAMSAN library which provides a self-consistent set of algorithms for the support of large-order controls system design and evaluation studies with an emphasis on sampled system analysis. The NASTRAN/DISCOS/SAMSAN bridging program allows the engineer to integrate these three programs into a complete package for the design and analysis of flexible structure controllers. The NASTRAN/DISCOS/SAMSAN bridging program and its associated data file processor may be used to obtain all of the data necessary for defining a flexible body to DISCOS or to any program developed using the SAMSAN library. The bridging program consists of a NASTRAN DMAP sequence which may be used to obtain a variety of different types of modal data including standard, Craig-Bampton, augmented body, and boundary compliance. The user may also request the generation of the following: mass, stiffness, damping, and constraint matrices; data for fine to coarse mesh mass distribution interpolation programs; modal damping, modal observability/ controllability matrices; coarse or fine mesh modal data; and an assortment of matrices useful for

  13. The Swedish Version of the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO-10). Psychometric Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nygren, Gudrun; Hagberg, Bibbi; Billstedt, Eva; Skoglund, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Johansson, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Psychometric properties of the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders schedule (DISCO) have only been studied in the UK. The authorised Swedish translation of the tenth version of the DISCO (DISCO-10) was used in interviews with close relatives of 91 Swedish patients referred for neuropsychiatrical assessment. Validity…

  14. DISCOS- DYNAMIC INTERACTION SIMULATION OF CONTROLS AND STRUCTURES (IBM VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1994-01-01

    The Dynamic Interaction Simulation of Controls and Structure (DISCOS) program was developed for the dynamic simulation and stability analysis of passive and actively controlled spacecraft. In the use of DISCOS, the physical system undergoing analysis may be generally described as a cluster of contiguous flexible structures (bodies) that comprise a mechanical system, such as a spacecraft. The entire system (spacecraft) or portions thereof may be either spinning or nonspinning. Member bodies of the system may undergo large relative excursions, such as those of appendage deployment or rotor/ stator motion. The general system of bodies is, by its inherent nature, a feedback system in which inertial forces (such as those due to centrifugal and Coriolis acceleration) and the restoring and damping forces are motion-dependent. The system may possess a control system in which certain position and rate errors are actively controlled through the use of reaction control jets, servomotors, or momentum wheels. Bodies of the system may be interconnected by linear or nonlinear springs and dampers, by a gimbal and slider block mechanism, or by any combination of these. The DISCOS program can be used to obtain nonlinear and linearized time response of the system, interaction constant forces in the system, total system resonance properties, and frequency domain response and stability information for the system. DISCOS is probably the most powerful computational tool to date for the computer simulation of actively controlled coupled multi-flexible-body systems. The program is not easy to understand and effectively apply, but is not intended for simple problems. The DISCOS user is expected to have extensive working knowledge of rigid-body and flexible-body dynamics, finite-element techniques, numerical methods, and frequency-domain analysis. Various applications of DISCOS include simulation of the Shuttle payload deployment/retrieval mechanism, solar panel array deployment, antenna

  15. DISCOS- DYNAMIC INTERACTION SIMULATION OF CONTROLS AND STRUCTURES (IBM VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1994-01-01

    The Dynamic Interaction Simulation of Controls and Structure (DISCOS) program was developed for the dynamic simulation and stability analysis of passive and actively controlled spacecraft. In the use of DISCOS, the physical system undergoing analysis may be generally described as a cluster of contiguous flexible structures (bodies) that comprise a mechanical system, such as a spacecraft. The entire system (spacecraft) or portions thereof may be either spinning or nonspinning. Member bodies of the system may undergo large relative excursions, such as those of appendage deployment or rotor/ stator motion. The general system of bodies is, by its inherent nature, a feedback system in which inertial forces (such as those due to centrifugal and Coriolis acceleration) and the restoring and damping forces are motion-dependent. The system may possess a control system in which certain position and rate errors are actively controlled through the use of reaction control jets, servomotors, or momentum wheels. Bodies of the system may be interconnected by linear or nonlinear springs and dampers, by a gimbal and slider block mechanism, or by any combination of these. The DISCOS program can be used to obtain nonlinear and linearized time response of the system, interaction constant forces in the system, total system resonance properties, and frequency domain response and stability information for the system. DISCOS is probably the most powerful computational tool to date for the computer simulation of actively controlled coupled multi-flexible-body systems. The program is not easy to understand and effectively apply, but is not intended for simple problems. The DISCOS user is expected to have extensive working knowledge of rigid-body and flexible-body dynamics, finite-element techniques, numerical methods, and frequency-domain analysis. Various applications of DISCOS include simulation of the Shuttle payload deployment/retrieval mechanism, solar panel array deployment, antenna

  16. DISCOS- DYNAMIC INTERACTION SIMULATION OF CONTROLS AND STRUCTURES (IBM VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1994-01-01

    The Dynamic Interaction Simulation of Controls and Structure (DISCOS) program was developed for the dynamic simulation and stability analysis of passive and actively controlled spacecraft. In the use of DISCOS, the physical system undergoing analysis may be generally described as a cluster of contiguous flexible structures (bodies) that comprise a mechanical system, such as a spacecraft. The entire system (spacecraft) or portions thereof may be either spinning or nonspinning. Member bodies of the system may undergo large relative excursions, such as those of appendage deployment or rotor/ stator motion. The general system of bodies is, by its inherent nature, a feedback system in which inertial forces (such as those due to centrifugal and Coriolis acceleration) and the restoring and damping forces are motion-dependent. The system may possess a control system in which certain position and rate errors are actively controlled through the use of reaction control jets, servomotors, or momentum wheels. Bodies of the system may be interconnected by linear or nonlinear springs and dampers, by a gimbal and slider block mechanism, or by any combination of these. The DISCOS program can be used to obtain nonlinear and linearized time response of the system, interaction constant forces in the system, total system resonance properties, and frequency domain response and stability information for the system. DISCOS is probably the most powerful computational tool to date for the computer simulation of actively controlled coupled multi-flexible-body systems. The program is not easy to understand and effectively apply, but is not intended for simple problems. The DISCOS user is expected to have extensive working knowledge of rigid-body and flexible-body dynamics, finite-element techniques, numerical methods, and frequency-domain analysis. Various applications of DISCOS include simulation of the Shuttle payload deployment/retrieval mechanism, solar panel array deployment, antenna

  17. Intra articular synovial sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Sistla, Radha; Tameem, Afroz; Vidyasagar, J V S

    2010-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma is a soft tissue neoplasm with a characteristic biphasic pattern. Incidence in soft tissues is 5-10%. Intra articularly synovial sarcoma is extremely rare. Fewer than 5% of all synovial sarcomas arise within the joint space. We report a case of intra articular synovial sarcoma in a young male who presented as internal derangement of the knee.

  18. Articular cartilage biochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Kuettner, K.E.; Schleyerbach, R.; Hascall, V.C.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains six parts, each consisting of several papers. The part titles are: Cartilage Matrix Components; Biosynthesis and Characterization of Cartilage--Specific Matrix Components and Events; Cartilage Metabolism; In Vitro Studies of Articular Cartilage Metabolism; Normal and Pathologic Metabolism of Cartilage; and Destruction of the Articular Cartilage in Rheumatoid Diseases. Some of the paper topics are: magnetic resonance imaging; joint destruction; age-related changes; proteoglycan structure; and biosynthesis of cartilage proteoglycan.

  19. Order (n) DISCOS for multibody systems with gear reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chun, Hon M.; Turner, James D.; Frisch, Harold P.

    1990-01-01

    Recent developments in O(n) algorithms (where n is the number of bodies in the system) and parallel processing have drastically reduced the computer time needed to simulate systems involving many bodies. This paper presents a gear-reduction model for the O(n) version of DISCOS, a standard software package for simulation and analysis of flexible multibody systems. The gear-reduction model allows the accurate modeling of harmonic drives, which are commonly used in robot joints. The formulation has been implemented and validated with known results. The gear model can also be used for gear-train, rack-and-pinion, and screw joints.

  20. DISCO: a low-energy multipurpose beamline at synchrotron SOLEIL.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Alexandre; Jamme, Frédéric; Rouam, Valérie; Wien, Frank; Giorgetta, Jean-Luc; Lagarde, Bruno; Chubar, Oleg; Bac, Stéphane; Yao, Isabelle; Rey, Solène; Herbeaux, Christian; Marlats, Jean-Louis; Zerbib, Daniel; Polack, François; Réfrégiers, Matthieu

    2009-11-01

    DISCO, a novel low-energy beamline covering the spectrum range from the VUV to the visible, has received its first photons at the French synchrotron SOLEIL. In this article the DISCO design and concept of three experimental stations serving research communities in biology and chemistry are described. Emphasis has been put on high flux generation and preservation of polarization at variable energy resolutions. The three experiments include a completely new approach for microscopy and atmospheric pressure experiments as well as a ;classical' synchrotron radiation circular dichroism station. Preliminary tests of the optical design and technical concept have been made. Theoretical predictions of the beam have been compared with the first images produced by the first photons originating from the large-aperture bending-magnet source. Results are also reported concerning the cold finger used to absorb hard X-ray radiation in the central part of the synchrotron beam and to avoid heavy thermal load on the following optics. Wavelength selection using monochromators with different gratings for each experimental set-up as well as beam propagation and conditioning throughout the optical system are detailed. First photons comply very well with the theoretical calculations.

  1. DISCO: A 3D Moving-mesh Magnetohydrodynamics Code Designed for the Study of Astrophysical Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffell, Paul C.

    2016-09-01

    This work presents the publicly available moving-mesh magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code DISCO. DISCO is efficient and accurate at evolving orbital fluid motion in two and three dimensions, especially at high Mach numbers. DISCO employs a moving-mesh approach utilizing a dynamic cylindrical mesh that can shear azimuthally to follow the orbital motion of the gas. The moving mesh removes diffusive advection errors and allows for longer time-steps than a static grid. MHD is implemented in DISCO using an HLLD Riemann solver and a novel constrained transport (CT) scheme that is compatible with the mesh motion. DISCO is tested against a wide variety of problems, which are designed to test its stability, accuracy, and scalability. In addition, several MHD tests are performed which demonstrate the accuracy and stability of the new CT approach, including two tests of the magneto-rotational instability, one testing the linear growth rate and the other following the instability into the fully turbulent regime.

  2. The NIF DISCO Framework: Facilitating Automated Integration of Neuroscience Content on the Web

    PubMed Central

    Marenco, Luis; Wang, Rixin; Shepherd, Gordon M.; Miller, Perry L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the capabilities of DISCO, an extensible approach that supports integrative Web-based information dissemination. DISCO is a component of the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF), an NIH Neuroscience Blueprint initiative that facilitates integrated access to diverse neuroscience resources via the Internet. DISCO facilitates the automated maintenance of several distinct capabilities using a collection of files 1) that are maintained locally by the developers of participating neuroscience resources and 2) that are “harvested” on a regular basis by a central DISCO server. This approach allows central NIF capabilities to be updated as each resource’s content changes over time. DISCO currently supports the following capabilities: 1) resource descriptions, 2) “LinkOut” to a resource’s data items from NCBI Entrez resources such as PubMed, 3) Web-based interoperation with a resource, 4) sharing a resource’s lexicon and ontology, 5) sharing a resource’s database schema, and 6) participation by the resource in neuroscience-related RSS news dissemination. The developers of a resource are free to choose which DISCO capabilities their resource will participate in. Although DISCO is used by NIF to facilitate neuroscience data integration, its capabilities have general applicability to other areas of research. PMID:20387131

  3. The NIF DISCO Framework: facilitating automated integration of neuroscience content on the web.

    PubMed

    Marenco, Luis; Wang, Rixin; Shepherd, Gordon M; Miller, Perry L

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes the capabilities of DISCO, an extensible approach that supports integrative Web-based information dissemination. DISCO is a component of the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF), an NIH Neuroscience Blueprint initiative that facilitates integrated access to diverse neuroscience resources via the Internet. DISCO facilitates the automated maintenance of several distinct capabilities using a collection of files 1) that are maintained locally by the developers of participating neuroscience resources and 2) that are "harvested" on a regular basis by a central DISCO server. This approach allows central NIF capabilities to be updated as each resource's content changes over time. DISCO currently supports the following capabilities: 1) resource descriptions, 2) "LinkOut" to a resource's data items from NCBI Entrez resources such as PubMed, 3) Web-based interoperation with a resource, 4) sharing a resource's lexicon and ontology, 5) sharing a resource's database schema, and 6) participation by the resource in neuroscience-related RSS news dissemination. The developers of a resource are free to choose which DISCO capabilities their resource will participate in. Although DISCO is used by NIF to facilitate neuroscience data integration, its capabilities have general applicability to other areas of research.

  4. DISCO synchrotron-radiation circular-dichroism endstation at SOLEIL.

    PubMed

    Réfrégiers, Matthieu; Wien, Frank; Ta, Ha Phuong; Premvardhan, Lavanya; Bac, Stéphane; Jamme, Frederic; Rouam, Valerie; Lagarde, Bruno; Polack, François; Giorgetta, Jean Luc; Ricaud, Jean Paul; Bordessoule, Michel; Giuliani, Alexandre

    2012-09-01

    The new synchrotron-radiation circular-dichroism (SRCD) endstation on the UV-visible synchrotron beamline DISCO has been commissioned at the SOLEIL synchrotron. The design has been focused on preservation of a high degree of linear polarization at high flux and moderate resolving power covering the vacuum ultraviolet to visible spectral range (125-600 nm). The beam dimensions have been set to 4 mm × 4 mm at 1 nm bandwidth for lower sample degradation. The nitrogen-purged sample chamber fits three types of sample holders accommodating conventional round cell mounting, automated rotation of the samples, as well as a microfluidic set-up. Automated temperature-controlled data collection on microvolumes is now available to the biology and chemistry communities. Macromolecules including membrane proteins, soluble proteins, bio-nanotubes, sugars, DNA and RNAs are now routinely investigated.

  5. Articular manifestations of systemic diseases.

    PubMed

    Bensen, W G

    1983-11-01

    Many systemic diseases present with articular manifestations. An understanding of the clinical, laboratory and radiological features of these diseases can lead to early diagnosis and appropriate therapy. This article describes the articular presentation and management of four generalized disorders: idiopathic hemachromatosis; sarcoidosis; hepatitis-B virus-induced arthritis, and polymyositis-dermatomyositis induced arthritis.

  6. DISCO: a coherent diffeomorphic framework for brain registration under exhaustive sulcal constraints.

    PubMed

    Auzias, Guillaume; Glaunès, Joan; Colliot, Olivier; Perrot, Matthieu; Mangin, Jean-François; Trouvé, Alain; Baillet, Sylvain

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging at the group level requires spatial normalization of individual structural data. We propose a geometric approach that consists in matching a series of cortical surfaces through diffeomorphic registration of their sulcal imprints. The resulting 3D transforms naturally extends to the entire MRI volumes. The Diffeomorphic Sulcal-based COrtical (DISCO) registration integrates two recent technical outcomes: 1) the automatic extraction, identification and simplification of numerous sulci from T1-weighted MRI data series hereby revealing the sulcal imprint and 2) the measure-based diffeomorphic registration of those crucial anatomical landmarks. We show how the DISCO registration may be used to elaborate a sulcal template which optimizes the distribution of constraints over the entire cortical ribbon. DISCO was evaluated through a group of 20 individual brains. Quantitative and qualitative indices attest how this approach may improve both alignment of sulcal folds and overlay of gray and white matter volumes at the group level.

  7. Extra-Articular Endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Doral, Mahmut N; Huri, Gazi; Bohacek, Ivan; Turhan, Egemen; Bojanic, Ivan

    2016-03-01

    With the advent of endoscopy in the last 2 decades, a number of procedures, and modifications to them, have been developed and have advanced exponentially. The list of indications was extended over time because of several reasons: better understanding of the pathophysiology, better diagnostics, and advances in endoscopic technology. In this review article, we summarize the most frequently performed extra-articular endoscopic procedures on the extremities. As there are several methods, some have been described briefly, whereas others have been described in greater detail, such as suprascapular nerve entrapment syndrome and Achilles tendon disorders, as they present our area of interest and subspecialty domain. Recent advances in the treatment of versatile pathologic entities have been described, together with new methods, which currently lack sufficient clinical data but still represent promising techniques for the future.

  8. Towards Regeneration of Articular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Masahiro; Ohta, Yoichi; Larmour, Colleen; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2014-01-01

    Articular cartilage is classified into permanent hyaline cartilage and has significant differences in structure, extracelluar matrix components, gene expression profile, and mechanical property from transient hyaline cartilage found in growth plate. In the process of synovial joint development, articular cartilage is originated from the interzone, developing at the edge of the cartilaginous anlagen, it establishes zonal structure over time and supports smooth movement of the synovial joint through life. The cascade actions of key regulators such as Wnts, GDF5, Erg, and PTHLH coordinate sequential steps of articular cartilage formation. Articular chondrocytes are restrictedly controlled not to differentiate into a hypertrophic stage by autocrine and paracrine factors and extracerllular matrix microenvironment, but retain potential to undergo hypertrophy. The basal calcified zone of articular cartilage is connected with subchondral bone, but not invaded by blood vessels nor replaced by bone, which is highly contrasted with the growth plate. Articular cartilage has limited regenerative capacity, but likely possesses and potentially uses intrinsic stem cell source in the superficial layer, Ranvier’s groove, the intra-articular tissues such as synovium and fat pad, and marrow below the subchondral bone. Considering the biological views on articular cartilage, several important points are raised for regeneration of articular cartilage. We should evaluate the nature of regenerated cartilage as permanent hyaline cartilage and not just hyaline cartilage. We should study how a hypertrophic phenotype of transplanted cells can be lastingly suppressed in regenerating tissue. Further, we should develop the methods and reagents to activate recruitment of intrinsic stem/progenitor cells into the damaged site. PMID:24078496

  9. Articular manifestations of familial hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Mathon, G; Gagné, C; Brun, D; Lupien, P J; Moorjani, S

    1985-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia is characterised by a decreased removal of low density lipoproteins and premature coronary artery disease. Tendinous xanthomata are a hallmark of the disease. The affected joints may also be the sites of inflammation and pain. Arthropathy has been associated mainly with the homozygous form of familial hypercholesterolaemia, but it is also known to occur in the heterozygous form. We report on the articular manifestations in 73 patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia. About 40% of these patients had at least one episode of articular symptoms. The observed articular manifestations may be classified into four types: Achilles pain (18%), Achilles tendinitis (11%), oligoarticular arthritis (7%), polyarticular or rheumatic fever-like arthritis (4%). It is concluded that in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia articular manifestations are frequent, diverse, and may be the first symptom of this metabolic disorder. Images PMID:4037885

  10. Extra-articular hip endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Verhelst, L.; Guevara, V.; De Schepper, J.; Van Melkebeek, J.; Pattyn, C.; Audenaert, E. A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review is to evaluate the current available literature evidencing on peri-articular hip endoscopy (the third compartment). A comprehensive approach has been set on reports dealing with endoscopic surgery for recalcitrant trochanteric bursitis, snapping hip (or coxa-saltans; external and internal), gluteus medius and minimus tears and endoscopy (or arthroscopy) after total hip arthroplasty. This information can be used to trigger further research, innovation and education in extra-articular hip endoscopy. PMID:23610664

  11. Articular Manifestations of Systemic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bensen, W. G.

    1983-01-01

    Many systemic diseases present with articular manifestations. An understanding of the clinical, laboratory and radiological features of these diseases can lead to early diagnosis and appropriate therapy. This article describes the articular presentation and management of four generalized disorders: idiopathic hemachromatosis; sarcoidosis; hepatitis-B virus-induced arthritis, and polymyositis-dermatomyositis induced arthritis. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:21283470

  12. Observaciones del disco solar y de una protuberancia quiescente en radiación ultravioleta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirigliano, D.; Vial, J.-C.; Rovira, M.

    Observaciones del disco solar y de una protuberancia quiescente en el rango de longitudes de onda ultravioleta fueron obtenidas con el instrumento CDS (Coronal Diagnostic Spectrograph) y SUMER (Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of emitted radiation) a bordo de la sonda SOHO. El propósito es investigar las velocidades macroscópicas de varias especies metálicas que se observan tanto en el disco solar como en el plasma de las protuberancias. Para calcular las velocidades del disco solar aplicamos una técnica mixta para modelar la distribución de estructuras en UV en el Sol quieto. Las velocidades macroscópicas en las protuberancias se calcularon a partir de los corrimientos Doppler en cada línea espectral y luego se tomaron las del disco solar como referencia. Obtuvimos valores absolutos para las velocidades macroscópicas entre 5 y 40 km/seg. También detectamos comportamientos diferentes en las velocidades de las protuberancias en el centro con respecto a los bordes.

  13. Discos de acreción circumplanares: Modelo de Co-acreción

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, M. G.; de Elía, G.

    Los discos de acreción circumplanetarios precursores de los satélites regulares de los planetas gigantes, se pueden formar por cuatro mecanismos (Pollack y otros, 1991, In Uranus, Bergtralh, Miner y Mattews, Eds., p. 469, Univ. de Arizona Press, Tucson). En este trabajo estudiamos uno de tales mecanismos: el Modelo de Co-acreción. En dicho modelo, el disco circumplanetario se forma a partir de las colisiones mutuas entre planetesimales dentro de la esfera de Hill del planeta durante el proceso de formación planetaria. Realizamos un modelo semi-analítico para calcular la masa del disco y compararla con la masa requerida para formar los satélites regulares de los planetas gigantes. Hemos obtenido una cota superior para la masa del disco que resulta inferior a la masa de los satélites más grandes de los planetas gigantes. En principio, estos resultados permitirían descartar el modelo de co-acreción como uno de los procesos que podrían dar lugar a la formación de los satélites regulares. Estos resultados permiten obtener restricciones en el escenario de formación planetaria y en los mecanismos de formación de sistemas de satélites.

  14. Discos de acresção em sistemas Be-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes de Oliveira, R.; Janot-Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    Alguns fenômenos de outbursts em Be-X sugerem a existência, mesmo que temporária, de um disco de acresção quando da passagem do objeto compacto pelo periastro orbital. Neste trabalho avaliamos a possibilidade de formação do disco de acresção em sistemas Be+estrela de neutrons e Be+anã branca, e a influência da excentricidade orbital na ocorrência deste fenômeno. Utilizamos a expressão analítica para o momento angular específico da matéria constituinte de um meio em expansão lenta, como é o caso do disco circunstelar das estrelas Be, proposta por Wang(1981), sob a condição básica de que o raio de circularização deva ser maior do que o raio de Alfvén. Concluímos que existe um limite para o período orbital do sistema acima do qual não é possível a formação do disco de acresção, e que este valor aumenta para sistemas com excentricidade orbital maior.

  15. DISCOS- DYNAMIC INTERACTION SIMULATION OF CONTROLS AND STRUCTURES (DEC VAX VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1994-01-01

    The Dynamic Interaction Simulation of Controls and Structure (DISCOS) program was developed for the dynamic simulation and stability analysis of passive and actively controlled spacecraft. In the use of DISCOS, the physical system undergoing analysis may be generally described as a cluster of contiguous flexible structures (bodies) that comprise a mechanical system, such as a spacecraft. The entire system (spacecraft) or portions thereof may be either spinning or nonspinning. Member bodies of the system may undergo large relative excursions, such as those of appendage deployment or rotor/ stator motion. The general system of bodies is, by its inherent nature, a feedback system in which inertial forces (such as those due to centrifugal and Coriolis acceleration) and the restoring and damping forces are motion-dependent. The system may possess a control system in which certain position and rate errors are actively controlled through the use of reaction control jets, servomotors, or momentum wheels. Bodies of the system may be interconnected by linear or nonlinear springs and dampers, by a gimbal and slider block mechanism, or by any combination of these. The DISCOS program can be used to obtain nonlinear and linearized time response of the system, interaction constant forces in the system, total system resonance properties, and frequency domain response and stability information for the system. DISCOS is probably the most powerful computational tool to date for the computer simulation of actively controlled coupled multi-flexible-body systems. The program is not easy to understand and effectively apply, but is not intended for simple problems. The DISCOS user is expected to have extensive working knowledge of rigid-body and flexible-body dynamics, finite-element techniques, numerical methods, and frequency-domain analysis. Various applications of DISCOS include simulation of the Shuttle payload deployment/retrieval mechanism, solar panel array deployment, antenna

  16. DiscoGel® in patients with discal lumbosciatica. Retrospective results in 25 consecutive patients.

    PubMed

    Léglise, A; Lombard, J; Moufid, A

    2015-09-01

    Discogenic lumbosciatica is a common disorder in patients between 30 and 40 years old. Because of the frequency and socio-professional impact of this entity, it represents a real public health problem. DiscoGel® is a class III medical device used for nucleolysis to avoid discectomy. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of this treatment in patients with discogenic lumbosciatica following unsuccessful conservative medical treatment. This is a retrospective, single-center study including 25 patients who were treated with DiscoGel® between 2010 and 2011 at Niort Hospital, France. The severity of lumbar and radicular pain was assessed by a verbal numeric scale (VNS) and patient satisfaction. Patients were classified as successes or failures. Treatment was found to reduce the severity of lumbar pain in 73% and of radicular pain in 80% of patients in the success group. Treatment was a failure in 64% of patients. A comparison of the two groups showed that a preoperative MODIC 2 MRI signal of the adjacent vertebral end plate was significantly associated with treatment failure (Chi(2)=8572, P < 0.01). The VNS for lumbar pain and radicular pain decreased in 42% and 50% of patients respectively after the use of DiscoGel®. In our series, DiscoGel® treatment was unsuccessful for discogenic lumbosciatica in 16 patients. These results do not support others in the literature. A lack of statistical power could partly explain these results. The most important result of this study is found in the subgroup analysis which suggests that indications for DiscoGel® treatment could be modified in the future in relation to preoperative imaging data. 4. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. DISCOS- DYNAMIC INTERACTION SIMULATION OF CONTROLS AND STRUCTURES (DEC VAX VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1994-01-01

    The Dynamic Interaction Simulation of Controls and Structure (DISCOS) program was developed for the dynamic simulation and stability analysis of passive and actively controlled spacecraft. In the use of DISCOS, the physical system undergoing analysis may be generally described as a cluster of contiguous flexible structures (bodies) that comprise a mechanical system, such as a spacecraft. The entire system (spacecraft) or portions thereof may be either spinning or nonspinning. Member bodies of the system may undergo large relative excursions, such as those of appendage deployment or rotor/ stator motion. The general system of bodies is, by its inherent nature, a feedback system in which inertial forces (such as those due to centrifugal and Coriolis acceleration) and the restoring and damping forces are motion-dependent. The system may possess a control system in which certain position and rate errors are actively controlled through the use of reaction control jets, servomotors, or momentum wheels. Bodies of the system may be interconnected by linear or nonlinear springs and dampers, by a gimbal and slider block mechanism, or by any combination of these. The DISCOS program can be used to obtain nonlinear and linearized time response of the system, interaction constant forces in the system, total system resonance properties, and frequency domain response and stability information for the system. DISCOS is probably the most powerful computational tool to date for the computer simulation of actively controlled coupled multi-flexible-body systems. The program is not easy to understand and effectively apply, but is not intended for simple problems. The DISCOS user is expected to have extensive working knowledge of rigid-body and flexible-body dynamics, finite-element techniques, numerical methods, and frequency-domain analysis. Various applications of DISCOS include simulation of the Shuttle payload deployment/retrieval mechanism, solar panel array deployment, antenna

  18. DISCOS- DYNAMIC INTERACTION SIMULATION OF CONTROLS AND STRUCTURES (DEC VAX VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1994-01-01

    The Dynamic Interaction Simulation of Controls and Structure (DISCOS) program was developed for the dynamic simulation and stability analysis of passive and actively controlled spacecraft. In the use of DISCOS, the physical system undergoing analysis may be generally described as a cluster of contiguous flexible structures (bodies) that comprise a mechanical system, such as a spacecraft. The entire system (spacecraft) or portions thereof may be either spinning or nonspinning. Member bodies of the system may undergo large relative excursions, such as those of appendage deployment or rotor/ stator motion. The general system of bodies is, by its inherent nature, a feedback system in which inertial forces (such as those due to centrifugal and Coriolis acceleration) and the restoring and damping forces are motion-dependent. The system may possess a control system in which certain position and rate errors are actively controlled through the use of reaction control jets, servomotors, or momentum wheels. Bodies of the system may be interconnected by linear or nonlinear springs and dampers, by a gimbal and slider block mechanism, or by any combination of these. The DISCOS program can be used to obtain nonlinear and linearized time response of the system, interaction constant forces in the system, total system resonance properties, and frequency domain response and stability information for the system. DISCOS is probably the most powerful computational tool to date for the computer simulation of actively controlled coupled multi-flexible-body systems. The program is not easy to understand and effectively apply, but is not intended for simple problems. The DISCOS user is expected to have extensive working knowledge of rigid-body and flexible-body dynamics, finite-element techniques, numerical methods, and frequency-domain analysis. Various applications of DISCOS include simulation of the Shuttle payload deployment/retrieval mechanism, solar panel array deployment, antenna

  19. Articular Cartilage Injury in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    McAdams, Timothy R.; Mithoefer, Kai; Scopp, Jason M.; Mandelbaum, Bert R.

    2010-01-01

    Articular cartilage lesions in the athletic population are observed with increasing frequency and, due to limited intrinsic healing capacity, can lead to progressive pain and functional limitation over time. If left untreated, isolated cartilage lesions can lead to progressive chondropenia or global cartilage loss over time. A chondropenia curve is described to help predict the outcome of cartilage injury based on different lesion and patient characteristics. Nutriceuticals and chondroprotective agents are being investigated as tools to slow the development of chondropenia. Several operative techniques have been described for articular cartilage repair or replacement and, more recently, cartilage regeneration. Rehabilitation guidelines are being developed to meet the needs of these new techniques. Next-generation techniques are currently evaluated to optimize articular cartilage repair biology and to provide a repair cartilage tissue that can withstand the high mechanical loads experienced by the athlete with consistent long-term durability. PMID:26069548

  20. Development of artificial articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Oka, M; Ushio, K; Kumar, P; Ikeuchi, K; Hyon, S H; Nakamura, T; Fujita, H

    2000-01-01

    Attempts have been made to develop an artificial articular cartilage on the basis of a new viewpoint of joint biomechanics in which the lubrication and load-bearing mechanisms of natural and artificial joints are compared. Polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel (PVA-H), 'a rubber-like gel', was investigated as an artificial articular cartilage and the mechanical properties of this gel were improved through a new synthetic process. In this article the biocompatibility and various mechanical properties of the new improved PVA-H is reported from the perspective of its usefulness as an artificial articular cartilage. As regards lubrication, the changes in thickness and fluid pressure of the gap formed between a glass plate and the specimen under loading were measured and it was found that PVA-H had a thicker fluid film under higher pressures than polyethylene (PE) did. The momentary stress transmitted through the specimen revealed that PVA-H had a lower peak stress and a longer duration of sustained stress than PE, suggesting a better damping effect. The wear factor of PVA-H was approximately five times that of PE. Histological studies of the articular cartilage and synovial membranes around PVA-H implanted for 8-52 weeks showed neither inflammation nor degenerative changes. The artificial articular cartilage made from PVA-H could be attached to the underlying bone using a composite osteochondral device made from titanium fibre mesh. In the second phase of this work, the damage to the tibial articular surface after replacement of the femoral surface in dogs was studied. Pairs of implants made of alumina, titanium or PVA-H on titanium fibre mesh were inserted into the femoral condyles. The two hard materials caused marked pathological changes in the articular cartilage and menisci, but the hydrogel composite replacement caused minimal damage. The composite osteochondral device became rapidly attached to host bone by ingrowth into the supporting mesh. The clinical implications of

  1. Minimally invasive osteosynthesis technique for articular fractures.

    PubMed

    Beale, Brian S; Cole, Grayson

    2012-09-01

    Articular fractures require accurate reduction and rigid stabilization to decrease the chance of osteoarthritis and joint dysfunction. Articular fractures have been traditionally repaired by arthrotomy and internal fixation. Recently, minimally invasive techniques have been introduced to treat articular fractures, reducing patient morbidity and improving the accuracy of reduction. A variety of techniques, including distraction, radiographic imaging, and arthroscopy, are used with the minimally invasive osteosynthesis technique of articular fractures to achieve a successful repair and outcome.

  2. Basonuclin 2 has a function in the multiplication of embryonic craniofacial mesenchymal cells and is orthologous to disco proteins

    PubMed Central

    Vanhoutteghem, Amandine; Maciejewski-Duval, Anna; Bouche, Cyril; Delhomme, Brigitte; Hervé, Françoise; Daubigney, Fabrice; Soubigou, Guillaume; Araki, Masatake; Araki, Kimi; Yamamura, Ken-ichi; Djian, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Basonuclin 2 is a recently discovered zinc finger protein of unknown function. Its paralog, basonuclin 1, is associated with the ability of keratinocytes to multiply. The basonuclin zinc fingers are closely related to those of the Drosophila proteins disco and discorelated, but the relation between disco proteins and basonuclins has remained elusive because the function of the disco proteins in larval head development seems to have no relation to that of basonuclin 1 and because the amino acid sequence of disco, apart from the zinc fingers, also has no similarity to that of the basonuclins. We have generated mice lacking basonuclin 2. These mice die within 24 h of birth with a cleft palate and abnormalities of craniofacial bones and tongue. In the embryonic head, expression of the basonuclin 2 gene is restricted to mesenchymal cells in the palate, at the periphery of the tongue, and in the mesenchymal sheaths that surround the brain and the osteocartilagineous structures. In late embryos, the rate of multiplication of these mesenchymal cells is greatly diminished. Therefore, basonuclin 2 is essential for the multiplication of craniofacial mesenchymal cells during embryogenesis. Non-Drosophila insect databases available since 2008 reveal that the basonuclins and the disco proteins share much more extensive sequence and gene structure similarity than noted when only Drosophila sequences were examined. We conclude that basonuclin 2 is both structurally and functionally the vertebrate ortholog of the disco proteins. We also note the possibility that some human craniofacial abnormalities are due to a lack of basonuclin 2. PMID:19706529

  3. Identifying features of 'pathological demand avoidance' using the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO).

    PubMed

    O'Nions, Elizabeth; Gould, Judith; Christie, Phil; Gillberg, Christopher; Viding, Essi; Happé, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    The term 'pathological demand avoidance' (PDA) was coined by Elizabeth Newson to describe children within the autism spectrum who exhibit obsessive resistance to everyday demands and requests (Newson et al., Arch Dis Child 88:595-600, 2003). Clinical accounts describe avoidance strategies including apparently strategic use of distraction or socially shocking behaviour, and obsessive need for control, reflected in domineering behaviour to peers and adults. Educational and management approaches effective for PDA reportedly differ from those for 'typical' autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and include novelty, humour and flexibility. Identification of PDA in individuals with ASD may have important implications for management (Eaton and Banting, J Learn Disabil Offending Behav 3:150-157, 2012). Despite increasing interest, no clinician-rated instrument for PDA has been developed. Here, items relevant to PDA were identified from the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorder (DISCO) (Wing et al., J Child Psychol Psychiatry 43:307-325, 2002). The most PDA-specific subset of relevant DISCO items was selected, based on low endorsement in general across a sample of 153 individuals assessed for possible ASD using the DISCO. Having selected 11 DISCO PDA items for the measure, a subset of individuals with a high number of these features was identified (N = 27). Consistent with Newson's descriptions, this high scoring group was characterised by lack of co-operation, use of apparently manipulative behaviour, socially shocking behaviour, difficulties with other people, anxiety and sudden behavioural changes from loving to aggression. All but one case met criteria for an ASD. This study brings the field a step closer to a clinician-rated measure of PDA features and highlights the need for further elucidation of the PDA phenotype.

  4. PhenDisco: phenotype discovery system for the database of genotypes and phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Doan, Son; Lin, Ko-Wei; Conway, Mike; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Hsieh, Alex; Feupe, Stephanie Feudjio; Garland, Asher; Ross, Mindy K; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Farzaneh, Seena; Walker, Rebecca; Alipanah, Neda; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Hua; Kim, Hyeon-Eui

    2014-01-01

    The database of genotypes and phenotypes (dbGaP) developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is a resource that contains information on various genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and is currently available via NCBI's dbGaP Entrez interface. The database is an important resource, providing GWAS data that can be used for new exploratory research or cross-study validation by authorized users. However, finding studies relevant to a particular phenotype of interest is challenging, as phenotype information is presented in a non-standardized way. To address this issue, we developed PhenDisco (phenotype discoverer), a new information retrieval system for dbGaP. PhenDisco consists of two main components: (1) text processing tools that standardize phenotype variables and study metadata, and (2) information retrieval tools that support queries from users and return ranked results. In a preliminary comparison involving 18 search scenarios, PhenDisco showed promising performance for both unranked and ranked search comparisons with dbGaP's search engine Entrez. The system can be accessed at http://pfindr.net.

  5. Three-dimensional imaging of solvent-cleared organs using 3DISCO.

    PubMed

    Ertürk, Ali; Becker, Klaus; Jährling, Nina; Mauch, Christoph P; Hojer, Caroline D; Egen, Jackson G; Hellal, Farida; Bradke, Frank; Sheng, Morgan; Dodt, Hans-Ulrich

    2012-11-01

    The examination of tissue histology by light microscopy is a fundamental tool for investigating the structure and function of organs under normal and disease states. Many current techniques for tissue sectioning, imaging and analysis are time-consuming, and they present major limitations for 3D tissue reconstruction. The introduction of methods to achieve the optical clearing and subsequent light-sheet laser scanning of entire transparent organs without sectioning represents a major advance in the field. We recently developed a highly reproducible and versatile clearing procedure called 3D imaging of solvent-cleared organs, or 3DISCO, which is applicable to diverse tissues including brain, spinal cord, immune organs and tumors. Here we describe a detailed protocol for performing 3DISCO and present its application to various microscopy techniques, including example results from various mouse tissues. The tissue clearing takes as little as 3 h, and imaging can be completed in ∼45 min. 3DISCO is a powerful technique that offers 3D histological views of tissues in a fraction of the time and labor required to complete standard histology studies.

  6. Engineering Lubrication in Articular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    McNary, Sean M.; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite continuous progress toward tissue engineering of functional articular cartilage, significant challenges still remain. Advances in morphogens, stem cells, and scaffolds have resulted in enhancement of the bulk mechanical properties of engineered constructs, but little attention has been paid to the surface mechanical properties. In the near future, engineered tissues will be able to withstand and support the physiological compressive and tensile forces in weight-bearing synovial joints such as the knee. However, there is an increasing realization that these tissue-engineered cartilage constructs will fail without the optimal frictional and wear properties present in native articular cartilage. These characteristics are critical to smooth, pain-free joint articulation and a long-lasting, durable cartilage surface. To achieve optimal tribological properties, engineered cartilage therapies will need to incorporate approaches and methods for functional lubrication. Steady progress in cartilage lubrication in native tissues has pushed the pendulum and warranted a shift in the articular cartilage tissue-engineering paradigm. Engineered tissues should be designed and developed to possess both tribological and mechanical properties mirroring natural cartilage. In this article, an overview of the biology and engineering of articular cartilage structure and cartilage lubrication will be presented. Salient progress in lubrication treatments such as tribosupplementation, pharmacological, and cell-based therapies will be covered. Finally, frictional assays such as the pin-on-disk tribometer will be addressed. Knowledge related to the elements of cartilage lubrication has progressed and, thus, an opportune moment is provided to leverage these advances at a critical step in the development of mechanically and tribologically robust, biomimetic tissue-engineered cartilage. This article is intended to serve as the first stepping stone toward future studies in functional

  7. Engineering lubrication in articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    McNary, Sean M; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A; Reddi, A Hari

    2012-04-01

    Despite continuous progress toward tissue engineering of functional articular cartilage, significant challenges still remain. Advances in morphogens, stem cells, and scaffolds have resulted in enhancement of the bulk mechanical properties of engineered constructs, but little attention has been paid to the surface mechanical properties. In the near future, engineered tissues will be able to withstand and support the physiological compressive and tensile forces in weight-bearing synovial joints such as the knee. However, there is an increasing realization that these tissue-engineered cartilage constructs will fail without the optimal frictional and wear properties present in native articular cartilage. These characteristics are critical to smooth, pain-free joint articulation and a long-lasting, durable cartilage surface. To achieve optimal tribological properties, engineered cartilage therapies will need to incorporate approaches and methods for functional lubrication. Steady progress in cartilage lubrication in native tissues has pushed the pendulum and warranted a shift in the articular cartilage tissue-engineering paradigm. Engineered tissues should be designed and developed to possess both tribological and mechanical properties mirroring natural cartilage. In this article, an overview of the biology and engineering of articular cartilage structure and cartilage lubrication will be presented. Salient progress in lubrication treatments such as tribosupplementation, pharmacological, and cell-based therapies will be covered. Finally, frictional assays such as the pin-on-disk tribometer will be addressed. Knowledge related to the elements of cartilage lubrication has progressed and, thus, an opportune moment is provided to leverage these advances at a critical step in the development of mechanically and tribologically robust, biomimetic tissue-engineered cartilage. This article is intended to serve as the first stepping stone toward future studies in functional

  8. Classification of primary articular chondrocalcinosis.

    PubMed

    Zitnan, D; Sitaj, S

    1979-01-01

    Based on long-term observations the authors submit a categorization of primary (hereditary and solitary) articular chondrocalcinosis into three different sub-populations. Attention is drawn to the fact that the extent of the qualitative disorder of the articular cartilage, obviously conditioned genetically, is linked with the age factor and determines the quantitative differences of pyrophosphate arthropathy in primary chondrocalcinosis. In young age, as a rule in the third decade, severe polyarticular condrocalcinosis (first sub-population) develops which causes relatively soon invalidity, in middle age (5th and 6th decade) milder condrocalcinosis develops (second sub-population) which combines with extraarticular, tendinous and tissue calcifacations, and finally in advanced age oligoarticular chondrocalcinosis develops (third sub-population) which is usually associated with ankylosing hyperostosis of the spine. Articular chondrocalcinosis (CCA) which we described by this term as a special metabolic arthropathy which occurs in families and solitary and which we defined as a special nosological unit (35, 36,) has become generally known and firmly established in rheumatology. As ensues from numerous publications, primary (idiopathic) CCA which comprises the hereditary and solitary (sporadic) form is characterized by pyrophosphate arthropathy which develops on articular cartilages not damaged by another process (13, 25, 26, 37); on the other hand as secondary CCA we consider pyrophosphate arthropathies which are associated with metabolic, endocrine or other diseases (9, 30). The common sign of both basic forms of CCA is the presence of microcrystals of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CaPD) in articular cartilages, synovial fluid, or other articular structures (capsules, tendons, ligaments), characterized originally by McCarty et al. (11, 18) and later by other authors (2, 23, 27, 32). In addition to semantic (terminological) problems there were also questions of the

  9. Autophagy modulates articular cartilage vesicle formation in primary articular chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Ann K; Gohr, Claudia M; Mitton-Fitzgerald, Elizabeth; Grewal, Rupinder; Ninomiya, James; Coyne, Carolyn B; Jackson, William T

    2015-05-22

    Chondrocyte-derived extracellular organelles known as articular cartilage vesicles (ACVs) participate in non-classical protein secretion, intercellular communication, and pathologic calcification. Factors affecting ACV formation and release remain poorly characterized; although in some cell types, the generation of extracellular vesicles is associated with up-regulation of autophagy. We sought to determine the role of autophagy in ACV production by primary articular chondrocytes. Using an innovative dynamic model with a light scatter nanoparticle counting apparatus, we determined the effects of autophagy modulators on ACV number and content in conditioned medium from normal adult porcine and human osteoarthritic chondrocytes. Healthy articular chondrocytes release ACVs into conditioned medium and show significant levels of ongoing autophagy. Rapamycin, which promotes autophagy, increased ACV numbers in a dose- and time-dependent manner associated with increased levels of autophagy markers and autophagosome formation. These effects were suppressed by pharmacologic autophagy inhibitors and short interfering RNA for ATG5. Caspase-3 inhibition and a Rho/ROCK inhibitor prevented rapamycin-induced increases in ACV number. Osteoarthritic chondrocytes, which are deficient in autophagy, did not increase ACV number in response to rapamycin. SMER28, which induces autophagy via an mTOR-independent mechanism, also increased ACV number. ACVs induced under all conditions had similar ecto-enzyme specific activities and types of RNA, and all ACVs contained LC3, an autophagosome-resident protein. These findings identify autophagy as a critical participant in ACV formation, and augment our understanding of ACVs in cartilage disease and repair.

  10. Autophagy Modulates Articular Cartilage Vesicle Formation in Primary Articular Chondrocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Ann K.; Gohr, Claudia M.; Mitton-Fitzgerald, Elizabeth; Grewal, Rupinder; Ninomiya, James; Coyne, Carolyn B.; Jackson, William T.

    2015-01-01

    Chondrocyte-derived extracellular organelles known as articular cartilage vesicles (ACVs) participate in non-classical protein secretion, intercellular communication, and pathologic calcification. Factors affecting ACV formation and release remain poorly characterized; although in some cell types, the generation of extracellular vesicles is associated with up-regulation of autophagy. We sought to determine the role of autophagy in ACV production by primary articular chondrocytes. Using an innovative dynamic model with a light scatter nanoparticle counting apparatus, we determined the effects of autophagy modulators on ACV number and content in conditioned medium from normal adult porcine and human osteoarthritic chondrocytes. Healthy articular chondrocytes release ACVs into conditioned medium and show significant levels of ongoing autophagy. Rapamycin, which promotes autophagy, increased ACV numbers in a dose- and time-dependent manner associated with increased levels of autophagy markers and autophagosome formation. These effects were suppressed by pharmacologic autophagy inhibitors and short interfering RNA for ATG5. Caspase-3 inhibition and a Rho/ROCK inhibitor prevented rapamycin-induced increases in ACV number. Osteoarthritic chondrocytes, which are deficient in autophagy, did not increase ACV number in response to rapamycin. SMER28, which induces autophagy via an mTOR-independent mechanism, also increased ACV number. ACVs induced under all conditions had similar ecto-enzyme specific activities and types of RNA, and all ACVs contained LC3, an autophagosome-resident protein. These findings identify autophagy as a critical participant in ACV formation, and augment our understanding of ACVs in cartilage disease and repair. PMID:25869133

  11. Tensorial electrokinetics in articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Reynaud, Boris; Quinn, Thomas M

    2006-09-15

    Electrokinetic phenomena contribute to biomechanical functions of articular cartilage and underlie promising methods for early detection of osteoarthritic lesions. Although some transport properties, such as hydraulic permeability, are known to become anisotropic with compression, the direction-dependence of cartilage electrokinetic properties remains unknown. Electroosmosis experiments were therefore performed on adult bovine articular cartilage samples, whereby fluid flows were driven by electric currents in directions parallel and perpendicular to the articular surface of statically compressed explants. Magnitudes of electrokinetic coefficients decreased slightly with compression (from approximately -7.5 microL/As in the range of 0-20% compression to -6.0 microL/As in the 35-50% range) consistent with predictions of microstructure-based models of cartilage material properties. However, no significant dependence on direction of the electrokinetic coupling coefficient was detected, even for conditions where the hydraulic permeability tensor is known to be anisotropic. This contrast may also be interpreted using microstructure-based models, and provides insights into structure-function relationships in cartilage extracellular matrix and physical mediators of cell responses to tissue compression. Findings support the use of relatively simple isotropic modeling approaches for electrokinetic phenomena in cartilage and related materials, and indicate that measurement of electrokinetic properties may provide particularly robust means for clinical evaluation of cartilage matrix integrity.

  12. Resident mesenchymal progenitors of articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Candela, Maria Elena; Yasuhara, Rika; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2014-10-01

    Articular cartilage has poor capacity of self-renewal and repair. Insufficient number and activity of resident mesenchymal (connective tissue) progenitors is likely one of the underlying reasons. Chondroprogenitors reside not only in the superficial zone of articular cartilage but also in other zones of articular cartilage and in the neighboring tissues, including perichondrium (groove of Ranvier), synovium and fat pad. These cells may respond to injury and contribute to articular cartilage healing. In addition, marrow stromal cells can migrate through subchondral bone when articular cartilage is damaged. We should develop drugs and methods that correctly stimulate resident progenitors for improvement of repair and inhibition of degenerative changes in articular cartilage. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Gene2DisCo: Gene to disease using disease commonalities.

    PubMed

    Frasca, Marco

    2017-09-04

    Finding the human genes co-causing complex diseases, also known as "disease-genes", is one of the emerging and challenging tasks in biomedicine. This process, termed gene prioritization (GP), is characterized by a scarcity of known disease-genes for most diseases, and by a vast amount of heterogeneous data, usually encoded into networks describing different types of functional relationships between genes. In addition, different diseases may share common profiles (e.g. genetic or therapeutic profiles), and exploiting disease commonalities may significantly enhance the performance of GP methods. This work aims to provide a systematic comparison of several disease similarity measures, and to embed disease similarities and heterogeneous data into a flexible framework for gene prioritization which specifically handles the lack of known disease-genes. We present a novel network-based method, Gene2DisCo, based on generalized linear models (GLMs) to effectively prioritize genes by exploiting data regarding disease-genes, gene interaction networks and disease similarities. The scarcity of disease-genes is addressed by applying an efficient negative selection procedure, together with imbalance-aware GLMs. Gene2DisCo is a flexible framework, in the sense it is not dependent upon specific types of data, and/or upon specific disease ontologies. On a benchmark dataset composed of nine human networks and 708 medical subject headings (MeSH) diseases, Gene2DisCo largely outperformed the best benchmark algorithm, kernelized score functions, in terms of both area under the ROC curve (0.94 against 0.86) and precision at given recall levels (for recall levels from 0.1 to 1 with steps 0.1). Furthermore, we enriched and extended the benchmark data to the whole human genome and provided the top-ranked unannotated candidate genes even for MeSH disease terms without known annotations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Intra-articular injection of cortisone].

    PubMed

    Hammer, M; Schwarz, T; Ganser, G

    2015-11-01

    Intra-articular injections with glucocorticoids are standard procedures according to therapy guidelines in many rheumatic conditions. There is increasing evidence from clinical trials on the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis that more patients will attain the target of remission using a combination of systemic medication and intra-articular injections with glucocorticoids compared to systemic medication alone. Intra-articular injections with glucocorticoids play an important role in the therapeutic management of pediatric rheumatic diseases. In many countries competency in performing intra-articular injections is among the important skills necessary for certification as a specialist in rheumatology.

  15. The Effect of Intra-articular Corticosteroids on Articular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Wernecke, Chloe; Braun, Hillary J.; Dragoo, Jason L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intra-articular (IA) corticosteroid therapy has been used for the treatment of inflammation and pain in the knee since the 1950s. Purpose: To review the current literature on the effects of IA corticosteroids on articular cartilage. Study Design: Systematic review. Methods: A MEDLINE and SCOPUS database search was performed, and studies were selected for basic science and clinical trial research on corticosteroids with direct outcome measures of cartilage health. Preliminary searches yielded 1929 articles, and final analysis includes 40 studies. Results: Methylprednisolone, dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, betamethasone, prednisolone, and triamcinolone were reported to display dose-dependent deleterious effects on cartilage morphology, histology, and viability in both in vitro and in vivo models. The beneficial animal in vivo effects of methylprednisolone, hydrocortisone, and triamcinolone occurred at low doses (usually <2-3 mg/dose or 8-12 mg/cumulative total dose in vivo), at which increased cell growth and recovery from damage was observed; the single human clinical trial indicated a beneficial effect of triamcinolone. However, at higher doses (>3 mg/dose or 18-24 mg/cumulative total dose in vivo), corticosteroids were associated with significant gross cartilage damage and chondrocyte toxicity. Dose and time dependency of corticosteroid chondrotoxicity was supported in the in vitro results, however, without clear dose thresholds. Conclusion: Corticosteroids have a time- and dose-dependent effect on articular cartilage, with beneficial effects occurring at low doses and durations and detrimental effects at high doses and durations. Clinically, beneficial effects are supported for IA administration, but the lowest efficacious dose should be used. PMID:26674652

  16. GoDisco: Selective Gossip Based Dissemination of Information in Social Community Based Overlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Anwitaman; Sharma, Rajesh

    We propose and investigate a gossip based, social principles and behavior inspired decentralized mechanism (GoDisco) to disseminate information in online social community networks, using exclusively social links and exploiting semantic context to keep the dissemination process selective to relevant nodes. Such a designed dissemination scheme using gossiping over a egocentric social network is unique and is arguably a concept whose time has arrived, emulating word of mouth behavior and can have interesting applications like probabilistic publish/subscribe, decentralized recommendation and contextual advertisement systems, to name a few. Simulation based experiments show that despite using only local knowledge and contacts, the system has good global coverage and behavior.

  17. Imaging cleared intact biological systems at a cellular level by 3DISCO.

    PubMed

    Ertürk, Ali; Lafkas, Daniel; Chalouni, Cecile

    2014-07-07

    Tissue clearing and subsequent imaging of transparent organs is a powerful method to analyze fluorescently labeled cells and molecules in 3D, in intact organs. Unlike traditional histological methods, where the tissue of interest is sectioned for fluorescent imaging, 3D imaging of cleared tissue allows examination of labeled cells and molecules in the entire specimen. To this end, optically opaque tissues should be rendered transparent by matching the refractory indices throughout the tissue. Subsequently, the tissue can be imaged at once using laser-scanning microscopes to obtain a complete high-resolution 3D image of the specimen. A growing list of tissue clearing protocols including 3DISCO, CLARITY, Sca/e, ClearT2, and SeeDB provide new ways for researchers to image their tissue of interest as a whole. Among them, 3DISCO is a highly reproducible and straightforward method, which can clear different types of tissues and can be utilized with various microscopy techniques. This protocol describes this straightforward procedure and presents its various applications. It also discusses the limitations and possible difficulties and how to overcome them.

  18. Doublecortin is expressed in articular chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Ryan, James A; Di Cesare, Paul E; Liu, Judy; Walsh, Christopher A; You, Zongbing

    2007-11-23

    Articular cartilage and cartilage in the embryonic cartilaginous anlagen and growth plates are both hyaline cartilages. In this study, we found that doublecortin (DCX) was expressed in articular chondrocytes but not in chondrocytes from the cartilaginous anlagen or growth plates. DCX was expressed by the cells in the chondrogenous layers but not intermediate layer of joint interzone. Furthermore, the synovium and cruciate ligaments were DCX-negative. DCX-positive chondrocytes were very rare in tissue engineered cartilage derived from in vitro pellet culture of rat chondrosarcoma, ATDC5, and C3H10T1/2 cells. However, the new hyaline cartilage formed in rabbit knee defect contained mostly DCX-positive chondrocytes. Our results demonstrate that DCX can be used as a marker to distinguish articular chondrocytes from other chondrocytes and to evaluate the quality of tissue engineered or regenerated cartilage in terms of their "articular" or "non-articular" nature.

  19. Extra-articular Manifestations in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cojocaru, Manole; Cojocaru, Inimioara Mihaela; Silosi, Isabela; Vrabie, Camelia Doina; Tanasescu, R

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease whose main characteristic is persistent joint inflammation that results in joint damage and loss of function. Although RA is more common in females, extra-articular manifestations of the disease are more common in males. The extra-articular manifestations of RA can occur at any age after onset. It is characterised by destructive polyarthritis and extra-articular organ involvement, including the skin, eye, heart, lung, renal, nervous and gastrointestinal systems. The frequence of extra-articular manifestations in RA differs from one country to another. Extra-articular organ involvement in RA is more frequently seen in patients with severe, active disease and is associated with increased mortality. Incidence and frequence figures for extra-articular RA vary according to study design. Extra-articular involvement is more likely in those who have RF and/or are HLA-DR4 positive. Occasionally, there are also systemic manifestations such as vasculitis, visceral nodules, Sjögren's syndrome, or pulmonary fibrosis present. Nodules are the most common extra-articular feature, and are present in up to 30%; many of the other classic features occur in 1% or less in normal clinic settings. Sjögren's syndrome, anaemia of chronic disease and pulmonary manifestations are relatively common – in 6-10%, are frequently present in early disease and are all related to worse outcomes measures of rheumatoid disease in particular functional impairment and mortality. The occurrence of these systemic manifestations is a major predictor of mortality in patients with RA. This paper focuses on extra-articular manifestations, defined as diseases and symptoms not directly related to the locomotor system. PMID:21977172

  20. NIFTI and DISCOS: New concepts for a compact accelerator neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.; Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.; Reich, M.

    1995-06-01

    Two new concepts, NIFTI and DISCOS, are described. These concepts enable the efficient production of epithermal neutrons for BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) medical treatment, utilizing a low current, low energy proton beam impacting on a lithium target. The NIFTI concept uses fluoride compounds, such as lead or beryllium fluoride, to efficiently degrade high energy neutrons from the lithium target to the lower energies required for BNCT. The fluoride compounds are in turn encased in an iron layer that strongly impedes the transmission of neutrons with energies above 24 KeV. Lower energy neutrons readily pass through this iron filter, which has a deep window in its scattering cross section at 24 KeV. The DISCOS concept uses a rapidly rotating, high g disc to create a series of thin ({approximately} 1 micron thickness) liquid lithium targets in the form of continuous films or sheets of discrete droplets--through which the proton beam passes. The average energy lost by a proton as it passes through a single target is small, approximately 10 KeV. Between the targets, the proton beam is re-accelerated by an applied DC electric field. The DISCOS approach enables the accelerator--target facility to operate with a beam energy only slightly above the threshold value for neutron production--resulting in an output beam of low-energy epithermal neutrons--while achieving a high yield of neutrons per milliamp of proton beam current. Parametric trade studies of the NIFTI and DISCOS concepts are described. These include analyses of a broad range of NIFTI designs using the Monte carlo MCNP neutronics code, as well as mechanical and thermal-hydraulic analyses of various DISCOS designs.

  1. DISCO: An object-oriented system for music composition and sound design

    SciTech Connect

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.; Wright, J. M.

    2000-09-05

    This paper describes an object-oriented approach to music composition and sound design. The approach unifies the processes of music making and instrument building by using similar logic, objects, and procedures. The composition modules use an abstract representation of musical data, which can be easily mapped onto different synthesis languages or a traditionally notated score. An abstract base class is used to derive classes on different time scales. Objects can be related to act across time scales, as well as across an entire piece, and relationships between similar objects can replicate traditional music operations or introduce new ones. The DISCO (Digital Instrument for Sonification and Composition) system is an open-ended work in progress.

  2. Combined intra-articular and extra-articular reconstructions for anterior tibial subluxation.

    PubMed

    Zarins, B

    1985-04-01

    This article describes several procedures that combine intra-articular techniques with extra-articular techniques to stabilize the knee with anterior tibial subluxation. The procedures detailed are reconstruction using the semitendinosus tendon and the iliotibial tract; tenodesis using a strip of iliotibial tract combined with intra-articular reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament with the central third of the patellar tendon; "mini-reconstruction"; and a procedure utilizing a vascularized patellar tendon graft plus "dynamic" augmentation.

  3. Supporting Biomaterials for Articular Cartilage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Duarte Campos, Daniela Filipa; Drescher, Wolf; Rath, Björn; Tingart, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Orthopedic surgeons and researchers worldwide are continuously faced with the challenge of regenerating articular cartilage defects. However, until now, it has not been possible to completely mimic the biological and biochemical properties of articular cartilage using current research and development approaches. In this review, biomaterials previously used for articular cartilage repair research are addressed. Furthermore, a brief discussion of the state of the art of current cell printing procedures mimicking native cartilage is offered in light of their use as future alternatives for cartilage tissue engineering. Inkjet cell printing, controlled deposition cell printing tools, and laser cell printing are cutting-edge techniques in this context. The development of mimetic hydrogels with specific biological properties relevant to articular cartilage native tissue will support the development of improved, functional, and novel engineered tissue for clinical application. PMID:26069634

  4. Articular manifestations in patients with Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-López, María Esther; Díez-Morrondo, Carolina; Sánchez-Andrade, Amalia; Pego-Reigosa, Robustiano; Díaz, Pablo; Castro-Gago, Manuel

    To determine the percentage of Lyme patients with articular manifestations in NW Spain and to know their evolution and response to treatment. A retrospective study (2006-2013) was performed using medical histories of confirmed cases of Lyme disease showing articular manifestations. Clinical and laboratory characteristics, together with the treatment and evolution of the patients, were analysed. Seventeen out of 108 LD confirmed patients (15.7%) showed articular manifestations. Regarding those 17 patients, 64.7%, 29.4% and 5.9% presented arthritis, arthralgia and bursitis, respectively. The knee was the most affected joint. Articular manifestations were often associated to neurological, dermatological and cardiac pathologies. Otherwise, most patients were in Stage III. The 11.8% of the cases progressed to a recurrent chronic arthritis despite the administration of an appropriate treatment. Lyme disease patients showing articular manifestations should be included in the diagnosis of articular affections in areas of high risk of hard tick bite, in order to establish a suitable and early treatment and to avoid sequels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  5. [Osteo-articular manifestations of sarcoidosis].

    PubMed

    Alaoui, Fatima-Zohra; Talaoui, Maha; Benamour, Saida

    2005-01-15

    Osteo-articular sarcoidosis may be evoked in the presence of peripheral articular manifestations or bone lesions that are sometimes asymptomatic. The aim of this work is to describe clinical and progressive features of sarcoidosis with osteo-articular involvement. Our retrospective study concerned 18 patients presenting with osteo-articular sarcoidosis from 1985 to 1999. We included patients with clinical diagnosis suggestive of sarcoidosis and with at least one positive biopsy. Among 35 cases of sarcoidosis, 18 patients had an osteo-articular manifestation (51.42%), which revealed the disease in 2 patients. The female sex was predominant (sex ratio M/F of 0.12), the mean age was 47 years and the time before diagnosis was 3.6 years. Articular involvement was the most frequent. Inflammatory joint pains were present in 11 cases, a Lofgren syndrome in 2 cases, a chronic arthritis in 4 cases and acute monoarthritis of the elbow in 1 case. A female patient exhibited a probable association with a spondylarthropathy. The bone involvement, revealing the disease in 1 case, was also noted in 5 cases, located exclusively on hands; this sarcoidosal dactyly was represented in 2 cases in the form of phalangeal geodes, in wired form (2 cases) and in large bulla form (1 case). The bone biopsy when it was performed was positive in all 3 cases. The patients responded well to corticosteroids. The osteo-articular involvement of sarcoidosis is polymorphic and can reveal the disease or may appear during the course of its progression.

  6. Status report of the SRT radiotelescope control software: the DISCOS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlati, A.; Bartolini, M.; Buttu, M.; Fara, A.; Migoni, C.; Poppi, S.; Righini, S.

    2016-08-01

    The Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) is a 64-m fully-steerable radio telescope. It is provided with an active surface to correct for gravitational deformations, allowing observations from 300 MHz to 100 GHz. At present, three receivers are available: a coaxial LP-band receiver (305-410 MHz and 1.5-1.8 GHz), a C-band receiver (5.7-7.7 GHz) and a 7-feed K-band receiver (18-26.5 GHz). Several back-ends are also available in order to perform the different data acquisition and analysis procedures requested by scientific projects. The design and development of the SRT control software started in 2004, and now belongs to a wider project called DISCOS (Development of the Italian Single-dish COntrol System), which provides a common infrastructure to the three Italian radio telescopes (Medicina, Noto and SRT dishes). DISCOS is based on the Alma Common Software (ACS) framework, and currently consists of more than 500k lines of code. It is organized in a common core and three specific product lines, one for each telescope. Recent developments, carried out after the conclusion of the technical commissioning of the instrument (October 2013), consisted in the addition of several new features in many parts of the observing pipeline, spanning from the motion control to the digital back-ends for data acquisition and data formatting; we brie y describe such improvements. More importantly, in the last two years we have supported the astronomical validation of the SRT radio telescope, leading to the opening of the first public call for proposals in late 2015. During this period, while assisting both the engineering and the scientific staff, we massively employed the control software and were able to test all of its features: in this process we received our first feedback from the users and we could verify how the system performed in a real-life scenario, drawing the first conclusions about the overall system stability and performance. We examine how the system behaves in terms of network

  7. Combined 3DISCO clearing method, retrograde tracer and ultramicroscopy to map corneal neurons in a whole adult mouse trigeminal ganglion.

    PubMed

    Launay, Pierre-Serge; Godefroy, David; Khabou, Hanen; Rostene, William; Sahel, Jose-Alain; Baudouin, Christophe; Melik Parsadaniantz, Stéphane; Reaux-Le Goazigo, Annabelle

    2015-10-01

    Tissue clearing and subsequent imaging of intact transparent tissues have provided an innovative way to analyze anatomical pathways in the nervous system. In this study, we combined a recent 3-dimensional imaging of solvent cleared organ (3DISCO) procedure, light-sheet microscopy, fluorescent retrograde tracer, and Imaris software to 3D map corneal sensory neurons within a whole adult mouse trigeminal ganglion (TG). We first established the optimized steps to easily and rapidly clear a fixed TG. We found that the 3DISCO procedure gave excellent results and took less than 3 h to clear the TG. In a second set of experiments, a retrograde tracer (cholera toxin B Alexa 594-conjugated) was applied to de-epithelialized cornea to retrograde-labeled corneal sensory neurons. Two days later, TGs were cleared by the 3DISCO method and serial imaging was performed using light-sheet ultramicroscopic technology. High-resolution images of labeled neurons can be easily and rapidly obtained from a 3D reconstructed whole mouse TG. We then provided a 3D reconstruction of corneal afferent neurons and analyzed their precise localization in the TG. Thus, we showed that neurons supplying corneal sensory innervation exhibit a highly specific limited dorsomedial localization within the TG. We report that our combined method offers the possibility to perform manual (on 20 μm sections) and automated (on 3D reconstructed TG) counting of labeled cells in a cleared mouse TG. To conclude, we illustrate that the combination of the 3DISCO clearing method with light-sheet microscopy, retrograde tracer, and automatic counting represents a rapid and reliable method to analyze a subpopulation of neurons within the peripheral and central nervous system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Articular chondrocyte metabolism and osteoarthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Leipold, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    The three main objectives of this study were: (1) to determine if depletion of proteoglycans from the cartilage matrix that occurs during osteoarthritis causes a measurable increase of cartilage proteoglycan components in the synovial fluid and sera, (2) to observe what effect intracellular cAMP has on the expression of matrix components by chondrocytes, and (3) to determine if freshly isolated chondrocytes contain detectable levels of mRNA for fibronectin. Canine serum keratan sulfate and hyaluronate were measured to determine if there was an elevation of these serum glycosaminoglycans in a canine model of osteoarthritis. A single intra-articular injection of chymopapain into a shoulder joint increased serum keratan sulfate 10 fold and hyaluronate less than 2 fold in 24 hours. Keratan sulfate concentrations in synovial fluids of dogs about one year old were unrelated to the presence of spontaneous cartilage degeneration in the joints. High keratan sulfate in synovial fluids correlated with higher keratan sulfate in serum. The mean keratan sulfate concentration in sera of older dogs with osteoarthritis was 37% higher than disease-free controls, but the difference between the groups was not statistically significant. Treatment of chondrocytes with 0.5 millimolar (mM) dibutyryl cAMP (DBcAMP) caused the cells to adopt a more rounded morphology. There was no difference between the amount of proteins synthesized by cultures treated with DBcAMP and controls. The amount of fibronectin (FN) in the media of DBcAMP treated cultures detected by an ELISA was specifically reduced, and the amount of {sup 35}S-FN purified by gelatin affinity chromatography decreased. Moreover, the percentage of FN containing the extra domain. A sequence was reduced. Concomitant with the decrease in FN there was an increase in the concentration of keratan sulfate.

  9. RetroDISCO: Clearing technique to improve quantification of retrograde labeled motor neurons of intact mouse spinal cords.

    PubMed

    Žygelytė, Emilija; Bernard, Megan E; Tomlinson, Joy E; Martin, Matthew J; Terhorst, Allegra; Bradford, Harriet E; Lundquist, Sarah A; Sledziona, Michael; Cheetham, Jonathan

    2016-09-15

    Quantification of the number of axons reinnervating a target organ is often used to assess regeneration after peripheral nerve repair, but because of axonal branching, this method can overestimate the number of motor neurons regenerating across an injury. Current methods to count the number of regenerated motor neurons include retrograde labeling followed by cryosectioning and counting labeled motor neuron cell bodies, however, the process of sectioning introduces error from potential double counting of cells in adjacent sections. We describe a method, retroDISCO, that optically clears whole mouse spinal cord without loss of fluorescent signal to allow imaging of retrograde labeled motor neurons using confocal microscopy. Complete optical clearing of spinal cords takes four hours and confocal microscopy can obtain z-stacks of labeled motor neuron pools within 3-5min. The technique is able to detect anticipated differences in motor neuron number after cross-suture and conduit repair compared to intact mice and is highly repeatable. RetroDISCO is inexpensive, simple, robust and uses commonly available microscopy techniques to determine the number of motor neurons extending axons across an injury site, avoiding the need for labor-intensive cryosectioning and potential double counting of motor neuron cell bodies in adjacent sections. RetroDISCO allows rapid quantification of the degree of reinnervation without the confounding produced by axonal sprouting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Progress in intra-articular therapy

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Christopher H.; Kraus, Virginia B.; Setton, Lori A.

    2015-01-01

    Diarthrodial joints are well suited to intra-articular injection, and the local delivery of therapeutics in this fashion brings several potential advantages to the treatment of a wide range of arthropathies. Possible benefits include increased bioavailability, reduced systemic exposure, fewer adverse events, and lower total drug costs. Nevertheless, intra-articular therapy is challenging because of the rapid egress of injected materials from the joint space; this elimination is true of both small molecules, which exit via synovial capillaries, and of macromolecules, which are cleared by the lymphatic system. In general, soluble materials have an intra-articular dwell time measured only in hours. Corticosteroids and hyaluronate preparations constitute the mainstay of FDA-approved intra-articular therapeutics. Recombinant proteins, autologous blood products and analgesics have also found clinical use via intra-articular delivery. Several alternative approaches, such as local delivery of cell and gene therapy, as well as the use of microparticles, liposomes, and modified drugs, are in various stages of preclinical development. PMID:24189839

  11. The biomechanical ambiguity of the articular surface.

    PubMed Central

    Kamalanathan, S; Broom, N D

    1993-01-01

    A series of micromechanical tests carried out on the articular surface of cartilage have provided an accurate description of the mechanical properties of any one site with respect to the orientation framework obtained from its characteristic split-line direction. Ultrastructural studies revealed little evidence that the split-line direction correlated strongly with any preferred alignment of fibrils. This paper therefore offers a new interpretation of the biomechanical significance of the widely used split-line test for the articular surface of cartilage. Images Fig. 9 Fig. 2 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:8300433

  12. [Conservative management of articular metacarpophalangeal joint fractures].

    PubMed

    Ebinger, T; Kinzl, L; Mentzel, M

    2000-10-01

    We present a splint system for a protected mobilization program after closed reduction of articular proximal phalangeal base fractures. This therapy consists of the periarticular soft tissue and functional anatomy. The soft-tissue around the base of the proximal phalanx leads to a circular stabilization effect. This so called Zancolli Complex (Metacarpophalangeal Retention Apparatus) can be used with the effect of a brace treatment. Treating 31 patients with articular fractures of the proximal phalanx way we found good functional results within a mean follow up period of 2 years after the accident.

  13. Preparation of Articular Cartilage Specimens for Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Stupina, T A

    2016-08-01

    We developed and adapted a technology for preparation of articular cartilage specimens for scanning electron microscopy. The method includes prefixation processing, fixation, washing, and dehydration of articular cartilage specimens with subsequent treatment in camphene and air-drying. The technological result consists in prevention of deformation of the articular cartilage structures. The method is simpler and cheaper than the known technologies.

  14. Intra-articular therapies for osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shirley P; Hunter, David J

    2016-10-01

    Conventional medical therapies for osteoarthritis are mainly palliative in nature, aiming to control pain and symptoms. Traditional intra-articular therapies are not recommended in guidelines as first line therapy, but are potential alternatives, when conventional therapies have failed. Current and future intra-articular drug therapies for osteoarthritis are highlighted, including corticosteroids, hyaluronate, and more controversial treatments marketed commercially, namely platelet rich plasma and mesenchymal cell therapy. Intraarticular disease modifying osteoarthritis drugs are the future of osteoarthritis treatments, aiming at structural modification and altering the disease progression. Interleukin-1β inhibitor, bone morphogenic protein-7, fibroblast growth factor 18, bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist, human serum albumin, and gene therapy are discussed in this review. The evolution of drug development in osteoarthritis is limited by the ability to demonstrate effect. High quality trials are required to justify the use of existing intra-articular therapies and to advocate for newer, promising therapies. Challenges in osteoarthritis therapy research are fundamentally related to the complexity of the pathological mechanisms of osteoarthritis. Novel drugs offer hope in a disease with limited medical therapy options. Whether these future intra-articular therapies will provide clinically meaningful benefits, remains unknown.

  15. [Biogenic stimulants of metabolism in articular cartilage].

    PubMed

    Novikov, V E; Novikova, A V

    2011-01-01

    The review considers issues of pharmacodynamics and clinical applications of drugs with the metabolic type of action, which stimulate regeneration and provide the protective action on articular cartilage in cases of osteoarthritis. Published data of the experimental and clinical trials of the main chondroprotective agents are analyzed.

  16. Equine Models of Articular Cartilage Repair

    PubMed Central

    McIlwraith, C. Wayne; Fortier, Lisa A.; Frisbie, David D.; Nixon, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    Articular cartilage injuries of the knee and ankle are common, and a number of different methods have been developed in an attempt to improve their repair. Clinically, there are 2 distinct aims of cartilage repair: 1) restoration of joint function and 2) prevention or at least delay of the onset of osteoarthritis. These goals can potentially be achieved through replacement of damaged or lost articular cartilage with tissue capable of functioning under normal physiological environments for an extended period, but limitations of the final repair product have long been recognized and still exist today. Screening of potential procedures for human clinical use is done by preclinical studies using animal models. This article reviews equine chondral defect models that have been recently recognized to have specific advantages for translation into human articular cartilage regeneration. Defect models in the femoropatellar, femorotibial, and tibiotalar joints have been developed. The horse provides the closest approximation to humans in terms of articular cartilage and subchondral bone thickness, and it is possible to selectively leave the entire calcified cartilage layer or completely remove it. The defect on the equine medial femoral condyle emulates medial femoral condylar lesions in humans. Other advantages of the equine model include an ability to use an arthroscope to create lesions and perform second-look arthroscopies, the large lesion size allowing for more tissue for evaluation, and the ability to have controlled exercise and test the ability of the repair to cope with athletic exercise as well as institute rehabilitation regimens. PMID:26069590

  17. Intra-articular risks of suprapatellar nailing.

    PubMed

    Beltran, Michael J; Collinge, Cory A; Patzkowski, Jeanne C; Masini, Brendan D; Blease, Robert E; Hsu, Joseph R

    2012-12-01

    To determine the risks to local anatomy near the starting point for tibial nailing during suprapatellar nailing, 15 fresh-frozen hemipelvis specimens were nailed using a suprapatellar technique. After nail passage, the menisci and articular surfaces, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insertion, intermeniscal ligament, and fat pad were assessed for injury. The distance from the entry portal to the menisci, articular surfaces, and ACL insertion was determined. Medial meniscus injury occurred in 1 (6.7%) specimen and medial articular injury in 2 (13%). Nails passed through the fat pad in all specimens; intermeniscal ligament injury occurred in 3 (20%) specimens. The ACL insertion and lateral structures were not injured in any specimen. The distance from the entry portal margin to the lateral and medial menisci was 6.46±2.47 mm and 4.74±3.17 mm, respectively. The distances to the lateral and medial articular margins measured 10.33±3.62 mm and 6.54±3.57 mm, respectively. The distance to the ACL insertion averaged 5.80±3.94 mm. Suprapatellar nailing is associated with a risk of injury to anterior knee structures comparable to other nailing techniques. Additional clinical studies are warranted to further define the role of this technique in the management of tibial fractures.

  18. Cryoprotectant agent toxicity in porcine articular chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Jomha, Nadr M; Weiss, Andrew D H; Fraser Forbes, J; Law, Garson K; Elliott, Janet A W; McGann, Locksley E

    2010-12-01

    Large articular cartilage defects have proven difficult to treat and often result in osteoarthritis of the affected joint. Cryopreservation of articular cartilage can provide an increased supply of tissues for osteochondral allograft but cryoprotective agents are required; however, few studies have been performed on the toxicity of these agents. This study was designed to determine the order of toxicity of five commonly used cryoprotectant agents as well as interactions that occur between them. Isolated porcine articular chondrocytes were exposed to individual cryoprotectant agents and combinations of these agents at 1M and 3M concentrations for 5 min and 120 min. Cell viability was determined using membrane integrity dyes and a metabolic activity assay. Subsequently, a regression analysis based study was undertaken to extract the maximum amount of information from this data. Results of this study demonstrated that all 1M solutions were minimally toxic. The 3M solutions demonstrated varying toxicity after 120 min. Ethylene glycol and glycerol were less toxic than propylene glycol, dimethyl sulfoxide, and formamide. Combinations of cryoprotectant agents were less toxic than single cryoprotectant agents at the same concentration. This is the most comprehensive study investigating cryoprotectant agent toxicity in articular chondrocytes and has resulted in important information regarding the order of toxicity and interactions that occur between these agents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Body Weight Independently Affects Articular Cartilage Catabolism

    PubMed Central

    Denning, W. Matt; Winward, Jason G.; Pardo, Michael Becker; Hopkins, J. Ty; Seeley, Matthew K.

    2015-01-01

    Although obesity is associated with osteoarthritis, it is unclear whether body weight (BW) independently affects articular cartilage catabolism (i.e., independent from physiological factors that also accompany obesity). The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the independent effect of BW on articular cartilage catabolism associated with walking. A secondary purpose was to determine how decreased BW influenced cardiovascular response due to walking. Twelve able-bodied subjects walked for 30 minutes on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill during three sessions: control (unadjusted BW), +40%BW, and -40%BW. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) was measured immediately before (baseline) and after, and 15 and 30 minutes after the walk. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured every three minutes during the walk. Relative to baseline, average serum COMP concentration was 13% and 5% greater immediately after and 15 minutes after the walk. Immediately after the walk, serum COMP concentration was 14% greater for the +40%BW session than for the -40%BW session. HR and RPE were greater for the +40%BW session than for the other two sessions, but did not differ between the control and -40%BW sessions. BW independently influences acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response due to walking: as BW increases, so does acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response. These results indicate that lower-body positive pressure walking may benefit certain individuals by reducing acute articular cartilage catabolism, due to walking, while maintaining cardiovascular response. Key points Walking for 30 minutes with adjustments in body weight (normal body weight, +40% and -40% body weight) significantly influences articular cartilage catabolism, measured via serum COMP concentration. Compared to baseline levels, walking with +40% body weight and normal body weight both elicited significant increases in

  20. Emerging intra-articular causes of groin pain in athletes.

    PubMed

    Jagtap, Prajyot; Shetty, Gautam; Mane, Prashant; Shetty, Vijay

    2014-12-01

    Groin pain remains one of the most poorly understood conditions in clinical sports medicine. It may be caused by either extra-articular or intra-articular conditions. While extra-articular causes have been extensively studied and reasonably understood, a number of elusive intra-articular causes are emerging, many of which were previously unknown and therefore undiagnosed, leading to premature ending of many competitive careers. This article makes an attempt to look at various, elusive intra-articular causes of groin pain in athletes. This article also analyses the currently available evidence on trends in diagnosis and treatment for these conditions.

  1. Development of an artificial articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Oka, M; Noguchi, T; Kumar, P; Ikeuchi, K; Yamamuro, T; Hyon, S H; Ikada, Y

    1990-01-01

    We have attempted to develop an artificial articular cartilage on the basis of a new viewpoint of joint biomechanics in which lubrication and load-bearing mechanisms of natural and artificial joints are compared. We investigated poly(vinyl alcohol)-hydrogel (PVA-H) which has been recognized as a rubber-like gel and have improved the mechanical properties of this gel through a new synthetic process. In this article we report the biocompatibility and various mechanical properties of the new, improved PVA-H from the aspect of its usefulness as artificial articular cartilage. As regards the lubrication, we measured the change of thickness and fluid pressure of the gap formed between a glass plate and the specimen under loading and found that the PVA-H had a thicker fluid film under higher pressure than polyethylene (PE). The momentary stress transmitted through the specimen revealed that PVA-H had a lower peak stress and a longer duration of sustained stress than PE, suggesting a better damping effect. The wear factor of PVA-H was approximately five times as large as that of PE. Histological findings of the articular cartilage and synovial membranes around the PVA-H implanted for 8-52 weeks showed neither inflammatory nor degenerative changes. The PVA-H artificial articular cartilage could be attached to the underlying bone using an osteochondral composite material. Although there remain still some problems to solve, PVA-H seems to be a very interesting and promising material which meets the requirements of artificial articular cartilage.

  2. A fonte ionizante do disco de acreção no núcleo de NGC1097

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, R. N.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.

    2003-08-01

    Observações em raios-X revelam o "coração" dos núcleos ativos de galáxias, pois esse tipo de radiação provém das suas regiões mais internas, próximas ao buraco negro central. Neste trabalho apresentamos observações em raios-X da região central da galáxia NGC1097, que hospeda um buraco negro supermassivo e um disco de acreção cuja emissão vem sendo observada há dez anos através da linha de emissão Ha larga (10000 km/s) e de duplo pico. As observações em raios-X - que foram obtidas com o Telescópio Chandra - foram combinadas com observações no ultravioleta obtidas com o Telescópio Espacial Hubble e são usadas para estudar as características da fonte central que ioniza o disco de acreção. A distribuição espectral de energia é comparada com a predita por modelos, em particular o de uma estrutura "ADAF" ("advection dominated accretion flow") na parte interna do disco. Tal estrutura produz um espectro de emissão de linhas estreitas tipo LINER, como observado em NGC1097 e em rádio-galáxias que apresentam linhas de Balmer largas de duplo pico. Apresentamos também uma comparação entre outros LINERs com linhas de emissão largas de duplo pico, disponíveis na literatura ou nos arquivos do Chandra e do Telescópio Espacial Hubble e discutimos as correspondentes implicações para modelos da fonte central.

  3. Validation of the Galileo scan platform control design using DISCOS. [Dynamic Interaction Simulation of COntrols and Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chodas, J. L.; Macala, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    The flexibility of the Galileo spacecraft's scan platform control system stator structure, which lies between the scan platform and one of the control actuators, has been a major design consideration. Tests have been conducted to verify the prevention of undesirable interactions between the structure and the control loop, by means of the Dynamic Interaction Simulation of Controls and Structure (DISCOS) program. The scan platform's control design has been validated for the achievement of 140-microradians maximum position deviation and 50 microradians of jitter over 1-sec intervals.

  4. Validation of the Galileo scan platform control design using DISCOS. [Dynamic Interaction Simulation of COntrols and Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chodas, J. L.; Macala, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    The flexibility of the Galileo spacecraft's scan platform control system stator structure, which lies between the scan platform and one of the control actuators, has been a major design consideration. Tests have been conducted to verify the prevention of undesirable interactions between the structure and the control loop, by means of the Dynamic Interaction Simulation of Controls and Structure (DISCOS) program. The scan platform's control design has been validated for the achievement of 140-microradians maximum position deviation and 50 microradians of jitter over 1-sec intervals.

  5. Aquecimento alfvênico viscoso-resistivo em discos de acresção ao redor de estrelas T Tauri clássicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, W. M.; Vasconcelos, M. J.

    2003-08-01

    Com a crescente disponibilidade de dados observacionais sobre estrelas T Tauri, a busca por modelos mais precisos vem se tornando cada vez maior. Estes modelos devem explicar, entre outras coisas, o mecanismo dissipativo responsável pelo transporte de momento angular no disco de acresção que acredita-se, circunda estas estrelas. O mecanismo mais viável, do ponto de vista teórico, é uma instabilidade MHD conhecida como "instabilidade magnetorotacional ou Balbus-Hawley" (IBH). Esta instabilidade veio mostrar que o campo magnético desempenha um papel importante na evolução destes objetos mas requer, no entanto, um acoplamento mínimo entre o gás e o campo magnético no disco que não é atingido para os valores de temperatura obtidos do modelo padrão. Contudo, alguns mecanismos de aquecimento para o disco precisam ser examinados. Neste trabalho, propomos a dissipação de ondas Alfvén como uma fonte de aquecimento para o disco. Se o gás apresentar uma condutividade elétrica finita e viscosidade, teremos um tipo de amortecimento para as ondas denominado amortecimento viscoso-resistivo que será aqui considerado. Este mecanismo é aplicado ao modelo de disco em camadas. Calculam-se as taxas de aquecimento Alfvênico, a temperatura efetiva do disco bem como as taxas de ionização decorrentes deste aquecimento e do aquecimento gerado pela absorção de raios cósmicos. Comparações com os dados observacionais de Kitamura et. al. (2001) são efetuadas, ressaltando-se os pontos comuns entre suas observações e nossos dados teóricos.

  6. Applied biomechanics in articular injuries: perspectives in the basic investigation of articular injuries and clinical application.

    PubMed

    Olson, Steven A; Brown, Thomas D; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A; Natoli, Roman M; Dirschl, Douglas R

    2011-01-01

    Joint injury is an important cause of arthritis. Although the treatment of injury, in general, has been widely studied, the contribution of injury to the development of posttraumatic arthritis is still a relatively understudied area. One of the most perplexing aspects of investigating articular injuries is the complex nature of the injury itself and the multiple facets of the injury mechanism that can potentially lead to the development of arthritis. A symposium by the Orthopaedic Research Society and the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons was designed to examine the spectrum of basic science to clinical investigation in the role of biomechanics in the study of joint injury and subsequent posttraumatic arthritis. Four perspectives in the clinical aspects of managing articular injuries were investigated, including the clinical applications of basic science findings, the challenges and advancements in measuring and modeling articular fractures, the relationship of articular cartilage mechanical injuries and osteoarthritis, and the controlled creation of an intra-articular fracture to permit observations of the natural history of posttraumatic arthritis.

  7. Recent Advances in MRI of Articular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Garry E.; Chen, Christina A.; Koo, Seungbum; Hargreaves, Brian A.; Bangerter, Neal K.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE MRI is the most accurate noninvasive method available to diagnose disorders of articular cartilage. Conventional 2D and 3D approaches show changes in cartilage morphology. Faster 3D imaging methods with isotropic resolution can be reformatted into arbitrary planes for improved detection and visualization of pathology. Unique contrast mechanisms allow us to probe cartilage physiology and detect changes in cartilage macromolecules. CONCLUSION MRI has great promise as a noninvasive comprehensive tool for cartilage evaluation. PMID:19696274

  8. Mechanobiological implications of articular cartilage crystals.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Alyssa K; McCutchen, Carley N; June, Ronald K

    2017-03-01

    Calcium crystals exist in both pathological and normal articular cartilage. The prevalence of these crystals dramatically increases with age, and crystals are typically found in osteoarthritic cartilage and synovial fluid. Relatively few studies have examined the effects of crystals on cartilage biomechanics or chondrocyte mechanotransduction. The purpose of this review is to describe how crystals could influence cartilage biomechanics and mechanotransduction in osteoarthritis. Crystals are found in both loaded and unloaded regions of articular cartilage. Exogenous crystals, in combination with joint motion, result in substantial joint inflammation. Articular cartilage vesicles promote crystal formation, and these vesicles are found near the periphery of chondrocytes. Crystallographic studies report monoclinic symmetry for synthetic crystals, suggesting that crystals will have a large stiffness compared with the cartilage extracellular matrix, the pericellular matrix, or the chondrocyte. This stiffness imbalance may cause crystal-induced dysregulation of chondrocyte mechanotransduction promoting both aging and osteoarthritis chondrocyte phenotypes. Because of their high stiffness compared with cartilage matrix, crystals likely alter chondrocyte mechanotransduction, and high concentrations of crystals within cartilage may alter macroscale biomechanics. Future studies should focus on understanding the mechanical properties of joint crystals and developing methods to understand how crystals affect chondrocyte mechanotransduction.

  9. Anisotropic hydraulic permeability in compressed articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Reynaud, Boris; Quinn, Thomas M

    2006-01-01

    The extent to which articular cartilage hydraulic permeability is anisotropic is largely unknown, despite its importance for understanding mechanisms of joint lubrication, load bearing, transport phenomena, and mechanotransduction. We developed and applied new techniques for the direct measurement of hydraulic permeability within statically compressed adult bovine cartilage explant disks, dissected such that disk axes were perpendicular to the articular surface. Applied pressure gradients were kept small to minimize flow-induced matrix compaction, and fluid outflows were measured by observation of a meniscus in a glass capillary under a microscope. Explant disk geometry under radially unconfined axial compression was measured by direct microscopic observation. Pressure, flow, and geometry data were input to a finite element model where hydraulic permeabilities in the disk axial and radial directions were determined. At less than 10% static compression, near free-swelling conditions, hydraulic permeability was nearly isotropic, with values corresponding to those of previous studies. With increasing static compression, hydraulic permeability decreased, but the radially directed permeability decreased more dramatically than the axially directed permeability such that strong anisotropy (a 10-fold difference between axial and radial directions) in the hydraulic permeability tensor was evident for static compression of 20-40%. Results correspond well with predictions of a previous microstructurally-based model for effects of tissue mechanical deformations on glycosaminoglycan architecture and cartilage hydraulic permeability. Findings inform understanding of structure-function relationships in cartilage matrix, and suggest several biomechanical roles for compression-induced anisotropic hydraulic permeability in articular cartilage.

  10. Quasi-linear viscoelastic properties of normal articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Woo, S L; Simon, B R; Kuei, S C; Akeson, W H

    1980-05-01

    A combined experimental and analytical approach was used to determine the history-dependent viscoelastic properties of normal articular cartilage in tension. Specimens along the surface split line direction, taken from the middle zone of articular cartilage were subjected to relaxation and cyclic tests. A quasi-linear viscoelastic theory proposed by Fung was used in combination with the experimental results to determine the nonlinear viscoelastic properties and the elastic stress-strain relationship of normal articular cartilage.

  11. Metric analysis of loading magnitudes at articular and non-articular weight-bearing surfaces in human calcaneus.

    PubMed

    Mahato, Niladri Kumar; Murthy, S Sathiya Narayana

    2013-03-01

    The calcaneus is axially loaded at its articular interface with the talus. A large bulk of this load is transmitted to the ground across the non-articular tubercles at the plantar surface of the bone. A small part of the incumbent load sustained by the calcaneus is directed towards the forefoot at the calcaneo-cuboid junction. This study investigates the proportion of load distributed across the articular and non-articular surfaces of the calcaneus. The present study demonstrates strong and significant correlation between some of the load bearing variables and suggests the need for further investigations to understand the effect of angular aspects of axial loading on the calcaneus. Accounting for the relative distribution of weight across the articular and non-articular areas may enable us to appreciate the internal trabecular structure of the calcaneus in light of its clinical importance.

  12. Extending the NIF DISCO framework to automate complex workflow: coordinating the harvest and integration of data from diverse neuroscience information resources.

    PubMed

    Marenco, Luis N; Wang, Rixin; Bandrowski, Anita E; Grethe, Jeffrey S; Shepherd, Gordon M; Miller, Perry L

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes how DISCO, the data aggregator that supports the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF), has been extended to play a central role in automating the complex workflow required to support and coordinate the NIF's data integration capabilities. The NIF is an NIH Neuroscience Blueprint initiative designed to help researchers access the wealth of data related to the neurosciences available via the Internet. A central component is the NIF Federation, a searchable database that currently contains data from 231 data and information resources regularly harvested, updated, and warehoused in the DISCO system. In the past several years, DISCO has greatly extended its functionality and has evolved to play a central role in automating the complex, ongoing process of harvesting, validating, integrating, and displaying neuroscience data from a growing set of participating resources. This paper provides an overview of DISCO's current capabilities and discusses a number of the challenges and future directions related to the process of coordinating the integration of neuroscience data within the NIF Federation.

  13. [Influence of the disco-scene on the psyche and soma of young people: psychometric, computerized-EEG and physiological studies (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Saletu, B; Schultes, M; Grünberger, J

    1982-03-31

    Investigating the personality profile of 90 young disco-visitors, it was found that the group on the whole did not differ from the norm. However, a more detailed analysis according to age and sex demonstrated that young female "disco-fans" (under the age of 20 years) exhibited an increased desire for communication and contacts but also a less critical and a more pronounced self-admiring attitude than controls, while this was not observed in males. Subsequently, the effect of a typical disco-night on physiological, neurophysiological and psychometric variables was studied in 13 young disco-visitors. The results suggested an increased activation and arousal as reflected by the increased critical flicker fusion frequency, heart rate and blood pressure. Moreover, psychomotor activity, drive and mood were found to be improved, while attention, concentration, attention variability, reaction time and mnestic function deteriorated as compared with a control night. Digital computer period analysis of the electroencephalogram revealed an increased of theta and beta activity, and a decrease of alpha activity. The profile of the latter CNS changes shows a certain similarity to the pharmaco-EEG profiles of antidepressants. The findings are discussed.

  14. Phosphorylation of proteoglycans from human articular cartilage

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.S.; Schwartz, E.R.

    1984-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that sulfated proteoglycans from human articular and epiphyseal cartilage were phosphorylated. These macromolecules contribute to the stiffness and resiliency of this tissue. We demonstrate here that the phosphate moieties are an integral part of proteoglycan subunits. Specifically, evidence is presented which indicates that proteoglycan monomers contain 3 to 4 phosphate moieties per core protein and that these appear to exist as phosphoserine residues. Furthermore, the data illustrate that human articular cartilage also contains more than 20 different phosphoproteins, some of which are closely associated with proteoglycan aggregates. Proteoglycan subunits were purified from extracts of articular cartilage or from media fractions which had been used to label tissue specimens with 32P-orthophosphate. Chemical and radiographic analyses revealed that the phosphate concentration with respect to sulfate and uronic acid content remained constant when purified proteoglycan monomers were subjected to equilibrium ultracentrifugation and size-exclusion chromatography. That the phosphate moieties were bound to proteoglycan monomers via monoester linkages was indicated by the release of 32P-orthophosphate from proteoglycan subunits incubated under mild alkaline conditions or reacted with acid or alkaline phosphatases. Identification of serine residues in the core protein as the sites of phosphorylation was made by autoradiography of thin layer plates on which hydrolyzed samples of purified 32P-proteoglycan subunits had been subjected to 2-dimensional electrophoresis/chromatography. Quantification of 3 to 4 phosphate moieties per core protein of 200,000 daltons was made by chemical analysis of inorganic phosphate released from proteoglycans by acid hydrolysis.

  15. RANKL synthesized by articular chondrocytes contributes to juxta-articular bone loss in chronic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The receptor activator nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) diffuses from articular cartilage to subchondral bone. However, the role of chondrocyte-synthesized RANKL in rheumatoid arthritis-associated juxta-articular bone loss has not yet been explored. This study aimed to determine whether RANKL produced by chondrocytes induces osteoclastogenesis and juxta-articular bone loss associated with chronic arthritis. Methods Chronic antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) was induced in New Zealand (NZ) rabbits. Osteoarthritis (OA) and control groups were simultaneously studied. Dual X-ray absorptiometry of subchondral knee bone was performed before sacrifice. Histological analysis and protein expression of RANKL and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were evaluated in joint tissues. Co-cultures of human OA articular chondrocytes with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy donors were stimulated with macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), then further stained with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. Results Subchondral bone loss was confirmed in AIA rabbits when compared with controls. The expression of RANKL, OPG and RANKL/OPG ratio in cartilage were increased in AIA compared to control animals, although this pattern was not seen in synovium. Furthermore, RANKL expression and RANKL/OPG ratio were inversely related to subchondral bone mineral density. RANKL expression was observed throughout all cartilage zones of rabbits and was specially increased in the calcified cartilage of AIA animals. Co-cultures demonstrated that PGE2-stimulated human chondrocytes, which produce RANKL, also induce osteoclasts differentiation from PBMCs. Conclusions Chondrocyte-synthesized RANKL may contribute to the development of juxta-articular osteoporosis associated with chronic arthritis, by enhancing osteoclastogenesis. These results point out a new mechanism of bone loss in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:22709525

  16. New synchrotron radiation circular dichroism end-station on DISCO beamline at SOLEIL synchrotron for biomolecular analysis.

    PubMed

    Miron, Simona; Réfregiers, Matthieu; Gilles, Anne-Marie; Maurizot, Jean-Claude

    2005-08-05

    The novel Synchrotron Radiation Circular Dichroism (SRCD) technique is becoming a new tool of investigation for the molecular structures of biomolecules, like proteins, carbohydrates or others bio-materials. Here, we describe the characteristics of a new experimental end-station for circular dichroism studies, in construction on DISCO beamline at SOLEIL synchrotron (Saint-Aubin, France). This experimental end-station will be an open facility for the community of researchers in structural biology. In order to show the kind of information accessible with this type of technique, we give an example: the conformational study of the galactose mutarotase from Escherichia coli, an enzyme involved in the galactose metabolism. This study was made using an operational SRCD station available at SRS (Daresbury Laboratory, UK).

  17. WebDISCO: a web service for distributed cox model learning without patient-level data sharing.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chia-Lun; Wang, Shuang; Ji, Zhanglong; Wu, Yuan; Xiong, Li; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    2015-11-01

    The Cox proportional hazards model is a widely used method for analyzing survival data. To achieve sufficient statistical power in a survival analysis, it usually requires a large amount of data. Data sharing across institutions could be a potential workaround for providing this added power. The authors develop a web service for distributed Cox model learning (WebDISCO), which focuses on the proof-of-concept and algorithm development for federated survival analysis. The sensitive patient-level data can be processed locally and only the less-sensitive intermediate statistics are exchanged to build a global Cox model. Mathematical derivation shows that the proposed distributed algorithm is identical to the centralized Cox model. The authors evaluated the proposed framework at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), Emory, and Duke. The experimental results show that both distributed and centralized models result in near-identical model coefficients with differences in the range [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text]. The results confirm the mathematical derivation and show that the implementation of the distributed model can achieve the same results as the centralized implementation. The proposed method serves as a proof of concept, in which a publicly available dataset was used to evaluate the performance. The authors do not intend to suggest that this method can resolve policy and engineering issues related to the federated use of institutional data, but they should serve as evidence of the technical feasibility of the proposed approach.Conclusions WebDISCO (Web-based Distributed Cox Regression Model; https://webdisco.ucsd-dbmi.org:8443/cox/) provides a proof-of-concept web service that implements a distributed algorithm to conduct distributed survival analysis without sharing patient level data. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  18. WebDISCO: a web service for distributed cox model learning without patient-level data sharing

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chia-Lun; Wang, Shuang; Ji, Zhanglong; Wu, Yuan; Xiong, Li; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Cox proportional hazards model is a widely used method for analyzing survival data. To achieve sufficient statistical power in a survival analysis, it usually requires a large amount of data. Data sharing across institutions could be a potential workaround for providing this added power. Methods and materials The authors develop a web service for distributed Cox model learning (WebDISCO), which focuses on the proof-of-concept and algorithm development for federated survival analysis. The sensitive patient-level data can be processed locally and only the less-sensitive intermediate statistics are exchanged to build a global Cox model. Mathematical derivation shows that the proposed distributed algorithm is identical to the centralized Cox model. Results The authors evaluated the proposed framework at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), Emory, and Duke. The experimental results show that both distributed and centralized models result in near-identical model coefficients with differences in the range 10−15 to 10−12. The results confirm the mathematical derivation and show that the implementation of the distributed model can achieve the same results as the centralized implementation. Limitation The proposed method serves as a proof of concept, in which a publicly available dataset was used to evaluate the performance. The authors do not intend to suggest that this method can resolve policy and engineering issues related to the federated use of institutional data, but they should serve as evidence of the technical feasibility of the proposed approach. Conclusions WebDISCO (Web-based Distributed Cox Regression Model; https://webdisco.ucsd-dbmi.org:8443/cox/) provides a proof-of-concept web service that implements a distributed algorithm to conduct distributed survival analysis without sharing patient level data. PMID:26159465

  19. [Extra-articular manifestations of seronegative spondylarthritis].

    PubMed

    Cammelli, Daniele

    2006-05-01

    Seronegative spondylarthritis are frequently characterised by extra-articular manifestations. They are frequently in recurrent uveitis. Between the cutaneous manifestations should be mentioned erythema nodosum, typical of inflammatory bowel diseases, and keratoderma blenorrhagicum, in the Reiter's syndrome. Cardiac complications in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) include aortic valvular regurgitation and arrhythmia and, more rarely, mitral valvulopathy, cardiomyopathy and pericarditis. Pulmonary involvement in AS includes ventilatory restrictive syndrome and fibro-bullous disease of the apex. Vertebral osteoporosis is a very important extra-articular manifestation because of the possibility of spontaneous fractures of the vertebrae. Central neurological manifestations include medullary compression from cervical sub-luxation while the most important peripheral involvements are lumbar stenosis and the cauda equina syndrome. Type AA amyloidosis is a rare late complication of the AS, possible cause of death especially in patients with aggressive disease. Kidney complications can be observed as consequences of prolonged anti-inflammatory therapy, but the most frequent renal complications are amyloidosis and mesangial IgA segmental and focal glomerulonephritis.

  20. Locating articular cartilage in MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folkesson, Jenny; Dam, Erik; Pettersen, Paola; Olsen, Ole F.; Nielsen, Mads; Christiansen, Claus

    2005-04-01

    Accurate computation of the thickness of the articular cartilage is of great importance when diagnosing and monitoring the progress of joint diseases such as osteoarthritis. A fully automated cartilage assessment method is preferable compared to methods using manual interaction in order to avoid inter- and intra-observer variability. As a first step in the cartilage assessment, we present an automatic method for locating articular cartilage in knee MRI using supervised learning. The next step will be to fit a variable shape model to the cartilage, initiated at the location found using the method presented in this paper. From the model, disease markers will be extracted for the quantitative evaluation of the cartilage. The cartilage is located using an ANN-classifier, where every voxel is classified as cartilage or non-cartilage based on prior knowledge of the cartilage structure. The classifier is tested using leave-one-out-evaluation, and we found the average sensitivity and specificity to be 91.0% and 99.4%, respectively. The center of mass calculated from voxels classified as cartilage are similar to the corresponding values calculated from manual segmentations, which confirms that this method can find a good initial position for a shape model.

  1. [The effects of exercise on articular cartilage].

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Cenk; Sarpel, Yaman; Biçer, O Sunkar

    2007-01-01

    The effect of exercise on articular cartilage has been assessed on animal models and on humans using various imaging techniques. Joint cartilage, whose water content decreases itself thanks to its unique permeable medium, maintains load distribution and joint function together with the synovial fluid under physiologic conditions and sports activities. The adaptive capacity of joint cartilage is limited under various conditions such as excessive load bearing or prolonged immobilization; however, when these factors are reversed deformed cartilage returns to its former state under normal conditions. Due to its adverse effect on joint cartilage, immobilization period following cartilage damage or operation should be as short as possible for wound healing. It is reported that exercise contributes to cartilage healing and reduces risk for injury, and that moderate exercise can even decrease the number of cases requiring arthroplasty. Conversely, excessive (harsh) exercise may be associated with increased cartilage damage or degenerative changes. Despite the presence of osteophytic changes in joint cartilage of athletes performing mild sports activities, these may not result in osteoarthritis due to the adaptive feature of joint cartilage. In contrast, the risk for osteoarthritis is increased in professional sportsmen exposed to acute repetitive impact and torsional loading. This article reviews the influence of controlled, passive-active exercise on healing, and on the development of osteoarthritis and the short- and long-term changes in articular cartilage associated with exercise and participation in sports of different duration and intensity.

  2. Toward patient-specific articular contact mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Ateshian, Gerard A.; Henak, Corinne R.; Weiss, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanics of contacting cartilage layers is fundamentally important to understanding the development, homeostasis and pathology of diarthrodial joints. Because of the highly nonlinear nature of both the materials and the contact problem itself, numerical methods such as the finite element method are typically incorporated to obtain solutions. Over the course of five decades, we have moved from an initial qualitative understanding of articular cartilage material behavior to the ability to perform complex, three-dimensional contact analysis, including multiphasic material representations. This history includes the development of analytical and computational contact analysis methods that now provide the ability to perform highly nonlinear analyses. Numerical implementations of contact analysis based on the finite element method are rapidly advancing and will soon enable patient-specific analysis of joint contact mechanics using models based on medical image data. In addition to contact stress on the articular surfaces, these techniques can predict variations in strain and strain through the cartilage layers, providing the basis to predict damage and failure. This opens up exciting areas for future research and application to patient-specific diagnosis and treatment planning applied to a variety of pathologies that affect joint function and cartilage homeostasis. PMID:25698236

  3. PRP and Articular Cartilage: A Clinical Update

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Roberto; Castoldi, Filippo; Michielon, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    The convincing background of the recent studies, investigating the different potentials of platelet-rich plasma, offers the clinician an appealing alternative for the treatment of cartilage lesions and osteoarthritis. Recent evidences in literature have shown that PRP may be helpful both as an adjuvant for surgical treatment of cartilage defects and as a therapeutic tool by intra-articular injection in patients affected by osteoarthritis. In this review, the authors introduce the trophic and anti-inflammatory properties of PRP and the different products of the available platelet concentrates. Then, in a complex scenario made of a great number of clinical variables, they resume the current literature on the PRP applications in cartilage surgery as well as the use of intra-articular PRP injections for the conservative treatment of cartilage degenerative lesions and osteoarthritis in humans, available as both case series and comparative studies. The result of this review confirms the fascinating biological role of PRP, although many aspects yet remain to be clarified and the use of PRP in a clinical setting has to be considered still exploratory. PMID:26075244

  4. [Articular cartilage regeneration using stem cells].

    PubMed

    Kanamoto, Takashi; Nakamura, Norimasa; Nakata, Ken; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2008-12-01

    Articular cartilage plays pivotal roles in securing smooth joint kinematics and act as a shock absorber, however, it has minimal healing potential. Chondral injury could lead to the development of osteoarthritis (OA) and therefore is a major clinical concern. There have been marrow stimulating technique and osteochondral transplantation explored to promote cartilage repair. In addition, autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) has been developed by Peterson and Brittberg and more than 20,000 cases underwent the procedure all over the world. Recent progress in stem cell research has raised the potential application of stem cell therapy to cartilage repair. In this review, potential application of bone marrow or synovial-derived mesenchymal cells to promote cartilage repair would be discussed.

  5. Quinolone arthropathy--acute toxicity to immature articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Gough, A W; Kasali, O B; Sigler, R E; Baragi, V

    1992-01-01

    A class effect of quinolone antibacterial agents observed during animal toxicity testing is a specific arthropathy (QAP). Despite the growing list of laboratory animals susceptible to QAP and reports of arthralgia in patients treated with quinolones, the potential for QAP development in humans remains unknown. This review discusses current concepts in the biology of articular cartilage and how these concepts elucidate QAP pathogenesis. Biomechanical forces within synovial joints and toxicokinetic properties of quinolones contribute to QAP induction. Since a limited number of mechanistic pathways exist for acute articular damage, QAP may serve as a research tool to probe the pathobiology of injury to articular cartilage.

  6. Conditional Deletion of the Phd2 Gene in Articular Chondrocytes Accelerates Differentiation and Reduces Articular Cartilage Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shaohong; Pourteymoor, Sheila; Alarcon, Catrina; Mohan, Subburaman

    2017-01-01

    Based on our findings that PHD2 is a negative regulator of chondrocyte differentiation and that hypoxia signaling is implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis, we investigated the consequence of disruption of the Phd2 gene in chondrocytes on the articular cartilage phenotype in mice. Immunohistochemistry detected high expression of PHD2 in the superficial zone (SZ), while PHD3 and HIF-1α (target of PHD2) are mainly expressed in the middle-deep zone (MDZ). Conditional deletion of the Phd2 gene (cKO) in chondrocytes accelerated the transition of progenitors to hypertrophic (differentiating) chondrocytes as revealed by reduced SZ thickness, and increased MDZ thickness, as well as increased chondrocyte hypertrophy. Immunohistochemistry further revealed decreased levels of progenitor markers but increased levels of hypertrophy markers in the articular cartilage of the cKO mice. Treatment of primary articular chondrocytes, in vitro, with IOX2, a specific inhibitor of PHD2, promoted articular chondrocyte differentiation. Knockdown of Hif-1α expression in primary articular chondrocytes using lentiviral vectors containing Hif-1α shRNA resulted in reduced expression levels of Vegf, Glut1, Pgk1, and Col10 compared to control shRNA. We conclude that Phd2 is a key regulator of articular cartilage development that acts by inhibiting the differentiation of articular cartilage progenitors via modulating HIF-1α signaling. PMID:28349987

  7. Intra-articular corticosteroid for knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Jüni, Peter; Hari, Roman; Rutjes, Anne W S; Fischer, Roland; Silletta, Maria G; Reichenbach, Stephan; da Costa, Bruno R

    2015-10-22

    Knee osteoarthritis is a leading cause of chronic pain, disability, and decreased quality of life. Despite the long-standing use of intra-articular corticosteroids, there is an ongoing debate about their benefits and safety. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2005. To determine the benefits and harms of intra-articular corticosteroids compared with sham or no intervention in people with knee osteoarthritis in terms of pain, physical function, quality of life, and safety. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, and EMBASE (from inception to 3 February 2015), checked trial registers, conference proceedings, reference lists, and contacted authors. We included randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared intra-articular corticosteroids with sham injection or no treatment in people with knee osteoarthritis. We applied no language restrictions. We calculated standardised mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for pain, function, quality of life, joint space narrowing, and risk ratios (RRs) for safety outcomes. We combined trials using an inverse-variance random-effects meta-analysis. We identified 27 trials (13 new studies) with 1767 participants in this update. We graded the quality of the evidence as 'low' for all outcomes because treatment effect estimates were inconsistent with great variation across trials, pooled estimates were imprecise and did not rule out relevant or irrelevant clinical effects, and because most trials had a high or unclear risk of bias. Intra-articular corticosteroids appeared to be more beneficial in pain reduction than control interventions (SMD -0.40, 95% CI -0.58 to -0.22), which corresponds to a difference in pain scores of 1.0 cm on a 10-cm visual analogue scale between corticosteroids and sham injection and translates into a number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) of 8 (95% CI 6 to 13). An I(2) statistic of 68

  8. Extending the NIF DISCO framework to automate complex workflow: coordinating the harvest and integration of data from diverse neuroscience information resources

    PubMed Central

    Marenco, Luis N.; Wang, Rixin; Bandrowski, Anita E.; Grethe, Jeffrey S.; Shepherd, Gordon M.; Miller, Perry L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes how DISCO, the data aggregator that supports the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF), has been extended to play a central role in automating the complex workflow required to support and coordinate the NIF’s data integration capabilities. The NIF is an NIH Neuroscience Blueprint initiative designed to help researchers access the wealth of data related to the neurosciences available via the Internet. A central component is the NIF Federation, a searchable database that currently contains data from 231 data and information resources regularly harvested, updated, and warehoused in the DISCO system. In the past several years, DISCO has greatly extended its functionality and has evolved to play a central role in automating the complex, ongoing process of harvesting, validating, integrating, and displaying neuroscience data from a growing set of participating resources. This paper provides an overview of DISCO’s current capabilities and discusses a number of the challenges and future directions related to the process of coordinating the integration of neuroscience data within the NIF Federation. PMID:25018728

  9. DISCO: Distance and Spectrum Correlation Optimization Alignment for Two Dimensional Gas Chromatography Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry-based Metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bing; Fang, Aiqin; Heim, John; Bogdanov, Bogdan; Pugh, Scott; Libardoni, Mark; Zhang, Xiang

    2010-01-01

    A novel peak alignment algorithm using a distance and spectrum correlation optimization (DISCO) method has been developed for two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC/TOF-MS) based metabolomics. This algorithm uses the output of the instrument control software, ChromaTOF, as its input data. It detects and merges multiple peak entries of the same metabolite into one peak entry in each input peak list. After a z-score transformation of metabolite retention times, DISCO selects landmark peaks from all samples based on both two-dimensional retention times and mass spectrum similarity of fragment ions measured by Pearson’s correlation coefficient. A local linear fitting method is employed in the original two-dimensional retention time space to correct retention time shifts. A progressive retention time map searching method is used to align metabolite peaks in all samples together based on optimization of the Euclidean distance and mass spectrum similarity. The effectiveness of the DISCO algorithm is demonstrated using data sets acquired under different experiment conditions and a spiked-in experiment. PMID:20476746

  10. Simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging and consolidation measurement of articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Wellard, Robert Mark; Ravasio, Jean-Philippe; Guesne, Samuel; Bell, Christopher; Oloyede, Adekunle; Tevelen, Greg; Pope, James M; Momot, Konstantin I

    2014-05-05

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers the opportunity to study biological tissues and processes in a non-disruptive manner. The technique shows promise for the study of the load-bearing performance (consolidation) of articular cartilage and changes in articular cartilage accompanying osteoarthritis. Consolidation of articular cartilage involves the recording of two transient characteristics: the change over time of strain and the hydrostatic excess pore pressure (HEPP). MRI study of cartilage consolidation under mechanical load is limited by difficulties in measuring the HEPP in the presence of the strong magnetic fields associated with the MRI technique. Here we describe the use of MRI to image and characterize bovine articular cartilage deforming under load in an MRI compatible consolidometer while monitoring pressure with a Fabry-Perot interferometer-based fiber-optic pressure transducer.

  11. Fractures of the articular processes of the cervical spine

    SciTech Connect

    Woodring, J.H.; Goldstein, S.J.

    1982-08-01

    Fractures of the articular processes occurred in 16 (20.8%) of 77 patients with cervical spine fractures as demonstrated by multidirectional tomography. Plain films demonstrated the fractures in only two patients. Acute cervical radiculopathy occurred in five of the patients with articular process fractures (superior process, two cases; inferior process, three cases). Persistent neck pain occurred in one other patient without radiculopathy. Three patients suffered spinal cord damage at the time of injury, which was not the result of the articular process fracture itself. In the other seven cases, no definite sequelae occurred. However, disruption of the facet joint may predispose to early degenerative joint disease and chronic pain; unilateral or bilateral facet dislocation was present in five patients. In patients with cervical trauma who develop cervical radiculopathy, tomography should be performed to evaluate the articular processes.

  12. Articular cartilage: structural and developmental intricacies and questions

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Eiki; Pacifici, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Articular cartilage has obvious and fundamental roles in joint function and body movement. Much is known about its organization, extracellular matrix and phenotypic properties of its cells, but less is known about its developmental biology. Incipient articular cartilage in late embryos and neonates is a thin tissue with scanty matrix and small cells, while adult tissue is thick and zonal and contains large cells and abundant matrix. What remains unclear is not only how incipient articular cartilage forms, but how it then grows and matures into a functional, complex and multifaceted structure. This review focuses on recent and exciting discoveries on the developmental biology and growth of articular cartilage, frames them within the context of classic studies, and points to lingering questions and research goals. Advances in this research area will have significant relevance to basic science, and also considerable translational value to design superior cartilage repair and regeneration strategies. PMID:26408155

  13. Simultaneous Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Consolidation Measurement of Articular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Wellard, Robert Mark; Ravasio, Jean-Philippe; Guesne, Samuel; Bell, Christopher; Oloyede, Adekunle; Tevelen, Greg; Pope, James M.; Momot, Konstantin I.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers the opportunity to study biological tissues and processes in a non-disruptive manner. The technique shows promise for the study of the load-bearing performance (consolidation) of articular cartilage and changes in articular cartilage accompanying osteoarthritis. Consolidation of articular cartilage involves the recording of two transient characteristics: the change over time of strain and the hydrostatic excess pore pressure (HEPP). MRI study of cartilage consolidation under mechanical load is limited by difficulties in measuring the HEPP in the presence of the strong magnetic fields associated with the MRI technique. Here we describe the use of MRI to image and characterize bovine articular cartilage deforming under load in an MRI compatible consolidometer while monitoring pressure with a Fabry-Perot interferometer-based fiber-optic pressure transducer. PMID:24803188

  14. Blends and Nanocomposite Biomaterials for Articular Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Doulabi, Azadehsadat Hashemi; Mequanint, Kibret; Mohammadi, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    This review provides a comprehensive assessment on polymer blends and nanocomposite systems for articular cartilage tissue engineering applications. Classification of various types of blends including natural/natural, synthetic/synthetic systems, their combination and nanocomposite biomaterials are studied. Additionally, an inclusive study on their characteristics, cell responses ability to mimic tissue and regenerate damaged articular cartilage with respect to have functionality and composition needed for native tissue, are also provided. PMID:28788131

  15. Pendulum mass affects the measurement of articular friction coefficient.

    PubMed

    Akelman, Matthew R; Teeple, Erin; Machan, Jason T; Crisco, Joseph J; Jay, Gregory D; Fleming, Braden C

    2013-02-01

    Friction measurements of articular cartilage are important to determine the relative tribologic contributions made by synovial fluid or cartilage, and to assess the efficacy of therapies for preventing the development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Stanton's equation is the most frequently used formula for estimating the whole joint friction coefficient (μ) of an articular pendulum, and assumes pendulum energy loss through a mass-independent mechanism. This study examines if articular pendulum energy loss is indeed mass independent, and compares Stanton's model to an alternative model, which incorporates viscous damping, for calculating μ. Ten loads (25-100% body weight) were applied in a random order to an articular pendulum using the knees of adult male Hartley guinea pigs (n=4) as the fulcrum. Motion of the decaying pendulum was recorded and μ was estimated using two models: Stanton's equation, and an exponential decay function incorporating a viscous damping coefficient. μ estimates decreased as mass increased for both models. Exponential decay model fit error values were 82% less than the Stanton model. These results indicate that μ decreases with increasing mass, and that an exponential decay model provides a better fit for articular pendulum data at all mass values. In conclusion, inter-study comparisons of articular pendulum μ values should not be made without recognizing the loads used, as μ values are mass dependent.

  16. Pendulum Mass Affects the Measurement of Articular Friction Coefficient

    PubMed Central

    Akelman, Matthew R.; Teeple, Erin; Machan, Jason T.; Crisco, Joseph J.; Jay, Gregory D.; Fleming, Braden C.

    2012-01-01

    Friction measurements of articular cartilage are important to determine the relative tribologic contributions made by synovial fluid or cartilage, and to assess the efficacy of therapies for preventing the development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Stanton’s equation is the most frequently used formula for estimating the whole joint friction coefficient (μ) of an articular pendulum, and assumes pendulum energy loss through a mass-independent mechanism. This study examines if articular pendulum energy loss is indeed mass independent, and compares Stanton’s model to an alternative model, which incorporates viscous damping, for calculating μ. Ten loads (25-100% body weight) were applied in a random order to an articular pendulum using the knees of adult male Hartley guinea pigs (n = 4) as the fulcrum. Motion of the decaying pendulum was recorded and μ was estimated using two models: Stanton’s equation, and an exponential decay function incorporating a viscous damping coefficient. μ estimates decreased as mass increased for both models. Exponential decay model fit error values were 82% less than the Stanton model. These results indicate that μ decreases with increasing mass, and that an exponential decay model provides a better fit for articular pendulum data at all mass values. In conclusion, inter-study comparisons of articular pendulum μ values should not be made without recognizing the loads used, as μ values are mass dependent. PMID:23122223

  17. Biomechanical Properties of Peripheral Layer in Articular Cartilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrtyl, M.; Danesova, J.; Lisal, J.; Sejkotova, J.

    2010-05-01

    Articular cartilage as a complex viscohyperelastic biomaterial possessing supporting and protective functions. It transfers dynamic effects into subchondral and spongious bone and protects chondrocytes (and the matrix material) from their destruction. Under cyclic loads, it also ensures regulated long-term protection of articular cartilage plateaus. The viscoelastic properties of the peripheral zone of articular cartilage and its molecular structure ensure the regulation of the transport and accumulation of synovial fluid between articular plateaus. The viscoelastic properties of articular cartilage in the peripheral zone ensure that during cyclic loading some amount of synovial fluid is always retained accumulated between articular plateaus, which were presupplemented with it in the previous loading cycle. During long-term harmonic cyclic loading and unloading, the strains stabilize at limit values. Shortly after loading, the strain rate is always greater than before unloading. In this way, the hydrodynamic lubrication biomechanism quickly presupplements the surface localities with lubrication material. Shortly after unloading, the strain rate is high. During strain relaxation, it slows down.

  18. Arthroscopic transtendinous repair of articular-sided pasta (partial articular supraspinatus tendon avulsion) injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Lu, Liangyu; Lu, Zhe; Xiao, Lei; Kang, Yifan; Wang, Zimin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate clinical efficacy of arthroscopic transtendinous repair of partial articular-sided PASTA (partial articular supraspinatus tendon avulsion) injury. Methods: From February 2011 to July 2014, 12 cases of PASTA, aged 29 to 72 years with an average of 52.9 ± 13.3 years, were treated arthoscopically. To repair PASTA, articular-sided rotator cuff tear was explored, injury site was punctured and labeled with PDS absorbable monofilament suture (Ethicon, Somerville, NJ, USA) suture, subacromial bursa was cleaned up with acromioplasty, and integrity of bursa-side rotator cuff was assessed. Then with arthroscope in glenohumeral joint, footprint of the bursa-side supraspinatus tendon was preserved, rivets were introduced into the joint through supraspinatus tendon, joint-side partial tear was sutured, and anatomical reconstruction of the rotator cuff footprint was established. The patients were followed up post-operatively for 12-36 months, average 22 ± 7.3 months. The clinical outcomes were emulated with ASES (American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons) Shoulder Score system and UCLA (University of California at Los Angeles) Shoulder rating scale. Results: The post-operative ASES score was 89.7 ± 5.6, higher than the pre-operative one 49.8 ± 9.8 (t = 12.25, P <0.0001). While UCLA scale increased from the pre-operative 17.3, ± 3.3 to the post-operative 30.4 ± 3.2 points (t = 9.87, P <0.0001), with a satisfaction rate of 11/12 (91.7%). Conclusion: Trans-tendon repair is ideal for PASTA with advantage of maximal preservation of the normal rotator cuff tissue, anatomical reconstruction of the rotator cuff footprint and stable fixation of tendon-bone interface. PMID:25784979

  19. Knee Articular Cartilage Repair and Restoration Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Dustin L.; Schenck, Robert C.; Wascher, Daniel C.; Treme, Gehron

    2015-01-01

    Context: Isolated chondral and osteochondral defects of the knee are a difficult clinical challenge, particularly in younger patients for whom alternatives such as partial or total knee arthroplasty are rarely advised. Numerous surgical techniques have been developed to address focal cartilage defects. Cartilage treatment strategies are characterized as palliation (eg, chondroplasty and debridement), repair (eg, drilling and microfracture [MF]), or restoration (eg, autologous chondrocyte implantation [ACI], osteochondral autograft [OAT], and osteochondral allograft [OCA]). Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was searched for treatment articles using the keywords knee, articular cartilage, and osteochondral defect, with a focus on articles published in the past 5 years. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: In general, smaller lesions (<2 cm2) are best treated with MF or OAT. Furthermore, OAT shows trends toward greater longevity and durability as well as improved outcomes in high-demand patients. Intermediate-size lesions (2-4 cm2) have shown fairly equivalent treatment results using either OAT or ACI options. For larger lesions (>4 cm2), ACI or OCA have shown the best results, with OCA being an option for large osteochondritis dissecans lesions and posttraumatic defects. Conclusion: These techniques may improve patient outcomes, though no single technique can reproduce normal hyaline cartilage. PMID:26502188

  20. Acute synovitis and intra-articular methylprednisolone acetate in ponies.

    PubMed

    Todhunter, R J; Fubini, S L; Vernier-Singer, M; Wootton, J A; Lust, G; Freeman, K P; MacLeod, J N

    1998-03-01

    To determine how acute synovitis, with and without intra-articular methylprednisolone acetate (MPA), affect synthesis of proteoglycan, total protein, and collagen in articular cartilage and total protein synthesis in synovial membrane. Synovitis was induced in 10 ponies by the injection of 0.5 ng lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the left radiocarpal and midcarpal joints every 2 days for a total of four treatments. Synovitis was documented by clinical examination and synovial fluid analyses. Two days before euthanasia, MPA (0.1 mg/kg) was injected with the last dose of LPS into both the left and right radiocarpal and midcarpal joints of five of these ponies. Proteoglycan synthesis in articular cartilage explants from these joints was measured by incorporation of sodium [35S]sulfate. The size of the proteoglycan monomers and their aggregation with hyaluronan was assessed by size-exclusion chromatography. Protein synthesis in articular cartilage was measured by incorporation of [3H]proline and collagen synthesis by conversion of [3H]proline into [3H]hydroxyproline. Protein synthesis was measured in synovial membrane explants by incorporation of [35S]methionine. Ponies developed carpal effusion and mild lameness accompanied by increased total nucleated cell count and total solids in synovial fluid in response to the LPS injections. Moderate to severe synovial membrane proliferation and inflammation were observed histopathologically in joints injected with LPS but no consistent light-microscopical changes were observed in the articular cartilage from these joints. Intra-articular MPA alone was associated with decreased proteoglycan synthesis and increased protein and collagen synthesis in the cartilage explants. Total protein synthesis by synovial membrane was also increased by MPA alone. In contrast, no differences in protein or proteoglycan synthesis were observed in explants from the joints with synovitis, with or without intra-articular MPA. Treatment with MPA, LPS

  1. Clinical benefits of intra-articular anakinra for arthrofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christopher A; Toth, Alison P; Magnussen, Bob

    2010-12-01

    Postoperative inflammation and stiffness, as well as the struggle to achieve full range of motion (ROM), following knee surgery is a significant clinical challenge. Interleukin-1 is a crucial mediator of the inflammatory response and development of pathological conditions leading to chronic inflammation. We hypothesized that intra-articular injection of intra-articular anakinra, an IL-1 antagonist, would result in sustained improvements of chronic refractory arthrofibrosis and limited arthrofibrosis of the knee joint. We retrospectively reviewed 8 patients who underwent injection of intra-articular anakinra, 200 mg. Four patients (3 women, 1 man) had intra-articular anakinra for treatment of chronic refractory arthrofibrosis, and 4 patients (4 women) had intra-articular anakinra for limited arthrofibrosis. All 4 of the refractory arthrofibrosis patients had failed conservative treatment with intensive physical therapy, corticosteroid injections, and anti-inflammatory medication. Three of the 4 patients had failed a prior manipulation under anesthesia with lysis of adhesions. All 4 reported improvement in ROM (10°-45°) and swelling, with 75% reporting improvement in pain. Seventy-five percent of these patients returned to prior activity level. All 4 of the limited arthrofibrosis also failed similar attempts at conservative treatment, and 2 of the 4 had failed a prior manipulation under anesthesia with lysis of adhesions. After intra-articular anakinra, all 4 reported improvement in ROM (20°-45°) and swelling, with 80% reporting improvement in pain. Seventy-five percent of these patients were able to return to prior activity level. We found intra-articular anakinra to be effective in this small cohort of patients with refractory arthrofibrosis and limited arthrofibrosis. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Datação do disco galáctico pela nucleocosmocronologia do [Th/Eu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Peloso, E. F.; da Silva, L.; Arany-Prado, L. I.

    2003-08-01

    A nucleocosmocronologia emprega abundâncias de nuclídeos radioativos na datação de escalas de tempo astrofísicas. O 232Th é um nuclídeo radioativo com meia-vida de 14 Gano, enquanto que os dois isótopos mais abundantes do Eu são estáveis. O decaimento radioativo do Th modifica as razões de abundâncias [Th/Eu], fornecendo assim um meio de sondar a escala de formação das populações estelares. O objetivo deste trabalho é averiguar a possibilidade de estimar uma idade para o disco Galáctico através da nucleocosmocronologia do [Th/Eu] e investigar o nível de incerteza associado a esta estimativa. Para tanto, foi selecionada uma amostra de 20 estrelas anãs ou subgigantes de tipos espectrais F5 a G9, com -1,00 £ [Fe/H] £ +0,30 e idade(Gano) £ 13. As abundâncias de Th e Eu foram obtidas por síntese espectral das linhas localizadas em 4019,1 Å e 4129,7 Å, respectivamente. Uma comparação destas abundâncias com outros resultados da literatura demonstra que nossos valores apresentam dispersão 2 a 3 vezes menor que qualquer trabalho anterior. Os parâmetros atmosféricos e abundâncias dos elementos que contaminam as regiões espectrais destas linhas foram determinados por nós, de maneira totalmente autoconsistente, através de análise espectral detalhada diferencial em relação ao Sol. As idades estelares individuais foram determinadas através de curvas isócronas teóricas no diagrama HR. Foi realizada, então, uma análise cronológica dos gráficos [Th/Eu] vs. [Fe/H] e [Th/Eu] vs. idade. Os dados estelares foram comparados a curvas calculadas para 3 idades do disco Galáctico - 9, 12, 15 Gano - e foi estudada a sensibilidade à idade assumida no cálculo do ajuste destas curvas aos dados. Estas curvas foram calculadas com base num modelo analítico de evolução química da Galáxia que leva em consideração a formação de refugos, que são compostos pelos remanescentes da evolução estelar, pelos resíduos da formação de estrelas de

  3. Endogenous versus Exogenous Growth Factor Regulation of Articular Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Shuiliang; Chan, Albert G.; Mercer, Scott; Eckert, George J.; Trippel, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Anabolic growth factors that regulate the function of articular chondrocytes are candidates for articular cartilage repair. Such factors may be delivered by pharmacotherapy in the form of exogenous proteins, or by gene therapy as endogenous proteins. It is unknown whether delivery method influences growth factor effectiveness in regulating articular chondrocyte reparative functions. We treated adult bovine articular chondrocytes with exogenous recombinant insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1), or with the genes encoding these growth factors for endogenous production. Treatment effects were measured as change in chondrocyte DNA content, glycosaminoglycan production, and aggrecan gene expression. We found that IGF-I stimulated chondrocyte biosynthesis similarly when delivered by either exogenous or endogenous means. In contrast, exogenous TGF-ß1 stimulated these reparative functions, while endogenous TGF-ß1 had little effect. Endogenous TGF-ß1 became more bioactive following activation of the transgene protein product. These data indicate that effective mechanisms of growth factor delivery for articular cartilage repair may differ for different growth factors. In the case of IGF-I, gene therapy or protein therapy appear to be viable options. In contrast, TGF-ß1 gene therapy may be constrained by a limited ability of chondrocytes to convert latent complexes to an active form. PMID:24105960

  4. The Functions of BMP3 in Rabbit Articular Cartilage Repair.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhe; Yang, Wenyu; Cao, Yiting; Shi, Yanping; Lei, Chen; Du, Bo; Li, Xuemin; Zhang, Qiqing

    2015-10-29

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play important roles in skeletal development and repair. Previously, we found fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) induced up-regulation of BMP2, 3, 4 in the process of rabbit articular cartilage repair, which resulted in satisfactory repair effects. As BMP2/4 show a clearly positive effect for cartilage repair, we investigated the functions of BMP3 in rabbit articular cartilage repair. In this paper, we find that BMP3 inhibits the repair of partial-thickness defect of articular cartilage in rabbit by inducing the degradation of extracellular matrix, interfering with the survival of chondrocytes surrounding the defect, and directly inhibiting the expression of BMP2 and BMP4. Meanwhile BMP3 suppress the repair of full-thickness cartilage defect by destroying the subchondral bone through modulating the proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs), and directly increasing the expression of BMP4. Although BMP3 has different functions in the repair of partial and full-thickness defects of articular cartilage in rabbit, the regulation of BMP expression is involved in both of them. Together with our previous findings, we suggest the regulation of the BMP signaling pathway by BMP3 is essential in articular cartilage repair.

  5. Extra-articular Mimickers of Lateral Meniscal Tears

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Joseph U.; Strauss, Eric J.; Lodha, Sameer; Bach, Bernard R.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Lateral meniscus tears are a common entity seen in sports medicine. Although lateral-side knee pain is often the result of a meniscus injury, several extra-articular pathologies share signs and symptoms with a meniscus tear. It is critical for the clinician to be able to identify and understand extra-articular pathologies that can present similar to a lateral meniscus tear. Evidence Acquisition: Data were collected through a thorough review of the literature conducted through a MEDLINE search for all relevant articles between 1980 and February 2010. Study Type: Clinical review. Results: Common extra-articular pathologies that can mimic lateral meniscal tears include iliotibial band syndrome, proximal tibiofibular joint instability, snapping biceps femoris or popliteus tendons, and peroneal nerve compression syndrome or neuritis. The patient history, physical examination features, and radiographic findings can be used to separate these entities from the more common intra-articular knee pathologies. Conclusions: In treating patients who present with lateral-sided knee pain, clinicians should be able to recognize and treat extra-articular pathologies that can present in a similar fashion as lateral meniscus tears. PMID:23015995

  6. Intra-articular capacity of the elbow joint.

    PubMed

    Van Den Broek, Mathias; Van Riet, Roger

    2017-09-01

    The intra-articular capacity of the elbow joint is reported to be 23 ± 4 ml on cadaveric elbows. During years, this value was the standard. The aim of this observational study was to reanalyze the volume of the elbow joint on live patients. Measurement of the intra-articular capacity and pressure of the elbow joint was performed on 30 patients (mean age: 43.8 years) undergoing elbow arthroscopy. Intra-articular capacity was recorded when the elbow moved to the maximum lose packed position and/or when there was a sudden drop in pressure, indicating a capsular rupture (maximum capacity). Indications for arthroscopy were loose bodies, osteoarthritis, synovitis, radial head resection, and lateral collateral ligament repair. Mean intra-articular capacity and pressure were 35.8 ml and 557.5 mm Hg, respectively. Mean maximal capacity was 40.5 ml. We conclude that the intra-articular capacity of the elbow joint is substantially greater than reported in previous studies. Clin. Anat. 30:795-798, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Depletion of Gangliosides Enhances Articular Cartilage Repair in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Masatake; Onodera, Tomohiro; Homan, Kentaro; Sasazawa, Fumio; Furukawa, Jun-ichi; Momma, Daisuke; Baba, Rikiya; Hontani, Kazutoshi; Joutoku, Zenta; Matsubara, Shinji; Yamashita, Tadashi; Iwasaki, Norimasa

    2017-01-01

    Elucidation of the healing mechanisms in damaged tissues is a critical step for establishing breakthroughs in tissue engineering. Articular cartilage is clinically one of the most successful tissues to be repaired with regenerative medicine because of its homogeneous extracellular matrix and few cell types. However, we only poorly understand cartilage repair mechanisms, and hence, regenerated cartilage remains inferior to the native tissues. Here, we show that glycosylation is an important process for hypertrophic differentiation during articular cartilage repair. GM3, which is a precursor molecule for most gangliosides, was transiently expressed in surrounding damaged tissue, and depletion of GM3 synthase enhanced cartilage repair. Gangliosides also regulated chondrocyte hypertrophy via the Indian hedgehog pathway. These results identify a novel mechanism of cartilage healing through chondrocyte hypertrophy that is regulated by glycosylation. Manipulation of gangliosides and their synthases may have beneficial effects on articular cartilage repair. PMID:28252046

  8. Intra-articular clonidine analgesia after knee arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Buerkle, H; Huge, V; Wolfgart, M; Steinbeck, J; Mertes, N; Van Aken, H; Prien, T

    2000-05-01

    Recently, it was suggested that peripherally-mediated analgesia can be accomplished by the intra-articular delivery of the mu-opioid morphine or of the a2-agonist clonidine. This clinical study assesses the potential peripheral analgesic effect of the combination of morphine and clonidine after intra-articular administration. Sixty patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists status I or II) undergoing arthroscopic repair of the knee during general anaesthesia were randomized to receive after operation, in a double-blind manner, either 1 mg morphine intra-articularly (group 1); 150 microg clonidine intra-articularly (group 2); or 1 mg morphine + 150 microg clonidine intra-articularly (group 3); or normal saline intra-articularly (group 4) in a volume of 30 mL, respectively. Visual analogue pain scores (VAS), duration of analgesia as defined by first demand for supplemental analgesics, subsequent 24 h consumption of postoperative supplementary analgesics, and patient satisfaction were evaluated. Co-administration of morphine + clonidine (group 3) resulted in a significant VAS reduction at 2 h after injection compared with the other groups. There was a tendency towards a lower need for supplementary rescue analgesia and towards a more prolonged analgesia in group 3 (211 min +/- 224 min SD) compared with group 1 (173 min +/- 197 min SD) and group 4 (91 min +/- 21 min SD). More patients were very satisfied with the postoperative analgesic regimen receiving the combination of morphine and clonidine (group 3) at 24 h postoperatively. Thus we conclude, that the peripheral co-delivery of an opioid and an a2-agonist will result in improved postoperative pain relief, when compared with each single agent given alone.

  9. Articular Contact Mechanics from an Asymptotic Modeling Perspective: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Argatov, Ivan; Mishuris, Gennady

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, we review the current state-of-the-art in asymptotic modeling of articular contact. Particular attention has been given to the knee joint contact mechanics with a special emphasis on implications drawn from the asymptotic models, including average characteristics for articular cartilage layer. By listing a number of complicating effects such as transverse anisotropy, non-homogeneity, variable thickness, nonlinear deformations, shear loading, and bone deformation, which may be accounted for by asymptotic modeling, some unsolved problems and directions for future research are also discussed. PMID:27847803

  10. Postnatal development of collagen structure in ovine articular cartilage

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Articular cartilage (AC) is the layer of tissue that covers the articulating ends of the bones in diarthrodial joints. Across species, adult AC shows an arcade-like structure with collagen predominantly perpendicular to the subchondral bone near the bone, and collagen predominantly parallel to the articular surface near the articular surface. Recent studies into collagen fibre orientation in stillborn and juvenile animals showed that this structure is absent at birth. Since the collagen structure is an important factor for AC mechanics, the absence of the adult Benninghoff structure has implications for perinatal AC mechanobiology. The current objective is to quantify the dynamics of collagen network development in a model animal from birth to maturity. We further aim to show the presence or absence of zonal differentiation at birth, and to assess differences in collagen network development between different anatomical sites of a single joint surface. We use quantitative polarised light microscopy to investigate properties of the collagen network and we use the sheep (Ovis aries) as our model animal. Results Predominant collagen orientation is parallel to the articular surface throughout the tissue depth for perinatal cartilage. This remodels to the Benninghoff structure before the sheep reach sexual maturity. Remodelling of predominant collagen orientation starts at a depth just below the future transitional zone. Tissue retardance shows a minimum near the articular surface at all ages, which indicates the presence of zonal differentiation at all ages. The absolute position of this minimum does change between birth and maturity. Between different anatomical sites, we find differences in the dynamics of collagen remodelling, but no differences in adult collagen structure. Conclusions The collagen network in articular cartilage remodels between birth and sexual maturity from a network with predominant orientation parallel to the articular surface to a

  11. Corrective Osteotomies for Malunited Extra-Articular Calcaneal Fractures.

    PubMed

    Ketz, John; Clare, Michael; Sanders, Roy

    2016-03-01

    The most effective way to treat calcaneal malunions is avoidance. With any articular fracture, progressive arthrosis and dysfunction are common. By restoring the anatomy initially through reduction, late reconstructive options become less complicated. Numerous studies have shown that restoration of the anatomic alignment either through percutaneous or open techniques is effective. In patients with no or minimal articular degeneration, extrarticular joint-sparing procedures can be performed. This represents a small select group who may benefit from simple osteotomy procedures with associated soft tissue reconstruction, if needed.

  12. [Allograft of cultured chondrocytes into articular cartilage defects in rabbits--experimental study of the repair of articular cartilage injuries].

    PubMed

    Tsuge, H; Sasaki, T; Susuda, K; Abe, K

    1983-08-01

    Articular cartilage defects were created by dill holes, 2 mm wide and 3 mm deep, through the articular cartilage into the subchondral bone in the patellar groove of the femur in mature rabbits. The defects received graft of cultured chondrocytes and the matrix obtained from the primary culture of chondrocytes isolated from the articular cartilage or auricular cartilage in immature rabbits. The isolated cells were cultured for 10 to 14 days. For graft, the cultured chondrocytes together with the matrix were detached from the culture chamber using rubber policemen and centrifuged. The repair of the grafted defects or defects without graft (control) was histologically studied 2 to 12 weeks after operation. The defects without the graft were progressively filled with fibrous tissue containing spindle shaped cells, fibers perpendicular to the surface, and matrix showing weak metachromasia with toluidin blue at 8 weeks. The defects received articular cartilage cell graft were occupied by new cartilage tissue consisting colonylike crumps of chondrocytes 2 weeks after operation. The crumps showed strong metachromasia with toluidin blue and strong stainability for safranin-O. By 4-8 weeks, the defects were filled with homogeneous cartilage. At 12 weeks, arrangement of the chondrocytes of the superficial layer of the new cartilage became columnar as seen in the normal articular cartilage. The defects received elastic cartilage cell graft were filled by reformed cartilage with chondrocytes surrounded by elastic fibers 2-12 weeks after operation. The results indicate that allograft of cultured chondrocytes with matrix into the articular cartilage defects accerated the repair process of the defects by formation of the new cartilage derived from the grafted chondrocytes.

  13. Corrective Osteotomy for Intra-Articular Distal Humerus Malunion

    PubMed Central

    Kinaci, Ahmet; Buijze, Geert A.; Leeuwen, Diederik H.van; Jupiter, Jesse B.; Marti, Rene K.; Kloen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background: An intra-articular distal humerus malunion can be disabling. To improve function, reduce pain and/or prevent further secondary osteoarthritis an intra-articular corrective osteotomy can be considered. Herein we present the indications, practical guidelines for pre- operative planning and surgical technique. Subsequently, we provide long-term results in a small series. Methods: We included six consecutive patients operated for intra-articular distal humerus malunion. Mean follow-up was 88 months. At lastest follow up elbow function was assessed according to standardized questionnaires and classification systems. Results: All six patients healed their osteotomies. Three patients had a postoperative complication which were treated succesfully. Range of motion improved significantly and all patients were satisfied with the outcome. The elbow performance scores were good to excellent in all. Correlation analyses showed that age and level of osteoarthritis are very strong predictors for the long-term elbow function and quality of life. Conclusion: An intra-articular corrective osteotomy for a malunited distal humerus fracture is a worthwhile procedure. Based on our results it should particularly be considered in young patients with minimal osteoarthritis and moderate to severe functional disability and/or pain. PMID:27200396

  14. Surface fissures in articular cartilage: new concepts, hypotheses and modeling.

    PubMed

    Kafka, Vratislav

    2002-01-01

    Clarification and mesomechanical modeling of the inception of fissures at the surface of articular cartilage. Articular cartilage is described as a macroscopically heterogeneous medium consisting of zones - layers - with different orientation of collagen fibers. Degradation of mechanical properties of cartilage is a serious, still not fully clarified problem that deserves attention. Theoretical analysis based on a survey of known experimental findings related to the subject. The general author's mesomechanical concept of modeling heterogeneous media is applied to the elucidation and description of the formation of fissures at the surface of articular cartilage. Our model clarifies how the high tensile stresses in the collagen fibers of the superficial tangential zone depend on the rate of loading. The superficial cracks are caused predominantly by a very quick loading. This explains among others the high incidence of post-traumatic osteoarthritis of the lower extremity after accidents and injuries in sports. Superficial fissures in articular cartilage are observed in joints with primary osteoarthritis. The current study specifies the kinds of loading that lead to their inception.

  15. Vitamin D and Its Effects on Articular Cartilage and Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Garfinkel, Rachel J; Dilisio, Matthew F; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2017-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) currently affects 10% of the American population. There has been a recent push to determine exactly what causes OA and how it can be treated most effectively. Serum vitamin D levels have been associated with OA and may have an effect on articular cartilage remodeling. To critically review the published research on the effect of vitamin D on articular cartilage and the development of OA as well as on the mechanism behind cartilage regeneration and degeneration. Review. A systematic search of PubMed and the Web of Science was performed for relevant studies published in the English language through April 30, 2016, using the terms vitamin D, articular cartilage, and osteoarthritis. On a molecular level, 1α,25(OH)2D3, the activated form of vitamin D, plays a role in articular cartilage degeneration. Vitamin D binds to vitamin D receptors, triggering a signaling cascade that leads to chondrocyte hypertrophy. In clinical trials, vitamin D deficiency poses a risk factor for OA, and those with decreased cartilage thickness are more likely to be vitamin D-insufficient. The role of vitamin D supplementation in the treatment or prevention of OA remains uncertain. More research is needed to reconcile these conflicting findings.

  16. Human patellar articular proportions: recent and Pleistocene patterns

    PubMed Central

    TRINKAUS, ERIK

    2000-01-01

    The degrees of mediolateral asymmetry of the patellar articular facet, as well as the median and lateral articular angles of the facet, were compared across samples of recent humans and of Pleistocene archaic and modern fossil humans. All samples exhibit considerable variability in these patellar proportions. The articular angles are similar across the different samples, but there is a trend towards decreasing lateral angles with decreasing robusticity. The archaic humans exhibit significantly more symmetry of the medial and lateral facets than do any of the recent human samples. However, given the variability in medial versus lateral patellofemoral contact forces documented for extant humans and the roles of the distal oblique portions of vastus medialis and vastus lateralis in patellar stabilisation, it is unclear to what extent this variation in patellar articular proportions may affect knee kinesiology. The contrasts may be related to different levels of patellar stability and/or musculoskeletal hypertrophy, but they appear unlikely to have affected primary knee function. PMID:10853969

  17. Haemorrhoids and joint hypermobility: a new extra-articular association.

    PubMed

    Yousif, Uqba N; Bird, Howard A

    2013-04-01

    An association has been demonstrated between haemorrhoids and joint hypermobility. Reasons for this are discussed. Many performing artists are hypermobile and the extra-articular features of joint hypermobility should not be forgotten or underestimated as a potential constraint upon performance.

  18. Computational aspects in mechanical modeling of the articular cartilage tissue.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Hadi; Mequanint, Kibret; Herzog, Walter

    2013-04-01

    This review focuses on the modeling of articular cartilage (at the tissue level), chondrocyte mechanobiology (at the cell level) and a combination of both in a multiscale computation scheme. The primary objective is to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of conventional models implemented to study the mechanics of the articular cartilage tissue and chondrocytes. From monophasic material models as the simplest form to more complicated multiscale theories, these approaches have been frequently used to model articular cartilage and have contributed significantly to modeling joint mechanics, addressing and resolving numerous issues regarding cartilage mechanics and function. It should be noted that attentiveness is important when using different modeling approaches, as the choice of the model limits the applications available. In this review, we discuss the conventional models applicable to some of the mechanical aspects of articular cartilage such as lubrication, swelling pressure and chondrocyte mechanics and address some of the issues associated with the current modeling approaches. We then suggest future pathways for a more realistic modeling strategy as applied for the simulation of the mechanics of the cartilage tissue using multiscale and parallelized finite element method.

  19. Transtendon repair in partial articular supraspinatus tendon tear.

    PubMed

    Osti, Leonardo; Buda, Matteo; Andreotti, Mattia; Osti, Raffaella; Massari, Leo; Maffulli, Nicola

    2017-09-01

    Partial thickness rotator cuff tears (PTRCTs) are common, with an incidence between 17% and 37%, and a high prevalence in throwing athletes. Different surgical procedures are suggested when partial tears involve the articular portion of the rotator cuff, including arthroscopic debridement of the tear, debridement with acromioplasty, tear completion and repair, and lately transtendon repair. This systematic review describes the transtendon repair and examines indications, contraindications, complications and clinical outcome. We identified clinical studies listed in the Pubmed Google Scholar, CINAHL, Cochrane Central and Embase Biomedical databases in English and Italian concerning the clinical outcomes following treatment of partial articular supraspinatus tendon tear using transtendon surgical repair. Eighteen studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria. All were published between 2005 and 2016, three were retrospective, and 15 prospective. The total number of patients was 507 with a mean age of 50.8 years. Tear completion and repair and transtendon repair alone produce similar results. Transtendon surgical repair allows to obtain good-excellent results in the treatment of partial articular supraspinatus tendon tears. Further studies are needed to produce clear guidelines in the treatment of partial articular supraspinatus tendon tears. IV.

  20. [Articular lesions in Ixodes tick-borne borreliosis (Lyme disease)].

    PubMed

    Anan'eva, L P; Barskova, V G; Koneva, O A; Ushakova, M A; Mach, E S; Pushkova, O V; Guseva, I A; Zakharova, M M; Radenska-Lopovok, S G; Speranskiĭ, A I; Kashnikova, L N

    2003-01-01

    Articular lesions in 157 patients infected with ixodes tick-borne borreliosis (ITB) in a central Russia's region set on, on the average, in 4 months after tick attack; they were associated with systemic signs of an early disseminated infection and set on less seldom in a late period. The most often encountered systemic signs were as follows: secondary erythema (32% of patients), neurological syndrome (13%), cardio-vascular lesions (22%), ocular lesions (13%) and hepatic lesions (8%). The articular syndrome manifested itself through arthralgia (53 patients) and arthritis (104 patients), which set on quite often in the tick-attack area. There was a peculiarity typical of articular lesions, which made it possible to distinguish them from other rheumatic disease. A dynamic follow-up revealed different clinical variations of Lyme's arthritis and peculiarities of the genetic profile, i.e. a higher prevalence of HLA A2, HLA-B15 and HLA-DR4 as well as of haplo-types HLA A2-B15 and HLAB15-DR4. The articular lesions were associated with an intensive specific humoral immune response. The instrumental examination methods, i.e. ultrasonography of joints as well as scintigraphy of bones and joints, did not reveal any qualitative differences between arthralgia and arthritis, which is indicative of a common nature different-intensity manifestations of arthropathy in thick-borne borreliosis.

  1. Biphasic surface amorphous layer lubrication of articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Graindorge, Simon; Ferrandez, Wendy; Jin, Zhongmin; Ingham, Eileen; Grant, Colin; Twigg, Peter; Fisher, John

    2005-12-01

    The biphasic nature of articular cartilage has been acknowledged for some time and is known to play an important role in many of the biomechanical functions performed by this unique tissue. From the lubrication point of view however, a simple biphasic model is unable to account for the extremely low friction coefficients that have been recorded experimentally, particularly during start-up. In addition, research over the last decade has indicated the presence of a surface amorphous layer on top of articular cartilage. Here, we present results from a finite element model of articular cartilage that includes a thin, soft, biphasic surface amorphous layer (BSAL). The results of this study show that a thin BSAL, with lower elastic modulus, dramatically altered the load sharing between the solid and liquid phases of articular cartilage, particularly in the near-surface regions of the underlying bulk cartilage and within the surface amorphous layer itself where the fluid load support exceeded 85%. By transferring the load from the solid phase to the fluid phase, the biphasic surface layer improves lubrication and reduces friction, whilst also protecting the underlying cartilage surface by 'shielding' the solid phase from elevated stresses. The increase in lubrication effectiveness is shown to be greatest during short duration loading scenarios, such as shock loads.

  2. Condições físicas do disco de acréscimo da nova-anã V4140 SGR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, B.; Baptista, R.

    2003-08-01

    Discos de acréscimo são aparatos cósmicos que permitem que matéria seja eficientemente acrescida sobre uma fonte compacta pela remoção de momento angular via tensões viscosas enquanto transforma a energia potencial gravitacional em calor e, posteriormente, em radiação. Sistemas binários semi-ligados, como Variáveis Cataclísmicas (VCs) não-magnéticas, são talvez os melhores ambientes encontrados para o estudo da física desses discos de acréscimo. O desenvolvimento de técnicas de imageamento indireto, como o mapeamento por eclipses (MME) e a tomografia Doppler, permitiu avanços importantes na compreensão da física dos processos de acréscimo desses sistemas. V4140 Sagitarii é uma VC eclipsante de curto período orbital (~ 90 min) que não havia sido classificada como nova-anã ou polar. Neste trabalho apresentamos a análise do mapeamento por eclipse feito com dados de fotometria CCD nas bandas B, V e R de V4140 Sgr realizada no LNA. O objeto foi observado no declínio de erupção em julho de 1992 e em erupção em julho de 2001, isso indicou a classificação do sistema como uma nova-anã. A análise, feita sobre os mapas já apresentados em trabalho anterior, apresenta (i) diagrama cor-cor, que indica uma emissão opticamente espessa nas partes internas do disco em quiescência (R < RL1); (ii) diagrama cor-magnitude, usado para inferir uma distância de 600 +/- 10 pc ao sistema; (iii) a distribuição radial de temperatura observada que concorda com a lei de disco espesso em estado estacionário TµR-3/4, com temperaturas em torno de 10000 K e 3000 K ns partes internas e externas do disco em quiescência, respectivamente; (iv) a evolução da distribuição de temperatura no declínio de erupção; (v) estimativa da transferência de massa de 109.9+/-0.1 M¤/ano em quiescência, similar àquelas observadas em novas-like. O sistema é comparado à outras novas-anãs (e.g. OY Car e Z Cha) em quiescência e erupção, mostrando-se tratar um

  3. Brother of CDO (BOC) expression in equine articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Vanderman, K S; Tremblay, M; Zhu, W; Shimojo, M; Mienaltowski, M J; Coleman, S J; MacLeod, J N

    2011-04-01

    Brother of CDO (BOC) is a cell surface receptor that derives its name from the structurally related protein, cell adhesion molecule-related/down-regulated by oncogenes (CDO, sometimes CDON). High levels of BOC mRNA and protein expression have been described in embryonic tissues with active cell proliferation and ongoing cellular differentiation(1,2). A microarray-based screen of RNA isolated from 11 different adult equine tissues unexpectedly identified BOC as having an expression pattern restricted to articular cartilage. The objective of this study was to further investigate BOC expression in adult articular cartilage relative to other tissues. Both RT-qPCR and mRNA sequencing confirmed the microarray data. Steady state BOC mRNA levels in articular cartilage were substantially higher than in the other adult tissues tested, neonatal tendon, placenta, and whole embryo. The expression of BOC displayed a pattern of tissue specificity comparable to well established cartilage matrix protein biomarkers. BOC mRNA levels in articular cartilage increased with age, but were rapidly down-regulated when chondrocytes were enzymatically isolated from the cartilage matrix and expanded in monolayer culture. Relative expression patterns of CDO were broadly similar, but displayed lower fold change differences. A functional role in articular cartilage that involves Hedgehog signaling is suggested by the known binding affinity of BOC for all three Hedgehog ligands. These data also extend BOC and CDO biology to a post-mitotic and highly differentiated cell type within a mature tissue. Copyright © 2011 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Role of Tissue Engineering in Articular Cartilage Repair and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lijie; Hu, Jerry; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.

    2011-01-01

    Articular cartilage repair and regeneration continue to be largely intractable due to the poor regenerative properties of this tissue. The field of articular cartilage tissue engineering, which aims to repair, regenerate, and/or improve injured or diseased articular cartilage functionality, has evoked intense interest and holds great potential for improving articular cartilage therapy. This review provides an overall description of the current state and progress in articular cartilage repair and regeneration. Traditional therapies and related problems are introduced. More importantly, a variety of promising cell sources, biocompatible tissue engineered scaffolds, scaffoldless techniques, growth factors, and mechanical stimuli used in current articular cartilage tissue engineering are reviewed. Finally, the technical and regulatory challenges of articular cartilage tissue engineering and possible future directions are discussed. PMID:20201770

  5. An articular-based approach to Kienbock avascular necrosis of the lunate.

    PubMed

    Bain, Gregory I; Durrant, Adam

    2011-03-01

    There are 3 pathologic phases of Kienbock disease: early vascular, intermediate osseous, and late chondral. Most of the earlier investigators have used Lichtman osseous radiologic classification. We have used an articular based approach to assess and manage Kienbock disease. The Bain and Begg arthroscopic classification is based on the number of nonfunctional articular surfaces of the lunate and adjacent articulations. The spectrum of articular changes span from grade 0, all normal articular surfaces; grade 1, involvement of the proximal lunate which is often soft and indentable with a false floor; grade 2a, lunate changes and secondary changes on the lunate facet; grade 2b, coronal lunate fracture produces involvement of the midcarpal joint; and grade 3s and 4, involvement of 3 and subsequently 4 of the perilunate articular surfaces. Arthroscopic findings have shown that radiographs often underestimate articular changes and frequently changed the treatment recommendation. Eighty-two percent of cases had at least 1 nonfunctional articulation, whereas 61% had at least 2 nonfunctional articulations. The aim of surgical treatment is to maintain functional motion with normal articulations. The articular-based classification directs treatment based on sound surgical principles. If all articular surfaces are intact, then a procedure that does not violate the articular surfaces is indicated (eg, synovectomy, vascularized bone graft, forage or joint leveling procedure). With nonfunctioning articular surfaces, an articular reconstructive procedure is required to leave the carpus mobile with only functional articular surfaces. (eg, proximal row carpectomy, radioscapholunate fusion, lunate replacement, or hemiarthroplasty). More extensive joint involvement requires a salvage procedure. This articular-based approach was developed for Kienbock disease but is universally applicable to all forms of avascular necrosis and can be used with advanced imaging modalities.

  6. Treatment of articular cartilage lesions of the knee

    PubMed Central

    Falah, Mazen; Nierenberg, Gabreil; Soudry, Michael; Hayden, Morris

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of articular cartilage lesions in the knee remains a challenge for the practising orthopaedic surgeon. A wide range of options are currently practised, ranging from conservative measures through various types of operations and, recently, use of growth factors and emerging gene therapy techniques. The end result of these methods is usually a fibrous repair tissue (fibrocartilage), which lacks the biomechanical characteristics of hyaline cartilage that are necessary to withstand the compressive forces distributed across the knee. The fibrocartilage generally deteriorates over time, resulting in a return of the original symptoms and occasionally reported progression to osteoarthritis. Our purpose in this study was to review the aetiology, pathogenesis and treatment options for articular cartilage lesions of the knee. At present, autologous cell therapies, growth factor techniques and biomaterials offer more promising avenues of research to find clinical answers. PMID:20162416

  7. 3D braid scaffolds for regeneration of articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyunchul; Kim, Kyoung Ju; Park, Sook Young; Huh, Jeong Eun; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Yu, Woong-Ryeol

    2014-06-01

    Regenerating articular cartilage in vivo from cultured chondrocytes requires that the cells be cultured and implanted within a biocompatible, biodegradable scaffold. Such scaffolds must be mechanically stable; otherwise chondrocytes would not be supported and patients would experience severe pain. Here we report a new 3D braid scaffold that matches the anisotropic (gradient) mechanical properties of natural articular cartilage and is permissive to cell cultivation. To design an optimal structure, the scaffold unit cell was mathematically modeled and imported into finite element analysis. Based on this analysis, a 3D braid structure with gradient axial yarn distribution was designed and manufactured using a custom-built braiding machine. The mechanical properties of the 3D braid scaffold were evaluated and compared with simulated results, demonstrating that a multi-scale approach consisting of unit cell modeling and continuum analysis facilitates design of scaffolds that meet the requirements for mechanical compatibility with tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Repair of articular cartilage defects: part II. Treatment options.

    PubMed

    Chen, F S; Frenkel, S R; Di Cesare, P E

    1999-02-01

    Articular cartilage injuries result in numerous clinical symptoms, such as pain and decreased functional levels. Current therapeutic options being used include articular surface debridement, such as chondral shaving, abrasion chondroplasty, and subchondral perforation; soft-tissue arthroplasties, such as perichondrial and periosteal grafts; and osteochondral transplantation. None of these therapies, however, has resulted in the successful regeneration of a hyaline-like tissue that withstands normal joint loading and activity over prolonged periods. As a result, research is also being conducted on alternative therapeutic procedures to enhance the repair process and to stimulate the regeneration of a repair tissue with hyaline-like structural and biologic properties. Part I of this paper, which was published in January, discussed the basic science of cartilage healing. Part II presents the treatment options.

  9. Human stem cells and articular cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Stoltz, J-F; Huselstein, C; Schiavi, J; Li, Y Y; Bensoussan, D; Decot, V; De Isla, N

    2012-12-01

    Injuries to articular cartilage are one of the most challenging issues of musculoskeletal medicine due to the poor intrinsic ability of this tissue for repair. Despite progress in orthopaedic surgery, cell-based surgical therapies such as autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) have been in clinical use for cartilage repair for over a decade but this approach has shown mixed results. Moreover, the lack of efficient modalities of treatment for large chondral defects has prompted research on cartilage tissue engineering combining cells, scaffold materials and environmental factors. This paper focuses on the main parameters in tissue engineering and in particular, on the potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as an alternative to cells derived from patient tissues in autologous transplantation and tissue engineering. We discussed the prospects of using autologous chondrocytes or MSCs in regenerative medicine and summarized the advantages and disadvantages of these cells in articular cartilage engineering.

  10. Epidemiology of extra-articular manifestations in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Turesson, C; Jacobsson, L T H

    2004-01-01

    Extra-articular RA (ExRA) includes a wide variety of disease manifestations. Although rheumatologists in general are aware that such events are clinically important, the heterogeneity of available data, including discrepancies in case definitions, has complicated constructive discussions on this aspect of the RA disease phenotype. In recent years, there has been a growing recognition of the importance of co-morbidity in patients with RA. ExRA manifestations are not uncommon, explain excess mortality in RA and are predicted by smoking and autoantibodies. Further studies of the mechanisms underlying these associations are likely to be important in improving our understanding of the systemic nature of RA. This article discusses the methodological issues involved in the study of ExRA manifestations, presents suggested criteria that have been used in clinical studies, and reviews important surveys of the epidemiology of extra-articular RA.

  11. Customized Fabrication of Osteochondral Tissue for Articular Joint Surface Repair

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    it is a disease of the cartilage, bone and surrounding soft tissue that disables 9-10% of the US population. In the US military , combat and non...cartilage – it is a disease of the cartilage, bone and surrounding soft tissue that disables 9-10% of the US population. In the US military , combat and...1 AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0217 TITLE: “Customized Fabrication of Osteochondral Tissue for Articular Joint Surface Repair

  12. Improving Joint Function Using Photochemical Hydrogels for Articular Surface Repair

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Consequently, injury to cartilage in the articulating joints from trauma results in scar formation and possible arthritic changes that can lead to...chondrocytes to articular cartilage defects in the swine knee joint. Data from year 1 showed that the photochemical crosslinking of collagen gel...Isaksson O, Peterson L. Treatment of deep cartilage defects in the knee with autologous chondrocyte transplantation. N Engl J Med. 1994 Oct 6;331(14):889

  13. Chondroitin sulfate reduces the friction coefficient of articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Basalo, Ines M; Chahine, Nadeen O; Kaplun, Michael; Chen, Faye H; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of chondroitin sulfate (CS)-C on the frictional response of bovine articular cartilage. The main hypothesis is that CS decreases the friction coefficient of articular cartilage. Corollary hypotheses are that viscosity and osmotic pressure are not the mechanisms that mediate the reduction in the friction coefficient by CS. In Experiment 1, bovine articular cartilage samples (n=29) were tested in either phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or in PBS containing 100mg/ml of CS following 48h incubation in PBS or in PBS+100mg/ml CS (control specimens were not subjected to any incubation). In Experiment 2, samples (n=23) were tested in four different solutions: PBS, PBS+100mg/ml CS, and PBS+polyethylene glycol (PEG) (133 or 170mg/ml). In Experiment 3, samples (n=18) were tested in three solutions of CS (0, 10 and 100mg/ml). Frictional tests (cartilage-on-glass) were performed under constant stress (0.5MPa) for 3600s and the time-dependent friction coefficient was measured. Samples incubated or tested in a 100mg/ml CS solution exhibited a significantly lower equilibrium friction coefficient than the respective PBS control. PEG solutions delayed the rise in the friction coefficient relative to the PBS control, but did not reduce the equilibrium value. Testing in PBS+10mg/ml of CS did not cause any significant decrease in the friction coefficient. In conclusion, CS at a concentration of 100mg/ml significantly reduces the friction coefficient of bovine articular cartilage and this mechanism is neither mediated by viscosity nor osmolarity. These results suggest that direct injection of CS into the joint may provide beneficial tribological effects.

  14. Effect of Rumalon (glycosaminoglycan-peptide) on the articular tissue.

    PubMed

    Skrivánková, B; Julis, I; Podrazký, V; Trnavský, K

    1993-01-01

    The effect of glycosaminoglycan-peptide complex (GPC) (Rumalon, made by Robapharm, Switzerland) on cells of the inflammatory periarticular infiltrate and on the articular chondrocytes was studied in experimentally induced papain arthropathy by means of image cytometry and biochemistry. The GPC therapy exhibited some antiinflammatory effect as documented by the reduction of DNA proliferative activity in the inflammatory infiltrate and lowered the activity of hydrolytic enzymes and enzyme inhibitors detected in chondrocytes.

  15. [Osteo-articular tuberculosis in African (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Ferro, R; Barnaud, P; Carayon, A

    1979-01-01

    General, clinical and therapeutic features of osteo-articular tuberculosis in African, excluding vertebral localizations, are compiled from 81 records: The are: -- a frequency lower than in expatriated Africans and this indicates their special physical resistance when they live in their natural environment; -- frequently an easy diagnosis because of infected advanced foci with associated lesions; -- a surgical indication (curettage, resection, arthrodesis) as frequent as in vertebral localizations.

  16. Inorganic phosphate transport in matrix vesicles from bovine articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Solomon, D H; Browning, J A; Wilkins, R J

    2007-06-01

    In mineralizing tissues such as growth plate cartilage extracellular organelles derived from the chondrocyte membrane are present. These matrix vesicles (MV), possess membrane transporters that accumulate Ca(2+) and inorganic phosphate (P(i)), and initiate the formation of hydroxyapatite crystals. MV are also present in articular cartilage, and hydroxyapatite crystals are believed to promote cartilage degradation in osteoarthritic joints. This study characterizes P(i) transport in MV derived from articular cartilage. Matrix vesicles were harvested from collagenase digests of bovine articular cartilage by serial centrifugation. P(i) uptake by MV was measured using radioactive phosphate ((33)[P]HPO(4)(2-)). The Na(+) dependence, pH sensitivity and effects of P(i) analogues that inhibit P(i) transport were determined. P(i) uptake was temperature-sensitive and comprised Na(+)-dependent and Na(+)-independent components. The Na(+)-dependent component saturated at high extracellular P(i) concentrations, with a K(m) of 0.16 mM. In Na(+)-free solutions, uptake did not fully saturate implying that carrier-mediated uptake is supplemented by a diffusive pathway. Uptake was inhibited by phosphonoacetate and arsenate, although a fraction of Na(+)-independent P(i) uptake persisted. Total P(i) uptake was maximal at pH 6.5, and reduced at more acidic or alkaline values, representing inhibition of both components. These properties are highly similar to those of P(i) uptake by chondrocytes, suggesting that MV inherit P(i) transporters of the chondrocyte membrane from which they are derived. Na(+)-independent P(i) uptake has not previously been described in MV from growth plate cartilage and is relatively uncharacterized, but warrants further attention in articular cartilage, given its likely role in initiating inappropriate mineral formation.

  17. The biochemical content of articular cartilage: an original MRI approach.

    PubMed

    Loeuille, Damien; Olivier, Pierre; Watrin, Astrid; Grossin, Laurent; Gonord, Patrick; Guillot, Geneviève; Etienne, Stéphanie; Blum, Alain; Netter, Patrick; Gillet, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    The MR aspect of articular cartilage, that reflects the interactions between protons and macromolecular constituents, is affected by the intrinsic tissue structure (water content, the content of matrix constituents, collagen network organization), imager characteristics, and acquisition parameters. On the T1-weighted sequences, the bovine articular cartilage appears as an homogeneous tissue in high signal intensity, whatever the age of animals considered, whereas on the T2-weighted sequences, the articular bovine cartilage presents variations of its imaging pattern (laminar appearance) well correlated to the variations of its histological and biochemical structure. The T2 relaxation time measurement (T2 mapping), which reflects quantitatively the signal intensity variations observed on T2 weighted sequences, is a way to evaluate more precisely the modifications of cartilage structure during the aging and maturation processes (rat's study). This technique so far confined to experimental micro-imagers is now developed on clinical imagers. Consequently, it may permit to depict the early stages of osteoarthritic disease (OA) or to evaluate the chondroprotective effect of drugs.

  18. Intra-articular scapular fractures: Outcomes after internal fixation

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Sarah; Argintar, Evan; Jahn, Ryan; Zusmanovich, Mike; Itamura, John; Rick Hatch, George F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although operative treatment may offer an appropriate management option for displaced glenoid fractures, there is sparse research assessing post-operative functional outcomes. This study assessed functional outcomes of patients after undergoing open reduction and internal fixation of displaced glenoid fractures. Methods Fifteen patients were treated with open reduction and internal fixation for displaced intra-articular fractures between 2005 and 2010. The indication for operative fixation was intra-articular displacement >4 mm. Post-operative functional outcomes were assessed via retrospective chart review. Evaluation included review of pre-operative imaging for fracture type, review of post-operative plain radiographs for fracture healing, Disabilities of the Arm Shoulder and Hand (DASH) and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeon Assessment (ASES) scores at last follow-up. Results At a mean follow-up of 49 months (24–87 months) all patients had radiographic healing. The mean DASH score was 10 (range 0.83–29.17). Mean ASES score was 90 (range 41.7–100). No patients had evidence of hardware failure or infection. Conclusions Open reduction and internal fixation of displaced intra-articular glenoid fractures results in stable fixation and is associated with good functional outcome. Level of evidence Level IV. Case series. PMID:24396240

  19. Genesis and morphogenesis of limb synovial joints and articular cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Rebekah S.; Koyama, Eiki; Pacifici, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Limb synovial joints are intricate structures composed of articular cartilage, synovial membranes, ligaments and an articular capsule. Each joint has a unique shape, organization and biomechanical function, and articular cartilage itself is rather complex and organized in distinct zones, including the superficial zone that produces lubricans and contains stem/progenitor cells. There has been a great of interest for many years to decipher the mechanisms by which the joints form and come to acquire such unique structural features and diversity. Decades ago, classic embryologists discovered that the first overt sign of joint formation at each prescribed limb site is the appearance of a dense and compact population of mesenchymal cells collectively called the interzone. Work carried out since by several groups has provided evidence that the interzone cells do actively participate in joint tissue formation over developmental time. This minireview provides a succinct but comprehensive description of the many and important recent advances in this field of research. These includes: studies using various conditional reporter mice to genetically trace and track the origin, fate and possible function of joint progenitor cells; studies on the involvement and roles in signaling pathways and transcription factors in joint cell determination and functioning; and studies using advanced methods of gene expression analyses to uncover novel genetic determinants of joint formation and diversity. The overall advances are impressive, and the findings are not only of obvious interest and importance, but have major implications to conceive future translational medicine tools to repair and regenerate defective, overused or aging joints. PMID:25172830

  20. Ultrasonic quantitation of superficial degradation of articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Saarakkala, Simo; Töyräs, Juha; Hirvonen, Jani; Laasanen, Mikko S; Lappalainen, Reijo; Jurvelin, Jukka S

    2004-06-01

    Ultrasound (US) has been suggested as a means for the quantitative detection of early osteoarthrotic changes in articular cartilage. In this study, the ability of quantitative US 2-D imaging (20 MHz) to reveal superficial changes in bovine articular cartilage after mechanical or enzymatic degradation was investigated in vitro. Mechanical degradation was induced by grinding samples against an emery paper with the grain size of 250 microm, 106 microm, 45 microm or 23 microm. For enzymatic degradation, samples were digested with collagenase, trypsin or chondroitinase ABC. Variations of the US reflection coefficient induced by the degradation were investigated. Furthermore, two novel parameters, the US roughness index (URI) and the spatial variation of the US reflection coefficient (SVR), were established to quantitate the integrity of the cartilage surface. Statistically significant decreases (p < 0.05) in US reflection coefficient were observed after mechanical degradations or enzymatic digestion with collagenase. Increases (p < 0.05) in URI were also revealed after these treatments. We conclude that quantitative US imaging may be used to detect collagen disruption and increased roughness in the articular surface. These structural damages are typical of early osteoarthrosis.

  1. Solute transport across the articular surface of injured cartilage.

    PubMed

    Chin, Hooi Chuan; Moeini, Mohammad; Quinn, Thomas M

    2013-07-15

    Solute transport through extracellular matrix (ECM) is important to physiology and contrast agent-based clinical imaging of articular cartilage. Mechanical injury is likely to have important effects on solute transport since it involves alteration of ECM structure. Therefore it is of interest to characterize effects of mechanical injury on solute transport in cartilage. Using cartilage explants injured by an established mechanical compression protocol, effective partition coefficients and diffusivities of solutes for transport across the articular surface were measured. A range of fluorescent solutes (fluorescein isothiocyanate, 4 and 40kDa dextrans, insulin, and chondroitin sulfate) and an X-ray contrast agent (sodium iodide) were used. Mechanical injury was associated with a significant increase in effective diffusivity versus uninjured explants for all solutes studied. On the other hand, mechanical injury had no effects on effective partition coefficients for most solutes tested, except for 40kDa dextran and chondroitin sulfate where small but significant changes in effective partition coefficient were observed in injured explants. Findings highlight enhanced diffusive transport across the articular surface of injured cartilage, which may have important implications for injury and repair situations. Results also support development of non-equilibrium methods for identification of focal cartilage lesions by contrast agent-based clinical imaging.

  2. Repair and tissue engineering techniques for articular cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Makris, Eleftherios A.; Gomoll, Andreas H.; Malizos, Konstantinos N.; Hu, Jerry C.; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.

    2015-01-01

    Chondral and osteochondral lesions due to injury or other pathology commonly result in the development of osteoarthritis, eventually leading to progressive total joint destruction. Although current progress suggests that biologic agents can delay the advancement of deterioration, such drugs are incapable of promoting tissue restoration. The limited ability of articular cartilage to regenerate renders joint arthroplasty an unavoidable surgical intervention. This Review describes current, widely used clinical repair techniques for resurfacing articular cartilage defects; short-term and long-term clinical outcomes of these techniques are discussed. Also reviewed is a developmental pipeline of regenerative biological products that over the next decade could revolutionize joint care by functionally healing articular cartilage. These products include cell-based and cell-free materials such as autologous and allogeneic cell-based approaches and multipotent and pluripotent stem-cell-based techniques. Central to these efforts is the prominent role that tissue engineering has in translating biological technology into clinical products; therefore, concomitant regulatory processes are also discussed. PMID:25247412

  3. Photogrammetric analysis of the articular surface of the distal radius.

    PubMed

    Ege, A; Seker, D Z; Tuncay, I; Duran, Z

    2004-01-01

    Three-dimensional measurements made using photogrammetry have recently gained popularity with the development of real-time detection facilities and up-to-date equipment. The modelling of human bones presents a particular challenge as the measurements required are difficult to obtain, especially from uneven surfaces. In this study, the articular surfaces of 12 radius bones were evaluated using photogrammetry to obtain three-dimensional coordinates of certain points. Morphometric characteristics of the digital topography of the articular surface were analysed using three-dimensional data from more than 200 points for each specimen. The coronal plane curve, from the tip of the styloid process to the centre of the distal radioulnar articular notch, was found to be similar to the fourth degree polynomial function. A mathematical expression representing the sagittal curve passing through scapholunate border could not be found. Close-range photogrammetry is a safe and precise technique that can provide reliable, reproducible and accurate data for evaluating complex morphological surfaces.

  4. Fatal complications of intramuscular and intra-articular injections.

    PubMed

    Kortelainen, M L; Särkioja, T

    1990-01-01

    Four fatalities related to intramuscular and intra-articular injections are reported. In two of these cases a Staphylococcus aureus sepsis developed, as a consequence of injections into the left hip joint in one and in the lateral upper quadrant of the gluteal region in the other. The intra-articular injection of triamcinolone produced severe pain, but no marked signs of purulent arthritis were seen at autopsy, probably because of the anti-inflammatory effect of the corticosteroid. A cutaneous infection was seen in the gluteal region of the other patient, but no apparent abscess formation. In another case of intra-articular injection, purulent knee joint arthritis developed after an injection of glucosaminoglycan. The patient died of renal insufficiency, which was probably connected with the treatment of the arthritis with tobramycin and cefuroxim. The fourth case was that of a mentally ill patient who suffered sudden cardiac arrest after an intramuscular injection of chlorpromazine, but with no apparent signs of an anaphylactic reaction. It is suggested that vasodilatation and drop in blood pressure caused by the chlorpromazine could have had some effect, while cardiotoxicity of other psychotropic drugs with which he had been treated cannot be ruled out.

  5. The effects of exercise on human articular cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Eckstein, F; Hudelmaier, M; Putz, R

    2006-01-01

    The effects of exercise on articular hyaline articular cartilage have traditionally been examined in animal models, but until recently little information has been available on human cartilage. Magnetic resonance imaging now permits cartilage morphology and composition to be analysed quantitatively in vivo. This review briefly describes the methodological background of quantitative cartilage imaging and summarizes work on short-term (deformational behaviour) and long-term (functional adaptation) effects of exercise on human articular cartilage. Current findings suggest that human cartilage deforms very little in vivo during physiological activities and recovers from deformation within 90 min after loading. Whereas cartilage deformation appears to become less with increasing age, sex and physical training status do not seem to affect in vivo deformational behaviour. There is now good evidence that cartilage undergoes some type of atrophy (thinning) under reduced loading conditions, such as with postoperative immobilization and paraplegia. However, increased loading (as encountered by elite athletes) does not appear to be associated with increased average cartilage thickness. Findings in twins, however, suggest a strong genetic contribution to cartilage morphology. Potential reasons for the inability of cartilage to adapt to mechanical stimuli include a lack of evolutionary pressure and a decoupling of mechanical competence and tissue mass. PMID:16637874

  6. Juxta-articular Myxoma of the Temporomandibular Joint.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhou-Xi; Yang, Chi; Chen, Min-Jie; Wilson, Julian J

    2015-11-01

    The juxta-articular myxoma represents a benign mesenchymal neoplasm that arises from tissue within or adjacent to a joint space. There have been a number of reported cases involving myxomas of the knee, shoulder, elbow, wrist, and hip. To our knowledge there, however, have been no reported cases of juxta-articular myxomas of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). This report describes the case of a 57-year-old woman with a juxta-articular myxoma of the left TMJ extending into the infratemporal fossa (ITF). Access to the tumor was accomplished via a preauricular incision and low condylar osteotomy which allowed for displacement of the condyle for direct visualization and excision of the tumor. The postoperative course was benign and the patient demonstrated no cosmetic or functional limitation. Likewise, follow-up at 30 months showed no evidence of recurrence. Benign encapsulated tumors of the ITF can be effectively accessed by means of a modified preauricular incision, low condylar osteotomy, and anterior meniscal release. This direct approach allows for excellent surgical exposure, minimal surgical site morbidity, and maintenance of physiologic joint function and occlusion.

  7. Emerging options for treatment of articular cartilage injury in the athlete.

    PubMed

    Mithoefer, Kai; McAdams, Timothy R; Scopp, Jason M; Mandelbaum, Bert R

    2009-01-01

    Articular cartilage injury is observed with increasing frequency in both elite and amateur athletes and results from the significant joint stress associated particularly with high-impact sports. The lack of spontaneous healing of these joint surface defects leads to progressive joint pain and mechanical symptoms with resulting functional impairment and limitation of athletic participation. Left untreated, articular cartilage defects can lead to chronic joint degeneration and athletic disability. Articular cartilage repair in athletes requires effective and durable joint surface restoration that can withstand the significant joint stresses generated during athletic activity. Several techniques for articular cartilage repair have been developed recently, which can successfully restore articular cartilage surfaces and allow for return to high-impact athletics after articular cartilage injury. Besides these existing techniques, new promising scientific concepts and techniques are emerging that incorporate modern tissue engineering technologies and promise further improvement for the treatment of these challenging injuries in the demanding athletic population.

  8. En bloc joystick reduction of a comminuted intra-articular distal radius fracture: a technical trick.

    PubMed

    Siegall, Evan; Ziran, Bruce

    2014-08-01

    A patient with a 1-month-old intra-articular distal radius fracture (treated closed in a splint) presented with an unacceptable degree of pain and stiffness caused by shortening and dorsal angulation of the distal radius. The fracture was comminuted with 4 or 5 distinct fragments, several involving the articular surface. Surgical correction was attempted. During the procedure, it was noted that, though the distal radius was shortened and angulated, there was actually acceptable congruity of the articular surface itself, despite the intra-articular nature of the fracture. Bone quality was poor and healing incomplete. Thus, we were concerned the currently congruous articular surface would fall apart with manipulation. Given this situation, we used a unique scaffolding technique with Kirschner wires placed in perpendicular fashion to both hold the articular surface intact and manipulate it en bloc. This technique is a simple way to turn a complex fracture into an easily reduced 2-part fracture.

  9. Intra-articular osteoid osteoma at the femoral trochlea treated with osteochondral autograft transplantation.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Joshua J; Motamedi, Daria; Wildman-Tobriner, Ben; O'Donnell, Richard J; Link, Thomas M

    2016-06-01

    We present the case of an intra-articular osteoid osteoma at the femoral trochlea. Intra-articular osteoid osteoma can present a diagnostic challenge both clinically and with imaging because it presents differently from the classic cortical osteoid osteoma. Given the lesion's proximity to overlying cartilage, the patient underwent resection of the lesion with osteochondral autograft transplantation at the surgical defect. A comprehensive literature review and discussion of intra-articular osteoma will be provided.

  10. Intra-articular osteoid osteoma at the femoral trochlea treated with osteochondral autograft transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Joshua J; Motamedi, Daria; Wildman-Tobriner, Ben; O’Donnell, Richard J; Link, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of an intra-articular osteoid osteoma at the femoral trochlea. Intra-articular osteoid osteoma can present a diagnostic challenge both clinically and with imaging because it presents differently from the classic cortical osteoid osteoma. Given the lesion’s proximity to overlying cartilage, the patient underwent resection of the lesion with osteochondral autograft transplantation at the surgical defect. A comprehensive literature review and discussion of intra-articular osteoma will be provided. PMID:27761182

  11. Intra-articular haemangioma of the knee in the skeletally immature.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kai Ann; Singh, Vivek Ajit; Pailoor, Jayalakshmi

    2013-11-01

    Intra-articular haemangioma is a rare and uncommon condition that sometimes presents in infants. The lesion can be a diagnostic challenge, with misdiagnosis often leading to delayed diagnosis and treatment. It is essential to establish and treat the condition early, as intra-articular haemangioma can lead to destruction of the joint and secondary arthrosis. Herein, we report the case of a five-year-old boy who presented with intra-articular haemangioma and discuss the management of his condition.

  12. Intra-articular osteoid osteoma of the distal humerus: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Challawar, Nikhil Subhash; Shah, Hitesh Hasmukhlal

    2014-03-06

    Osteoid osteoma rarely presents in an intra-articular or juxta-articular location, leading to synovitis and flexion deformity, which can easily mislead the diagnosis. We present a case of an intra-articular osteoid osteoma of the distal humerus in a 19-year-old woman with pain and flexion deformity of the elbow. Although radiographs were normal, a nidus was demonstrated on CT scan. Appropriate surgical treatment provided relief to the patient and the diagnosis was confirmed on histopathology. Thus, an intra-articular osteoid osteoma may be mistaken for more common causes of synovitis unless there is an index of suspicion and appropriate imaging is undertaken.

  13. Regulation of Articular Chondrocyte Proliferation and Differentiation by Indian Hedgehog and Parathyroid Hormone-related Protein

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuesong; Macica, Carolyn; Nasiri, Ali; Broadus, Arthur E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The chondrocytes of the epiphyseal growth zone are regulated by the Indian hedgehog (Ihh)-parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) axis. In weight-bearing joints, this growth zone comes to be subdivided by the secondary ossification center into distinct articular and growth cartilage structures. Here, we explored the cells of origin, localization, regulation of expression, and putative functions of Ihh and PTHrP in articular cartilage in the mouse. Methods We assessed Ihh and PTHrP expression in an allelic PTHrP-lacZ knockin mouse and several versions of PTHrP-null mice. Selected joints were unloaded surgically to examine load-induction of PTHrP and Ihh. Results The embryonic growth zone appears to serve as the source of PTHrP-expressing proliferative chondrocytes that populate both the forming articular cartilage and growth plate structures. In articular cartilage, these cells take the form of articular chondrocytes in the mid-zone. In PTHrP-knockout mice, mineralizing chondrocytes encroach upon developing articular cartilage but appear to be prevented from mineralizing the joint space by Ihh-driven surface chondrocyte proliferation. In growing and adult mice, PTHrP expression in articular chondrocytes is load-induced, and unloading is associated with rapid changes in PTHrP expression and articular chondrocyte differentiation. Conclusion We conclude that the PTHrP-Ihh axis participates in the maintenance of articular cartilage. Dysregulation of this system might contribute to the pathogenesis of arthritis. PMID:19035497

  14. Effects of Articular Cartilage Constituents on Phosphotungstic Acid Enhanced Micro-Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Karhula, Sakari S.; Finnilä, Mikko A.; Lammi, Mikko J.; Ylärinne, Janne H.; Kauppinen, Sami; Rieppo, Lassi; Pritzker, Kenneth P. H.; Nieminen, Heikki J.; Saarakkala, Simo

    2017-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography (CEμCT) with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) has shown potential for detecting collagen distribution of articular cartilage. However, the selectivity of the PTA staining to articular cartilage constituents remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the dependence of PTA for the collagen content in bovine articular cartilage. Adjacent bovine articular cartilage samples were treated with chondroitinase ABC and collagenase to degrade the proteoglycan and the collagen constituents in articular cartilage, respectively. Enzymatically degraded samples were compared to the untreated samples using CEμCT and reference methods, such as Fourier-transform infrared imaging. Decrease in the X-ray attenuation of PTA in articular cartilage and collagen content was observed in cartilage depth of 0–13% and deeper in tissue after collagen degradation. Increase in the X-ray attenuation of PTA was observed in the cartilage depth of 13–39% after proteoglycan degradation. The X-ray attenuation of PTA-labelled articular cartilage in CEμCT is associated mainly with collagen content but the proteoglycans have a minor effect on the X-ray attenuation of the PTA-labelled articular cartilage. In conclusion, the PTA labeling provides a feasible CEμCT method for 3D characterization of articular cartilage. PMID:28135331

  15. Characterization of auricular chondrocytes and auricular/articular chondrocyte co-cultures in terms of an application in articular cartilage repair.

    PubMed

    Kuhne, Maren; John, Thilo; El-Sayed, Karym; Marzahn, Ulrike; Aue, Annekatrin; Kohl, Benjamin; Stoelzel, Katharina; Ertel, Wolfgang; Blottner, Dieter; Haisch, Andreas; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula

    2010-05-01

    Cartilage injury remains a challenge in orthopedic surgery as articular cartilage only has a limited capacity for intrinsic healing. Autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) is a suitable technique for cartilage repair, but requires articular cartilage biopsies for autologous chondrocyte expansion. The use of heterotopic chondrocytes derived from non-articular cartilage sources such as auricular chondrocytes may be a novel approach for ACT. The aim of the study is to evaluate whether co-cultured articular/auricular chondrocytes exhibit characteristics comparable to articular chondrocytes. Analysis of the proliferation rate, extracellular cartilage matrix (ECM) gene and protein expression (type II and I collagen, elastin, lubricin), beta1-integrins and the chondrogenic transcription factor sox9 in articular/auricular chondrocytes was performed using RTD-PCR, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blot analysis. Additionally, three-dimensional (3D) chondrocyte mono- and co-cultures were established. The proliferative activity and elastin gene expression were lower and that of type II collagen and lubricin was higher in articular compared with auricular chondrocytes. The species generally did not influence the chondrocyte characteristics, with the exception of type I collagen and sox9 expression, which was higher in porcine but not in human articular chondrocytes compared with both types of auricular chondrocytes. beta1-integrin gene expression did not differ significantly between the chondrocyte types. The type II collagen gene and protein expression was higher in articular chondrocyte monocultures and was slightly higher in co-cultures compared with monocultured auricular chondrocytes. Both chondrocyte types survived in co-culture. Despite their differing expression profiles, co-cultures revealed some adjustment in the ECM expression of both chondrocyte types.

  16. Intra-Articular Injections of Polyphenols Protect Articular Cartilage from Inflammation-Induced Degradation: Suggesting a Potential Role in Cartilage Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Venkatachalam; Madhan, Balaraman; Tiku, Moti L

    2015-01-01

    Arthritic diseases, such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, inflict an enormous health care burden on society. Osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease with high prevalence among older people, and rheumatoid arthritis, an autoimmune inflammatory disease, both lead to irreversible structural and functional damage to articular cartilage. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of polyphenols such as catechin, quercetin, epigallocatechin gallate, and tannic acid, on crosslinking type II collagen and the roles of these agents in managing in vivo articular cartilage degradation. The thermal, enzymatic, and physical stability of bovine articular cartilage explants following polyphenolic treatment were assessed for efficiency. Epigallocatechin gallate and tannic acid-treated explants showed >12 °C increase over native cartilage in thermal stability, thereby confirming cartilage crosslinking. Polyphenol-treated cartilage also showed a significant reduction in the percentage of collagen degradation and the release of glycosaminoglycans against collagenase digestion, indicating the increase physical integrity and resistance of polyphenol crosslinked cartilage to enzymatic digestion. To examine the in vivo cartilage protective effects, polyphenols were injected intra-articularly before (prophylactic) and after (therapeutic) the induction of collagen-induced arthritis in rats. The hind paw volume and histomorphological scoring was done for cartilage damage. The intra-articular injection of epigallocatechin gallate and tannic acid did not significantly influence the time of onset or the intensity of joint inflammation. However, histomorphological scoring of the articular cartilage showed a significant reduction in cartilage degradation in prophylactic- and therapeutic-groups, indicating that intra-articular injections of polyphenols bind to articular cartilage and making it resistant to degradation despite ongoing inflammation. These studies establish

  17. Intra-Articular Injections of Polyphenols Protect Articular Cartilage from Inflammation-Induced Degradation: Suggesting a Potential Role in Cartilage Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Venkatachalam; Madhan, Balaraman; Tiku, Moti L.

    2015-01-01

    Arthritic diseases, such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, inflict an enormous health care burden on society. Osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease with high prevalence among older people, and rheumatoid arthritis, an autoimmune inflammatory disease, both lead to irreversible structural and functional damage to articular cartilage. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of polyphenols such as catechin, quercetin, epigallocatechin gallate, and tannic acid, on crosslinking type II collagen and the roles of these agents in managing in vivo articular cartilage degradation. The thermal, enzymatic, and physical stability of bovine articular cartilage explants following polyphenolic treatment were assessed for efficiency. Epigallocatechin gallate and tannic acid-treated explants showed >12 °C increase over native cartilage in thermal stability, thereby confirming cartilage crosslinking. Polyphenol-treated cartilage also showed a significant reduction in the percentage of collagen degradation and the release of glycosaminoglycans against collagenase digestion, indicating the increase physical integrity and resistance of polyphenol crosslinked cartilage to enzymatic digestion. To examine the in vivo cartilage protective effects, polyphenols were injected intra-articularly before (prophylactic) and after (therapeutic) the induction of collagen-induced arthritis in rats. The hind paw volume and histomorphological scoring was done for cartilage damage. The intra-articular injection of epigallocatechin gallate and tannic acid did not significantly influence the time of onset or the intensity of joint inflammation. However, histomorphological scoring of the articular cartilage showed a significant reduction in cartilage degradation in prophylactic- and therapeutic-groups, indicating that intra-articular injections of polyphenols bind to articular cartilage and making it resistant to degradation despite ongoing inflammation. These studies establish

  18. Biomechanical Analysis of Intra-articular Pressure After Coracoclavicular Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Voss, Andreas; Singh, Hardeep; Dyrna, Felix; Buchmann, Stefan; Cote, Mark P; Imhoff, Andreas B; Mazzocca, Augustus D; Beitzel, Knut

    2017-01-01

    Recent biomechanical and clinical studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of suture button and pulley-type fixations for surgical treatment of acromioclavicular instability. Concerns remain that such procedures can "overconstrain" (overreduce the lateral clavicle in relation to the acromion to a nonphysiological position) the joint. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to investigate the intra-articular pressure of native and reconstructed acromioclavicular (AC) joints in relation to the configuration of the joint. Anatomic (0 mm), overconstrained (-3 mm), and underconstrained (+3 mm) AC joint reconstructions were simulated. The hypothesis was that reconstructions using suture pulley systems do not increase the intra-articular pressure of the AC joint. Controlled laboratory study. Eleven fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders were used in this study (mean age ± SD, 60.8 ± 6.7 years). Each specimen underwent radiographic analysis by using a Zanca view to determine the basic configuration of the AC joint. A pressure Tekscan sensor was inserted in the AC joint. A servohydraulic materials testing system was used for testing. The specimens were kept in the testing machine, and the native AC position was marked at 0 mm. This allowed moving the clavicle during the surgical procedure with reference to the native anatomic position. Intra-articular pressure in the native AC joint during cyclic loading (1000 cycles; 1 Hz) was measured. After native testing, the AC ligaments and coracoclavicular ligaments were cut and reconstructed using a cortical button technique. Anatomic, -3 mm, and +3 mm positions, relative to the acromion, were cyclically loaded, and intra-articular pressure was documented. According to the AC joint classification of inclination, we identified five type 1 (46%), four type 2 (36%), one type 3 (9%), and one incongruous (9%) configurations. Changes in superior displacement across the 4 conditions were not statistically significant (0.5 ± 0

  19. PGA-associated heterotopic chondrocyte cocultures: implications of nasoseptal and auricular chondrocytes in articular cartilage repair.

    PubMed

    El Sayed, K; Marzahn, U; John, T; Hoyer, M; Zreiqat, H; Witthuhn, A; Kohl, B; Haisch, A; Schulze-Tanzil, G

    2013-01-01

    The availability of autologous articular chondrocytes remains a limiting issue in matrix assisted autologous chondrocyte transplantation. Non-articular heterotopic chondrocytes could be an alternative autologous cell source. The aims of this study were to establish heterotopic chondrocyte cocultures to analyze cell-cell compatibilities and to characterize the chondrogenic potential of nasoseptal chondrocytes compared to articular chondrocytes. Primary porcine and human nasoseptal and articular chondrocytes were investigated for extracellular cartilage matrix (ECM) expression in a monolayer culture. 3D polyglycolic acid- (PGA) associated porcine heterotopic mono- and cocultures were assessed for cell vitality, types II, I, and total collagen-, and proteoglycan content. The type II collagen, lubricin, and Sox9 gene expressions were significantly higher in articular compared with nasoseptal monolayer chondrocytes, while type IX collagen expression was lower in articular chondrocytes. Only β1-integrin gene expression was significantly inferior in humans but not in porcine nasoseptal compared with articular chondrocytes, indicating species-dependent differences. Heterotopic chondrocytes in PGA cultures revealed high vitality with proteoglycan-rich hyaline-like ECM production. Similar amounts of type II collagen deposition and type II/I collagen ratios were found in heterotopic chondrocytes cultured on PGA compared to articular chondrocytes. Quantitative analyses revealed a time-dependent increase in total collagen and proteoglycan content, whereby the differences between heterotopic and articular chondrocyte cultures were not significant. Nasoseptal and auricular chondrocytes monocultured in PGA or cocultured with articular chondrocytes revealed a comparable high chondrogenic potential in a tissue engineering setting, which created the opportunity to test them in vivo for articular cartilage repair. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Regeneration of Articular Cartilage Surface: Morphogens, Cells, and Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Ryosuke; Iwakura, Takashi; Reddi, A Hari

    2015-10-01

    The articular cartilage is a well-organized tissue for smooth and friction-free joint movement for locomotion in animals and humans. Adult articular cartilage has a very low self-regeneration capacity due to its avascular nature. The regeneration of articular cartilage surface is critical to prevent the progression to osteoarthritis (OA). Although various joint resurfacing procedures in experimental articular cartilage defects have been developed, no standardized clinical protocol has yet been established. The three critical ingredients for tissue regeneration are morphogens and growth factors, cells, and scaffolds. The concepts based on the regeneration triad have been extensively investigated in animal models. However, these studies in animal models have demonstrated variable results and outcomes. An optimal animal model must precisely mimic and model the sequence of events in articular cartilage regeneration in human. In this article, the progress and remaining challenges in articular cartilage regeneration in animal models are reviewed. The role of individual morphogens and growth factors in cartilage regeneration has been investigated. In normal articular cartilage homeostasis, morphogens and growth factors function sequentially in tissue regeneration. Mesenchymal stem cell-based repair of articular cartilage defects, performed with or without various growth factors and scaffolds, has been widely attempted in animal models. Stem cells, including embryonic and adult stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, have also been reported as attractive cell sources for articular cartilage surface regeneration. Several studies with regard to scaffolds have been advanced, including recent investigations based on nanomaterials, functional mechanocompatible scaffolds, multilayered scaffolds, and extracellular matrix scaffolds for articular cartilage surface regeneration. Continuous refinement of animal models in chondral and osteochondral defects provide opportunities

  1. Treating knee osteoarthritis with intra-articular hyaluronans.

    PubMed

    Brzusek, Daniel; Petron, David

    2008-12-01

    Intra-articular hyaluronan (HA) or hylan is approved for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) knee pain. The authors review here published evidence of efficacy and safety of intra-articular HA for the treatment of knee pain. Since the systemic safety of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and cyclo-oxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors for OA knee treatment are a current concern, the authors also offer recommendations for repositioning HA in the OA treatment paradigm. Relevant HA literature was identified by searching MEDLINE and EMBASE from their inception to April 2008 using the search words hyaluronan, hyaluronic acid, sodium hyaluronate, and hylan G-F 20, with knee and OA. Data from randomized, placebo-controlled trials were reviewed and summarized in this article. While not a systematic review, this article reviews the best available evidence for the use of HA to treat knee OA. For the most part, patients in the reviewed studies were adults over the age of 40 with mild to severe symptomatic OA of the knee. Reviewed studies demonstrated significant improvements in pain and physical function with HA or sodium hyaluronate and hylan G-F 20. HA or hylan products were most effective between 5 and 13 weeks after injection with improvements also observed at 14-26 weeks or sometimes longer, and were well tolerated with a low incidence of adverse events. HA also provides beneficial treatment effects when administered in conjunction with other therapies. Intra-articular HA or hylan has proven to be an effective, safe, and tolerable treatment for symptomatic knee OA. In an effort to limit cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and renal safety concerns with COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs and maximize HA efficacy, the authors proposed using HA earlier in the treatment paradigm for knee OA and also as part of a comprehensive treatment strategy.

  2. Intra-articular osteoid osteoma of the proximal ulna.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Gabriel; Fortes, Sofia; Vazquez, Joyce; Renfree, Kevin J

    2014-02-01

    Osteoid osteoma is a common benign osteogenic bone neoplasm characterized histologically by increased osteoid tissue formation with an intracortical nidus surrounded by cortical thickening and vascular fibrous stroma and sclerosis. The clinical presentation classically includes severe nocturnal pain that is improved with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Younger men (second and third decades) have the highest incidence, with the most frequent sites of involvement being the long bones or axial skeleton. Osteoid osteoma may be missed due to the lesion occurring in an atypical location or due to failure to obtain advanced imaging studies such as computed tomography (CT). Intralesional or wide excision, or CT-guided radiofrequency ablation if available, leads to predictable and rapid pain relief. The authors report the case of a 24-year-old man who had a painful flexion contracture of his dominant right elbow for 1.5 years, secondary to an intra-articular osteoid osteoma. Attempted motion, passive or active, produced a marked exacerbation of pain. Previous surgeries, including an elbow synovectomy and an ulnar nerve transposition, had been unsuccessful in relieving his pain. Plain radiographs demonstrated a small area of periosteal thickening adjacent to the sublime tubercle. Fine-cut CT scan demonstrated an osteoid osteoma within the articular surface of the trochlear notch of the olecranon, adjacent to the sublime tubercle. Because of a perceived risk to the surrounding articular cartilage, CT-guided radiofrequency ablation was not performed. Wide en bloc surgical excision of the nidus was performed, with complete resolution of pain and rapid return to normal function.

  3. Metabolic Effects of Avocado/Soy Unsaponifiables on Articular Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Nardo, Joseph V.; Harlan, Robert; Chiou, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Avocado/soy unsaponifiable (ASU) components are reported to have a chondroprotective effect by virtue of anti-inflammatory and proanabolic effects on articular chondrocytes. The identity of the active component(s) remains unknown. In general, sterols, the major component of unsaponifiable plant material have been demonstrated to be anti-inflammatory in vitro and in animal models. These studies were designed to clarify whether the sterol content of ASU preparations were the primary contributors to biological activity in articular chondrocytes. ASU samples were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and GC mass spectrometry. The sterol content was normalized between diverse samples prior to in vitro testing on bovine chondrocytes. Anabolic activity was monitored by uptake of 35-sulfate into proteoglycans and quantitation of labeled hydroxyproline and proline content after incubation with labeled proline. Anti-inflammatory activity was assayed by measuring reduction of interleukin-1 (IL-1)-induced synthesis of PGE2 and metalloproteases and release of label from tissue prelabeled with S-35.All ASU samples exerted a similar time-dependent up-regulation of 35-sulfate uptake in bovine cells reaching a maximum of greater than 100% after 72 h at sterol doses of 1–10 μg/ml. Non-collagenous protein (NCP) and collagen synthesis were similarly up-regulated. All ASU were equally effective in dose dependently inhibiting IL-1-induced MMP-3 activity (23–37%), labeled sulfate release (15–23%) and PGE2 synthesis (45–58%). Up-regulation of glycosaminoglycan and collagen synthesis and reduction of IL-1 effects in cartilage are consistent with chondroprotective activity. The similarity of activity of ASU from diverse sources when tested at equal sterol levels suggests sterols are important for biologic effects in articular chondrocytes. PMID:18604259

  4. Importance of reference gene selection for articular cartilage mechanobiology studies

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sabah, A.; Stadnik, P.; Gilbert, S.J.; Duance, V.C.; Blain, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective Identification of genes differentially expressed in mechano-biological pathways in articular cartilage provides insight into the molecular mechanisms behind initiation and/or progression of osteoarthritis (OA). Quantitative PCR (qPCR) is commonly used to measure gene expression, and is reliant on the use of reference genes for normalisation. Appropriate validation of reference gene stability is imperative for accurate data analysis and interpretation. This study determined in vitro reference gene stability in articular cartilage explants and primary chondrocytes subjected to different compressive loads and tensile strain, respectively. Design The expression of eight commonly used reference genes (18s, ACTB, GAPDH, HPRT1, PPIA, RPL4, SDHA and YWHAZ) was determined by qPCR and data compared using four software packages (comparative delta-Ct method, geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper). Calculation of geometric means of the ranked weightings was carried out using RefFinder. Results Appropriate reference gene(s) for normalisation of mechanically-regulated transcript levels in articular cartilage tissue or isolated chondrocytes were dependent on experimental set-up. SDHA, YWHAZ and RPL4 were the most stable genes whilst glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and to a lesser extent Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT), showed variable expression in response to load, demonstrating their unsuitability in such in vitro studies. The effect of using unstable reference genes to normalise the expression of aggrecan (ACAN) and matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) resulted in inaccurate quantification of these mechano-sensitive genes and erroneous interpretation/conclusions. Conclusion This study demonstrates that commonly used ‘reference genes’ may be unsuitable for in vitro cartilage chondrocyte mechanobiology studies, reinforcing the principle that careful validation of reference genes is essential prior to each experiment to

  5. ROCK inhibitor prevents the dedifferentiation of human articular chondrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Emi; Furumatsu, Takayuki; Kanazawa, Tomoko; Tamura, Masanori; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROCK inhibitor stimulates chondrogenic gene expression of articular chondrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROCK inhibitor prevents the dedifferentiation of monolayer-cultured chondrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROCK inhibitor enhances the redifferentiation of cultured chondrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROCK inhibitor is useful for preparation of un-dedifferentiated chondrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROCK inhibitor may be a useful reagent for chondrocyte-based regeneration therapy. -- Abstract: Chondrocytes lose their chondrocytic phenotypes in vitro. The Rho family GTPase ROCK, involved in organizing the actin cytoskeleton, modulates the differentiation status of chondrocytic cells. However, the optimum method to prepare a large number of un-dedifferentiated chondrocytes is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of ROCK inhibitor (ROCKi) on the chondrogenic property of monolayer-cultured articular chondrocytes. Human articular chondrocytes were subcultured in the presence or absence of ROCKi (Y-27632). The expression of chondrocytic marker genes such as SOX9 and COL2A1 was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Cellular morphology and viability were evaluated. Chondrogenic redifferentiation potential was examined by a pellet culture procedure. The expression level of SOX9 and COL2A1 was higher in ROCKi-treated chondrocytes than in untreated cells. Chondrocyte morphology varied from a spreading form to a round shape in a ROCKi-dependent manner. In addition, ROCKi treatment stimulated the proliferation of chondrocytes. The deposition of safranin O-stained proteoglycans and type II collagen was highly detected in chondrogenic pellets derived from ROCKi-pretreated chondrocytes. Our results suggest that ROCKi prevents the dedifferentiation of monolayer-cultured chondrocytes, and may be a useful reagent to maintain chondrocytic phenotypes in vitro for chondrocyte

  6. Maturational differences in superficial and deep zone articular chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Chisa; Cheng, Christina; Alexandre, Deborah; Bhargava, Madhu; Torzilli, Peter A

    2006-01-01

    To examine whether differences in chondrocytes from skeletally immature versus adult individuals are important in cartilage healing, repair, or tissue engineering, superficial zone chondrocytes (SZC, from within 100 microm of the articular surface) and deep zone chondrocytes (DZC, from 30%-45% of the deepest un-mineralized part of articular cartilage) were harvested from immature (1-4 months) and young adult (18-36 months) steers and compared. Cell size, matrix gene expression and protein levels, integrin levels, and chemotactic ability were measured in cells maintained in micromass culture for up to 7 days. Regardless of age, SZC were smaller, had a lower type II to type I collagen gene expression ratio, and higher gene expression of SZ proteins than their DZC counterparts. Regardless of zone, chondrocytes from immature steers had higher levels of Sox 9 and type II collagen gene expression. Over 7 days in culture, the SZC of immature steers had the highest rate of proliferation. Phenotypically, the SZC of immature and adult steers were more stable than their respective DZC. Cell surface alpha5 and alpha2 integrin subunit levels were higher in the SZC of immature than of adult steers, whereas beta1 integrin subunit levels were similar. Both immature and adult SZC were capable of chemotaxis in response to fetal bovine serum or basic fibroblast growth factor. Our data indicate that articular chondrocytes vary in the different zones of cartilage and with the age of the donor. These differences may be important for cartilage growth, tissue engineering, and/or repair.

  7. Oxidative DNA damage in osteoarthritic porcine articular cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Antonia F.; Davies, Catrin M.; De Lin, Ming; Fermor, Beverley

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with increased levels of reactive oxygen species. This study investigated if increased oxidative DNA damage accumulates in OA articular cartilage compared with non-OA articular cartilage from pigs with spontaneous OA. Additionally, the ability of nitric oxide (NO) or peroxynitrite (ONOO-) induced DNA damage in non-OA chondrocytes to undergo endogenous repair was investigated. Methods Porcine femoral condyles were graded for the stage of OA, macroscopically by the Collins Scale, and histologically by the modified Mankin Grade. Levels of DNA damage were determined in non-OA and OA cartilage, using the comet assay. For calibration, DNA damage was measured by exposing non-OA chondrocytes to 0-12 Gray of x-ray irradiation. Non-OA articular chondrocytes were treated with 0-500 μM of NO donors (NOC-18 or SIN-1), and DNA damage assessed after treatment and 5 days recovery. Results A significant increase (p<0.01) in oxidative DNA damage occurred in OA chondrocytes in joints with Mankin Grades 3 or greater, compared to non-OA chondrocytes. The percentage of nuclei containing DNA damage increased significantly (p<0.001) from early to late grades of OA. An increase of approximately 0.65-1.7 breaks/1000kB of DNA occurred in OA, compared to non-OA nuclei. NOC-18 or SIN-1 caused significant DNA damage (p<0.001) in non-OA chondrocytes that did not undergo full endogenous repair after 5 days (p<0.05). Conclusion Our data suggest significant levels of oxidative DNA damage occur in OA chondrocytes that accumulates with OA progression. Additionally, DNA damage induced by NO and ONOO- in non-OA chondrocytes does not undergo full endogenous repair. PMID:18720406

  8. Membrane channel gene expression in human costal and articular chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Asmar, A.; Barrett-Jolley, R.; Werner, A.; Kelly, R.; Stacey, M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chondrocytes are the uniquely resident cells found in all types of cartilage and key to their function is the ability to respond to mechanical loads with changes of metabolic activity. This mechanotransduction property is, in part, mediated through the activity of a range of expressed transmembrane channels; ion channels, gap junction proteins, and porins. Appropriate expression of ion channels has been shown essential for production of extracellular matrix and differential expression of transmembrane channels is correlated to musculoskeletal diseases such as osteoarthritis and Albers-Schönberg. In this study we analyzed the consistency of gene expression between channelomes of chondrocytes from human articular and costal (teenage and fetal origin) cartilages. Notably, we found 14 ion channel genes commonly expressed between articular and both types of costal cartilage chondrocytes. There were several other ion channel genes expressed only in articular (6 genes) or costal chondrocytes (5 genes). Significant differences in expression of BEST1 and KCNJ2 (Kir2.1) were observed between fetal and teenage costal cartilage. Interestingly, the large Ca2+ activated potassium channel (BKα, or KCNMA1) was very highly expressed in all chondrocytes examined. Expression of the gap junction genes for Panx1, GJA1 (Cx43) and GJC1 (Cx45) was also observed in chondrocytes from all cartilage samples. Together, this data highlights similarities between chondrocyte membrane channel gene expressions in cells derived from different anatomical sites, and may imply that common electrophysiological signaling pathways underlie cellular control. The high expression of a range of mechanically and metabolically sensitive membrane channels suggest that chondrocyte mechanotransduction may be more complex than previously thought. PMID:27116676

  9. [Symptomatic and evolutive characteristics of articular destruction noted in chondrocalcinosis].

    PubMed

    Villiaumey, J; Larget-Piet, B; Menza, C D; Rotterdam, M

    1975-04-01

    Referring to 17 personal observations, the authors endeavour to clarify the main clinical and radiological traits of the destructive arthropathies occuring in patients suffering from diffuse, articular chondrocalcinosis. These arthropathies appear to be relatively frequent and older, obese women suffering from demineralization are more readily affected. The knees, coxo-femoral joints and the shoulders are principally concerned, and to a lesser extent the wrists, the trapezo-metacarpal joints and even the spine. The lesions can be polyarticular and symmetrical, be grouped in more or less random oligoarticular combinations or may occur in only a single joint space. Clinically, these destructive arthropathies give rise to severe pain and very marked functional impotence. The joints are swollen without any signs of inflammation. The joint movements are painful, stiff, and limited. Axial deviations are frequent. Radiologically, the lesions occur throughout the cartilage sheath, the inter-chondrial bone, and in the underlying epiphysary bone, in the form of massive geodes and massives loss of tissue substance. On the other hand, the process of reconstruction is very limited. In the patients studied, chondrocalcinosis was proved by the very characteristic pictures of calcic incrustations of the cartilage sheath and the fibro-cartilages, by the discovery of micro-crystals of calcium pyrophosphate in the articular fluid or, at biopsy, by the thickness of the synovial fluid. This chondrocalcinosis was primary in the cases. These destructive lesions were easily distinguishable from nervous or diabetic osteo-arthropathies, and from tumoral, infectious, rheumatic, or vascular changes. Thus, chondrocalcinosis is among the most common causes of osteo-articular destruction. It should be looked for systematically in all patients with lytic arthropathies of unknown etiology.

  10. Optical clearing of articular cartilage: a comparison of clearing agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, Alexander; Hautala, Tapio; Kinnunen, Matti; Popov, Alexey; Karhula, Sakari; Saarakkala, Simo; Nieminen, Miika T.; Tuchin, Valery

    2015-07-01

    Optical clearing technique was applied to the problem of OCT imaging of articular cartilage and subchondral bone. We show that optical clearing significantly enhances visualization of articular cartilage and cartilage-bone interface. The effect of different clearing agents was analyzed. For the clearing, iohexol solution and propylene glycol (PG) were used. Clearing was performed in vitro at room temperature by immersion method. Cylindrical osteochondral samples (d=4.8mm) were drilled from bovine lateral femur and stored in phosphate-buffered saline at -20°C until clearing. Monitoring of clearing process was performed using high-speed spectral-domain OCT system providing axial resolution of 5.8μm at 930nm. Total duration of experiment was 90-100min to ensure saturation of clearing. We have shown that iohexol solution and PG are capable to optically clear articular cartilage enabling reliable characterization of cartilagebone interface with OCT. Being a low osmolarity agent, iohexol provides minimal changes to the thickness of cartilage sample. Clearing saturation time for the cartilage sample with the thickness of 0.9 mm measured with OCT is of 50 min. However, less than 15 min is enough to reliably detect the rear cartilage boundary. Alternatively, PG significantly (60%) reduces the cartilage thickness enabling better visualization of subchondral bone. It was observed that PG has higher clearing rate. The clearing saturation time is of 30 min, however less than 5 min is enough to detect cartilage-bone interface. We conclude that iohexol solution is superior for OCT imaging of cartilage and cartilage-bone interface, while PG suits better for subhondral bone visualization.

  11. Biochemical composition of the superficial layer of articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Crockett, R; Grubelnik, A; Roos, S; Dora, C; Born, W; Troxler, H

    2007-09-15

    To gain more information on the mechanism of lubrication in articular joints, the superficial layer of bovine articular cartilage was mechanically removed in a sheet of ice that formed on freezing the cartilage. Freeze-dried samples contained low concentrations of chondroitin sulphate and protein. Analysis of the protein by SDS PAGE showed that the composition of the sample was comparable to that of synovial fluid (SF). Attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy of the dried residue indicated that the sample contained mostly hyaluronan. Moreover, ATR-IR spectroscopy of the upper layer of the superficial layer, adsorbed onto silicon, showed the presence of phospholipids. A gel could be formed by mixing hyaluronan and phosphatidylcholine in water with mechanical properties similar to those of the superficial layer on cartilage. Much like the superficial layer of natural cartilage, the surface of this gel became hydrophobic on drying out. Thus, it is proposed that the superficial layer forms from hyaluronan and phospholipids, which associate by hydrophobic interactions between the alkyl chains of the phospholipids and the hydrophobic faces of the disaccharide units in hyaluronan. This layer is permeable to material from the SF and the cartilage, as shown by the presence of SF proteins and chondroitin sulphate. As the cartilage dries out after removal from the joint, the phospholipids migrate towards the surface of the superficial layer to reduce the surface tension. It is also proposed that the highly efficient lubrication in articular joints can, at least in part, be attributed to the ability of the superficial layer to adsorb and hold water on the cartilage surface, thus creating a highly viscous boundary protection.

  12. Genesis and morphogenesis of limb synovial joints and articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Decker, Rebekah S; Koyama, Eiki; Pacifici, Maurizio

    2014-10-01

    Limb synovial joints are intricate structures composed of articular cartilage, synovial membranes, ligaments and an articular capsule. Together, these tissues give each joint its unique shape, organization and biomechanical function. Articular cartilage itself is rather complex and organized in distinct zones, including the superficial zone that produces lubricants and contains stem/progenitor cells. For many years there has been great interest in deciphering the mechanisms by which the joints form and come to acquire such unique structural features and diversity. Decades ago, classic embryologists discovered that the first overt sign of joint formation at each prescribed limb site was the appearance of a dense and compact population of mesenchymal cells collectively called the interzone. Work carried out since then by several groups has provided evidence that the interzone cells actively participate in joint tissue formation over developmental time. This minireview provides a succinct but comprehensive description of the many important recent advances in this field of research. These include studies using various conditional reporter mice to genetically trace and track the origin, fate and possible function of joint progenitor cells; studies on the involvement and roles in signaling pathways and transcription factors in joint cell determination and functioning; and studies using advanced methods of gene expression analyses to uncover novel genetic determinants of joint formation and diversity. The overall advances are impressive, and the findings are not only of obvious interest and importance but also have major implications in the conception of future translational medicine tools to repair and regenerate defective, overused or aging joints. Copyright © 2014 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Nonuniform swelling-induced residual strains in articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Narmoneva, D A; Wang, J Y; Setton, L A

    1999-04-01

    Swelling effects in cartilage originate from an interstitial osmotic pressure generated by the presence of negatively charged proteoglycans in the tissue. This swelling pressure gives rise to a non-zero residual strain in the cartilage solid matrix in the absence of externally applied loads. Previous studies have quantified swelling effects in cartilage as volumetric or dimensional change of excised samples in varying osmotically active solutions. This study presents a new optical technique for measuring two-dimensional swelling-induced residual strain fields in planar samples of articular cartilage attached to the bone (i.e., in situ). Osmotic loading was applied to canine cartilage bone samples by equilibration in external baths of varying NaCl concentration. Non-zero swelling-induced strains were measured in physiological saline, giving evidence of the existence of residual strains in articular cartilage. Only one component of planar strain (i.e., in thickness direction) was found to be non-zero. This strain was found to be highly non-uniform in the thickness direction, with evidence of compressive strain in the deep zone of cartilage and tensile strain in the middle and surface zones. The obtained results can be used to characterize the material properties of the articular cartilage solid matrix, with estimated values of 26 M Pa for the tensile modulus for middle zone cartilage. The method provides the basis to obtain material properties of the cartilage solid matrix from a simple, free-swelling test and may be useful for quantifying changes in cartilage properties with injury, degeneration and repair.

  14. Microscale surface friction of articular cartilage in early osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Desrochers, Jane; Amrein, Matthias W; Matyas, John R

    2013-09-01

    Articular cartilage forms the articulating surface of long bones and facilitates energy dissipation upon loading as well as joint lubrication and wear resistance. In normal cartilage, boundary lubrication between thin films at the cartilage surface reduces friction in the absence of interstitial fluid pressurization and fluid film lubrication by synovial fluid. Inadequate boundary lubrication is associated with degenerative joint conditions such as osteoarthritis (OA), but relations between OA and surface friction, lubrication and wear in boundary lubrication are not well defined. The purpose of the present study was to measure microscale boundary mode friction of the articular cartilage surface in an in vivo experimental model to better understand changes in cartilage surface friction in early OA. Cartilage friction was measured on the articular surface by atomic force microscopy (AFM) under applied loads ranging from 0.5 to 5 μN. Microscale AFM friction analyses revealed depth dependent changes within the top-most few microns of the cartilage surface in this model of early OA. A significant increase of nearly 50% was observed in the mean engineering friction coefficient for OA cartilage at the 0.5 μN load level; no significant differences in friction coefficients were found under higher applied loads. Changes in cartilage surface morphology observed by scanning electron microscopy included cracking and roughening of the surface indicative of disruption and wear accompanied by an apparent disintegration of the thin surface lamina from the underlying matrix. Immunohistochemical staining of lubricin - an important cartilage surface boundary lubricant - did not reveal differences in spatial distribution near the cartilage surface in OA compared to controls. The increase in friction at the 0.5 μN force level is interpreted to reflect changes in the interfacial mechanics of the thin surface lamina of articular cartilage: increased friction implies reduced

  15. Extraction of high-quality RNA from human articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Le Bleu, Heather K; Kamal, Fadia A; Kelly, Meghan; Ketz, John P; Zuscik, Michael J; Elbarbary, Reyad A

    2017-02-01

    Extracting high-quality RNA from articular cartilage is challenging due to low cellularity and high proteoglycan content. This problem hinders efficient application of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis in studying cartilage homeostasis. Here we developed a method that purifies high-quality RNA directly from cartilage. Our method optimized the collection and homogenization steps so as to minimize RNA degradation, and modified the conventional TRIzol protocol to enhance RNA purity. Cartilage RNA purified using our method has appropriate quality for RNA-seq experiments including an RNA integrity number of ∼8. Our method also proved efficient in extracting high-quality RNA from subchondral bone.

  16. Extra-articular Synovial Chondromatosis Eroding and Penetrating the Acromion

    PubMed Central

    El Rassi, George; Matta, Jihad; Hijjawi, Ayman; Khair, Ousama Abou; Fahs, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis of the shoulder is an uncommon disorder. It usually affects the glenohumeral joint and is characterized by metaplasia of the synovium leading to the formation of osteochondral loose bodies. Few cases of extra-articular subacromial synovial chondromatosis involving the rotator cuff tendon have been reported in the literature. The treatment of previously reported cases consisted of open bursectomy and removal of loose bodies. We report a case of subacromial synovial chondromatosis without rotator cuff involvement but with severe erosion and fracture of the acromion. Treatment consisted of shoulder arthroscopy to remove all loose bodies, total bursectomy, and debridement of the acromion. Potential benefits of arthroscopy were also evaluated. PMID:26697302

  17. Nanomedicine for Intra-Articular Drug Delivery in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    O'Mary, Hannah; Del Rincόn, Inmaculada; Cui, Zhengrong

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by chronic inflammation within the joint. Recent developments in the understanding of inflammation have led to an increased interest in the use of nanomedicine in the treatment and diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. The ability of nanomedicine, such as nanoparticles, to permeate into and/or retain within the inflamed joint after intravenous and/or intra-articular administration has proven to be beneficial in improving rheumatoid arthritis therapy while reducing systemic exposure of patients to potentially toxic anti-arthritic drugs. This review aims at explaining the major applications of nanomedicine in rheumatoid arthritis treatment and diagnosis.

  18. Management and evaluation of extra-articular manifestations in spondyloarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Nurmohamed, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a chronic inflammatory disease with either predominantly axial symptoms of the spine and sacroiliac joints (axial SpA, including ankylosing spondylitis) or predominantly arthritis (peripheral SpA). Next to these spinal and articular symptoms, many patients with SpA also have extra-articular manifestations (EAMs). EAMs associated with SpA include anterior uveitis (25–30%), psoriasis (10–25%) or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (5–10%) and cardiovascular manifestations. Peripheral arthritis occurs in approximately 30% of patients, especially in large joints, and shows an asymmetrical, oligoarticular pattern. Other common joint complaints are due to enthesitis, which manifest as extra-articular bony tenderness in areas such as the Achilles tendon. Acute anterior uveitis presents with acute pain, loss of vision and redness in one eye that usually subsides spontaneously after several weeks. Rapid treatment by an ophthalmologist is required to prevent synechiae formation which could ultimately result in glaucoma and blindness. Although less common, organ involvement in SpA can also be located in the heart, lungs or kidneys. The risk of cardiovascular events is increased in SpA. Cardiac manifestations can involve the aortic valve (1–10%) or the atrioventricular node and the risk of atherosclerotic events is increased in this group. Treatment of SpA includes physical exercise and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and in case of peripheral arthritis, sulphasalazine can be added. When there is insufficient response to NSAIDs, tumor necrosis factor blockers, especially infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab and golimumab, are very effective in treating axial manifestations, arthritis, enthesitis and psoriasis. Anterior uveitis in SpA can be treated adequately by the ophthalmologist and in the case of refractory uveitis, treatment with adalimumab and infliximab seems to be more effective compared with etanercept. When IBD occurs with

  19. Review: tissue engineering for regeneration of articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Temenoff, J S; Mikos, A G

    2000-03-01

    Joint pain due to cartilage degeneration is a serious problem, affecting people of all ages. Although many techniques, often surgical, are currently employed to treat this affliction, none have had complete success. Recent advances in biology and materials science have pushed tissue engineering to the forefront of new cartilage repair techniques. This review seeks to condense information for the biomaterialist interested in developing materials for this application. Articular cartilage anatomy, types of injury, and current repair methods are explained. The need for biomaterials, current commonly used materials for tissue-engineered cartilage, and considerations in scale-up of cell-biomaterial constructs are summarized.

  20. Intra-articular and Peri-articular Tumours and Tumour Mimics- What a Clinician and Onco-imaging Radiologist Should Know

    PubMed Central

    DHANDA, Sunita; QUEK, Swee Tian; BATHLA, Girish; JAGMOHAN, Pooja

    2014-01-01

    Definitive determination of the cause of articular swelling may be difficult based on just the clinical symptoms, physical examinations and laboratory tests. Joint disorders fall under the realms of rheumatology and general orthopaedics; however, patients with joint conditions manifesting primarily as intra-articular and peri-articular soft tissue swelling may at times be referred to an orthopaedic oncology department with suspicion of a tumour. In such a situation, an onco-radiologist needs to think beyond the usual neoplastic lesions and consider the diagnoses of various non-neoplastic arthritic conditions that may be clinically masquerading as masses. Differential diagnoses of articular lesions include infectious and non-infectious synovial proliferative processes, degenerative lesions, deposition diseases, vascular malformations, benign and malignant neoplasms and additional miscellaneous conditions. Many of these diseases have specific imaging findings. Knowledge of these radiological characteristics in an appropriate clinical context will allow for a more confident diagnosis. PMID:24876802

  1. Prevalence of articular chondrocalcinosis in elderly subjects in a rural area of Catalonia.

    PubMed Central

    Sanmartí, R; Pañella, D; Brancós, M A; Canela, J; Collado, A; Brugués, J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To undertake an epidemiological survey of the prevalence of radiological chondrocalcinosis in the elderly population of Osona, a rural area of Catalonia, north east Spain. METHODS--Knee and wrist radiographs were performed on 261 subjects (141 women, 120 men) aged at least 60 years, who attended a series of 35 general practitioners for various medical problems. RESULTS--Twenty seven subjects had articular chondrocalcinosis, which represents a crude prevalence of 10%. Articular chondrocalcinosis was more often observed in women than in men (14 v 6%). Articular chondrocalcinosis increases in occurrence with age, rising from 7% in subjects aged 60-69 years to 43% in subjects older than 80 years. A similar occurrence of articular chondrocalcinosis was noted in the indigenous population, in which several cases of familial chondrocalcinosis have previously been reported, and in subjects born in other areas of Spain. All but one subject with articular chondrocalcinosis had chondrocalcinosis of the knee. The occurrence of rheumatic disorders did not differ significantly between subjects with articular chondrocalcinosis and those without. CONCLUSIONS--Articular chondrocalcinosis is an age related disorder, which could partly explain the discrepancies in its prevalence reported in previous studies. In most subjects with articular chondrocalcinosis recruited from an unselected population the clinical manifestations are probably mild or even absent. PMID:8323393

  2. Listeria monocytogenes septic arthritis following intra-articular yttrium-90 therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, A P; Prouse, P J; Gumpel, J M

    1984-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a rare cause of septic arthritis, which usually occurs in a host compromised by systemic illness. Intra-articular irradiation with yttrium-90 is generally free of complication. We report a case of intra-articular sepsis of the knee joint by Listeria monocytogenes acquired under unusual circumstances. PMID:6742916

  3. Comparison of sonographically guided intra-articular injections at 3 different sites of the knee.

    PubMed

    Park, Yongbum; Lee, Sang Chul; Nam, Hee-Seung; Lee, Jihae; Nam, Sang Hyun

    2011-12-01

    Sonographically guided injections show more accuracy than blind injections, but there are no reports comparing sonographically guided intra-articular injection approaches. This study examined the accuracy of sonographically guided intra-articular injections at 3 different sites of the knee using medial, midlateral, and superolateral portals. Sonographically guided intra-articular injections and radiology evaluations were performed on 126 knees with osteoarthritis (Kellgren-Lawrence grade 2 or 3). Six milliliters of mixed material containing 1% lidocaine (1 mL), 20 mg of triamcinolone (1 mL), and a nonionic contrast agent (4 mL) was injected into the intra-articular space of the knee through the medial, midlateral, and superolateral portals. After the sonographically guided intra-articular injection into the knee joint, a radiographic image was taken to determine whether the injected material had reached the intra-articular space or infiltrated into the soft tissue. Sonographically guided intra-articular injections in the midlateral portal (95%; P < .05) and superolateral portal (100%; P < .05) showed significantly higher accuracy than injections in the medial portal (75%). Sonographically guided intra-articular injections in the midlateral or superolateral portal may increase the accuracy of knee joint injections.

  4. Effects of ageing on the biomechanical properties of rat articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Kalu, D N; Banu, J; Thomas, J B; Gabriel, N; Athanasiou, K

    2006-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats experience age-related bone loss with the same characteristics as that in ageing men. As articular cartilage, like bone, is a critical component of the health and function of the musculoskeletal system, the authors hypothesized that articular cartilage in the untreated male SD rats could be a suitable model for studying the age-related deterioration of articular cartilage in men. To test this hypothesis, male SD rats were killed at between 6 and 27 months. The right femur of each rat was removed. The effects of ageing on the structural integrity of the distal femoral articular cartilage were studied by biomechanical testing with a creep indentation apparatus. The aggregate modulus, Poisson's ratio, permeability, thickness, and percentage recovery of articular cartilage were determined using finite element/non-linear optimization modelling. No significant differences were observed in these biomechanical properties of the distal femoral articular cartilage as a function of age. Therefore, untreated male SD rats appear to be unsuitable for studying the age-related changes of articular cartilage as they occur in men. However, and more intriguingly, it is also possible that ageing does not affect the biomechanical properties of articular cartilage in the absence of cartilage pathology.

  5. A Clinically Realistic Large Animal Model of Intra-Articular Fracture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    effect of a therapeutic treatment will be pursued. 15. SUBJECT TERMS post-traumatic osteoarthritis , joint injuries, intra-articular fracture...technique to create experimental articular fractures in large animal joints . Osteoarthritis Cartilage (in print). 4 1. INTRODUCTION The...consistent with our empirical knowledge in human clinical settings. Figure 7. Representative case of joint surface incongruity analysis in a 2 mm step

  6. In vivo bone tunnel remodeling in symptomatic patients after ACL reconstruction: a retrospective comparison of articular and extra-articular fixation

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Dominic T.; Rasch, Helmut; Hirschmann, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background there is only a paucity of studies dealing with bone remodeling within the tunnels after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of tendon graft type and surgical fixation technique on bone tunnel remodeling in patients with symptomatic knees after ACL reconstruction. Methods in a retrospective study 99mTc-HDP bone tracer uptake (BTU) in SPECT/CT of 57 knees with symptoms of pain and/or instability after ACL reconstruction was investigated. All 57 knees were subdivided according their anatomy (femur and tibia), fixation (articular versus extra-articular fixation) and graft types into eight groups: femoral-articular versus extra-articular fixation using bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) and hamstring autografts; tibial-articular versus extra-articular fixation using patellar tendon and hamstring autografts; BTU grading for each area of the localisation scheme were recorded. Tunnel diameter and length was measured in the CT scans. Results BTU was higher for the articular fixation in the femur and for the extra-articular fixation in the tibial tunnel. Patellar tendon graft fixation showed a significantly higher BTU in the superior-lateral and posterior-central area of the tibia, meaning the areas of the tibial tunnel near the entrance into the joint. Tunnel enlargement correlated significantly with increased BTU (p<0.05). Conclusion assessment of in vivo bone tunnel remodelling in symptomatic patients after ACL reconstruction revealed different patterns of BTU with regards to graft and fixation method. PMID:26958543

  7. Extra-articular hip impingement: a narrative review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Cheatham, Scott W.

    2016-01-01

    There is growing subgroup of patients with poor outcomes after hip arthroscopy for intra-articular pathology suggesting unrecognized cause(s) of impingement may exist. Extra-articular hip impingement (EHI) is an emerging group of conditions that have been associated with intra-articular causes of impingement and may be an unrecognized source of pain. EHI is caused by abnormal contact between the extra-articular regions of the proximal femur and pelvis. This review discusses the most common forms for EHI including: central iliopsoas impingement, subspine impingement, ischiofemoral impingement, and greater trochanteric-pelvic impingement. The clinical presentation of each pathology will be discussed since EHI conditions share similar clinical features as the intra-articular pathology but also contain some unique characteristics. PMID:27069266

  8. Surface fissures in articular cartilage: effect of pathological changes in synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Kafka, Vratislav

    2002-01-01

    A unified mathematical model of two different modes of inception of fissures at the surface of articular cartilage in healthy and pathological joints. The superficial tangential zone of articular cartilage is modeled as a three-phase medium consisting of collagen fibers, matrix, and of infiltrated thin constituent of synovial fluid. The author's general mesomechanical concept is applied to the analysis of deterioration of articular cartilage. Theoretical analysis based on the results of the author's preceding paper. The presented analysis shows that superficial fissures in articular cartilage can also be caused by pathological thinning of synovial fluid. Whereas in healthy joints the probable cause of creation of fissures at the surface of cartilage was shown to be fast impact loading, in joints with inflammatory synovial fluid the fissures can be caused by plain walking. Appearance of surface fissures in articular cartilage is a serious, still not fully clarified problem that deserves attention.

  9. Topographic matching of distal radius and proximal fibula articular surface for distal radius osteoarticular reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Chen, S; Wang, Z; Guo, Y; Liu, B; Tong, D

    2016-07-01

    During osteoarticular reconstruction of the distal radius with the proximal fibula, congruity between the two articular surfaces is an important factor in determining the quality of the outcome. In this study, a three-dimensional model and a coordinate transformation algorithm were developed on computed tomography scanning. Articular surface matching was performed and parameters for the optimal position were determined quantitatively. The mean radii of best-fit spheres of the articular surfaces of the distal radius and proximal fibula were compared quantitatively. The radial inclination and volar tilt following reconstruction by an ipsilateral fibula graft, rather than the contralateral, best resembles the values of the native distal radius. Additionally, the ipsilateral fibula graft reconstructed a larger proportion of the distal radius articular surface than did the contralateral. The ipsilateral proximal fibula graft provides a better match for the reconstruction of the distal radius articular surface than the contralateral, and the optimal position for graft placement is quantitatively determined.

  10. Detailed Analysis of the Articular Domain in Patients with Primary Sjögren Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moerman, Rada V; Arends, Suzanne; Meiners, Petra M; Vissink, Arjan; Spijkervet, Frederik K L; Kroese, Frans G M; Brouwer, Elisabeth; Bootsma, Hendrika

    2017-03-01

    We used the 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28) and the European League Against Rheumatism Sjögren's Syndrome Disease Activity Index (ESSDAI) articular domain to assess the effect of rituximab (RTX) and abatacept (ABA) on articular involvement in primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS). Patients with pSS treated with RTX (n = 18) or ABA (n = 13) and having a DAS28 erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)/C-reactive protein (CRP) level ≥ 3.2 at baseline were selected. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the DAS28 and ESSDAI articular domain over time. In the RTX group, DAS28-ESR/CRP decreased significantly up to 48 weeks. In the ABA group, DAS28-ESR/CRP decreased significantly up to 24 weeks. DAS28 correlated significantly with ESSDAI articular domain. DAS28 is useful to evaluate the effect of biologicals on articular involvement in patients with pSS.

  11. Radiation synovectomy stimulates glycosaminoglycan synthesis by normal articular cartilage

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S.L.; Slowman, S.D.; Brandt, K.D.

    1989-07-01

    Radiation synovectomy has been considered a therapeutic alternative to surgical synovectomy. Whether intraarticular irradiation affects the composition or biochemistry, and therefore the biomechanical properties, of normal articular cartilage has not been established. In the present study, yttrium 90 silicate was injected into one knee of nine normal adult dogs, and three other dogs received nonradioactive yttrium silicate. When the animals were killed 4 to 13 weeks after the injection, synovium from the irradiated knees showed areas of necrosis and fibrosis. Up to 29% less hyaluronate was synthesized in vitro by the synovial intima from irradiated knees than by the intima from the contralateral knees (mean difference 18%). Morphologic abnormalities were not observed in articular cartilage from either the irradiated or control knees, nor did the water content or concentrations of uronic acid or DNA in cartilage from the irradiated knees differ from that in cartilage from the contralateral knees. However, net /sup 35/SO/sub 4/-labeled glycosaminoglycan synthesis in organ cultures of cartilage from irradiated knees was increased (mean difference 21%, p = 0.03) in comparison with that in cultures of contralateral knee cartilage.

  12. Permeability and shear modulus of articular cartilage in growing mice.

    PubMed

    Berteau, J-Ph; Oyen, M; Shefelbine, S J

    2016-02-01

    Articular cartilage maturation is the postnatal development process that adapts joint surfaces to their site-specific biomechanical demands. Understanding the changes in mechanical tissues properties during growth is a critical step in advancing strategies for orthopedics and for cell- and biomaterial- based therapies dedicated to cartilage repair. We hypothesize that at the microscale, the articular cartilage tissue properties of the mouse (i.e., shear modulus and permeability) change with the growth and are dependent on location within the joint. We tested cartilage on the medial femoral condyle and lateral femoral condyle of seven C57Bl6 mice at different ages (2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, and 17 weeks old) using a micro-indentation test. Results indicated that permeability decreased with age from 2 to 17 weeks. Shear modulus reached a peak at the end of the growth (9 weeks). Within an age group, shear modulus was higher in the MFC than in the LFC, but permeability did not change. We have developed a method that can measure natural alterations in cartilage material properties in a murine joint, which will be useful in identifying changes in cartilage mechanics with degeneration, pathology, or treatment.

  13. [Prostaglandin E₂: innovative approaches for tissue engineering of articular cartilage].

    PubMed

    Brochhausen-Delius, C

    2014-11-01

    Chronic diseases, traumatic tissue defects and tumor resections lead to irreversible loss of tissue which are usually treated by reconstructive techniques or prostheses. Tissue engineering represents a change of paradigm from the structural replacement of damaged tissue to genuine regeneration of organ-specific tissue with reconstruction of function. Therefore, autologous cells, biomaterials and growth factors are used to achieve this goal. Tissue engineering of articular cartilage is used in this article as an example of the successful identification of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) as a growth factor during endochondral ossification. In addition PGE2 could be shown to be beneficial for a rapid phenotypical redifferentiation and synthesis of collagen II in human articular chondrocytes. Based on these findings the development of a combined construct of an oriented scaffold and release system is demonstrated. The innovative characterization of these cell-seeded constructs by the use of synchrotron microcomputed tomography (μCT) permits non-destructive analysis even down to the cellular level. Our results indicate new requirements for the pathological anatomical diagnosis with a view to long-term effects of tissue engineering constructs, the biocompatibility of biodegradable biomaterials and even more important the regenerative potential of different lesions, with prediction of the outcome of tissue engineering-based strategies for individual patients.

  14. Non-linear model for compression tests on articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Grillo, Alfio; Guaily, Amr; Giverso, Chiara; Federico, Salvatore

    2015-07-01

    Hydrated soft tissues, such as articular cartilage, are often modeled as biphasic systems with individually incompressible solid and fluid phases, and biphasic models are employed to fit experimental data in order to determine the mechanical and hydraulic properties of the tissues. Two of the most common experimental setups are confined and unconfined compression. Analytical solutions exist for the unconfined case with the linear, isotropic, homogeneous model of articular cartilage, and for the confined case with the non-linear, isotropic, homogeneous model. The aim of this contribution is to provide an easily implementable numerical tool to determine a solution to the governing differential equations of (homogeneous and isotropic) unconfined and (inhomogeneous and isotropic) confined compression under large deformations. The large-deformation governing equations are reduced to equivalent diffusive equations, which are then solved by means of finite difference (FD) methods. The solution strategy proposed here could be used to generate benchmark tests for validating complex user-defined material models within finite element (FE) implementations, and for determining the tissue's mechanical and hydraulic properties from experimental data.

  15. Combinatorial scaffold morphologies for zonal articular cartilage engineering☆

    PubMed Central

    Steele, J.A.M.; McCullen, S.D.; Callanan, A.; Autefage, H.; Accardi, M.A.; Dini, D.; Stevens, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Articular cartilage lesions are a particular challenge for regenerative medicine strategies as cartilage function stems from a complex depth-dependent organization. Tissue engineering scaffolds that vary in morphology and function offer a template for zone-specific cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) production and mechanical properties. We fabricated multi-zone cartilage scaffolds by the electrostatic deposition of polymer microfibres onto particulate-templated scaffolds produced with 0.03 or 1.0 mm3 porogens. The scaffolds allowed ample space for chondrocyte ECM production within the bulk while also mimicking the structural organization and functional interface of cartilage’s superficial zone. Addition of aligned fibre membranes enhanced the mechanical and surface properties of particulate-templated scaffolds. Zonal analysis of scaffolds demonstrated region-specific variations in chondrocyte number, sulfated GAG-rich ECM, and chondrocytic gene expression. Specifically, smaller porogens (0.03 mm3) yielded significantly higher sGAG accumulation and aggrecan gene expression. Our results demonstrate that bilayered scaffolds mimic some key structural characteristics of native cartilage, support in vitro cartilage formation, and have superior features to homogeneous particulate-templated scaffolds. We propose that these scaffolds offer promise for regenerative medicine strategies to repair articular cartilage lesions. PMID:24370641

  16. Resurfacing Damaged Articular Cartilage to Restore Compressive Properties

    PubMed Central

    Grenier, Stephanie; Donnelly, Patrick E.; Gittens, Jamila; Torzilli, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Surface damage to articular cartilage is recognized as the initial underlying process causing the loss of mechanical function in early-stage osteoarthritis. In this study, we developed structure-modifying treatments to potentially prevent, stabilize or reverse the loss in mechanical function. Various polymers (chondroitin sulfate, carboxymethylcellulose, sodium hyaluronate) and photoinitiators (riboflavin, irgacure 2959) were applied to the surface of collagenase-degraded cartilage and crosslinked in situ using UV light irradiation. While matrix permeability and deformation significantly increased following collagenase-induced degradation of the superficial zone, resurfacing using tyramine-substituted sodium hyaluronate and riboflavin decreased both values to a level comparable to that of intact cartilage. Repetitive loading of resurfaced cartilage showed minimal variation in the mechanical response over a 7 day period. Cartilage resurfaced using a low concentration of riboflavin had viable cells in all zones while a higher concentration resulted in a thin layer of cell death in the uppermost superficial zone. Our approach to repair surface damage initiates a new therapeutic advance in the treatment of injured articular cartilage with potential benefits that include enhanced mechanical properties, reduced susceptibility to enzymatic degradation and reduced adhesion of macrophages. PMID:25468298

  17. Hydrogels for the Repair of Articular Cartilage Defects

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Suzanne A.; Lowman, Anthony M.

    2011-01-01

    The repair of articular cartilage defects remains a significant challenge in orthopedic medicine. Hydrogels, three-dimensional polymer networks swollen in water, offer a unique opportunity to generate a functional cartilage substitute. Hydrogels can exhibit similar mechanical, swelling, and lubricating behavior to articular cartilage, and promote the chondrogenic phenotype by encapsulated cells. Hydrogels have been prepared from naturally derived and synthetic polymers, as cell-free implants and as tissue engineering scaffolds, and with controlled degradation profiles and release of stimulatory growth factors. Using hydrogels, cartilage tissue has been engineered in vitro that has similar mechanical properties to native cartilage. This review summarizes the advancements that have been made in determining the potential of hydrogels to replace damaged cartilage or support new tissue formation as a function of specific design parameters, such as the type of polymer, degradation profile, mechanical properties and loading regimen, source of cells, cell-seeding density, controlled release of growth factors, and strategies to cause integration with surrounding tissue. Some key challenges for clinical translation remain, including limited information on the mechanical properties of hydrogel implants or engineered tissue that are necessary to restore joint function, and the lack of emphasis on the ability of an implant to integrate in a stable way with the surrounding tissue. Future studies should address the factors that affect these issues, while using clinically relevant cell sources and rigorous models of repair. PMID:21510824

  18. Delivering Agents Locally into Articular Cartilage by Intense MHz Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Nieminen, Heikki J.; Ylitalo, Tuomo; Suuronen, Jussi-Petteri; Rahunen, Krista; Salmi, Ari; Saarakkala, Simo; Serimaa, Ritva; Hæggström, Edward

    2015-01-01

    There is no cure for osteoarthritis. Current drug delivery relies on systemic delivery or injections into the joint. Because articular cartilage (AC) degeneration can be local and drug exposure outside the lesion can cause adverse effects, localized drug delivery could permit new drug treatment strategies. We investigated whether intense megahertz ultrasound (frequency: 1.138 MHz, peak positive pressure: 2.7 MPa, Ispta: 5 W/cm2, beam width: 5.7 mm at −6 dB, duty cycle: 5%, pulse repetition frequency: 285 Hz, mechanical index: 1.1) can deliver agents into AC without damaging it. Using ultrasound, we delivered a drug surrogate down to a depth corresponding to 53% depth of the AC thickness without causing histologically detectable damage to the AC. This may be important because early osteoarthritis typically exhibits histopathologic changes in the superficial AC. In conclusion, we identify intense megahertz ultrasound as a technique that potentially enables localized non-destructive delivery of osteoarthritis drugs or drug carriers into articular cartilage. PMID:25922135

  19. Subtalar versus triple arthrodesis after intra-articular calcaneal fractures.

    PubMed

    Schepers, Tim; Kieboom, Brenda C T; Bessems, Gert H J M; Vogels, Lucas M M; van Lieshout, Esther M M; Patka, Peter

    2010-08-01

    Depending upon initial treatment, between 2 and 30% of patients with a displaced intra-articular calcaneal fracture require a secondary arthrodesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of subtalar versus triple arthrodesis on functional outcome. A total of 33 patients with 37 secondary arthrodeses (17 subtalar and 20 triple) with a median follow-up of 116 months were asked to complete questionnaires regarding disease-specific functional outcome (Maryland Foot Score, MFS), quality of life (SF-36) and overall satisfaction with the treatment (Visual Analogue Scale, VAS). Patient groups were comparable considering median age at fracture, initial treatment (conservative or operative), time to arthrodesis, median follow-up, and post-arthrodesis radiographic angles. The MFS score was similar after subtalar versus triple arthrodesis (59 vs. 56 points; P = 0.79). No statistically significant difference was found for the SF-36 (84 vs. 83 points; P = 0.67) and the VAS (5 vs. 6; P = 0.21). Smoking was statistically significantly associated with a non-union (χ(2) = 6.60, P = 0.017). The current study suggests that there is no significant difference in functional outcome between an in situ subtalar or triple arthrodesis as a salvage technique for symptomatic arthrosis after an intra-articular calcaneal fracture. Smoking is a risk factor for non-union.

  20. Subtalar versus triple arthrodesis after intra-articular calcaneal fractures

    PubMed Central

    Kieboom, Brenda C. T.; Bessems, Gert H. J. M.; Vogels, Lucas M. M.; van Lieshout, Esther M. M.; Patka, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Depending upon initial treatment, between 2 and 30% of patients with a displaced intra-articular calcaneal fracture require a secondary arthrodesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of subtalar versus triple arthrodesis on functional outcome. A total of 33 patients with 37 secondary arthrodeses (17 subtalar and 20 triple) with a median follow-up of 116 months were asked to complete questionnaires regarding disease-specific functional outcome (Maryland Foot Score, MFS), quality of life (SF-36) and overall satisfaction with the treatment (Visual Analogue Scale, VAS). Patient groups were comparable considering median age at fracture, initial treatment (conservative or operative), time to arthrodesis, median follow-up, and post-arthrodesis radiographic angles. The MFS score was similar after subtalar versus triple arthrodesis (59 vs. 56 points; P = 0.79). No statistically significant difference was found for the SF-36 (84 vs. 83 points; P = 0.67) and the VAS (5 vs. 6; P = 0.21). Smoking was statistically significantly associated with a non-union (χ2 = 6.60, P = 0.017). The current study suggests that there is no significant difference in functional outcome between an in situ subtalar or triple arthrodesis as a salvage technique for symptomatic arthrosis after an intra-articular calcaneal fracture. Smoking is a risk factor for non-union. PMID:21811905

  1. Segmenting articular cartilage automatically using a voxel classification approach.

    PubMed

    Folkesson, Jenny; Dam, Erik B; Olsen, Ole F; Pettersen, Paola C; Christiansen, Claus

    2007-01-01

    We present a fully automatic method for articular cartilage segmentation from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which we use as the foundation of a quantitative cartilage assessment. We evaluate our method by comparisons to manual segmentations by a radiologist and by examining the interscan reproducibility of the volume and area estimates. Training and evaluation of the method is performed on a data set consisting of 139 scans of knees with a status ranging from healthy to severely osteoarthritic. This is, to our knowledge, the only fully automatic cartilage segmentation method that has good agreement with manual segmentations, an interscan reproducibility as good as that of a human expert, and enables the separation between healthy and osteoarthritic populations. While high-field scanners offer high-quality imaging from which the articular cartilage have been evaluated extensively using manual and automated image analysis techniques, low-field scanners on the other hand produce lower quality images but to a fraction of the cost of their high-field counterpart. For low-field MRI, there is no well-established accuracy validation for quantitative cartilage estimates, but we show that differences between healthy and osteoarthritic populations are statistically significant using our cartilage volume and surface area estimates, which suggests that low-field MRI analysis can become a useful, affordable tool in clinical studies.

  2. Changes in articular cartilage in experimentally induced patellar subluxation

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, J.; Saito, S.; Yamamoto, K.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Patellar subluxation was experimentally induced in young rabbits and the resulting cartilaginous changes were observed over a prolonged period of time to determine histological changes in the subluxated patellar cartilage.
METHODS—The tibial tuberosity in 12 week old rabbits was laterally displaced and fixed to the tibia with wire to induce lateral patellar subluxation. Pathological changes in patellar cartilage were examined for 120 weeks after surgery using computed tomography and stereoscopic microscopy.
RESULTS—Eight weeks after surgery, changes in articular cartilage consisting of horizontal splitting of the matrix were observed in the intermediate zone and were presumed to have been caused by shearing stress applied to the patellar cartilage. The cartilaginous changes caused by patellar subluxation progressed very little over the 120 weeks. Very few rabbits presented with osteoarthritic changes in the patellofemoral joint, most probably because the stress resulting from the malalignment of the patellofemoral joint was mild enough to permit recovery.
CONCLUSION—The mild, non-progressive pathological changes, in particular, basal degeneration, induced in this experiment in patellar cartilage were quite similar to the changes in articular cartilage seen in human chondromalacia patellae.

 PMID:9462171

  3. Intra-articular Implantation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Part 2

    PubMed Central

    Kraeutler, Matthew J.; Mitchell, Justin J.; Chahla, Jorge; McCarty, Eric C.; Pascual-Garrido, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) after partial or total meniscectomy is a prevalent issue that patients must face. Various methods of replacing meniscal tissue have been studied to avoid this progression, including meniscal allograft transplantation, meniscal scaffolds, and synthetic meniscus replacement. Studies have shown that meniscal scaffolds may improve symptoms but have not been shown to prevent progression of OA. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been proposed as a possible biological therapy for meniscal regeneration. Several animal studies and 1 human study have evaluated the effect of transplanting MSCs into the knee joint after partial meniscectomy. The purpose of this review was to assess the outcomes of intra-articular transplantation of MSCs on meniscal regeneration in animals and humans after partial meniscectomy. Limited results from animal studies suggest that there is some potential for intra-articular injection of MSCs for the regeneration of meniscal tissue. However, further studies are necessary to determine the quality of regenerated meniscal tissue through histological and biomechanical testing. PMID:28203596

  4. Temporary immobilisation facilitates repair of chemically induced articular cartilage injury.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J M; Brandt, K D

    1984-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that immobilisation of the lower limb may prevent surface fibrillation and osteophyte formation, and reduce cell depletion, following injection of iodoacetate into the ipsilateral knee of the guinea-pig. The present study shows that temporary immobilisation also facilitates repair of the damaged cartilage during a subsequent period of remobilisation in which the animal is permitted to move 'on all fours'. Thus, in animals killed six weeks after a single intra-articular injection of iodoacetate (0.3 mg in 0.1 ml saline), and in which the injected knee had been immobilised for three weeks, Safranin-O staining of the articular cartilage was more intense, chondrocyte density greater, and osteophytosis much less marked than in animals injected with iodoacetate but killed immediately after the three weeks immobilisation period. By contrast, immobilisation for only one week failed to protect against degenerative changes and osteophytes caused by iodoacetate injection. Immobilisation alone produced no apparent pathological changes in animals which did not receive iodoacetate. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:6735906

  5. Comparison of efficacy of intra-articular morphine and steroid in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Beyaz, Serbülent Gökhan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Primary therapeutic aim in treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee is to relieve the pain of osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of intra-articular triamcinolone with intra-articular morphine in pain relief due to osteoarthritis of the knee in the elderly population. Materials and Methods: Patients between 50 and 80 years of age were randomized into three groups. Group M received morphine plus bupivacaine intra-articularly, Group T received triamcinolone plus bupivacaine intra-articularly, and Group C received saline plus bupivacaine intra-articularly. Patients were evaluated before injection and in 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 12th weeks after injection. First-line supplementary analgesic was oral paracetamol 1500 mg/day. If analgesia was insufficient with paracetamol, oral dexketoprofen trometamol 50 mg/day was recommended to patients. Results: After the intra-articular injection, there was statistically significant decrease in visual analog scale (VAS) scores in Groups M and T, when compared to Group C. The decrease of VAS scores seen at the first 2 weeks continued steadily up to the end of 12th week. There was a significant decrease in Groups M and T in the WOMAC scores, when compared to Group C. There was no significant difference in the WOMAC scores between morphine and steroid groups. Significantly less supplementary analgesics was used in the morphine and steroid groups. Conclusion: Intra-articular morphine was as effective as intra-articular triamcinolone for analgesia in patients with osteoarthritis knee. Intra-articular morphine is possibly a better option than intra-articular steroid as it has lesser side effects. PMID:23225932

  6. Intra-articular injection of tenoxicam in rats: assessment of the local effects on the articular cartilage and synovium.

    PubMed

    Ozyuvaci, H; Bilgic, B; Ozyuvaci, E; Altan, A; Altug, T; Karaca, C

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the possible local adverse effects of intra-articular administration of tenoxicam in the rat knee joint. A total of 50 rats were given 0.25 ml of a standard preparation of tenoxicam by injection into the right knee joint and 0.25 ml of 0.9% saline solution by injection into the left knee joint as a control. Groups of 10 rats were killed 24 h, 48 h, 7 days, 14 days and 21 days after tenoxicam administration. Two rats were sham operated; one was killed on the first day and the other on the second day after this procedure. All the joints were prepared and sectioned for histological examination. Tissue loss and oedema were observed in the specimens obtained 24 h and 48 h after treatment with tenoxicam. No pathological changes were observed in the 7-day, 14-day and 21-day specimens, or in the control joints. Caution should be exercised when using intra-articular tenoxicam for post-operative analgesia.

  7. DISCO interacting protein 2 determines direction of axon projection under the regulation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase in the Drosophila mushroom body.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Yohei; Sugie, Atsushi

    2017-04-08

    Precisely controlled axon guidance for complex neuronal wiring is essential for appropriate neuronal function. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was found to play a role in axon guidance recently as well as in cell proliferation, protection and apoptosis. In spite of many genetic and molecular studies on these biological processes regulated by JNK, how JNK regulates axon guidance accurately has not been fully explained thus far. To address this question, we use the Drosophila mushroom body (MB) as a model since the α/β axons project in two distinct directions. Here we show that DISCO interacting protein 2 (DIP2) is required for the accurate direction of axonal guidance. DIP2 expression is under the regulation of Basket (Bsk), the Drosophila homologue of JNK. We additionally found that the Bsk/DIP2 pathway is independent from the AP-1 transcriptional factor complex pathway, which is directly activated by Bsk. In conclusion, our findings revealed DIP2 as a novel effector downstream of Bsk modulating the direction of axon projection.

  8. Transient anabolic effects accompany epidermal growth factor receptor signal activation in articular cartilage in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Signals from the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have typically been considered to provide catabolic activities in articular cartilage, and accordingly have been suggested to have a causal role in osteoarthritis progression. The aim of this study was to determine in vivo roles for endogenous EGFR signal activation in articular cartilage. Methods Transgenic mice with conditional, limb-targeted deletion of the endogenous intracellular EGFR inhibitor Mig-6 were generated using CreLoxP (Mig-6-flox; Prx1Cre) recombination. Histology, histochemical staining and immunohistochemistry were used to confirm activation of EGFR signaling in the articular cartilage and joints, and to analyze phenotypic consequences of Mig-6 loss on articular cartilage morphology, proliferation, expression of progenitor cell markers, presence of chondrocyte hypertrophy and degradation of articular cartilage matrix. Results The articular cartilage of Mig-6-conditional knockout (Mig-6-cko) mice was dramatically and significantly thicker than normal articular cartilage at 6 and 12 weeks of age. Mig-6-cko articular cartilage contained a population of chondrocytes in which EGFR signaling was activated, and which were three to four times more proliferative than normal Mig-6-flox articular chondrocytes. These cells expressed high levels of the master chondrogenic regulatory factor Sox9, as well as high levels of putative progenitor cell markers including superficial zone protein (SZP), growth and differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5) and Notch1. Expression levels were also high for activated β-catenin and the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) mediators phospho-Smad2/3 (pSmad2/3). Anabolic effects of EGFR activation in articular cartilage were followed by catabolic events, including matrix degradation, as determined by accumulation of aggrecan cleavage fragments, and onset of hypertrophy as determined by type × collagen expression. By 16 weeks of age, the articular cartilage of

  9. Contrast agent enhanced pQCT of articular cartilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallioniemi, A. S.; Jurvelin, J. S.; Nieminen, M. T.; Lammi, M. J.; Töyräs, J.

    2007-02-01

    The delayed gadolinium enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) technique is the only non-invasive means to estimate proteoglycan (PG) content in articular cartilage. In dGEMRIC, the anionic paramagnetic contrast agent gadopentetate distributes in inverse relation to negatively charged PGs, leading to a linear relation between T1,Gd and spatial PG content in tissue. In the present study, for the first time, contrast agent enhanced peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was applied, analogously to dGEMRIC, for the quantitative detection of spatial PG content in cartilage. The suitability of two anionic radiographic contrast agents, gadopentetate and ioxaglate, to detect enzymatically induced PG depletion in articular cartilage was investigated. First, the interrelationships of x-ray absorption, as measured with pQCT, and the contrast agent solution concentration were investigated. Optimal contrast agent concentrations for the following experiments were selected. Second, diffusion rates for both contrast agents were investigated in intact (n = 3) and trypsin-degraded (n = 3) bovine patellar cartilage. The contrast agent concentration of the cartilaginous layer was measured prior to and 2-27 h after immersion. Optimal immersion time for the further experiments was selected. Third, the suitability of gadopentetate and ioxaglate enhanced pQCT to detect the enzymatically induced specific PG depletion was investigated by determining the contrast agent concentrations and uronic acid and water contents in digested and intact osteochondral samples (n = 16). After trypsin-induced PG loss (-70%, p < 0.05) the penetration of gadopentetate and ioxaglate increased (p < 0.05) by 34% and 48%, respectively. Gadopentetate and ioxaglate concentrations both showed strong correlation (r = -0.95, r = -0.94, p < 0.01, respectively) with the uronic acid content. To conclude, contrast agent enhanced pQCT provides a technique to quantify PG content in normal and experimentally

  10. Inter- and intra-specific scaling of articular surface areas in the hominoid talus

    PubMed Central

    Parr, William C H; Chatterjee, Helen J; Soligo, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    The morphology of postcranial articular surfaces is expected to reflect their weight-bearing properties, as well as the stability and mobility of the articulations to which they contribute. Previous studies have mainly confirmed earlier predictions of isometric scaling between articular surface areas and body mass; the exception to this is ‘male-type’, convex articular surface areas, which may scale allometrically due to differences in locomotor strategies within the analysed samples. In the present study, we used new surface scanning technology to quantify more accurately articular surface areas and to test those predictions within the talus of hominoid primates, including modern humans. Our results, contrary to predictions, suggest that there are no generalised rules of articular scaling within the talus of hominoids. Instead, we suggest that articular scaling patterns are highly context-specific, depending on the role of each articulation during locomotion, as well as taxon- and sex-specific differences in locomotion and ontogenetic growth trajectories within any given sample. While this may prove problematic for inferring body mass based on articular surface area, it also offers new opportunities of gaining substantial insights into the locomotor patterns of extinct species. PMID:21323919

  11. Rapid analgesic onset of intra-articular hyaluronic acid with ketorolac in osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Chul; Rha, Dong-Wook; Chang, Won Hyuk

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intra-articular ketorolac to improve intra-articular hyaluronic acid (HA) therapy in knee osteoarthritis with respect to the initiation of pain relief. This study was designed as a single-blind study with a blinded observer and a 3-month follow-up. Forty-three patients with knee osteoarthritis were randomized to the ketorolac group (n=21) or the HA group (n=22). Ketorolac group members were given three weekly intra-articular injections of HA with ketorolac and then two weekly intra-articular injections of HA; and HA group members were given five weekly intra-articular HA injections. Visual analog scale (VAS), pain rating score (PRS) and adverse events were assessed at baseline and at 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 16th week after treatment commencement. Significant improvement regarding pain assessment tools was observed in the ketorolac group by the addition of ketorolac to HA as compared with the HA group within 16 weeks of follow-up (p < 0.05). In the ketorolac group, 5 of the 21 subjects developed focal post-injection knee pain for about 8 hours after injection. Intra-articular HA with ketorolac showed more rapid analgesic onset than intra-articular HA alone and did not induce any serious complications.

  12. The joint synovium: A critical determinant of articular cartilage fate in inflammatory joint diseases.

    PubMed

    Bhattaram, Pallavi; Chandrasekharan, Unnikrishnan

    2017-02-01

    The synovium constitutes the envelope of articular joints and is a critical provider of synovial fluid components and articular cartilage nutrients. Its inflammation is a predominant feature and cause of joint degeneration in diseases as diverse as rheumatoid, psoriatic, juvenile and idiopathic arthritis, and lupus, gout and lyme disease. These inflammatory joint diseases (IJDs) are due to a wide variety of genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors that trigger, promote, and perpetuate joint destabilization. In spite of this variety of causes, IJDs share main pathological features, namely inflammation of the joint synovium (synovitis) and progressive degeneration of articular cartilage. In addition to being a driving force behind the destruction of articular cartilage in IJD, synovitis is also increasingly being recognized as a significant contributor of articular cartilage degeneration in osteoarthritis, a disease primarily due to aging- or trauma-related wear and tear of cartilage surfaces. In view of this important role of the synovium in determining the fate of articular cartilage, this review focuses on its underlying mechanisms in the pathology of IJD. We address the roles of synovial fibroblasts, macrophages and endothelial cells in the maintenance of joint health and in the destruction of articular cartilage integrity during IJD. Molecular mechanisms that have been recently shown to govern the pathological activities of the resident synovial cells are highlighted. Finally, advantages and disadvantages of targeting these new molecular mechanisms for preventing cartilage degeneration due to chronic inflammation are also discussed.

  13. Superficial Zone Extracellular Matrix Extracts Enhance Boundary Lubrication of Self-Assembled Articular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Gordon; McNary, Sean M.; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.; Reddi, A. Hari

    2015-01-01

    Objective Previous work has shown that increasing the production of boundary lubricant, superficial zone protein (SZP), did not reduce the friction coefficient of self-assembled articular cartilage constructs and was possibly due to poor retention of the lubricant. The aim of this investigation was to reduce the friction coefficient of self-assembled articular cartilage constructs through enhancing SZP retention by the exogenous addition of extracellular matrix (ECM) extracted from the superficial zone of native articular cartilage. Design Superficial zone cartilage was shaved from juvenile bovine femoral condyles using a dermatome, minced finely with razor blades, extracted with 4 M guanidine-hydrochloride, buffer exchanged with culture medium, and added directly to the culture medium of self-assembled articular cartilage constructs at low (10 µg/mL) and high (100 µg/mL) concentrations for 4 weeks. Biochemical and biomechanical properties were determined at the conclusion of 4 weeks culture. Results ECM treatment increased compressive and tensile stiffness of self-assembled articular cartilage constructs and decreased the friction coefficient. Glycosaminoglycan content decreased and collagen content increased significantly in self-assembled constructs by the ECM treatment. Conclusions Friction coefficients of self-assembled articular cartilage constructs were reduced by adding extracted superficial zone ECM into the culture medium of self-assembled articular cartilage constructs. PMID:27375841

  14. Epidemiology and outcome of articular complications in adult onset Still's disease.

    PubMed

    Mahfoudhi, Madiha; Shimi, Rafik; Turki, Sami; Kheder, Adel

    2015-01-01

    The adult onset Still's disease is a rare inflammatory pathology of unknown pathogeny. The clinical features are variable. The diagnosis is difficult since exclusion of infectious, systemic and tumoral pathologies should be done. The articular complications are frequent and can be revelatory of this pathology. The articular prognosis depends on the diagnosis delay and the treatment efficiency. Our study aims to analyze different aspects of articular manifestations complicating adult onset Still disease to define epidemiological, clinical and evolving characteristics of these complications. It was a cross-sectional study concerning 18 cases of adult onset Still disease diagnosed from 1990 to 2014 in the internal medicine A department of Charles Nicolle Hospital in Tunis, meeting Yamaguchi criteria. We identified clinical, radiological, evolving and therapeutic profile of the articular manifestations occurred in these patients. There were 11 women and 7 men. The average age was 27 years. The arthralgias were reported in all cases; while, the arthritis interested thirteen patients. A hand deformation was found in four patients. A wrist ankylosis was noted in one case and a flexion elbow in one patient. The Standard articular radiographs were normal in ten cases. The treatment associated essentially non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and/or corticosteroids and/or methotrexate. Concerning the evolving profile, the monocyclic form was present in 25% of the cases, the intermittent form in 40% and the chronic articular form in 35% of our patients. The adult onset Still's disease is rare and heterogeneous. The articular disturbances are frequent and have various outcomes.

  15. Skin Necrosis from Intra-articular Hyaluronic Acid Injection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Whan B; Alhusayen, Raed O

    2015-01-01

    Tissue necrosis is a rare yet potentially serious complication of intra-articular (IA) hyaluronic acid (HA) injections for treatment of knee osteoarthritis. To report a case of a patient with cutaneous necrosis after IA HA injection for treatment of knee osteoarthritis, presenting as a livedoid violaceous patch on the right knee. We report a case of cutaneous necrosis as a rare complication of IA HA injection for treatment of knee osteoarthritis. A literature review was undertaken of similar cases. Use of HA IA injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis can result in similar skin necrosis at uncommon anatomic locations corresponding to the site of HA injection. Although tissue necrosis is a rare complication, physicians need to be aware of this possibility as a complication of HA IA injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis and should be mindful of potential treatment options to manage this adverse event. © 2014 Canadian Dermatology Association.

  16. Intra-Articular Hip Injection Using Anatomic Surface Landmarks

    PubMed Central

    Masoud, Mohammad A.; Said, Hatem G.

    2013-01-01

    Intra-articular hip injection is a frequently used technique for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes and is gaining more importance for the early diagnosis of hip disease. It is commonly performed with imaging guidance such as ultrasonographic or fluoroscopic control. We describe our technique of injection of the hip using relative distances from anatomic surface landmarks, with the needle insertion point at the site of the proximal anterolateral portal for hip arthroscopy, with a posterior direction of 30° and targeted toward a junctional point between 2 perpendicular lines, 1 distal from the anterior superior iliac spine and the second anterior from the tip of the greater trochanter. This technique can be used without imaging guidance in the outpatient clinic. Moreover, it minimizes the need for radiographic exposure for more critical injections, such as the injection of contrast material before conducting magnetic resonance arthrogaphy of the hip. PMID:23875141

  17. Articular cartilage tissue engineering: the role of signaling molecules

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Heenam; Paschos, Nikolaos K.; Hu, Jerry C.; Athanasiou, Kyriacos

    2017-01-01

    Effective early disease modifying options for osteoarthritis remain lacking. Tissue engineering approach to generate cartilage in vitro has emerged as a promising option for articular cartilage repair and regeneration. Signaling molecules and matrix modifying agents, derived from knowledge of cartilage development and homeostasis, have been used as biochemical stimuli toward cartilage tissue engineering and have led to improvements in the functionality of engineered cartilage. Clinical translation of neocartilage faces challenges, such as phenotypic instability of the engineered cartilage, poor integration, inflammation, and catabolic factors in the arthritic environment; these can all contribute to failure of implanted neocartilage. A comprehensive understanding of signaling molecules involved in osteoarthritis pathogenesis and their actions on engineered cartilage will be crucial. Thus, while it is important to continue deriving inspiration from cartilage development and homeostasis, it has become increasing necessary to incorporate knowledge from osteoarthritis pathogenesis into cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:26811234

  18. Potassium channels of pig articular chondrocytes are blocked by propofol.

    PubMed

    Mozrzymas, J W; Visintin, M; Vittur, F; Ruzzier, F

    1994-07-15

    The effect of propofol on the voltage-activated potassium channels in pig articular chondrocytes was investigated. Propofol was found to reversibly block the potassium channels in a dose-dependent manner. The blocking effect was voltage-independent and the Hill coefficient was 1.85 +/- 0.18. No changes either in the slope conductance or in the single channel kinetics were observed. The half-blocking concentration (Ec50) was 6.0 +/- 0.49 microM which is much lower than the concentrations used to observe the scavenging effect of the drug in an artificial synovial fluid. Interestingly, Ec50 found in our experiments is also smaller than the blood concentration of propofol used in anaesthesia. These results show that propofol may strongly affect the potassium channels in some non-excitable cells.

  19. Articular cartilage tissue engineering: the role of signaling molecules.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Heenam; Paschos, Nikolaos K; Hu, Jerry C; Athanasiou, Kyriacos

    2016-03-01

    Effective early disease modifying options for osteoarthritis remain lacking. Tissue engineering approach to generate cartilage in vitro has emerged as a promising option for articular cartilage repair and regeneration. Signaling molecules and matrix modifying agents, derived from knowledge of cartilage development and homeostasis, have been used as biochemical stimuli toward cartilage tissue engineering and have led to improvements in the functionality of engineered cartilage. Clinical translation of neocartilage faces challenges, such as phenotypic instability of the engineered cartilage, poor integration, inflammation, and catabolic factors in the arthritic environment; these can all contribute to failure of implanted neocartilage. A comprehensive understanding of signaling molecules involved in osteoarthritis pathogenesis and their actions on engineered cartilage will be crucial. Thus, while it is important to continue deriving inspiration from cartilage development and homeostasis, it has become increasingly necessary to incorporate knowledge from osteoarthritis pathogenesis into cartilage tissue engineering.

  20. Extra-articular features in early rheumatoid disease.

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, A; Dodman, S; Crown, J M; Corbett, M

    1976-01-01

    One hundred and two patients who presented with rheumatoid disease within the first year of onset were studied prospectively every four months for a mean 4.5 years to assess the incidence of extra-articular features. The features that seemed to be common in the early stages included hand-muscle wasting, carpal tunnel syndrome, lymphadenopathy, non-specific ankle swelling, and rheumatoid nodules, and to a lesser extent hepatomegaly, being underweight, conjunctivitis, skin transparency, and a palpable thyroid gland. Those features which seldom occurred early included scleromalacia, temporal artery inolvement, salivary gland enlargement, distal-motor neuropathy, splenomegaly, digital vasculitis, and pulmonary and cardiac complications. Being underweight indicated a significantly more severe outcome. PMID:1083759

  1. Rolling resistance of articular cartilage due to interstitial fluid flow.

    PubMed

    Ateshian, G A; Wang, H

    1997-01-01

    A mechanism which may contribute to the frictional coefficient of diarthrodial joints is the rolling resistance due to hysteretic energy loss of viscoelastic cartilage resulting from interstitial fluid flow. The hypothesis of this study is that rolling resistance contributes significantly to the measured friction coefficient of articular cartilage. Due to the difficulty of testing this hypothesis experimentally, theoretical predictions of the rolling resistance are obtained using the solution for rolling contact of biphasic cylindrical cartilage layers [Ateshian and Wang]. Over a range of rolling velocities, tissue properties and dimensions, it is found that the coefficient of rolling resistance microR varies in magnitude from 10(-6) to 10(-2); thus, it is generally negligible in comparison with experimental measurements of the cartilage friction coefficient (10(-3)-10(-1)) except, possibly, when the tissue is arthritic. Hence, the hypothesis of this study is rejected on the basis of these results.

  2. Hydrogel-Based Controlled Delivery Systems for Articular Cartilage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Madry, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Delivery of bioactive factors is a very valuable strategy for articular cartilage repair. Nevertheless, the direct supply of such biomolecules is limited by several factors including rapid degradation, the need for supraphysiological doses, the occurrence of immune and inflammatory responses, and the possibility of dissemination to nontarget sites that may impair their therapeutic action and raise undesired effects. The use of controlled delivery systems has the potential of overcoming these hurdles by promoting the temporal and spatial presentation of such factors in a defined target. Hydrogels are promising materials to develop delivery systems for cartilage repair as they can be easily loaded with bioactive molecules controlling their release only where required. This review exposes the most recent technologies on the design of hydrogels as controlled delivery platforms of bioactive molecules for cartilage repair. PMID:27642587

  3. Intra-articular findings in symptomatic minor instability of the lateral elbow (SMILE).

    PubMed

    Arrigoni, Paolo; Cucchi, Davide; D'Ambrosi, Riccardo; Butt, Usman; Safran, Marc R; Denard, Patrick; Randelli, Pietro

    2017-07-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is generally considered an extra-articular condition. The role of minor instability in the aetiology of lateral elbow pain has rarely been considered. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation of lateral ligamentous laxity with aspects of intra-articular lateral elbow pathology and investigate the role of minor instability in lateral elbow pain. Thirty-five consecutive patients aged between 20 and 60 years with recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis who had failed conservative therapy and had no previous trauma or overt instability, were included. The presence of three signs of lateral ligamentous patholaxity and five intra-articular findings were documented during arthroscopy. The relative incidence of each of these was calculated, and the correlation between patholaxity and intra-articular pathology was evaluated. At least one sign of lateral ligamentous laxity was observed in 48.6% of the studied cohort, and 85.7% demonstrated at least one intra-articular abnormal finding. Radial head ballottement was the most common sign of patholaxity (42.9%). Synovitis was the most common intra-articular aspect of pathology (77.1%), followed by lateral capitellar chondropathy (40.0%). A significant correlation was found between the presence of lateral ligamentous patholaxity signs and capitellar chondropathy (p = 0.0409), as well as anteromedial synovitis (p = 0.0408). Almost one half of patients suffering from recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis display signs of lateral ligamentous patholaxity, and over 85% demonstrate at least one intra-articular abnormality. The most frequent intra-articular findings are synovitis and lateral capitellar chondropathy, which correlate significantly with the presence of lateral ligamentous patholaxity. The fact that several patients demonstrated multiple intra-articular findings in relation to laxity provides support to a sequence of pathologic changes that may result from a symptomatic minor instability of

  4. The relationship between the temporomandibular joint capsule, articular disc and jaw muscles.

    PubMed Central

    Schmolke, C

    1994-01-01

    The anatomy of the temporomandibular joint capsule and its possible relationships to other structures near the joint are not fully understood. A 3-dimensional analysis based on sagittal, frontal and horizontal serial sections through the human temporomandibular joint region was therefore undertaken. Capsular elements which directly connect the temporal bone with the mandible were seen only on the lateral side of the joint. In the posterior, anterior and medial regions of the joint the upper and lower laminae of the articular disc are attached separately either to the temporal bone or to the mandibular condyle. The shaping of the articular cavities and the texture of the joint capsule permit movements of the articular disc predominantly in the anteromedial direction. On the entire medial side of the joint the articular disc and its capsular attachments are in close contact with the fascia of the lateral pterygoid muscle whereby a small portion of the upper head of this muscle inserts directly into the anteromedial part of the articular disc. Thus both the upper and the lower heads of the lateral pterygoid muscle are likely to influence the position of the articular disc directly during temporomandibular joint movements. Laterally, the articular disc is attached to the fascia of the masseter muscle, and part of the lateral ligament inserts into the temporalis fascia. Since these attachments are relatively weak, neither the temporalis nor the masseter muscles are considered to act directly on the articular disc; instead, via afferents from muscle spindles, they may take part in signalling the position of the temporomandibular joint components, including that of the articular disc. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8014124

  5. Parathyroid hormone 1-34 reduces dexamethasone-induced terminal differentiation in human articular chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ling-Hua; Wu, Shun-Cheng; Chen, Chung-Hwan; Wang, Gwo-Jaw; Chang, Je-Ken; Ho, Mei-Ling

    2016-08-10

    Intra-articular injection of dexamethasone (Dex) is occasionally used to relieve pain and inflammation in osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Dex induces terminal differentiation of chondrogenic mesenchymal stem cells in vitro and causes impaired longitudinal skeletal growth in vivo. Parathyroid hormone 1-34 (PTH 1-34) has been shown to reverse terminal differentiation of osteoarthritic articular chondrocytes. We hypothesized that Dex induces terminal differentiation of articular chondrocytes and that this effect can be mitigated by PTH 1-34 treatment. We tested the effect of Dex on terminal differentiation in human articular chondrocytes and further tested if PTH 1-34 reverses the effects. We found that Dex treatment downregulated chondrogenic-induced expressions of SOX-9, collagen type IIa1 (Col2a1), and aggrecan and reduced synthesis of cartilaginous matrix (Col2a1 and sulfated glycosaminoglycan) synthesis. Dex treatment upregulated chondrocyte hypertrophic markers of collagen type X and alkaline phosphatase at mRNA and protein levels, and it increased the cell size of articular chondrocytes and induced cell death. These results indicated that Dex induces terminal differentiation of articular chondrocytes. To test whether PTH 1-34 treatment reverses Dex-induced terminal differentiation of articular chondrocytes, PTH 1-34 was co-administered with Dex. Results showed that PTH 1-34 treatment reversed both changes of chondrogenic and hypertrophic markers in chondrocytes induced by Dex. PTH 1-34 also decreased Dex-induced cell death. PTH 1-34 treatment reduces Dex-induced terminal differentiation and apoptosis of articular chondrocytes, and PTH 1-34 treatment may protect articular cartilage from further damage when received Dex administration.

  6. Induction of CD44 Cleavage in Articular Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Nobunori; Knudson, Cheryl B.; Thankamony, Sai; Ariyoshi, Wataru; Mellor, Liliana; Im, Hee-Jeong; Knudson, Warren

    2010-01-01

    Objective The hyaluronan receptor CD44 provides chondrocytes with a mechanism for sensing and responding to changes in the extracellular matrix. The purpose of this study was to document the fragmentation and loss of CD44 and to determine the likely mechanisms involved. Methods A polyclonal anti-CD44 cytotail antibody was generated to detect CD44 fragmentation by Western blot analysis. Chondrocytes were isolated from human or bovine articular cartilage. Primary articular chondrocytes were treated with interleukin-1β (IL-1β), hyaluronan oligosaccharides, or phorbol myristate acetate or were passaged and subcultured in monolayer to induce dedifferentiation. Conditions that altered the capacity of CD44 to transit into lipid rafts, or pharmacologic inhibitors of metalloproteinase or γ-secretase activity were used to define the mechanism of fragmentation of CD44. Results Chondrocytes from osteoarthritic cartilage exhibited CD44 fragmentation as low molecular mass bands, corresponding to the CD44-EXT and CD44-ICD bands. Following dedifferentiation of chondrocytes or treatment of primary chondrocytes with hyaluronan oligosaccharides, IL-1β, or phorbol myristate acetate, CD44 fragmentation was enhanced. Subsequent culture of the dedifferentiated chondrocytes in 3-dimensional alginate beads rescued the chondrocyte phenotype and diminished the fragmentation of CD44. Fragmentation of CD44 in chondrocytes was blocked in the presence of the metalloproteinase inhibitor GM6001 and the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT. Conclusion CD44 fragmentation, consistent with a signature pattern reported for sequential metalloproteinase/γ-secretase cleavage of CD44, is a common metabolic feature of chondrocytes that have undergone dedifferentiation in vitro and osteoarthritic chondrocytes. Transit of CD44 into lipid rafts may be required for its fragmentation. PMID:20178130

  7. Increasing the Dose of Autologous Chondrocytes Improves Articular Cartilage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Guillén-García, Pedro; Rodríguez-Iñigo, Elena; Guillén-Vicente, Isabel; Caballero-Santos, Rosa; Guillén-Vicente, Marta; Abelow, Stephen; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Background: We hypothesized that implanting cells in a chondral defect at a density more similar to that of the intact cartilage could induce them to synthesize matrix with the features more similar to that of the uninjured one. Methods: We compared the implantation of different doses of chondrocytes: 1 million (n = 5), 5 million (n = 5), or 5 million mesenchymal cells (n = 5) in the femoral condyle of 15 sheep. Tissue generated by microfracture at the trochlea, and normal cartilage from a nearby region, processed as the tissues resulting from the implantation, were used as references. Histological and molecular (expression of type I and II collagens and aggrecan) studies were performed. Results: The features of the cartilage generated by implantation of mesenchymal cells and elicited by microfractures were similar and typical of a poor repair of the articular cartilage (presence of fibrocartilage, high expression of type I collagen and a low mRNA levels of type II collagen and aggrecan). Nevertheless, in the samples obtained from tissues generated by implantation of chondrocytes, hyaline-like cartilage, cell organization, low expression rates of type I collagen and high levels of mRNA corresponding to type II collagen and aggrecan were observed. These histological features, show less variability and are more similar to those of the normal cartilage used as control in the case of 5 million cells implantation than when 1 million cells were used. Conclusions: The implantation of autologous chondrocytes in type I/III collagen membranes at high density could be a promising tool to repair articular cartilage. PMID:26069691

  8. Radiofrequency (electrosurgical) ablation of articular cartilage: a study in sheep.

    PubMed

    Turner, A S; Tippett, J W; Powers, B E; Dewell, R D; Mallinckrodt, C H

    1998-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of a bipolar ablation probe on experimentally roughened articular cartilage and compare it with the traditional mechanical shaving technique using the knee joint of sheep. Twenty-eight skeletally mature ewes were divided randomly into two groups: one group was treated with a rotating shaving device and another group was treated using the bipolar ablation probe (Bipolar Arthroscopic Probe; Electroscope, Inc, Boulder, CO). Animals were killed at 0, 6, 12, and 24 weeks, and histological sections of the experimental limbs were compared with sections of the opposite limb using a modified Mankin scale. The following variables were used to determine scores: surface (0-6), cells (0-4), hypocellularity (0-3), matrix staining (transitional zone [0-4], radiate zone [0-4], and focal empty lacunae or hypereosinophilic cells (0-3). Differences in scores for all response variables were calculated as treated limb minus sham limb. Response variables were formed: score >0 recoded as 1 (favorable response treated better than sham), score of 0 recoded as 2 (neutral response no differences), and score <0 recoded as 3 (unfavorable response treated worse than sham). Bipolar ablative probe-treated limbs had 14.29% favorable responses and 35.71% favorable or neutral responses, whereas shave-treated limbs had 0% favorable and only 7.14% favorable or neutral responses. For all variables, bipolar ablative probe-treated limbs had more favorable responses. The less severe histological change in the bipolar ablative probe-treated joints compared with the shave-treated joints suggests that bipolar ablation of articular cartilage may be a better treatment for chondromalacia than the usual shaving methods of debridement. Further, there were no pathological changes in the subchondral bone.

  9. Label-free characterization of degenerative changes in articular cartilage by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Yusuke; Akehi, Mayu; Kiyomatsu, Hiroshi; Miura, Hiromasa

    2017-04-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is very common joint disease in the aging population. Main symptom of OA is accompanied by degenerative changes of articular cartilage. Raman spectroscopy is a label-free technique which enables to analyze molecular composition in degenerative cartilage. We generated an animal OA model surgically induced by knee joint instability and performed Raman spectroscopic analysis for the articular cartilage. In the result, Raman spectral data of the articular cartilage showed drastic changes in comparison between OA and control side. The relative intensity of phosphate band increases in the degenerative cartilage.

  10. [Posttraumatic deformities of the knee joint : Intra-articular osteotomy after malreduction of tibial head fractures].

    PubMed

    Frosch, K-H; Krause, M; Frings, J; Drenck, T; Akoto, R; Müller, G; Madert, J

    2016-10-01

    Malreduction of tibial head fractures often leads to malalignment of the lower extremity, pain, limited range of motion and instability. The extent of the complaints and the degree of deformity requires an exact analysis and a standardized approach. True ligamentous instability should be distinguished from pseudoinstability of the joint. Also extra- and intra-articular deformities have to be differentiated. In intra-articular deformities the extent of articular surface displacement, defects and clefts must be accurately evaluated. A specific surgical approach is necessary, which allows adequate visualization, correct osteotomy and refixation of the fractured area of the tibial head. In the long-term course good clinical results are described for intra-articular osteotomies. If the joint is damaged to such an extent that it cannot be reconstructed or in cases of advanced posttraumatic osteoarthritis, total knee arthroplasty may be necessary; however, whenever possible and reasonable, anatomical reconstruction and preservation of the joint should be attempted.

  11. Measurements of surface layer of the articular cartilage using microscopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryniewicz, A. M.; Ryniewicz, A.; Ryniewicz, W.; Gaska, A.

    2010-07-01

    The articular cartilage is the structure that directly cooperates tribologically in biobearing. It belongs to the connective tissues and in the joints it assumes two basic forms: hyaline cartilage that builds joint surfaces and fibrocartilage which may create joint surfaces. From this fibrocartilage are built semilunar cartilage and joint disc are built as well. The research of articular cartilage have been done in macro, micro and nano scale. In all these measurement areas characteristic features occur which can identify biobearing tribology. The aim of the research was the identification of surface layer of articular cartilage by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atom force microscopy (AFM) and the analysis of topography of these layers. The material used in the research of surface layer was the animal articular cartilage: hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage.

  12. Computer-assisted total knee arthroplasty for arthritis with extra-articular deformity.

    PubMed

    Mullaji, Arun; Shetty, Gautam M

    2009-12-01

    Forty extra-articular deformities (22 femoral and 18 tibial) in 34 patients (mean age, 63.1 years) were studied. Mean coronal extra-articular deformity was 9.3 degrees ; mean preoperative limb alignment was 166.7 degrees . Three limbs underwent simultaneous corrective osteotomy; the rest were treated with intra-articular correction during computer-assisted total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Mean postoperative limb alignment was 179.1 degrees . At a mean follow-up of 26.4 months, the Knee Society knee score improved from a mean preoperative score of 49.7 to 90.4 points postoperatively; function score improved from 47.3 to 84.9 points. Computer-assisted TKA is a useful alternative to conventional TKA for knee arthritis with extra-articular deformity where accurate restoration of limb alignment may be challenging because of the presence of a deformed tibia or femur or in the presence of hardware.

  13. Articular gout and suspected pseudogout in a Basilisk lizard (Basilicus plumifrons).

    PubMed

    Jones, Yava L; Fitzgerald, Scott D

    2009-09-01

    A 9-yr-old male Basilisk lizard (Basilicus plumifrons) with a history of painful and limited mobility for approximately 4 mo, which had seemed to be more pronounced in the front limbs, was presented for necropsy. The animal had exhibited moderate weight loss and anorexia before euthanasia. Postmortem examination revealed yellow-to-white, soft-to-semifirm nodules within the periarticular fascia and musculature of the left and right shoulder joints, hip joints, and stifle joints. Several other joints, including the left and right tarsi, left and right elbow joints, and the left carpus had calcified, white material present on the articular surfaces. Histopathologic evaluation of representative sections of all organs and the joints confirmed tophaceous articular gout and articular pseudogout. The differentiation between articular gout and pseudogout was based on histologic appearance, histochemical staining for calcium, and birefringence under polarized light.

  14. Pathogenesis and Prevention of Posttraumatic Osteoarthritis After Intra-articular Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Schenker, Mara L.; Mauck, Robert L.; Ahn, Jaimo; Mehta, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) occurs after traumatic injury to the joint. It is most common following injuries that disrupt the articular surface or lead to joint instability. The reported risk of PTOA following significant joint trauma is as high as 75%; articular fractures can increase the risk more than 20-fold. Despite recent advances in surgical management, the incidence of PTOA following intra-articular fractures has remained relatively unchanged over the last few decades. Pathogenesis of PTOA after intra-articular fracture is likely multifactorial and may be associated with acute cartilage injury as well as chronic joint overload secondary to instability, incongruity, and malalignment. Additional studies are needed to better elucidate how these factors contribute to the development of PTOA and to develop advanced treatment algorithms that consist of both acute biologic interventions targeted to decrease inflammation and cellular death in response to injury and improved surgical methods to restore stability, congruity, and alignment. PMID:24382876

  15. Assessment of knee function and biochemical parameters of articular fluid and peripheral blood in gonarthrosis patients following intra-articular administration of hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Ostałowska, Alina; Nowak, Dariusz; Święchowicz, Sławomir; Birkner, Ewa; Brenk, Andrzej; Kasperczyk, Sławomir; Dobrakowski, Michał; Machoń, Anna

    2013-08-16

    The development of gonarthrosis (GA) involves inflammatory processes; the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is being increasingly mentioned. The body is protected from oxidative damage by the antioxidative barrier with fundamental role being played by antioxidative enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and enzymes involved in glutathione transformations, particularly glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The methods of treatment of cartilage depend on the disease advancement, patient's reactions to pain, disease-related impairment in daily activities, as well as the age and overall health of the patient. Viscosupplementation involving intra-articular injection of agents that increase the viscosity of the articular fluid is aimed at reducing the friction between articular surfaces and thus at reducing pain and excessive wear of the remaining articular cartilage. The objective of the study was to examine whether intra-articular administration of a hyaluronic acid agent has any effect on the function of the knee and on the selected biochemical parameters of the articular fluid and blood in gonarthrosis, as well as to demonstrate of correlation or no correlation between the effects of viscosupplementation and administration of hyaluronic acid into a knee containing articular fluid or a "dry" knee. The study group consisted of 22 gonarthrosis patients who received hyaluronic acid into the knee containing the articular fluid (group PS) as per the study protocol and 27 gonarthrosis patients who received hyaluronic acid into the "dry" knee (group PPI). The study lasted about 40 weeks and involved 10 visits at the study site. Hyaluronic acid was administered intra-articularly upon the first three visits held in one-week intervals, as well as on visit 4 (12 weeks after visit 3). The study knee was assessed clinically at all visits using the osteoarthritis WOMAC scale, visual assessment scale (0-10) for the assessment of pain intensity and HHS questionnaire

  16. The effect of joint position on juxta-articular bone marrow pressure. Relation to intra-articular pressure and joint effusion--an experimental study on horses.

    PubMed

    Arnoldi, C C; Reimann, I; Mortensen, S; Christensen, S B; Kristoffersen, J; Sønnichsen, H V; Smith, M

    1980-12-01

    Six metacarpo-phalangeal joints of adult horses were studied. Pressure measurements were made in the joint and the metacarpal bone with simultaneous measurement of the systemic arterial blood pressure. Investigations performed to study the effect of joint position on juxta-articular bone marrow pressure showed that an increase in joint flexion was always followed by a rise in intraosseous pressure with a significant increase at flexion above 60 degrees. Increase in intra-articular pressure which was achieved by injection of saline was always followed by a slower rise in intraosseous pressure. Furthermore, it was shown that even a few millilitres of saline in the joint caused a rise in intra-articular pressure. The findings indicate that changes in joint position as well as effusion may block the drainage vessels from the bone marrow as they pass through the joint.

  17. PGE2 signal through EP2 promotes the growth of articular chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Tomoki; Liang, Bojian; Okamoto, Takeshi; Matsusaki, Takashi; Nishijo, Koichi; Ishibe, Tatsuya; Yasura, Ko; Nagayama, Satoshi; Nakayama, Tomitaka; Nakamura, Takashi; Toguchida, Junya

    2005-03-01

    EP2 was identified as the major PGE2 receptor expressed in articular cartilage. An EP2 agonist increased intracellular cAMP in articular chondrocytes, stimulating DNA synthesis in both monolayer and 3D cultures. Hence, the EP2 agonist may be a potent therapeutic agent for degenerative cartilage diseases. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) exhibits pleiotropic effects in various types of tissue through four types of receptors, EP1-4. We examined the expression of EPs and effects of agonists for each EP on articular chondrocytes. The expression of each EP in articular chondrocytes was examined by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. A chondrocyte cell line, MMA2, was established from articular cartilage of p53(-/-) mice and used to analyze the effects of agonists for each EP. A search for molecules downstream of the PGE2 signal through the EP2 agonist was made by cDNA microarray analysis. The growth-promoting effect of the EP2 agonist on chondrocytes surrounded by cartilage matrix was examined in an organ culture of rat femora. EP2 was identified as the major EP expressed in articular cartilage. Treatment of MMA2 cells with specific agonists for each EP showed that only the EP2 agonist significantly increased intracellular cAMP levels in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression profiling of MMA2 revealed a set of genes upregulated by the EP2 agonist, including several growth-promoting and apoptosis-protecting genes such as the cyclin D1, fibronectin, integrin alpha5, AP2alpha, and 14-3-3gamma genes. The upregulation of these genes by the EP2 agonist was confirmed in human articular chondrocytes by quantitative mRNA analysis. On treatment with the EP2 agonist, human articular chondrocytes showed an increase in the incorporation of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuracil (BrdU), and the organ culture of rat femora showed an increase of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining in articular chondrocytes surrounded by cartilage matrix, suggesting growth-promoting effects of the PGE2 signal

  18. Transplantation of free tibial periosteal grafts for the repair of articular cartilage defect: An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ravijot; Chauhan, Vijendra; Chauhan, Neena; Sharma, Sansar

    2009-01-01

    Background: Articular chondrocytes have got a long lifespan but rarely divides after maturity. Thus, an articular cartilage has a limited capacity for repair. Periosteal grafts have chondrogenic potential and have been used to repair defects in the articular cartilage. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the differentiation of free periosteal grafts in the patellofemoral joint where the cambium layer faces the subchondral bone and to investigate the applicability of periosteal grafts in the reconstruction of articular surfaces. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out over a period of 1 year on 25 adult, male Indian rabbits after obtaining permission from the institutional animal ethical committee. A full-thickness osteochondral defect was created by shaving off the whole articular cartilage of the patella of the left knee. The defect thus created was grafted with free periosteal graft. The patella of the right knee was taken as a control where no grafting was done after shaving off the articular cartilage. The first animal was used to study the normal histology of the patellar articular cartilage and periosteum obtained from the medial surface of tibial condyle. Rest 24 animals were subjected to patellectomy, 4 each at serial intervals of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 48 weeks and the patellar articular surfaces were examined macroscopically and histologically. Results: The grafts got adherent to the underlying patellar articular surface at the end of 4 weeks. Microscopically, graft incorporation could be appreciated at 4 weeks. Mesenchymal cells of the cambium layer were seen differentiating into chondrocytes by the end of 4 weeks in four grafts (100%) and they were arranged in a haphazard manner. Till the end of 8 weeks, the cellular arrangement was mostly wooly. At 16 weeks, one graft (25%) had wooly arrangement of chondrocytes and three grafts (75%) had columnar formation of cells. Same percentage was maintained at 32 weeks. Four grafts (100%) at

  19. Intra-Articular Blockade of P2X7 Receptor Reduces the Articular Hyperalgesia and Inflammation in the Knee Joint Synovitis Especially in Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Juliana Maia; Dias, Elayne Vieira; Parada, Carlos Amílcar; Tambeli, Cláudia Herrera

    2017-02-01

    Synovitis is a key factor in joint disease pathophysiology, which affects a greater proportion of women than men. P2X7 receptor activation contributes to arthritis, but whether it plays a role in articular inflammatory pain in a sex-dependent manner is unknown. We investigated whether the P2X7 receptor blockade in the knee joint of male and female rats reduces the articular hyperalgesia and inflammation induced by a carrageenan knee joint synovitis model. Articular hyperalgesia was quantified using the rat knee joint incapacitation test and the knee joint inflammation, characterized by the concentration of cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1, and by neutrophil migration, was quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and by myeloperoxidase enzyme activity measurement, respectively. P2X7 receptor blockade by the articular coadministration of selective P2X7 receptor antagonist A740003 with carrageenan significantly reduced articular hyperalgesia, pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations, and myeloperoxidase activity induced by carrageenan injection into the knee joint of male and estrus female rats. However, a lower dose of P2X7 receptor antagonist was sufficient to significantly induce the antihyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in estrus female but not in male rats. These results suggest that P2X7 receptor activation by endogenous adenosine 5'-triphosphate is essential to articular hyperalgesia and inflammation development in the knee joint of male and female rats. However, female rats are more responsive than male rats to the antihyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory effects induced by P2X7 receptor blockade.

  20. Partial-thickness articular surface rotator cuff tears in patients over the age of 35: Etiology and intra-articular associations.

    PubMed

    Modi, Chetan S; Smith, Christopher D; Drew, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    Partial-thickness articular-sided rotator cuff tears have a multifactorial etiology and are associated with degeneration of the tendon. They are often described as an injury of the young athlete, although they are also found in the older population. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and associations of partial-thickness articular-sided tears in patients over the age of 35 years. Retrospective A retrospective study of all arthroscopic procedures for rotator cuff pathology in patients over the age of 35 years over a 2-year period by a single surgeon was performed. The included patients were divided into two groups based on the arthroscopic findings: those with a partial-thickness articular-sided rotator cuff tear and those with pure tendinopathy. The groups were then compared to identify the associated pathology with the rotator cuff lesions. 2×2 contingency table analysis and unpaired Student's t-test were used for statistical analysis. One hundred patients were included in the study of whom 62 had a partial articular-sided tear. Those with a partial articular-sided tear were older (P=0.0001), were more commonly associated with a documented injury (P=0.03), and more commonly had biceps degeneration (P=0.001) and synovitis (P=0.02) within the joint. Partial-thickness articular-sided tears are a common occurrence in patients requiring arthroscopic surgery for rotator cuff pathology over the age of 35 years. This probably reflects an injury in an already degenerate cuff. This would support the theory of intrinsic degeneration of the tendon in this age group and probably represent a different etiology to those seen in the young athletes. Level 3.

  1. Partial-thickness articular surface rotator cuff tears in patients over the age of 35: Etiology and intra-articular associations

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Chetan S; Smith, Christopher D; Drew, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Partial-thickness articular-sided rotator cuff tears have a multifactorial etiology and are associated with degeneration of the tendon. They are often described as an injury of the young athlete, although they are also found in the older population. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and associations of partial-thickness articular-sided tears in patients over the age of 35 years. Design: Retrospective Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of all arthroscopic procedures for rotator cuff pathology in patients over the age of 35 years over a 2-year period by a single surgeon was performed. The included patients were divided into two groups based on the arthroscopic findings: those with a partial-thickness articular-sided rotator cuff tear and those with pure tendinopathy. The groups were then compared to identify the associated pathology with the rotator cuff lesions. 2×2 contingency table analysis and unpaired Student's t-test were used for statistical analysis. Results: One hundred patients were included in the study of whom 62 had a partial articular-sided tear. Those with a partial articular-sided tear were older (P=0.0001), were more commonly associated with a documented injury (P=0.03), and more commonly had biceps degeneration (P=0.001) and synovitis (P=0.02) within the joint. Conclusion: Partial-thickness articular-sided tears are a common occurrence in patients requiring arthroscopic surgery for rotator cuff pathology over the age of 35 years. This probably reflects an injury in an already degenerate cuff. This would support the theory of intrinsic degeneration of the tendon in this age group and probably represent a different etiology to those seen in the young athletes. Level of Evidence: Level 3 PMID:22518075

  2. Development of Intra-Articular Drug Delivery to Alter Progression of Arthritis Following Joint Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    increased intra-articular fracture severity in the mouse knee . Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 2011. 19(7): p. 864-73. 5. Ward, B.D., et al., Absence of...The work in this study addresses the development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) and seeks to develop a basis for future therapeutic...symptomatic osteoarthritis patients are post-traumatic [1]. At the present time, the state of the art treatment for displaced articular fractures in

  3. Extra-articular tenodesis for anterior cruciate deficient knees: a review of the Ellison repair.

    PubMed Central

    Marston, R A; Chen, S C

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-two patients who underwent an Ellison extra-articular tenodesis for anterolateral instability of the knee, performed by one surgeon (SCC), have been reviewed after a mean follow-up of 59 months. Seventy-seven per cent had a good or excellent result enabling them to return to their pre-injury level of sport. These results compare very favourably with intra-articular repair but are not associated with such severe complications. PMID:8258797

  4. Condylar Osteochondroma Treated with Total Condylectomy and Preservation of the Articular Disc: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, Manuel Fernandez; Castillo, Jose Luis Del; Guerra, Mario Muñoz; Sanchez, Ruth Sanchez; La Plata, Maria Mancha De

    2014-01-01

    Osteochondroma is frequently found in the general skeleton but is rare in the condylar region of the mandible. We report a case of an osteochondroma of large size and rapid growth in the mandibular condyle, which was treated with total condylectomy and condylar replacement with a costochondral graft and preservation of the articular disc. In cases with a healthy and well-positioned articular disc, it may be preserved with no need of disc repositioning. PMID:26000086

  5. Alpha B-Crystallin Protects Rat Articular Chondrocytes against Casein Kinase II Inhibition-Induced Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Won; Rho, Jee Hyun; Lee, Sang Yeob; Yoo, Seung Hee; Kim, Hye Young; Chung, Won Tae; Yoo, Young Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Although alpha (α)B-crystallin is expressed in articular chondrocytes, little is known about its role in these cells. Protein kinase casein kinase 2 (CK2) inhibition induces articular chondrocyte death. The present study examines whether αB-crystallin exerts anti-apoptotic activity in articular chondrocytes. Primary rat articular chondrocytes were isolated from knee joint slices. Cells were treated with CK2 inhibitors with or without αB-crystallin siRNA. To examine whether the silencing of αB-crystallin sensitizes rat articular chondrocytes to CK2 inhibition-induced apoptosis, we assessed apoptosis by performing viability assays, mitochondrial membrane potential measurements, flow cytometry, nuclear morphology observations, and western blot analysis. To investigate the mechanism by which αB-crystallin modulates the extent of CK2 inhibition-mediated chondrocyte death, we utilized confocal microscopy to observe the subcellular location of αB-crystallin and its phosphorylated forms and performed a co-immunoprecipitation assay to observe the interaction between αB-crystallin and CK2. Immunochemistry was employed to examine αB-crystallin expression in cartilage obtained from rats with experimentally induced osteoarthritis (OA). Our results demonstrated that silencing of αB-crystallin sensitized rat articular chondrocytes to CK2 inhibitor-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, CK2 inhibition modulated the expression and subcellular localization of αB-crystallin and its phosphorylated forms and dissociated αB-crystallin from CK2. The population of rat articular chondrocytes expressing αB-crystallin and its phosphorylated forms was reduced in an experimentally induced rat model of OA. In summary, αB-crystallin protects rat articular chondrocytes against CK2 inhibition-induced apoptosis. αB-crystallin may represent a suitable target for pharmacological interventions to prevent OA.

  6. Molecular regulation of articular chondrocyte function and its significance in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Schroeppel, J P; Crist, J D; Anderson, H C; Wang, J

    2011-03-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of joint disease. Histopathologically, OA is characterized by a progressive loss of articular cartilage, osteophyte formation, thickening of subchondral bone, and subchondral cyst formation. All current therapies are aimed at symptomatic control and have limited impacts on impeding or reversing the histopathologic progression to advanced OA. Previous studies have shown that overexpression of matrix-degrading proteinases and proinflammatory cytokines is associated with osteoarthritic cartilage degradation. However, clinical trials applying an inhibitor of proteinases or proinflammatory cytokines have been unsuccessful. A more sophisticated understanding of the regulatory mechanisms that control the function of articular chondrocytes is paramount to developing effective treatments. Since multiple catabolic factors and pathological chondrocyte hypertrophy are involved in the development of OA, it is important to identify which upstream factors regulate the expression of catabolic molecules and/or chondrocyte hypertrophy in articular cartilage. This review summarizes the current studies on the molecular regulation, with a main focus on transcriptional regulation, of the function of adult articular chondrocytes and its significance in the pathogenesis and treatment of OA. Recent studies have discovered that transcription factor Nfat1 may play an important role in maintaining the physiological function of adult articular chondrocytes. Nfat1-deficient mice exhibit normal skeletal development but display most of the features of human OA as adults, including chondrocyte hypertrophy with overexpression of specific matrix-degrading proteinases and proinflammatory cytokines in adult articular cartilage. ß-catenin transcriptional signaling in articular chondrocytes may also be involved in the pathogenesis of OA. Activation of ß-catenin leads to OA-like phenotypes with overexpression of specific matrix-degrading proteinases in

  7. Alpha B-Crystallin Protects Rat Articular Chondrocytes against Casein Kinase II Inhibition-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Rho, Jee Hyun; Lee, Sang Yeob; Yoo, Seung Hee; Kim, Hye Young; Chung, Won Tae; Yoo, Young Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Although alpha (α)B-crystallin is expressed in articular chondrocytes, little is known about its role in these cells. Protein kinase casein kinase 2 (CK2) inhibition induces articular chondrocyte death. The present study examines whether αB-crystallin exerts anti-apoptotic activity in articular chondrocytes. Primary rat articular chondrocytes were isolated from knee joint slices. Cells were treated with CK2 inhibitors with or without αB-crystallin siRNA. To examine whether the silencing of αB-crystallin sensitizes rat articular chondrocytes to CK2 inhibition-induced apoptosis, we assessed apoptosis by performing viability assays, mitochondrial membrane potential measurements, flow cytometry, nuclear morphology observations, and western blot analysis. To investigate the mechanism by which αB-crystallin modulates the extent of CK2 inhibition-mediated chondrocyte death, we utilized confocal microscopy to observe the subcellular location of αB-crystallin and its phosphorylated forms and performed a co-immunoprecipitation assay to observe the interaction between αB-crystallin and CK2. Immunochemistry was employed to examine αB-crystallin expression in cartilage obtained from rats with experimentally induced osteoarthritis (OA). Our results demonstrated that silencing of αB-crystallin sensitized rat articular chondrocytes to CK2 inhibitor-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, CK2 inhibition modulated the expression and subcellular localization of αB-crystallin and its phosphorylated forms and dissociated αB-crystallin from CK2. The population of rat articular chondrocytes expressing αB-crystallin and its phosphorylated forms was reduced in an experimentally induced rat model of OA. In summary, αB-crystallin protects rat articular chondrocytes against CK2 inhibition-induced apoptosis. αB-crystallin may represent a suitable target for pharmacological interventions to prevent OA. PMID:27851782

  8. Functional anatomy of the equine temporomandibular joint: Collagen fiber texture of the articular surfaces.

    PubMed

    Adams, K; Schulz-Kornas, E; Arzi, B; Failing, K; Vogelsberg, J; Staszyk, C

    2016-11-01

    In the last decade, the equine masticatory apparatus has received much attention. Numerous studies have emphasized the importance of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in the functional process of mastication. However, ultrastructural and histological data providing a basis for biomechanical and histopathological considerations are not available. The aim of the present study was to analyze the architecture of the collagen fiber apparatus in the articular surfaces of the equine TMJ to reveal typical morphological features indicating biomechanical adaptions. Therefore, the collagen fiber alignment was visualized using the split-line technique in 16 adult warmblood horses without any history of TMJ disorders. Within the central two-thirds of the articular surfaces of the articular tubercle, the articular disc and the mandibular head, split-lines ran in a correspondent rostrocaudal direction. In the lateral and medial aspects of these articular surfaces, the split-line pattern varied, displaying curved arrangements in the articular disc and punctual split-lines in the bony components. Mediolateral orientated split-lines were found in the rostral and caudal border of the articular disc and in the mandibular fossa. The complex movements during the equine chewing cycle are likely assigned to different areas of the TMJ. The split-line pattern of the equine TMJ is indicative of a relative movement of the joint components in a preferential rostrocaudal direction which is consigned to the central aspects of the TMJ. The lateral and medial aspects of the articular surfaces provide split-line patterns that indicate movements particularly around a dorsoventral axis.

  9. Diagnosis and management of an intra-articular foreign body in the foot.

    PubMed

    Mulhall, K J; Sheehan, E; Kearns, S; O'Connor, P; Stephens, M M

    2002-10-01

    We describe a case of a small intra-articular foreign body in the foot presenting 48 hours following injury, which at operation showed early evidence of septic arthritis. It is essential to accurately localise periarticular foreign bodies in the foot and proceed to arthrotomy and debridement in all cases where there is radiological or clinical evidence to suggest intra-articular retention of a foreign body.

  10. Effects of immobilization on articular cartilage: Autohistoradiographic findings with S35

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digiovanni, C.; Desantis, E.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of immobilization on the articular cartilage of rabbits was studied by light microscope. The knee joint of each rabbit was immobilized in a plaster in a position midway between flexion and extension for a 10 to 120 days period. Degenerative changes in the articular cartilage of increasing severity were observed. The fixation of the labeled SO4 by cartilage cells was decreased in advanced immobilization.

  11. Intra-articular hyaluronic acid increases cartilage breakdown biomarker in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Fuentes, Alexandra M; Green, David M; Rossen, Roger D; Ng, Bernard

    2010-06-01

    Intra-articular hyaluronic acid has been used in treatment of patients with knee osteoarthritis. Though its effect on pain has been well studied, it is not clear how it affects the articular cartilage. This is a preliminary study to evaluate the kinetics of urinary collagen type-II C-telopeptide (CTX-II) as a biomarker of collagen breakdown in response to intra-articular hyaluronic acid injection in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Intra-articular injections of hyaluronan were administered to ten patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Urine collection for urinary CTX-II was obtained at baseline, before each injection and once every other week for a total of 6 months. Urine CTX-II was measured using a CartiLaps(c) ELISA kit. There was a statistically significant increase (p = 0.0136) in CTX-II a week after the third intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid (6,216 ng/mmol +/- 4,428) compared with baseline (2,233 ng/mmol +/- 1,220). This increase in CTX-II was sustained throughout the entire 6 months follow-up period (repeated measures ANOVA, p < 0.015). This is the first study of changes in an osteoarthritis biomarker after intra-articular hyaluronic acid injections in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Contrary to our initial hypothesis that CTX-II levels should decrease after intra-articular hyaluronic acid injections, we found a significant increase in urinary CTX-II levels that was sustained throughout the study. These observations suggest that intra-articular hyaluronic acid injections may accelerate cartilage breakdown in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. The responsible mechanisms are unknown and warrant further study.

  12. Condylar osteochondroma treated with total condylectomy and preservation of the articular disc: a case report.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Manuel Fernandez; Castillo, Jose Luis Del; Guerra, Mario Muñoz; Sanchez, Ruth Sanchez; La Plata, Maria Mancha De

    2015-06-01

    Osteochondroma is frequently found in the general skeleton but is rare in the condylar region of the mandible. We report a case of an osteochondroma of large size and rapid growth in the mandibular condyle, which was treated with total condylectomy and condylar replacement with a costochondral graft and preservation of the articular disc. In cases with a healthy and well-positioned articular disc, it may be preserved with no need of disc repositioning.

  13. Patellar Articular Overlap on MRI Is a Simple Alternative to Conventional Measurements of Patellar Height.

    PubMed

    Munch, Jacqueline L; Sullivan, Jaron P; Nguyen, Joseph T; Mintz, Douglas; Green, Daniel W; Shubin Stein, Beth E; Strickland, Sabrina

    2016-07-01

    Patella alta describes an abnormally high-riding patella in relationship to the femur and has been shown to correlate with patellofemoral pain, instability, chondromalacia, and arthrosis. Conventional measurements of patella alta involve multiple measurements and are often not defined on cross-sectional imaging as related to radiographs. Patellar articular overlap on sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will correlate well with conventional measurements of patella alta as measured by a standardized technique defined by our group. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. MRIs of 239 knees were reviewed by 3 attending surgeons with practices focusing on patellofemoral disease, as well as 2 sports medicine fellows and 1 musculoskeletal radiologist. Measurements included articular overlap, percentage of articular coverage, Caton-Deschamps index, Blackburne-Peel index, and modified Insall-Salvati index. Interrater reliability was high for Caton-Deschamps, Blackburne-Peel, and modified Insall-Salvati indices (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC], 0.877, 0.828, and 0.787, respectively). Articular overlap and percentage articular coverage correlated well with each other (ICC, 0.961; P < .001) and with the Caton-Deschamps (overlap r = -0.271, P < .001; coverage r = -0.131, P = .037) and Blackburne-Peel (overlap r = 0.343, P < .001; coverage r = -0.238, P < .001) indices. Articular overlap and percentage coverage failed to correlate with the modified Insall-Salvati index (overlap r = -0.117, P = .091; coverage r = 0.007, P = .918). Patellar articular overlap and percentage of patellar articular coverage show promise as a simpler alternative to conventional, ratio-based measurements of patellar height. Future studies are needed to evaluate the range of normal and the relationship to our traditionally used measurements.

  14. Patellar Articular Overlap on MRI Is a Simple Alternative to Conventional Measurements of Patellar Height

    PubMed Central

    Munch, Jacqueline L.; Sullivan, Jaron P.; Nguyen, Joseph T.; Mintz, Douglas; Green, Daniel W.; Shubin Stein, Beth E.; Strickland, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patella alta describes an abnormally high-riding patella in relationship to the femur and has been shown to correlate with patellofemoral pain, instability, chondromalacia, and arthrosis. Conventional measurements of patella alta involve multiple measurements and are often not defined on cross-sectional imaging as related to radiographs. Hypothesis: Patellar articular overlap on sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will correlate well with conventional measurements of patella alta as measured by a standardized technique defined by our group. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods: MRIs of 239 knees were reviewed by 3 attending surgeons with practices focusing on patellofemoral disease, as well as 2 sports medicine fellows and 1 musculoskeletal radiologist. Measurements included articular overlap, percentage of articular coverage, Caton-Deschamps index, Blackburne-Peel index, and modified Insall-Salvati index. Results: Interrater reliability was high for Caton-Deschamps, Blackburne-Peel, and modified Insall-Salvati indices (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC], 0.877, 0.828, and 0.787, respectively). Articular overlap and percentage articular coverage correlated well with each other (ICC, 0.961; P < .001) and with the Caton-Deschamps (overlap r = –0.271, P < .001; coverage r = –0.131, P = .037) and Blackburne-Peel (overlap r = 0.343, P < .001; coverage r = –0.238, P < .001) indices. Articular overlap and percentage coverage failed to correlate with the modified Insall-Salvati index (overlap r = –0.117, P = .091; coverage r = 0.007, P = .918). Conclusion: Patellar articular overlap and percentage of patellar articular coverage show promise as a simpler alternative to conventional, ratio-based measurements of patellar height. Future studies are needed to evaluate the range of normal and the relationship to our traditionally used measurements. PMID:27482530

  15. Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells Engraft into Rabbit Articular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen; He, Na; Feng, Chenchen; Liu, Victor; Zhang, Luyi; Wang, Fei; He, Jiaping; Zhu, Tengfang; Wang, Shuyang; Qiao, Weiwei; Li, Suke; Zhou, Guangdong; Zhang, Li; Dai, Chengxiang; Cao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to have the potential for articular cartilage regeneration, and are suggested for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Here, we investigated whether intra-articular injection of xenogeneic human adipose-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells (haMPCs) promoted articular cartilage repair in rabbit OA model and engrafted into rabbit articular cartilage. The haMPCs were cultured in vitro, and phenotypes and differentiation characteristics of cells were evaluated. OA was induced surgically by anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) and medical meniscectomy of knee joints. At six weeks following surgery, hyaluronic acid (HA) or haMPCs was injected into the knee joints, the contralateral knee served as normal control. All animals were sacrificed at the 16th week post-surgery. Assessments were carried out by macroscopic examination, hematoxylin/eosin (HE) and Safranin-O/Fast green stainings and immunohistochemistry. The data showed that haMPC treatment promoted cartilage repair. Signals of human mitochondrial can be directly detected in haMPC treated cartilage. The haMPCs expressed human leukocyte antigen I (HLA-I) but not HLA-II-DR in vivo. These results suggest that intra-articular injection of haMPCs promotes regeneration of articular cartilage in rabbit OA model, and support the notion that MPCs are transplantable between HLA-incompatible individuals. PMID:26023716

  16. Diagnosis and Management of Extra-articular Causes of Pain After Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Manning, Blaine T; Lewis, Natasha; Tzeng, Tony H; Saleh, Jamal K; Potty, Anish G R; Dennis, Douglas A; Mihalko, William M; Goodman, Stuart B; Saleh, Khaled J

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative pain, which has been attributed to poor outcomes after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), remains problematic for many patients. Although the source of TKA pain can often be delineated, establishing a precise diagnosis can be challenging. It is often classified as intra-articular or extra-articular pain, depending on etiology. After intra-articular causes, such as instability, aseptic loosening, infection, or osteolysis, have been ruled out, extra-articular sources of pain should be considered. Physical examination of the other joints may reveal sources of localized knee pain, including diseases of the spine, hip, foot, and ankle. Additional extra-articular pathologies that have potential to instigate pain after TKA include vascular pathologies, tendinitis, bursitis, and iliotibial band friction syndrome. Patients with medical comorbidities, such as metabolic bone disease and psychological illness, may also experience prolonged postoperative pain. By better understanding the diagnosis and treatment options for extra-articular causes of pain after TKA, orthopaedic surgeons may better treat patients with this potentially debilitating complication.

  17. Comparison of friction and wear of articular cartilage on different length scales.

    PubMed

    Kienle, Sandra; Boettcher, Kathrin; Wiegleb, Lorenz; Urban, Joanna; Burgkart, Rainer; Lieleg, Oliver; Hugel, Thorsten

    2015-09-18

    The exceptional tribological properties of articular cartilage are still far from being fully understood. Articular cartilage is able to withstand high loads and provide exceptionally low friction. Although the regeneration abilities of the tissue are very limited, it can last for many decades. These biomechanical properties are realized by an interplay of different lubrication and wear protection mechanisms. The deterioration of cartilage due to aging or injury leads to the development of osteoarthritis. A current treatment strategy focuses on supplementing the intra-articular fluid with a saline solution containing hyaluronic acid. In the work presented here, we investigated how changing the lubricating fluid affects friction and wear of articular cartilage, focusing on the boundary and mixed lubrication as well as interstitial fluid pressurization mechanisms. Different length and time scales were probed by atomic force microscopy, tribology and profilometry. We compared aqueous solutions with different NaCl concentrations to a viscosupplement containing hyaluronic acid (HA). In particular, we found that the presence of ions changes the frictional behavior and the wear resistance. In contrast, hyaluronic acid showed no significant impact on the friction coefficient, but considerably reduced wear. This study confirms the previous notion that friction and wear are not necessarily correlated in articular cartilage tribology and that the main role of HA might be to provide wear protection for the articular surface. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Techniques and Applications of in vivo Diffusion Imaging of Articular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Raya, José G.

    2014-01-01

    Early in the process of osteoarthritis (OA) the composition (water, proteoglycan [PG], and collagen) and structure of articular cartilage is altered leading to changes in its mechanical properties. A technique that can assess the composition and structure of the cartilage in vivo can provide insight in the mechanical integrity of articular cartilage and become a powerful tool for the early diagnosis of OA. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been proposed as a biomarker for cartilage composition and structure. DTI is sensitive to the PG content through the mean diffusivity (MD) and to the collagen architecture through the fractional anisotropy (FA). However, the acquisition of DTI of articular cartilage in vivo is challenging due to the short T2 of articular cartilage (~40 ms at 3 T) and the high resolution needed (0.5–0.7 mm in plane) to depict the cartilage anatomy. We describe the pulse sequences used for in vivo DTI of articular cartilage and discus general strategies for protocol optimization. We provide a comprehensive review of measurements of DTI of articular cartilage from ex vivo validation experiments to its recent clinical applications. PMID:25865215

  19. Placement of intra-articular injections verified by mini air-arthrography.

    PubMed

    Bliddal, H

    1999-10-01

    To develop and assess a simple, inexpensive method for ascertaining the placement of intra-articular injections for knee osteoarthritis During a one year period patients with "dry" osteoarthritis of the knee who received intra-articular therapy were tested by air-arthrography. Along with triamcinolone and lignocaine (lidocaine), 5 ml of air was injected into the joint. On subsequent lateral and anterior-posterior radiographs a correct placement was verified by a sharply defined shadow of air in the suprapatellar pouch, while extra-articular air was diffusely spread in the surrounding tissue. In 51 of 56 cases the injection was correctly placed. In the remaining five cases the injection was immediately repeated and positioned within the joint. No adverse events were seen that could be ascribed to the use of air during the study, although bleeding in the quadriceps was seen one week after an extra-articular injection. With mini-air arthrography, it is possible to test the placement of intra-articular injections in knee joints. The method is proposed as a learning tool as well as providing a means of quality assurance in studies involving intra-articular injections.

  20. Chondrocyte death in mechanically injured articular cartilage--the influence of extracellular calcium.

    PubMed

    Amin, Anish K; Huntley, James S; Bush, Peter G; Simpson, A Hamish R W; Hall, Andrew C

    2009-06-01

    Calcium is thought to be an important regulator of chondrocyte death associated with articular cartilage injury. Our objective was to determine the influence of extracellular calcium on chondrocyte death following mechanical injury. Using a surgically relevant model of sharp mechanical injury (with a scalpel) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), in situ chondrocyte death was quantified within the full thickness of articular cartilage as a function of medium calcium concentration and time (2.5 h and 7 days). Exposure of articular cartilage to calcium-free media (approximately 0 mM) significantly reduced superficial zone chondrocyte death after mechanical injury compared with exposure to calcium-rich media (2-20 mM, ANOVA at 2.5 h, p = 0.002). In calcium-rich media, although the extent of chondrocyte death increased with increasing medium calcium concentration, cell death remained localized to the superficial zone of articular cartilage over 7 days (ANOVA, p < 0.05). However, in calcium-free media, there was an increase in chondrocyte death within deeper zones of articular cartilage over 7 days. The early (within hours) chondroprotective effect in calcium-free media suggests that the use of joint irrigation solutions without added calcium may decrease chondrocyte death from mechanical injury during articular surgery. The delayed (within days) increase in chondrocyte death in calcium-free media supports the use of calcium supplementation in media used during cartilage culture for tissue engineering or transplantation.

  1. Evolutional patterns of articular cartilage following growth plate injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Quintana-Villamandos, M B; Sánchez-Hernández, J J; Delgado-Martos, M J; Delgado-Baeza, E

    2009-09-01

    No study to date has analyzed the damage of the articular cartilage and its relation to growth plate injury. The purpose of this study was to test whether primary injury to the growth plate contributes to secondary damage to the articular cartilage in rats. A total of 109 two-week-old male Wistar rats were allocated to four lesional groups. In group I (controls) no surgery took place. In the remaining animals, an injury was caused in the proximal physis of the left tibia: group II, perichondrial ring injury; group III, direct injury to the growth plate; group IV, traumatic separation of the epiphysis where a Salter-Harris II-type injury was created. The results were assessed at 1 week, 6 weeks, and 6 months. A growth plate score was used. The stereological and histological changes in the articular cartilage were analyzed, and the results were subjected to statistical analysis. Histological studies showed discrete degenerative changes in the articular cartilage in the injured growth plate. Changes in the cell density, mean cell volume, and articular cartilage occurred in the injured growth plate. The changes appeared to be transient in groups II and III. Primary injury to the growth plate contributes to secondary damage to the articular cartilage in young rats. Our data -- extrapolated to the clinical view -- suggests that a Salter-Harris type II injury does not seem to have impunity to subsequent joint degeneration.

  2. Human adipose-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells engraft into rabbit articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen; He, Na; Feng, Chenchen; Liu, Victor; Zhang, Luyi; Wang, Fei; He, Jiaping; Zhu, Tengfang; Wang, Shuyang; Qiao, Weiwei; Li, Suke; Zhou, Guangdong; Zhang, Li; Dai, Chengxiang; Cao, Wei

    2015-05-27

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to have the potential for articular cartilage regeneration, and are suggested for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Here, we investigated whether intra-articular injection of xenogeneic human adipose-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells (haMPCs) promoted articular cartilage repair in rabbit OA model and engrafted into rabbit articular cartilage. The haMPCs were cultured in vitro, and phenotypes and differentiation characteristics of cells were evaluated. OA was induced surgically by anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) and medical meniscectomy of knee joints. At six weeks following surgery, hyaluronic acid (HA) or haMPCs was injected into the knee joints, the contralateral knee served as normal control. All animals were sacrificed at the 16th week post-surgery. Assessments were carried out by macroscopic examination, hematoxylin/eosin (HE) and Safranin-O/Fast green stainings and immunohistochemistry. The data showed that haMPC treatment promoted cartilage repair. Signals of human mitochondrial can be directly detected in haMPC treated cartilage. The haMPCs expressed human leukocyte antigen I (HLA-I) but not HLA-II-DR in vivo. These results suggest that intra-articular injection of haMPCs promotes regeneration of articular cartilage in rabbit OA model, and support the notion that MPCs are transplantable between HLA-incompatible individuals.

  3. T2 star relaxation times for assessment of articular cartilage at 3 T: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Mamisch, Tallal Charles; Hughes, Timothy; Mosher, Timothy J; Mueller, Christoph; Trattnig, Siegfried; Boesch, Chris; Welsch, Goetz Hannes

    2012-03-01

    T2 mapping techniques use the relaxation constant as an indirect marker of cartilage structure, and the relaxation constant has also been shown to be a sensitive parameter for cartilage evaluation. As a possible additional robust biomarker, T2* relaxation time is a potential, clinically feasible parameter for the biochemical evaluation of articular cartilage. The knees of 15 healthy volunteers and 15 patients after microfracture therapy (MFX) were evaluated with a multi-echo spin-echo T2 mapping technique and a multi-echo gradient-echo T2* mapping sequence at 3.0 Tesla MRI. Inline maps, using a log-linear least squares fitting method, were assessed with respect to the zonal dependency of T2 and T2* relaxation for the deep and superficial regions of healthy articular cartilage and cartilage repair tissue. There was a statistically significant correlation between T2 and T2* values. Both parameters demonstrated similar spatial dependency, with longer values measured toward the articular surface for healthy articular cartilage. No spatial variation was observed for cartilage repair tissue after MFX. Within this feasibility study, both T2 and T2* relaxation parameters demonstrated a similar response in the assessment of articular cartilage and cartilage repair tissue. The potential advantages of T2*-mapping of cartilage include faster imaging times and the opportunity for 3D acquisitions, thereby providing greater spatial resolution and complete coverage of the articular surface.

  4. Morphological and functional interrelationships of articular cartilage matrices.

    PubMed Central

    Poole, C A; Flint, M H; Beaumont, B W

    1984-01-01

    The pericellular, territorial and interterritorial matrices of canine tibial cartilage have been identified ultrastructurally on the basis of their collagen fibre density and organisation, proteoglycan distribution and their structural response to experimentally applied compressive loads. In addition, a discrete pericellular capsule composed of fine, faintly banded fibrils is described which surrounds and encloses the pericellular matrix and chondrocytes of the middle and deep layers but not of the superficial layer. It is suggested that the fine fibrils which comprise this pericellular capsule represent some of the new minor collagen species recently localised in a similar position in hyaline cartilages. The densely compacted cupola which forms the articular pole of the capsule is frequently penetrated by a clearly defined pericellular channel, consistently orientated in the direction of the articular surface. Membrane-bound vesicles are observed in the pericellular matrix, within the lumen of the pericellular channel and accumulated in the territorial matrix immediately beyond the pericellular channel. The constancy of this distribution pattern strongly suggests a flow of material through the pericellular channel from the pericellular matrix to the territorial matrix and beyond, possibly in response to minute pressure gradients generated during compressive deformation of the non-distensible capsule. Furthermore, it is suggested that the random dispersal and subsequent rupture of matrix vesicles may represent a mechanism whereby chondrocytes, with limited mobility, could exercise homeostatic control over the cartilage matrix at some distance from the cell. Chondrocytes in the deeper layers of canine tibial cartilage are each surrounded by three distinct compartments, a pericellular matrix and capsule, a territorial matrix and an interterritorial matrix. The response of each of these concentric compartments to experimental load suggests that they function

  5. Adenoviral transduction supports matrix expression of alginate cultured articular chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Pohle, D; Kasch, R; Herlyn, P; Bader, R; Mittlmeier, T; Pützer, B M; Müller-Hilke, B

    2012-09-01

    The present study examines the effects of adenoviral (Ad) transduction of human primary chondrocyte on transgene expression and matrix production. Primary chondrocytes were isolated from healthy articular cartilage and from cartilage with mild osteoarthritis (OA), transduced with an Ad vector and either immediately cultured in alginate or expanded in monolayer before alginate culture. Proteoglycan production was measured using dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) assay and matrix gene expression was quantified by real-time PCR. Viral infection of primary chondrocytes results in a stable long time transgene expression for up to 13 weeks. Ad transduction does not significantly alter gene expression and matrix production if chondrocytes are immediately embedded in alginate. However, if expanded prior to three dimension (3D) culture in alginate, chondrocytes produce not only more proteoglycans compared to non-transduced controls, but also display an increased anabolic and decreased catabolic activity compared to non-transduced controls. We therefore suggest that successful autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) should combine adenoviral transduction of primary chondrocytes with expansion in monolayer followed by 3D culture. Future studies will be needed to investigate whether the subsequent matrix production can be further improved by using Ad vectors bearing genes encoding matrix proteins. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Pannocytes: distinctive cells found in rheumatoid arthritis articular cartilage erosions.

    PubMed Central

    Zvaifler, N. J.; Tsai, V.; Alsalameh, S.; von Kempis, J.; Firestein, G. S.; Lotz, M.

    1997-01-01

    A distinctive cell was identified from sites of rheumatoid arthritis cartilage injury. Similar cells are not found in lesions of osteoarthritis cartilage. We have designated them as pannocytes (PCs). Their rhomboid morphology differs from the bipolar shape of fibroblast-like synoviocytes or the spherical configuration of primary human articular chondrocytes. Chondrocytes are short-lived, whereas the original PC line grew for 25 passages before becoming senescent. Features in common with cultured primary chondrocytes include maximal proliferation in response to transforming growth factor-beta a catabolic response to interleukin-1 beta, collagenase production, and mRNA for the induced lymphocyte antigen and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Despite the presence of the inducible nitric oxide synthase message, PCs do not produce NO either constitutively or when cytokine stimulated. Each of the mesenchymal cells, fibroblast-like synoviocytes, primary chondrocytes, and PCs have the gene for type I collagen, but the type II collagen gene is detected only in primary chondrocytes. PCs can be distinguished from fibroblast-like synoviocytes and primary chondrocytes by their morphology, bright VCAM-1 staining, and growth response to cytokines and growth factors. Their prolonged life span in vitro suggests that PCs might represent an earlier stage of mesenchymal cell differentiation, and they could have a heretofore unrecognized role in rheumatoid arthritis joint destruction. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 PMID:9060847

  7. Intra-articular Implantation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Part 1

    PubMed Central

    Kraeutler, Matthew J.; Mitchell, Justin J.; Chahla, Jorge; McCarty, Eric C.; Pascual-Garrido, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) after a partial or total meniscectomy procedure is a common pathology. Because of the high incidence of meniscectomy in the general population, as well as the significant burden of knee OA, there is increasing interest in determining methods for delaying postmeniscectomy OA. Biological therapies, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and platelet-rich plasma (PRP), have been proposed as possible therapies that could delay OA in this and other settings. Several studies in various animal models have evaluated the effect of injecting MSCs into the knee joints of animals with OA induced either by meniscal excision with or without anterior cruciate ligament transection. When compared with control groups receiving injections without progenitor cells, short-term benefits in the experimental groups have been reported. In human subjects, there are limited data to determine the effect of biological therapies for use in delaying or preventing the onset of OA after a meniscectomy procedure. The purpose of this review is to highlight the findings in the presently available literature on the use of intra-articular implantation of MSCs postmeniscectomy and to offer suggestions for future research with the goal of delaying or treating early OA postmeniscectomy with MSCs. PMID:28203597

  8. Early Intra-Articular Complement Activation in Ankle Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Salzmann, Gian M.; Niemeyer, Philipp; Guo, Renfeng

    2014-01-01

    Cytokine regulation possibly influences long term outcome following ankle fractures, but little is known about synovial fracture biochemistry. Eight patients with an ankle dislocation fracture were included in a prospective case series and matched with patients suffering from grade 2 osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the ankle. All fractures needed external fixation during which joint effusions were collected. Fluid analysis was done by ELISA measuring aggrecan, bFGF, IL-1β, IGF-1, and the complement components C3a, C5a, and C5b-9. The time periods between occurrence of fracture and collection of effusion were only significantly associated with synovial aggrecan and C5b-9 levels (P < 0.001). Furthermore, synovial expressions of both proteins correlated with each other (P < 0.001). Although IL-1β expression was relatively low, intra-articular levels correlated with C5a (P < 0.01) and serological C-reactive protein concentrations 2 days after surgery (P < 0.05). Joint effusions were initially dominated by neutrophils, but the portion of monocytes constantly increased reaching 50% at day 6 after fracture (P < 0.02). Whereas aggrecan and IL-1β concentrations were not different in fracture and OCD patients, bFGF, IGF-1, and all complement components were significantly higher concentrated in ankle joints with fractures (P < 0.01). Complement activation and inflammatory cell infiltration characterize the joint biology following acute ankle fractures. PMID:24967368

  9. Ultrasound attenuation in normal and spontaneously degenerated articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Heikki J; Saarakkala, Simo; Laasanen, Mikko S; Hirvonen, Jani; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Töyräs, Juha

    2004-04-01

    High-frequency ultrasound (US) measurements may provide means for the quantification of articular cartilage quality. Bovine patellar cartilage samples (n = 32) at various degenerative stages were studied using US attenuation measurements in the 5- to 9-MHz frequency range. The results were compared with the histologic, biochemical and mechanical parameters obtained for the same samples, to identify which structural or functional factors could be related to the attenuation and its variations. Attenuation, as calculated in the frequency or time domain, correlated significantly with the histologic tissue integrity (i.e., Mankin score, Spearman r = -0.576 or -0.571, p < 0.01), but the slope of attenuation vs. frequency was not related to Mankin score. Ultrasound speed was, however, the most sensitive indicator of Mankin score (r = -0.755, p < 0.01). Cartilage quality index (CQI), a combination of structural and functional parameters, correlated significantly with the attenuation or speed (r = -0.655 or -0.872, p < 0.01). Our results suggest that US attenuation and speed may be suited for the diagnostics of cartilage degeneration. (E-mail: )

  10. Defect in the articular process of the lumbar facet.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takafumi; Ikeda, Takashi; Takagi, Katsumasa

    2002-12-01

    Bone defect in the lumbar articular facet is rarely noted, and only a few reports on its clinical course have been presented. We report on seven cases with lumbar inferior facet defect whose symptoms were mimicking spondylolysis. We have found three types of the defect shape on radiographs: linear, blunt, and irregular. There were five cases with linear type, one with blunt, and one with irregular. All patients had persistent low back pain, especially when doing physical activity or sports, but no one had history of major trauma or accident. Injection of a small amount of anesthetic temporarily alleviated the low back pain. The low back pain in six patients was controlled with conservative treatments, such as bracing or medication; bone union was especially gained in one case. However, a volleyball player's pain could not be controlled conservatively, and removal of the bone fragment was performed. It is considered that facet defect is not as rare as presumed, and more attention should be paid to it as a source of low back pain.

  11. Rice Body Formation Within a Peri-Articular Shoulder Mass.

    PubMed

    Edison, Michele N; Caram, Anthony; Flores, Miguel; Scherer, Kurt

    2016-08-01

    Most commonly associated with chronic inflammatory conditions, rice bodies represent an uncommon, nonspecific, often intra-articular inflammatory process. Presumably, rice bodies represent the sequelae of microvascular infarcts of the joint synovium. However, rice bodies have been seen in pleural fluid, in the setting of bursitis, and within the tendon sheath. The etiology and prognostic significance of rice bodies are not clear. MRI is the diagnostic imaging modality of choice for the evaluation of rice body formation. Here we present a case of a 28-year-old female with a history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who presented to her primary care physician with a palpable mass around her right shoulder which was presumed to be a lipoma. An initial ultrasound showed a fluid filled structure with internal debris. Subsequent MRI evaluation was confirmatory for subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis with rice body formation. The salient point of this report is to highlight the importance of patient-specific differential diagnosis. While lipomas are a very common benign soft tissue tumor, patients with RA often have disease-specific sequelae that should be included in the diagnostic deliberation. Thus, when ordering diagnostic testing for patients with a palpable mass and rheumatoid arthritis, MRI--possibly preceded by conventional radiography--is the most appropriate diagnostic algorithm.

  12. Thermal energy effects on articular cartilage: a multidisciplinary evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Lee D.; Ernsthausen, John; Ionescu, Dan S.; Studer, Rebecca K.; Bradley, James P.; Chu, Constance R.; Fu, Freddie H.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2002-05-01

    Partial thickness articular cartilage lesions are commonly encountered in orthopedic surgery. These lesions do not have the ability to heal by themselves, due to lack of vascular supply. Several types of treatment have addressed this problem, including mechanical debridement and thermal chondroplasty. The goal of these treatments is to provide a smooth cartilage surface and prevent propagation of the lesions. Early thermal chondroplasty was performed using lasers, and yielded very mixed results, including severe damage to the cartilage, due to poor control of the induced thermal effects. This led to the development (including commercial) of probes using radiofrequency to generate the thermal effects desired for chondroplasty. Similar concerns over the quantitative aspects and control ability of the induced thermal effects in these treatments led us to test the whole range of complex issues and parameters involved. Our investigations are designed to simultaneously evaluate clinical conditions, instrument variables for existing radiofrequency probes (pressure, speed, distance, dose) as well as the associated basic science issues such as damage temperature and controllability (down to the subcellular level), damage geometry, and effects of surrounding conditions (medium, temperature, flow, pressure). The overall goals of this work are (1) to establish whether thermal chondroplasty can be used in a safe and efficacious manner, and (2) provide a prescription for multi-variable optimization of the way treatments are delivered, based on quantitative analysis. The methods used form an interdisciplinary set, to include precise mechanical actuation, high accuracy temperature and temperature gradient control and measurement, advanced imaging approaches and mathematical modeling.

  13. Intra-articular fractures of the distal tibia

    PubMed Central

    Sitnik, Alexandre; Beletsky, Aleksander; Schelkun, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Results of the treatment of intra-articular fractures of the distal tibia have improved significantly during the last two decades. Recognition of the role of soft tissues has led to the development of a staged treatment strategy. At the first stage, joint-bridging external fixation and fibular fixation are performed. This leads to partial reduction of the distal tibial fracture and allows time for the healing of soft tissues and detailed surgical planning. Definitive open reduction and internal fixation of the tibial fracture is performed at a second stage, when the condition of the soft tissues is safe. The preferred surgical approach(es) is chosen based on the fracture morphology as determined from standard radiographic views and computed tomography. Meticulous atraumatic soft-tissue handling and the use of modern fixation techniques for the metaphyseal component such as minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis further facilitate healing. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2:352-361. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.150047 PMID:28932487

  14. Treatment of Focal Articular Cartilage Defects in the Knee

    PubMed Central

    Magnussen, Robert A.; Dunn, Warren R.; Carey, James L.

    2008-01-01

    We asked whether autologous chondrocyte implantation or osteochondral autograft transfer yields better clinical outcomes compared with one another or with traditional abrasive techniques for treatment of isolated articular cartilage defects and whether lesion size influences this clinical outcome. We performed a literature search and identified five randomized, controlled trials and one prospective comparative trial evaluating these treatment techniques in 421 patients. The operative procedures included autologous chondrocyte implantation, osteochondral autograft transfer, matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation, and microfracture. Minimum followup was 1 year (mean, 1.7 years; range, 1–3 years). All studies documented greater than 95% followup for clinical outcome measures. No technique consistently had superior results compared with the others. Outcomes for microfracture tended to be worse in larger lesions. All studies reported improvement in clinical outcome measures in all treatment groups when compared with preoperative assessment; however, no control (nonoperative) groups were used in any of the studies. A large prospective trial investigating these techniques with the addition of a control group would be the best way to definitively address the clinical questions. Level of Evidence: Level II, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18196358

  15. Hydrogels as a Replacement Material for Damaged Articular Hyaline Cartilage.

    PubMed

    Beddoes, Charlotte M; Whitehouse, Michael R; Briscoe, Wuge H; Su, Bo

    2016-06-03

    Hyaline cartilage is a strong durable material that lubricates joint movement. Due to its avascular structure, cartilage has a poor self-healing ability, thus, a challenge in joint recovery. When severely damaged, cartilage may need to be replaced. However, currently we are unable to replicate the hyaline cartilage, and as such, alternative materials with considerably different properties are used. This results in undesirable side effects, including inadequate lubrication, wear debris, wear of the opposing articular cartilage, and weakening of the surrounding tissue. With the number of surgeries for cartilage repair increasing, a need for materials that can better mimic cartilage, and support the surrounding material in its typical function, is becoming evident. Here, we present a brief overview of the structure and properties of the hyaline cartilage and the current methods for cartilage repair. We then highlight some of the alternative materials under development as potential methods of repair; this is followed by an overview of the development of tough hydrogels. In particular, double network (DN) hydrogels are a promising replacement material, with continually improving physical properties. These hydrogels are coming closer to replicating the strength and toughness of the hyaline cartilage, while offering excellent lubrication. We conclude by highlighting several different methods of integrating replacement materials with the native joint to ensure stability and optimal behaviour.

  16. Hydrogels as a Replacement Material for Damaged Articular Hyaline Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Beddoes, Charlotte M.; Whitehouse, Michael R.; Briscoe, Wuge H.; Su, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Hyaline cartilage is a strong durable material that lubricates joint movement. Due to its avascular structure, cartilage has a poor self-healing ability, thus, a challenge in joint recovery. When severely damaged, cartilage may need to be replaced. However, currently we are unable to replicate the hyaline cartilage, and as such, alternative materials with considerably different properties are used. This results in undesirable side effects, including inadequate lubrication, wear debris, wear of the opposing articular cartilage, and weakening of the surrounding tissue. With the number of surgeries for cartilage repair increasing, a need for materials that can better mimic cartilage, and support the surrounding material in its typical function, is becoming evident. Here, we present a brief overview of the structure and properties of the hyaline cartilage and the current methods for cartilage repair. We then highlight some of the alternative materials under development as potential methods of repair; this is followed by an overview of the development of tough hydrogels. In particular, double network (DN) hydrogels are a promising replacement material, with continually improving physical properties. These hydrogels are coming closer to replicating the strength and toughness of the hyaline cartilage, while offering excellent lubrication. We conclude by highlighting several different methods of integrating replacement materials with the native joint to ensure stability and optimal behaviour. PMID:28773566

  17. Loading of Articular Cartilage Compromises Chondrocyte Respiratory Function

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Mitchell C.; Ramakrishnan, Prem S.; Brouillette, Marc J.; Martin, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Determine whether repeatedly overloading healthy cartilage disrupts mitochondrial function in a manner similar to that associated with osteoarthritis pathogenesis. Methods We exposed normal articular cartilage on bovine osteochondral explants to 1 day or 7 consecutive days of cyclic axial compression (0.25 or 1.0 MPa, 0.5 Hz, 3 hours) and evaluated effects on chondrocyte viability, ATP concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, indicators of oxidative stress, respiration, and mitochondrial membrane potential. Results Neither 0.25 nor 1.0 MPa cyclic compression caused extensive chondrocyte death, macroscopic tissue damage, or overt changes in stress-strain behavior. After one day of loading, differences in respiratory activities between the 0.25 and 1.0 MPa groups were minimal; after 7 loading days, however, respiratory activity and ATP levels were suppressed in the 1.0 MPa group relative to the 0.25 MPa group, an effect prevented with pretreatment with 10 mM N-acetylcysteine. These changes were accompanied by increased proton leakage and decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential as well as by increased ROS formation indicated by dihydroethidium staining and glutathione oxidation. Conclusion Repeated overloading leads to chondrocyte oxidant-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction. This mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to destabilization of cartilage during various stages of OA in distinct ways by disrupting chondrocyte anabolic responses to mechanical stimuli. PMID:26473613

  18. [Corrective intra-articular surgery in juvenile femur head epiphysiolysis].

    PubMed

    Gekeler, J; Kneer, W

    1984-01-01

    Treatment of severely slipped capital femoral epiphysis depends on the individual pathoanatomic and pathophysiologic conditions. Since the femoral neck vessels remain intact in chronic slip, they should be preserved whenever possible. Bilateral chondrolysis developed in 1 of our 9 cervical osteotomy patients. Long-term radiologic and clinical findings after a cervical osteotomy do not differ appreciably from those after an Imhäuser osteotomy, in some cases, with incomplete realignment of the femoral head-acetabulum relation. Apparently, not only the "quantitative" factor but also the "qualitative" factor plays an important role in epiphyseal separation. By contrast, severe acute slip is a severe irritation of the joint accompanied by intra-articular bleeding and rupture of the femoral neck vessels. Good results are achieved after immediate operative decompression, controlled reduction, and stable fixation of the epiphysis, providing anatomic realignment of the femoral head-acetabulum relation is not forced, but rather carried out only to the limit of tolerance without leverage maneuver and under moderate traction and vision. Epiphyseal necrosis developed after conventional open reduction in 2 of our 16 patients with acute slip. No cases of epiphyseal necrosis have been observed to date in any of our patients (N = 5) treated with this new technique of controlled reduction (i.e., partial reduction in "acute chronic slip").

  19. Imaging articular cartilage using second harmonic generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfield, Jessica C.; Winlove, C. Peter; Knapp, Karen; Matcher, Stephen J.

    2006-02-01

    Sub cellular resolution images of equine articular cartilage have been obtained using both second harmonic generation microscopy (SHGM) and two-photon fluorescence microscopy (TPFM). The SHGM images clearly map the distribution of the collagen II fibers within the extracellular matrix while the TPFM images show the distribution of endogenous two-photon fluorophores in both the cells and the extracellular matrix, highlighting especially the pericellular matrix and bright 2-3μm diameter features within the cells. To investigate the source of TPF in the extracellular matrix experiments have been carried out to see if it may originate from the proteoglycans. Pure solutions of the following proteoglycans hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfate and aggrecan have been imaged, only the aggrecan produced any TPF and here the intensity was not great enough to account for the TPF in the extracellular matrix. Also cartilage samples were subjected to a process to remove proteoglycans and cellular components. After this process the TPF from the samples had decreased by a factor of two, with respect to the SHG intensity.

  20. Tribology approach to the engineering and study of articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Markus A; Grad, Sibylle; Kaup, Thomas; Hänni, Markus; Schneider, Erich; Gogolewski, Sylwester; Alini, Mauro

    2004-01-01

    This study has been based on the assumption that articular motion is an important aspect of mechanotransduction in synovial joints. For this reason a new bioreactor concept, able to reproduce joint kinematics more closely, has been designed. The prototype consists of a rotating scaffold and/or cartilage pin, which is pressed onto an orthogonally rotating ball. By oscillating pin and ball in phase difference, elliptical displacement trajectories are generated that are similar to the motion paths occurring in vivo. Simultaneously, dynamic compression may be applied with a linear actuator, while two-step-motors generate the rotation of pin and ball. The whole apparatus is placed in an incubator. The control station is located outside. Preliminary investigations at the gene expression level demonstrated promising results. Compared with free-swelling control and/or simply compression-loaded samples, chondrocyte-seeded scaffolds as well as nasal cartilage explants exposed to interface motion both showed elevated levels of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein mRNA. The final design of the bioreactor will include four individual stations in line, which will facilitate the investigation of motion-initiated effects at the contacting surfaces in more detail.

  1. Bilateral Intra-Articular Radiofrequency Ablation for Cervicogenic Headache

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Teresa; Taftian, David; Chhatre, Akhil

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Cervicogenic headache is characterized by unilateral neck or face pain referred from various structures such as the cervical joints and intervertebral disks. A recent study of patients with cervical pain showed significant pain relief after cervical medial branch neurotomy but excluded patients with C1-2 joint pain. It remains unclear whether targeting this joint has potential for symptomatic relief. To address this issue, we present a case report of C1-2 joint ablation with positive outcomes. Case Presentation. A 27-year-old female presented with worsening cervicogenic headache. Her pain was 9/10 by visual analog scale (VAS) and described as cramping and aching. Pain was localized suboccipitally with radiation to her jaw and posterior neck, worse on the right. Associated symptoms included clicking of her temporomandibular joint, neck stiffness, bilateral headaches with periorbital pain, numbness, and tingling. History, physical exam, and diagnostic studies indicated localization to the C1-2 joint with 80% decrease in pain after C1-2 diagnostic blocks. She underwent bilateral intra-articular radiofrequency ablation of the C1-C2 joint. Follow-up at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks showed improved function and pain relief with peak results at 12 weeks. Conclusion. Clinicians may consider C1-C2 joint ablation as a viable long-term treatment option for cervicogenic headaches. PMID:28149652

  2. Intra-articular osteoid osteoma of the lateral tibial plateau treated with arthroscopically assisted removal and retrograde osteochondral grafting.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Nobuo; Shimose, Shoji; Nakamae, Atsuo; Okuhara, Atsushi; Kamei, Goki; Ochi, Mitsuo

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of an intra-articular osteoid osteoma is sometimes challenging, because of its location. We report a patient with an intra-articular osteoid osteoma of the lateral tibial plateau which was excised under an arthroscopically assisted procedure. After total resection of the intra-articular osteoid osteoma, the osteochondral defect of the lateral tibial plateau was reconstructed with a retrograde autogenous osteochondral graft which was harvested from the non-weightbearing area of the distal femur.

  3. Identification of latexin by a proteomic analysis in rat normal articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Elizabeth; Gallegos, José L; Cortés, Leticia; Calderón, Karla G; Luna, José C; Cázares, Febe E; Velasquillo, María C; Kouri, Juan B; Hernández, Fidel C

    2010-06-05

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by degeneration of articular cartilage. Animal models of OA induced are a widely used tool in the study of the pathogenesis of disease. Several proteomic techniques for selective extraction of proteins have provided protein profiles of chondrocytes and secretory patterns in normal and osteoarthritic cartilage, including the discovery of new and promising biomarkers. In this proteomic analysis to study several proteins from rat normal articular cartilage, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MS) were used. Interestingly, latexin (LXN) was found. Using an immunohistochemical technique, it was possible to determine its localization within the chondrocytes from normal and osteoarthritic articular cartilage. In this study, 147 proteins were visualized, and 47 proteins were identified by MS. A significant proportion of proteins are involved in metabolic processes and energy (32%), as well as participating in different biological functions including structural organization (19%), signal transduction and molecular signaling (11%), redox homeostasis (9%), transcription and protein synthesis (6%), and transport (6%). The identified proteins were assigned to one or more subcellular compartments.Among the identified proteins, we found some proteins already recognized in other studies such as OA-associated proteins. Interestingly, we identified LXN, an inhibitor of mammalian carboxypeptidases, which had not been described in articular cartilage. Immunolabeling assays for LXN showed a granular distribution pattern in the cytoplasm of most chondrocytes of the middle, deep and calcified zones of normal articular cartilage as well as in subchondral bone. In osteoarthritic cartilage, LXN was observed in superficial and deep zones. This study provides the first proteomic analysis of normal articular cartilage of rat. We identified LXN, whose location was demonstrated by immunolabeling in the chondrocytes from the middle, deep and

  4. Effects of freezing rates and cryoprotectant on thermal expansion of articular cartilage during freezing process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Sun, H J; Lv, Y; Zou, J C; Lin, B L; Hua, T C

    2013-01-01

    The intact articular cartilage has not yet been successfully preserved at low temperature most likely due to the volume expansion from water to ice during freezing. The objective of this current study focuses on examining thermal expansion behavior of articular cartilage (AC) during freezing from 0 degree C to -100 degree C. Thermo Mechanical Analysis (TMA) was used to investigate the effects of different concentrations of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) (0%, 10%, 30% and 60% v/v) and different freezing rates (1 C/min, 3 C/min and 5 C/min). The results showed that: (1) the inhomogeneous thermal expansion (or contraction) presents due to inhomogeneous water distributions in articular cartilage during freezing, which also may be the most likely reason that the matrix has been damaged in cryopreserved intact articular cartilage; (2) at the phase transition temperature range, the maximum thermal strain change value for 5C/min is approximately 1.45 times than that for 1 C/min, but the maximum thermal expansion coefficient of the later is about six times than that of the former; (3) the thermal expansion coefficient decreases with increasing cooling rate at the unfrozen temperature region, but some opposite results are obtained at the frozen temperature region; (4) the higher the DMSO concentration is, at the phase change temperature region, the smaller the thermal strain change as well as the maximum thermal expansion coefficient are, but DMSO concentration exhibits little effect on the thermal expansion coefficient at both unfrozen and frozen region. Once the DMSO concentration increasing enough, e.g. 60% v/v, the thermal strain decreases linearly and smoothly without any abrupt change due to little or no ice crystal forms (i.e. vitrification) in frozen articular cartilage. This study may improve our understanding of the thermal expansion (or contraction) behavior of cryopreserved articular cartilage and it may be useful for the future study on cryopreservation of intact

  5. Identification of latexin by a proteomic analysis in rat normal articular cartilage

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by degeneration of articular cartilage. Animal models of OA induced are a widely used tool in the study of the pathogenesis of disease. Several proteomic techniques for selective extraction of proteins have provided protein profiles of chondrocytes and secretory patterns in normal and osteoarthritic cartilage, including the discovery of new and promising biomarkers. In this proteomic analysis to study several proteins from rat normal articular cartilage, two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MS) were used. Interestingly, latexin (LXN) was found. Using an immunohistochemical technique, it was possible to determine its localization within the chondrocytes from normal and osteoarthritic articular cartilage. Results In this study, 147 proteins were visualized, and 47 proteins were identified by MS. A significant proportion of proteins are involved in metabolic processes and energy (32%), as well as participating in different biological functions including structural organization (19%), signal transduction and molecular signaling (11%), redox homeostasis (9%), transcription and protein synthesis (6%), and transport (6%). The identified proteins were assigned to one or more subcellular compartments. Among the identified proteins, we found some proteins already recognized in other studies such as OA-associated proteins. Interestingly, we identified LXN, an inhibitor of mammalian carboxypeptidases, which had not been described in articular cartilage. Immunolabeling assays for LXN showed a granular distribution pattern in the cytoplasm of most chondrocytes of the middle, deep and calcified zones of normal articular cartilage as well as in subchondral bone. In osteoarthritic cartilage, LXN was observed in superficial and deep zones. Conclusions This study provides the first proteomic analysis of normal articular cartilage of rat. We identified LXN, whose location was demonstrated by immunolabeling in the

  6. Subchondral route for nutrition to articular cartilage in the rabbit. Measurement of diffusion with hydrogen gas in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ogata, K; Whiteside, L A; Lesker, P A

    1978-10-01

    The route of nutrients going to articular cartilage was studied by determining the diffusion of hydrogen molecules from the subchondral circulation to the articular cartilage in rabbits. In all immature animals there was diffusion of hydrogen from subchondral bone into articular cartilage, while in the older immature animals the results were variable. None of the mature animals showed any diffusion of hydrogen into articular cartilage. The rate of diffusion of hydrogen was significantly lower in the articular cartilage than in the subchondral bone in the immature animals while the concentrations of hydrogen in the articular cartilage were only fractions of those in the subchondral bone at the same instant. Histologically, the deep layers of immature cartilage are penetrated extensively by vascular buds from the ossified portion of the epiphysis, while in adults the articular cartilage is separated from subchondral vascular spaces by an end-plate of bone. Blood vessels penetrating into the basilar layer of articular cartilage in immature animals appear to play an important role in the nutrition of articular cartilage coming from the subchondral region.

  7. Serum-free media for articular chondrocytes in vitro expansion.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xin-xin; Duncan, Neil A; Lin, Lin; Fu, Xin; Zhang, Ji-ying; Yu, Chang-long

    2013-07-01

    In vitro chondrocyte expansion is a major challenge in cell-based therapy for human articular cartilage repair. Classical culture conditions usually use animal serum as a medium supplement, which raises a number of undesirable questions. In the present study, two kinds of defined, serum-free media were developed to expand chondrocytes in monolayer culture for the purpose of cartilage tissue engineering. Bovine chondrocytes were expanded in serum-free media supplemented with fibroblast growth factor-2 and platelet-derived growth factor or fibroblast growth factor-2 and insulin-like growth factor. Expansion culture in a conventional 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) medium served as control. Fibronectin coating was used to help cell adhesion in serum-free medium. Next, in vitro three-dimensional pellet culture was used to evaluate the chondrocyte capacity. Cell pellets were expanded in different media to re-express the differentiated phenotype (re-differentiation) and to form cartilaginous tissue. The pellets were assessed by glycosaminoglycans contents, collagen II, collagen I and collagen X immunohistological staining. Chondrocytes cultured in serum-free media showed no proliferation difference than cells grown with 10% FBS medium. In addition, chondrocytes expanded in both serum-free media expressed more differentiated phenotypes at the end of monolayer culture, as indicated by higher gene expression ratios of collagen type II to collagen type I. Pellets derived from chondrocytes cultured in both serum-free media displayed comparable chondrogenic capacities to pellets from cells expanded in 10% FBS medium. These findings provide alternative culture approaches for chondrocytes in vitro expansion, which may benefit the clinical use of autologous chondrocytes implantation.

  8. Sources of variability in musculo-articular stiffness measurement.

    PubMed

    Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Watsford, Mark; Murphy, Aron; De Vito, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of musculo-articular stiffness (MAS) with the free-oscillation technique is a popular method with a variety of applications. This study examined the sources of variability (load applied and frequency of oscillation) when MAS is assessed. Over two testing occasions, 14 healthy men (27.7±5.2 yr, 1.82±0.04 m, 79.5±8.4 kg) were measured for isometric maximum voluntary contraction and MAS of the knee flexors using submaximal loads relative to the individual's maximum voluntary contraction (MAS%MVC) and a single absolute load (MASABS). As assessment load increased, MAS%MVC (coefficient of variation (CV)  =  8.1-12.1%; standard error of measurement (SEM)  =  51.6-98.8 Nm⁻¹) and frequency (CV  =  4.8-7.0%; SEM  =  0.060-0.075 s⁻¹) variability increased consequently. Further, similar levels of variability arising from load (CV  =  6.7%) and frequency (CV  =  4.8-7.0%) contributed to the overall MAS%MVC variability. The single absolute load condition yielded better reliability scores for MASABS (CV  =  6.5%; SEM  =  40.2 Nm⁻¹) and frequency (CV  =  3.3%; SEM  =  0.039 s⁻¹). Low and constant loads for MAS assessment, which are particularly relevant in the clinical setting, exhibited superior reliability compared to higher loads expressed as a percentage of maximum voluntary contraction, which are more suitable for sporting situations. Appropriate sample size and minimum detectable change can therefore be determined when prospective studies are carried out.

  9. Sources of Variability in Musculo-Articular Stiffness Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Watsford, Mark; Murphy, Aron; De Vito, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of musculo-articular stiffness (MAS) with the free-oscillation technique is a popular method with a variety of applications. This study examined the sources of variability (load applied and frequency of oscillation) when MAS is assessed. Over two testing occasions, 14 healthy men (27.7±5.2 yr, 1.82±0.04 m, 79.5±8.4 kg) were measured for isometric maximum voluntary contraction and MAS of the knee flexors using submaximal loads relative to the individual's maximum voluntary contraction (MAS%MVC) and a single absolute load (MASABS). As assessment load increased, MAS%MVC (coefficient of variation (CV)  =  8.1–12.1%; standard error of measurement (SEM)  =  51.6–98.8 Nm−1) and frequency (CV  =  4.8–7.0%; SEM  =  0.060–0.075 s−1) variability increased consequently. Further, similar levels of variability arising from load (CV  =  6.7%) and frequency (CV  =  4.8–7.0%) contributed to the overall MAS%MVC variability. The single absolute load condition yielded better reliability scores for MASABS (CV  =  6.5%; SEM  =  40.2 Nm−1) and frequency (CV  =  3.3%; SEM  =  0.039 s−1). Low and constant loads for MAS assessment, which are particularly relevant in the clinical setting, exhibited superior reliability compared to higher loads expressed as a percentage of maximum voluntary contraction, which are more suitable for sporting situations. Appropriate sample size and minimum detectable change can therefore be determined when prospective studies are carried out. PMID:23667662

  10. Stick-slip friction and wear of articular joints.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Woog; Banquy, Xavier; Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2013-02-12

    Stick-slip friction was observed in articular cartilage under certain loading and sliding conditions and systematically studied. Using the Surface Forces Apparatus, we show that stick-slip friction can induce permanent morphological changes (a change in the roughness indicative of wear/damage) in cartilage surfaces, even under mild loading and sliding conditions. The different load and speed regimes can be represented by friction maps--separating regimes of smooth and stick-slip sliding; damage generally occurs within the stick-slip regimes. Prolonged exposure of cartilage surfaces to stick-slip sliding resulted in a significant increase of surface roughness, indicative of severe morphological changes of the cartilage superficial zone. To further investigate the factors that are conducive to stick-slip and wear, we selectively digested essential components of cartilage: type II collagen, hyaluronic acid (HA), and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Compared with the normal cartilage, HA and GAG digestions modified the stick-slip behavior and increased surface roughness (wear) during sliding, whereas collagen digestion decreased the surface roughness. Importantly, friction forces increased up to 2, 10, and 5 times after HA, GAGs, and collagen digestion, respectively. Also, each digestion altered the friction map in different ways. Our results show that (i) wear is not directly related to the friction coefficient but (ii) more directly related to stick-slip sliding, even when present at small amplitudes, and that (iii) the different molecular components of joints work synergistically to prevent wear. Our results also suggest potential noninvasive diagnostic tools for sensing stick-slip in joints.

  11. The Influence of Articular Cartilage Thickness Reduction on Meniscus Biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Łuczkiewicz, Piotr; Daszkiewicz, Karol; Chróścielewski, Jacek; Witkowski, Wojciech; Winklewski, Pawel J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evaluation of the biomechanical interaction between meniscus and cartilage in medial compartment knee osteoarthritis. Methods The finite element method was used to simulate knee joint contact mechanics. Three knee models were created on the basis of knee geometry from the Open Knee project. We reduced the thickness of medial cartilages in the intact knee model by approximately 50% to obtain a medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) model. Two variants of medial knee OA model with congruent and incongruent contact surfaces were analysed to investigate the influence of congruency. A nonlinear static analysis for one compressive load case was performed. The focus of the study was the influence of cartilage degeneration on meniscal extrusion and the values of the contact forces and contact areas. Results In the model with incongruent contact surfaces, we observed maximal compressive stress on the tibial plateau. In this model, the value of medial meniscus external shift was 95.3% greater, while the contact area between the tibial cartilage and medial meniscus was 50% lower than in the congruent contact surfaces model. After the non-uniform reduction of cartilage thickness, the medial meniscus carried only 48.4% of load in the medial compartment in comparison to 71.2% in the healthy knee model. Conclusions We have shown that the change in articular cartilage geometry may significantly reduce the role of meniscus in load transmission and the contact area between the meniscus and cartilage. Additionally, medial knee OA may increase the risk of meniscal extrusion in the medial compartment of the knee joint. PMID:27936066

  12. Modeling the biomechanics of articular eminence function in anthropoid primates.

    PubMed

    Terhune, Claire E

    2011-11-01

    One of the most prominent features of the cranial component of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is the articular eminence (AE). This bar of bone is the primary surface upon which the condyle translates and rotates during movements of the mandible, and is therefore the primary point at which forces are transmitted from the mandible to the cranium during loading of the masticatory apparatus. The shape of the AE is highly variable across primates, and the raised eminence of humans has often been considered a defining feature of the human TMJ, yet few data exist to address whether this variation is functionally significant. This study used a broad interspecific sample of anthropoid primates to elaborate upon and test the predictions of a previously proposed model of AE function. This model suggests that AE inclination acts to resist non-normal forces at the TMJ, thereby maximizing bite forces (BFs). AE inclination was predicted to covary with two specific features of the masticatory apparatus: height of the TMJ above the occlusal plane; and inclination of the masticatory muscles. A correlate of this model is that taxa utilizing more resistant food objects should also exhibit relatively more inclined AEs. Results of the correlation analyses found that AE inclination is strongly correlated with height of the TMJ above the occlusal plane, but less so with inclination of the masticatory muscles. Furthermore, pairwise comparisons of closely related taxa with documented dietary differences found that the AE is consistently more inclined in taxa that utilize more resistant food items. These data preliminarily suggest that variation in AE morphology across anthropoid primates is functionally related to maximizing BFs, and add to the growing dataset of masticatory morphologies linked to feeding behavior.

  13. Ultrasound speed and attenuation in progressive trypsin digested articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Niu, HaiJun; Li, LiFeng; Sun, Feng; Yan, Yan; Wang, YueXiang; Li, DeYu; Fan, YuBo

    2011-11-01

    Subtle changes of articular cartilage (AC) can lead to tissue degeneration and even osteoarthritis (OA). The early degeneration of AC is closely related to a change in proteoglycans (PG) content. The observation of PG is therefore an appropriate way of studying OA and evaluating the degree of AC degeneration. In this study, 20 cartilage-bone samples were prepared from normal porcine femoral condyle cartilage and 10 samples were digested over 2 h using 0.25% trypsin solution. The dynamic process of PG-digestion was explored using a conventional A-mode ultrasound (US) experimental system with a 10 MHz center frequency. Quantitative acoustic parameters were calculated from ultrasonic radio-frequency echo signals and included US speed (USS), US amplitude attenuation coefficient (UAA) and broadband US attenuation coefficient (BUA). The experimental results showed that the conventional A-mode ultrasound is valuable for tracking the degree of PG-digestion. Histology also confirmed the validity of the ultrasound observations. For every AC sample, the degree of PG-digestion within a given time was different and was affected by individual differences. After two hours of degeneration, USS showed a mean decrease of 0.4% (P<0.05). UAA was significantly lower after a two-hour PG depletion period (from (2.45±0.23) to (2.28±0.41) dB mm⁻¹). BUA showed no significant differences during this process. In conclusion, conventional ultrasound can provide useful information about trypsin-induced progressive PG depletion in AC and can reflect variations of PG content via the quantitative acoustic parameters USS and UAA. The results of this study may be used to identify an indirect indicator of cartilage matrix integrity and OA disease progression.

  14. Telomerase Activity in Articular Chondrocytes Is Lost after Puberty

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Brooke; Novakofski, Kira D.; Donocoff, Rachel Sacher; Liang, Yan-Xiang Amber

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Telomere length and telomerase activity are important indicators of cellular senescence and replicative ability. Loss of telomerase is associated with ageing and the development of osteoarthritis. Implantation of telomerase-positive cells, chondrocytes, or stem cells expressing a normal chondrocyte phenotype is desired for cartilage repair procedures. The objective of this study was to identify at what age chondrocytes and at what passage bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) become senescent based on telomerase activity. The effect of osteogenic protein–1 (OP-1) or interleukin-1α (IL-1α) treatment on telomerase activity in chondrocytes was also measured to determine the response to anabolic or catabolic stimuli. Methods: Articular cartilage was collected from horses (n = 12) aged 1 month to 18 years. Chondrocytes from prepubescent horses (<15 months) were treated with OP-1 or IL-1α. Bone marrow aspirate from adult horses was collected and cultured for up to 10 days to isolate MSCs. Telomerase activity was measured using the TeloTAGGG Telomerase PCR ELISA kit. Results: Chondrocytes from prepubescent horses were positive for telomerase activity. Treatment with IL-1α resulted in a decrease in chondrocyte telomerase activity; however, treatment with OP-1 did not change telomerase activity. One MSC culture sample was positive for telomerase activity on day 2; all samples were negative for telomerase activity on day 10. Conclusions: These results suggest that chondrocytes from prepubescent donors are potentially more suitable for cartilage repair procedures and that telomerase activity is diminished by anabolic and catabolic cytokine stimulation. If MSCs are utilized in cartilage repair, minimal passaging should be performed prior to implantation. PMID:26069700

  15. Multi-parametric MRI characterization of enzymatically degraded articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Nissi, Mikko J; Salo, Elli-Noora; Tiitu, Virpi; Liimatainen, Timo; Michaeli, Shalom; Mangia, Silvia; Ellermann, Jutta; Nieminen, Miika T

    2016-07-01

    Several laboratory and rotating frame quantitative MRI parameters were evaluated and compared for detection of changes in articular cartilage following selective enzymatic digestion. Bovine osteochondral specimens were subjected to 44 h incubation in control medium or in collagenase or chondroitinase ABC to induce superficial collagen or proteoglycan (glycosaminoglycan) alterations. The samples were scanned at 9.4 T for T1 , T1 Gd (dGEMRIC), T2 , adiabatic T1 ρ , adiabatic T2 ρ , continuous-wave T1 ρ , TRAFF2 , and T1 sat relaxation times and for magnetization transfer ratio (MTR). For reference, glycosaminoglycan content, collagen fibril orientation and biomechanical properties were determined. Changes primarily in the superficial cartilage were noted after enzymatic degradation. Most of the studied parameters were sensitive to the destruction of collagen network, whereas glycosaminoglycan depletion was detected only by native T1 and T1 Gd relaxation time constants throughout the tissue and by MTR superficially. T1 , adiabatic T1 ρ , adiabatic T2 ρ , continuous-wave T1 ρ , and T1 sat correlated significantly with the biomechanical properties while T1 Gd correlated with glycosaminoglycan staining. The findings indicated that most of the studied MRI parameters were sensitive to both glycosaminoglycan content and collagen network integrity, with changes due to enzymatic treatment detected primarily in the superficial tissue. Strong correlation of T1 , adiabatic T1ρ , adiabatic T2 ρ , continuous-wave T1 ρ , and T1 sat with the altered biomechanical properties, reflects that these parameters were sensitive to critical functional properties of cartilage. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1111-1120, 2016.

  16. Stick-slip friction and wear of articular joints

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Woog; Banquy, Xavier; Israelachvili, Jacob N.

    2013-01-01

    Stick-slip friction was observed in articular cartilage under certain loading and sliding conditions and systematically studied. Using the Surface Forces Apparatus, we show that stick-slip friction can induce permanent morphological changes (a change in the roughness indicative of wear/damage) in cartilage surfaces, even under mild loading and sliding conditions. The different load and speed regimes can be represented by friction maps—separating regimes of smooth and stick-slip sliding; damage generally occurs within the stick-slip regimes. Prolonged exposure of cartilage surfaces to stick-slip sliding resulted in a significant increase of surface roughness, indicative of severe morphological changes of the cartilage superficial zone. To further investigate the factors that are conducive to stick-slip and wear, we selectively digested essential components of cartilage: type II collagen, hyaluronic acid (HA), and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Compared with the normal cartilage, HA and GAG digestions modified the stick-slip behavior and increased surface roughness (wear) during sliding, whereas collagen digestion decreased the surface roughness. Importantly, friction forces increased up to 2, 10, and 5 times after HA, GAGs, and collagen digestion, respectively. Also, each digestion altered the friction map in different ways. Our results show that (i) wear is not directly related to the friction coefficient but (ii) more directly related to stick-slip sliding, even when present at small amplitudes, and that (iii) the different molecular components of joints work synergistically to prevent wear. Our results also suggest potential noninvasive diagnostic tools for sensing stick-slip in joints. PMID:23359687

  17. Arthroscopic laser in intra-articular knee cartilage disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosir, Hany R.; Siebert, Werner E.

    1996-12-01

    Different assemblies have endeavored to develop arthroscopic laser surgery. Various lasers have been tried in the treatment of orthopaedic problems, and the most useful has turned out to be the Hol-YAG laser 2.1 nm which is a near- contact laser. By using the laser as a powerful tool, and cutting back on the power level, one is able to better achieve the desired treatment effect. Clinical studies to evaluating the role of the laser in different arthroscopic knee procedures, comparing to conventional techniques, showed that the overall outcome attains a momentous confidence level which is shifted to the side of the laser versus the conventional for all maneuvers, barring meniscectomy where there is not perceiving disparity between laser versus the conventional. Meniscectomy continues to be one of the most commonly performed orthopaedic procedures. Laser provides a single tool which can ablate and debride meniscal rims with efficiency and safety. Chondroplasty can also be accomplished with ease using defocused laser energy. Both lateral release and soft tissue cermilization benefit from the cutting effect of laser along with its hemostatic effect. Synovial reduction with a defocused laser is also easily accomplished. By one gadget, one can cut, ablate, smooth, coagulate, congeal and with authentic tissue depth control The future of laser arthroscopic surgery lies in its ability to weld or repair tissues. Our research study has shown that laser activated photoactive dyes can produce a molecular bonding of collagen fibers, and therefore a repair 'weld' can be achieved with both meniscal tissues and with articular cartilage lesions.

  18. Changes in articular cartilage following arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy.

    PubMed

    Eichinger, Martin; Schocke, Michael; Hoser, Christian; Fink, Christian; Mayr, Raul; Rosenberger, Ralf E

    2016-05-01

    To examine degenerative changes in all cartilage surfaces of the knee following arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy. For this prospective cohort study, 14 patients (five female) with a mean age of 47.9 ± 12.9 years who had undergone isolated arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy were evaluated. Cartilage-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were acquired from the operated knees before the index operations, as well as at 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery. The MRI scans were assessed for the prevalence, severity, and size of cartilage degenerations. The clinical outcome was assessed using the SF-36 physical and mental component score and the International Knee Documentation Committee Knee Evaluation Form and was correlated with radiological findings. There was a significant increase in the severity of cartilage lesions in the medial tibial plateau (P = 0.019), as well as a trend towards an increase in the lateral tibial plateau. The size of the cartilage lesions increased significantly in the medial femoral condyle (P = 0.005) and lateral femoral condyle (P = 0.029), as well as in the patella (P = 0.019). Functional outcome scores improved significantly throughout the follow-up period. There was no correlation between cartilage wear and functional outcome. Arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy is associated with adverse effects on articular cartilage and may lead to an increase in the severity and size of cartilage lesions. Post-operative cartilage wear predominantly affected the medial compartment and also affected the other compartments of the knee. Strategies to reduce subsequent osteoarthritic changes need to involve all compartments of the knee. IV.

  19. Lubrication mode analysis of articular cartilage using Stribeck surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gleghorn, Jason P; Bonassar, Lawrence J

    2008-01-01

    Lubrication of articular cartilage occurs in distinct modes with various structural and biomolecular mechanisms contributing to the low-friction properties of natural joints. In order to elucidate relative contributions of these factors in normal and diseased tissues, determination and control of lubrication mode must occur. The objectives of these studies were (1) to develop an in vitro cartilage on glass test system to measure friction coefficient, mu; (2) to implement and extend a framework for the determination of cartilage lubrication modes; and (3) to determine the effects of synovial fluid on mu and lubrication mode transitions. Patellofemoral groove cartilage was linearly oscillated against glass under varying magnitudes of compressive strain utilizing phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and equine and bovine synovial fluid as lubricants. The time-dependent frictional properties were measured to determine the lubricant type and strain magnitude dependence for the initial friction coefficient (mu(0)=mu(t-->0)) and equilibrium friction coefficient (mu(eq)=mu(t-->infinity)). Parameters including tissue-glass co-planarity, normal strain, and surface speed were altered to determine the effect of the parameters on lubrication mode via a 'Stribeck surface'. Using this testing apparatus, cartilage exhibited biphasic lubrication with significant influence of strain magnitude on mu(0) and minimal influence on mu(eq), consistent with hydrostatic pressurization as reported by others. Lubrication analysis using 'Stribeck surfaces' demonstrated clear regions of boundary and mixed modes, but hydrodynamic or full film lubrication was not observed even at the highest speed (50mm/s) and lowest strain (5%).

  20. Adaptive mechanically controlled lubrication mechanism found in articular joints.

    PubMed

    Greene, George W; Banquy, Xavier; Lee, Dong Woog; Lowrey, Daniel D; Yu, Jing; Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2011-03-29

    Articular cartilage is a highly efficacious water-based tribological system that is optimized to provide low friction and wear protection at both low and high loads (pressures) and sliding velocities that must last over a lifetime. Although many different lubrication mechanisms have been proposed, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the tribological performance of cartilage cannot be attributed to a single mechanism acting alone but on the synergistic action of multiple "modes" of lubrication that are adapted to provide optimum lubrication as the normal loads, shear stresses, and rates change. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is abundant in cartilage and synovial fluid and widely thought to play a principal role in joint lubrication although this role remains unclear. HA is also known to complex readily with the glycoprotein lubricin (LUB) to form a cross-linked network that has also been shown to be critical to the wear prevention mechanism of joints. Friction experiments on porcine cartilage using the surface forces apparatus, and enzymatic digestion, reveal an "adaptive" role for an HA-LUB complex whereby, under compression, nominally free HA diffusing out of the cartilage becomes mechanically, i.e., physically, trapped at the interface by the increasingly constricted collagen pore network. The mechanically trapped HA-LUB complex now acts as an effective (chemically bound) "boundary lubricant"--reducing the friction force slightly but, more importantly, eliminating wear damage to the rubbing/shearing surfaces. This paper focuses on the contribution of HA in cartilage lubrication; however, the system as a whole requires both HA and LUB to function optimally under all conditions.

  1. Modeling the biomechanics of articular eminence function in anthropoid primates

    PubMed Central

    Terhune, Claire E

    2011-01-01

    One of the most prominent features of the cranial component of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is the articular eminence (AE). This bar of bone is the primary surface upon which the condyle translates and rotates during movements of the mandible, and is therefore the primary point at which forces are transmitted from the mandible to the cranium during loading of the masticatory apparatus. The shape of the AE is highly variable across primates, and the raised eminence of humans has often been considered a defining feature of the human TMJ, yet few data exist to address whether this variation is functionally significant. This study used a broad interspecific sample of anthropoid primates to elaborate upon and test the predictions of a previously proposed model of AE function. This model suggests that AE inclination acts to resist non-normal forces at the TMJ, thereby maximizing bite forces (BFs). AE inclination was predicted to covary with two specific features of the masticatory apparatus: height of the TMJ above the occlusal plane; and inclination of the masticatory muscles. A correlate of this model is that taxa utilizing more resistant food objects should also exhibit relatively more inclined AEs. Results of the correlation analyses found that AE inclination is strongly correlated with height of the TMJ above the occlusal plane, but less so with inclination of the masticatory muscles. Furthermore, pairwise comparisons of closely related taxa with documented dietary differences found that the AE is consistently more inclined in taxa that utilize more resistant food items. These data preliminarily suggest that variation in AE morphology across anthropoid primates is functionally related to maximizing BFs, and add to the growing dataset of masticatory morphologies linked to feeding behavior. PMID:21923720

  2. Clinical efflux of cryoprotective agents from vitrified human articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hana; Al-Abbasi, Khaled K; Elliott, Janet A W; McGann, Locksley E; Jomha, Nadr M

    2013-04-01

    In previous research, we successfully cryopreserved intact human articular cartilage on its bone base with high chondrocyte viability using a vitrification protocol that entailed sequential exposure to several cryopreserving agents (CPAs) at lowering temperatures resulting in a high final concentration of CPA. The CPA must be removed from the cartilage at warming due to its toxicity to cells in the cryopreserved tissue and the post-transplant adjacent tissues. The current experiment explores the relationship between removal solution volume and time required for complete removal of CPA from bone-cartilage samples. Osteochondral dowels of 10mm diameter from five patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty were vitrified using our protocol resulting in 6.5M CPA within the matrix. In the primary experiment, the warmed dowels were immersed in 10 mL of X-VIVO for 30 min and this was repeated 5 times (the last wash being 5 min only). Removal solution osmolality was recorded at various times and compared to controls of pure X-VIVO. Changes in removal solution osmolality over time were normalized to tissue volume. In a secondary experiment, the procedure was repeated using double the volume of removal solution (20 mL X-VIVO). Results showed a rapid change in the osmolality of the removal solution indicating a rapid efflux of CPA from cartilage. The efflux rate decreased with time and during subsequent immersions until equilibrium was reached during the 4th immersion indicating effectively complete removal of CPA. Doubling the amount of removal solution demonstrated the effective removal of CPAs by the third immersion. The results of this study yield a practical relationship between the amount of removal solution and the time and number of immersions required to remove CPA from the transplantable tissue. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Interspecific scaling patterns of talar articular surfaces within primates and their closest living relatives.

    PubMed

    Yapuncich, Gabriel S; Boyer, Doug M

    2014-02-01

    The articular facets of interosseous joints must transmit forces while maintaining relatively low stresses. To prevent overloading, joints that transmit higher forces should therefore have larger facet areas. The relative contributions of body mass and muscle-induced forces to joint stress are unclear, but generate opposing hypotheses. If mass-induced forces dominate, facet area should scale with positive allometry to body mass. Alternatively, muscle-induced forces should cause facets to scale isometrically with body mass. Within primates, both scaling patterns have been reported for articular surfaces of the femoral and humeral heads, but more distal elements are less well studied. Additionally, examination of complex articular surfaces has largely been limited to linear measurements, so that 'true area' remains poorly assessed. To re-assess these scaling relationships, we examine the relationship between body size and articular surface areas of the talus. Area measurements were taken from microCT scan-generated surfaces of all talar facets from a comprehensive sample of extant euarchontan taxa (primates, treeshrews, and colugos). Log-transformed data were regressed on literature-derived log-body mass using reduced major axis and phylogenetic least squares regressions. We examine the scaling patterns of muscle mass and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) to body mass, as these relationships may complicate each model. Finally, we examine the scaling pattern of hindlimb muscle PCSA to talar articular surface area, a direct test of the effect of mass-induced forces on joint surfaces. Among most groups, there is an overall trend toward positive allometry for articular surfaces. The ectal (= posterior calcaneal) facet scales with positive allometry among all groups except 'sundatherians', strepsirrhines, galagids, and lorisids. The medial tibial facet scales isometrically among all groups except lemuroids. Scaling coefficients are not correlated with sample size

  4. Corrective osteotomy for combined intra- and extra-articular distal radius malunion.

    PubMed

    Buijze, Geert A; Prommersberger, Karl-Josef; González Del Pino, Juan; Fernandez, Diego L; Jupiter, Jesse B

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluated the functional outcome of corrective osteotomy for combined intra- and extra-articular malunions of the distal radius using multiple outcome scores. We evaluated 18 skeletally mature patients at an average of 78 months after corrective osteotomy for a combined intra- and extra-articular malunion of the distal part of the radius. The indication for osteotomy in all patients was the combination of an extra-articular deformity (≥ 15° volar or ≥ 10° dorsal angulation or ≥ 3 mm radial shortening) and intra-articular incongruity of 2 mm or greater (maximum stepoff or gap), as measured on lateral and posteroanterior radiographs. The average interval from the injury to the osteotomy was 9 months. The average maximum stepoff or gap of the articular surface before surgery was 4 mm. All 18 patients healed uneventfully and the final articular incongruity was reduced to 2 mm or less. Final range of motion and grip strength significantly improved, averaging 89% and 84% of the uninjured side and 185% and 241% of the preoperative measures, respectively. The rate of excellent or good results was 72% according to the validated rating system Mayo Modified Wrist Score, and 89% according to the unvalidated system of Gartland and Werley. The mean Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score was 11, which corresponds to mild perceived disability. Of the 18 cases, 11 normalized upper limb function. Five patients had complications; all were successfully treated. According to the rating system of Knirk and Jupiter, 4 had grade 1 and 1 had grade 2 osteoarthritis of the radiocarpal joint on radiographs. Two of those patients reported occasional mild pain. Radiographic osteoarthritis did not correlate with strength, motion, and wrist scores. Outcomes of corrective osteotomy for combined intra- and extra-articular malunions were comparable to those of osteotomy for isolated intra- and extra-articular malunions. A successful corrective osteotomy for the

  5. Internal plate fixation versus plaster in displaced complete articular distal radius fractures, a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mulders, Marjolein A M; Walenkamp, Monique M J; Goslings, J Carel; Schep, Niels W L

    2016-02-09

    Of all distal radius fractures, 25 % are complete articular fractures (AO/OTA type C fractures). Two thirds of those fractures are displaced and require reduction. According to several International Guidelines, adequately reduced intra-articular distal radius fractures are best treated non-operatively with plaster immobilisation, while surgical fixation is suggested only when the articular step exceeds 2 mm after reduction. However, these recommendations are based on studies that did not differentiate between intra- and extra-articular distal radius fractures. Thus, no clear consensus about the best treatment for patients with displaced intra-articular distal radius fractures can be reached. Despite the lack of evidence, an increase in internal fixation of intra-articular distal radius fractures has been observed over the last decade. The aim of this study is to determine the difference in functional outcome following open reduction and plate fixation compared with non-operative treatment with closed reduction and plaster immobilisation in patients with a displaced intra articular distal radius fracture. This multicentre randomised controlled trial will randomise between open reduction and internal plate fixation (intervention group) and closed reduction and plaster immobilisation (control group). All consecutive adult patients from 18 to 65 years with a displaced intra-articular distal radius fracture (AO/OTA type C), which has been adequately reduced at the Emergency Department according to the Dutch National Guidelines, are eligible for inclusion in this study. The primary outcome is function and pain of the wrist assessed with the Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation score (PRWE). Secondary outcomes are the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score (DASH), pain, quality of life (SF-36), range of motion, grip strength, radiological parameters, complications, crossovers and cost-effectiveness of both treatments. A total of 90 patients will be included in this

  6. Disco Dancing and Kinetic Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karakas, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an example of an innovative science activity used in a science methods course for future elementary teachers at a small university in northeastern Turkey. The activity aims to help prospective elementary teachers understand kinetic-molecular theory in a simple way and to expose these preservice teachers to an innovative…

  7. Disco Dancing and Kinetic Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karakas, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an example of an innovative science activity used in a science methods course for future elementary teachers at a small university in northeastern Turkey. The activity aims to help prospective elementary teachers understand kinetic-molecular theory in a simple way and to expose these preservice teachers to an innovative…

  8. Changes in Proton Dynamics in Articular Cartilage Caused by Phosphate Salts and Fixation Solutions.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shaokuan; Xia, Yang

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to study the effect of phosphate salts and fixation solutions on the proton dynamics in articular cartilage in vitro. Microscopic magnetic resonance imaging (μMRI) T(2) anisotropy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) double quantum-filtered (DQF) spectroscopy were used to study the full-thickness articular cartilage from several canine humeral heads. The in-plane pixel size across the depth of the cartilage tissue was 13 μm. The acid phosphate salt was an effective exchange catalyst for proton exchange in the cartilage with an organized structure of collagen fibrils, while the alkaline phosphate salt was not. For cartilage tissue containing less organized collagen fibrils, both acid and alkaline phosphate salts have no significant effect on the T(2) value at low concentration but decrease the T(2) value at high concentration. The solutions of NaCl, KCl, CaCl(2), and D-PBS were found to have no significant effect on T(2) and DQF in cartilage. This study demonstrates the ability to modify the proton exchange in articular cartilage using the solutions of phosphate salts. The ability to modify the proton exchange in articular cartilage can be used to modulate the laminar appearance of articular cartilage in MRI.

  9. Heterotopic autologous chondrocyte transplantation--a realistic approach to support articular cartilage repair?

    PubMed

    El Sayed, Karym; Haisch, Andreas; John, Thilo; Marzahn, Ulrike; Lohan, Anke; Müller, Riccarda D; Kohl, Benjamin; Ertel, Wolfgang; Stoelzel, Katharina; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula

    2010-12-01

    Injured articular cartilage is limited in its capacity to heal. Autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) is a suitable technique for cartilage repair, but it requires articular cartilage biopsies for sufficient autologous chondrocyte expansion in vitro. Hence, ACT is restricted by donor-site morbidity and autologous articular chondrocytes availability. The use of nonarticular heterotopic chondrocytes such as auricular, nasoseptal, or costal chondrocytes for ACT might overcome these limitations: heterotopic sources show lesser donor-site morbidity and a comparable extracellular cartilage matrix synthesis profile to articular cartilage. However, heterotopic (h)ACT poses a challenge. Particular tissue characteristics of heterotopic cartilage, divergent culturing peculiarities of heterotopic chondrocytes, and the advantages and drawbacks related to these diverse cartilage sources were critically discussed. Finally, available in vitro and in vivo experimental (h)ACT approaches were summarized. The quality of the cartilage engineered using heterotopic chondrocytes remains partly controversy due to the divergent methodologies and culture conditions used. While some encouraging in vivo results using (h)ACT have been demonstrated, standardized culturing protocols are strongly required. However, whether heterotopic chondrocytes implanted into joint cartilage defects maintain their particular tissue properties or can be adapted via tissue engineering strategies to fulfill regular articular cartilage functions requires further studies.

  10. Intra-Articular Synovial Sarcomas: Incidence and Differentiating Features from Localized Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis.

    PubMed

    Nordemar, D; Öberg, J; Brosjö, O; Skorpil, M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the incidence of intra-articular synovial sarcomas and investigate if any radiological variables can differentiate them from localized (unifocal) pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) and if multivariate data analysis could be used as a complementary clinical tool. Methods. Magnetic resonance images and radiographs of 7 cases of intra-articular synovial sarcomas and 14 cases of localized PVNS were blindedly reviewed. Variables analyzed were size, extra-articular growth, tumor border, blooming, calcification, contrast media enhancement, effusion, bowl of grapes sign, triple signal intensity sign, synovial low signal intensity, synovitis, age, and gender. Univariate and multivariate data analysis, the method of partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), were used. Register data on all synovial sarcomas were extracted for comparison. Results. The incidence of intra-articular synovial sarcomas was 3%. PLS-DA showed that age, effusion, size, and gender were the most important factors for discrimination between sarcomas and localized PVNS. No sarcomas were misclassified as PVNS with PLS-DA, while some PVNS were misclassified as sarcomas. Conclusions. The most important variables in differentiating intra-articular sarcomas from localized PVNS were age, effusion, size, and gender. Multivariate data analysis can be helpful as additive information to avoid a biopsy, if the tumor is classified as most likely being PVNS.

  11. Can puncture increase the risk of intra-articular adhesion in the temporomandibular joint?

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiu Ming; Cai, Xie Yi; Yang, Chi; Zhang, Shan Yong; Chen, Min Jie; Yun, Bai; Chen, Zhuo Zhi

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to compare the incidence and severity of intra-articular adhesion under arthroscopy between patients with and without a history of joint puncture. Eighty-nine patients with internal derangements of TMJ who underwent arthroscopic disc repositioning and suturing surgery from February 2008 to September 2008 were included in this study. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on whether the patient had undergone joint puncture before surgery or not. The diagnosis of intra-articular adhesion was made according to the manifestation under arthroscopy. Incidence and severity of intra-articular adhesion between these 2 groups was compared. The incidence of intra-articular adhesion in the patients with a history of puncture was 69.23%, which was higher than that in the patients without a history of puncture (24.36%). The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The incidence of severe adhesions in patients with a history of joint puncture was also higher than that in patients without a history of puncture (26.09% vs. 2.56%, P < 0.01). Puncture may increase the risk of intra-articular adhesion in patients with internal derangement.

  12. Polyethylene-glycol-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes for intra-articular delivery to chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Sacchetti, Cristiano; Liu-Bryan, Ru; Magrini, Andrea; Rosato, Nicola; Bottini, Nunzio; Bottini, Massimo

    2014-12-23

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common and debilitating degenerative disease of articular joints for which no disease-modifying medical therapy is currently available. Inefficient delivery of pharmacologic agents into cartilage-resident chondrocytes after systemic administration has been a limitation to the development of anti-OA medications. Direct intra-articular injection enables delivery of high concentrations of agents in close proximity to chondrocytes; however, the efficacy of this approach is limited by the fast clearance of small molecules and biomacromolecules after injection into the synovial cavity. Coupling of pharmacologic agents with drug delivery systems able to enhance their residence time and cartilage penetration can enhance the effectiveness of intra-articularly injected anti-OA medications. Herein we describe an efficient intra-articular delivery nanosystem based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains (PEG-SWCNTs). We show that PEG-SWCNTs are capable to persist in the joint cavity for a prolonged time, enter the cartilage matrix, and deliver gene inhibitors into chondrocytes of both healthy and OA mice. PEG-SWCNT nanoparticles did not elicit systemic or local side effects. Our data suggest that PEG-SWCNTs represent a biocompatible and effective nanocarrier for intra-articular delivery of agents to chondrocytes.

  13. Label-free characterization of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis model mice by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Yusuke; Akehi, Mayu; Kiyomatsu, Hiroshi; Miura, Hiromasa

    2017-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is very common joint disease in the aging population. Main symptom of OA is accompanied by degenerative changes of articular cartilage. Cartilage contains mostly type II collagen and proteoglycans, so it is difficult to access the quality and morphology of cartilage tissue in situ by conventional diagnostic tools (X-ray, MRI and echography) directly or indirectly. Raman spectroscopy is a label-free technique which enables to analyze molecular composition in degenerative cartilage. In this study, we generated an animal OA model surgically induced by knee joint instability, and the femurs were harvested at two weeks after the surgery. We performed Raman spectroscopic analysis for the articular cartilage of distal femurs in OA side and unaffected side in each mouse. In the result, there is no gross findings in the surface of the articular cartilage in OA. On the other hand, Raman spectral data of the articular cartilage showed drastic changes in comparison between OA and control side. The major finding of this study is that the relative intensity of phosphate band (960 cm-1) increases in the degenerative cartilage. This may be the result of exposure of subchondral bone due to thinning of the cartilage layer. In conclusion, Raman spectroscopic technique is sufficient to characterize articular cartilage in OA as a pilot study for Raman application in cartilage degeneration and regeneration using animal models and human subjects.

  14. [Basophilic line of the articular cartilage in normal and various pathological states].

    PubMed

    Gongadze, L R

    1987-04-01

    Epiphyses of long tubular bones in the man and animals of various age, as well as experimental material of the adjuvant arthritis, with special reference to the basal part of the articular cartilage have been studied by means of histological, histochemical and histometrical methods. The structural-chemical organization of the basophilic line (tidemark) of the articular cartilage ensures its barrier role and participation in regulating selective permeability. Reconstruction of the tidemark in the process of physiological ageing and in cases of the articular pathology is aimed to preserve its integrity and in this way a complete differentiation of the noncalcified and calcified structures is secured. Disturbance of the basophilic line results in changes of the articular selective permeability, in invasion of vessels and structural elements of the bone marrow, and in development of profound distrophic and destructive changes of the cartilage--in deforming artrosis. Deflations in the structural-chemical organization of the tidemark indicate certain disturbances in the state of the system articular cartilage--subchondral bone. These data can be of prognostic importance.

  15. [Relation of ultrastructural changes of articular cartilage and the arthroscopic classification in osteoarthritic knee].

    PubMed

    Chai, B F

    1992-01-01

    This paper reported the ultrastructural changes found in the diseased articular cartilages of 43 osteoarthritic knee joints, which were assessed according to the "Arthroscopic classification of the articular cartilage". The electron microscopic findings and the arthroscopic classification of the articular lesions were correlated. The lesioned articular cartilage revealed two categories of pathological changes. 1. The changes on the part of the articular chondrocytes comprised (1) The nucleus showed pyknosis and karyorrhexis. (2) The cytoplasm exhibited fat droplets, glycogen granules, and/or microfilaments. Lysosomes also emerged frequently. The mitochondria swelled and the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum dilated and became vesiculated. At the same time there was detachment of cell processes or of the cytoplasmic membrane. The chondrocyte underwent necrosis, contracted and eventually disintegrated into lipid debris. These changes increased in extent and degree with the lesion and the severity went parallel with the sequence of the "Arthroscopic stage classification". 2. The changes on the part of the matrix included appearance of electron-dense lipid debris and numerous, coarse and banded collagen fibrils. They resided both in the pericellular matrix and in the general matrix. Sometimes fibroblast-like cells made their appearance in the matrix. These cells also revealed degenerative changes. All these changes went parallel with the sequence of the "Arthroscopic grade classification".

  16. Intra-Articular Synovial Sarcomas: Incidence and Differentiating Features from Localized Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis

    PubMed Central

    Nordemar, D.; Öberg, J.; Brosjö, O.; Skorpil, M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the incidence of intra-articular synovial sarcomas and investigate if any radiological variables can differentiate them from localized (unifocal) pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) and if multivariate data analysis could be used as a complementary clinical tool. Methods. Magnetic resonance images and radiographs of 7 cases of intra-articular synovial sarcomas and 14 cases of localized PVNS were blindedly reviewed. Variables analyzed were size, extra-articular growth, tumor border, blooming, calcification, contrast media enhancement, effusion, bowl of grapes sign, triple signal intensity sign, synovial low signal intensity, synovitis, age, and gender. Univariate and multivariate data analysis, the method of partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), were used. Register data on all synovial sarcomas were extracted for comparison. Results. The incidence of intra-articular synovial sarcomas was 3%. PLS-DA showed that age, effusion, size, and gender were the most important factors for discrimination between sarcomas and localized PVNS. No sarcomas were misclassified as PVNS with PLS-DA, while some PVNS were misclassified as sarcomas. Conclusions. The most important variables in differentiating intra-articular sarcomas from localized PVNS were age, effusion, size, and gender. Multivariate data analysis can be helpful as additive information to avoid a biopsy, if the tumor is classified as most likely being PVNS. PMID:26819567

  17. Pregnane X Receptor Knockout Mice Display Aging-Dependent Wearing of Articular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Kotaro; Casey, Stephanie C.; Urano, Tomohiko; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Blumberg, Bruce; Inoue, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) and its murine ortholog, pregnane X receptor (PXR), are nuclear receptors that are expressed at high levels in the liver and the intestine where they function as xenobiotic sensors that induce expression of genes involved in detoxification and drug excretion. Recent evidence showed that SXR and PXR are also expressed in bone tissue where they mediate bone metabolism. Here we report that systemic deletion of PXR results in aging-dependent wearing of articular cartilage of knee joints. Histomorphometrical analysis showed remarkable reduction of width and an enlarged gap between femoral and tibial articular cartilage in PXR knockout mice. We hypothesized that genes induced by SXR in chondrocytes have a protective effect on articular cartilage and identified Fam20a (family with sequence similarity 20a) as an SXR-dependent gene induced by the known SXR ligands, rifampicin and vitamin K2. Lastly, we demonstrated the biological significance of Fam20a expression in chondrocytes by evaluating osteoarthritis-related gene expression of primary articular chondrocytes. Consistent with epidemiological findings, our results indicate that SXR/PXR protects against aging-dependent wearing of articular cartilage and that ligands for SXR/PXR have potential role in preventing osteoarthritis caused by aging. PMID:25749104

  18. The effect of intra-articular irrigation injection therapy on osteoarthrosis of the temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Gu, Z Y; Wu, H L; Wu, Q L; Cao, Z Q; Zhang, Y X

    1998-12-01

    To investigate the effect of intra-articular irrigation-injection therapy in treating osteoarthrosis of the temporomandibular joint. Thirty-seven patients (the test group) received intra-articular irrigation injection; 26 patients (the control group) received intra-articular injection of steroid. The synovial fluid, aspirated from five subjects of the test group before and after the therapy, was assayed to determine the tumor necrosis factor. Clinical evaluations were performed 3 months after the therapy. Thirteen subjects in the test group fell into the "excellent" category, 19 into the "good" category, and five into the "no effect" category; in the control group, eight subjects fell into the "excellent" category; nine into the "good" category, and nine into the "no effect" category. The category difference in total effectiveness between the test group and the control group is statistically significant (X2 = 3.9340 P < 0.05). TNF in synovial fluid also showed statistically significant differences before and after treatment (T = 2.8825, P < 0.05). Intra-articular irrigation injection is an effective therapy method for treating osteoarthrosis and is superior to intra-articular injection of steroid.

  19. Osteoarthritis Prevention Through Meniscal Regeneration Induced by Intra-Articular Injection of Meniscus Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Weiliang; Chen, Jialin; Zhu, Ting; Yin, Zi; Chen, Xiao; Chen, Longkun; Fang, Zhi; Heng, Boon Chin; Ji, Junfeng

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Meniscus injury is frequently encountered in clinical practice. Current surgical therapy involving partial or complete meniscectomy relieves pain in the short-term but often leads to osteoarthritis (OA) in the long-term. Here, this study aimed to identify and characterize a novel population of meniscus-derived stem cells (MeSCs) and develop a new strategy of articular cartilage protection by intra-articular injection of these cells. The “stemness” and immune properties of MeSCs were investigated in vitro, while the efficacy of intra-articular injection of MeSCs for meniscus regeneration and OA prevention were investigated in vivo at 4, 8, and 12 weeks postsurgery. MeSCs displayed typical stem cell characteristics such as low immunogenicity and even possessed immunosuppressive function. In a rabbit meniscus injury model, transplantation of allogenous MeSCs did not elicit immunological rejection, but promoted neo-tissue formation with better-defined shape and more matured extracellular matrix. In a rabbit experimental OA model, transplantation of MeSCs further protected joint surface cartilage and maintained joint space at 12 weeks postsurgery, whereas extensive joint surface irregularities and joint space stenosis were observed in the control group. This study thus evoked a new strategy for articular cartilage protection and meniscus regeneration by intra-articular injection of MeSCs for patients undergoing meniscectomy. PMID:23461527

  20. Atomic force microscope investigation of the boundary-lubricant layer in articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Chan, S M T; Neu, C P; Duraine, G; Komvopoulos, K; Reddi, A H

    2010-07-01

    To determine the roles of superficial zone protein (SZP), hyaluronan (HA), and surface-active phospholipids (SAPL) in boundary lubrication of articular cartilage through systematic enzyme digestion using trypsin, hyaluronidase, and phospolipase-C (PLC) surface treatments. The friction coefficient of articular cartilage surfaces was measured with an atomic force microscope (AFM) before and after enzyme digestion. Surface roughness, adhesion, and stiffness of the articular surface were also measured to determine the mechanism of friction in the boundary lubrication regime. Histology and transmission electron microscopy were used to visualize the surface changes of treatment groups that showed significant friction changes after enzyme digestion. A significant increase in the friction coefficient of both load-bearing and non load-bearing regions of the joint was observed after proteolysis by trypsin. Treatment with trypsin, hyaluronidase, or PLC did not affect the surface roughness. However, trypsin treatment decreased the adhesion significantly. Results indicate that the protein component at the articular cartilage surface is the main boundary lubricant, with SZP being a primary candidate. The prevailing nanoscale deformation processes are likely plastic and/or viscoelastic in nature, suggesting that plowing is the dominant friction mechanism. The findings of this study indicate that SZP plays an intrinsic and critical role in boundary lubrication at the articular surface of cartilage, whereas the effects of HA and SAPL on the tribological behavior are marginal. Copyright 2010 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of computer aided detection (CAD) integration: case study with meniscal and articular cartilage CAD applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safdar, Nabile; Ramakrishna, Bharath; Saiprasad, Ganesh; Siddiqui, Khan; Siegel, Eliot

    2008-03-01

    Knee-related injuries involving the meniscal or articular cartilage are common and require accurate diagnosis and surgical intervention when appropriate. With proper techniques and experience, confidence in detection of meniscal tears and articular cartilage abnormalities can be quite high. However, for radiologists without musculoskeletal training, diagnosis of such abnormalities can be challenging. In this paper, the potential of improving diagnosis through integration of computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithms for automatic detection of meniscal tears and articular cartilage injuries of the knees is studied. An integrated approach in which the results of algorithms evaluating either meniscal tears or articular cartilage injuries provide feedback to each other is believed to improve the diagnostic accuracy of the individual CAD algorithms due to the known association between abnormalities in these distinct anatomic structures. The correlation between meniscal tears and articular cartilage injuries is exploited to improve the final diagnostic results of the individual algorithms. Preliminary results from the integrated application are encouraging and more comprehensive tests are being planned.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Silk Fibroin Microparticles for Intra-Articular Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Mwangi, Timothy K.; Bowles, Robby D.; Tainter, David M.; Bell, Richard D.; Kaplan, David L.; Setton, Lori A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the utility of silk fibroin (SF) microparticles as sustained release vehicles for intra-articular delivery. Design SF formulations were varied to generate microparticle drug carriers that were characterized in vitro for their physical properties, release kinetics for a conjugated fluorophore (Cy7), and in vivo for intra-articular retention time using live-animal, fluorescence in vivo imaging. Results SF microparticle carriers were spherical in shape and ranged from 598 nm to 21.5 μm in diameter. SF microparticles provided for sustained release of Cy7 in vitro, with only 10% of the initial load released over 7 days. Upon intra-articular injection in rat knee joints, the SF microparticles were associated with an intra-articular fluorescence decay half-life of 43.3 hours, greatly increasing the joint residence over that for an equivalent concentration of SF-Cy7 in solution form. The SF microparticles also increase the localization of dye within the joint cavity as determined by image analysis of fluorescent gradients, significantly reducing distribution of the Cy7 to neighboring tissue as compared to SF-Cy7 in free solution. Conclusion Silk microparticles act to provide for localized and sustained delivery of loaded small molecules following intra-articular injection, and may be an attractive strategy for delivering small molecule drugs for the treatment of arthritis. PMID:25724134

  3. Relationship between synovial fluid biomarkers of articular cartilage metabolism and the patient's perspective of outcome depends on the severity of articular cartilage damage following ACL trauma.

    PubMed

    Wasilko, Scott M; Tourville, Timothy W; DeSarno, Michael J; Slauterbeck, James R; Johnson, Robert J; Struglics, André; Beynnon, Bruce D

    2016-05-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) trauma often occurs in combination with injury to the articular cartilage of the knee, this can result in earlier radiographic evidence of post traumatic osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee compared to the contralateral, ACL intact knee; however, the biomechanical and biological mechanisms associated with the onset and progression of this disease are not understood. We sought to gain insight into the mechanisms by determining the relationship between articular cartilage injury associated with ACL trauma and the expression of synovial fluid biomarkers of articular cartilage metabolism, and to evaluate the relationship between these biomarkers and the patient's perspective of the outcomes. Synovial fluid samples were acquired from 39 ACL injured subjects at an average of 10 weeks after injury, and 32 control subjects with normal knees (documented with clinical exam and MRI assessment). Subjects in the ACL-injured group were classified as low-risk for future OA if they displayed an International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) Grade 2 articular cartilage lesion or less and high-risk for future OA if they had an ICRS Grade 3A articular cartilage lesion. The patient's perspective of the injury was evaluated with the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcomes Score (KOOS). There were no significant differences in mean concentrations of the markers of type II collagen metabolism (CPII, C2C, and C1,2C) or the aggrecan breakdown Alanine-Arginine-Glycine-Serine (ARGS) -fragment between control subjects and the subjects in the low- and high-risk groups (p-value range: 0.80-0.43). Associations between ARGS-aggrecan concentration and KOOS subscales of symptoms and pain were significantly different between the low- and high-risk groups (p = 0.03 and p = 0.01, respectively). Likewise, there was strong evidence in support of an association between the markers of type II collagen metabolism (C1,2C and CPII concentrations) and the KOOS subscale of

  4. Comparison of analgesic effects of intra-articular tenoxicam and morphine in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Guler, Gulen; Karaoglu, Sinan; Velibasoglu, Hediye; Ramazanogullari, Nesrin; Boyaci, Adem

    2002-07-01

    This study compared the analgesic effect of intra-articular injection of tenoxicam with that of morphine on postoperative pain after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Forty-two patients undergoing arthroscopically ACL reconstructions using hamstring tendons underwent the same anesthetic protocol. The patients were randomized to receive 25 ml normal saline, 20 mg tenoxicam in 25 ml normal saline, or 2 mg morphine in 25 ml normal saline. Postoperative pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale and measuring analgesic requirements. We found both that both intra-articular tenoxicam and intra-articular morphine provided better analgesia than that in the control group. Although pain scores were similar between tenoxicam and morphine groups 30 min postoperative, the analgesic requirements in with tenoxicam were significantly lower than those with morphine group 3-6 h postoperatively.

  5. Grossly apparent cartilage erosion of the patellar articular surface in dogs with congenital medial patellar luxation.

    PubMed

    Daems, R; Janssens, L A; Béosier, Y M

    2009-01-01

    One hundred and forty-five stifles of client-owned dogs that underwent corrective surgery for congenital medial patellar luxation were inspected for cartilage erosion on the articular surface of the patella. The lesions were mapped in surface percentage ranges of 20% and by location. Two-thirds of the patellae had cartilage erosion. Cartilage erosion varied between 0 and 100% of the total patellar articular surface and was localised mainly on the medial and distal side of the patella. Dogs with Grade IV patellar luxations and heavier dogs were more affected. The majority of dogs in our study with congenital medial patellar luxation had grossly apparent cartilage erosion on the articular surface of the patella, which may help to explain why certain patients do not function well clinically after technically successful corrective surgery.

  6. Extra-Articular Lateral Tenodesis for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Deficient Knee: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    García-Germán, Diego; Menéndez, Pablo; de la Cuadra, Pablo; Rodríguez-Arozena, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    We present the case of an extra-articular lateral tenodesis for an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficient knee. A 46-year-old male patient sustained an ACL graft rupture after a motorcycle accident. He complained of rotational instability and giving-way episodes. His previous graft was fixed by an intra-articular femoral staple that was not possible to remove at the time of the ACL revision. A modified Lemaire procedure was then performed. He gained rotational stability and was able to resume his sporting activities. We believe that isolated extra-articular reconstructions may still have a role in selected indications including moderate-demand patients complaining of rotational instability after ACL graft failure. PMID:24369517

  7. What can biophotonics tell us about the 3D microstructure of articular cartilage?

    PubMed

    Matcher, Stephen J

    2015-02-01

    Connective tissues such as articular cartilage have been the subject of study using novel optical techniques almost since the invention of polarized light microscopy (PLM). Early studies of polarized light micrographs were the main evidential basis for the establishment of quantitative models of articular cartilage collagen structure by Benninghoff and others. Even now, state of the art optical techniques including quantitative polarized light microscopy (qPLM), optical coherence tomography (OCT), polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT), second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy, Raman and optical hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence imaging are providing new insights into articular cartilage structure from the nanoscale through to the mesoscale. New insights are promised by emerging modalities such as optical elastography. This short review highlights some key recent results from modern optical techniques.

  8. Biofunctional polymer nanoparticles for intra-articular targeting and retention in cartilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothenfluh, Dominique A.; Bermudez, Harry; O'Neil, Conlin P.; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.

    2008-03-01

    The extracellular matrix of dense, avascular tissues presents a barrier to entry for polymer-based therapeutics, such as drugs encapsulated within polymeric particles. Here, we present an approach by which polymer nanoparticles, sufficiently small to enter the matrix of the targeted tissue, here articular cartilage, are further modified with a biomolecular ligand for matrix binding. This combination of ultrasmall size and biomolecular binding converts the matrix from a barrier into a reservoir, resisting rapid release of the nanoparticles and clearance from the tissue site. Phage display of a peptide library was used to discover appropriate targeting ligands by biopanning on denuded cartilage. The ligand WYRGRL was selected in 94 of 96 clones sequenced after five rounds of biopanning and was demonstrated to bind to collagen II α1. Peptide-functionalized nanoparticles targeted articular cartilage up to 72-fold more than nanoparticles displaying a scrambled peptide sequence following intra-articular injection in the mouse.

  9. Investigation of polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography towards the study of microstructure of articular cartilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasaragod, Deepa; Lu, Zenghai; Le Maitre, Christine; Wilkinson, J. Mark; Matcher, Stephen

    2013-03-01

    This paper highlights the extended Jones matrix calculus based multi-angle study carried out to understand the depth dependent structural orientation of the collagen fibers in articular cartilage using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). A 3D lamellar model for the collagen fiber orientation, with a quadratic profile for the arching of the collagen fibers in transitional zone which points towards an ordered arrangement of fibers in that zone is the basis of the organization architecture of collagen fibers in articular cartilage. Experimental data for both ex-vivo bovine fetlock and human patellar cartilage samples are compared with theoretical predictions, with a good quantitative agreement for bovine and a reasonable qualitative agreement for human articular cartilage samples being obtained

  10. Articular cartilage defects in the knee--basics, therapies and results.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Jürgen; Janssen, Pia; Gaissmaier, Christoph; Schewe, Bernhard; Weise, Kuno

    2008-04-01

    Full-thickness defects of the articular cartilage in the knee joint have lower regenerative properties than chondral lesions of the ankle. In order to avoid early osteoarthritis, symptomatic articular cartilage defects in younger patients should undergo biological reconstruction as soon as possible. Various surgical procedures are available to biologically resurface the articular joint line. Numerous animal experiments and clinical studies have shown that early biological reconstruction of circumscribed cartilage defects in the knee is superior to conservative or delayed surgical treatment. This superiority refers not only to defect healing but also to the elimination of changes following secondary osteoarthritis. The various surgical procedures can be differentiated by the range of indications and the final outcome. Additional malalignment, meniscus tears and/or ligament instabilities should be treated simultaneously with the cartilage resurfacing. The mid- and long-term results of the various current techniques are promising, but further modifications and improvements are needed.

  11. Quantitative characterization of articular cartilage using Mueller matrix imaging and multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellingsen, Pa˚L. Gunnar; Lilledahl, Magnus Borstad; Aas, Lars Martin Sandvik; Davies, Catharina De Lange; Kildemo, Morten

    2011-11-01

    The collagen meshwork in articular cartilage of chicken knee is characterized using Mueller matrix imaging and multiphoton microscopy. Direction and degree of dispersion of the collagen fibers in the superficial layer are found using a Fourier transform image-analysis technique of the second-harmonic generated image. Mueller matrix images are used to acquire structural data from the intermediate layer of articular cartilage where the collagen fibers are too small to be resolved by optical microscopy, providing a powerful multimodal measurement technique. Furthermore, we show that Mueller matrix imaging provides more information about the tissue compared to standard polarization microscopy. The combination of these techniques can find use in improved diagnosis of diseases in articular cartilage, improved histopathology, and additional information for accurate biomechanical modeling of cartilage.

  12. Irrigating solutions used in arthroscopy and their effect on articular cartilage. An in vivo study

    SciTech Connect

    Arciero, R.A.; Little, J.S.; Liebenberg, S.P.; Parr, T.J.

    1986-11-01

    The effect of arthroscopic irrigating solutions on articular cartilage was determined by the use of an animal model. Rabbit knee joints were irrigated continuously for two hours with either normal saline, Ringer's lactate, or sterile water. Subsequently, the rate of incorporation of /sup 35/SO/sub 4/ by articular cartilage was used to measure the effect of the irrigants on chondrocyte metabolism. In addition, the irrigated groups were compared to an unirrigated control group. There was no significant difference in /sup 35/SO/sub 4/ incorporation between the groups. This suggested that none of the irrigating solutions used in this study adversely affected articular cartilage function. On the basis of these findings, it appears that normal saline, Ringer's lactate, and sterile water can be safely used as irrigating solutions during most arthroscopic procedures.

  13. The Biological Effects of Sex Hormones on Rabbit Articular Chondrocytes from Different Genders

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yen Ting

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the biological effects of sex hormones (17β-estradiol and testosterone) on rabbit articular chondrocytes from different genders. We cultured primary rabbit articular chondrocytes from both genders with varying concentration of sex hormones. We evaluate cell proliferation and biochemical functions by MTT and GAG assay. The chondrocyte function and phenotypes were analyzed by mRNA level using RT-PCR. Immunocytochemical staining was also used to evaluate the generation of collagen-II. This study demonstrated that 17β-estradiol had greater positive regulation on the biological function and gene expressions of articular chondrocytes than testosterone, with the optimal concentrations of 10−6 and 10−7 M, particularly for female chondrocytes. PMID:24995337

  14. The biological effects of sex hormones on rabbit articular chondrocytes from different genders.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shwu Jen; Kuo, Shyh Ming; Lin, Yen Ting; Yang, Shan-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the biological effects of sex hormones (17β-estradiol and testosterone) on rabbit articular chondrocytes from different genders. We cultured primary rabbit articular chondrocytes from both genders with varying concentration of sex hormones. We evaluate cell proliferation and biochemical functions by MTT and GAG assay. The chondrocyte function and phenotypes were analyzed by mRNA level using RT-PCR. Immunocytochemical staining was also used to evaluate the generation of collagen-II. This study demonstrated that 17β-estradiol had greater positive regulation on the biological function and gene expressions of articular chondrocytes than testosterone, with the optimal concentrations of 10(-6) and 10(-7) M, particularly for female chondrocytes.

  15. What can biophotonics tell us about the 3D microstructure of articular cartilage?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Connective tissues such as articular cartilage have been the subject of study using novel optical techniques almost since the invention of polarized light microscopy (PLM). Early studies of polarized light micrographs were the main evidential basis for the establishment of quantitative models of articular cartilage collagen structure by Benninghoff and others. Even now, state of the art optical techniques including quantitative polarized light microscopy (qPLM), optical coherence tomography (OCT), polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT), second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy, Raman and optical hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence imaging are providing new insights into articular cartilage structure from the nanoscale through to the mesoscale. New insights are promised by emerging modalities such as optical elastography. This short review highlights some key recent results from modern optical techniques. PMID:25694964

  16. The protective effect of meniscus allograft transplantation on articular cartilage: a systematic review of animal studies.

    PubMed

    Rongen, J J; Hannink, G; van Tienen, T G; van Luijk, J; Hooijmans, C R

    2015-08-01

    Despite widespread reporting on clinical results, the effect of meniscus allograft transplantation on the development of osteoarthritis is still unclear. The aim of this study was to systematically review all studies on the effect of meniscus allograft transplantation on articular cartilage in animals. Pubmed and Embase were searched for original articles concerning the effect of meniscus allograft transplantation on articular cartilage compared with both its positive (meniscectomy) and negative (either sham or non-operated) control in healthy animals. Outcome measures related to assessment of damage to articular cartilage were divided in five principal outcome categories. Standardized mean differences (SMD) were calculated and pooled to obtain an overall SMD and 95% confidence interval. 17 articles were identified, representing 14 original animal cohorts with an average timing of data collection of 24 weeks [range 4 weeks; 30 months]. Compared to a negative control, meniscus allograft transplantation caused gross macroscopic (1.45 [0.95; 1.95]), histological (3.43 [2.25; 4.61]) damage to articular cartilage, and osteoarthritic changes on radiographs (3.12 [1.42; 4.82]). Moreover, results on histomorphometrics and cartilage biomechanics are supportive of this detrimental effect on cartilage. On the other hand, meniscus allograft transplantation caused significantly less gross macroscopic (-1.19 [-1.84; -0.54]) and histological (-1.70 [-2.67; -0.74]) damage to articular cartilage when compared to meniscectomy. However, there was no difference in osteoarthritic changes on plain radiographs (0.04 [-0.48; 0.57]), and results on histomorphometrics and biomechanics did neither show a difference in effect between meniscus allograft transplantation and meniscectomy. In conclusion, although meniscus allograft transplantation does not protect articular cartilage from damage, it reduces the extent of it when compared with meniscectomy.

  17. Comparison of nonlinear mechanical properties of bovine articular cartilage and meniscus.

    PubMed

    Danso, E K; Honkanen, J T J; Saarakkala, S; Korhonen, R K

    2014-01-03

    Nonlinear, linear and failure properties of articular cartilage and meniscus in opposing contact surfaces are poorly known in tension. Relationships between the tensile properties of articular cartilage and meniscus in contact with each other within knee joints are also not known. In the present study, rectangular samples were prepared from the superficial lateral femoral condyle cartilage and lateral meniscus of bovine knee joints. Tensile tests were carried out with a loading rate of 5mm/min until the tissue rupture. Nonlinear properties of the toe region, linear properties in larger strains, and failure properties of both tissues were analysed. The strain-dependent tensile modulus of the toe region, Young's modulus of the linear region, ultimate tensile stress and toughness were on average 98.2, 8.3, 4.0 and 1.9 times greater (p<0.05) for meniscus than for articular cartilage. In contrast, the toe region strain, yield strain and failure strain were on average 9.4, 3.1 and 2.3 times greater (p<0.05) for cartilage than for meniscus. There was a significant negative correlation between the strain-dependent tensile moduli of meniscus and articular cartilage samples within the same joints (r=-0.690, p=0.014). In conclusion, the meniscus possesses higher nonlinear and linear elastic stiffness and energy absorption capability before rupture than contacting articular cartilage, while cartilage has longer nonlinear region and can withstand greater strains before failure. These findings point out different load carrying demands that both articular cartilage and meniscus have to fulfil during normal physiological loading activities of knee joints.

  18. Morphological, genetic and phenotypic comparison between human articular chondrocytes and cultured chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Mata-Miranda, Mónica Maribel; Martinez-Martinez, Claudia María; Noriega-Gonzalez, Jesús Emmanuel; Paredes-Gonzalez, Luis Enrique; Vázquez-Zapién, Gustavo Jesús

    2016-08-01

    Articular cartilage is an avascular and aneural tissue with limited capacity for regeneration. On large articular lesions, it is recommended to use regenerative medicine strategies, like autologous chondrocyte implantation. There is a concern about morphological changes that chondrocytes suffer once they have been isolated and cultured. Due to the fact that there is little evidence that compares articular cartilage chondrocytes with cultured chondrocytes, in this research we proposed to obtain chondrocytes from human articular cartilage, compare them with themselves once they have been cultured and characterize them through genetic, phenotypic and morphological analysis. Knee articular cartilage samples of 10 mm were obtained, and each sample was divided into two fragments; a portion was used to determine gene expression, and from the other portion, chondrocytes were obtained by enzymatic disaggregation, in order to be cultured and expanded in vitro. Subsequently, morphological, genetic and phenotypic characteristics were compared between in situ (articular cartilage) and cultured chondrocytes. Obtained cultured chondrocytes were rounded in shape, possessing a large nucleus with condensed chromatin and a clear cytoplasm; histological appearance was quite similar to typical chondrocyte. The expression levels of COL2A1 and COL10A1 genes were higher in cultured chondrocytes than in situ chondrocytes; moreover, the expression of COL1A1 was almost undetectable on cultured chondrocytes; likewise, COL2 and SOX9 proteins were detected by immunofluorescence. We concluded that chondrocytes derived from adult human cartilage cultured for 21 days do not tend to dedifferentiate, maintaining their capacity to produce matrix and also retaining their synthesis capacity and morphology.

  19. Dual effect of nitric oxide in articular inflammatory pain in zymosan-induced arthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    da S Rocha, José C; Peixoto, Magno E B; Jancar, Sônia; de Q Cunha, Fernando; de A Ribeiro, Ronaldo; da Rocha, Francisco A C

    2002-06-01

    The contribution of nitric oxide (NO) to articular pain in arthritis induced by zymosan (1 mg, intra articular) in rats was assessed by measuring articular incapacitation (AI). Systemic treatment with the non-selective NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NAME (10 - 100 mg kg(-1) i.p.) or with the selective iNOS inhibitors aminoguanidine (AG; 10 - 100 mg kg(-1) i.p.) or 1400W (0.5 - 1 mg kg(-1) s.c.) inhibited the AI induced by injection of zymosan 30 min later. Local (intra articular) treatment with the NOS inhibitors (L-NAME or AG, 0.1 - 1 micromol; 1400W, 0.01 (micromol) 30 min before zymosan also inhibited the AI. Systemic or local treatment with the NOS inhibitors (L-NAME; AG, 100 mg kg(-1) i.p. or 0.1 micromol joint(-1); 1400W, 1 mg kg(-1) s.c. or 0.01 micromol joint(-1)), 2 h after zymosan did not affect the subsequent AI. Local treatment with the NO donors SNP or SIN-1, 2 h after zymosan did inhibit AI. L-NAME and AG, given i.p. inhibited nitrite but not prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) levels in the joints. L-NAME (100 mg kg(-1)) but not AG (100 mg kg(-1)) increased mean arterial blood pressure. Neither L-NAME, AG nor the NO donor SIN-1 altered articular oedema induced by zymosan. In conclusion, inhibitors of iNOS decrease pain in zymosan arthritis only when given before the zymosan. This was not due to inhibition of articular PGE(2) release or oedema. NO donors also promoted antinociception in zymosan arthritis without affecting oedema.

  20. Treatment of extra-articular proximal and middle phalangeal fractures of the hand: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Verver, D; Timmermans, L; Klaassen, R A; van der Vlies, C H; Vos, D I; Schep, N W L

    2017-03-04

    The aim of the study was to systematically review the patient reported and functional outcomes of treatment for extra-articular proximal or middle phalangeal fractures of the hand in order to determine the best treatment options. The review methodology was registered with PROSPERO. A systematic literature search was conducted in electronic bibliographic databases. Two independent reviewers performed screening and data extraction. The evaluation of quality of the included studies was performed using the Structured Effectiveness Quality Evaluation scale. The initial search yielded 2354 studies. The full text manuscripts of 79 studies were evaluated of which 16 studies met the inclusion criteria. In total, 513 extra-articular proximal and middle phalangeal fractures of the hand were included of which 118 (23%) were treated non-operatively, 188 (37%) were treated by closed reduction internal fixation (CRIF) and 207 (40%) by open reduction internal fixation. It can be recommended that closed displaced extra-articular phalangeal fractures can be treated non-operatively, even fractures with an oblique or complex pattern, provided that closed reduction is possible and maintained. Conservative treatment is preferably performed with a cast/brace allowing free mobilization of the wrist. No definite conclusion could be drawn upon whether closed reduction with extra-articular K-wire pinning or transarticular pinning is superior; however, it might be suggested that extra-articular K-wire pinning is favoured. When open reduction is necessary for oblique or spiral extra-articular fractures, lag screw fixation is preferable to plate and screw fixation. But, similar recovery and functional results are achieved with transversally inserted K-wires compared to lag screw fixation.

  1. The role of intra-articular hyaluronan (Sinovial) in the treatment of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Gigante, Antonio; Callegari, Leonardo

    2011-04-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) leads to significant pain and disability. For pain relief, a tailored approach using non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapies is recommended. If adequate symptom relief is not achieved with acetaminophen, other pharmacological options include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), topical analgesics, intra-articular corticosteroids and intra-articular hyaluronic acid (HA) viscosupplementation. Most of these therapies generally do not improve functional ability or quality of life or are associated with tolerability concerns. In OA patients, concentration and molecular weight (MW) of HA are reduced, diminishing elastoviscosity of the synovial fluid, joint lubrication and shock absorbancy, and possibly anti-inflammatory, analgesic and chondroprotective effects. In knee OA, viscosupplementation with 3-5 weekly intra-articular HA injections diminishes pain and improves disability, generally within 1 week and for up to 3-6 months and is well tolerated. HAs have comparable efficacy as NSAIDs, with less gastrointestinal adverse events, and compared with intra-articular corticosteroids, benefits last generally longer. High MW hylans provide comparable benefits versus HA, albeit with an increased risk of immunogenic adverse events. In mild-to-moderate hip OA, intra-articular injection of HA moderately improved pain and function, generally for up to 3 months with no serious adverse events. Efficacy in other joints is being evaluated. Viscosupplementation with intra-articular Sinovial(®) (other trade names: Yaral(®), Intragel(®)) injections (an HA of low-medium MW) relieves pain and improves function in OA of the knee, and other joints including the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb and the shoulder. HA viscosupplementation, including use of Sinovial(®), is a valuable treatment approach for OA patients, if other therapies are contraindicated or have failed.

  2. Movement discrimination after intra‐articular local anaesthetic of the ankle joint

    PubMed Central

    Down, Stuart; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger; Thomson, Malcolm

    2007-01-01

    Background The effect on clinical safety of dampening articular mechanoreceptor feedback at the ankle is unknown. Injection of the ankle joint for pain control may result in such dampening. Athletes receiving intra‐articular local anaesthetic may therefore be at increased risk of sustaining ankle injuries, which are a common reason for missed sporting participation. Objective To determine the effect of intra‐articular local anaesthetic on movement discrimination at the ankle joint. Design Prospective, randomised, double‐blinded, placebo‐controlled, cross‐over trial. Setting Australian Institute of Sport Medical Centre, Canberra, Australia. Patients Twenty two healthy subjects (44 ankles) aged 18–26 were recruited for the three visits of the study. Interventions Subjects were tested for their initial movement discrimination scores using the active movement extent discrimination apparatus (AMEDA). They then received ultrasound‐guided intra‐articular injections of local anaesthetic (2% lignocaine hydrochloride) or normal saline, on two separate later occasions, before further AMEDA assessment. Main outcome measures Change in movement discrimination scores after intra‐articular injection of local anaesthetic or saline. Results Movement discrimination scores were not significantly different from control ankles after injection of either local anaesthetic or saline into the ankle joint. Conclusions The intra‐articular injection of neither 2 ml lignocaine nor an equivalent amount of normal saline resulted in significant effects on movement discrimination at the ankle joint. These results suggest that injections of local anaesthetic into the ankle joint are unlikely to significantly affect proprioception and thereby increase injury risk. PMID:17341587

  3. [Arthrocentesis of the temporomandibular joint and intra-articular injections : An update].

    PubMed

    Marty, P; Louvrier, A; Weber, E; Dubreuil, P-A; Chatelain, B; Meyer, C

    2016-09-01

    Arthocentesis of the temporomandibular joint combined with intra-articular washout and, more recently, intra-articular injection of pharmacological agents has been developed from the 1990s and is nowadays extensively in use for the treatment of temporomandibular dysfunctions (TMDs). The goal of our work was to answer 3 questions: 1. Is intra-articular washout effective for the treatment of TMDs ? 2. What kind of pharmacological agents may nowadays be injected in addition to washout and are these injections useful ? 3. What is the place of these treatments in the treatment strategies of TMDs ? A bibliographic research has been carried out in the PubMed database using following keywords arthrocentesis, temporomandibular joint. The 27 articles published between 1991 and 2016, indicating patient's inclusion criterions and objectively evaluating the clinical results (mouth opening, intra-articular noises, pain) were selected. Pharmacological agents were noticed when used. 1. All authors concluded to the efficacy of intra-articular washout. No prognostic factor for arthrocentesis efficacy could be identified. 2. Main pharmacological agents used were steroids, hyaluronic acid, morphine-based drugs and platelet rich plasma. Superiority of ith-injection protocols failed to win unanimous support. All authors who compared with- and without-injection protocols concluded to the superiority of with-injection protocols, whatever the agent. Numerous studies have proven the efficacy of intra-articular washout for the treatment of TMDs resistant to noninvasive treatments. The advantage of any kind of pharmacological agent is not clear. Mechanisms of action are not all elucidated. No pharmacological agent showed any superiority over another. Study methodologies are often defective: imprecise inclusion criterions, short follow-up, confounding variables not taken into account, few comparison between pharmacological agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights

  4. Indicators of Walking Speed in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Relative Influence of Articular, Psychosocial, and Body Composition Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Lusa, Amanda L; Amigues, Isabelle; Kramer, Henry R; Dam, Thuy-Tien; Giles, Jon T

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the contributions from and interactions between articular swelling and damage, psychosocial factors, and body composition characteristics on walking speed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods RA patients underwent the timed 400 meter long-corridor walk. Demographics, self-reported levels of depressive symptoms and fatigue, RA characteristics, and body composition [using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and abdominal and thigh computed tomography (CT)] were assessed and their associations with walking speed explored. Results A total of 132 RA patients had data for the 400 meter walk, among whom 107 (81%) completed the full 400 meters. Significant multivariable indicators of slower walking speed were older age, higher depression scores, higher reported pain and fatigue, higher swollen and replaced joint counts, higher cumulative prednisone exposure, non-treatment with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and worse body composition. These features accounted for 60% of the modeled variability in walking speed. Among specific articular features, slower walking speed was primarily correlated with large/medium lower-extremity joint involvement. However, these articular features accounted for only 21% of the explainable variability in walking speed. Having any relevant articular characteristics was associated with a 20% lower walking speed among those with worse body composition (p<0.001) compared with only a 6% lower speed among those with better body composition (p-value for interaction=0.010). Conclusions Psychosocial factors and body composition are potentially reversible contributors to walking speed in RA. Relative to articular disease activity and damage, non-articular indicators were collectively more potent indicators of an individual's mobility limitations. PMID:25155859

  5. Efficacy and Treatment Response of Intra-articular Corticosteroid Injections in Patients With Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Matzkin, Elizabeth G; Curry, Emily J; Kong, Qingwu; Rogers, Miranda J; Henry, Michael; Smith, Eric L

    2017-10-01

    Intra-articular corticosteroid injections are often used for short-term pain relief in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). This study investigates the efficacy of intra-articular corticosteroid injections in patients with symptomatic knee OA and factors that affect treatment response. This prospective, multicentered cohort study had 100 participants with radiographic evidence of knee OA enrolled. Participants received one corticosteroid injection into the affected knee and were evaluated before the injection (baseline) and at 3 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after the injection. Participants' Visual Numeric Scale and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) scores improved at all time points except for the Visual Numeric Scale score at 6 months, compared with baseline scores (P < 0.001). Participants with Kellgren-Lawrence grade 1 or 2 OA saw clinical improvement in the WOMAC scores at all time points, compared with the baseline score (P < 0.01). Compared with all other subgroups, obese patients with Kellgren-Lawrence grade 3 or 4 OA had significantly worse WOMAC scores at baseline, 6 weeks, and 3 months (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively). Our findings validate previously established guidelines for nonsurgical management of knee OA and suggest that intra-articular corticosteroid injections may be an acceptable short-term management option in patients unwilling or unable to undergo surgical treatment. Obesity and OA severity affect the efficacy of intra-articular corticosteroid injections. Patients receiving intra-articular corticosteroid injections had improved pain and function. Clinicians should expect less improvement in patients with obesity and/or advanced arthritis. Clinical benefits of intra-articular injections in these patients are less predictable.

  6. Alterations in periarticular bone and cross talk between subchondral bone and articular cartilage in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Goldring, Steven R

    2012-08-01

    The articular cartilage and the subchondral bone form a biocomposite that is uniquely adapted to the transfer of loads across the diarthrodial joint. During the evolution of the osteoarthritic process biomechanical and biological processes result in alterations in the composition, structure and functional properties of these tissues. Given the intimate contact between the cartilage and bone, alterations of either tissue will modulate the properties and function of the other joint component. The changes in periarticular bone tend to occur very early in the development of OA. Although chondrocytes also have the capacity to modulate their functional state in response to loading, the capacity of these cells to repair and modify their surrounding extracellular matrix is relatively limited in comparison to the adjacent subchondral bone. This differential adaptive capacity likely underlies the more rapid appearance of detectable skeletal changes in OA in comparison to the articular cartilage. The OA changes in periarticular bone include increases in subchondral cortical bone thickness, gradual decreases in subchondral trabeular bone mass, formation of marginal joint osteophytes, development of bone cysts and advancement of the zone of calcified cartilage between the articular cartilage and subchondral bone. The expansion of the zone of calcified cartilage contributes to overall thinning of the articular cartilage. The mechanisms involved in this process include the release of soluble mediators from chondrocytes in the deep zones of the articular cartilage and/or the influences of microcracks that have initiated focal remodeling in the calcified cartilage and subchondral bone in an attempt to repair the microdamage. There is the need for further studies to define the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the interaction between subchondral bone and articular cartilage and for applying this information to the development of therapeutic interventions to improve the

  7. Electromechanical probe and automated indentation maps are sensitive techniques in assessing early degenerated human articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Sim, Sotcheadt; Chevrier, Anik; Garon, Martin; Quenneville, Eric; Lavigne, Patrick; Yaroshinsky, Alex; Hoemann, Caroline D; Buschmann, Michael D

    2016-06-09

    Recent advances in the development of new drugs to halt or even reverse the progression of Osteoarthritis at an early-stage requires new tools to detect early degeneration of articular cartilage. We investigated the ability of an electromechanical probe and an automated indentation technique to characterize entire human articular surfaces for rapid non-destructive discrimination between early degenerated and healthy articular cartilage. Human cadaveric asymptomatic articular surfaces (4 pairs of distal femurs and 4 pairs of tibial plateaus) were used. They were assessed ex vivo: macroscopically, electromechanically (maps of the electromechanical quantitative parameter, QP, reflecting streaming potentials), mechanically (maps of the instantaneous modulus, IM) and through cartilage thickness. Osteochondral cores were also harvested from healthy and degenerated regions for histological assessment, biochemical analyses and unconfined compression tests. The macroscopic visual assessment delimited three distinct regions on each articular surface: region I was macroscopically degenerated, region II was macroscopically normal but adjacent to region I and region III was the remaining normal articular surface. Thus, each extracted core was assigned to one of the three regions. A mixed effect model revealed that only the QP (p < 0.0001) and IM (p < 0.0001) were able to statistically discriminate the three regions. Effect size was higher for QP and IM than other assessments, indicating greater sensitivity to distinguish early degeneration of cartilage. When considering the mapping feature of the QP and IM techniques, it also revealed bilateral symmetry in a moderately similar distribution pattern between bilateral joints. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. A new technique of endoprosthetic replacement for osteosarcoma of proximal femur with intra-articular extension

    PubMed Central

    Oragui, E.; Nannaparaju, M.; Sri-Ram, K.; Khan, W.; Hashemi-Nejad, A.; Skinner, J.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant tumour of bone and commonly involved sites are the distal femur, proximal tibia, and humerus. Osteosarcoma of proximal femur usually arises at the metaphysis and articular cartilage acts as a relative barrier to tumour spread, with extension into the hip joint being extremely rare. PRESENTATION OF CASE A previously fit and well sixteen-year-old male presented with a 2 month history of right hip pain and a limp. Plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an expansile lesion in the right femoral neck, extending 16 cm distally from the proximal femoral articular surface through the intertrochanteric region into the upper right femoral shaft. There was also clear evidence of intra-articular extension into the acetabulum. DISCUSSION Endoprosthetic replacement following resection is a good treatment option for proximal femoral tumours due to the low complication rate and achievement of good postoperative function. However, treatment of a proximal femoral lesion with intra-articular involvement by prosthetic reconstruction is challenging. We report a patient who presented with osteosarcoma of the proximal femur extending into the hip joint and describe the technique of en-bloc extra-articular resection of the acetabulum and proximal femur with reconstruction using a custom made prosthesis. CONCLUSION We conclude that extra-articular resection and endoprosthetic reconstruction using a coned hemi-pelvic implant with fluted stem and a modular femoral implant is a useful treatment option in the management of a proximal femoral lesion involving the hip-joint. It allows adequate tumour clearance and stable reconstruction for rapid post-operative recovery with early mobilisation. PMID:23147775

  9. Development of a Valid and Reliable Knee Articular Cartilage Condition–Specific Study Methodological Quality Score

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Joshua D.; Erickson, Brandon J.; Cvetanovich, Gregory L.; Abrams, Geoffrey D.; McCormick, Frank M.; Gupta, Anil K.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Bach, Bernard R.; Cole, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Condition-specific questionnaires are important components in evaluation of outcomes of surgical interventions. No condition-specific study methodological quality questionnaire exists for evaluation of outcomes of articular cartilage surgery in the knee. Purpose: To develop a reliable and valid knee articular cartilage–specific study methodological quality questionnaire. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: A stepwise, a priori–designed framework was created for development of a novel questionnaire. Relevant items to the topic were identified and extracted from a recent systematic review of 194 investigations of knee articular cartilage surgery. In addition, relevant items from existing generic study methodological quality questionnaires were identified. Items for a preliminary questionnaire were generated. Redundant and irrelevant items were eliminated, and acceptable items modified. The instrument was pretested and items weighed. The instrument, the MARK score (Methodological quality of ARticular cartilage studies of the Knee), was tested for validity (criterion validity) and reliability (inter- and intraobserver). Results: A 19-item, 3-domain MARK score was developed. The 100-point scale score demonstrated face validity (focus group of 8 orthopaedic surgeons) and criterion validity (strong correlation to Cochrane Quality Assessment score and Modified Coleman Methodology Score). Interobserver reliability for the overall score was good (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC], 0.842), and for all individual items of the MARK score, acceptable to perfect (ICC, 0.70-1.000). Intraobserver reliability ICC assessed over a 3-week interval was strong for 2 reviewers (≥0.90). Conclusion: The MARK score is a valid and reliable knee articular cartilage condition–specific study methodological quality instrument. Clinical Relevance: This condition-specific questionnaire may be used to evaluate the quality of studies reporting outcomes of

  10. The rigid curette technique for the application of fibrin bioadhesive during hip arthroscopy for articular cartilage lesions.

    PubMed

    Asopa, Vipin; Singh, Parminder J

    2014-04-01

    Encouraging midterm results have recently been reported for the arthroscopic treatment of delaminating articular cartilage lesions at the capsulolabral junction of the hip joint using fibrin bioadhesive. The needle used to introduce the bioadhesive is long, flexible, and often difficult to position. We describe a novel technique for introducing the needle that allows accurate placement behind the delaminated articular cartilage pocket during hip arthroscopy.

  11. Intra-articular hyaluronate, tenoxicam and vitamin E in a rat model of osteoarthritis: evaluation and comparison of chondroprotective efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Ozkan, Feyza Unlu; Uzer, Gokcer; Türkmen, Ismail; Yildiz, Yavuz; Senol, Serkan; Ozkan, Korhan; Turkmensoy, Fatih; Ramadan, Saime; Aktas, Ilknur

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate and compare the chondroprotective efficacy of intra-articular hyaluronic acid, tenoxicam and vitamin E in osteoarthritis. Methods: An osteoarthritis model was created by anterior cruciate ligament transection and medial menisectomy in knees of 28 rats. The rats were randomized into four groups; first group served as a control group and received intra-articular injections of saline solution, intra-articular HA, intra-articular tenoxicam and intra-articular Vit E were applied to the treatment groups. First intra-articular injections were applied at second week postoperatively and repeated once a week for 5 weeks. At 8th week after the operation groups were compared based on the histologic scores of cartilage degeneration by Mankin Histological Grading Scale. Results: Total cartilage degeneration score was significantly increased in the control group (P=0.004). Total Mankin scores of HA, tenoxicam and Vit E groups were significantly lower than the control group (P=0.004, P=0.016, P=0.012 respectively). There was no statistically siginificant difference between the treatment groups in terms of total Mankin scores (P>0.05). Conclusion: Intra-articular application of HA, tenoxicam and Vit E are chondroprotective in early osteoarthritis model in rats. Chondroprotective activity of tenoxicam and Vit E are comparable with the beneficial effects of HA on articular cartilage. PMID:25785088

  12. Autoradiographic evidence of sup 125 I-. beta. -endorphin binding sites in the articular cartilage of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Castano, M.T.; Freire-Garabal, M.; Giraldez, M.; Nunez, M.J.; Belmonte, A.; Couceiro, J.; Jorge, J. )

    1991-01-01

    After {sup 125}I-{beta}-endorphin was intravenously injected to rats, an autoradiographic study of distal femur articular cartilage was performed. Results show a specific binding of {sup 125}I-{beta}-endorphin to chondrocytes, suggesting the possible existence of an opiate modulation of articular cartilage.

  13. Mapping the articular contact area of the long head of the biceps tendon on the humeral head.

    PubMed

    Morris, Brent J; Byram, Ian R; Lathrop, Ray A; Dunn, Warren R; Kuhn, John E

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to calculate the contact surface area of the long head of the biceps (LHB) in neutral position and abduction. We sought to determine whether the LHB articulates with the humeral head in a consistent pattern comparing articular contact area in neutral position and abduction. Eleven fresh frozen matched cadaveric shoulders were analyzed. The path of the biceps tendon on the articular surface of the humeral head and the total articular surface were digitized using a MicronTracker 2 H3-60 three-dimensional optical tracker. Contact surface area was significantly less in abduction than in neutral position (P = 0.002) with a median ratio of 41% (36%, 47.5%). Ratios of contact area in neutral position to full articular surface area were consistent between left and right shoulders (rho = 1, P = 0.017) as were ratios of abduction area to full articular surface area (rho = 0.97, P = 0.005). The articular contact surface area is significantly greater in neutral position than abduction. The ratios of articular contact surface areas to total humeral articular surface areas have a narrow range and are consistent between left and right shoulders of the same cadaver.

  14. Intra-articular hylastan versus steroid for knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Housman, Lawrence; Arden, Nigel; Schnitzer, Thomas J; Birbara, Charles; Conrozier, Thierry; Skrepnik, Nebojsa; Wei, Nathan; Bockow, Barry; Waddell, David; Tahir, Hasan; Hammond, Anthony; Goupille, Philippe; Sanson, Bernd-Jan; Elkins, Clare; Bailleul, François

    2014-07-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of one and two intra-articular (IA) injections of the new viscosupplement, hylastan, compared with a single IA corticosteroid injection for pain due to knee osteoarthritis (OA). Hylastan is a high-molecular-weight hyaluronan derivative prepared from bacterial fermented sodium hyaluronate that was developed to remain in the joint for longer than most other viscosupplements. This 6-month, double-blind, randomized, parallel group, multicenter trial enrolled patients aged ≥40 years who met American College of Rheumatology criteria for knee OA and had continued pain despite conservative treatment. Patients were randomized 1:1:1 to one of three arms: 2 × 4 mL hylastan (n = 129; arthrocentesis then IA hylastan Day 0, same treatment Week 2); 1 × 4 mL hylastan (n = 130; arthrocentesis then IA hylastan Day 0, arthrocentesis only Week 2); steroid (n = 132; arthrocentesis then IA methylprednisolone acetate 40 mg Day 0, arthrocentesis only Week 2). Participants and evaluators were blinded to treatment. The primary clinical outcome measure was change from baseline in WOMAC A pain score over all postbaseline visits to Week 26. Statistically significant pain reduction was observed in all three arms, with similar mean (95 % CI) changes in WOMAC A: 2 × 4 mL hylastan -0.9 (-1.0, -0.7); 1 × 4 mL hylastan -0.8 (-0.9, -0.7); steroid -0.9 (-1.0, -0.8); all P < 0.0001 versus baseline. Changes in secondary outcomes (OMERACT-OARSI and WOMAC A responder rates, patient/clinical observer global assessments, and WOMAC A1 walking pain) were similar in all three arms. Target knee adverse events were comparable for all treatments. Both IA hylastan injection regimens were effective in relieving pain with an acceptable safety profile. IA hylastan did not show a difference versus IA corticosteroid; therefore, the hypothesis of superior pain relief was not met. Further research is needed to compare the efficacy and safety of hylastan with other viscosupplements.

  15. Binding and lubrication of biomimetic boundary lubricants on articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Samaroo, Kirk J; Tan, Mingchee; Putnam, David; Bonassar, Lawrence J

    2017-03-01

    The glycoprotein, lubricin, is the primary boundary lubricant of articular cartilage and has been shown to prevent cartilage damage after joint injury. In this study, a library of eight bottle-brush copolymers were synthesized to mimic the structure and function of lubricin. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) grafted onto a polyacrylic acid (pAA) core mimicked the hydrophilic mucin-like domain of lubricin, and a thiol terminus anchored the polymers to cartilage surfaces much like lubricin's C-terminus. These copolymers, abbreviated as pAA-g-PEG, rapidly bound to cartilage surfaces with binding time constants ranging from 20 to 39 min, and affected lubrication under boundary mode conditions with coefficients of friction ranging from 0.140 ± 0.024 to 0.248 ± 0.030. Binding and lubrication were highly correlated (r(2)  = 0.89-0.99), showing that boundary lubrication in this case strongly depends on the binding of the lubricant to the surface. Along with time-dependent and dose-dependent behavior, lubrication and binding of the lubricin-mimetics also depended on copolymer structural parameters including pAA backbone length, PEG side chain length, and PEG:AA brush density. Polymers with larger backbone sizes, brush sizes, or brush densities took longer to bind (p < 0.05). Six of the eight polymers reduced friction relative to denuded cartilage plugs (p < 0.05), suggesting their potential to lubricate and protect cartilage in vivo. In copolymers with shorter pAA backbones, increasing hydrodynamic size inhibited lubrication (p < 0.08), while the opposite was observed in copolymers with longer backbones (p < 0.05). These polymers show similar in vitro lubricating efficacy as recombinant lubricins and as such have potential for in vivo treatment of post-traumatic osteoarthritis. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:548-557, 2017.

  16. Inflammatory Cytokines and Matrix Metalloproteinases in the Synovial Fluid After Intra-articular Ankle Fracture.

    PubMed

    Adams, Samuel B; Setton, Lori A; Bell, Richard D; Easley, Mark E; Huebner, Janet L; Stabler, Thomas; Kraus, Virginia B; Leimer, Elizabeth M; Olson, Steven A; Nettles, Dana L

    2015-11-01

    Posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) can occur after intra-articular fracture despite anatomic fracture reduction. It has been hypothesized that an early inflammatory response after intra-articular injury could lead to irreversible cartilage damage that progresses to PTOA. Therefore, in addition to meticulous fracture reduction, it would be ideal to prevent this initial inflammatory response but little is known about the composition of the synovial environment after intra-articular fracture. The purpose of this work was to characterize the inflammatory cytokine and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) composition in the synovial fluid (SF) of patients with acute intra-articular ankle fractures. Twenty-one patients with an intra-articular ankle fracture were included in this study. All patients had a contralateral ankle joint that was pain free, had no radiographic evidence of arthritis, and no history of trauma. The uninjured ankle served as a matched control. SF was obtained from bilateral ankles at the time of surgery which occurred at a mean of 17 days post-fracture (range 8-40). The SF was analyzed for granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, MMP-10, CTXII, sGAG, and bilirubin/biliverdin (markers of hemearthrosis) using either multiplex assay or ELISA using commercially available kits. Mean concentrations of each factor were compared between SF from fractured and control ankles, and correlation analysis was done to determine potential relationships between levels of cytokines and time from fracture and age at fracture. Twelve of 18 measured factors including GM-CSF, IL-10, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, MMP-10, and bilirubin/biliverdin were found to be significantly higher in the fractured ankles. Mean concentrations of ECM degradation markers (sGAG and CTXII) were not found to

  17. Time-dependent processes in stem cell-based tissue engineering of articular cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Gadjanski, Ivana; Spiller, Kara; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2012-01-01

    Articular cartilage (AC), situated in diarthrodial joints at the end of the long bones, is composed of a single cell type (chondrocytes) embedded in dense extracellular matrix comprised of collagens and proteoglycans. AC is avascular and alymphatic and is not innervated. At first glance, such a seemingly simple tissue appears to be an easy target for the rapidly developing field of tissue engineering. However, cartilage engineering has proven to be very challenging. We focus on time-dependent processes associated with the development of native cartilage starting from stem cells, and the modalities for utilizing these processes for tissue engineering of articular cartilage. PMID:22016073

  18. Radiographic assessment of equine interphalangeal joints asymmetry: articular impact of asymmetric bearings (Part II).

    PubMed

    Caudron, I; Grulke, S; Farnir, F; Aupaix, R; Serteyn, D

    1998-09-01

    This study is part of a work to develop a radiographic method that defines objectively the individual conformation of an equine digit and its appropriate trimming. The authors used isolated distal limbs fastened on a rotation support with variable inclinations to study the influence of induced asymmetric bearings on various angles measured from specific radiographs. The digit responded to asymmetric bearings by 1. deformation of the hoof; 2. rotation of the phalanges; and 3. joint asymmetry or local articular space narrowing. The two last situations occurred mainly in the distal interphalangeal joint. Some of the angles mentioned above allow quantification of interphalangeal articular asymmetry, angular deformity and rotational deviation of a distal limb.

  19. Development of methods for analysis of knee articular cartilage degeneration by magnetic resonance imaging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suponenkovs, Artjoms; Glazs, Aleksandrs; Platkajis, Ardis

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the new methods for analyzing knee articular cartilage degeneration. The most important aspects regarding research about magnetic resonance imaging, knee joint anatomy, stages of knee osteoarthritis, medical image segmentation and relaxation times calculation. This paper proposes new methods for relaxation times calculation and medical image segmentation. The experimental part describes the most important aspect regarding analysing of articular cartilage relaxation times changing. This part contains experimental results, which show the codependence between relaxation times and organic structure. These experimental results and proposed methods can be helpful for early osteoarthritis diagnostics.

  20. A case of intra-articular angioleiomyoma of the talocrural joint.

    PubMed

    Thung, Irene; Mahooti, Sepi; Xu, Xiangdong

    2016-01-01

    Angioleiomyoma is a benign pericytic neoplasm with smooth muscle differentiation. Intra-articular angioleiomyoma is exceptionally rare with only four cases reported, all involving the knee joint. Here we report the first case of intra-articular angioleiomyoma entirely localized within the ankle joint. An 83-year-old male presented with progressively worsening ankle pain. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging showed a soft tissue mass within the talocrural joint. Histologic examination and ancillary testing demonstrated fascicles of smooth muscle cells and interspersed, often compressed, vascular channels, consistent with an angioleiomyoma. This case highlights the importance of including angioleiomyoma in the differential diagnosis of an ankle joint mass.

  1. [Intra- and extra-articular hamstring reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament tears].

    PubMed

    Buscayret, C; Buscayret, F; Farenq, C

    2001-05-01

    We examined a reconstruction technique for tears of the anterior cruciate ligament using the hamstring tendons. The tendons were harvested en bloc, leaving the tibial insertion intact. Three intra-articular strands (two semitendinous and one gracilis) and lateral tenodesis were used with continuity via the gracilis. The intra-articular procedure was performed arthroscopically with tunneling laterally to medially to achieve the best position. Ligamentoplasty was performed in 262 cases. Outcome was satisfactory. This method preserves the lateral iliotibial sheath and spares the extensors apparatus. It is particularly interesting for reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament tears when a lateral tenodesis appears to be necessary.

  2. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Articular Cartilage Repair: Clinical Studies and Future Direction

    PubMed Central

    Punwar, Shahid; Khan, Wasim S

    2011-01-01

    Cartilage is frequently injured but shows little capacity for repair. Current treatment options include the use of procedures that stimulate repair through the stimulation of subchondral bone marrow and result in the formation of fibrocartilage. There is considerable interest in the use of cell-based treatment strategies and there are limited studies describing the use of mesenchymal stem cells for cartilage repair with promising early results. This paper reviews the current treatment strategies for articular cartilage, describes use of mesenchymal stem cells for articular cartilage repair along with the results of clinical studies, and describes the future direction that these strategies are likely to take. PMID:21886696

  3. Actions of Two Bi-Articular Muscles of the Lower Extremity: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Landin, Dennis; Thompson, Melissa; Reid, Meghan

    2016-01-01

    The extremities of the human body contain several bi-articular muscles. The actions produced by muscles at the joints they cross are greatly influenced by joint moment arms and muscle length. These factors are dynamic and subject to change as joint angles are altered. Therefore, to more completely understand the actions of such muscles, the angles of both joints must be manipulated. This report reviews investigations, which have explored the actions of two bi-articular muscles of the lower extremities (gastrocnemius and rectus femoris) as the joints they cross are moved into various combinations of angles. The findings have both clinical and physical performance ramifications. PMID:27298656

  4. Topographical mapping of biochemical properties of articular cartilage in the equine fetlock joint.

    PubMed

    Brama, P A; Tekoppele, J M; Bank, R A; Karssenberg, D; Barneveld, A; van Weeren, P R

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate topographical differences in the biochemical composition of the extracellular matrix of articular cartilage of the normal equine fetlock joint. Water content, DNA content, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content and a number of characteristics of the collagen network (total collagen content, levels of hydroxylysine- (Hyl) and the crosslink hydroxylysylpyridinoline, (HP) of articular cartilage in the proximal 1st phalanx (P1), distal 3rd metacarpal bone (MC), and proximal sesamoid bones (PSB) were determined in the left and right fetlock joint of 6 mature horses (age 5-9 years). Twenty-eight sites were sampled per joint, which included the clinically important areas often associated with pathology. Biochemical differences were evaluated between sampling sites and related with the predisposition for osteochondral injury and type of loading. Significant regional differences in the composition of the extracellular matrix existed within the joint. Furthermore, left and right joints exhibited biochemical differences. Typical topographic distribution patterns were observed for each parameter. In P1 the dorsal and palmar articular margin showed a significantly lower GAG content than the more centrally located sites. Collagen content and HP crosslinks were higher at the joint margins than in the central area. Also, in the MC, GAG content was significantly lower at the (dorsal) articular margin compared with the central area. Consistent with findings in P1, collagen and HP crosslinks were significantly lower in the central area compared to the (dorsal) articular margin. Biochemical and biomechanical heterogeneity of articular cartilage is supposed to reflect the different functional demands made at different sites. In the present study, GAG content was highest in the constantly loaded central areas of the joint surfaces. In contrast, collagen content and HP crosslinks were higher in areas intermittently subjected to peak loading which suggests

  5. Extra- and intra-articular synovial chondromatosis and malignant transformation to chondrosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Bertrana, C; Durall, I; Rial, J M; Franch, J; Fontecha, P; Ramis, A

    2010-01-01

    Intra- and extra-articular primary synovial chondromatosis (SC) was observed in a five-year-old, entire male German Shepherd. Thousands of small cartilaginous nodules were removed from the stifle joint as well as from several adjacent muscles. Diagnosis of SC was established based on clinical, radiographic and biopsy results. The owner declined to have a new surgery performed for complete nodule removal and partial synovectomy. Nine months after the initial presentation, a proximal pathological intra- articular tibial fracture was observed and malignant transformation to chondrosarcoma was diagnosed after limb amputation. No metastasis was observed after 1.5 years of follow-up.

  6. A case of intra-articular angioleiomyoma of the talocrural joint

    PubMed Central

    THUNG, IRENE; MAHOOTI, SEPI; XU, XIANGDONG

    2016-01-01

    Angioleiomyoma is a benign pericytic neoplasm with smooth muscle differentiation. Intra-articular angioleiomyoma is exceptionally rare with only four cases reported, all involving the knee joint. Here we report the first case of intra-articular angioleiomyoma entirely localized within the ankle joint. An 83-year-old male presented with progressively worsening ankle pain. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging showed a soft tissue mass within the talocrural joint. Histologic examination and ancillary testing demonstrated fascicles of smooth muscle cells and interspersed, often compressed, vascular channels, consistent with an angioleiomyoma. This case highlights the importance of including angioleiomyoma in the differential diagnosis of an ankle joint mass. PMID:28217663

  7. Post-traumatic malunion of the distal radial intra-articular fractures treated with autologous costal osteochondral grafts and bioabsorbable plates.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Kayoko; Sakai, Akinori; Menuki, Kunitaka; Oshige, Toshihisa; Zenke, Yukichi; Nakamura, Toshitaka

    2014-03-01

    Intra-articular distal radial fractures with partial bone loss at the wrist were reconstructed using osteochondral grafts in 2 patients who were followed up for at least 18 months. Both patients experienced posttraumatic arthrosis of the wrist joint. The materials of the intra-articular fixation were bioabsorbable plates and screws. Reconstruction of a partially destroyed articular surface using a costal osteochondral graft is reliable and allows filling and resurfacing an articular cartilage void.

  8. Quantitative three-dimensional shape analysis of the proximal hallucial metatarsal articular surface in Homo, Pan, Gorilla, and Hylobates.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Daniel J; Broadfield, Douglas; Proctor, Kristopher

    2008-02-01

    Multidimensional morphometrics is used to compare the proximal articular surface of the first metatarsal between Homo, Pan, Gorilla, Hylobates, and the hominin fossils A.L. 333-54 (A. afarensis), SKX 5017 (P. robustus), and OH 8 (H. habilis). Statistically significant differences in articular surface morphology exist between H. sapiens and the apes, and between ape groups. Ape groups are characterized by greater surface depth, an obliquely curved articular surface through the dorso-lateral and medio-plantar regions, and a wider medio-lateral surface relative to the dorso-plantar height. The OH 8 articular surface is indistinguishable from H. sapiens, while A.L. 333-54 and SKX 5017 more closely resemble the apes. P. robustus and A. afarensis exhibit ape-like oblique curvature of the articular surface.

  9. Patients With Ligament Hiperlaxity With Rupture Of Previous Plastic For ACL. Reconstruction With Intra-articular And Extra-articular Combined Technics

    PubMed Central

    Astore, Ignacio; Agotegaray, Juan Ignacio; Comba, Ignacio; Bisiach, Luciana

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In cases of patients with ligament hiperlaxity with rupture of ACL, the use of a BTB graft is recommended for its reconstruction. Our job consists of the clinical and functional assessment of a group of 10 patients with ligament laxaty according to Beighton scale, who, after surgery for ACL rupture with BTB technique, suffered a rupture of the plastic. For its reconstruction a combination of intra-articular and extra-articular techniques was used with a BTB graft in the contralateral knee, associated with a modified Lemaire technique. Methods: The series consists of 10 patients, male, average age of 24.2 years, amateur athletes, operated for a second time in March, 2011 and November, 2013, with a minimum follow-up of 24 months. They were evaluated before surgery and 24 months after surgery based on Lysholm scale, IKDC evaluation form and a physical exam (Lachman - Pivot Shift). Results: After surgery, the average in Lysholm scale was of 87.6 and 86.3 for the IKDC subjetive form. In the physical exam, 8 patients showed Lachman 1+, while none of the patients showed Pivot Shift positive. 7 patients were able to return to their usual sport activities. As a postoperative disadvantage, 6 patients reported pain in the external face of the knee in the first 6 months. And 4 patients reported a subjetive loss of full extension that did not interfere with their sport activities. Conclusion: Based on our experience and literature, we believe that the combination of both techniques, intra-articular (BTB) and extra-articular (Lemaire), is a good alternative for patients with ligament laxaty, providing positive clinical and functional results.

  10. An evaluation of the delayed effect of intra-articular injections of lidocaine (2%) on articular cartilage: an experimental study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Yazdi, Hamidreza; Nimavard, Bahahreh Tabatabaeian; Shokrgozar, Mohammadali; Dehghan, Mohammadmehdi; Moayedi, Reza Jamei; Majidi, Mohammad; Mokhtari, Tahmineh

    2014-12-01

    Lidocaine is commonly injected into the joints as an analgesic. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the delayed effect of intra-articular injections of lidocaine (2%) on articular cartilage in rabbit knees. Ten rabbits were divided into two groups, each group containing five animals. Two milliliters of normal saline solution was injected into both knee joints of animals in group one (control group), and 2 ml of lidocaine was injected into both knee joints of animals in group two (case group). After 8 weeks, the articular cartilage of the distal femur was harvested and analyzed through confocal microscopy and real-time polymerase chain reaction to evaluate the viability and function of chondrocytes, respectively. Confocal microscopy showed a significant decrease in the number of live cells caused by lidocaine (P ≤ 0.001). The changes in gene expression of collagen types II (COL II) and aggrecan were significant in group two (P = 0.008 and P = 0.002, respectively). According to the results, the delayed in vivo effect of lidocaine on chondrocyte is to reduce live chondrocytes and change in the gene expression of COL II and aggrecan.

  11. The role of type X collagen in facilitating and regulating endochondral ossification of articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Shen, G

    2005-02-01

    AUTHOR: Shen G Objective -This review was compiled to explore the role of type X collagen in growth, development and remodeling of articular cartilage by elucidating the linkage between the synthesis of this protein and the phenotypic changes in chondrogenesis and the onset of endochondral ossification. The current studies closely dedicated to elucidating the role of type X collagen incorporating into chondrogenesis and endochondral ossification of articular cartilage were assessed and analyzed to allow for obtaining the mainstream consensus on the bio-molecular mechanism with which type X collagen functions in articular cartilage. There are spatial and temporal correlations between synthesis of type X collagen and occurrence of endochondral ossification. The expression of type X collagen is confined within hypertrophic condrocytes and precedes the embark of endochondral bone formation. Type X collagen facilitates endochondral ossification by regulating matrix mineralization and compartmentalizing matrix components. Type X collagen is a reliable marker for new bone formation in articular cartilage. The future clinical application of this collagen in inducing or mediating endochondral ossification is perceived, e.g. the fracture healing of synovial joints and adaptive remodeling of madibular condyle.

  12. Concomitant intra-articular glenohumeral injuries in displaced fractures of the lateral clavicle.

    PubMed

    Beirer, Marc; Zyskowski, Michael; Crönlein, Moritz; Pförringer, Dominik; Schmitt-Sody, Marcus; Sandmann, Gunther; Huber-Wagner, Stefan; Biberthaler, Peter; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig

    2015-11-21

    To detect concomitant intra-articular glenohumeral injuries, in acute displaced fractures of the lateral clavicle, initially missed due to unfeasible clinical evaluation of the acutely injured shoulder. All patients suffering from an acute displaced lateral clavicle fracture with indication to surgical treatment underwent diagnostic shoulder arthroscopy prior to open reduction and internal fixation. In case of therapy-relevant intra-articular glenohumeral injuries, subsequent surgical treatment was performed. Intra-articular injuries were found in 13 of 28 patients (46.4 %) with initially suspected isolated lateral clavicle fracture. Additional surgical treatment was performed in 8 of 28 cases (28.6 %). Superior labral anterior-posterior (SLAP) lesions were observed in 4 of 28 patients (14.3 %; SLAP II a: 1; II b: 1; III: 1; and IV: 1). Lesions of the pulley system were found in 3 of 28 patients (10.7 %; Habermeyer III°). One partial articular supraspinatus tendon avulsion lesion (3.6 %) and one lesion of the subscapularis tendon (3.6 %; Fox and Romeo II°) were observed. Traumatic concomitant glenohumeral injuries in lateral clavicle fractures seem to be more frequent than expected in general. Subsequent surgical treatment of these formerly missed but therapy-relevant injuries may increase functional outcome and reduce complication rate. IV.

  13. Acute changes in hamstrings musculo-articular dissipative properties induced by cyclic and static stretching.

    PubMed

    Nordez, A; McNair, P; Casari, P; Cornu, C

    2008-05-01

    This study was designed to measure changes in musculo-articular dissipative properties related to viscosity that were induced by passive cyclic and static stretching. Musculo-articular dissipative properties were assessed by calculating a dissipation coefficient using potential elastic energies stored and restituted during cyclic stretching. Eight subjects performed five passive knee extensions/flexions cycles on a Biodex dynamometer at 5 degrees . s (-1) to 80 % of their maximal range of motion before and after a static stretching protocol. Electromyographic activity from the hamstring muscles was monitored and remained constant during cyclic stretching and after static stretching (p > 0.05). The dissipation coefficient decreased during cyclic stretching (- 28.8 +/- 6.0 %, p < 0.001), while it was slightly increased after static stretching (+ 3.8 +/- 5.0 %, p = 0.037). The findings showed that energy stored and energy restituted decreased during cyclic stretching and after static stretching (p < 0.05). During unloading, passive torque remained constant during cyclic stretching, but was decreased after static stretching. The findings indicate that musculo-articular dissipative properties were primarily affected by a single cycle of motion, and were not influenced by static stretching procedures. The decrease in dissipation coefficient following cyclic motion indicates that the musculo-articular system displays thixotropic behavior.

  14. The effectiveness of hyaluronic acid intra-articular injections in managing osteoarthritic knee pain

    PubMed Central

    Anand, A

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a common and progressive joint disease. Treatment options for knee OA vary from simple analgesia in mild cases to knee replacement for advanced disease. Knee pain due to moderate OA can be targeted with intra-articular injections. Steroid injections have been used widely in managing acute flare-ups of the disease. In recent years, viscosupplementation has been used as a therapeutic modality for the management of knee OA. The principle of viscosupplementation is based on the physiological properties of the hyaluronic acid (HA) in the synovial joint. Despite a sound principle and promising in vitro studies, clinical studies have been less conclusive on the effectiveness of HA in managing osteoarthritic knee pain. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of HA intra-articular injections in the management of osteoarthritic knee pain. Methods A systematic review of the literature was performed using MEDLINE®, Embase™ and CINAHL® (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature). The databases were searched for randomised controlled trials available on the effectiveness of HA intra-articular injections in managing osteoarthritic knee pain. Results The search yielded 188 studies. Of these, 14 met the eligibility criteria and were reviewed in chronological order. Conclusions HA intra-articular injections have a modest effect on early to moderate knee OA. The effect peaks at around 6–8 weeks following administration, with a doubtful effect at 6 months. PMID:24165334

  15. Intra-articular hyaluronic acid vs platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of hip osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Di Sante, Luca; Villani, Ciro; Santilli, Valter; Valeo, Massimo; Bologna, Emmalisa; Imparato, Luca; Paoloni, Marco; Iagnocco, Annamaria

    2016-12-05

    To compare the efficacy of ultrasound-guided intra-articular (IA) treatment with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) versus viscosupplementation (hyaluronic acid HA) in hip osteoarthritis. METHODS: A total of 43 patients affected by monolateral severe hip osteoarthritis (OA) were included in the study. Patients were randomized to receive either intra-articular PRP (3 ml) or HA (30 mg/2 ml; 1,000-2,900 kDa), 3 injections in total - 1/week. Clinical assessments for each patient were made at baseline (T0), 4 (T1), and 16 weeks (T2) of follow-up. The primary efficacy outcome was pain reduction as measured by VAS and by WOMAC pain subscale. Data analysis revealed that, compared to T0, in the PRP-treated group VAS scores significantly decreased at T1 but not at T2, thereby indicating an early effect on pain which was not maintained at a longer term follow-up. In the HA group a significant decrease of both VAS and WOMAC values was registered only between T0 and T2. Intra-articular PRP had an immediate effect on pain that was not maintained at longer term follow-up when, on the contrary, the effects of intra-articular HA were evident.

  16. The effectiveness of hyaluronic acid intra-articular injections in managing osteoarthritic knee pain.

    PubMed

    Trigkilidas, D; Anand, A

    2013-11-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a common and progressive joint disease. Treatment options for knee OA vary from simple analgesia in mild cases to knee replacement for advanced disease. Knee pain due to moderate OA can be targeted with intra-articular injections. Steroid injections have been used widely in managing acute flare-ups of the disease. In recent years, viscosupplementation has been used as a therapeutic modality for the management of knee OA. The principle of viscosupplementation is based on the physiological properties of the hyaluronic acid (HA) in the synovial joint. Despite a sound principle and promising in vitro studies, clinical studies have been less conclusive on the effectiveness of HA in managing osteoarthritic knee pain. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of HA intra-articular injections in the management of osteoarthritic knee pain. A systematic review of the literature was performed using MEDLINE®, Embase™ and CINAHL® (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature). The databases were searched for randomised controlled trials available on the effectiveness of HA intra-articular injections in managing osteoarthritic knee pain. The search yielded 188 studies. Of these, 14 met the eligibility criteria and were reviewed in chronological order. HA intra-articular injections have a modest effect on early to moderate knee OA. The effect peaks at around 6-8 weeks following administration, with a doubtful effect at 6 months.

  17. Intra-articular injection of tenoxicam in osteoarthritic knee joints with effusion.

    PubMed

    Oztuna, Volkan; Eskandari, Metin; Bugdayci, Resul; Kuyurtar, Fehmi

    2007-12-01

    Thirty patients who had grade II to III osteoarthritis according to Kellgren-Lawrence system and presenting with acute effusion of the knee joint were randomly assigned to 2 groups. All patients were treated with aspiration of the synovial fluid, cold application, and rest. Fifteen patients received an intra-articular injection of tenoxicam 20 mg following aspiration. The other group was administered oral tenoxicam 20 mg a day for 10 days. Patients were examined at 2, 4, and 8 weeks and then in 3-month intervals. At followup visits, pain was assessed using visual analog scale: range of motion, and effusion of the knee joint were recorded. A repeated measure test was used to determine the significance of changes in pain and mobility between the groups. Student's Neyman Keuls test was used to determine the significance of differences within the groups. Chi-square test was used for the number of episodes. The intra-articular injection group had more rapid pain relief than the oral treatment group (P < .01). At the end of 1 year, the number of effusions was significantly lower in the intra-articular treatment group (P < .01). These results indicate that intra-articular injection of tenoxicam provides rapid pain relief in the patients with acute flare-up of knee osteoarthritis and helps to prevent effusion.

  18. Articularly placed interfragmentary screw fixation of difficult condylar fractures of the hand.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jacqueline S W; Foo, Anthony T L; Chew, Winston C Y; Teoh, Lam Chuan

    2011-04-01

    To retrospectively review the outcomes of intra-articularly placed interfragmentary screws for fixation of difficult condylar fractures of the metacarpal and proximal phalangeal heads. We placed interfragmentary screws intra-articularly in 10 patients with 11 fractures to achieve a rigid fixation construct in which the non-articular portion of the bone fragment is too small to allow a stable fixation, or where the bone fragment is entirely osteochondral. The mean duration of follow-up was 15.9 months (range, 6-45 mo). All fractures united within 16 weeks (average, 8.1 wk). We observed subsidence in 1 case; another patient had screw protrusion that required removal. The range of motion of the involved metacarpophalangeal joints for the metacarpal head fractures was 79° (range, 60° to 90°). The range of motion of the involved proximal interphalangeal joints for the proximal phalangeal head fractures was 86° (range, 80° to 90°). Intra-articularly placed interfragmentary screw fixation is a good technique for treating difficult condylar fractures of the hand. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of intra-articular resiniferatoxin on monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritic pain in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngkyung; Kim, Eun-hye; Lee, Kyu Sang; Lee, Koeun; Park, Sung Ho; Na, Sook Hyun; Ko, Cheolwoong; Yooon, Young Wook

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate whether an intra-articular injection of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor agonist, resiniferatoxin (RTX) would alleviate behavioral signs of arthritic pain in a rat model of osteoarthritis (OA). We also sought to determine the effect of RTX treatment on calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) expression in the spinal cord. Knee joint inflammation was induced by intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA, 8 mg/50 µl) and weight bearing percentage on right and left hindpaws during walking, paw withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimulation, and paw withdrawal latency to heat were measured to evaluate pain behavior. Intra-articular administration of RTX (0.03, 0.003 and 0.0003%) at 2 weeks after the induction of knee joint inflammation significantly improved reduction of weight bearing on the ipsilateral hindlimb and increased paw withdrawal sensitivity to mechanical and heat stimuli. The reduction of pain behavior persisted for 3~10 days according to each behavioral test. The MIA-induced increase in CGRP immunoreactivity in the spinal cord was decreased by RTX treatment in a dose-dependent manner. The present study demonstrated that a single intra-articular administration of RTX reduced pain behaviors for a relatively long time in an experimental model of OA and could normalize OA-associated changes in peptide expression in the spinal cord. PMID:26807032

  20. Is Mandibular Fossa Morphology and Articular Eminence Inclination Associated with Temporomandibular Dysfunction?

    PubMed Central

    Paknahad, Maryam; Shahidi, Shoaleh; Akhlaghian, Marzieh; Abolvardi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Finding a significant relationship between temporomandibular joint (TMJ) morphology and the incidence of temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) may help early prediction and prevention of these problems. Purpose The purpose of the present study was to determine the morphology of mandibular fossa and the articular eminence inclination in patients with TMD and in control group using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Method The CBCT data of bilateral TMJs of 40 patients with TMD and 23 symptom-free cases were evaluated. The articular eminence inclination, as well as the glenoid fossa depth and width of the mandibular fossa were measured. The paired t-test was used to compare these values between two groups. Results The articular eminence inclination and glenoid fossa width and depth were significantly higher in patients with TMD than in the control group (p < 0.05). Conclusion The articular eminence inclination was steeper in patients with TMD than in the control group. Glenoid fossa width and depth were higher in patients with TMD than that in the control group. This information may shed light on the relationship between TMJ morphology and the incidence of TMD. PMID:27284559

  1. Poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel as a biocompatible viscoelastic mimetic for articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Grant, Colin; Twigg, Pete; Egan, Alex; Moody, Alexandra; Smith, Annie; Eagland, Donald; Crowther, Nicholas; Britland, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of suboptimal outcome for surgical interventions in the treatment of full-thickness articular cartilage damage suggests that there is scope for a materials-based strategy to deliver a more durable repair. Given that the superficial layer of articular cartilage creates and sustains the tribological function of synovial joints, it is logical that candidate materials should have surface viscoelastic properties that mimic native articular cartilage. The present paper describes force spectroscopy analysis by nano-indentation to measure the elastic modulus of the surface of a novel poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel with therapeutic potential as a joint implant. More than 1 order of magnitude decrease in the elastic modulus was detected after adsorption of a hyaluronic acid layer onto the hydrogel, bringing it very close to previously reported values for articular cartilage. Covalent derivatization of the hydrogel surface with fibronectin facilitated the adhesion and growth of cultured rat tibial condyle chondrocytes as evidenced morphologically and by the observance of metachromatic staining with toluidine blue dye. The present results indicate that hydrogel materials with potential therapeutic benefit for injured and diseased joints can be engineered with surfaces with biomechanical properties similar to those of native tissue and are accepted as such by their constituent cell type.

  2. Cellular automata model for human articular chondrocytes migration, proliferation and cell death: An in vitro validation.

    PubMed

    Vaca-González, J J; Gutiérrez, M L; Guevara, J M; Garzón-Alvarado, D A

    2016-01-07

    Articular cartilage is characterized by low cell density of only one cell type, chondrocytes, and has limited self-healing properties. When articular cartilage is affected by traumatic injuries, a therapeutic strategy such as autologous chondrocyte implantation is usually proposed for its treatment. This approach requires in vitro chondrocyte expansion to yield high cell number for cell transplantation. To improve the efficiency of this procedure, it is necessary to assess cell dynamics such as migration, proliferation and cell death during culture. Computational models such as cellular automata can be used to simulate cell dynamics in order to enhance the result of cell culture procedures. This methodology has been implemented for several cell types; however, an experimental validation is required for each one. For this reason, in this research a cellular automata model, based on random-walk theory, was devised in order to predict articular chondrocyte behavior in monolayer culture during cell expansion. Results demonstrated that the cellular automata model corresponded to cell dynamics and computed-accurate quantitative results. Moreover, it was possible to observe that cell dynamics depend on weighted probabilities derived from experimental data and cell behavior varies according to the cell culture period. Thus, depending on whether cells were just seeded or proliferated exponentially, culture time probabilities differed in percentages in the CA model. Furthermore, in the experimental assessment a decreased chondrocyte proliferation was observed along with increased passage number. This approach is expected to having other uses as in enhancing articular cartilage therapies based on tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  3. Direct Quantification of Solute Diffusivity in Agarose and Articular Cartilage Using Correlation Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shoga, Janty S; Graham, Brian T; Wang, Liyun; Price, Christopher

    2017-06-13

    Articular cartilage is an avascular tissue; diffusive transport is critical for its homeostasis. While numerous techniques have been used to quantify diffusivity within porous, hydrated tissues and tissue engineered constructs, these techniques have suffered from issues regarding invasiveness and spatial resolution. In the present study, we implemented and compared two separate correlation spectroscopy techniques, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS), for the direct, and minimally-invasive quantification of fluorescent solute diffusion in agarose and articular cartilage. Specifically, we quantified the diffusional properties of fluorescein and Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated dextrans (3k and 10k) in aqueous solutions, agarose gels of varying concentration (i.e. 1, 3, 5%), and in different zones of juvenile bovine articular cartilage explants (i.e. superficial, middle, and deep). In agarose, properties of solute diffusion obtained via FCS and RICS were inversely related to molecule size, gel concentration, and applied strain. In cartilage, the diffusional properties of solutes were similarly dependent upon solute size, cartilage zone, and compressive strain; findings that agree with work utilizing other quantification techniques. In conclusion, this study established the utility of FCS and RICS as simple and minimally invasive techniques for quantifying microscale solute diffusivity within agarose constructs and articular cartilage explants.

  4. Optimal 3-D culture of primary articular chondrocytes for use in the Rotating Wall Vessel Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Mellor, Liliana F.; Baker, Travis L.; Brown, Raquel J.; Catlin, Lindsey W.; Oxford, Julia Thom

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Reliable culturing methods for primary articular chondrocytes are essential to study the effects of loading and unloading on joint tissue at the cellular level. Due to the limited proliferation capacity of primary chondrocytes and their tendency to dedifferentiate in conventional culture conditions, long-term culturing conditions of primary chondrocytes can be challenging. The goal of this study was to develop a suspension culturing technique that not only would retain the cellular morphology but also maintain gene expression characteristics of primary articular chondrocytes. METHODS Three-dimensional culturing methods were compared and optimized for primary articular chondrocytes in the rotating wall vessel bioreactor, which changes the mechanical culture conditions to provide a form of suspension culture optimized for low shear and turbulence. We performed gene expression analysis and morphological characterization of cells cultured in alginate beads, Cytopore-2 microcarriers, primary monolayer culture, and passaged monolayer cultures using reverse transcription-PCR and laser scanning confocal microscopy. RESULTS Primary chondrocytes grown on Cytopore-2 microcarriers maintained the phenotypical morphology and gene expression pattern observed in primary bovine articular chondrocytes, and retained these characteristics for up to 9 days. DISCUSSION Our results provide a novel and alternative culturing technique for primary chondrocytes suitable for studies that require suspension such as those using the rotating wall vessel bioreactor. In addition, we provide an alternative culturing technique for primary chondrocytes that can impact future mechanistic studies of osteoarthritis progression, treatments for cartilage damage and repair, and cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:25199120

  5. The role of BKCa channels on hyperpolarization mediated by hyperosmolarity in human articular chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Julio C; López-Zapata, Diego F

    2011-03-01

    Chondrocytes, the only cell in cartilage, are subjected to hyperosmotic challenges continuously since extracellular osmolarity in articular cartilage increases in response to mechanical loads during joint movement. Hyperosmolarity can affect membrane transport, and it is possible that load modulates matrix synthesis through alterations in intracellular composition. In the present study, the effects of hyperosmotic challenges were evaluated using the whole-cell patch clamp technique, whole cell mode on freshly isolated human and bovine articular chondrocytes. In human chondrocytes, hypertonicity induced the activation of outward Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) currents, which were inhibited by iberiotoxin and TEA-Cl. The current induced by hypertonic switching (osmolarity from 300 to 400 mOsm/l) caused cell hyperpolarization (from -39 mV to -70 mV) with a reversal potential of -96 ± 7 mV. These results suggest a role for Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels in human articular chondrocytes, leading to hyperpolarization as a consequence of K(+) efflux through these channels. These channels could have a role in the articular chondrocyte's response to a hyperosmotic challenge and matrix metabolism regulation by load.

  6. Anti-nociceptive effect of thalidomide on zymosan-induced experimental articular incapacitation.

    PubMed

    Vale, Mariana L; Cunha, Fernando Q; Brito, Gerly A C; Benevides, Verônica M; Ferreira, Sérgio H; Poole, Stephen; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A

    2006-05-01

    The anti-nociceptive effect of thalidomide on zymosan-induced articular knee joint incapacitation in rats was investigated. Thalidomide (5-45 mg/kg), given 30 min before but not 2 h after the intra-articular injection of zymosan, inhibited the nociceptive response in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, thalidomide pretreatment significantly reduced the concentration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha, -68.4%) in the exudate of zymosan-injected joints, but not those of interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, CINC-1 or interleukin-10. The expression of TNF-alpha, determined by immunohistochemical staining, in synovial tissues obtained from articular joints injected with zymosan was also inhibited by thalidomide pretreatment. The anti-nociceptive effect of thalidomide was not reversed by the co-administration of an opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, suggesting that endogenous opioids do not mediate the anti-nociceptive effect of thalidomide in this model. In conclusion, the anti-nociceptive activity of thalidomide in zymosan-induced articular incapacitation is associated with the inhibition of TNF-alpha by resident synovial cells.

  7. Regenerative Potential of Tissue-Engineered Nasal Chondrocytes in Goat Articular Cartilage Defects.

    PubMed

    Mumme, Marcus; Steinitz, Amir; Nuss, Katja M; Klein, Karina; Feliciano, Sandra; Kronen, Peter; Jakob, Marcel; von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Martin, Ivan; Barbero, Andrea; Pelttari, Karoliina

    2016-11-01

    Nasal chondrocytes (NC) were previously demonstrated to remain viable and to participate in the repair of articular cartilage defects in goats. Here, we investigated critical features of tissue-engineered grafts generated by NC in this large animal model, namely cell retention at the implantation site, architecture and integration with adjacent tissues, and effects on subchondral bone changes. In this study, isolated autologous goat NC (gNC) and goat articular chondrocytes (gAC, as control) were expanded, green fluorescent protein-labelled and seeded on a type I/III collagen membrane. After chondrogenic differentiation, tissue-engineered grafts were implanted into chondral defects (6 mm in diameter) in the stifle joint for 3 or 6 months. At the time of explantation, surrounding tissues showed no or very low (only in the infrapatellar fat pad <0.32%) migration of the grafted cells. In repair tissue, gNC formed typical structures of articular cartilage, such as flattened cells at the surface and column-like clusters in the middle layers. Semi-quantitative histological evaluation revealed efficient integration of the grafted tissues with the adjacent native cartilage and underlying subchondral bone. A significantly increased subchondral bone area, as a sign for the onset of osteoarthritis, was observed following treatment of cartilage defects with gAC-, but not with gNC-grafts. Our results reinforce the use of NC-based engineered tissue for articular cartilage repair and preliminarily indicate their potential for the treatment of early osteoarthritic defects.

  8. Frictional response of bovine articular cartilage under creep loading following proteoglycan digestion with chondroitinase ABC.

    PubMed

    Basalo, Ines M; Chen, Faye Hui; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2006-02-01

    The specific aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chondroitinase ABC treatment on the frictional response of bovine articular cartilage against glass, under creep loading. The hypothesis is that chondroitinase ABC treatment increases the friction coefficient of bovine articular cartilage under creep. Articular cartilage samples (n = 12) harvested from two bovine knee joints (1-3 months old) were divided into a control group (intact specimens) and a treated group (chondroitinase ABC digestion), and tested in unconfined compression with simultaneous continuous sliding (+/- 4 mm at 1 mm/s) under a constant applied stress of 0.5 MPa, for 2500 s. The time-dependent response of the friction coefficient was measured. With increasing duration of loading, treated samples exhibited a significantly higher friction coefficient than control samples as assessed by the equilibrium value (treated: micro(eq) = 0.19 +/- 0.02; control: micro(eq) = 0.12 +/- 0.03; p = 0.002), though the coefficient achieved immediately upon loading did not increase significantly (treated: micro(min) = 0.0053 +/- 0.0025; control: micro(min) = 0.037 +/- 0.0013; p = 0.19). Our results demonstrate that removal of the cartilage glycosaminoglycans using chondroitinase ABC significantly increases the overall time-dependent friction coefficient of articular cartilage. These findings strengthen the motivation for developing chondroprotective strategies by increasing cartilage chondroitin sulfate content in osteoarthritic joints.

  9. Comminuted C2 Articular Pillar Fracture in a Patient With Multiple Sclerosis and Recurrent Falls.

    PubMed

    Sault, Josiah D; Elliott, James M

    2015-12-01

    The patient was a 60-year-old woman, with long-standing balance deficits due to multiple sclerosis, referred to physical therapy by her primary care physician secondary to increasing fall frequency. Following evaluation, the physical therapist escorted the patient to her primary care physician's office, where a computed tomography scan was immediately performed, revealing a comminuted C2 articular pillar fracture.

  10. Serial variation in histological character of articular soft tissue in young human adult temporomandibular joint condyles.

    PubMed

    Bibb, C A; Pullinger, A G; Baldioceda, F

    1993-04-01

    Histological variation was studied in serial sections, in contrast to previous studies which have generalized from representative sections. The sample consisted of consecutive serial sagittal sections from the central third of nine condyles, plus an accompanying stone cast showing the intact articular surface before sectioning. The thickness of the articular soft tissue and its fibrous connective tissue and cartilage components was measured, and the presence of undifferentiated mesenchymal (UM) cells was assessed by low-power light microscopy. Components of variance analysis showed that section-to-section variation in thickness was of the same order as differences between joints, each explaining approx. 50% of the variance in both connective tissue and cartilage thickness. The fibrous connective tissue contributed as much to the overall variation in soft tissue thickness as did the cartilage component (SD 0.0946 versus 0.0909 mm for the superior sector). Serial UM cell variability was common, and the UM cells were often distributed in islands rather than uniformly across the articular tissue. Condyles with the greatest surface irregularity were characterized by greater serial variability in fibrous connective tissue thickness, more frequent absence of cartilage, and more areas of UM cell depletion. These results suggest that serial variation in histological character may be more important than mean values in the description of surface contours and articular tissue relations in the temporomandibular joint. This should influence the design of future investigations.

  11. Effect of corticosteroids on articular cartilage: have animal studies said everything?

    PubMed

    Vandeweerd, Jean-Michel; Zhao, Yang; Nisolle, Jean-François; Zhang, Wenhui; Zhihong, Liu; Clegg, Peter; Gustin, Pascal

    2015-10-01

    Intra-articular (IA) corticosteroids (CS) have been used in the treatment of osteoarthritis for many years, although their effects on articular cartilage are not fully understood. To identify whether previous animal studies have provided enough evidence about the effects of CS, we undertook a systematic review that identified 35 relevant in vivo animal experimental studies between 1965 and 2014 assessing the effects of CS on either normal cartilage, or in either induced osteoarthritis (OA) or synovitis. The quality of the methodology was assessed. Deleterious effects, both structural and biochemical, have mainly been reported in rabbits and are associated with frequent administration of CS, sometimes at high dose and with systemic side effects. In dogs, four identified studies concluded that there were beneficial effects with methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) and triamcinolone hexacetonide therapy. In horses, MPA was mostly deleterious, while triamcinolone acetonide had positive effects in one study highly rated at quality assessment. However, many methodological weaknesses have been identified, such as the lack of pharmacokinetic and pharmocodynamics data and the large variation in doses between studies, the limited selection criteria at baseline, the absence of blinding, and the lack of statistics or appropriate controls for testing the effects of the vehicle of the drug. Those methodological weaknesses weaken the conclusions of numerous studies that assess beneficial or deleterious effects of CS on articular cartilage. Animal studies have not yet provided definitive data, and further research is required into the role of CS in articular pathobiology.

  12. Glucosamine:chondroitin or ginger root extract have little effect on articular cartilage in swine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sows are culled at a high rate from breeding herds due to musclo-skeletal problems and lameness. Research in our laboratory has shown that even first-parity sows have significant amounts of osteochondritic lesions of their articular cartilage. Glusoamine chondroitin and ginger root extract have both...

  13. Acute and chronic response of articular cartilage to Ho:YAG laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trauner, Kenneth B.; Nishioka, Norman S.; Flotte, Thomas J.; Patel, Dinesh K.

    1992-06-01

    A Ho:YAG laser system operating at a wavelength of 2.1 microns has recently been introduced for use in arthroscopic surgery. The acceptability of this new tool will be determined not only by its ability to resect tissue, but also by its long term effects on articular surfaces. In order to investigate these issues further, we performed two studies to evaluate the acute and chronic effects of the laser on cartilaginous tissue. We evaluated the acute, in vitro effects of 2.1 micron laser irradiation on articular and fibrocartilage. This included the measurement of ablation efficiency, ablation threshold and thermal damage in both meniscus and articular cartilage. To document the chronic effects on articular cartilage in vivo, we next performed a ten week healing study. Eight sheep weighing 30 - 40 kg underwent bilateral arthrotomy procedures. Multiple full thickness and partial thickness defects were created. Animals were sacrificed at 0, 2, 4, and 10 weeks. The healing study demonstrated: (1) no healing of full or partial thickness defects at 10 weeks with hyaline cartilage; (2) fibrocartilaginous granulation tissue filling full thickness defects at two and four weeks, but no longer evident at ten weeks; (3) chondrocyte necrosis extending to greater than 900 microns distal to ablation craters at four weeks with no evidence of repair at later dates; and (4) chondrocyte hyperplasia at the borders of the damage zone at two weeks but no longer evident at later sacrifice dates.

  14. Preliminary investigation of intrinsic UV fluorescence spectroscopic changes associated with proteolytic digestion of bovine articular cartilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, William; Padilla-Martinez, Juan-Pablo; Ortega-Martinez, Antonio; Franco, Walfre

    2016-03-01

    Degradation and destruction of articular cartilage is the etiology of osteoarthritis (OA), an entity second only to cardiovascular disease as a cause of disability in the United States. Joint mechanics and cartilage biochemistry are believed to play a role in OA; an optical tool to detect structural and chemical changes in articular cartilage might offer benefit for its early detection and treatment. The objective of the present study was to identify the spectral changes in intrinsic ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence of cartilage that occur after proteolytic digestion of cartilage. Bovine articular cartilage samples were incubated in varying concentrations of collagenase ranging from 10ug/mL up to 5mg/mL for 18 hours at 37°C, a model of OA. Pre- and post-incubation measurements were taken of the UV excitation-emission spectrum of each cartilage sample. Mechanical tests were performed to determine the pre- and post-digestion force/displacement ratio associated with indentation of each sample. Spectral changes in intrinsic cartilage fluorescence and stiffness of the cartilage were associated with proteolytic digestion. In particular, changes in the relative intensity of fluorescence peaks associated with pentosidine crosslinks (330 nm excitation, 390 nm emission) and tryptophan (290 nm excitation, 340 nm emission) were found to correlate with different degrees of cartilage digestion and cartilage stiffness. In principle, it may be possible to use UV fluorescence spectral data for early detection of damage to articular cartilage, and as a surrogate measure for cartilage stiffness.

  15. Nondestructive imaging of fiber structure in articular cartilage using optical polarization tractography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Xuan; Wang, Yuanbo; Ravanfar, Mohammadreza; Pfeiffer, Ferris M.; Duan, Dongsheng; Yao, Gang

    2016-11-01

    Collagen fiber orientation plays an important role in determining the structure and function of the articular cartilage. However, there is currently a lack of nondestructive means to image the fiber orientation from the cartilage surface. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the newly developed optical polarization tractography (OPT) can image fiber structure in articular cartilage. OPT was applied to obtain the depth-dependent fiber orientation in fresh articular cartilage samples obtained from porcine phalanges. For comparison, we also obtained collagen fiber orientation in the superficial zone of the cartilage using the established split-line method. The direction of each split-line was quantified using image processing. The orientation measured in OPT agreed well with those obtained from the split-line method. The correlation analysis of a total of 112 split-lines showed a greater than 0.9 coefficient of determination (R2) between the split-line results and OPT measurements obtained between 40 and 108 μm in depth. In addition, the thickness of the superficial layer can also be assessed from the birefringence images obtained in OPT. These results support that OPT provides a nondestructive way to image the collagen fiber structure in articular cartilage. This technology may be valuable for both basic cartilage research and clinical orthopedic applications.

  16. Circadian Clocks in Articular Cartilage and Bone: A Compass in the Sea of Matrices.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nan; Meng, Qing-Jun

    2016-10-01

    Temporally coordinated resorption and synthesis is the key to maintaining healthy bones. Articular cartilage is a highly specialized connective tissue within the joints that lines the surface of a long bone. Emerging evidence has suggested a critical role of the circadian system in controlling cartilage and bone biology. Articular cartilage is sparsely populated with chondrocytes, surrounded by abundant extracellular matrices that are synthesized and maintained solely by chondrocytes. Once damaged, the articular cartilage tissue has poor capacity for endogenous repair, leaving the joints prone to osteoarthritis, an age-related painful condition that affects millions of individuals worldwide. An important question is how articular cartilage has evolved its remarkable capacity to maintain homeostasis and withstand daily biomechanical challenges associated with resting/activity cycles. Equally important is how this avascular and aneural tissue senses time and uses this information to coordinate daily phases of metabolic activity and tissue remodeling/repair. Bone tissue derived from cartilage has similarly sparse populations of resident cells living in dense and largely mineralized matrices. We discuss recent progress on circadian clocks in these matrix-rich skeletal tissues and highlight avenues for future research.

  17. Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS): A Potential Arthroscopic Tool for Quantitative Assessment of Articular Cartilage.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan-Ping; Zheng, Yong-Ping

    2009-06-26

    Conventional ultrasound examination of the articular cartilage performed externally on the body surface around the joint has limited accuracy due to the inadequacy in frequency used. In contrast to this, minimally invasive arthroscopy-based ultrasound with adequately high frequency may be a better alternative to assess the cartilage. Up to date, no special ultrasound transducer for imaging the cartilage in arthroscopic use has been designed. In this study, we introduced the intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) for this purpose. An IVUS system with a catheter-based probe (Ø approximately 1mm) was used to measure the thickness and surface acoustical reflection of the bovine patellar articular cartilage in vitro before and after degeneration induced by enzyme treatments. Similar measurement was performed using another high frequency ultrasound system (Vevo) with a probe of much larger size and the results were compared between the two systems. The thickness measured using IVUS was highly correlated (r = 0.985, p < 0.001) with that obtained by Vevo. Thickness and surface reflection amplitude measured using IVUS on the enzymatically digested articular cartilage showed changes similar to those obtained by Vevo, which were expectedly consistent with previous investigations. IVUS can be potentially used for the quantitative assessment of articular cartilage, with its ready-to-use arthroscopic feature.

  18. Condyle Excursion Angle, Articular Eminence Inclination, and Temporomandibular Joint Morphologic Relations With Disc Displacement.

    PubMed

    Rabelo, Katharina Alves; Sousa Melo, Saulo Leonardo; Torres, Marianna Guanaes Gomes; Campos, Paulo Sérgio F; Bento, Patrícia Meira; Melo, Daniela Pita de

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relations of the condyle excursion angle (CEA) and the morphology and morphometry of the articular eminence to disc displacement (DD) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of symptomatic patients. MRIs of 199 temporomandibular joints (TMJs) were evaluated. Qualitative and quantitative morphologic analyses were performed with tools available in PACS 11.0 (Carestream Health, Inc, Rochester, NY). The articular eminence inclination (AEI), eminence height (EH), CEA, and articular eminence morphologic shape were evaluated. Statistical analyses were used to evaluate any possible association of the variables with DD in the closed- and open-mouth positions, age, and gender. The significance level was set at .05. Elderly women (>60 yr) presented higher prevalence values (43.26%). There was no statistical correlation between DD and gender (P = .4290). Higher mean values of the AEI and EH were associated with box-shaped eminences. The EH, AEI, and CEA were not related to the presence or absence of DD and the different types of DD. The AEI (P = .002) and CEA (P < .001) values were higher for TMJs with disc reduction in the open-mouth position. Disc position in the closed- and open-mouth positions is not influenced by articular eminence morphology; however, the AEI and CEA have an influence on disc reduction. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of joint immobilization on articular cartilage of the knee in previously exercised rats

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Diogo Correa; da Silva, Marcelo Cavenaghi Pereira; Neto, Semaan El-Razi; Souza, Mônica Rodrigues; Souza, Romeu Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Studies have determined the effects of joint immobilization on the articular cartilage of sedentary animals, but we are not aware of any studies reporting the effects of joint immobilization in previously trained animals. The objective of the present study was to determine whether exercise could prevent degeneration of the articular cartilage that accompanies joint immobilization. We used light microscopy to study the thickness, cell density, nuclear size, and collagen density of articular cartilage of the femoral condyle of Wistar rats subjected to aerobic physical activity on an adapted treadmill five times per week. Four groups of Wistar rats were used: a control group (C), an immobilized group (I), an exercised group (E), and an exercised and then immobilized group (EI). The right knee joints from rats in groups I and EI were immobilized at 90 °C of flexion using a plastic cast for 8 weeks. Cartilage thickness decreased significantly in group I (mean, 120.14 ± 15.6 μm, P < 0.05), but not in group EI (mean, 174 ± 2.25), and increased significantly in group E (mean, 289.49 ± 9.15) compared with group C (mean, 239.20 ± 6.25). The same results were obtained for cell density, nuclear size, and collagen density (in all cases, P < 0.05). We concluded that exercise can prevent degenerative changes in femoral articular cartilage caused by immobilization of the knee joint. PMID:23480127

  20. An ultrasonic measurement for in vitro depth-dependent equilibrium strains of articular cartilage in compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y. P.; Mak, A. F. T.; Lau, K. P.; Qin, L.

    2002-09-01

    The equilibrium depth-dependent biomechanical properties of articular cartilage were measured using an ultrasound-compression method. Ten cylindrical bovine patella cartilage-bone specimens were tested in compression followed by a period of force-relaxation. A 50 MHz focused ultrasound beam was transmitted into the cartilage specimen through a remaining bone layer and a small hole at the centre of a specimen platform. The ultrasound echoes reflected or scattered within the articular cartilage were collected using the same transducer. The displacements of the tissues at different depths of the articular cartilage were derived from the ultrasound echo signals recorded during the compression and the subsequent force-relaxation. For two steps of 0.1 mm compression, the average strain at the superficial 0.2 mm thick layer (0.35 +/- 0.09) was significantly (p < 0.05) larger than that at the subsequent 0.2 mm thick layer (0.05 +/- 0.07) and that at deeper layers (0.01 +/- 0.02). It was demonstrated that the compressive biomechanical properties of cartilage were highly depth-dependent. The results suggested that the ultrasound-compression method could be a useful tool for the study of the depth-dependent biomechanical properties of articular cartilage.

  1. Secretome analysis of human articular chondrocytes unravels catabolic effects of nicotine on the joint.

    PubMed

    Lourido, Lucía; Calamia, Valentina; Fernández-Puente, Patricia; Mateos, Jesús; Oreiro, Natividad; Blanco, Francisco J; Ruiz-Romero, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint pathology characterized by articular cartilage degradation that lacks from efficient therapy. Since previous epidemiological data show a high controversy regarding the role of smoking in OA, we aimed to evaluate the effects of nicotine (the most physiologically active compound of tobacco) on the joint. Secretome analyses, based on metabolic labeling followed by LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis, were carried out using an in vitro model of articular inflammation (primary human articular chondrocytes treated with interleukin-1β), and also on osteoarthritic cells. ELISA and Western blot assays were performed to verify some of the results. Nineteen proteins were altered by nicotine in the model of articular inflammation, including several cytokines and proteases. We confirmed the increased secretion by nicotine of matrix metalloproteinase 1 and two proposed markers of OA, fibronectin, and chitinase 3-like protein 1. Finally, four components of the extracellular matrix of cartilage were decreased by nicotine in OA chondrocytes. Our data contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that are modulated by nicotine in cartilage cells, suggesting a negative effect of this drug on the joint. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Role of platelet-rich plasma in articular cartilage injury and disease.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, Randy; Saltzman, Bryan M; Fortier, Lisa A; Cole, Brian J

    2015-02-01

    Clinical and laboratory research aimed at biological approaches to cartilage repair are currently in high demand due to the poor regenerative capacity of articular cartilage in the setting of a diseased articular environment. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) takes advantage of supraphysiological concentrations of platelets and their growth factors harbored in α-granules, which together attempt to return the diseased articular cartilage to a preinjury state. The local use of PRP directly at the site of cartilage injury is thought to stimulate a natural healing cascade and accelerate the formation of cartilage repair tissue. This article provides an overview of the basic science behind the use of PRP in the treatment of cartilage injury and disease. Both initial and current examples of the use of intra-articular PRP in clinical human studies are provided. These include the use of PRP either alone or as an augmentation device with various other procedures, including arthroscopic microfracture and cell-free resorbable polyglycolic acid-hyaluronan implantation. Finally, the authors describe some of the potential future roles of PRP in clinical settings based on recent literature. These include Achilles tendon rupture, chronic tendinosis, chronic rotator cuff tendinopathy or tearing, muscle injury, and meniscal repair. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Extra-articular manifestations of ankylosing spondylitis: prevalence, characteristics and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    El Maghraoui, Abdellah

    2011-12-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is the most frequent and most severe subtype of spondyloarthritis and can be an outcome of any of the other spondyloarthritis subtypes. It primarily affects the axial joints, most notably the sacroiliac joints. Other sites of involvement include the spine, peripheral joints, and entheses (capsules, ligaments, and tendons). Inflammatory enthesopathy progressing to ossification and ankylosis is the pathologic basis for the disease. Extra-articular manifestations vary widely in terms of both frequency and severity. The most common extra-articular manifestations are represented by uveitis, bowel disease, heart, lung, skin, bone and kidney involvement. This review focuses on prevalence and clinical characteristics of the most common extra-articular manifestations in AS, and discuss the diagnosis and therapeutic difficulties that rheumatologists faces when dealing with such manifestations. The advantages of treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), especially if continuous use is envisaged, should be weighted against possible gastrointestinal and cardiovascular disadvantages. In the presence of history of gastrointestinal complaints or a high cardiovascular risk, NSAIDs should be used with caution. TNF inhibition has demonstrated effectiveness in the treatment of AS symptoms and all currently available anti-TNF agents appear to have similar efficacy. However, the efficacy of anti-TNF agents varies in the presence of extra-articular manifestations. Etanercept appears to have very little effect on inflammatory bowel disease and limited efficacy on the course of uveitis probably inferior to the monoclonal antibodies infliximab and adalimumab.

  4. Infrared microspectroscopic determination of collagen cross-links in articular cartilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieppo, Lassi; Kokkonen, Harri T.; Kulmala, Katariina A. M.; Kovanen, Vuokko; Lammi, Mikko J.; Töyräs, Juha; Saarakkala, Simo

    2017-03-01

    Collagen forms an organized network in articular cartilage to give tensile stiffness to the tissue. Due to its long half-life, collagen is susceptible to cross-links caused by advanced glycation end-products. The current standard method for determination of cross-link concentrations in tissues is the destructive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The aim of this study was to analyze the cross-link concentrations nondestructively from standard unstained histological articular cartilage sections by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy. Half of the bovine articular cartilage samples (n=27) were treated with threose to increase the collagen cross-linking while the other half (n=27) served as a control group. Partial least squares (PLS) regression with variable selection algorithms was used to predict the cross-link concentrations from the measured average FTIR spectra of the samples, and HPLC was used as the reference method for cross-link concentrations. The correlation coefficients between the PLS regression models and the biochemical reference values were r=0.84 (p<0.001), r=0.87 (p<0.001) and r=0.92 (p<0.001) for hydroxylysyl pyridinoline (HP), lysyl pyridinoline (LP), and pentosidine (Pent) cross-links, respectively. The study demonstrated that FTIR microspectroscopy is a feasible method for investigating cross-link concentrations in articular cartilage.

  5. Sexual dimorphism in the osteoarthritis of STR/ort mice may be linked to articular cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Mahr, S; Menard, J; Krenn, V; Muller, B

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the early changes leading to OA by examining the articular cytokine expression and degenerative changes in STR/ort mice. Methods: 122 STR/ort mice of both sexes aged between 2 and 15.5 months were included. Thin sections of the knees were analysed for osteoarthritic changes by haematoxylin/eosin staining. The articular cytokine expression was investigated by immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibodies specific for interleukin (IL)6, tumour necrosis factor α, transforming growth factor ß1 (TGFß1), IL1ß, IL4, and IL10, respectively. Results: Both cartilage degeneration and articular cytokine expression differ between the sexes. The protection from cartilage degeneration in the female mice correlates with an increased expression of TGFß1 and IL4 at 2 months of age. Conclusion: The increased expression of TGFß1 and IL4 in young STR/ort female mice suggests that the sexual dimorphism is mediated through the articular expression of cytokines involved in cartilage metabolism. PMID:14644868

  6. Noncontact evaluation of articular cartilage degeneration using a novel ultrasound water jet indentation system.

    PubMed

    Lu, M-H; Zheng, Y P; Huang, Q-H; Ling, C; Wang, Q; Bridal, L; Qin, L; Mak, A

    2009-01-01

    We previously reported a noncontact ultrasound water jet indentation system for measuring and mapping tissue mechanical properties. The key idea was to utilize a water jet as an indenter as well as the coupling medium for high-frequency ultrasound. In this paper, the system was employed to assess articular cartilage degeneration, using stiffness ratio as an indicator of the mechanical properties of samples. Both the mechanical and acoustical properties of intact and degenerated bovine patellar articular cartilage (n = 8) were obtained in situ. It was found that the stiffness ratio was reduced by 44 +/- 17% after the articular cartilage was treated by 0.25% trypsin at 37 degrees C for 4 h while no significant difference in thickness was observed between the intact and degenerated samples. A significant decrease of 36 +/- 20% in the peak-to-peak amplitude of ultrasound echoes reflected from the cartilage surface was also found for the cartilage samples treated by trypsin. The results also showed that the stiffness obtained with the new method highly correlated with that measured using a standard mechanical testing protocol. A good reproducibility of the measurements was demonstrated. The present results showed that the ultrasound water jet indentation system may provide a potential tool for the non-destructive evaluation of articular cartilage degeneration by simultaneously obtaining mechanical properties, acoustical properties, and thickness data.

  7. Partial articular-sided rotator cuff tears: in situ repair versus tear completion prior to repair.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Paul M; Rajaram, Arun; Obopilwe, Elifho; Mazzocca, Augustus D

    2013-06-01

    Uncertainty exists over the ideal surgical treatment method for partial articular-sided rotator cuff tears, with options ranging from debridement to in situ repair to tear completion prior to repair. The purpose of this study was to determine whether in situ repair was a viable biomechanical treatment option compared with tear completion prior to repair of partial articular-sided rotator cuff tears. Fourteen fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders were dissected. Partial articular-sided tears were created and repaired using in situ repair or tear completion prior to the repair. Strain and displacement were measured at 45°, 60°, and 90° of glenohumeral abduction. Testing was performed with a load of 100 N applied for 30 cycles. Data from the biomechanical testing displayed 4 conditions that showed improved characteristics of in situ repair over completion and repair: bursal-sided strain anteriorly at 45°, bursal-sided strain anteriorly at 90°, bursal-sided displacement anteriorly at 45°, and bursal-sided displacement anteriorly at 90°. The data indicate that in situ repair is a viable biomechanical treatment option compared with tear completion prior to repair of partial articular-sided rotator cuff tears. When clinically appropriate, the in situ repair may offer some biomechanical advantages, with lower strain and displacement observed on the bursal side compared with tear completion prior to repair. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Site dependence of thickness and speed of sound in articular cartilage of bovine patella.

    PubMed

    Patil, S G; Zheng, Y P; Chen, Xin

    2010-08-01

    Researchers have made efforts to quantify thickness of articular cartilage as well as its acoustic and mechanical properties using various ultrasound (US) techniques during the last decades, because they are important indicators of articular cartilage degeneration. However, the variation of the thickness and speed of sound of articular cartilage at different anatomical sites would result in the uncertainty of US assessment of degeneration. In this paper, the site dependences of speed of sound and thickness of bovine patellar articular cartilage (n = 10) were investigated using a custom-made US measurement system. The thickness and speed of sound of articular cartilage at different locations of the bovine patella were measured on excised specimens ex situ using a noncontact US approach. A total of 10 patellae were tested. The results showed the overall mean value of the speed of sound in the articular cartilage at the 25 measured sites was 1626 +/- 86 m/s (range, 1507 to 1834 m/s). No statistically significant difference in the speed of sound was observed among the 25 locations or among the four quadrants of the patella. The highest speed of sound (1834 +/- 74 m/s) was obtained at the medial-upper quadrant and the lowest value (1507 +/- 74 m/s) at the medial-lower quadrant. Further grouping of the data revealed that the speed of sound in the central region (1633 +/- 21 m/s) was significantly (p < 0.01) larger than that for the surrounding region (1621 +/- 22 m/s). The overall mean thickness of the patellar articular cartilage was 1.34 +/- 0.34 mm. No significant difference was obtained in the thickness among the 25 locations and also among the four quadrants. However, when the thickness values were divided diagonally, a significant difference (p < 0.01) was observed between the upper region (1.27 +/- 0.11 mm) and the lower region (1.31 +/- 0.41 mm) of the patellae. Although no significant differences in the thickness and speed of sound among the tested sites were

  9. Pharmacokinetics of triamcinolone acetonide following intramuscular and intra-articular administration to exercised Thoroughbred horses.

    PubMed

    Knych, H K; Vidal, M A; Casbeer, H C; McKemie, D S

    2013-11-01

    The use of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) in performance horses necessitates establishing appropriate withdrawal times prior to performance. To describe the plasma pharmacokinetics of TA and time-related urine and synovial fluid concentrations following i.m. and intra-articular administration to exercised Thoroughbred horses. Block design. Twelve racing fit adult Thoroughbred horses received a single i.m. administration of TA (0.1 mg/kg bwt). After an appropriate washout period, the same horses then received a single intra-articular TA administration (9 mg) into the right antebrachiocarpal joint. Blood, urine and synovial fluid samples were collected prior to, and at various times, up to 60 days post drug administration and analysed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Plasma data were analysed using noncompartmental analysis. Maximum measured plasma TA concentrations were 0.996 ± 0.391 at 13.2 h and 1.27 ± 0.278 ng/ml at 6.5 h for i.m. and intra-articular administration, respectively. The plasma terminal elimination half-life was 11.4 ± 6.53 and 0.78 ± 1.00 days for i.m. and intra-articular administration, respectively. Following i.m. administration, TA was below the limit of detection (LOD) by Days 52 and 60 in plasma and urine, respectively. Following intra-articular administration TA was undetectable by Day 7 in plasma and Day 8 in urine. Triamcinolone acetonide was also undetectable in any of the joints sampled following i.m. administration and remained above the limit of quantitation (LOQ) for 21 days following intra-articular administration. This study extends previous studies describing the pharmacokinetics of TA following i.m. and intra-articular administration to the horse and suggests that plasma and urine concentrations are not a good indicator of synovial fluid concentrations. Furthermore, results of this study supports an extended withdrawal time for TA given i.m. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  10. Biomechanical analysis of articular-sided partial-thickness rotator cuff tear and repair.

    PubMed

    Mihata, Teruhisa; McGarry, Michelle H; Ishihara, Yoko; Bui, Christopher N H; Alavekios, Damon; Neo, Masashi; Lee, Thay Q

    2015-02-01

    Articular-sided partial-thickness rotator cuff tears are common injuries in throwing athletes. The superior shoulder capsule beneath the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons works as a stabilizer of the glenohumeral joint. To assess the effect of articular-sided partial-thickness rotator cuff tear and repair on shoulder biomechanics. The hypothesis was that shoulder laxity might be changed because of superior capsular plication in transtendon repair of articular-sided partial-thickness rotator cuff tears. Controlled laboratory study. Nine fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders were tested by using a custom shoulder-testing system at the simulated late-cocking phase and acceleration phase of throwing motion. Maximum glenohumeral external rotation angle, anterior translation, position of the humeral head apex with respect to the glenoid, internal impingement area, and glenohumeral and subacromial contact pressures were measured. Each specimen underwent 3 stages of testing: stage 1, with the intact shoulder; stage 2, after creation of articular-sided partial-thickness tears of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons; and stage 3, after transtendon repair of the torn tendons by using 2 suture anchors. Articular-sided partial-thickness tears did not significantly change any of the shoulder biomechanical measurements. In the simulated late-cocking phase, transtendon rotator cuff repair resulted in decreased maximum external rotation angle by 4.2° (P = .03), posterior shift of the humeral head (1.1-mm shift; P = .02), decreased glenohumeral contact pressure by 1.7 MPa (56%; P = .004), and decreased internal impingement area by 26.4 mm(2) (65%; P < .001) compared with values in the torn shoulder. In the acceleration phase, the humeral head shifted inferiorly (1.2-mm shift; P = .03 vs torn shoulder), and glenohumeral anterior translation (1.5-mm decrease; P = .03 vs torn shoulder) and subacromial contact pressure (32% decrease; P = .004 vs intact shoulder) decreased

  11. Regeneration of Articular Cartilage in Lizard Knee from Resident Stem/Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2015-09-01

    The epiphysis of femur and tibia in the lizard Podarcis muralis can extensively regenerate after injury. The process involves the articular cartilage and metaphyseal (growth) plate after damage. The secondary ossification center present between the articular cartilage and the growth plate is replaced by cartilaginous epiphyses after about one month of regeneration at high temperature. The present study analyzes the origin of the chondrogenic cells from putative stem cells located in the growing centers of the epiphyses. The study is carried out using immunocytochemistry for the detection of 5BrdU-labeled long retaining cells and for the localization of telomerase, an enzyme that indicates stemness. The observations show that putative stem cells retaining 5BrdU and positive for telomerase are present in the superficial articular cartilage and metaphyseal growth plate located in the epiphyses. This observation suggests that these areas represent stem cell niches lasting for most of the lifetime of lizards. In healthy long bones of adult lizards, the addition of new chondrocytes from the stem cells population in the articular cartilage and the metaphyseal growth plate likely allows for slow, continuous longitudinal growth. When the knee is injured in the adult lizard, new populations of chondrocytes actively producing chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan are derived from these stem cells to allow for the formation of completely new cartilaginous epiphyses, possibly anticipating the re-formation of secondary centers in later stages. The study suggests that in this lizard species, the regenerative ability of the epiphyses is a pre-adaptation to the regeneration of the articular cartilage.

  12. Clinical utility of ultrasound guidance for intra-articular knee injections: a review

    PubMed Central

    Berkoff, David J; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

    2012-01-01

    Intra-articular corticosteroid and hyaluronic acid injections provide short-term symptom amelioration for arthritic conditions involving structural damage or degenerative changes in the knee. Conventional palpation-guided anatomical injections frequently result in inaccurate needle placement into extra-articular tissue and adjacent structures. The purpose of this review was to determine the effect of ultrasound guidance on the accuracy of needle placement, clinical outcomes, and cost-effectiveness in comparison with anatomical landmark-guided intra-articular large joint injections, with particular emphasis on the knee. A total of 13 relevant studies were identified; five studied the knee, seven studied the shoulder, one used both the knee and shoulder, and none studied the hip. Ultrasound was used in seven studies; the remaining studies utilized air arthrography, fluoroscopy, magnetic resonance arthrography, or magnetic resonance imaging. Across all studies (using all imaging modalities and all joints), needle placement accuracy ranged from 63% to 100% with ultrasound and from 39% to 100% with conventional anatomical guidance. Imaging guidance improved the accuracy of intra-articular injections of the knee (96.7% versus 81.0%, P < 0.001) and shoulder (97.3% versus 65.4%, P < 0.001). In particular, ultrasound guidance of knee injections resulted in better accuracy than anatomical guidance (95.8% versus 77.8%, P < 0.001), yielding an odds ratio of 6.4 (95% confidence interval 2.9–14). Ultrasound guidance notably improves injection accuracy in the target intra-articular joint space of large joints including the knee. The enhanced injection accuracy achieved with ultrasound needle guidance directly improves patient-reported clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness. PMID:22500117

  13. A noncontacting method for material property determination for articular cartilage from osmotic loading.

    PubMed Central

    Narmoneva, D A; Wang, J Y; Setton, L A

    2001-01-01

    Articular cartilage is one of several biological tissues in which swelling effects are important in tissue mechanics and function, and may serve as an indicator of degenerative joint disease. This work presents a new approach to quantify swelling effects in articular cartilage, as well as to determine the material properties of cartilage from a simple free-swelling test. Samples of nondegenerate and degenerate human patellar cartilage were subjected to osmotic loading by equilibrating the tissue in solutions of varying osmolarity. The resulting swelling-induced strains were measured using a noncontacting optical method. A theoretical formulation of articular cartilage in a free-swelling configuration was developed based on an inhomogeneous, triphasic mechano-chemical model. Optimization of the model predictions to the experimental data was performed to determine two parameters descriptive of material stiffness at the surface and deeper cartilage layers, and a third parameter descriptive of thickness of the cartilage surface layer. These parameters were used to determine the thickness-averaged uniaxial modulus of cartilage, H(A). The obtained values for H(A) were similar to those for the tensile modulus of human cartilage reported in the literature. Degeneration resulted in an increase in thickness of the region of "apparent cartilage softening," and a decrease in the value for uniaxial modulus at this layer. These findings provide important evidence that collagen matrix disruption starts at the articular surface and progresses into the deeper layers with continued degeneration. These results suggest that the method provides a means to quantify the severity and depth of degenerative changes in articular cartilage. This method may also be used to determine material properties of cartilage in small joints in which conventional testing methods are difficult to apply. PMID:11720975

  14. Disparate Response of Articular- and Auricular-derived Chondrocytes to Oxygen Tension

    PubMed Central

    Kean, Thomas J.; Mera, Hisashi; Whitney, G. Adam; MacKay, Danielle L.; Awadallah, Amad; Fernandes, Russell J.; Dennis, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Aim To determine the effect of reduced (5%) oxygen tension on chondrogenesis of auricular-derived chondrocytes. Currently, many cell and tissue culture experiments are performed at 20% oxygen with 5% carbon dioxide. Few cells in the body are subjected to this supra-physiological oxygen tension. Chondrocytes and their mesenchymal progenitors are widely reported to have greater chondrogenic expression when cultured at low, more physiological, oxygen tension (1–7%). Although generally accepted, there is still some controversy, and different culture methods, species, and outcome metrics cloud the field. These results are, however, articular chondrocyte biased and have not been reported for auricular-derived chondrocytes. Materials and Methods Auricular and articular chondrocytes were isolated from skeletally mature New Zealand White rabbits, expanded in culture and differentiated in high density cultures with serum free chondrogenic media. Cartilage tissue derived from aggregate cultures or from the tissue engineered sheets were assessed for biomechanical, glycosaminoglycan, collagen, collagen cross-links, and lysyl oxidase activity and expression. Results Our studies show increased proliferation rates for both auricular and articular chondrocytes at low (5%) O2 versus standard (20%) O2. In our scaffold free chondrogenic cultures, low O2 was found to increase articular chondrocyte accumulation of glycosaminoglycan, but not cross-linked type II collagen, or total collagen. Conversely, auricular chondrocytes accumulated less glycosaminoglycan, cross-linked type II collagen and total collagen under low oxygen tension. Conclusions This study highlights the dramatic difference in response to low O2 of chondrocytes isolated from different anatomical sites. Low O2 is beneficial for articular-derived chondrogenesis but detrimental for auricular-derived chondrogenesis. PMID:27128439

  15. Subcutaneous Lipoatrophy and Skin Depigmentation Secondary to TMJ Intra-Articular Corticosteroid Injection.

    PubMed

    Skármeta, Nicolás Patricio; Hormazábal, Fernando Ariel; Alvarado, Juan; Rodriguez, Ana Maria

    2017-08-05

    Chronic orofacial pain is a complex multidimensional experience that produces disability and impairment of normal mandibular function. Overall estimations of chronic orofacial pain prevalence are 7 to 11% of the general population. Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are one of the most prevalent chronic orofacial pain conditions, with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthralgia accounting for 30.1% of TMD patients. Interventional procedures are often used in pain and palliative medicine to achieve reasonable and cost-effective pain relief. The use of intra-articular corticosteroids in relieving arthralgia and improving joint function has been well documented. We present the clinical case of an 84-year-old female patient who presented to the Hospital del Salvador orofacial pain service with preauricular pain, limited range of motion, provoked pain at palpation, and decreased function in the preauricular region. In accordance with the DC/TMD criteria, left TMJ arthralgia and degenerative joint disease was diagnosed and was later corroborated by cone beam computed tomography. An intra-articular injection of 10 mg of methylprednisolone was prescribed, and the patient underwent the procedure in accordance with Hospital del Salvador's intra-articular injection protocol. The patient underwent the intervention without any inconvenience. At the 3-week follow-up visit, the patient presented with a depigmented depression zone adjacent to the site of injection. After echotomography, we concluded that the patient had developed skin depigmentation and subcutaneous lipoatrophy related to the intra-articular injection of methylprednisolone. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this complication secondary to an interventional procedure in the TMJ. Clinicians should be aware of, and patients must be advised of, this rare complication before an intra-articular intervention. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by

  16. Volar plate fixation of intra-articular distal radius fractures: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Fok, Margaret W M; Klausmeyer, Melissa A; Fernandez, Diego L; Orbay, Jorge L; Bergada, Alex Lluch

    2013-08-01

    Background Intra-articular fractures of the distal radius represent a therapeutic challenge as compared with the unstable extra-articular fractures. With the recent development of specifically designed internal fixation materials for the distal radius, treatment of these fractures by fragment-specific implants using two or more incisions has been advocated. Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a fixed-angle locking plate applied through a single volar approach in maintaining the radiographic alignment of unstable intra-articular fractures as well as to report the clinical outcomes. We only excluded those with massive comminution, as is discussed in greater detail in the text. Patients and Methods This is a multicentered, retrospective study involving three hospitals situated in Spain, Switzerland, and the United States. In the period between January 2000 and March 2006, 97 patients with 101 intra-articular distal radius fractures, including 13 volarly displaced and 88 dorsally angulated fractures were analyzed. Over 80% were C2/C3 fractures, based on the AO classification. 16 open fractures were noted. Results With an average follow-up of 28 months (range 24-70 months), the range of movement of the wrist was very satisfactory, and the mean grip strength was 81% of the opposite wrist. The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score was 8. The complications rate was < 5%, including loss of reduction in two patients. All fractures healed by 3 months postinjury. Conclusions Irrespective of the direction and amount of initial displacement, a great majority of intra-articular fractures of the distal radius can be managed with a fixed-angle volar plate through a single volar approach. Level IV retrospective case series.

  17. Intrinsic innervation of the rat knee joint articular capsule and ligaments.

    PubMed

    Marinozzi, G; Ferrante, F; Gaudio, E; Ricci, A; Amenta, F

    1991-01-01

    In spite of the practical importance of having a detailed knowledge of knee joint innervation to understand the pathophysiologic aspects, little information is now available concerning the density and pattern of the nerve fibres which are distributed to it. The present study has been designed to investigate the density and distribution of nerve fibres and receptor corpuscles in the knee joint articular capsule, cruciate and collateral ligaments in the rat, using the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemical in toto staining technique. The investigation was performed on male Wistar rats of 3 months of age, some of which had been treated with capsaicin to deplete their afferent 'C' fibres of their content of neuropeptides. AChE-positive nerve fibres and different types of receptor corpuscle endings were found within articular capsule and ligaments. The highest density of AChE-positive nerve fibres was noticeable in the fibular collateral ligament followed by the tibial collateral ligament, the posterior cruciate ligament, the anterior cruciate ligament and the articular capsule. In the articular capsule the number of type I endings was higher than in the ligaments. The opposite is true for the other type of receptor corpuscles found as well as for nerve endings. Capsaicin treatment significantly reduced the density of AChE-positive nerve fibres in knee joint ligaments but did not affect nerve fibres in the articular capsule. Moreover, it caused the disappearance of some kind of receptor corpuscles within the collateral and cruciate ligaments. The above data collectively suggest that the AChE in toto staining technique may represent a good method for investigating joint innervation and that a significant percentage of nerve fibres supplying knee joint ligaments is represented by C fibre afferents.

  18. Extra-articular step osteotomy of the olecranon: A biomechanical assessment.

    PubMed

    Zumstein, Matthias A; Bürki, Alexander; Massy, Anne-Sophie; Zysset, Philippe; Moor, Beat K

    2015-12-01

    Trans-olecranon chevron osteotomies (COs) remain the gold standard surgical approach to type C fractures of the distal humerus. This technique is associated with a high complication rate and development of an extra-articular olecranon osteotomy may be advantageous. The aim of this study was to compare the load to failure of COs with extra-articular oblique osteotomies (OOs) as well as modified, extra-articular step osteotomies (SOs). These three osteotomies and their subsequent fixation utilizing a standardized tension band wiring technique were tested in 42 composite analog ulnae models at 20° and 70° of flexion. Triceps loading was simulated with a servo hydraulic testing machine. All specimens were isometrically loaded until failure. Kinematic and force data, as well as interfragmentary motion were recorded. At 70°, CO failed at a mean load of 963 N (SD 104 N), the OO at 1512 N (SD 208 N) and the SO at 1484 N (SD 153 N), (P<0.001). At 20°, CO failed at a mean load of 707 N (SD 104 N) and OO at 1009 N (SD 85 N) (P=0.006). The highest load to failure was observed for the SO, which was 1277 N (SD 172 N). The load to failure of the SO was significantly higher than the CO as well as the OO. Extra-articular osteotomies showed a significantly higher load to failure in comparison to traditional CO. At near full extension (20° of flexion), this biomechanical advantage was further enhanced by a step-cut modification of the extra-articular oblique osteotomy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Disparate response of articular- and auricular-derived chondrocytes to oxygen tension.

    PubMed

    Kean, Thomas J; Mera, Hisashi; Whitney, G Adam; MacKay, Danielle L; Awadallah, Amad; Fernandes, Russell J; Dennis, James E

    2016-07-01

    To determine the effect of reduced (5%) oxygen tension on chondrogenesis of auricular-derived chondrocytes. Currently, many cell and tissue culture experiments are performed at 20% oxygen with 5% carbon dioxide. Few cells in the body are subjected to this supra-physiological oxygen tension. Chondrocytes and their mesenchymal progenitors are widely reported to have greater chondrogenic expression when cultured at low, more physiological, oxygen tension (1-7%). Although generally accepted, there is still some controversy, and different culture methods, species, and outcome metrics cloud the field. These results are, however, articular chondrocyte biased and have not been reported for auricular-derived chondrocytes. Auricular and articular chondrocytes were isolated from skeletally mature New Zealand White rabbits, expanded in culture and differentiated in high density cultures with serum-free chondrogenic media. Cartilage tissue derived from aggregate cultures or from the tissue engineered sheets were assessed for biomechanical, glycosaminoglycan, collagen, collagen cross-links, and lysyl oxidase activity and expression. Our studies show increased proliferation rates for both auricular and articular chondrocytes at low (5%) O2 versus standard (20%) O2. In our scaffold-free chondrogenic cultures, low O2 was found to increase articular chondrocyte accumulation of glycosaminoglycan, but not cross-linked type II collagen, or total collagen. Conversely, auricular chondrocytes accumulated less glycosaminoglycan, cross-linked type II collagen and total collagen under low oxygen tension. This study highlights the dramatic difference in response to low O2 of chondrocytes isolated from different anatomical sites. Low O2 is beneficial for articular-derived chondrogenesis but detrimental for auricular-derived chondrogenesis.

  20. Regeneration of Articular Cartilage in Lizard Knee from Resident Stem/Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    The epiphysis of femur and tibia in the lizard Podarcis muralis can extensively regenerate after injury. The process involves the articular cartilage and metaphyseal (growth) plate after damage. The secondary ossification center present between the articular cartilage and the growth plate is replaced by cartilaginous epiphyses after about one month of regeneration at high temperature. The present study analyzes the origin of the chondrogenic cells from putative stem cells located in the growing centers of the epiphyses. The study is carried out using immunocytochemistry for the detection of 5BrdU-labeled long retaining cells and for the localization of telomerase, an enzyme that indicates stemness. The observations show that putative stem cells retaining 5BrdU and positive for telomerase are present in the superficial articular cartilage and metaphyseal growth plate located in the epiphyses. This observation suggests that these areas represent stem cell niches lasting for most of the lifetime of lizards. In healthy long bones of adult lizards, the addition of new chondrocytes from the stem cells population in the articular cartilage and the metaphyseal growth plate likely allows for slow, continuous longitudinal growth. When the knee is injured in the adult lizard, new populations of chondrocytes actively producing chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan are derived from these stem cells to allow for the formation of completely new cartilaginous epiphyses, possibly anticipating the re-formation of secondary centers in later stages. The study suggests that in this lizard species, the regenerative ability of the epiphyses is a pre-adaptation to the regeneration of the articular cartilage. PMID:26340619

  1. Influence of oral stabilization appliances in intra-articular pressure of the temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Casares, Guillermo; Thomas, Alejandro; Carmona, Joaquin; Acero, Julio; Vila, Carlos Navarro

    2014-07-01

    This study analyzed the intra-articular pressure in the upper compartment of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) under different functional conditions. The influence of stabilization appliances on intra-articular pressure was studied. Seventy-four joints from 64 patients (55 women and 9 men; mean age: 43.2 ± 11.86 years; range: 19-61 years) with TMJ disorders were examined. Only 50 joints passed the inclusion criteria. Intra-articular pressure was measured using a 21G needle inserted into the joint and connected to a pressure transducer. Pressure was measured with the jaw in the following positions: at rest, maximal mouth opening, clenching in maximal intercuspal position, and clenching with an oral interoclusal appliance. Fifty joints were included in the study (without blood reflux), mean pressure at rest was negative (-6.06 ± 4.55 mmHg); when the mouth was opened to its maximal position the pressure was lower (-26.09 ± 6.42 mmHg). Mean intra-articular pressure was higher in the maximal intercuspal position (58.56 ± 24.90 mmHg). When an interoclusal appliance device was fitted, mean intra-articular pressure reduced its value by 31.24%, which reached a mean value of 40.56 ± 18.84 mmHg (P<0.001). There were no significant differences in sex. The group over 45 years old had higher pressure values in maximal open mouth position than the group of patients under 45 years old (P<0.02). Interoclusal appliances can reduce pressure in the upper compartment of the TMJ and improve functional status of the joint.

  2. Danshen prevents articular cartilage degeneration via antioxidation in rabbits with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Bai, B; Li, Y

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of Danshen on histological parameters and antioxidative activity in the articular cartilage of rabbits with osteoarthritis (OA). Twenty-four rabbits were randomly divided into three groups (control, OA, and Danshen OA; eight rabbits per group). Anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) of the left hind knees was performed in all rabbits in the OA and Danshen OA group for induction of OA. The rabbits in the control group underwent a sham operation. After surgery, 3 g/kg body weight of Danshen granules dissolved in 5 mL distilled water was administered by gastric intubation once per day and over a 6-week period to the Danshen OA group. The same volume of distilled water was administered to the OA and control groups. After 6 weeks, the medial femoral condyles and synoviums of the left hind knees in all three groups were harvested and used for histological and biochemical analyses. Severe articular cartilage degeneration as well as lower proteoglycan (PG) content were noted in the OA group compared to the Danshen OA group (P < 0.05). The glutathione (GSH) levels in the synovium and articular cartilage of the rabbits in the Danshen OA group were significantly higher compared to the OA group (P < 0.001). The malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of the synovium and articular cartilage in the Danshen OA group was markedly depleted compared to the OA group (P < 0.001). Danshen can prevent articular cartilage degeneration in OA through the defense against oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Arthroscopic Ultrasound Assessment of Articular Cartilage in the Human Knee Joint

    PubMed Central

    Kaleva, Erna; Virén, Tuomas; Saarakkala, Simo; Sahlman, Janne; Sirola, Joonas; Puhakka, Jani; Paatela, Teemu; Kröger, Heikki; Kiviranta, Ilkka; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Töyräs, Juha

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We tested whether an intra-articular ultrasound (IAUS) method could be used to evaluate cartilage status arthroscopically in human knee joints in vivo. Design: Seven patients undergoing arthroscopic surgery of the knee were enrolled in this study. An ultrasonic examination was conducted using the same portals as in the arthroscopic surgery. A high-frequency (40-MHz) ultrasound transducer (diameter = 1 mm) was directed to the desired location on the articular surface under arthroscopic control. In addition to ultrasound data, an IAUS video and optical video through the arthroscope were recorded. Classification of cartilage injuries according to International Cartilage Repair Society, as conducted by the orthopedic surgeon, provided reference data for comparison with the IAUS. Results: The IAUS method was successful in imaging different characteristics of the articular surfaces (e.g., intact surface, surface fibrillation, and lesions of varying depth). In some cases, also the subchondral bone and abnormal internal cartilage structure were visible in the IAUS images. Specifically, using the IAUS, a local cartilage lesion of 1 patient was found to be deeper than estimated arthroscopically. Conclusions: The IAUS method provided a novel arthroscopic method for quantitative imaging of articular cartilage lesions. The IAUS provided quantitative information about the cartilage integrity and thickness, which are not available in conventional arthroscopy. The present equipment is already approved by the Food and Drug Administration for intravascular use and might be transferred to intra-articular use. The invasiveness of the IAUS method might restrict its wider clinical use but combined with arthroscopy, ultrasonic assessment may enlarge the diagnostic potential of arthroscopic surgery. PMID:26069583

  4. Differences in articular-eminence inclination between medieval and contemporary human populations.

    PubMed

    Kranjčić, Josip; Vojvodić, Denis; Žabarović, Domagoj; Vodanović, Marin; Komar, Daniel; Mehulić, Ketij

    2012-08-01

    The articular-eminence inclination is an important element in the biomechanics of the temporomandibular joint and the entire masticatory system; however, very little is known about this inclination in archaeological human populations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the values of, in addition to the differences between, the articular-eminence inclination in medieval and contemporary human populations. The study was carried out on two dry skull groups. The first group consisted of 14 dry skulls from the medieval culture group Bijelo Brdo (BB) of East Croatia, and the other consisted of 137 recent dry skulls from the osteologic collection of the Institute of Anatomy (IA) in Zagreb. All BB skulls were dentulous, whereas the IA skulls were divided into dentulous and edentulous groups. The articular-eminence inclination was measured in relation to the Frankfurt horizontal plane on digital images of the skull's two lateral views using AutoCAD computer software. The mean value of the articular-eminence inclination in the BB sample group (49.57°) was lower, with a statistical significance (p<0.01), than those of the IA dentulous (61.56°), the IA edentulous (62.54°), and all the combined IA (61.99°) specimens. Because the values of the articular-eminence inclination can vary a lot with reference to the number of specimens and the different methods used for measuring, the obtained values yield only orientational information. Further investigations including a larger number of medieval specimens are needed to confirm the results obtained from this study.

  5. Identification of stable normalization genes for quantitative real-time PCR in porcine articular cartilage

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Expression levels for genes of interest must be normalized with an appropriate reference, or housekeeping gene, to make accurate comparisons of quantitative real-time PCR results. The purpose of this study was to identify the most stable housekeeping genes in porcine articular cartilage subjected to a mechanical injury from a panel of 10 candidate genes. Results Ten candidate housekeeping genes were evaluated in three different treatment groups of mechanically impacted porcine articular cartilage. The genes evaluated were: beta actin, beta-2-microglobulin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, hydroxymethylbilane synthase, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase, peptidylprolyl isomerase A (cyclophilin A), ribosomal protein L4, succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein subunit A, TATA box binding protein, and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein—zeta polypeptide. The stability of the genes was measured using geNorm, BestKeeper, and NormFinder software. The four most stable genes measured via geNorm were (most to least stable) succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein, subunit A, peptidylprolyl isomerase A, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, beta actin; the four most stable genes measured via BestKeeper were glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, peptidylprolyl isomerase A, beta actin, succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein, subunit A; and the four most stable genes measured via NormFinder were peptidylprolyl isomerase A, succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein, subunit A, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, beta actin. Conclusions BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder all generated similar results for the most stable genes in porcine articular cartilage. The use of these appropriate reference genes will facilitate accurate gene expression studies of porcine articular cartilage and suggest appropriate housekeeping genes for articular cartilage studies in other species. PMID:23146128

  6. Thickness of the Rotator Cuff Tendons at the Articular Margin: An Anatomic Cadaveric Study.

    PubMed

    Sessions, William C; Lawrence, Rebekah L; Steubs, J Tyler; Ludewig, Paula M; Braman, Jonathan P

    2017-01-01

    With a substantial portion of the population experiencing rotator cuff pathology, the importance of understanding mechanisms of rotator cuff disease remains critical. Current research aimed at understanding relationships between shoulder movement and cuff injuries has been hindered by our limited knowledge of the thickness of soft tissue structures within the shoulder. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to measure the thicknesses of all four rotator cuff tendons at the articular margin. An anatomic study of 21 cadaveric shoulders was conducted. The thicknesses of the four rotator cuff tendon insertions were measured by caliper at the articular margin. The mean thickness of the supraspinatus at the articular margin was 4.9 mm ± 2.1 (median: 4.2 mm, range: 2.9-12.7 mm). The mean thickness of the infraspinatus tendon was 4.9 mm ± 1.3 (median: 4.8 mm, range: 3.0-7.2 mm). The mean thickness of the teres minor tendon was 3.20 mm ± 1.14 (median: 2.9 mm, range: 1.7-5.7 mm). Finally, the mean thickness of the subscapularis tendon at the articular margin was 5.5 mm ± 1.3 (median: 5.5 mm, range: 3.5-9.3 mm). This current study provides needed objective data about the thickness of the rotator cuff tendons at the articular margin. Data regarding the infraspinatus, teres minor and teres major, which have been largely understudied, are particularly important. In addition, the current study demonstrates that rotator cuff thicknesses can vary substantially between individuals. There are likely natural age related changes as well as changes from etiologies that are not yet elucidated. Clinical Relevance: Data from this study will allow for improved modelling accuracy of soft tissue structures specific to the shoulder. Eventually knowledge gained through study of shoulder mechanics can be used to pursue prevention of rotator cuff tears and improve targeted treatment planning.

  7. Devising for a distal radius fracture fixation focus on the intra-articular volar dislocated fragment

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Yoichi; Naito, Kiyohito; Obata, Hiroyuki; Kinoshita, Mayuko; Aritomi, Kentaro; Kaneko, Kazuo; Obayashi, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Distal radius fracture (DRF) accompanied by intra-articular volar displaced fragment is difficult to reduce. This volar fragment remains when treated with a simple buttress effect alone, and V-shaped deformity may remain on the articular surface. We attempted to improve dorsal rotational deviation of volar fragment by osteosynthesis applying the condylar stabilizing technique. We report the surgical procedure and results. Materials and methods The subjects were 10 cases of DRF accompanied by intra-articular volar displaced fragments surgically treated (mean age: 69 years old). The fracture type based on the AO classification was B3 in 1 case, C1 in 4, C2 in 2, and C3 in 3 cases. All cases were treated with a volar locking plate. Reduction was applied utilizing the angle stability of the volar locking plate, similarly to the condylar stabilizing technique. On the final follow-up, we evaluated clinical and radiologic evaluation. To evaluate V-shaped valley deformity of the articular surface, the depth of the lunate fossa of the radius was measured using computed tomography (CT). Results The duration of postoperative follow-up was 11 (6–24) months. Mayo wrist score was 93 (Excellent in 10 cases). No general complication associated with a volar locking plate was noted in any case. Volar tilt on radiography were 11° (4–14). The depth of the lunate fossa on CT was 3.9 ± 0.7 mm in the patients. Conclusion This procedure may be useful for osteosynthesis of distal radius fracture accompanied by intra-articular volar displaced fragments. PMID:27144008

  8. Effects of Chondroitinase ABC-Mediated Proteoglycan Digestion on Decellularization and Recellularization of Articular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Bautista, Catherine A.; Park, Hee Jun; Mazur, Courtney M.; Aaron, Roy K.

    2016-01-01

    Articular cartilage has a limited capacity to heal itself and thus focal defects often result in the development of osteoarthritis. Current cartilage tissue engineering strategies seek to regenerate injured tissue by creating scaffolds that aim to mimic the unique structure and composition of native articular cartilage. Decellularization is a novel strategy that aims to preserve the bioactive factors and 3D biophysical environment of the native extracellular matrix while removing potentially immunogenic factors. The purpose of this study was to develop a procedure that can enable decellularization and recellularization of intact articular cartilage matrix. Full-thickness porcine articular cartilage plugs were decellularized with a series of freeze-thaw cycles and 0.1% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulfate detergent cycles. Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) was applied before the detergent cycles to digest glycosaminoglycans in order to enhance donor chondrocyte removal and seeded cell migration. Porcine synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells were seeded onto the decellularized cartilage scaffolds and cultured for up to 28 days. The optimized decellularization protocol removed 94% of native DNA per sample wet weight, while collagen content and alignment were preserved. Glycosaminoglycan depletion prior to the detergent cycles increased removal of nuclear material. Seeded cells infiltrated up to 100 μm into the cartilage deep zone after 28 days in culture. ChABC treatment enhances decellularization of the relatively dense, impermeable articular cartilage by reducing glycosaminoglycan content. ChABC treatment did not appear to affect cell migration during recellularization under static, in vitro culture, highlighting the need for more dynamic seeding methods. PMID:27391810

  9. Epidural versus intra-articular infusion analgesia following total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Kasture, Sarang; Saraf, Hrushikesh

    2015-12-01

    To compare the efficacy of epidural versus intra-articular infusion analgesia following total knee replacement (TKR). 25 men and 50 women aged 55 to 75 (mean, 67) years who underwent primary TKR by a single surgeon were randomised and consented to receive either epidural (n=35) or intra-articular (n=40) infusion analgesia for 48 hours at 5 ml/ hr. All patients also received intravenous aqueous diclofenac 50 mg twice a day. Patients were assessed 6 hourly for visual analogue score (VAS) for pain to determine the analgesic effect. Complications such as paraesthesia in the lower limbs, hypotension, urinary retention, and abdominal distension were recorded, as was the rehabilitation progress with respect to the time to stand, climb stairs, use of commode chair, and discharge. The epidural and intra-articular infusion groups were comparable with respect to age, sex, weight, and operating time, as was the analgesic efficacy within 48 hours of TKR. Patients with epidural infusion analgesia had a higher complication rate in terms of hypotension (51.4% vs. 22.5%, p=0.015) and troublesome paraesthesia in the lower limbs (45.7% vs. 12.5%, p=0.028), and a trend of higher abdominal distension rate (20% vs. 5%, p=0.073). Patients with intra-articular infusion analgesia were able to stand/ walk earlier (2.08 vs. 2.54 days, p<0.001). The 2 groups did not differ significantly in the time needed to climb stairs, use of commode chair, and discharge. The efficacy of epidural and intraarticular infusion analgesia was comparable. Intra-articular infusion was associated with fewer complications and earlier rehabilitation.

  10. Low-intensity infrared laser effects on zymosan-induced articular inflammatory response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Januária dos Anjos, Lúcia Mara; da Fonseca, Adenilson d. S.; Gameiro, Jacy; de Paoli, Flávia

    2015-03-01

    Low-level therapy laser is a phototherapy treatment that involves the application of low power light in the red or infrared wavelengths in various diseases such as arthritis. In this work, we investigated whether low-intensity infrared laser therapy could cause death by caspase-6 apoptosis or DNA damage pathways in cartilage cells after zymosaninduced articular inflammatory process. Inflammatory process was induced in C57BL/6 mouse by intra-articular injection of zymosan into rear tibio-tarsal joints. Thirty animals were divided in five groups: (I) control, (II) laser, (III) zymosan-induced, (IV) zymosan-induced + laser and (V). Laser exposure was performed after zymosan administration with low-intensity infrared laser (830 nm), power 10 mW, fluence 3.0 J/cm2 at continuous mode emission, in five doses. Twenty-four hours after last irradiation, the animals were sacrificed and the right joints fixed and demineralized. Morphological analysis was observed by hematoxylin and eosin stain, pro-apoptotic (caspase-6) was analyzed by immunocytochemistry and DNA fragmentation was performed by TUNEL assay in articular cartilage cells. Inflammatory process was observed in connective tissue near to articular cartilage, in IV and V groups, indicating zymosan effect. This process was decreased in both groups after laser treatment and dexamethasone. Although groups III and IV presented higher caspase-6 and DNA fragmentation percentages, statistical differences were not observed when compared to groups I and II. Our results suggest that therapies based on low-intensity infrared lasers could reduce inflammatory process and could not cause death by caspase-6 apoptosis or DNA damage pathways in cartilage cells after zymosan-induced articular inflammatory process.

  11. Viscosupplementation with intra-articular hyaluronic acid for treatment of osteoarthritis in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Abate, M; Pulcini, D; Di Iorio, A; Schiavone, C

    2010-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is very disabling condition in the elderly. The current therapeutic approaches (analgesics, NSAIDs, COX-2 inhibitors, steroids) do not delay the OA progression or reverse joint damage. Moreover, they may cause relevant systemic side effects. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a physiologic component of the synovial fluid and is reduced in OA joints. Therefore, intra-articular injection of HA, due to its viscoelastic properties and protective effect on articular cartilage and soft tissue surfaces of joints, can restore the normal articular homoeostasis. These effects are evident when HA is properly administered into the articular space; therefore, the use of "image-guided" infiltration techniques is mandatory. Viscosupplementation (VS), with different HA preparations (Low and High molecular weight), can be considered when the patient has not found pain relief from other therapies or is intolerant to analgesics or NSAIDs. A 3-5 doses regimen is usually recommended with 1 week interval between each injection. Several studies have shown the efficacy of HA for the treatment of knee OA, with positive effects on pain, articular function (Western Ontario and Mc Master Universities Osteoarthritis Index [WOMAC], Lequesne Index [LI], Range of Motion [ROM]), subjective global assessment and reduction in NSAIDs consumption. In general, the benefit is evident within 3 months and persists in the following 6-12 months. Encouraging but inconclusive results have also been observed for the treatment of shoulder, carpo-metacarpal, hip and ankle OA. However there is the need of better designed studies to prove the effectiveness of these medications, in order to rule out a placebo effect. The therapy is well tolerated with absence of systemic side effects and only with limited local discomfort.

  12. Symposium: evidence for the use of intra-articular cortisone or hyaluronic acid injection in the hip

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, Sivashankar; Lodhia, Parth; Suarez-Ahedo, Carlos; Vemula, S. Pavan; Martin, Timothy J.; Domb, Benjamin G.

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose of this review article is to discuss the role of diagnostic, corticosteroid, hyaluronic acid (HA) and platelet rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) and femoroacetabular impingement (FIA). These treatments play an important biological role in the non-operative management of these conditions. Two independent reviewers performed an search of PubMed for articles that contained at least one of the following search terms pertaining to intra-articular hip injection—local anaesthetic, diagnostic, ultrasound, fluoroscopic, image guided, corticosteroid, HA, PRP, OA, labral tears and FAI. Seventy-two full text articles were suitable for inclusion. There were 18 articles addressing the efficacy of diagnostic intra-articular hip injections. With respect to efficacy in OA there were 25 articles pertaining to efficacy of corticosteroid, 22 of HA and 4 of PRP. There were three articles addressing the efficacy of biologics in FAI. Diagnostic intra-articular hip injections are sensitive and specific for differentiating between intra-articular, extra-articular and spinal causes of hip symptoms. Ultrasound and fluoroscopy improves the precision of intra-articular positioning of diagnostic injections. Corticosteroids are more effective than HA and PRP in alleviating pain from hip OA. A higher dose of corticosteroids produces a longer benefit but volume of injection has no significant effect. Intra-articular corticosteroids do not increase infection rates of subsequent arthroplasty. There is currently limited evidence to warrant the routine use of therapeutic injections in the management of labral tears and FIA. PMID:27026814

  13. The use of an intra-articular depth guide in the measurement of partial thickness rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Michael J; More, Kristie D; Sohmer, Stephen; Nelson, Atiba A; Sciore, Paul; Boorman, Richard; Hollinshead, Robert; Lo, Ian K Y

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of the conventional method for determining the percentage of partial thickness rotator cuff tears to a method using an intra-articular depth guide. The clinical utility of the intra-articular depth guide was also examined. Methods. Partial rotator cuff tears were created in cadaveric shoulders. Exposed footprint, total tendon thickness, and percentage of tendon thickness torn were determined using both techniques. The results from the conventional and intra-articular depth guide methods were correlated with the true anatomic measurements. Thirty-two patients were evaluated in the clinical study. Results. Estimates of total tendon thickness (r = 0.41, P = 0.31) or percentage of thickness tears (r = 0.67, P = 0.07) using the conventional method did not correlate well with true tendon thickness. Using the intra-articular depth guide, estimates of exposed footprint (r = 0.92, P = 0.001), total tendon thickness (r = 0.96, P = 0.0001), and percentage of tendon thickness torn (r = 0.88, P = 0.004) correlated with true anatomic measurements. Seven of 32 patients had their treatment plan altered based on the measurements made by the intra-articular depth guide. Conclusions. The intra-articular depth guide appeared to better correlate with true anatomic measurements. It may be useful during the evaluation and development of treatment plans for partial thickness articular surface rotator cuff tears.

  14. Diagnostic Value of T-cell Interferon-γ Release Assays on Synovial Fluid for Articular Tuberculosis: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xin-He; Bian, Sai-Nan; Zhang, Yue-Qiu; Zhang, Li-Fan; Shi, Xiao-Chun; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Feng-Chun; Liu, Xiao-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global public health challenge. Articular TB is an important form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, and its diagnosis is difficult because of the low sensitivity of traditional methods. The aim of this study was to analyze the diagnostic value of T-SPOT.TB on synovial fluid for the diagnosis of articular TB. Methods: Patients with suspected articular TB were enrolled consecutively between August 2011 and December 2015. T-SPOT.TB was performed on both synovial fluid mononuclear cells (SFMCs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The final diagnosis of articular TB was independent of the T-SPOT.TB result. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, predictive value, and likelihood ratio of T-SPOT.TB on SFMCs and PBMCs were analyzed. Results: Twenty patients with suspected articular TB were enrolled. Six were diagnosed with articular TB, and 14 patients were diagnosed with other diseases. Sensitivity and specificity were 83% and 86% for T-SPOT.TB on SFMCs, and 67% and 69% for T-SPOT.TB on PBMCs, respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of T-SPOT.TB on SFMCs were 71% and 92%, respectively. The PPV and NPV were 50% and 82% for T-SPOT.TB on PBMCs. Conclusion: Sensitivity, specificity, and NPV of T-SPOT.TB on SFMCs appeared higher than that on PBMCs, indicating that T-SPOT.TB on SFMCs might be a rapid and accurate diagnostic test for articular TB. PMID:27174325

  15. Accuracy of Needle Placement into the Intra-Articular Space of the Knee in Osteoarthritis Patients for Viscosupplementation

    PubMed Central

    Telikicherla, Manaswini

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Knee osteoarthritis is characterized by inflammation in the intra-articular space or synovial membrane, breakdown of articular cartilage, and sclerosis of the subchondral bone. Intra-articular injections of Sodium hyaluronate which have viscoelastic and protective effect on articular cartilage and restores normal articular homeostasis. The efficacy of these injections is diminished when they are placed inadvertently outside the joint. For the maximum benefit, injection of hyaluronic acid derivatives needs to be placed accurately into the knee joint. Aim The study was performed to know the correct placement of needle inside the knee joint prior to Viscosupplementation by fluoroscopy using a contrast material. Materials and Methods The accurate placement of needle was evaluated in a prospective series of 94 consecutive injections in patients without clinical knee effusion. All the injections were performed by single orthopaedic surgeon using a 5 cm 21-gauge needle through anterolateral, and lateral midpatellar portals. The needle placement in the knee joint was confirmed with fluoroscopy using the contrast material. Results The accuracy rates through Lateral midpatellar and Anterolateral portals were lower than expected rate (100%). A total of 43 out of 47 injections were intra-articular, indicating accuracy of 91.5% through lateral midpatellar portal, 41 out of 47 injections were intra-articular through anterolateral portal with accuracy of 87.4%. Conclusion Study showed that the accuracy of needle placement was higher through Lateral midpatellar than the Anterolateral portal. PMID:27042542

  16. Acute Joint Pathology and Synovial Inflammation is Associated with Increased Intra-Articular Fracture Severity in the Mouse Knee

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, John S.; Hembree, W. Chad; Furman, Bridgette D.; Tippets, Lauren; Cattel, Dennis; Huebner, Janet L.; Little, Dianne; DeFrate, Louis E.; Kraus, Virginia B.; Guilak, Farshid; Olson, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Post-traumatic arthritis is a frequent cause of disability and occurs most commonly and predictably after articular fracture. The objective of this investigation was to examine the effect of fracture severity on acute joint pathology in a novel murine model of intra-articular fracture. DESIGN Low and high energy articular fractures (n=25 per group) of the tibial plateau were created in adult male C57BL/6 mice. The acute effect of articular fracture severity on synovial inflammation, bone morphology, liberated fracture area, cartilage pathology, chondrocyte viability, and systemic cytokines and biomarkers levels was assessed at 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 days post-fracture. RESULTS Increasing intra-articular fracture severity was associated with greater acute pathology in the synovium and bone compared to control limbs, including increased global synovitis and reduced periarticular bone density and thickness. Applied fracture energy was significantly correlated with degree of liberated cortical bone surface area, indicating greater comminution. Serum concentrations of hyaluronic acid (HA) were significantly increased one day post-fracture. While articular fracture significantly reduced chondrocyte viability, there was no relationship between fracture severity and chondrocyte viability, cartilage degeneration, or systemic levels of cytokines and biomarkers. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates that articular fracture is associated with a loss of chondrocyte viability and increased levels of systemic biomarkers, and that increased intra-articular fracture severity is associated with increased acute joint pathology in a variety of joint tissues, including synovial inflammation, cortical comminution, and bone morphology. Further characterization of the early events following articular fracture could aid in the treatment of post-traumatic arthritis. PMID:21619936

  17. Anatomical study of the ligamentous attachments and articular surfaces of the trapeziometacarpal joint. Consequences on surgical management of its osteoarthrosis.

    PubMed

    Maes-Clavier, C; Bellemère, P; Gabrion, A; David, E; Rotari, V; Havet, E

    2014-04-01

    In the goal to optimize conservative surgical techniques of the trapeziometacarpal joint in cases of moderate osteoarthritis, we have defined the relationships between the ligamentous attachments and the articular surfaces onto the trapezium and the first metacarpal bone on the one hand, and the dorsovolar and the transverse diameters of the articular surfaces on the other hand. Thirty-six trapeziometacarpal joints (from 18 fresh cadavers) were studied. They were separated into two groups depending on the macroscopic assessment of chondral disease. Group A included stages I to III (no osteoarthritis or moderate osteoarthritis), group B included stages IV (major cartilage destruction). The dorsovolar and transverse sizes of the articular surfaces were measured. Dorsoradial ligament (DRL), posterior oblique ligament (POL), intermetacarpal ligament (IML), ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) and anterior oblique ligament (AOL) were dissected and the distance between their attachments and the articular surfaces were measured. Group A included 17 joints (71% males) and group B included 19 joints (95% females). For the first metacarpal bone, the average ratio between the dorsovolar diameter and the transverse diameter of metacarpal articular surfaces was significantly higher in group B and the average distance between the ligamentous attachments and the articular surface was more than two millimeters, except for the DRL in group B. For the trapezium, only the posterior ligaments (DRL and POL) of group A were inserted at a mean distance more than two millimeters from the articular surfaces. Dorsovolar length of the metacarpal articular surface was higher for osteoarthritis cases. This difference can be explained by the existence of a palmar osteophyte that was always found in stage IV. Describing a map of the ligamentous attachment distance from the articular surface could help surgeons to avoid the ligamentous injury during minimal osteochondral resection.

  18. Gremlin 1, frizzled-related protein, and Dkk-1 are key regulators of human articular cartilage homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Leijten, J C H; Emons, J; Sticht, C; van Gool, S; Decker, E; Uitterlinden, A; Rappold, G; Hofman, A; Rivadeneira, F; Scherjon, S; Wit, J M; van Meurs, J; van Blitterswijk, C A; Karperien, M

    2012-10-01

    The development of osteoarthritis (OA) may be caused by activation of hypertrophic differentiation of articular chondrocytes. Healthy articular cartilage is highly resistant to hypertrophic differentiation, in contrast to other hyaline cartilage subtypes, such as growth plate cartilage. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanism responsible for the difference in the propensity of human articular cartilage and growth plate cartilage to undergo hypertrophic differentiation. Whole-genome gene-expression microarray analysis of healthy human growth plate and articular cartilage derived from the same adolescent donors was performed. Candidate genes, which were enriched in the articular cartilage, were validated at the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels and examined for their potential to inhibit hypertrophic differentiation in two models. In addition, we studied a possible genetic association with OA. Pathway analysis demonstrated decreased Wnt signaling in articular cartilage as compared to growth plate cartilage. This was at least partly due to increased expression of the bone morphogenetic protein and Wnt antagonists Gremlin 1, Frizzled-related protein (FRP), and Dkk-1 at the mRNA and protein levels in articular cartilage. Supplementation of these proteins diminished terminal hypertrophic differentiation without affecting chondrogenesis in long-bone explant cultures and chondrogenically differentiating human mesenchymal stem cells. Additionally, we found that single-nucleotide polymorphism rs12593365, which is located in a genomic control region of GREM1, was significantly associated with a 20% reduced risk of radiographic hip OA in 2 population-based cohorts. Taken together, our study identified Gremlin 1, FRP, and Dkk-1 as natural brakes on hypertrophic differentiation in articular cartilage. As hypertrophic differentiation of articular cartilage may contribute to the development of OA, our findings may open new avenues for therapeutic

  19. Surgical Indications and Technique for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Combined with Lateral Extra-articular Tenodesis or Anterolateral Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Vundelinckx, Bart; Herman, Benjamin; Getgood, Alan; Litchfield, Robert

    2017-01-01

    After anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture, anteroposterior and rotational laxity in the knee causes instability, functional symptoms, and damage to other intra-articular structures. Surgical reconstruction aims to restore the stability in the knee, and to improve function and ability to participate in sports. It also protects cartilage and menisci from secondary injuries. Because of persistent rotational instability after ACL reconstruction, combined intra-articular and extra-articular procedures are more commonly performed. In this article, an overview of anatomy, biomechanical studies, current gold standard procedures, techniques, and research topics are summarized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Collar-type osteophyte of the femur in young adults: is it a harbinger of intra-articular osteoid osteoma?

    PubMed

    Sanal, Hatice Tuba; Bozkurt, Yalcin

    2013-09-01

    Variable clinical and radiological findings for intra-articular osteoid osteoma (OO) of the hip joint make its diagnosis difficult. Because radiographs commonly do not identify the nidus, MR imaging becomes the second line of study. However, because the appearance varies, findings on MR images can be confusing. We found "collar type osteophyte" of the femur i.e. an osteophyte rim around the femoral neck, to be a conspicuous finding of intra-articular OO. Here, this feature will be emphasized and intra-articular OOs will be discussed, with a review of the literature.

  1. Effects of moving training on histology and biomarkers levels of articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Qi, Chang; Changlin, Huang

    2006-10-01

    To study the adaptation process and extent of articular cartilage in the canine knee joint to different modes of movements and to investigate if levels of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), matrix metalloproteinases-1 (MMP-1), matrix metalloproteinases-3 (MMP-3), and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) in serum and synovial fluid can be used to predict effectively early sports injury and remolding degree of articular cartilage in the canine knee. Twenty adult dogs divided randomly into three groups (eight in the common training group, Training Group; eight in the intensified training group, Intensified Group; and four in the Control Group) were trained daily at different intensities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations were performed regularly (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 weeks) to investigate changes of articular cartilage in the canine knee, while concentrations of COMP, MMP-1, MMP-3, and TIMP-1 in serum and synovial fluid were measured by ELISA assays. All of the dogs were euthanized after training for 10 weeks, and all of the knee joints were taken out to be examined histologically. We could find imaging changes of early sport injury of articular cartilage in the Training Group and Intensified Group by MRI examination after 2 weeks of training; the damage images were most severe in 4-6 weeks, and then lightened gradually. We could not find the difference of cartilage injury and repair degree in MRI images between these two groups at different time points. Elevations of levels of COMP, MMP-1, MMP-3, TIMP-1, and MMP-3/TIMP-1 in serum and synovial fluid were seen during the training period, and their levels changed remarkably at different times. Levels of MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-3/TIMP-1 in the Intensified Group were lower than that in the Training Group in general, and levels of COMP were higher, which hinted that the injury trend of articular cartilage in the Intensified Group was lower than that in the Training group, and the repair

  2. Use of an objective measure of articular stiffness to record changes in finger joints after intra-articular injection of corticosteroid

    PubMed Central

    Helliwell, P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—(1) To measure objectively the subjective improvement in joint stiffness following intra-articular injections of corticosteroids, and (2) to record changes in joint stiffness in the first 24 hours after injection to look for changes in the physical properties of the joint that would be consistent with a crystal synovitis.
METHODS—The study population consisted of 15 patients having 17 metacarpophalangeal joints injected as part of their routine care. Measurements were taken before injection, at 24 hours, and after one week. Outcome variables included articular stiffness, strength, joint range of movement, and subjective scores.
RESULTS—At 24 hours, mean values for stiffness had increased (mean slope from 0.0085 to 0.0123 Nm degree-1; curve area from 0.1003 to 0.1555 units), but the increase was not significant. After one week a significant decrease in "elastic stiffness" had occurred (mean slope from 0.0085 to 0.0065 Nm degree-1; P = 0.025). Significant changes in grip, range of movement, and subjective scores were also found after one week (maximum grip from 75.3 to 85.9 N; flexion/extension range from 87.0 to 102.4 degrees; pain visual analogue scale (VAS) from 50 mm to 12 mm; stiffness VAS from 65 mm to 27 mm).
CONCLUSIONS—An early increase in joint stiffness in some patients following intra-articular corticosteroids is consistent with a transient synovitis. Symptoms of joint stiffness generally correlate with mechanical measures which provide a useful objective index of acute changes in joint pathophysiology.

 PMID:9059146

  3. The impact of forced joint exercise on lubricin biosynthesis from articular cartilage following ACL transection and intra-articular lubricin's effect in exercised joints following ACL transection.

    PubMed

    Elsaid, K A; Zhang, L; Waller, K; Tofte, J; Teeple, E; Fleming, B C; Jay, G D

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the impact of forced joint exercise following acute knee injury on lubricin metabolism and its relationship to cartilage degeneration and to assess chondroprotection of a single-dose purified human lubricin injection in exercised injured joints. Anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) was performed in rats with six experimental groups; 3-week post-ACLT, 3-week post-ACLT + exercise, 5-week post-ACLT, 5-week post-ACLT + exercise, and 5-week post-ACLT + exercise treated with intra-articular phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or lubricin. Joint exercise was achieved using a rotating cylinder at a speed of 6 rpm for 30 min daily, 5 days a week starting 1 week following surgery. Cartilage lubricin expression in injured joints was determined. Histological analyses included Safranin O/Fast Green, activated caspase-3, and lubricin mRNA in-situ hybridization. Assessment of cartilage damage was performed by osteoarthritis research society international (OARSI) modified Mankin scoring and urinary CTXII (uCTXII) levels. At 3 weeks, lubricin expression in exercised ACLT joints was significantly (P < 0.001) lower compared to ACLT joints. The OARSI scores were significantly (P < 0.001) higher in the ACLT + exercise animals compared to ACLT animals at 5 weeks. Compared to 3-week ACLT, 3-week ACLT + exercise cartilage showed increased caspase-3 staining. Compared to ACLT + exercise and PBS-treated ACLT + exercise, lubricin intra-articular treatment resulted in a significant increase (P < 0.001) in cartilage lubricin gene expression and a reduction (P < 0.05) in uCTXII levels. Joint exercise resulted in decreased lubricin cartilage expression, increased cartilage degeneration and reduced superficial zone chondrocyte viability in the ACLT joint. Intra-articular lubricin administration ameliorated cartilage damage due to exercise and preserved superficial zone chondrocytes' viability. Copyright © 2012 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier

  4. Reliability and clinical importance of teardrop angle measurement in intra-articular distal radius fracture.

    PubMed

    Fujitani, Ryotaro; Omokawa, Shohei; Iida, Akio; Santo, Shigeru; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2012-03-01

    The teardrop angle (TDA) is a newly characterized radiographic parameter that some authors propose as an indicator of articular incongruity of the lunate facet. The purposes of this study were to investigate intra-observer and interobserver reliability of the measurements of the TDA and to determine whether the TDA is a reliable indicator of articular step and gap formation after distal radius fracture. We studied radiographs of 24 uninjured wrists and 24 wrists with intra-articular distal radius fractures. On standard and 10° tilt views of lateral wrist radiographs, the teardrop represents the volar rim of the lunate facet, and the TDA is defined as the angle between the central axis of the teardrop and the radial shaft. We examined interobserver and intra-observer reliability for 3 observers using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for measurements of the uninjured and fractured wrists. For subjects with fractures, we determined correlation of the TDA-volar tilt with the articular step and gap measured by computed tomography using simple linear regression. There was almost perfect intra-observer (ICC = 0.95) and interobserver (ICC = 0.93) reliability in the fractured wrists. We observed substantial intra-observer (ICC = 0.64) and fair interobserver (ICC = 0.28) reliability in the uninjured wrists on the standard lateral radiographs. On the 10° tilt views, intra-observer and interobserver reliability in the uninjured wrists increased to substantial levels (ICC = 0.76 and 0.61, respectively). The TDA-volar tilt was significantly associated with articular step and gap on computed tomography. The TDA, measured on the lateral radiograph of the wrist, exhibits higher intra-observer and interobserver reliability in fractured wrists compared with uninjured wrists. On the 10° tilt views, the reliability increased in the uninjured wrists. Measurement of the TDA in plain radiographs may allow direct estimation of articular incongruity as seen on sagittal

  5. Novel bioadhesive polymers as intra-articular agents: Chondroitin sulfate-cysteine conjugates.

    PubMed

    Suchaoin, Wongsakorn; Bonengel, Sonja; Griessinger, Julia Anita; Pereira de Sousa, Irene; Hussain, Shah; Huck, Christian W; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to generate and characterize a chondroitin sulfate-cysteine conjugate (CS-cys) as a novel bioadhesive agent for intra-articular use. Mucoadhesive properties of synthesized CS-cys were investigated by rheological measurement of polymer-mucus mixture and rotating cylinder method, while bioadhesive features of CS-cys on porcine articular cartilage were evaluated via tensile studies. Thiolation was achieved by attachment of l-cysteine to CS via amide bond formation med