A Discontinuous Galerkin Chimera Overset Solver
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galbraith, Marshall Christopher
This work summarizes the development of an accurate, efficient, and flexible Computational Fluid Dynamics computer code that is an improvement relative to the state of the art. The improved accuracy and efficiency is obtained by using a high-order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretization scheme. In order to maximize the computational efficiency, quadrature-free integration and numerical integration optimized as matrix-vector multiplications is employed and implemented through a pre-processor (PyDG). Using the PyDG pre-processor, a C++ polynomial library has been developed that uses overloaded operators to design an efficient Domain Specific Language (DSL) that allows expressions involving polynomials to be written as if they are scalars. The DSL, which makes the syntax of computer code legible and intuitive, promotes maintainability of the software and simplifies the development of additional capabilities. The flexibility of the code is achieved by combining the DG scheme with the Chimera overset method. The Chimera overset method produces solutions on a set of overlapping grids that communicate through an exchange of data on grid boundaries (known as artificial boundaries). Finite volume and finite difference discretizations use fringe points, which are layers of points on the artificial boundaries, to maintain the interior stencil on artificial boundaries. The fringe points receive solution values interpolated from overset grids. Proper interpolation requires fringe points to be contained in overset grids. Insufficient overlap must be corrected by modifying the grid system. The Chimera scheme can also exclude regions of grids that lie outside the computational domain; a process commonly known as hole cutting. The Chimera overset method has traditionally enabled the use of high-order finite difference and finite volume approaches such as WENO and compact differencing schemes, which require structured meshes, for modeling fluid flow associated with complex
Scalable parallel Newton-Krylov solvers for discontinuous Galerkin discretizations
Persson, P.-O.
2008-12-31
We present techniques for implicit solution of discontinuous Galerkin discretizations of the Navier-Stokes equations on parallel computers. While a block-Jacobi method is simple and straight-forward to parallelize, its convergence properties are poor except for simple problems. Therefore, we consider Newton-GMRES methods preconditioned with block-incomplete LU factorizations, with optimized element orderings based on a minimum discarded fill (MDF) approach. We discuss the difficulties with the parallelization of these methods, but also show that with a simple domain decomposition approach, most of the advantages of the block-ILU over the block-Jacobi preconditioner are still retained. The convergence is further improved by incorporating the matrix connectivities into the mesh partitioning process, which aims at minimizing the errors introduced from separating the partitions. We demonstrate the performance of the schemes for realistic two- and three-dimensional flow problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parmentier, Philippe; Winckelmans, Gregoire; Chatelain, Philippe; Hillewaert, Koen
2015-11-01
A hybrid approach, coupling a compressible vortex particle-mesh method (CVPM, also with efficient Poisson solver) and a high order compressible discontinuous Galerkin Eulerian solver, is being developed in order to efficiently simulate flows past bodies; also in the transonic regime. The Eulerian solver is dedicated to capturing the anisotropic flow structures in the near-wall region whereas the CVPM solver is exploited away from the body and in the wake. An overlapping domain decomposition approach is used. The Eulerian solver, which captures the near-body region, also corrects the CVPM solution in that region at every time step. The CVPM solver, which captures the region away from the body and the wake, also provides the outer boundary conditions to the Eulerian solver. Because of the coupling, a boundary element method is also required for consistency. The approach is assessed on typical 2D benchmark cases. Supported by the Fund for Research Training in Industry and Agriculture (F.R.I.A.).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crivellini, Andrea; D'Alessandro, Valerio; Bassi, Francesco
2013-05-01
In this paper the artificial compressibility flux Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method for the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations has been extended to deal with the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations coupled with the Spalart-Allmaras (SA) turbulence model. DG implementations of the RANS and SA equations for compressible flows have already been reported in the literature, including the description of limiting or stabilization techniques adopted in order to prevent the turbulent viscosity ν˜ from becoming negative. In this paper we introduce an SA model implementation that deals with negative ν˜ values by modifying the source and diffusion terms in the SA model equation only when the working variable or one of the model closure functions become negative. This results in an efficient high-order implementation where either stabilization terms or even additional equations are avoided. We remark that the proposed implementation is not DG specific and it is well suited for any numerical discretization of the RANS-SA governing equations. The reliability, robustness and accuracy of the proposed implementation have been assessed by computing several high Reynolds number turbulent test cases: the flow over a flat plate (Re=107), the flow past a backward-facing step (Re=37400) and the flow around a NACA 0012 airfoil at different angles of attack (α=0°, 10°, 15°) and Reynolds numbers (Re=2.88×106,6×106).
Xia, Yidong; Lou, Jialin; Luo, Hong; Edwards, Jack; Mueller, Frank
2015-02-09
Here, an OpenACC directive-based graphics processing unit (GPU) parallel scheme is presented for solving the compressible Navier–Stokes equations on 3D hybrid unstructured grids with a third-order reconstructed discontinuous Galerkin method. The developed scheme requires the minimum code intrusion and algorithm alteration for upgrading a legacy solver with the GPU computing capability at very little extra effort in programming, which leads to a unified and portable code development strategy. A face coloring algorithm is adopted to eliminate the memory contention because of the threading of internal and boundary face integrals. A number of flow problems are presented to verify the implementationmore » of the developed scheme. Timing measurements were obtained by running the resulting GPU code on one Nvidia Tesla K20c GPU card (Nvidia Corporation, Santa Clara, CA, USA) and compared with those obtained by running the equivalent Message Passing Interface (MPI) parallel CPU code on a compute node (consisting of two AMD Opteron 6128 eight-core CPUs (Advanced Micro Devices, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA)). Speedup factors of up to 24× and 1.6× for the GPU code were achieved with respect to one and 16 CPU cores, respectively. The numerical results indicate that this OpenACC-based parallel scheme is an effective and extensible approach to port unstructured high-order CFD solvers to GPU computing.« less
Xia, Yidong; Lou, Jialin; Luo, Hong; Edwards, Jack; Mueller, Frank
2015-02-09
Here, an OpenACC directive-based graphics processing unit (GPU) parallel scheme is presented for solving the compressible Navier–Stokes equations on 3D hybrid unstructured grids with a third-order reconstructed discontinuous Galerkin method. The developed scheme requires the minimum code intrusion and algorithm alteration for upgrading a legacy solver with the GPU computing capability at very little extra effort in programming, which leads to a unified and portable code development strategy. A face coloring algorithm is adopted to eliminate the memory contention because of the threading of internal and boundary face integrals. A number of flow problems are presented to verify the implementation of the developed scheme. Timing measurements were obtained by running the resulting GPU code on one Nvidia Tesla K20c GPU card (Nvidia Corporation, Santa Clara, CA, USA) and compared with those obtained by running the equivalent Message Passing Interface (MPI) parallel CPU code on a compute node (consisting of two AMD Opteron 6128 eight-core CPUs (Advanced Micro Devices, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA)). Speedup factors of up to 24× and 1.6× for the GPU code were achieved with respect to one and 16 CPU cores, respectively. The numerical results indicate that this OpenACC-based parallel scheme is an effective and extensible approach to port unstructured high-order CFD solvers to GPU computing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nelson, Daniel A.; Jacobs, Gustaaf B.; Kopriva, David A.
2016-08-01
The effect of curved-boundary representation on the physics of the separated flow over a NACA 65(1)-412 airfoil is thoroughly investigated. A method is presented to approximate curved boundaries with a high-order discontinuous-Galerkin spectral element method for the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. Multiblock quadrilateral element meshes are constructed with the grid generation software GridPro. The boundary of a NACA 65(1)-412 airfoil, defined by a cubic natural spline, is piecewise-approximated by isoparametric polynomial interpolants that represent the edges of boundary-fitted elements. Direct numerical simulation of the airfoil is performed on a coarse mesh and fine mesh with polynomial orders ranging from four to twelve. The accuracy of the curve fitting is investigated by comparing the flows computed on curved-sided meshes with those given by straight-sided meshes. Straight-sided meshes yield irregular wakes, whereas curved-sided meshes produce a regular Karman street wake. Straight-sided meshes also produce lower lift and higher viscous drag as compared with curved-sided meshes. When the mesh is refined by reducing the sizes of the elements, the lift decrease and viscous drag increase are less pronounced. The differences in the aerodynamic performance between the straight-sided meshes and the curved-sided meshes are concluded to be the result of artificial surface roughness introduced by the piecewise-linear boundary approximation provided by the straight-sided meshes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nelson, Daniel A.; Jacobs, Gustaaf B.; Kopriva, David A.
2016-03-01
The effect of curved-boundary representation on the physics of the separated flow over a NACA 65(1)-412 airfoil is thoroughly investigated. A method is presented to approximate curved boundaries with a high-order discontinuous-Galerkin spectral element method for the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. Multiblock quadrilateral element meshes are constructed with the grid generation software GridPro. The boundary of a NACA 65(1)-412 airfoil, defined by a cubic natural spline, is piecewise-approximated by isoparametric polynomial interpolants that represent the edges of boundary-fitted elements. Direct numerical simulation of the airfoil is performed on a coarse mesh and fine mesh with polynomial orders ranging from four to twelve. The accuracy of the curve fitting is investigated by comparing the flows computed on curved-sided meshes with those given by straight-sided meshes. Straight-sided meshes yield irregular wakes, whereas curved-sided meshes produce a regular Karman street wake. Straight-sided meshes also produce lower lift and higher viscous drag as compared with curved-sided meshes. When the mesh is refined by reducing the sizes of the elements, the lift decrease and viscous drag increase are less pronounced. The differences in the aerodynamic performance between the straight-sided meshes and the curved-sided meshes are concluded to be the result of artificial surface roughness introduced by the piecewise-linear boundary approximation provided by the straight-sided meshes.
Discontinuous Galerkin Methods: Theory, Computation and Applications
Cockburn, B.; Karniadakis, G. E.; Shu, C-W
2000-12-31
This volume contains a survey article for Discontinuous Galerkin Methods (DGM) by the editors as well as 16 papers by invited speakers and 32 papers by contributed speakers of the First International Symposium on Discontinuous Galerkin Methods. It covers theory, applications, and implementation aspects of DGM.
GPU-accelerated discontinuous Galerkin methods on hybrid meshes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, Jesse; Wang, Zheng; Modave, Axel; Remacle, Jean-Francois; Warburton, T.
2016-08-01
We present a time-explicit discontinuous Galerkin (DG) solver for the time-domain acoustic wave equation on hybrid meshes containing vertex-mapped hexahedral, wedge, pyramidal and tetrahedral elements. Discretely energy-stable formulations are presented for both Gauss-Legendre and Gauss-Legendre-Lobatto (Spectral Element) nodal bases for the hexahedron. Stable timestep restrictions for hybrid meshes are derived by bounding the spectral radius of the DG operator using order-dependent constants in trace and Markov inequalities. Computational efficiency is achieved under a combination of element-specific kernels (including new quadrature-free operators for the pyramid), multi-rate timestepping, and acceleration using Graphics Processing Units.
Parallel Implementation of the Discontinuous Galerkin Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baggag, Abdalkader; Atkins, Harold; Keyes, David
1999-01-01
This paper describes a parallel implementation of the discontinuous Galerkin method. Discontinuous Galerkin is a spatially compact method that retains its accuracy and robustness on non-smooth unstructured grids and is well suited for time dependent simulations. Several parallelization approaches are studied and evaluated. The most natural and symmetric of the approaches has been implemented in all object-oriented code used to simulate aeroacoustic scattering. The parallel implementation is MPI-based and has been tested on various parallel platforms such as the SGI Origin, IBM SP2, and clusters of SGI and Sun workstations. The scalability results presented for the SGI Origin show slightly superlinear speedup on a fixed-size problem due to cache effects.
Extrapolation discontinuous Galerkin method for ultraparabolic equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marcozzi, Michael D.
2009-02-01
Ultraparabolic equations arise from the characterization of the performance index of stochastic optimal control relative to ultradiffusion processes; they evidence multiple temporal variables and may be regarded as parabolic along characteristic directions. We consider theoretical and approximation aspects of a temporally order and step size adaptive extrapolation discontinuous Galerkin method coupled with a spatial Lagrange second-order finite element approximation for a prototype ultraparabolic problem. As an application, we value a so-called Asian option from mathematical finance.
General spline filters for discontinuous Galerkin solutions
Peters, Jörg
2015-01-01
The discontinuous Galerkin (dG) method outputs a sequence of polynomial pieces. Post-processing the sequence by Smoothness-Increasing Accuracy-Conserving (SIAC) convolution not only increases the smoothness of the sequence but can also improve its accuracy and yield superconvergence. SIAC convolution is considered optimal if the SIAC kernels, in the form of a linear combination of B-splines of degree d, reproduce polynomials of degree 2d. This paper derives simple formulas for computing the optimal SIAC spline coefficients for the general case including non-uniform knots. PMID:26594090
A toolbox for a class of discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin methods using trilinos.
Roberts, Nathaniel David; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston; Demkowicz, Leszek D.; Ridzal, Denis
2011-09-01
The class of discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin finite element methods (DPG) proposed by L. Demkowicz and J. Gopalakrishnan guarantees the optimality of the solution in an energy norm and produces a symmetric positive definite stiffness matrix, among other desirable properties. In this paper, we describe a toolbox, implemented atop Sandia's Trilinos library, for rapid development of solvers for DPG methods. We use this toolbox to develop solvers for the Poisson and Stokes problems.
Discontinuous Galerkin Methods for Turbulence Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Collis, S. Scott
2002-01-01
A discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is formulated, implemented, and tested for simulation of compressible turbulent flows. The method is applied to turbulent channel flow at low Reynolds number, where it is found to successfully predict low-order statistics with fewer degrees of freedom than traditional numerical methods. This reduction is achieved by utilizing local hp-refinement such that the computational grid is refined simultaneously in all three spatial coordinates with decreasing distance from the wall. Another advantage of DG is that Dirichlet boundary conditions can be enforced weakly through integrals of the numerical fluxes. Both for a model advection-diffusion problem and for turbulent channel flow, weak enforcement of wall boundaries is found to improve results at low resolution. Such weak boundary conditions may play a pivotal role in wall modeling for large-eddy simulation.
A High Order Discontinuous Galerkin Method for 2D Incompressible Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Jia-Guo; Shu, Chi-Wang
1999-01-01
In this paper we introduce a high order discontinuous Galerkin method for two dimensional incompressible flow in vorticity streamfunction formulation. The momentum equation is treated explicitly, utilizing the efficiency of the discontinuous Galerkin method The streamfunction is obtained by a standard Poisson solver using continuous finite elements. There is a natural matching between these two finite element spaces, since the normal component of the velocity field is continuous across element boundaries. This allows for a correct upwinding gluing in the discontinuous Galerkin framework, while still maintaining total energy conservation with no numerical dissipation and total enstrophy stability The method is suitable for inviscid or high Reynolds number flows. Optimal error estimates are proven and verified by numerical experiments.
On cell entropy inequality for discontinuous Galerkin methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jiang, Guangshan; Shu, Chi-Wang
1993-01-01
We prove a cell entropy inequality for a class of high order discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods approximating conservation laws, which implies convergence for the one dimensional scalar convex case.
Discontinuous Galerkin Methods for Neutrino Radiation Transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Endeve, Eirik; Hauck, Cory; Xing, Yulong; Mezzacappa, Anthony
2015-04-01
We are developing new computational methods for simulation of neutrino transport in core-collapse supernovae, which is challenging since neutrinos evolve from being diffusive in the proto-neutron star to nearly free streaming in the critical neutrino heating region. To this end, we consider conservative formulations of the Boltzmann equation, and aim to develop robust, high-order accurate methods. Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods, offer several attractive properties, including (i) high-order accuracy on a compact stencil and (ii) correct asymptotic behavior in the diffusion limit. We have recently developed a new DG method for the advection part for the transport solve, which is high-order accurate and strictly preserves the physical bounds of the distribution function; i.e., f ∈ [ 0 , 1 ] . We summarize the main ingredients of our bound-preserving DG method and discuss ongoing work to include neutrino-matter interactions in the scheme. Research sponsored in part by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC for the U. S. Department of Energy
An Adaptive De-Aliasing Strategy for Discontinuous Galerkin methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beck, Andrea; Flad, David; Frank, Hannes; Munz, Claus-Dieter
2015-11-01
Discontinuous Galerkin methods combine the accuracy of a local polynomial representation with the geometrical flexibility of an element-based discretization. In combination with their excellent parallel scalability, these methods are currently of great interest for DNS and LES. For high order schemes, the dissipation error approaches a cut-off behavior, which allows an efficient wave resolution per degree of freedom, but also reduces robustness against numerical errors. One important source of numerical error is the inconsistent discretization of the non-linear convective terms, which results in aliasing of kinetic energy and solver instability. Consistent evaluation of the inner products prevents this form of error, but is computationally very expensive. In this talk, we discuss the need for a consistent de-aliasing to achieve a neutrally stable scheme, and present a novel strategy for recovering a part of the incurred computational costs. By implementing the de-aliasing operation through a cell-local projection filter, we can perform adaptive de-aliasing in space and time, based on physically motivated indicators. We will present results for a homogeneous isotropic turbulence and the Taylor-Green vortex flow, and discuss implementation details, accuracy and efficiency.
Solution of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations by discontinuous Galerkin method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Sungwoo; Yoo, Jung Yul
2007-11-01
Discontinuous Galerkin method is a finite element method that allows discontinuities at inter-element boundaries. The discontinuities in the method are treated by approximate Riemann solvers. One important feature of the method is that it obtains high-order accuracy for unstructured mesh with no difficulty. Due to this feature, it can be useful for various practical applications to turbulence and aeroacoustics, but there are few problems to be solved before the method is applicable to practical flow problems. Due to discontinuous approximations in discontinuous Galerkin method, the treatments of viscous terms are complicated and expensive. Moreover, careful treatments of source terms in turbulence model equations are necessary for Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations to prevent blow-up of high-order-accurate simulations. In this study, we compare high-order accurate discontinuous Galerkin method with different viscous treatments and stabilization of source terms for compressible Reynold-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Spalart-Allmaras or k-φ model is used for turbulence model. To compare the implemented formulations, steady turbulent flow over a flat plate and unsteady turbulent flow over cavity are solved.
Exploring the Use of Discontinuous Galerkin Methods for Numerical Relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hebert, Francois; Kidder, Lawrence; Teukolsky, Saul; SXS Collaboration
2015-04-01
The limited accuracy of relativistic hydrodynamic simulations constrains our insight into several important research problems, including among others our ability to generate accurate template waveforms for black hole-neutron star mergers, or our understanding of supernova explosion mechanisms. In many codes the algorithms used to evolve the matter, based on the finite volume method, struggle to reach the desired accuracy. We aim to show improved accuracy by using a discontinuous Galerkin method. This method's attractiveness comes from its combination of spectral convergence properties for smooth solutions and robust stability properties for shocks. We present the status of our work implementing a testbed GR-hydro code using discontinuous Galerkin.
Discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods for gradient plasticity.
Garikipati, Krishna.; Ostien, Jakob T.
2010-10-01
In this report we apply discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods to the equations of an incompatibility based formulation of gradient plasticity. The presentation is motivated with a brief overview of the description of dislocations within a crystal lattice. A tensor representing a measure of the incompatibility with the lattice is used in the formulation of a gradient plasticity model. This model is cast in a variational formulation, and discontinuous Galerkin machinery is employed to implement the formulation into a finite element code. Finally numerical examples of the model are shown.
An Application of the Quadrature-Free Discontinuous Galerkin Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lockard, David P.; Atkins, Harold L.
2000-01-01
The process of generating a block-structured mesh with the smoothness required for high-accuracy schemes is still a time-consuming process often measured in weeks or months. Unstructured grids about complex geometries are more easily generated, and for this reason, methods using unstructured grids have gained favor for aerodynamic analyses. The discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is a compact finite-element projection method that provides a practical framework for the development of a high-order method using unstructured grids. Higher-order accuracy is obtained by representing the solution as a high-degree polynomial whose time evolution is governed by a local Galerkin projection. The traditional implementation of the discontinuous Galerkin uses quadrature for the evaluation of the integral projections and is prohibitively expensive. Atkins and Shu introduced the quadrature-free formulation in which the integrals are evaluated a-priori and exactly for a similarity element. The approach has been demonstrated to possess the accuracy required for acoustics even in cases where the grid is not smooth. Other issues such as boundary conditions and the treatment of non-linear fluxes have also been studied in earlier work This paper describes the application of the quadrature-free discontinuous Galerkin method to a two-dimensional shear layer problem. First, a brief description of the method is given. Next, the problem is described and the solution is presented. Finally, the resources required to perform the calculations are given.
Neutron star evolutions using the discontinuous Galerkin method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hebert, Francois; SXS Collaboration Collaboration
2016-03-01
Relativistic hydrodynamic simulations enable us, for instance, to generate templates used for gravitational-wave detections of black hole-neutron star mergers, or to understand supernova explosion mechanisms. But the limited accuracy of the simulation algorithms used, often based on the finite volume method, constrains the insight we can obtain into these problems. We aim to improve the accuracy of our simulations by using a discontinuous Galerkin method. This method's attractiveness arises from its combination of spectral convergence properties for smooth solutions with robust stability properties for shocks. We present our work implementing a testbed discontinuous Galerkin GR-hydro code, and show our results for test evolutions of an isolated neutron star.
A Streaming Language Implementation of the Discontinuous Galerkin Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barth, Timothy; Knight, Timothy
2005-01-01
We present a Brook streaming language implementation of the 3-D discontinuous Galerkin method for compressible fluid flow on tetrahedral meshes. Efficient implementation of the discontinuous Galerkin method using the streaming model of computation introduces several algorithmic design challenges. Using a cycle-accurate simulator, performance characteristics have been obtained for the Stanford Merrimac stream processor. The current Merrimac design achieves 128 Gflops per chip and the desktop board is populated with 16 chips yielding a peak performance of 2 Teraflops. Total parts cost for the desktop board is less than $20K. Current cycle-accurate simulations for discretizations of the 3-D compressible flow equations yield approximately 40-50% of the peak performance of the Merrimac streaming processor chip. Ongoing work includes the assessment of the performance of the same algorithm on the 2 Teraflop desktop board with a target goal of achieving 1 Teraflop performance.
Discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element Method for Parabolic Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaneko, Hideaki; Bey, Kim S.; Hou, Gene J. W.
2004-01-01
In this paper, we develop a time and its corresponding spatial discretization scheme, based upon the assumption of a certain weak singularity of parallel ut(t) parallel Lz(omega) = parallel ut parallel2, for the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for one-dimensional parabolic problems. Optimal convergence rates in both time and spatial variables are obtained. A discussion of automatic time-step control method is also included.
Limiters for high-order discontinuous Galerkin methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krivodonova, Lilia
2007-09-01
We describe a limiter for the discontinuous Galerkin method that retains as high an order as possible, and does not automatically reduce to first order. The limiter is a generalization of the limiter introduced in [R. Biswas, K. Devine, J.E. Flaherty, Parallel adaptive finite element methods for conservation laws, Applied Numerical Mathematics 14 (1994) 255-284]. We present the one-dimensional case and extend it to two-dimensional problems on tensor-product meshes. Computational results for examples with both smooth and discontinuous solutions are shown.
Entropy-bounded discontinuous Galerkin scheme for Euler equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lv, Yu; Ihme, Matthias
2015-08-01
An entropy-bounded Discontinuous Galerkin (EBDG) scheme is proposed in which the solution is regularized by constraining the entropy. The resulting scheme is able to stabilize the solution in the vicinity of discontinuities and retains the optimal accuracy for smooth solutions. The properties of the limiting operator according to the entropy-minimum principle are proofed, and an optimal CFL-criterion is derived. We provide a rigorous description for locally imposing entropy constraints to capture multiple discontinuities. Significant advantages of the EBDG-scheme are the general applicability to arbitrary high-order elements and its simple implementation for multi-dimensional configurations. Numerical tests confirm the properties of the scheme, and particular focus is attributed to the robustness in treating discontinuities on arbitrary meshes.
A discontinuous Galerkin method for Vlasov - like systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gamba, I. M.; Cheng, Yingda; Morrison, P. J.
2011-10-01
The discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method developed by some of us for integrating the Vlasov-Poisson system is described and generalized. Higher order polynomials on basis elements are used and extensive error analyses, including recurrence properties, are discussed. The method is conservative and preserves positivity of the distribution function. Several linear and nonlinear examples are treated that elucidate the DG methods ability to resolve filamentation and obtain high resolution BGK states. PJM was upported by U.S. Dept. of Energy Contract # DE-FG05-80ET-53088.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tripathi, Bharat B.; Marchiano, Régis; Baskar, Sambandam; Coulouvrat, François
2015-10-01
Propagation of acoustical shock waves in complex geometry is a topic of interest in the field of nonlinear acoustics. For instance, simulation of Buzz Saw Noice requires the treatment of shock waves generated by the turbofan through the engines of aeroplanes with complex geometries and wall liners. Nevertheless, from a numerical point of view it remains a challenge. The two main hurdles are to take into account the complex geometry of the domain and to deal with the spurious oscillations (Gibbs phenomenon) near the discontinuities. In this work, first we derive the conservative hyperbolic system of nonlinear acoustics (up to quadratic nonlinear terms) using the fundamental equations of fluid dynamics. Then, we propose to adapt the classical nodal discontinuous Galerkin method to develop a high fidelity solver for nonlinear acoustics. The discontinuous Galerkin method is a hybrid of finite element and finite volume method and is very versatile to handle complex geometry. In order to obtain better performance, the method is parallelized on Graphical Processing Units. Like other numerical methods, discontinuous Galerkin method suffers with the problem of Gibbs phenomenon near the shock, which is a numerical artifact. Among the various ways to manage these spurious oscillations, we choose the method of parabolic regularization. Although, the introduction of artificial viscosity into the system is a popular way of managing shocks, we propose a new approach of introducing smooth artificial viscosity locally in each element, wherever needed. Firstly, a shock sensor using the linear coefficients of the spectral solution is used to locate the position of the discontinuities. Then, a viscosity coefficient depending on the shock sensor is introduced into the hyperbolic system of equations, only in the elements near the shock. The viscosity is applied as a two-dimensional Gaussian patch with its shape parameters depending on the element dimensions, referred here as Element
Simplified Discontinuous Galerkin Methods for Systems of Conservation Laws with Convex Extension
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barth, Timothy J.
1999-01-01
Simplified forms of the space-time discontinuous Galerkin (DG) and discontinuous Galerkin least-squares (DGLS) finite element method are developed and analyzed. The new formulations exploit simplifying properties of entropy endowed conservation law systems while retaining the favorable energy properties associated with symmetric variable formulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moura, R. C.; Silva, A. F. C.; Bigarella, E. D. V.; Fazenda, A. L.; Ortega, M. A.
2016-08-01
This paper proposes two important improvements to shock-capturing strategies using a discontinuous Galerkin scheme, namely, accurate shock identification via finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) operators and efficient shock treatment through a point-implicit discretization of a PDE-based artificial viscosity technique. The advocated approach is based on the FTLE operator, originally developed in the context of dynamical systems theory to identify certain types of coherent structures in a flow. We propose the application of FTLEs in the detection of shock waves and demonstrate the operator's ability to identify strong and weak shocks equally well. The detection algorithm is coupled with a mesh refinement procedure and applied to transonic and supersonic flows. While the proposed strategy can be used potentially with any numerical method, a high-order discontinuous Galerkin solver is used in this study. In this context, two artificial viscosity approaches are employed to regularize the solution near shocks: an element-wise constant viscosity technique and a PDE-based smooth viscosity model. As the latter approach is more sophisticated and preferable for complex problems, a point-implicit discretization in time is proposed to reduce the extra stiffness introduced by the PDE-based technique, making it more competitive in terms of computational cost.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Einkemmer, Lukas
2016-05-01
The recently developed semi-Lagrangian discontinuous Galerkin approach is used to discretize hyperbolic partial differential equations (usually first order equations). Since these methods are conservative, local in space, and able to limit numerical diffusion, they are considered a promising alternative to more traditional semi-Lagrangian schemes (which are usually based on polynomial or spline interpolation). In this paper, we consider a parallel implementation of a semi-Lagrangian discontinuous Galerkin method for distributed memory systems (so-called clusters). Both strong and weak scaling studies are performed on the Vienna Scientific Cluster 2 (VSC-2). In the case of weak scaling we observe a parallel efficiency above 0.8 for both two and four dimensional problems and up to 8192 cores. Strong scaling results show good scalability to at least 512 cores (we consider problems that can be run on a single processor in reasonable time). In addition, we study the scaling of a two dimensional Vlasov-Poisson solver that is implemented using the framework provided. All of the simulations are conducted in the context of worst case communication overhead; i.e., in a setting where the CFL (Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy) number increases linearly with the problem size. The framework introduced in this paper facilitates a dimension independent implementation of scientific codes (based on C++ templates) using both an MPI and a hybrid approach to parallelization. We describe the essential ingredients of our implementation.
Embedded discontinuous Galerkin transport schemes with localised limiters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cotter, C. J.; Kuzmin, D.
2016-04-01
Motivated by finite element spaces used for representation of temperature in the compatible finite element approach for numerical weather prediction, we introduce locally bounded transport schemes for (partially-)continuous finite element spaces. The underlying high-order transport scheme is constructed by injecting the partially-continuous field into an embedding discontinuous finite element space, applying a stable upwind discontinuous Galerkin (DG) scheme, and projecting back into the partially-continuous space; we call this an embedded DG transport scheme. We prove that this scheme is stable in L2 provided that the underlying upwind DG scheme is. We then provide a framework for applying limiters for embedded DG transport schemes. Standard DG limiters are applied during the underlying DG scheme. We introduce a new localised form of element-based flux-correction which we apply to limiting the projection back into the partially-continuous space, so that the whole transport scheme is bounded. We provide details in the specific case of tensor-product finite element spaces on wedge elements that are discontinuous P1/Q1 in the horizontal and continuous P2 in the vertical. The framework is illustrated with numerical tests.
Clearance gap flow: simulations by discontinuous Galerkin method and experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prausová, Helena; Bublík, Ondřej; Vimmr, Jan; Luxa, Martin; Hála, Jindřich
2015-05-01
Compressible viscous fluid flow in a narrow gap formed by two parallel plates in distance of 2 mm is investigated numerically and experimentally. Pneumatic and optical methods were used to obtain distribution of static to stagnation pressure ratio along the channel axis and interferograms including the free outflow behind the channel. Modern developing discontinuous Galerkin finite element method is implemented for numerical simulation of the fluid flow. The goal to make progress in knowledge of compressible viscous fluid flow characteristic phenomena in minichannels is satisfied by finding a suitable approach to this problem. Laminar, turbulent and transitional flow regime is examined and a good agreement of experimental and numerical results is achieved using γ - Reθt transition model.
A GPU-accelerated adaptive discontinuous Galerkin method for level set equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karakus, A.; Warburton, T.; Aksel, M. H.; Sert, C.
2016-01-01
This paper presents a GPU-accelerated nodal discontinuous Galerkin method for the solution of two- and three-dimensional level set (LS) equation on unstructured adaptive meshes. Using adaptive mesh refinement, computations are localised mostly near the interface location to reduce the computational cost. Small global time step size resulting from the local adaptivity is avoided by local time-stepping based on a multi-rate Adams-Bashforth scheme. Platform independence of the solver is achieved with an extensible multi-threading programming API that allows runtime selection of different computing devices (GPU and CPU) and different threading interfaces (CUDA, OpenCL and OpenMP). Overall, a highly scalable, accurate and mass conservative numerical scheme that preserves the simplicity of LS formulation is obtained. Efficiency, performance and local high-order accuracy of the method are demonstrated through distinct numerical test cases.
A unified discontinuous Galerkin framework for time integration.
Zhao, Shan; Wei, G W
2014-05-15
We introduce a new discontinuous Galerkin approach for time integration. On the basis of the method of weighted residual, numerical quadratures are employed in the finite element time discretization to account for general nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Many different conditions, including explicit, implicit, and symplectic conditions, are enforced for the test functions in the variational analysis to obtain desirable features of the resulting time-stepping scheme. The proposed discontinuous Galerkin approach provides a unified framework to derive various time-stepping schemes, such as low-order one-step methods, Runge-Kutta methods, and multistep methods. On the basis of the proposed framework, several explicit Runge-Kutta methods of different orders are constructed. The derivation of symplectic Runge-Kutta methods has also been realized. The proposed framework allows the optimization of new schemes in terms of several characteristics, such as accuracy, sparseness, and stability. The accuracy optimization is performed on the basis of an analytical form of the error estimation function for a linear test initial value problem. Schemes with higher formal order of accuracy are found to provide more accurate solutions. We have also explored the optimization potential of sparseness, which is related to the general compressive sensing in signal/imaging processing. Two critical dimensions of the stability region, that is, maximal intervals along the imaginary and negative real axes, are employed as the criteria for stability optimization. This gives the largest Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy time steps in solving hyperbolic and parabolic partial differential equations, respectively. Numerical experiments are conducted to validate the optimized time-stepping schemes. PMID:25382889
A unified discontinuous Galerkin framework for time integration
Zhao, Shan; Wei, G. W.
2013-01-01
We introduce a new discontinuous Galerkin approach for time integration. On the basis of the method of weighted residual, numerical quadratures are employed in the finite element time discretization to account for general nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Many different conditions, including explicit, implicit, and symplectic conditions, are enforced for the test functions in the variational analysis to obtain desirable features of the resulting time-stepping scheme. The proposed discontinuous Galerkin approach provides a unified framework to derive various time-stepping schemes, such as low-order one-step methods, Runge–Kutta methods, and multistep methods. On the basis of the proposed framework, several explicit Runge–Kutta methods of different orders are constructed. The derivation of symplectic Runge–Kutta methods has also been realized. The proposed framework allows the optimization of new schemes in terms of several characteristics, such as accuracy, sparseness, and stability. The accuracy optimization is performed on the basis of an analytical form of the error estimation function for a linear test initial value problem. Schemes with higher formal order of accuracy are found to provide more accurate solutions. We have also explored the optimization potential of sparseness, which is related to the general compressive sensing in signal/imaging processing. Two critical dimensions of the stability region, that is, maximal intervals along the imaginary and negative real axes, are employed as the criteria for stability optimization. This gives the largest Courant–Friedrichs–Lewy time steps in solving hyperbolic and parabolic partial differential equations, respectively. Numerical experiments are conducted to validate the optimized time-stepping schemes. PMID:25382889
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Liang; Lanteri, Stéphane; Perrussel, Ronan
2014-01-01
A Schwarz-type domain decomposition method is presented for the solution of the system of 3d time-harmonic Maxwell's equations. We introduce a hybridizable discontinuous Galerkin (HDG) scheme for the discretization of the problem based on a tetrahedrization of the computational domain. The discrete system of the HDG method on each subdomain is solved by an optimized sparse direct (LU factorization) solver. The solution of the interface system in the domain decomposition framework is accelerated by a Krylov subspace method. The formulation and the implementation of the resulting DD-HDG (Domain Decomposed-Hybridizable Discontinuous Galerkin) method are detailed. Numerical results show that the resulting DD-HDG solution strategy has an optimal convergence rate and can save both CPU time and memory cost compared to a classical upwind flux-based DD-DG (Domain Decomposed-Discontinuous Galerkin) approach.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Atkins, H. L.
1997-01-01
The formulation and the implementation of boundary conditions within the context of the quadrature-free form of the discontinuous Galerkin method are presented for several types of boundary conditions for the Euler equations. An important feature of the discontinuous Galerkin method is that the interior point algorithm is well behaved in the neighborhood of the boundary and requires no modifications. This feature leads to a simple and accurate treatment for wall boundary conditions and simple inflow and outflow boundary conditions. Curved walls are accurately treated with only minor changes to the implementation described in earlier work. The 'perfectly matched layer' approach to nonreflecting boundary conditions is easily applied to the discontinuous Galerkin. The compactness of the discontinuous Galerkin method makes it better suited for buffer-zone-type methods than high-order finite-difference methods. Results are presented for wall, characteristic inflow and outflow, and nonreflecting boundary conditions.
A thermodynamically consistent discontinuous Galerkin formulation for interface separation
Versino, Daniele; Mourad, Hashem M.; Dávila, Carlos G.; Addessio, Francis L.
2015-07-31
Our paper describes the formulation of an interface damage model, based on the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method, for the simulation of failure and crack propagation in laminated structures. The DG formulation avoids common difficulties associated with cohesive elements. Specifically, it does not introduce any artificial interfacial compliance and, in explicit dynamic analysis, it leads to a stable time increment size which is unaffected by the presence of stiff massless interfaces. This proposed method is implemented in a finite element setting. Convergence and accuracy are demonstrated in Mode I and mixed-mode delamination in both static and dynamic analyses. Significantly, numerical resultsmore » obtained using the proposed interface model are found to be independent of the value of the penalty factor that characterizes the DG formulation. By contrast, numerical results obtained using a classical cohesive method are found to be dependent on the cohesive penalty stiffnesses. The proposed approach is shown to yield more accurate predictions pertaining to crack propagation under mixed-mode fracture because of the advantage. Furthermore, in explicit dynamic analysis, the stable time increment size calculated with the proposed method is found to be an order of magnitude larger than the maximum allowable value for classical cohesive elements.« less
A thermodynamically consistent discontinuous Galerkin formulation for interface separation
Versino, Daniele; Mourad, Hashem M.; Dávila, Carlos G.; Addessio, Francis L.
2015-07-31
Our paper describes the formulation of an interface damage model, based on the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method, for the simulation of failure and crack propagation in laminated structures. The DG formulation avoids common difficulties associated with cohesive elements. Specifically, it does not introduce any artificial interfacial compliance and, in explicit dynamic analysis, it leads to a stable time increment size which is unaffected by the presence of stiff massless interfaces. This proposed method is implemented in a finite element setting. Convergence and accuracy are demonstrated in Mode I and mixed-mode delamination in both static and dynamic analyses. Significantly, numerical results obtained using the proposed interface model are found to be independent of the value of the penalty factor that characterizes the DG formulation. By contrast, numerical results obtained using a classical cohesive method are found to be dependent on the cohesive penalty stiffnesses. The proposed approach is shown to yield more accurate predictions pertaining to crack propagation under mixed-mode fracture because of the advantage. Furthermore, in explicit dynamic analysis, the stable time increment size calculated with the proposed method is found to be an order of magnitude larger than the maximum allowable value for classical cohesive elements.
Superconvergent discontinuous Galerkin methods for second-order elliptic problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cockburn, Bernardo; Guzman, Johnny; Wang, Haiying
2009-03-01
We identify discontinuous Galerkin methods for second-order elliptic problems in several space dimensions having superconvergence properties similar to those of the Raviart-Thomas and the Brezzi-Douglas-Marini mixed methods. These methods use polynomials of degree kge0 for both the potential as well as the flux. We show that the approximate flux converges in L^2 with the optimal order of k+1 , and that the approximate potential and its numerical trace superconverge, in L^2 -like norms, to suitably chosen projections of the potential, with order k+2 . We also apply element-by-element postprocessing of the approximate solution to obtain new approximations of the flux and the potential. The new approximate flux is proven to have normal components continuous across inter-element boundaries, to converge in L^2 with order k+1 , and to have a divergence converging in L^2 also with order k+1 . The new approximate potential is proven to converge with order k+2 in L^2 . Numerical experiments validating these theoretical results are presented.
An Investigation of Wave Propagations in Discontinuous Galerkin Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hu, Fang Q.
2004-01-01
Analysis of the discontinuous Galerkin method has been carried out for one- and two-dimensional system of hyperbolic equations. Analytical, as well as numerical, properties of wave propagation in a DGM scheme are derived and verified with direct numerical simulations. In addition to a systematic examination of the dissipation and dispersion errors, behaviours of a DG scheme at an interface of two different grid topologies are also studied. Under the same framework, a quantitative discrete analysis of various artificial boundary conditions is also conducted. Progress has been made in numerical boundary condition treatment that is closely related to the application of DGM in aeroacoustics problems. Finally, Fourier analysis of DGM for the Convective diffusion equation has also be studied in connection with the application of DG schemes for the Navier-Stokes equations. This research has resulted in five(5) publications, plus one additional manuscript in preparation, four(4) conference presentations, and three(3) departmental seminars, as summarized in part II. Abstracts of papers are given in part 111 of this report.
Bound-preserving discontinuous Galerkin methods for relativistic hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Tong; Shu, Chi-Wang; Yang, Yang
2016-06-01
In this paper, we develop a discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method to solve the ideal special relativistic hydrodynamics (RHD) and design a bound-preserving (BP) limiter for this scheme by extending the idea in X. Zhang and C.-W. Shu, (2010) [56]. For RHD, the density and pressure are positive and the velocity is bounded by the speed of light. One difficulty in numerically solving the RHD in its conservative form is that the failure of preserving these physical bounds will result in ill-posedness of the problem and blowup of the code, especially in extreme relativistic cases. The standard way in dealing with this difficulty is to add extra numerical dissipation, while in doing so there is no guarantee of maintaining the high order of accuracy. Our BP limiter has the following features. It can theoretically guarantee to preserve the physical bounds for the numerical solution and maintain its designed high order accuracy. The limiter is local to the cell and hence is very easy to implement. Moreover, it renders L1-stability to the numerical scheme. Numerical experiments are performed to demonstrate the good performance of this bound-preserving DG scheme. Even though we only discuss the BP limiter for DG schemes, it can be applied to high order finite volume schemes, such as weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) finite volume schemes as well.
A Discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element Method for Hamilton-Jacobi Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hu, Changqing; Shu, Chi-Wang
1998-01-01
In this paper, we present a discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for solving the nonlinear Hamilton-Jacobi equations. This method is based on the Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for solving conservation laws. The method has the flexibility of treating complicated geometry by using arbitrary triangulation, can achieve high order accuracy with a local, compact stencil, and are suited for efficient parallel implementation. One and two dimensional numerical examples are given to illustrate the capability of the method.
Discontinuous Galerkin methods for plasma physics in the scrape-off layer of tokamaks
Michoski, C.; Meyerson, D.; Isaac, T.; Waelbroeck, F.
2014-10-01
A new parallel discontinuous Galerkin solver, called ArcOn, is developed to describe the intermittent turbulent transport of filamentary blobs in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of fusion plasma. The model is comprised of an elliptic subsystem coupled to two convection-dominated reaction–diffusion–convection equations. Upwinding is used for a class of numerical fluxes developed to accommodate cross product driven convection, and the elliptic solver uses SIPG, NIPG, IIPG, Brezzi, and Bassi–Rebay fluxes to formulate the stiffness matrix. A novel entropy sensor is developed for this system, designed for a space–time varying artificial diffusion/viscosity regularization algorithm. Some numerical experiments are performed to show convergence order on manufactured solutions, regularization of blob/streamer dynamics in the SOL given unstable parameterizations, long-time stability of modon (or dipole drift vortex) solutions arising in simulations of drift-wave turbulence, and finally the formation of edge mode turbulence in the scrape-off layer under turbulent saturation conditions.
Wavelet-Galerkin solver for the analysis of optical waveguides.
Barai, Samit; Sharma, Anurag
2009-04-01
A new set of basis functions based on truncated Gaussian wavelets is proposed for optical waveguide analysis using the well-known Galerkin method. A spatially limited Gaussian wavelet train is formed by judiciously truncating the tails of Gaussian functions. The proposed set of basis functions produces a sparse eigenvalue equation when the wave equation is solved by the Galerkin method. The limited span of the basis functions makes the computation of integrals associated with matrix elements very fast with lower memory requirements. The effectiveness of the proposed basis functions is tested by comparing the results with those obtained by other methods and other basis functions for diffused and step index planar and channel waveguides. The results show a significant reduction in computation time while maintaining good accuracy. PMID:19340268
A CLASS OF RECONSTRUCTED DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN METHODS IN COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS
Hong Luo; Yidong Xia; Robert Nourgaliev
2011-05-01
A class of reconstructed discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods is presented to solve compressible flow problems on arbitrary grids. The idea is to combine the efficiency of the reconstruction methods in finite volume methods and the accuracy of the DG methods to obtain a better numerical algorithm in computational fluid dynamics. The beauty of the resulting reconstructed discontinuous Galerkin (RDG) methods is that they provide a unified formulation for both finite volume and DG methods, and contain both classical finite volume and standard DG methods as two special cases of the RDG methods, and thus allow for a direct efficiency comparison. Both Green-Gauss and least-squares reconstruction methods and a least-squares recovery method are presented to obtain a quadratic polynomial representation of the underlying linear discontinuous Galerkin solution on each cell via a so-called in-cell reconstruction process. The devised in-cell reconstruction is aimed to augment the accuracy of the discontinuous Galerkin method by increasing the order of the underlying polynomial solution. These three reconstructed discontinuous Galerkin methods are used to compute a variety of compressible flow problems on arbitrary meshes to assess their accuracy. The numerical experiments demonstrate that all three reconstructed discontinuous Galerkin methods can significantly improve the accuracy of the underlying second-order DG method, although the least-squares reconstructed DG method provides the best performance in terms of both accuracy, efficiency, and robustness.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hammett, G. W.; Hakim, A.
2012-10-01
A wide range of physics problems, including gyrokinetics, have an underlying Hamiltonian structure that can be expressed in terms of a Poisson bracket, which leads to two quadratic invariants, such as the energy and enstrophy invariants in 2-D hydrodynamics or Hasegawa-Mima equations. A type of Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) algorithm has been developed in the literature that can preserve both invariants, by coupling the DG algorithm for the advection part of the problem with a continuous Finite Element Method for the elliptic field equations. This algorithm can preserve both invariants if centered fluxes are used, and still preserves energy conservation even if upwind fluxes are used. However, when applied to gyrokinetics, the weak form of the continuous finite-element part of the algorithm causes a coupling along the field line that would require a full 3-D elliptic solver. We show a new type of DG algorithm that allows the potential to be discontinuous along the field line, just as the particle distribution function can be, thus restoring the property that the fields in gyrokinetics can determined by a set of uncoupled 2-D elliptic problems. By accounting for the delta-function electric field as particles cross cell boundaries, energy can still be preserved.
Fully-Implicit Orthogonal Reconstructed Discontinuous Galerkin for Fluid Dynamics with Phase Change
Nourgaliev, R.; Luo, H.; Weston, B.; Anderson, A.; Schofield, S.; Dunn, T.; Delplanque, J. -P.
2015-11-11
A new reconstructed Discontinuous Galerkin (rDG) method, based on orthogonal basis/test functions, is developed for fluid flows on unstructured meshes. Orthogonality of basis functions is essential for enabling robust and efficient fully-implicit Newton-Krylov based time integration. The method is designed for generic partial differential equations, including transient, hyperbolic, parabolic or elliptic operators, which are attributed to many multiphysics problems. We demonstrate the method’s capabilities for solving compressible fluid-solid systems (in the low Mach number limit), with phase change (melting/solidification), as motivated by applications in Additive Manufacturing (AM). We focus on the method’s accuracy (in both space and time), as wellmore » as robustness and solvability of the system of linear equations involved in the linearization steps of Newton-based methods. The performance of the developed method is investigated for highly-stiff problems with melting/solidification, emphasizing the advantages from tight coupling of mass, momentum and energy conservation equations, as well as orthogonality of basis functions, which leads to better conditioning of the underlying (approximate) Jacobian matrices, and rapid convergence of the Krylov-based linear solver.« less
Fully-Implicit Orthogonal Reconstructed Discontinuous Galerkin for Fluid Dynamics with Phase Change
Nourgaliev, R.; Luo, H.; Weston, B.; Anderson, A.; Schofield, S.; Dunn, T.; Delplanque, J. -P.
2015-11-11
A new reconstructed Discontinuous Galerkin (rDG) method, based on orthogonal basis/test functions, is developed for fluid flows on unstructured meshes. Orthogonality of basis functions is essential for enabling robust and efficient fully-implicit Newton-Krylov based time integration. The method is designed for generic partial differential equations, including transient, hyperbolic, parabolic or elliptic operators, which are attributed to many multiphysics problems. We demonstrate the method’s capabilities for solving compressible fluid-solid systems (in the low Mach number limit), with phase change (melting/solidification), as motivated by applications in Additive Manufacturing (AM). We focus on the method’s accuracy (in both space and time), as well as robustness and solvability of the system of linear equations involved in the linearization steps of Newton-based methods. The performance of the developed method is investigated for highly-stiff problems with melting/solidification, emphasizing the advantages from tight coupling of mass, momentum and energy conservation equations, as well as orthogonality of basis functions, which leads to better conditioning of the underlying (approximate) Jacobian matrices, and rapid convergence of the Krylov-based linear solver.
DG-FTLE: Lagrangian coherent structures with high-order discontinuous-Galerkin methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nelson, Daniel A.; Jacobs, Gustaaf B.
2015-08-01
We present an algorithm for the computation of finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) fields using discontinuous-Galerkin (dG) methods in two dimensions. The algorithm is designed to compute FTLE fields simultaneously with the time integration of dG-based flow solvers of conservation laws. Fluid tracers are initialized at Gauss-Lobatto quadrature nodes within an element. The deformation gradient tensor, defined by the deformation of the Lagrangian flow map in finite time, is determined per element with high-order dG operators. Multiple flow maps are constructed from a particle trace that is released at a single initial time by mapping and interpolating the flow map formed by the locations of the fluid tracers after finite time integration to a unit square master element and to the quadrature nodes within the element, respectively. The interpolated flow maps are used to compute forward-time and backward-time FTLE fields at several times using dG operators. For a large finite integration time, the interpolation is increasingly poorly conditioned because of the excessive subdomain deformation. The conditioning can be used in addition to the FTLE to quantify the deformation of the flow field and identify subdomains with material lines that define Lagrangian coherent structures. The algorithm is tested on three benchmarks: an analytical spatially periodic gyre flow, a vortex advected by a uniform inviscid flow, and the viscous flow around a square cylinder. In these cases, the algorithm is shown to have spectral convergence.
A nodal discontinuous Galerkin method for reverse-time migration on GPU clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Modave, A.; St-Cyr, A.; Mulder, W. A.; Warburton, T.
2015-11-01
Improving both accuracy and computational performance of numerical tools is a major challenge for seismic imaging and generally requires specialized implementations to make full use of modern parallel architectures. We present a computational strategy for reverse-time migration (RTM) with accelerator-aided clusters. A new imaging condition computed from the pressure and velocity fields is introduced. The model solver is based on a high-order discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) method for the pressure-velocity system with unstructured meshes and multirate local time stepping. We adopted the MPI+X approach for distributed programming where X is a threaded programming model. In this work we chose OCCA, a unified framework that makes use of major multithreading languages (e.g. CUDA and OpenCL) and offers the flexibility to run on several hardware architectures. DGTD schemes are suitable for efficient computations with accelerators thanks to localized element-to-element coupling and the dense algebraic operations required for each element. Moreover, compared to high-order finite-difference schemes, the thin halo inherent to DGTD method reduces the amount of data to be exchanged between MPI processes and storage requirements for RTM procedures. The amount of data to be recorded during simulation is reduced by storing only boundary values in memory rather than on disk and recreating the forward wavefields. Computational results are presented that indicate that these methods are strong scalable up to at least 32 GPUs for a three-dimensional RTM case.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Ruihan; Xu, Yan
2015-10-01
In this paper, we present an efficient and unconditionally energy stable fully-discrete local discontinuous Galerkin (LDG) method for approximating the Cahn-Hilliard-Brinkman (CHB) system, which is comprised of a Cahn-Hilliard type equation and a generalized Brinkman equation modeling fluid flow. The semi-discrete energy stability of the LDG method is proved firstly. Due to the strict time step restriction (Δt = O (Δx4)) of explicit time discretization methods for stability, we introduce a semi-implicit scheme which consists of the implicit Euler method combined with a convex splitting of the discrete Cahn-Hilliard energy strategy for the temporal discretization. The unconditional energy stability of this fully-discrete convex splitting scheme is also proved. Obviously, the fully-discrete equations at the implicit time level are nonlinear, and to enhance the efficiency of the proposed approach, the nonlinear Full Approximation Scheme (FAS) multigrid method has been employed to solve this system of algebraic equations. We also show the nearly optimal complexity numerically. Numerical experiments based on the overall solution method of combining the proposed LDG method, convex splitting scheme and the nonlinear multigrid solver are given to validate the theoretical results and to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach for the CHB system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nourgaliev, R.; Luo, H.; Weston, B.; Anderson, A.; Schofield, S.; Dunn, T.; Delplanque, J.-P.
2016-01-01
A new reconstructed Discontinuous Galerkin (rDG) method, based on orthogonal basis/test functions, is developed for fluid flows on unstructured meshes. Orthogonality of basis functions is essential for enabling robust and efficient fully-implicit Newton-Krylov based time integration. The method is designed for generic partial differential equations, including transient, hyperbolic, parabolic or elliptic operators, which are attributed to many multiphysics problems. We demonstrate the method's capabilities for solving compressible fluid-solid systems (in the low Mach number limit), with phase change (melting/solidification), as motivated by applications in Additive Manufacturing (AM). We focus on the method's accuracy (in both space and time), as well as robustness and solvability of the system of linear equations involved in the linearization steps of Newton-based methods. The performance of the developed method is investigated for highly-stiff problems with melting/solidification, emphasizing the advantages from tight coupling of mass, momentum and energy conservation equations, as well as orthogonality of basis functions, which leads to better conditioning of the underlying (approximate) Jacobian matrices, and rapid convergence of the Krylov-based linear solver.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caviedes-Voullième, Daniel; Kesserwani, Georges
2015-12-01
Numerical modelling of wide ranges of different physical scales, which are involved in Shallow Water (SW) problems, has been a key challenge in computational hydraulics. Adaptive meshing techniques have been commonly coupled with numerical methods in an attempt to address this challenge. The combination of MultiWavelets (MW) with the Runge-Kutta Discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) method offers a new philosophy to readily achieve mesh adaptivity driven by the local variability of the numerical solution, and without requiring more than one threshold value set by the user. However, the practical merits and implications of the MWRKDG, in terms of how far it contributes to address the key challenge above, are yet to be explored. This work systematically explores this, through the verification and validation of the MWRKDG for selected steady and transient benchmark tests, which involves the features of real SW problems. Our findings reveal a practical promise of the SW-MWRKDG solver, in terms of efficient and accurate mesh-adaptivity, but also suggest further improvement in the SW-RKDG reference scheme to better intertwine with, and harness the prowess of, the MW-based adaptivity.
Super-convergence of Discontinuous Galerkin Method Applied to the Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Atkins, Harold L.
2009-01-01
The practical benefits of the hyper-accuracy properties of the discontinuous Galerkin method are examined. In particular, we demonstrate that some flow attributes exhibit super-convergence even in the absence of any post-processing technique. Theoretical analysis suggest that flow features that are dominated by global propagation speeds and decay or growth rates should be super-convergent. Several discrete forms of the discontinuous Galerkin method are applied to the simulation of unsteady viscous flow over a two-dimensional cylinder. Convergence of the period of the naturally occurring oscillation is examined and shown to converge at 2p+1, where p is the polynomial degree of the discontinuous Galerkin basis. Comparisons are made between the different discretizations and with theoretical analysis.
The Local Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Time-Dependent Convection-Diffusion Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cockburn, Bernardo; Shu, Chi-Wang
1997-01-01
In this paper, we study the Local Discontinuous Galerkin methods for nonlinear, time-dependent convection-diffusion systems. These methods are an extension of the Runge-Kutta Discontinuous Galerkin methods for purely hyperbolic systems to convection-diffusion systems and share with those methods their high parallelizability, their high-order formal accuracy, and their easy handling of complicated geometries, for convection dominated problems. It is proven that for scalar equations, the Local Discontinuous Galerkin methods are L(sup 2)-stable in the nonlinear case. Moreover, in the linear case, it is shown that if polynomials of degree k are used, the methods are k-th order accurate for general triangulations; although this order of convergence is suboptimal, it is sharp for the LDG methods. Preliminary numerical examples displaying the performance of the method are shown.
White III, James B; Archibald, Richard K; Evans, Katherine J; Drake, John
2011-01-01
In this paper we present a new approach to increase the time-step size for an explicit discontinuous Galerkin numerical method. The attributes of this approach are demonstrated on standard tests for the shallow-water equations on the sphere. The addition of multiwavelets to discontinuous Galerkin method, which has the benefit of being scalable, flexible, and conservative, provides a hierarchical scale structure that can be exploited to improve computational efficiency in both the spatial and temporal dimensions. This paper explains how combining a multiwavelet discontinuous Galerkin method with exact linear part time-evolution schemes, which can remain stable for implicit-sized time steps, can help increase the time-step size for shallow water equations on the sphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lisitsa, Vadim; Tcheverda, Vladimir; Botter, Charlotte
2016-04-01
We present an algorithm for the numerical simulation of seismic wave propagation in models with a complex near surface part and free surface topography. The approach is based on the combination of finite differences with the discontinuous Galerkin method. The discontinuous Galerkin method can be used on polyhedral meshes; thus, it is easy to handle the complex surfaces in the models. However, this approach is computationally intense in comparison with finite differences. Finite differences are computationally efficient, but in general, they require rectangular grids, leading to the stair-step approximation of the interfaces, which causes strong diffraction of the wavefield. In this research we present a hybrid algorithm where the discontinuous Galerkin method is used in a relatively small upper part of the model and finite differences are applied to the main part of the model.
Fast discontinuous Galerkin lattice-Boltzmann simulations on GPUs via maximal kernel fusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazzeo, Marco D.
2013-03-01
A GPU implementation of the discontinuous Galerkin lattice-Boltzmann method with square spectral elements, and highly optimised for speed and precision of calculations is presented. An extensive analysis of the numerous variants of the fluid solver unveils that best performance is obtained by maximising CUDA kernel fusion and by arranging the resulting kernel tasks so as to trigger memory coherent and scattered loads in a specific manner, albeit at the cost of introducing cross-thread load unbalancing. Surprisingly, any attempt to vanish this, to maximise thread occupancy and to adopt conventional work tiling or distinct custom kernels highly tuned via ad hoc data and computation layouts invariably deteriorate performance. As such, this work sheds light into the possibility to hide fetch latencies of workloads involving heterogeneous loads in a way that is more effective than what is achieved with frequently suggested techniques. When simulating the lid-driven cavity on a NVIDIA GeForce GTX 480 via a 5-stage 4th-order Runge-Kutta (RK) scheme, the first four digits of the obtained centreline velocity values, or more, converge to those of the state-of-the-art literature data at a simulation speed of 7.0G primitive variable updates per second during the collision stage and 4.4G ones during each RK step of the advection by employing double-precision arithmetic (DPA) and a computational grid of 642 4×4-point elements only. The new programming engine leads to about 2× performance w.r.t. the best programming guidelines in the field. The new fluid solver on the above GPU is also 20-30 times faster than a highly optimised version running on a single core of a Intel Xeon X5650 2.66 GHz.
Galerkin CFD solvers for use in a multi-disciplinary suite for modeling advanced flight vehicles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moffitt, Nicholas J.
This work extends existing Galerkin CFD solvers for use in a multi-disciplinary suite. The suite is proposed as a means of modeling advanced flight vehicles, which exhibit strong coupling between aerodynamics, structural dynamics, controls, rigid body motion, propulsion, and heat transfer. Such applications include aeroelastics, aeroacoustics, stability and control, and other highly coupled applications. The suite uses NASA STARS for modeling structural dynamics and heat transfer. Aerodynamics, propulsion, and rigid body dynamics are modeled in one of the five CFD solvers below. Euler2D and Euler3D are Galerkin CFD solvers created at OSU by Cowan (2003). These solvers are capable of modeling compressible inviscid aerodynamics with modal elastics and rigid body motion. This work reorganized these solvers to improve efficiency during editing and at run time. Simple and efficient propulsion models were added, including rocket, turbojet, and scramjet engines. Viscous terms were added to the previous solvers to create NS2D and NS3D. The viscous contributions were demonstrated in the inertial and non-inertial frames. Variable viscosity (Sutherland's equation) and heat transfer boundary conditions were added to both solvers but not verified in this work. Two turbulence models were implemented in NS2D and NS3D: Spalart-Allmarus (SA) model of Deck, et al. (2002) and Menter's SST model (1994). A rotation correction term (Shur, et al., 2000) was added to the production of turbulence. Local time stepping and artificial dissipation were adapted to each model. CFDsol is a Taylor-Galerkin solver with an SA turbulence model. This work improved the time accuracy, far field stability, viscous terms, Sutherland?s equation, and SA model with NS3D as a guideline and added the propulsion models from Euler3D to CFDsol. Simple geometries were demonstrated to utilize current meshing and processing capabilities. Air-breathing hypersonic flight vehicles (AHFVs) represent the ultimate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barth, Timothy
2005-01-01
The role of involutions in energy stability of the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretization of Maxwell and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) systems is examined. Important differences are identified in the symmetrization of the Maxwell and MHD systems that impact the construction of energy stable discretizations using the DG method. Specifically, general sufficient conditions to be imposed on the DG numerical flux and approximation space are given so that energy stability is retained These sufficient conditions reveal the favorable energy consequence of imposing continuity in the normal component of the magnetic induction field at interelement boundaries for MHD discretizations. Counterintuitively, this condition is not required for stability of Maxwell discretizations using the discontinuous Galerkin method.
Liang, Xiao; Khaliq, Abdul Q. M.; Xing, Yulong
2015-01-23
In this paper, we study a local discontinuous Galerkin method combined with fourth order exponential time differencing Runge-Kutta time discretization and a fourth order conservative method for solving the nonlinear Schrödinger equations. Based on different choices of numerical fluxes, we propose both energy-conserving and energy-dissipative local discontinuous Galerkin methods, and have proven the error estimates for the semi-discrete methods applied to linear Schrödinger equation. The numerical methods are proven to be highly efficient and stable for long-range soliton computations. Finally, extensive numerical examples are provided to illustrate the accuracy, efficiency and reliability of the proposed methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hempert, F.; Hoffmann, M.; Iben, U.; Munz, C.-D.
2016-06-01
In the present investigation, we demonstrate the capabilities of the discontinuous Galerkin spectral element method for high order accuracy computation of gas dynamics. The internal flow field of a natural gas injector for bivalent combustion engines is investigated under its operating conditions. The simulations of the flow field and the aeroacoustic noise emissions were in a good agreement with the experimental data. We tested several shock-capturing techniques for the discontinuous Galerkin scheme. Based on the validated framework, we analyzed the development of the supersonic jets during different opening procedures of a compressed natural gas injector. The results suggest that a more gradual injector opening decreases the noise emission.
A Parallel Reconstructed Discontinuous Galerkin Method for the Compressible Flows on Aritrary Grids
Hong Luo; Amjad Ali; Robert Nourgaliev; Vincent A. Mousseau
2010-01-01
A reconstruction-based discontinuous Galerkin method is presented for the solution of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on arbitrary grids. In this method, an in-cell reconstruction is used to obtain a higher-order polynomial representation of the underlying discontinuous Galerkin polynomial solution and an inter-cell reconstruction is used to obtain a continuous polynomial solution on the union of two neighboring, interface-sharing cells. The in-cell reconstruction is designed to enhance the accuracy of the discontinuous Galerkin method by increasing the order of the underlying polynomial solution. The inter-cell reconstruction is devised to remove an interface discontinuity of the solution and its derivatives and thus to provide a simple, accurate, consistent, and robust approximation to the viscous and heat fluxes in the Navier-Stokes equations. A parallel strategy is also devised for the resulting reconstruction discontinuous Galerkin method, which is based on domain partitioning and Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model. The RDG method is used to compute a variety of compressible flow problems on arbitrary meshes to demonstrate its accuracy, efficiency, robustness, and versatility. The numerical results demonstrate that this RDG method is third-order accurate at a cost slightly higher than its underlying second-order DG method, at the same time providing a better performance than the third order DG method, in terms of both computing costs and storage requirements.
A Local Discontinuous Galerkin Method for the Complex Modified KdV Equation
Li Wenting; Jiang Kun
2010-09-30
In this paper, we develop a local discontinuous Galerkin(LDG) method for solving complex modified KdV(CMKdV) equation. The LDG method has the flexibility for arbitrary h and p adaptivity. We prove the L{sup 2} stability for general solutions.
A Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin approach to solve reactive flows: The hyperbolic operator
Billet, G.; Ryan, J.
2011-02-20
A Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin method to solve the hyperbolic part of reactive Navier-Stokes equations written in conservation form is presented. Complex thermodynamics laws are taken into account. Particular care has been taken to solve the stiff gaseous interfaces correctly with no restrictive hypothesis. 1D and 2D test cases are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Ruihan; Xia, Yinhua; Xu, Yan
2014-05-01
In this paper, we develop an efficient and energy stable fully-discrete local discontinuous Galerkin (LDG) method for the Cahn-Hilliard-Hele-Shaw (CHHS) system. The semi-discrete energy stability of the LDG method is proved firstly. Due to the strict time step restriction (Δt=O(Δx4)) of explicit time discretization methods for stability, we introduce a semi-implicit time integration scheme which is based on a convex splitting of the discrete Cahn-Hilliard energy. The unconditional energy stability has been proved for this fully-discrete LDG scheme. The fully-discrete equations at the implicit time level are nonlinear. Thus, the nonlinear Full Approximation Scheme (FAS) multigrid method has been applied to solve this system of algebraic equations, which has been shown the nearly optimal complexity numerically. Numerical results are also given to illustrate the accuracy and capability of the LDG method coupled with the multigrid solver.
Hybridizable discontinuous Galerkin projection methods for Navier-Stokes and Boussinesq equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ueckermann, M. P.; Lermusiaux, P. F. J.
2016-02-01
Schemes for the incompressible Navier-Stokes and Boussinesq equations are formulated and derived combining the novel Hybridizable Discontinuous Galerkin (HDG) method, a projection method, and Implicit-Explicit Runge-Kutta (IMEX-RK) time-integration schemes. We employ an incremental pressure correction and develop the corresponding HDG finite element discretization including consistent edge-space fluxes for the velocity predictor and pressure correction. We then derive the proper forms of the element-local and HDG edge-space final corrections for both velocity and pressure, including the HDG rotational correction. We also find and explain a consistency relation between the HDG stability parameters of the pressure correction and velocity predictor. We discuss and illustrate the effects of the time-splitting error. We then detail how to incorporate the HDG projection method time-split within standard IMEX-RK time-stepping schemes. Our high-order HDG projection schemes are implemented for arbitrary, mixed-element unstructured grids, with both straight-sided and curved meshes. In particular, we provide a quadrature-free integration method for a nodal basis that is consistent with the HDG method. To prevent numerical oscillations, we develop a selective nodal limiting approach. Its applications show that it can stabilize high-order schemes while retaining high-order accuracy in regions where the solution is sufficiently smooth. We perform spatial and temporal convergence studies to evaluate the properties of our integration and selective limiting schemes and to verify that our solvers are properly formulated and implemented. To complete these studies and to illustrate a range of properties for our new schemes, we employ an unsteady tracer advection benchmark, a manufactured solution for the steady diffusion and Stokes equations, and a standard lock-exchange Boussinesq problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaal, Kevin; Bauer, Andreas; Chandrashekar, Praveen; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Klingenberg, Christian; Springel, Volker
2015-11-01
Solving the Euler equations of ideal hydrodynamics as accurately and efficiently as possible is a key requirement in many astrophysical simulations. It is therefore important to continuously advance the numerical methods implemented in current astrophysical codes, especially also in light of evolving computer technology, which favours certain computational approaches over others. Here we introduce the new adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code TENET, which employs a high-order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) scheme for hydrodynamics. The Euler equations in this method are solved in a weak formulation with a polynomial basis by means of explicit Runge-Kutta time integration and Gauss-Legendre quadrature. This approach offers significant advantages over commonly employed second-order finite-volume (FV) solvers. In particular, the higher order capability renders it computationally more efficient, in the sense that the same precision can be obtained at significantly less computational cost. Also, the DG scheme inherently conserves angular momentum in regions where no limiting takes place, and it typically produces much smaller numerical diffusion and advection errors than an FV approach. A further advantage lies in a more natural handling of AMR refinement boundaries, where a fall-back to first order can be avoided. Finally, DG requires no wide stencils at high order, and offers an improved data locality and a focus on local computations, which is favourable for current and upcoming highly parallel supercomputers. We describe the formulation and implementation details of our new code, and demonstrate its performance and accuracy with a set of two- and three-dimensional test problems. The results confirm that DG schemes have a high potential for astrophysical applications.
Explicit filtering in large eddy simulation using a discontinuous Galerkin method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brazell, Matthew J.
The discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is a formulation of the finite element method (FEM). DG provides the ability for a high order of accuracy in complex geometries, and allows for highly efficient parallelization algorithms. These attributes make the DG method attractive for solving the Navier-Stokes equations for large eddy simulation (LES). The main goal of this work is to investigate the feasibility of adopting an explicit filter in the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations with DG. Explicit filtering has been shown to increase the numerical stability of under-resolved simulations and is needed for LES with dynamic sub-grid scale (SGS) models. The explicit filter takes advantage of DG's framework where the solution is approximated using a polyno- mial basis where the higher modes of the solution correspond to a higher order polynomial basis. By removing high order modes, the filtered solution contains low order frequency content much like an explicit low pass filter. The explicit filter implementation is tested on a simple 1-D solver with an initial condi- tion that has some similarity to turbulent flows. The explicit filter does restrict the resolution as well as remove accumulated energy in the higher modes from aliasing. However, the ex- plicit filter is unable to remove numerical errors causing numerical dissipation. A second test case solves the 3-D Navier-Stokes equations of the Taylor-Green vortex flow (TGV). The TGV is useful for SGS model testing because it is initially laminar and transitions into a fully turbulent flow. The SGS models investigated include the constant coefficient Smagorinsky model, dynamic Smagorinsky model, and dynamic Heinz model. The constant coefficient Smagorinsky model is over dissipative, this is generally not desirable however it does add stability. The dynamic Smagorinsky model generally performs better, especially during the laminar-turbulent transition region as expected. The dynamic Heinz model which is
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zanotti, O.; Dumbser, M.; Fambri, F.
2016-05-01
We describe a new method for the solution of the ideal MHD equations in special relativity which adopts the following strategy: (i) the main scheme is based on Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods, allowing for an arbitrary accuracy of order N+1, where N is the degree of the basis polynomials; (ii) in order to cope with oscillations at discontinuities, an ”a-posteriori” sub-cell limiter is activated, which scatters the DG polynomials of the previous time-step onto a set of 2N+1 sub-cells, over which the solution is recomputed by means of a robust finite volume scheme; (iii) a local spacetime Discontinuous-Galerkin predictor is applied both on the main grid of the DG scheme and on the sub-grid of the finite volume scheme; (iv) adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) with local time-stepping is used. We validate the new scheme and comment on its potential applications in high energy astrophysics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yan, Jue; Shu, Chi-Wang; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
In this paper we review the existing and develop new continuous Galerkin methods for solving time dependent partial differential equations with higher order derivatives in one and multiple space dimensions. We review local discontinuous Galerkin methods for convection diffusion equations involving second derivatives and for KdV type equations involving third derivatives. We then develop new local discontinuous Galerkin methods for the time dependent bi-harmonic type equations involving fourth derivatives, and partial differential equations involving fifth derivatives. For these new methods we present correct interface numerical fluxes and prove L(exp 2) stability for general nonlinear problems. Preliminary numerical examples are shown to illustrate these methods. Finally, we present new results on a post-processing technique, originally designed for methods with good negative-order error estimates, on the local discontinuous Galerkin methods applied to equations with higher derivatives. Numerical experiments show that this technique works as well for the new higher derivative cases, in effectively doubling the rate of convergence with negligible additional computational cost, for linear as well as some nonlinear problems, with a local uniform mesh.
High-Fidelity Lagrangian Coherent Structures Analysis and DNS with Discontinuous-Galerkin Methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nelson, Daniel Alan Wendell
High-fidelity numerical tools based on high-order Discontinuous-Galerkin (DG) methods and Lagrangian Coherent Structure (LCS) theory are developed and validated for the study of separated, vortex-dominated flows over complex geometry. The numerical framework couples prediction of separated turbulent flows using DG with time-dependent analysis of the flow through LCS and is intended for the development of separation control strategies for aerodynamic surfaces. The compressible viscous flow over a NACA 65-(1)412 airfoil is solved with a DG based Navier-Stokes solver in two and three dimensions. A method is presented in which high-order polynomial element edges adjacent to curved boundaries are matched to boundaries defined by non-smooth splines. Artificial surface roughness introduced by the piecewise-linear boundary approximation of straight-sided meshes results in the simulation of incorrect physics, including wake instabilities and spurious time-dependent modes. Spectral accuracy in the boundary approximation is not achieved for non-analytic boundary functions, particularly in high curvature regions. An algorithm is developed for the high-order computation of Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponent (FTLE) fields simultaneously and efficiently with two and three dimensional DG-based flow solvers. Fluid tracers are initialized at Gauss-Lobatto quadrature nodes within an element and form the high-order basis for a flow map at later time. Gradients of the flow map and FTLE are evaluated with DG operators. Multiple flow maps are determined from a single particle trace by remapping the flow map to the quadrature nodes on deformed mesh elements. For large integration times, excessive subdomain deformation deteriorates the interpolating conditioning. The conditioning provides information on the fluid deformation and identifies subdomains that contain LCS. An exponential filter smooths the flow map in highly deformed areas. The algorithm is tested on several benchmarks and is shown
Froehle, Bradley Persson, Per-Olof
2014-09-01
We present a high-order accurate scheme for coupled fluid–structure interaction problems. The fluid is discretized using a discontinuous Galerkin method on unstructured tetrahedral meshes, and the structure uses a high-order volumetric continuous Galerkin finite element method. Standard radial basis functions are used for the mesh deformation. The time integration is performed using a partitioned approach based on implicit–explicit Runge–Kutta methods. The resulting scheme fully decouples the implicit solution procedures for the fluid and the solid parts, which we perform using two separate efficient parallel solvers. We demonstrate up to fifth order accuracy in time on a non-trivial test problem, on which we also show that additional subiterations are not required. We solve a benchmark problem of a cantilever beam in a shedding flow, and show good agreement with other results in the literature. Finally, we solve for the flow around a thin membrane at a high angle of attack in both 2D and 3D, and compare with the results obtained with a rigid plate.
A Leap-Frog Discontinuous Galerkin Method for the Time-Domain Maxwell's Equations in Metamaterials
Li, J., Waters, J. W., Machorro, E. A.
2012-06-01
Numerical simulation of metamaterials play a very important role in the design of invisibility cloak, and sub-wavelength imaging. In this paper, we propose a leap-frog discontinuous Galerkin method to solve the time-dependent Maxwell’s equations in metamaterials. Conditional stability and error estimates are proved for the scheme. The proposed algorithm is implemented and numerical results supporting the analysis are provided.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
von Sydow, Lina
2013-10-01
The discontinuous Galerkin method for time integration of the Black-Scholes partial differential equation for option pricing problems is studied and compared with more standard time-integrators. In space an adaptive finite difference discretization is employed. The results show that the dG method are in most cases at least comparable to standard time-integrators and in some cases superior to them. Together with adaptive spatial grids the suggested pricing method shows great qualities.
Discontinuous Galerkin finite element method applied to the 1-D spherical neutron transport equation
Machorro, Eric . E-mail: machorro@amath.washington.edu
2007-04-10
Discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods are used to estimate solutions to the non-scattering 1-D spherical neutron transport equation. Various trial and test spaces are compared in the context of a few sample problems whose exact solution is known. Certain trial spaces avoid unphysical behaviors that seem to plague other methods. Comparisons with diamond differencing and simple corner-balancing are presented to highlight these improvements.
A Posteriori Error Estimation for Discontinuous Galerkin Approximations of Hyperbolic Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Larson, Mats G.; Barth, Timothy J.
1999-01-01
This article considers a posteriori error estimation of specified functionals for first-order systems of conservation laws discretized using the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite element method. Using duality techniques, we derive exact error representation formulas for both linear and nonlinear functionals given an associated bilinear or nonlinear variational form. Weighted residual approximations of the exact error representation formula are then proposed and numerically evaluated for Ringleb flow, an exact solution of the 2-D Euler equations.
Hydrodynamic Interaction Of Strong Shocks With Inhomogeneous Media:A Discontinuous Galerkin Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulkarni, Rohit; Shelton, A.
2011-04-01
HYDRODYNAMIC INTERACTION OF STRONG SHOCKS WITH INHOMOGENEOUS MEDIA: A DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN APPROACH Rohit Kulkarni, Andrew Shelton, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Auburn University, AL 36849 Many astrophysical flows, which have been observed, occur in inhomogeneous (clumpy) media. This numerical experiment comprises a model which will analyze the hydrodynamic interaction of strong shocks with inhomogeneous media neglecting any radiative losses, heat conduction, and gravitational forces. Formulation of this numerical study considers interaction of a steady, planar shock with embedded cylindrical clouds in the two-dimensional computational space. Hydrodynamic system of non-linear hyperbolic conservation equations for single fluid system is considered to govern the underlying physical phenomenon. Emphasis will be on the development of discontinuous Galerkin finite element based code towards discretizing and then solving the physical conservation laws for the defined numerical experiment. This higher-order accurate scheme in spatial and temporal domain uses the discontinuous Galerkin method and this scheme will be compared with the Godunov-type finite volume method for accuracy and computational expense. Then the results will be obtained for the defined numerical model using the discontinuous Galerkin method, to discuss and conduct a comparative study which will provide the insights about the time evolution of a shock wave interacting with a single cloud system studied in a described computational domain. Numerical code developed will use an adaptive mesh refinement tool provided by AMRCLAW code which will allow us to achieve sufficiently high resolution both at small and large scales of simulation. Rohit Kulkarni rak0008@tigermail.auburn.edu Department of Aerospace Engineering, Auburn University .
A spectral-element discontinuous Galerkin lattice Boltzmann method for incompressible flows.
Min, M.; Lee, T.; Mathematics and Computer Science; City Univ. of New York
2011-01-01
We present a spectral-element discontinuous Galerkin lattice Boltzmann method for solving nearly incompressible flows. Decoupling the collision step from the streaming step offers numerical stability at high Reynolds numbers. In the streaming step, we employ high-order spectral-element discontinuous Galerkin discretizations using a tensor product basis of one-dimensional Lagrange interpolation polynomials based on Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre grids. Our scheme is cost-effective with a fully diagonal mass matrix, advancing time integration with the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. We present a consistent treatment for imposing boundary conditions with a numerical flux in the discontinuous Galerkin approach. We show convergence studies for Couette flows and demonstrate two benchmark cases with lid-driven cavity flows for Re = 400-5000 and flows around an impulsively started cylinder for Re = 550-9500. Computational results are compared with those of other theoretical and computational work that used a multigrid method, a vortex method, and a spectral element model.
Hong Luo; Hanping Xiao; Robert Nourgaliev; Chunpei Cai
2011-06-01
A comparative study of different reconstruction schemes for a reconstruction-based discontinuous Galerkin, termed RDG(P1P2) method is performed for compressible flow problems on arbitrary grids. The RDG method is designed to enhance the accuracy of the discontinuous Galerkin method by increasing the order of the underlying polynomial solution via a reconstruction scheme commonly used in the finite volume method. Both Green-Gauss and least-squares reconstruction methods and a least-squares recovery method are implemented to obtain a quadratic polynomial representation of the underlying discontinuous Galerkin linear polynomial solution on each cell. These three reconstruction/recovery methods are compared for a variety of compressible flow problems on arbitrary meshes to access their accuracy and robustness. The numerical results demonstrate that all three reconstruction methods can significantly improve the accuracy of the underlying second-order DG method, although the least-squares reconstruction method provides the best performance in terms of both accuracy and robustness.
A Hierarchical WENO Reconstructed Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Computing Shock Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Y.; Frisbey, M.; Luo, H.
The discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods[1] have recently become popular for the solution of systems of conservation laws because of their several attractive features such as easy extension to and compact stencil for higher-order (> 2nd) approximation, flexibility in handling arbitrary types of grids for complex geometries, and amenability to parallelization and hp-adaptation. However, the DG Methods have their own share weaknesses. In particular, how to effectively control spurious oscillations in the presence of strong discontinuities, and how to reduce the computing costs and storage requirements for the DGM remain the two most challenging and unresolved issues in the DGM.
A discontinuous Galerkin method for two-dimensional PDE models of Asian options
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hozman, J.; Tichý, T.; Cvejnová, D.
2016-06-01
In our previous research we have focused on the problem of plain vanilla option valuation using discontinuous Galerkin method for numerical PDE solution. Here we extend a simple one-dimensional problem into two-dimensional one and design a scheme for valuation of Asian options, i.e. options with payoff depending on the average of prices collected over prespecified horizon. The algorithm is based on the approach combining the advantages of the finite element methods together with the piecewise polynomial generally discontinuous approximations. Finally, an illustrative example using DAX option market data is provided.
de Almeida, V.F.
2004-01-28
A phase-space discontinuous Galerkin (PSDG) method is presented for the solution of stellar radiative transfer problems. It allows for greater adaptivity than competing methods without sacrificing generality. The method is extensively tested on a spherically symmetric, static, inverse-power-law scattering atmosphere. Results for different sizes of atmospheres and intensities of scattering agreed with asymptotic values. The exponentially decaying behavior of the radiative field in the diffusive-transparent transition region and the forward peaking behavior at the surface of extended atmospheres were accurately captured. The integrodifferential equation of radiation transfer is solved iteratively by alternating between the radiative pressure equation and the original equation with the integral term treated as an energy density source term. In each iteration, the equations are solved via an explicit, flux-conserving, discontinuous Galerkin method. Finite elements are ordered in wave fronts perpendicularly to the characteristic curves so that elemental linear algebraic systems are solved quickly by sweeping the phase space element by element. Two implementations of a diffusive boundary condition at the origin are demonstrated wherein the finite discontinuity in the radiative intensity is accurately captured by the proposed method. This allows for a consistent mechanism to preserve photon luminosity. The method was proved to be robust and fast, and a case is made for the adequacy of parallel processing. In addition to classical two-dimensional plots, results of normalized radiative intensity were mapped onto a log-polar surface exhibiting all distinguishing features of the problem studied.
Space-time discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for two-fluid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sollie, W. E. H.; Bokhove, O.; van der Vegt, J. J. W.
2011-02-01
A novel numerical method for two-fluid flow computations is presented, which combines the space-time discontinuous Galerkin finite element discretization with the level set method and cut-cell based interface tracking. The space-time discontinuous Galerkin (STDG) finite element method offers high accuracy, an inherent ability to handle discontinuities and a very local stencil, making it relatively easy to combine with local hp-refinement. The front tracking is incorporated via cut-cell mesh refinement to ensure a sharp interface between the fluids. To compute the interface dynamics the level set method (LSM) is used because of its ability to deal with merging and breakup. Also, the LSM is easy to extend to higher dimensions. Small cells arising from the cut-cell refinement are merged to improve the stability and performance. The interface conditions are incorporated in the numerical flux at the interface and the STDG discretization ensures that the scheme is conservative as long as the numerical fluxes are conservative. The numerical method is applied to one and two dimensional two-fluid test problems using the Euler equations.
An HP Adaptive Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Hyperbolic Conservation Laws. Ph.D. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bey, Kim S.
1994-01-01
This dissertation addresses various issues for model classes of hyperbolic conservation laws. The basic approach developed in this work employs a new family of adaptive, hp-version, finite element methods based on a special discontinuous Galerkin formulation for hyperbolic problems. The discontinuous Galerkin formulation admits high-order local approximations on domains of quite general geometry, while providing a natural framework for finite element approximations and for theoretical developments. The use of hp-versions of the finite element method makes possible exponentially convergent schemes with very high accuracies in certain cases; the use of adaptive hp-schemes allows h-refinement in regions of low regularity and p-enrichment to deliver high accuracy, while keeping problem sizes manageable and dramatically smaller than many conventional approaches. The use of discontinuous Galerkin methods is uncommon in applications, but the methods rest on a reasonable mathematical basis for low-order cases and has local approximation features that can be exploited to produce very efficient schemes, especially in a parallel, multiprocessor environment. The place of this work is to first and primarily focus on a model class of linear hyperbolic conservation laws for which concrete mathematical results, methodologies, error estimates, convergence criteria, and parallel adaptive strategies can be developed, and to then briefly explore some extensions to more general cases. Next, we provide preliminaries to the study and a review of some aspects of the theory of hyperbolic conservation laws. We also provide a review of relevant literature on this subject and on the numerical analysis of these types of problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feistauer, Miloslav; Kučera, Václav; Prokopová, Jaroslav; Horáček, Jaromír
2010-09-01
The aim of this work is the simulation of viscous compressible flows in human vocal folds during phonation. The computational domain is a bounded subset of IR2, whose geometry mimics the shape of the human larynx. During phonation, parts of the solid impermeable walls are moving in a prescribed manner, thus simulating the opening and closing of the vocal chords. As the governing equations we take the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in ALE form. Space semidiscretization is carried out by the discontinuous Galerkin method combined with a linearized semi-implicit approach. Numerical experiments are performed with the resulting scheme.
Analysis of the discontinuous Galerkin method applied to the European option pricing problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hozman, J.
2013-12-01
In this paper we deal with a numerical solution of a one-dimensional Black-Scholes partial differential equation, an important scalar nonstationary linear convection-diffusion-reaction equation describing the pricing of European vanilla options. We present a derivation of the numerical scheme based on the space semidiscretization of the model problem by the discontinuous Galerkin method with nonsymmetric stabilization of diffusion terms and with the interior and boundary penalty. The main attention is paid to the investigation of a priori error estimates for the proposed scheme. The appended numerical experiments illustrate the theoretical results and the potency of the method, consequently.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papanicolaou, N. C.; Aristotelous, A. C.
2015-10-01
In this work, we develop a High-Order Symmetric Interior Penalty (SIP) Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) Finite Element Method (FEM) to investigate convective flows in a rectangular cavity subject to both vertical and horizontal temperature gradients. The whole cavity is subject to gravity modulation (g-jitter), simulating a microgravity environment. The sensitivity of the bifurcation problem makes the use of a high-order accurate and efficient technique essential. Our method is validated by solving the plane-parallel flow problem and the results were found to be in good agreement with published results. The numerical method was designed to be easily extendable to even more complex flows.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Atkins, H. L.; Shu, Chi-Wang
2001-01-01
The explicit stability constraint of the discontinuous Galerkin method applied to the diffusion operator decreases dramatically as the order of the method is increased. Block Jacobi and block Gauss-Seidel preconditioner operators are examined for their effectiveness at accelerating convergence. A Fourier analysis for methods of order 2 through 6 reveals that both preconditioner operators bound the eigenvalues of the discrete spatial operator. Additionally, in one dimension, the eigenvalues are grouped into two or three regions that are invariant with order of the method. Local relaxation methods are constructed that rapidly damp high frequencies for arbitrarily large time step.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barth, Timothy; Charrier, Pierre; Mansour, Nagi N. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
We consider the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite element discretization of first order systems of conservation laws derivable as moments of the kinetic Boltzmann equation. This includes well known conservation law systems such as the Euler For the class of first order nonlinear conservation laws equipped with an entropy extension, an energy analysis of the DG method for the Cauchy initial value problem is developed. Using this DG energy analysis, several new variants of existing numerical flux functions are derived and shown to be energy stable.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garai, Anirban; Diosady, Laslo T.; Murman, Scott M.; Madavan, Nateri K.
2016-01-01
The perfectly matched layer (PML) technique is developed in the context of a high- order spectral-element Discontinuous-Galerkin (DG) method. The technique is applied to a range of test cases and is shown to be superior compared to other approaches, such as those based on using characteristic boundary conditions and sponge layers, for treating the inflow and outflow boundaries of computational domains. In general, the PML technique improves the quality of the numerical results for simulations of practical flow configurations, but it also exhibits some instabilities for large perturbations. A preliminary analysis that attempts to understand the source of these instabilities is discussed.
Roberts, Nathan V.; Demkowiz, Leszek; Moser, Robert
2015-11-15
The discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin methodology with optimal test functions (DPG) of Demkowicz and Gopalakrishnan [18, 20] guarantees the optimality of the solution in an energy norm, and provides several features facilitating adaptive schemes. Whereas Bubnov-Galerkin methods use identical trial and test spaces, Petrov-Galerkin methods allow these function spaces to differ. In DPG, test functions are computed on the fly and are chosen to realize the supremum in the inf-sup condition; the method is equivalent to a minimum residual method. For well-posed problems with sufficiently regular solutions, DPG can be shown to converge at optimal rates—the inf-sup constants governing the convergence are mesh-independent, and of the same order as those governing the continuous problem [48]. DPG also provides an accurate mechanism for measuring the error, and this can be used to drive adaptive mesh refinements. We employ DPG to solve the steady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in two dimensions, building on previous work on the Stokes equations, and focusing particularly on the usefulness of the approach for automatic adaptivity starting from a coarse mesh. We apply our approach to a manufactured solution due to Kovasznay as well as the lid-driven cavity flow, backward-facing step, and flow past a cylinder problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roberts, Nathan V.; Demkowicz, Leszek; Moser, Robert
2015-11-01
The discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin methodology with optimal test functions (DPG) of Demkowicz and Gopalakrishnan [18,20] guarantees the optimality of the solution in an energy norm, and provides several features facilitating adaptive schemes. Whereas Bubnov-Galerkin methods use identical trial and test spaces, Petrov-Galerkin methods allow these function spaces to differ. In DPG, test functions are computed on the fly and are chosen to realize the supremum in the inf-sup condition; the method is equivalent to a minimum residual method. For well-posed problems with sufficiently regular solutions, DPG can be shown to converge at optimal rates-the inf-sup constants governing the convergence are mesh-independent, and of the same order as those governing the continuous problem [48]. DPG also provides an accurate mechanism for measuring the error, and this can be used to drive adaptive mesh refinements. We employ DPG to solve the steady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in two dimensions, building on previous work on the Stokes equations, and focusing particularly on the usefulness of the approach for automatic adaptivity starting from a coarse mesh. We apply our approach to a manufactured solution due to Kovasznay as well as the lid-driven cavity flow, backward-facing step, and flow past a cylinder problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Česenek, Jan
2016-03-01
In this article we deal with numerical simulation of the non-stationary compressible turbulent flow. Compressible turbulent flow is described by the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. This RANS system is equipped with two-equation k-omega turbulence model. These two systems of equations are solved separately. Discretization of the RANS system is carried out by the space-time discontinuous Galerkin method which is based on piecewise polynomial discontinuous approximation of the sought solution in space and in time. Discretization of the two-equation k-omega turbulence model is carried out by the implicit finite volume method, which is based on piecewise constant approximation of the sought solution. We present some numerical experiments to demonstrate the applicability of the method using own-developed code.
A New Approach for Imposing Artificial Viscosity for Explicit Discontinuous Galerkin Scheme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
See, Yee Chee; Lv, Yu; Ihme, Matthias
2014-11-01
The development of high-order numerical methods for unstructured meshes has been a significant area of research, and the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method has found considerable interest. However, the DG-method exhibits robustness issues in application to flows with discontinuities and shocks. To address this issue, an artificial viscosity method was proposed by Persson et al. for steady flows. Its extension to time-dependent flows introduces substantial time-step restrictions. By addressing this issue, a novel method, which is based on an entropy formulation, is proposed. The resulting scheme doesn't impose restrictions on the CFL-constraint. Following a description of the formulation and the evaluation of the stability, this newly developed artificial viscosity scheme is demonstrated in application to different test cases.
A discontinuous Galerkin method for studying elasticity and variable viscosity Stokes problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schnepp, Sascha M.; Charrier, Dominic; May, Dave
2015-04-01
Traditionally in the geodynamics community, staggered grid finite difference schemes and mixed Finite Elements (FE) have been utilised to discretise the variable viscosity (VV) Stokes problem. These methods have been demonstrated to be sufficiently robust and accurate for a wide range of variable viscosity problems involving both smooth viscosity structures possessing large spatial variations, and for discontinuous viscosity structures. One caveat of the aforementioned discretisations is that they tend to have inf-sup constants which are highly dependent on the cell aspect ratio. Whilst high order mixed FE approaches utilising spaces defined via Qk - Qk-2, k ≥ 3, alleviate this shortcoming, such elements are seldomly used as they are computationally expensive, the definition of multi-level preconditioners is complex, and spectral accuracy is often not obtained. Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods offer the advantage that spaces can be constructed which have both low order in velocity and pressure and inf-sup constants which are not sensitive to the element aspect ratio. To date, DG discretisations have not been extensively used within geodynamic applications associated with VV Stokes formulations. Here we rigorously evaluate the applicability of two Interior Penalty Discontinuous Galerkin methods, namely the Nonsymmetric and Symmetric Interior Penalty Galerkin methods (NIPG and SIPG) for compressible elasticity and incompressible, variable viscosity Stokes problems. Through a suite of numerical experiments, our evaluation considers the stability, order of accuracy and robustness of the NIPG and SIPG discretisations for cases with both smooth and discontinuous coefficients. Using manufactured solutions, we confirm that both DG formulations are stable and result in convergent solutions for displacement based elasticity formulations, even in the limit of Poisson ratio approaching 0.5. With regards to incompressible flow simulations, using the analytic solution Sol
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pelties, C.; Käser, M.
2010-12-01
We will present recent developments concerning the extensions of the ADER-DG method to solve three dimensional dynamic rupture problems on unstructured tetrahedral meshes. The simulation of earthquake rupture dynamics and seismic wave propagation using a discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method in 2D was recently presented by J. de la Puente et al. (2009). A considerable feature of this study regarding spontaneous rupture problems was the combination of the DG scheme and a time integration method using Arbitrarily high-order DERivatives (ADER) to provide high accuracy in space and time with the discretization on unstructured meshes. In the resulting discrete velocity-stress formulation of the elastic wave equations variables are naturally discontinuous at the interfaces between elements. The so-called Riemann problem can then be solved to obtain well defined values of the variables at the discontinuity itself. This is in particular valid for the fault at which a certain friction law has to be evaluated. Hence, the fault’s geometry is honored by the computational mesh. This way, complex fault planes can be modeled adequately with small elements while fast mesh coarsening is possible with increasing distance from the fault. Due to the strict locality of the scheme using only direct neighbor communication, excellent parallel behavior can be observed. A further advantage of the scheme is that it avoids spurious high-frequency contributions in the slip rate spectra and therefore does not require artificial Kelvin-Voigt damping or filtering of synthetic seismograms. In order to test the accuracy of the ADER-DG method the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) benchmark for spontaneous rupture simulations was employed. Reference: J. de la Puente, J.-P. Ampuero, and M. Käser (2009), Dynamic rupture modeling on unstructured meshes using a discontinuous Galerkin method, JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 114, B10302, doi:10.1029/2008JB006271
Discontinuous Galerkin methods with plane waves for time-harmonic problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gabard, Gwénaël
2007-08-01
A general framework for discontinuous Galerkin methods in the frequency domain with numerical flux is presented. The main feature of the method is the use of plane waves instead of polynomials to approximate the solution in each element. The method is formulated for a general system of linear hyperbolic equations and is applied to problems of aeroacoustic propagation by solving the two-dimensional linearized Euler equations. It is found that the method requires only a small number of elements per wavelength to obtain accurate solutions and that it is more efficient than high-order DRP schemes. In addition, the conditioning of the method is found to be high but not critical in practice. It is shown that the Ultra-Weak Variational Formulation is in fact a subset of the present discontinuous Galerkin method. A special extension of the method is devised in order to deal with singular solutions generated by point sources like monopoles or dipoles. Aeroacoustic problems with non-uniform flows are also considered and results are presented for the sound radiated from a two-dimensional jet.
Hong Luo; Luquing Luo; Robert Nourgaliev; Vincent Mousseau
2009-06-01
A reconstruction-based discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is presented for the solution of the compressible Euler equations on arbitrary grids. By taking advantage of handily available and yet invaluable information, namely the derivatives, in the context of the discontinuous Galerkin methods, a solution polynomial of one degree higher is reconstructed using a least-squares method. The stencils used in the reconstruction involve only the van Neumann neighborhood (face-neighboring cells) and are compact and consistent with the underlying DG method. The resulting DG method can be regarded as an improvement of a recovery-based DG method in the sense that it shares the same nice features as the recovery-based DG method, such as high accuracy and efficiency, and yet overcomes some of its shortcomings such as a lack of flexibility, compactness, and robustness. The developed DG method is used to compute a variety of flow problems on arbitrary meshes to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the method. The numerical results indicate that this reconstructed DG method is able to obtain a third-order accurate solution at a slightly higher cost than its second-order DG method and provide an increase in performance over the third order DG method in terms of computing time and storage requirement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xiaoquan; Cheng, Jian; Liu, Tiegang; Luo, Hong
2015-11-01
The direct discontinuous Galerkin (DDG) method based on a traditional discontinuous Galerkin (DG) formulation is extended and implemented for solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on arbitrary grids. Compared to the widely used second Bassi-Rebay (BR2) scheme for the discretization of diffusive fluxes, the DDG method has two attractive features: first, it is simple to implement as it is directly based on the weak form, and therefore there is no need for any local or global lifting operator; second, it can deliver comparable results, if not better than BR2 scheme, in a more efficient way with much less CPU time. Two approaches to perform the DDG flux for the Navier- Stokes equations are presented in this work, one is based on conservative variables, the other is based on primitive variables. In the implementation of the DDG method for arbitrary grid, the definition of mesh size plays a critical role as the formation of viscous flux explicitly depends on the geometry. A variety of test cases are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the DDG method for discretizing the viscous fluxes in the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on arbitrary grids.
Liang, Xiao; Khaliq, Abdul Q.M.; Xing, Yulong
2015-01-23
In this paper, we study a local discontinuous Galerkin method combined with fourth order exponential time differencing Runge-Kutta time discretization and a fourth order conservative method for solving the nonlinear Schrödinger equations. Based on different choices of numerical fluxes, we propose both energy-conserving and energy-dissipative local discontinuous Galerkin methods, and have proven the error estimates for the semi-discrete methods applied to linear Schrödinger equation. The numerical methods are proven to be highly efficient and stable for long-range soliton computations. Finally, extensive numerical examples are provided to illustrate the accuracy, efficiency and reliability of the proposed methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Ruichao; de Hoop, Maarten V.; Petrovitch, Christopher L.; Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J.; Wilcox, Lucas C.
2016-02-01
We develop an approach for simulating acousto-elastic wave phenomena, including scattering from fluid-solid boundaries, where the solid is allowed to be anisotropic, with the Discontinuous Galerkin method. We use a coupled first-order elastic strain-velocity, acoustic velocity-pressure formulation, and append penalty terms based on interior boundary continuity conditions to the numerical (central) flux so that the consistency condition holds for the discretized Discontinuous Galerkin weak formulation. We incorporate the fluid-solid boundaries through these penalty terms and obtain a stable algorithm. Our approach avoids the diagonalization into polarized wave constituents such as in the approach based on solving elementwise Riemann problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Ruichao; de Hoop, Maarten V.; Petrovitch, Christopher L.; Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J.; Wilcox, Lucas C.
2016-05-01
We develop an approach for simulating acousto-elastic wave phenomena, including scattering from fluid-solid boundaries, where the solid is allowed to be anisotropic, with the discontinuous Galerkin method. We use a coupled first-order elastic strain-velocity, acoustic velocity-pressure formulation, and append penalty terms based on interior boundary continuity conditions to the numerical (central) flux so that the consistency condition holds for the discretized discontinuous Galerkin weak formulation. We incorporate the fluid-solid boundaries through these penalty terms and obtain a stable algorithm. Our approach avoids the diagonalization into polarized wave constituents such as in the approach based on solving elementwise Riemann problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Y.; Billen, M. I.; Puckett, E. G.
2015-12-01
Flow in the Earth's mantle is driven by thermo-chemical convection in which the properties and geochemical signatures of rocks vary depending on their origin and composition. For example, tectonic plates are composed of compositionally-distinct layers of crust, residual lithosphere and fertile mantle, while in the lower-most mantle there are large compositionally distinct "piles" with thinner lenses of different material. Therefore, tracking of active or passive fields with distinct compositional, geochemical or rheologic properties is important for incorporating physical realism into mantle convection simulations, and for investigating the long term mixing properties of the mantle. The difficulty in numerically advecting fields arises because they are non-diffusive and have sharp boundaries, and therefore require different methods than usually used for temperature. Previous methods for tracking fields include the marker-chain, tracer particle, and field-correction (e.g., the Lenardic Filter) methods: each of these has different advantages or disadvantages, trading off computational speed with accuracy in tracking feature boundaries. Here we present a method for modeling active fields in mantle dynamics simulations using a new solver implemented in the deal.II package that underlies the ASPECT software. The new solver for the advection-diffusion equation uses a Local Discontinuous Galerkin (LDG) algorithm, which combines features of both finite element and finite volume methods, and is particularly suitable for problems with a dominant first-order term and discontinuities. Furthermore, we have applied a post-processing technique to insure that the solution satisfies a global maximum/minimum. One potential drawback for the LDG method is that the total number of degrees of freedom is larger than the finite element method. To demonstrate the capabilities of this new method we present results for two benchmarks used previously: a falling cube with distinct buoyancy and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdi, Daniel S.; Giraldo, Francis X.
2016-09-01
A unified approach for the numerical solution of the 3D hyperbolic Euler equations using high order methods, namely continuous Galerkin (CG) and discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods, is presented. First, we examine how classical CG that uses a global storage scheme can be constructed within the DG framework using constraint imposition techniques commonly used in the finite element literature. Then, we implement and test a simplified version in the Non-hydrostatic Unified Model of the Atmosphere (NUMA) for the case of explicit time integration and a diagonal mass matrix. Constructing CG within the DG framework allows CG to benefit from the desirable properties of DG such as, easier hp-refinement, better stability etc. Moreover, this representation allows for regional mixing of CG and DG depending on the flow regime in an area. The different flavors of CG and DG in the unified implementation are then tested for accuracy and performance using a suite of benchmark problems representative of cloud-resolving scale, meso-scale and global-scale atmospheric dynamics. The value of our unified approach is that we are able to show how to carry both CG and DG methods within the same code and also offer a simple recipe for modifying an existing CG code to DG and vice versa.
Error Analysis of p-Version Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Heat Transfer in Built-up Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaneko, Hideaki; Bey, Kim S.
2004-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to provide an error analysis for the p-version of the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for heat transfer in built-up structures. As a special case of the results in this paper, a theoretical error estimate for the numerical experiments recently conducted by James Tomey is obtained.
Causal-Path Local Time-Stepping in the discontinuous Galerkin method for Maxwell's equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Angulo, L. D.; Alvarez, J.; Teixeira, F. L.; Pantoja, M. F.; Garcia, S. G.
2014-01-01
We introduce a novel local time-stepping technique for marching-in-time algorithms. The technique is denoted as Causal-Path Local Time-Stepping (CPLTS) and it is applied for two time integration techniques: fourth-order low-storage explicit Runge-Kutta (LSERK4) and second-order Leap-Frog (LF2). The CPLTS method is applied to evolve Maxwell's curl equations using a Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) scheme for the spatial discretization. Numerical results for LF2 and LSERK4 are compared with analytical solutions and the Montseny's LF2 technique. The results show that the CPLTS technique improves the dispersive and dissipative properties of LF2-LTS scheme.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Philip; Johnsen, Eric
2015-11-01
The Recovery discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is a highly accurate approach to computing diffusion problems, which achieves up to 3p+2 convergence rates on Cartesian cells, where p is the order of the polynomial basis. Based on the construction of a unique and differentiable solution across cell interfaces, Recovery DG has mostly been investigated on periodic domains. However, whether such accuracy can be sustained for Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions has not been thoroughly explored. We present boundary treatments for Recovery DG on 2D Cartesian geometry that exhibit up to 3p+2 convergence rates and are stable. We demonstrate the efficiency of Recovery DG in context with other commonly used approaches using scalar shear diffusion problems and apply it to the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The extension of the method to perturbed quadrilateral cells, rather than Cartesian, will also be discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alekseenko, A.; Josyula, E.
2012-11-01
We propose an approach for high order discretization of the Boltzmann equation in the velocity space using discontinuous Galerkin methods. Our approach employs a reformulation of the collision integral in the form of a bilinear operator with a time-independent kernel. In the fully non-linear case the complexity of the method is O(n8) operations per spatial cell where n is the number of degrees of freedom in one velocity direction. The new method is suitable for parallelization to a large number of processors. Techniques of automatic perturbation decomposition and linearisation are developed to achieve additional performance improvement. The number of operations per spatial cell in the linearised regime is O(n6). The method is applied to the solution of the spatially homogeneous relaxation problem. Mass momentum and energy is conserved to a good precision in the computed solutions.
A discontinuous Galerkin method for gravity-driven viscous fingering instabilities in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scovazzi, G.; Gerstenberger, A.; Collis, S. S.
2013-01-01
We present a new approach to the simulation of gravity-driven viscous fingering instabilities in porous media flow. These instabilities play a very important role during carbon sequestration processes in brine aquifers. Our approach is based on a nonlinear implementation of the discontinuous Galerkin method, and possesses a number of key features. First, the method developed is inherently high order, and is therefore well suited to study unstable flow mechanisms. Secondly, it maintains high-order accuracy on completely unstructured meshes. The combination of these two features makes it a very appealing strategy in simulating the challenging flow patterns and very complex geometries of actual reservoirs and aquifers. This article includes an extensive set of verification studies on the stability and accuracy of the method, and also features a number of computations with unstructured grids and non-standard geometries.
A Discrete Analysis of Non-reflecting Boundary Conditions for Discontinuous Galerkin Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hu, Fang Q.; Atkins, Harold L.
2003-01-01
We present a discrete analysis of non-reflecting boundary conditions for the discontinuous Galerkin method. The boundary conditions considered in this paper include the recently proposed Perfectly Matched Layer absorbing boundary condition for the linearized Euler equation and two non-reflecting boundary conditions based on the characteristic decomposition of the flux on the boundary. The analyses for the three boundary conditions are carried out in a unifled way. In each case, eigensolutions of the discrete system are obtained and applied to compute the numerical reflection coefficients of a specified out-going wave. The dependencies of the reflections at the boundary on the out-going wave angle and frequency as well as the mesh sizes arc? studied. Comparisons with direct numerical simulation results are also presented.
DNS of Flows over Periodic Hills using a Discontinuous-Galerkin Spectral-Element Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Diosady, Laslo T.; Murman, Scott M.
2014-01-01
Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of turbulent compressible flows is performed using a higher-order space-time discontinuous-Galerkin finite-element method. The numerical scheme is validated by performing DNS of the evolution of the Taylor-Green vortex and turbulent flow in a channel. The higher-order method is shown to provide increased accuracy relative to low-order methods at a given number of degrees of freedom. The turbulent flow over a periodic array of hills in a channel is simulated at Reynolds number 10,595 using an 8th-order scheme in space and a 4th-order scheme in time. These results are validated against previous large eddy simulation (LES) results. A preliminary analysis provides insight into how these detailed simulations can be used to improve Reynoldsaveraged Navier-Stokes (RANS) modeling
A discontinuous Galerkin front tracking method for two-phase flows with surface tension
Nguyen, V.-T.; Peraire, J.; Cheong, K.B.; Persson, P.-O.
2008-12-28
A Discontinuous Galerkin method for solving hyperbolic systems of conservation laws involving interfaces is presented. The interfaces are represented by a collection of element boundaries and their position is updated using an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method. The motion of the interfaces and the numerical fluxes are obtained by solving a Riemann problem. As the interface is propagated, a simple and effective remeshing technique based on distance functions regenerates the grid to preserve its quality. Compared to other interface capturing techniques, the proposed approach avoids smearing of the jumps across the interface which leads to an improvement in accuracy. Numerical results are presented for several typical two-dimensional interface problems, including flows with surface tension.
A Reconstruction Approach to High-Order Schemes Including Discontinuous Galerkin for Diffusion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huynh, H. T.
2009-01-01
We introduce a new approach to high-order accuracy for the numerical solution of diffusion problems by solving the equations in differential form using a reconstruction technique. The approach has the advantages of simplicity and economy. It results in several new high-order methods including a simplified version of discontinuous Galerkin (DG). It also leads to new definitions of common value and common gradient quantities at each interface shared by the two adjacent cells. In addition, the new approach clarifies the relations among the various choices of new and existing common quantities. Fourier stability and accuracy analyses are carried out for the resulting schemes. Extensions to the case of quadrilateral meshes are obtained via tensor products. For the two-point boundary value problem (steady state), it is shown that these schemes, which include most popular DG methods, yield exact common interface quantities as well as exact cell average solutions for nearly all cases.
Giraldo, Francis X. . E-mail: giraldo@nrlmry.navy.mil
2006-05-20
High-order triangle-based discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods for hyperbolic equations on a rotating sphere are presented. The DG method can be characterized as the fusion of finite elements with finite volumes. This DG formulation uses high-order Lagrange polynomials on the triangle using nodal sets up to 15th order. The finite element-type area integrals are evaluated using order 2N Gauss cubature rules. This leads to a full mass matrix which, unlike for continuous Galerkin (CG) methods such as the spectral element (SE) method presented in Giraldo and Warburton [A nodal triangle-based spectral element method for the shallow water equations on the sphere, J. Comput. Phys. 207 (2005) 129-150], is small, local and efficient to invert. Two types of finite volume-type flux integrals are studied: a set based on Gauss-Lobatto quadrature points (order 2N - 1) and a set based on Gauss quadrature points (order 2N). Furthermore, we explore conservation and advection forms as well as strong and weak forms. Seven test cases are used to compare the different methods including some with scale contractions and shock waves. All three strong forms performed extremely well with the strong conservation form with 2N integration being the most accurate of the four DG methods studied. The strong advection form with 2N integration performed extremely well even for flows with shock waves. The strong conservation form with 2N - 1 integration yielded results almost as good as those with 2N while being less expensive. All the DG methods performed better than the SE method for almost all the test cases, especially for those with strong discontinuities. Finally, the DG methods required less computing time than the SE method due to the local nature of the mass matrix.
Discontinuous Galerkin Method with Numerical Roe Flux for Spherical Shallow Water Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yi, T.; Choi, S.; Kang, S.
2013-12-01
In developing the dynamic core of a numerical weather prediction model with discontinuous Galerkin method, a numerical flux at the boundaries of grid elements plays a vital role since it preserves the local conservation properties and has a significant impact on the accuracy and stability of numerical solutions. Due to these reasons, we developed the numerical Roe flux based on an approximate Riemann problem for spherical shallow water equations in Cartesian coordinates [1] to find out its stability and accuracy. In order to compare the performance with its counterpart flux, we used the Lax-Friedrichs flux, which has been used in many dynamic cores such as NUMA [1], CAM-DG [2] and MCore [3] because of its simplicity. The Lax-Friedrichs flux is implemented by a flux difference between left and right states plus the maximum characteristic wave speed across the boundaries of elements. It has been shown that the Lax-Friedrichs flux with the finite volume method is more dissipative and unstable than other numerical fluxes such as HLLC, AUSM+ and Roe. The Roe flux implemented in this study is based on the decomposition of flux difference over the element boundaries where the nonlinear equations are linearized. It is rarely used in dynamic cores due to its complexity and thus computational expensiveness. To compare the stability and accuracy of the Roe flux with the Lax-Friedrichs, two- and three-dimensional test cases are performed on a plane and cubed-sphere, respectively, with various numbers of element and polynomial order. For the two-dimensional case, the Gaussian bell is simulated on the plane with two different numbers of elements at the fixed polynomial orders. In three-dimensional cases on the cubed-sphere, we performed the test cases of a zonal flow over an isolated mountain and a Rossby-Haurwitz wave, of which initial conditions are the same as those of Williamson [4]. This study presented that the Roe flux with the discontinuous Galerkin method is less
Variational space-time (dis)continuous Galerkin method for nonlinear free surface water waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gagarina, E.; Ambati, V. R.; van der Vegt, J. J. W.; Bokhove, O.
2014-10-01
A new variational finite element method is developed for nonlinear free surface gravity water waves using the potential flow approximation. This method also handles waves generated by a wave maker. Its formulation stems from Miles' variational principle for water waves together with a finite element discretization that is continuous in space and discontinuous in time. One novel feature of this variational finite element approach is that the free surface evolution is variationally dependent on the mesh deformation vis-à-vis the mesh deformation being geometrically dependent on free surface evolution. Another key feature is the use of a variational (dis)continuous Galerkin finite element discretization in time. Moreover, in the absence of a wave maker, it is shown to be equivalent to the second order symplectic Störmer-Verlet time stepping scheme for the free-surface degrees of freedom. These key features add to the stability of the numerical method. Finally, the resulting numerical scheme is verified against nonlinear analytical solutions with long time simulations and validated against experimental measurements of driven wave solutions in a wave basin of the Maritime Research Institute Netherlands.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pétri, J.
2015-03-01
The close vicinity of neutron stars remains poorly constrained by observations. Although plenty of data are available for the peculiar class of pulsars we are still unable to deduce the underlying plasma distribution in their magnetosphere. In the present paper, we try to unravel the magnetospheric structure starting from basic physics principles and reasonable assumptions about the magnetosphere. Beginning with the monopole force-free case, we compute accurate general relativistic solutions for the electromagnetic field around a slowly rotating magnetized neutron star. Moreover, here we address this problem by including the important effect of plasma screening. This is achieved by solving the time-dependent Maxwell equations in a curved space-time following the 3+1 formalism. We improved our previous numerical code based on pseudo-spectral methods in order to allow for possible discontinuities in the solution. Our algorithm based on a multidomain decomposition of the simulation box belongs to the discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods. We performed several sets of simulations to look for the general relativistic force-free monopole and split monopole solutions. Results show that our code is extremely powerful in handling extended domains of hundredth of light cylinder radii rL. The code has been validated against known exact analytical monopole solutions in flat space-time. We also present semi-analytical calculations for the general relativistic vacuum monopole.
Hong Luo; Yidong Xia; Robert Nourgaliev; Chunpei Cai
2011-06-01
A reconstruction-based discontinuous Galerkin (RDG) method is presented for the solution of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured tetrahedral grids. The RDG method, originally developed for the compressible Euler equations, is extended to discretize viscous and heat fluxes in the Navier-Stokes equations using a so-called inter-cell reconstruction, where a smooth solution is locally reconstructed using a least-squares method from the underlying discontinuous DG solution. Similar to the recovery-based DG (rDG) methods, this reconstructed DG method eliminates the introduction of ad hoc penalty or coupling terms commonly found in traditional DG methods. Unlike rDG methods, this RDG method does not need to judiciously choose a proper form of a recovered polynomial, thus is simple, flexible, and robust, and can be used on unstructured grids. The preliminary results indicate that this RDG method is stable on unstructured tetrahedral grids, and provides a viable and attractive alternative for the discretization of the viscous and heat fluxes in the Navier-Stokes equations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Yang; Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Hakim, Ammar
2015-11-01
The discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is employed in this work to study plasma instabilities using high-order accuracy. The DG method has the advantage of resolving shocks and sharp gradients that occur in neutral fluids and plasmas. Artificial viscosity, limiters and filters are explored along with the DG method to mitigate numerical instabilities in the region of discontinuities. Artificial viscosity works in a simultaneous sense by adding a viscous term to the system to damp higher modes. Limiters are expected to reduce the numerical order one by one in regions of sharp gradients so that smooth solutions can be obtained while a fairly good numerical accuracy is maintained. Filters work physically the same as artificial viscosity but mathematically in a sequential way which will only filter the solution at the end of each time-step or at intermediate stages of a time-step. Computational tests are performed in one and two dimensions. Results are presented for Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor unstable plasmas using the code Gkeyll.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hao, Zengrong; Gu, Chunwei; Song, Yin
2016-06-01
This study extends the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods to simulations of thermoelasticity. A thermoelastic formulation of interior penalty DG (IP-DG) method is presented and aspects of the numerical implementation are discussed in matrix form. The content related to thermal expansion effects is illustrated explicitly in the discretized equation system. The feasibility of the method for general thermoelastic simulations is validated through typical test cases, including tackling stress discontinuities caused by jumps of thermal expansive properties and controlling accompanied non-physical oscillations through adjusting the magnitude of IP term. The developed simulation platform upon the method is applied to the engineering analysis of thermoelastic performance for a turbine vane and a series of vanes with various types of simplified thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems. This analysis demonstrates that while TBC properties on heat conduction are generally the major consideration for protecting the alloy base vanes, the mechanical properties may have more significant effects on protections of coatings themselves. Changing characteristics of normal tractions on TBC/base interface, closely related to the occurrence of coating failures, over diverse components distributions along TBC thickness of the functional graded materials are summarized and analysed, illustrating the opposite tendencies in situations with different thermal-stress-free temperatures for coatings.
Hong Luo; Luqing Luo; Robert Nourgaliev; Vincent A. Mousseau
2010-09-01
A reconstruction-based discontinuous Galerkin (RDG) method is presented for the solution of the compressible Navier–Stokes equations on arbitrary grids. The RDG method, originally developed for the compressible Euler equations, is extended to discretize viscous and heat fluxes in the Navier–Stokes equations using a so-called inter-cell reconstruction, where a smooth solution is locally reconstructed using a least-squares method from the underlying discontinuous DG solution. Similar to the recovery-based DG (rDG) methods, this reconstructed DG method eliminates the introduction of ad hoc penalty or coupling terms commonly found in traditional DG methods. Unlike rDG methods, this RDG method does not need to judiciously choose a proper form of a recovered polynomial, thus is simple, flexible, and robust, and can be used on arbitrary grids. The developed RDG method is used to compute a variety of flow problems on arbitrary meshes to demonstrate its accuracy, efficiency, robustness, and versatility. The numerical results indicate that this RDG method is able to deliver the same accuracy as the well-known Bassi–Rebay II scheme, at a half of its computing costs for the discretization of the viscous fluxes in the Navier–Stokes equations, clearly demonstrating its superior performance over the existing DG methods for solving the compressible Navier–Stokes equations.
Hong Luo; Luqing Luo; Robert Nourgaliev; Vincent A. Mousseau
2010-01-01
A reconstruction-based discontinuous Galerkin (RDG) method is presented for the solution of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on arbitrary grids. The RDG method, originally developed for the compressible Euler equations, is extended to discretize viscous and heat fluxes in the Navier-Stokes equations using a so-called inter-cell reconstruction, where a smooth solution is locally reconstructed using a least-squares method from the underlying discontinuous DG solution. Similar to the recovery-based DG (rDG) methods, this reconstructed DG method eliminates the introduction of ad hoc penalty or coupling terms commonly found in traditional DG methods. Unlike rDG methods, this RDG method does not need to judiciously choose a proper form of a recovered polynomial, thus is simple, flexible, and robust, and can be used on arbitrary grids. The developed RDG method is used to compute a variety of flow problems on arbitrary meshes to demonstrate its accuracy, efficiency, robustness, and versatility. The numerical results indicate that this RDG method is able to deliver the same accuracy as the well-known Bassi-Rebay II scheme, at a half of its computing costs for the discretization of the viscous fluxes in the Navier-Stokes equations, clearly demonstrating its superior performance over the existing DG methods for solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations.
A discontinuous Galerkin method for the shallow water equations in spherical triangular coordinates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Läuter, Matthias; Giraldo, Francis X.; Handorf, Dörthe; Dethloff, Klaus
2008-12-01
A global model of the atmosphere is presented governed by the shallow water equations and discretized by a Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin method on an unstructured triangular grid. The shallow water equations on the sphere, a two-dimensional surface in R3, are locally represented in terms of spherical triangular coordinates, the appropriate local coordinate mappings on triangles. On every triangular grid element, this leads to a two-dimensional representation of tangential momentum and therefore only two discrete momentum equations. The discontinuous Galerkin method consists of an integral formulation which requires both area (elements) and line (element faces) integrals. Here, we use a Rusanov numerical flux to resolve the discontinuous fluxes at the element faces. A strong stability-preserving third-order Runge-Kutta method is applied for the time discretization. The polynomial space of order k on each curved triangle of the grid is characterized by a Lagrange basis and requires high-order quadature rules for the integration over elements and element faces. For the presented method no mass matrix inversion is necessary, except in a preprocessing step. The validation of the atmospheric model has been done considering standard tests from Williamson et al. [D.L. Williamson, J.B. Drake, J.J. Hack, R. Jakob, P.N. Swarztrauber, A standard test set for numerical approximations to the shallow water equations in spherical geometry, J. Comput. Phys. 102 (1992) 211-224], unsteady analytical solutions of the nonlinear shallow water equations and a barotropic instability caused by an initial perturbation of a jet stream. A convergence rate of O(Δx) was observed in the model experiments. Furthermore, a numerical experiment is presented, for which the third-order time-integration method limits the model error. Thus, the time step Δt is restricted by both the CFL-condition and accuracy demands. Conservation of mass was shown up to machine precision and energy conservation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glinsky, Nathalie; Mercerat, Diego
2013-04-01
High-order numerical methods allow accurate simulations of ground motion using unstructured and relatively coarse meshes. In realistic media (sedimentary basins for example), we have to include strong variations of the material properties. For such configurations, the hypothesis that material properties are set constant in each element of the mesh can be a severe limitation since we need to use very fine meshes resulting in very small time steps for explicit time integration schemes. Moreover, smooth models are approximated by piecewise constant materials. For these reasons, we present an improvement of a nodal discontinuous Galerkin method (DG) allowing non constant material properties in the elements of the mesh for a better approximation of arbitrary heterogeneous media. We consider an isotropic, linearly elastic two-dimensional medium (characterized by ?, ? and μ) and solve the first-order velocity-stress system. As the stress tensor is symmetrical, let W? = (?V,?-?)t contain the velocity vector ?-V = (vx,vy)t and the stress components ?-? = (?xx,?yy,?xy)t, then, the system writes t ?-W + Ax (?,?,μ) ^xW?- + Ay(?,?,μ) ^yW ?- = 0, where Ax and Ay are 5x5 matrices depending of the material properties. We apply a discontinuous Galerkin method based on centered fluxes and a leap-frog time scheme to this system. We consider a bounded polyhedral domain discretized by triangles. The approximation of W?- is defined locally on each element by considering the Lagrange nodal interpolants. The system is multiplied by a test function t and integrated on each element Ti. To avoid computing extra terms, related to the variable properties within Ti, we introduce a change of variables on the stress components ( )t ?-? = (?xx,?yy,?xy)t ? ??? = 1(?xx + ?yy), 1 (?xx - ?yy),?xy 2 2 which allows writing the system in a pseudo-conservative form in the variable ?-W? = (?-V,???)t ? (?,?,μ) ^tW ?? + ?Ax x ??W + A?y y ??W = 0 , where the constant matrices Ãx and Ãy do not depend
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Terrana, Sebastien; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Guillot, Laurent; Mariotti, Christian
2015-04-01
Today seismological observation systems combine broadband seismic receivers, hydrophones and micro-barometers antenna that provide complementary observations of source-radiated waves in heterogeneous and complex geophysical media. Exploiting these observations requires accurate and multi-physics - elastic, hydro-acoustic, infrasonic - wave simulation methods. A popular approach is the Spectral Element Method (SEM) (Chaljub et al, 2006) which is high-order accurate (low dispersion error), very flexible to parallelization and computationally attractive due to efficient sum factorization technique and diagonal mass matrix. However SEMs suffer from lack of flexibility in handling complex geometry and multi-physics wave propagation. High-order Discontinuous Galerkin Methods (DGMs), i.e. Dumbser et al (2006), Etienne et al. (2010), Wilcox et al (2010), are recent alternatives that can handle complex geometry, space-and-time adaptativity, and allow efficient multi-physics wave coupling at interfaces. However, DGMs are more memory demanding and less computationally attractive than SEMs, especially when explicit time stepping is used. We propose a new class of higher-order Hybridized Discontinuous Galerkin Spectral Elements (HDGSEM) methods for spatial discretization of wave equations, following the unifying framework for hybridization of Cockburn et al (2009) and Nguyen et al (2011), which allows for a single implementation of conforming and non-conforming SEMs. When used with energy conserving explicit time integration schemes, HDGSEM is flexible to handle complex geometry, computationally attractive and has significantly less degrees of freedom than classical DGMs, i.e., the only coupled unknowns are the single-valued numerical traces of the velocity field on the element's faces. The formulation can be extended to model fractional energy loss at interfaces between elastic, acoustic and hydro-acoustic media. Accuracy and performance of the HDGSEM are illustrated and
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bey, Kim S.; Oden, J. Tinsley
1993-01-01
A priori error estimates are derived for hp-versions of the finite element method for discontinuous Galerkin approximations of a model class of linear, scalar, first-order hyperbolic conservation laws. These estimates are derived in a mesh dependent norm in which the coefficients depend upon both the local mesh size h(sub K) and a number p(sub k) which can be identified with the spectral order of the local approximations over each element.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zwanenburg, Philip; Nadarajah, Siva
2016-02-01
The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the equivalence between filtered Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) schemes and the Energy Stable Flux Reconstruction (ESFR) schemes, expanding on previous demonstrations in 1D [1] and for straight-sided elements in 3D [2]. We first derive the DG and ESFR schemes in strong form and compare the respective flux penalization terms while highlighting the implications of the fundamental assumptions for stability in the ESFR formulations, notably that all ESFR scheme correction fields can be interpreted as modally filtered DG correction fields. We present the result in the general context of all higher dimensional curvilinear element formulations. Through a demonstration that there exists a weak form of the ESFR schemes which is both discretely and analytically equivalent to the strong form, we then extend the results obtained for the strong formulations to demonstrate that ESFR schemes can be interpreted as a DG scheme in weak form where discontinuous edge flux is substituted for numerical edge flux correction. Theoretical derivations are then verified with numerical results obtained from a 2D Euler testcase with curved boundaries. Given the current choice of high-order DG-type schemes and the question as to which might be best to use for a specific application, the main significance of this work is the bridge that it provides between them. Clearly outlining the similarities between the schemes results in the important conclusion that it is always less efficient to use ESFR schemes, as opposed to the weak DG scheme, when solving problems implicitly.
Wilcox, Lucas C.; Stadler, Georg; Burstedde, Carsten; Ghattas, Omar
2010-12-10
We introduce a high-order discontinuous Galerkin (dG) scheme for the numerical solution of three-dimensional (3D) wave propagation problems in coupled elastic-acoustic media. A velocity-strain formulation is used, which allows for the solution of the acoustic and elastic wave equations within the same unified framework. Careful attention is directed at the derivation of a numerical flux that preserves high-order accuracy in the presence of material discontinuities, including elastic-acoustic interfaces. Explicit expressions for the 3D upwind numerical flux, derived as an exact solution for the relevant Riemann problem, are provided. The method supports h-non-conforming meshes, which are particularly effective at allowing local adaptation of the mesh size to resolve strong contrasts in the local wavelength, as well as dynamic adaptivity to track solution features. The use of high-order elements controls numerical dispersion, enabling propagation over many wave periods. We prove consistency and stability of the proposed dG scheme. To study the numerical accuracy and convergence of the proposed method, we compare against analytical solutions for wave propagation problems with interfaces, including Rayleigh, Lamb, Scholte, and Stoneley waves as well as plane waves impinging on an elastic-acoustic interface. Spectral rates of convergence are demonstrated for these problems, which include a non-conforming mesh case. Finally, we present scalability results for a parallel implementation of the proposed high-order dG scheme for large-scale seismic wave propagation in a simplified earth model, demonstrating high parallel efficiency for strong scaling to the full size of the Jaguar Cray XT5 supercomputer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilcox, Lucas C.; Stadler, Georg; Burstedde, Carsten; Ghattas, Omar
2010-12-01
We introduce a high-order discontinuous Galerkin (dG) scheme for the numerical solution of three-dimensional (3D) wave propagation problems in coupled elastic-acoustic media. A velocity-strain formulation is used, which allows for the solution of the acoustic and elastic wave equations within the same unified framework. Careful attention is directed at the derivation of a numerical flux that preserves high-order accuracy in the presence of material discontinuities, including elastic-acoustic interfaces. Explicit expressions for the 3D upwind numerical flux, derived as an exact solution for the relevant Riemann problem, are provided. The method supports h-non-conforming meshes, which are particularly effective at allowing local adaptation of the mesh size to resolve strong contrasts in the local wavelength, as well as dynamic adaptivity to track solution features. The use of high-order elements controls numerical dispersion, enabling propagation over many wave periods. We prove consistency and stability of the proposed dG scheme. To study the numerical accuracy and convergence of the proposed method, we compare against analytical solutions for wave propagation problems with interfaces, including Rayleigh, Lamb, Scholte, and Stoneley waves as well as plane waves impinging on an elastic-acoustic interface. Spectral rates of convergence are demonstrated for these problems, which include a non-conforming mesh case. Finally, we present scalability results for a parallel implementation of the proposed high-order dG scheme for large-scale seismic wave propagation in a simplified earth model, demonstrating high parallel efficiency for strong scaling to the full size of the Jaguar Cray XT5 supercomputer.
Discontinuous Galerkin solution of the Navier-Stokes equations on deformable domains
Persson, P.-O.; Bonet, J.; Peraire, J.
2009-01-13
We describe a method for computing time-dependent solutions to the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on variable geometries. We introduce a continuous mapping between a fixed reference configuration and the time varying domain, By writing the Navier-Stokes equations as a conservation law for the independent variables in the reference configuration, the complexity introduced by variable geometry is reduced to solving a transformed conservation law in a fixed reference configuration, The spatial discretization is carried out using the Discontinuous Galerkin method on unstructured meshes of triangles, while the time integration is performed using an explicit Runge-Kutta method, For general domain changes, the standard scheme fails to preserve exactly the free-stream solution which leads to some accuracy degradation, especially for low order approximations. This situation is remedied by adding an additional equation for the time evolution of the transformation Jacobian to the original conservation law and correcting for the accumulated metric integration errors. A number of results are shown to illustrate the flexibility of the approach to handle high order approximations on complex geometries.
A discontinuous Galerkin conservative level set scheme for interface capturing in multiphase flows
Owkes, Mark Desjardins, Olivier
2013-09-15
The accurate conservative level set (ACLS) method of Desjardins et al. [O. Desjardins, V. Moureau, H. Pitsch, An accurate conservative level set/ghost fluid method for simulating turbulent atomization, J. Comput. Phys. 227 (18) (2008) 8395–8416] is extended by using a discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretization. DG allows for the scheme to have an arbitrarily high order of accuracy with the smallest possible computational stencil resulting in an accurate method with good parallel scaling. This work includes a DG implementation of the level set transport equation, which moves the level set with the flow field velocity, and a DG implementation of the reinitialization equation, which is used to maintain the shape of the level set profile to promote good mass conservation. A near second order converging interface curvature is obtained by following a height function methodology (common amongst volume of fluid schemes) in the context of the conservative level set. Various numerical experiments are conducted to test the properties of the method and show excellent results, even on coarse meshes. The tests include Zalesak’s disk, two-dimensional deformation of a circle, time evolution of a standing wave, and a study of the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability. Finally, this novel methodology is employed to simulate the break-up of a turbulent liquid jet.
Discontinuous Galerkin Methods for the Two-Moment Model of Radiation Transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Endeve, Eirik; Hauck, Cory
2016-03-01
We are developing computational methods for simulation of radiation transport in astrophysical systems (e.g., neutrino transport in core-collapse supernovae). Here we consider the two-moment model of radiation transport, where the energy density E and flux F - angular moments of a phase space distribution function - approximates the radiation field in a computationally tractable manner. We aim to develop multi-dimensional methods that are (i) high-order accurate for computational efficiency, and (ii) robust in the sense that the solution remains in the realizable set R = { (E , F) | E >= 0 and E - | F | >= 0 } (i.e., E and F are consistent with moments of an underlying distribution). Our approach is based on the Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin method, which has many attractive properties, including high-order accuracy on a compact stencil. We present the physical model and numerical method, and show results from a multi-dimensional implementation. Tests show that the method is high-order accurate and strictly preserves realizability of the moments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Held, M.; Wiesenberger, M.; Stegmeir, A.
2016-02-01
We present and discuss three discontinuous Galerkin (dG) discretizations for the anisotropic heat conduction equation on non-aligned cylindrical grids. Our non-aligned scheme relies on a self-adjoint local dG (LDG) discretization of the elliptic operator. It conserves the energy exactly and converges with arbitrary order. The pollution by numerical perpendicular heat fluxes decreases with superconvergence rates. We compare this scheme with aligned schemes that are based on the flux-coordinate independent approach for the discretization of parallel derivatives. Here, the dG method provides the necessary interpolation. The first aligned discretization can be used in an explicit time-integrator. However, the scheme violates conservation of energy and shows up stagnating convergence rates for very high resolutions. We overcome this partly by using the adjoint of the parallel derivative operator to construct a second self-adjoint aligned scheme. This scheme preserves energy, but reveals unphysical oscillations in the numerical tests, which result in a decreased order of convergence. Both aligned schemes exhibit low numerical heat fluxes into the perpendicular direction and are superior for flute-modes with finite parallel gradients. We build our argumentation on various numerical experiments on all three schemes for a general axisymmetric magnetic field, which is closed by a comparison to the aligned finite difference (FD) schemes of Stegmeir et al. (2014) and Stegmeir et al. (submitted for publication).
Hu, Wei; Lin, Lin; Yang, Chao
2015-12-21
With the help of our recently developed massively parallel DGDFT (Discontinuous Galerkin Density Functional Theory) methodology, we perform large-scale Kohn-Sham density functional theory calculations on phosphorene nanoribbons with armchair edges (ACPNRs) containing a few thousands to ten thousand atoms. The use of DGDFT allows us to systematically achieve a conventional plane wave basis set type of accuracy, but with a much smaller number (about 15) of adaptive local basis (ALB) functions per atom for this system. The relatively small number of degrees of freedom required to represent the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian, together with the use of the pole expansion the selected inversion (PEXSI) technique that circumvents the need to diagonalize the Hamiltonian, results in a highly efficient and scalable computational scheme for analyzing the electronic structures of ACPNRs as well as their dynamics. The total wall clock time for calculating the electronic structures of large-scale ACPNRs containing 1080-10,800 atoms is only 10-25 s per self-consistent field (SCF) iteration, with accuracy fully comparable to that obtained from conventional planewave DFT calculations. For the ACPNR system, we observe that the DGDFT methodology can scale to 5000-50,000 processors. We use DGDFT based ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) calculations to study the thermodynamic stability of ACPNRs. Our calculations reveal that a 2 × 1 edge reconstruction appears in ACPNRs at room temperature. PMID:25698178
A curved boundary treatment for discontinuous Galerkin schemes solving time dependent problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiangxiong
2016-03-01
For problems defined in a two-dimensional domain Ω with boundary conditions specified on a curve Γ, we consider discontinuous Galerkin (DG) schemes with high order polynomial basis functions on a geometry fitting triangular mesh. It is well known that directly imposing the given boundary conditions on a piecewise segment approximation boundary Γh will render any finite element method to be at most second order accurate. Unless the boundary conditions can be accurately transferred from Γ to Γh, in general curvilinear element method should be used to obtain high order accuracy. We discuss a simple boundary treatment which can be implemented as a modified DG scheme defined on triangles adjacent to Γh. Even though integration along the curve is still necessary, integrals over any curved element are avoided. If the domain Ω is convex, or if Ω is nonconvex and the true solutions can be smoothly extended to the exterior of Ω, the modified DG scheme is high order accurate. In these cases, numerical tests on first order and second order partial differential equations including hyperbolic systems and the scalar wave equation suggest that it is as accurate as the full curvilinear DG scheme.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hála, Jindřich; Luxa, Martin; Bublík, Ondřej; Prausová, Helena; Vimmr, Jan
2016-03-01
In the present paper, new results of measurements of the compressible viscous fluid flow in narrow channels with parallel walls under the conditions of aerodynamic choking are presented. Investigation was carried out using the improved test section with enhanced capability to accurately set the parallelism of the channel walls. The measurements were performed for the channels of the dimensions: length 100 mm, width 100 mm and for various heights in the range from 0.5 mm to 4 mm. The results in the form of distribution of the static pressure along the channel axis including the detailed study of the influence of the deviation from parallelism of the channel walls are compared with previous measurements and with numerical simulations performed using an in-house code based on Favre averaged system of Navier-Stokes equations completed with turbulence model of Spalart and Allmaras and a modification of production term according to Langtry and Sjolander. The spatial discretization of the governing equations is performed using the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method which ensures high order spatial accuracy of the numerical solution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Hailiang; Yi, Nianyu
2016-09-01
The invariant preserving property is one of the guiding principles for numerical algorithms in solving wave equations, in order to minimize phase and amplitude errors after long time simulation. In this paper, we design, analyze and numerically validate a Hamiltonian preserving discontinuous Galerkin method for solving the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. For the generalized KdV equation, the semi-discrete formulation is shown to preserve both the first and the third conserved integrals, and approximately preserve the second conserved integral; for the linearized KdV equation, all the first three conserved integrals are preserved, and optimal error estimates are obtained for polynomials of even degree. The preservation properties are also maintained by the fully discrete DG scheme. Our numerical experiments demonstrate both high accuracy of convergence and preservation of all three conserved integrals for the generalized KdV equation. We also show that the shape of the solution, after long time simulation, is well preserved due to the Hamiltonian preserving property.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Zhen-Hua; Yan, Chao; Yu, Jian
2013-08-01
Two types of implicit algorithms have been improved for high order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method to solve compressible Navier-Stokes (NS) equations on triangular grids. A block lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel (BLU-SGS) approach is implemented as a nonlinear iterative scheme. And a modified LU-SGS (LLU-SGS) approach is suggested to reduce the memory requirements while retain the good convergence performance of the original LU-SGS approach. Both implicit schemes have the significant advantage that only the diagonal block matrix is stored. The resulting implicit high-order DG methods are applied, in combination with Hermite weighted essentially non-oscillatory (HWENO) limiters, to solve viscous flow problems. Numerical results demonstrate that the present implicit methods are able to achieve significant efficiency improvements over explicit counterparts and for viscous flows with shocks, and the HWENO limiters can be used to achieve the desired essentially non-oscillatory shock transition and the designed high-order accuracy simultaneously.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spiegel, Seth C.; Huynh, H. T.; DeBonis, James R.
2015-01-01
High-order methods are quickly becoming popular for turbulent flows as the amount of computer processing power increases. The flux reconstruction (FR) method presents a unifying framework for a wide class of high-order methods including discontinuous Galerkin (DG), Spectral Difference (SD), and Spectral Volume (SV). It offers a simple, efficient, and easy way to implement nodal-based methods that are derived via the differential form of the governing equations. Whereas high-order methods have enjoyed recent success, they have been known to introduce numerical instabilities due to polynomial aliasing when applied to under-resolved nonlinear problems. Aliasing errors have been extensively studied in reference to DG methods; however, their study regarding FR methods has mostly been limited to the selection of the nodal points used within each cell. Here, we extend some of the de-aliasing techniques used for DG methods, primarily over-integration, to the FR framework. Our results show that over-integration does remove aliasing errors but may not remove all instabilities caused by insufficient resolution (for FR as well as DG).
On Formulations of Discontinuous Galerkin and Related Methods for Conservation Laws
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huynh, H. T.
2014-01-01
A formulation for the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method that leads to solutions using the differential form of the equation (as opposed to the standard integral form) is presented. The formulation includes (a) a derivative calculation that involves only data within each cell with no data interaction among cells, and (b) for each cell, corrections to this derivative that deal with the jumps in fluxes at the cell boundaries and allow data across cells to interact. The derivative with no interaction is obtained by a projection, but for nodal-type methods, evaluating this derivative by interpolation at the nodal points is more economical. The corrections are derived using the approximate (Dirac) delta functions. The formulation results in a family of schemes: different approximate delta functions give rise to different methods. It is shown that the current formulation is essentially equivalent to the flux reconstruction (FR) formulation. Due to the use of approximate delta functions, an energy stability proof simpler than that of Vincent, Castonguay, and Jameson (2011) for a family of schemes is derived. Accuracy and stability of resulting schemes are discussed via Fourier analyses. Similar to FR, the current formulation provides a unifying framework for high-order methods by recovering the DG, spectral difference (SD), and spectral volume (SV) schemes. It also yields stable, accurate, and economical methods.
Seny, Bruno Lambrechts, Jonathan; Toulorge, Thomas; Legat, Vincent; Remacle, Jean-François
2014-01-01
Although explicit time integration schemes require small computational efforts per time step, their efficiency is severely restricted by their stability limits. Indeed, the multi-scale nature of some physical processes combined with highly unstructured meshes can lead some elements to impose a severely small stable time step for a global problem. Multirate methods offer a way to increase the global efficiency by gathering grid cells in appropriate groups under local stability conditions. These methods are well suited to the discontinuous Galerkin framework. The parallelization of the multirate strategy is challenging because grid cells have different workloads. The computational cost is different for each sub-time step depending on the elements involved and a classical partitioning strategy is not adequate any more. In this paper, we propose a solution that makes use of multi-constraint mesh partitioning. It tends to minimize the inter-processor communications, while ensuring that the workload is almost equally shared by every computer core at every stage of the algorithm. Particular attention is given to the simplicity of the parallel multirate algorithm while minimizing computational and communication overheads. Our implementation makes use of the MeTiS library for mesh partitioning and the Message Passing Interface for inter-processor communication. Performance analyses for two and three-dimensional practical applications confirm that multirate methods preserve important computational advantages of explicit methods up to a significant number of processors.
GPU performance analysis of a nodal discontinuous Galerkin method for acoustic and elastic models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Modave, A.; St-Cyr, A.; Warburton, T.
2016-06-01
Finite element schemes based on discontinuous Galerkin methods possess features amenable to massively parallel computing accelerated with general purpose graphics processing units (GPUs). However, the computational performance of such schemes strongly depends on their implementation. In the past, several implementation strategies have been proposed. They are based exclusively on specialized compute kernels tuned for each operation, or they can leverage BLAS libraries that provide optimized routines for basic linear algebra operations. In this paper, we present and analyze up-to-date performance results for different implementations, tested in a unified framework on a single NVIDIA GTX980 GPU. We show that specialized kernels written with a one-node-per-thread strategy are competitive for polynomial bases up to the fifth and seventh degrees for acoustic and elastic models, respectively. For higher degrees, a strategy that makes use of the NVIDIA cuBLAS library provides better results, able to reach a net arithmetic throughput 35.7% of the theoretical peak value.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, N. C.; Peraire, J.; Reitich, F.; Cockburn, B.
2015-06-01
We introduce a new hybridizable discontinuous Galerkin (HDG) method for the numerical solution of the Helmholtz equation over a wide range of wave frequencies. Our approach combines the HDG methodology with geometrical optics in a fashion that allows us to take advantage of the strengths of these two methodologies. The phase-based HDG method is devised as follows. First, we enrich the local approximation spaces with precomputed phases which are solutions of the eikonal equation in geometrical optics. Second, we propose a novel scheme that combines the HDG method with ray tracing to compute multivalued solution of the eikonal equation. Third, we utilize the proper orthogonal decomposition to remove redundant modes and obtain locally orthogonal basis functions which are then used to construct the global approximation spaces of the phase-based HDG method. And fourth, we propose an appropriate choice of the stabilization parameter to guarantee stability and accuracy for the proposed method. Numerical experiments presented show that optimal orders of convergence are achieved, that the number of degrees of freedom to achieve a given accuracy is independent of the wave number, and that the number of unknowns required to achieve a given accuracy with the proposed method is orders of magnitude smaller than that with the standard finite element method.
Sparse grid discontinuous Galerkin methods for high-dimensional elliptic equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zixuan; Tang, Qi; Guo, Wei; Cheng, Yingda
2016-06-01
This paper constitutes our initial effort in developing sparse grid discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods for high-dimensional partial differential equations (PDEs). Over the past few decades, DG methods have gained popularity in many applications due to their distinctive features. However, they are often deemed too costly because of the large degrees of freedom of the approximation space, which are the main bottleneck for simulations in high dimensions. In this paper, we develop sparse grid DG methods for elliptic equations with the aim of breaking the curse of dimensionality. Using a hierarchical basis representation, we construct a sparse finite element approximation space, reducing the degrees of freedom from the standard O (h-d) to O (h-1 |log2 h| d - 1) for d-dimensional problems, where h is the uniform mesh size in each dimension. Our method, based on the interior penalty (IP) DG framework, can achieve accuracy of O (hk |log2 h| d - 1) in the energy norm, where k is the degree of polynomials used. Error estimates are provided and confirmed by numerical tests in multi-dimensions.
Adaptation strategies for high order discontinuous Galerkin methods based on Tau-estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kompenhans, Moritz; Rubio, Gonzalo; Ferrer, Esteban; Valero, Eusebio
2016-02-01
In this paper three p-adaptation strategies based on the minimization of the truncation error are presented for high order discontinuous Galerkin methods. The truncation error is approximated by means of a τ-estimation procedure and enables the identification of mesh regions that require adaptation. Three adaptation strategies are developed and termed a posteriori, quasi-a priori and quasi-a priori corrected. All strategies require fine solutions, which are obtained by enriching the polynomial order, but while the former needs time converged solutions, the last two rely on non-converged solutions, which lead to faster computations. In addition, the high order method permits the spatial decoupling for the estimated errors and enables anisotropic p-adaptation. These strategies are verified and compared in terms of accuracy and computational cost for the Euler and the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. It is shown that the two quasi-a priori methods achieve a significant reduction in computational cost when compared to a uniform polynomial enrichment. Namely, for a viscous boundary layer flow, we obtain a speedup of 6.6 and 7.6 for the quasi-a priori and quasi-a priori corrected approaches, respectively.
Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin method using a new type of WENO limiters on unstructured meshes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Jun; Zhong, Xinghui; Shu, Chi-Wang; Qiu, Jianxian
2013-09-01
In this paper we generalize a new type of limiters based on the weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) finite volume methodology for the Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) methods solving nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws, which were recently developed in [32] for structured meshes, to two-dimensional unstructured triangular meshes. The key idea of such limiters is to use the entire polynomials of the DG solutions from the troubled cell and its immediate neighboring cells, and then apply the classical WENO procedure to form a convex combination of these polynomials based on smoothness indicators and nonlinear weights, with suitable adjustments to guarantee conservation. The main advantage of this new limiter is its simplicity in implementation, especially for the unstructured meshes considered in this paper, as only information from immediate neighbors is needed and the usage of complicated geometric information of the meshes is largely avoided. Numerical results for both scalar equations and Euler systems of compressible gas dynamics are provided to illustrate the good performance of this procedure.
Stereographic projection for three-dimensional global discontinuous Galerkin atmospheric modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blaise, Sébastien; Lambrechts, Jonathan; Deleersnijder, Eric
2015-09-01
A method to solve the three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations on the sphere is suggested, based on a stereographic projection with a high-order mapping of the elements from the stereographic space to the sphere. The projection is slightly modified, in order to take into account the domain thickness without introducing any approximation about the aspect ratio (deep-atmosphere). In a discontinuous Galerkin framework, the elements alongside the equator are exactly represented using a nonpolynomial geometry, in order to avoid the numerical issues associated with the seam connecting the two hemispheres. This is an crucial point, necessary to avoid mass loss and spurious deviations of the velocity. The resulting model is validated on idealized three-dimensional atmospheric test cases on the sphere, demonstrating the good convergence properties of the scheme, its mass conservation, and its satisfactory behavior in terms of accuracy and low numerical dissipation. A simulation is performed on a variable resolution unstructured grid, producing accurate results despite a substantial reduction of the number of elements.
Developing Discontinuous Galerkin Methods for Solving Multiphysics Problems in General Relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kidder, Lawrence; Field, Scott; Teukolsky, Saul; Foucart, Francois; SXS Collaboration
2016-03-01
Multi-messenger observations of the merger of black hole-neutron star and neutron star-neutron star binaries, and of supernova explosions will probe fundamental physics inaccessible to terrestrial experiments. Modeling these systems requires a relativistic treatment of hydrodynamics, including magnetic fields, as well as neutrino transport and nuclear reactions. The accuracy, efficiency, and robustness of current codes that treat all of these problems is not sufficient to keep up with the observational needs. We are building a new numerical code that uses the Discontinuous Galerkin method with a task-based parallelization strategy, a promising combination that will allow multiphysics applications to be treated both accurately and efficiently on petascale and exascale machines. The code will scale to more than 100,000 cores for efficient exploration of the parameter space of potential sources and allowed physics, and the high-fidelity predictions needed to realize the promise of multi-messenger astronomy. I will discuss the current status of the development of this new code.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vater, Stefan; Behrens, Jörn
2016-04-01
We apply a tsunami simulation framework, which is based on depth-integrated hydrodynamic model equations, to the 2011 Tohoku tsunami event. While this model has been previously validated for analytic test cases and laboratory experiments, here it is applied to earthquake sources which are based on seismic inversion. Simulated wave heights and runup at the coast are compared to actual measurements. The discretization is based on a second-order Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) scheme on triangular grids and features a robust wetting and drying scheme for the simulation of inundation events at the coast. Adaptive mesh refinement enables the efficient computation of large domains, while at the same time it allows for high local resolution and geometric accuracy. This work is part of the ASCETE (Advanced Simulation of Coupled Earthquake and Tsunami Events) project, which aims at an improved understanding of the coupling between the earthquake and the generated tsunami event. In this course, a coupled simulation framework has been developed which couples physics-based rupture generation with the presented hydrodynamic tsunami propagation and inundation model.
Recovery Discontinuous Galerkin Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov Method for all-speed flows
HyeongKae Park; Robert Nourgaliev; Vincent Mousseau; Dana Knoll
2008-07-01
There is an increasing interest to develop the next generation simulation tools for the advanced nuclear energy systems. These tools will utilize the state-of-art numerical algorithms and computer science technology in order to maximize the predictive capability, support advanced reactor designs, reduce uncertainty and increase safety margins. In analyzing nuclear energy systems, we are interested in compressible low-Mach number, high heat flux flows with a wide range of Re, Ra, and Pr numbers. Under these conditions, the focus is placed on turbulent heat transfer, in contrast to other industries whose main interest is in capturing turbulent mixing. Our objective is to develop singlepoint turbulence closure models for large-scale engineering CFD code, using Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) or Large Eddy Simulation (LES) tools, requireing very accurate and efficient numerical algorithms. The focus of this work is placed on fully-implicit, high-order spatiotemporal discretization based on the discontinuous Galerkin method solving the conservative form of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The method utilizes a local reconstruction procedure derived from weak formulation of the problem, which is inspired by the recovery diffusion flux algorithm of van Leer and Nomura [?] and by the piecewise parabolic reconstruction [?] in the finite volume method. The developed methodology is integrated into the Jacobianfree Newton-Krylov framework [?] to allow a fully-implicit solution of the problem.
Robust and Accurate Shock Capturing Method for High-Order Discontinuous Galerkin Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Atkins, Harold L.; Pampell, Alyssa
2011-01-01
A simple yet robust and accurate approach for capturing shock waves using a high-order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is presented. The method uses the physical viscous terms of the Navier-Stokes equations as suggested by others; however, the proposed formulation of the numerical viscosity is continuous and compact by construction, and does not require the solution of an auxiliary diffusion equation. This work also presents two analyses that guided the formulation of the numerical viscosity and certain aspects of the DG implementation. A local eigenvalue analysis of the DG discretization applied to a shock containing element is used to evaluate the robustness of several Riemann flux functions, and to evaluate algorithm choices that exist within the underlying DG discretization. A second analysis examines exact solutions to the DG discretization in a shock containing element, and identifies a "model" instability that will inevitably arise when solving the Euler equations using the DG method. This analysis identifies the minimum viscosity required for stability. The shock capturing method is demonstrated for high-speed flow over an inviscid cylinder and for an unsteady disturbance in a hypersonic boundary layer. Numerical tests are presented that evaluate several aspects of the shock detection terms. The sensitivity of the results to model parameters is examined with grid and order refinement studies.
Application of p-Multigrid to Discontinuous Galerkin Formulations of the Poisson Equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Helenbrook, B. T.; Atkins, H. L.
2006-01-01
We investigate p-multigrid as a solution method for several different discontinuous Galerkin (DG) formulations of the Poisson equation. Different combinations of relaxation schemes and basis sets have been combined with the DG formulations to find the best performing combination. The damping factors of the schemes have been determined using Fourier analysis for both one and two-dimensional problems. One important finding is that when using DG formulations, the standard approach of forming the coarse p matrices separately for each level of multigrid is often unstable. To ensure stability the coarse p matrices must be constructed from the fine grid matrices using algebraic multigrid techniques. Of the relaxation schemes, we find that the combination of Jacobi relaxation with the spectral element basis is fairly effective. The results using this combination are p sensitive in both one and two dimensions, but reasonable convergence rates can still be achieved for moderate values of p and isotropic meshes. A competitive alternative is a block Gauss-Seidel relaxation. This actually out performs a more expensive line relaxation when the mesh is isotropic. When the mesh becomes highly anisotropic, the implicit line method and the Gauss-Seidel implicit line method are the only effective schemes. Adding the Gauss-Seidel terms to the implicit line method gives a significant improvement over the line relaxation method.
Xiaodong Liu; Lijun Xuan; Hong Luo; Yidong Xia
2001-01-01
A reconstructed discontinuous Galerkin (rDG(P1P2)) method, originally introduced for the compressible Euler equations, is developed for the solution of the compressible Navier- Stokes equations on 3D hybrid grids. In this method, a piecewise quadratic polynomial solution is obtained from the underlying piecewise linear DG solution using a hierarchical Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (WENO) reconstruction. The reconstructed quadratic polynomial solution is then used for the computation of the inviscid fluxes and the viscous fluxes using the second formulation of Bassi and Reay (Bassi-Rebay II). The developed rDG(P1P2) method is used to compute a variety of flow problems to assess its accuracy, efficiency, and robustness. The numerical results demonstrate that the rDG(P1P2) method is able to achieve the designed third-order of accuracy at a cost slightly higher than its underlying second-order DG method, outperform the third order DG method in terms of both computing costs and storage requirements, and obtain reliable and accurate solutions to the large eddy simulation (LES) and direct numerical simulation (DNS) of compressible turbulent flows.
An h-adaptive local discontinuous Galerkin method for the Navier-Stokes-Korteweg equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Lulu; Xu, Yan; Kuerten, J. G. M.; van der Vegt, J. J. W.
2016-08-01
In this article, we develop a mesh adaptation algorithm for a local discontinuous Galerkin (LDG) discretization of the (non)-isothermal Navier-Stokes-Korteweg (NSK) equations modeling liquid-vapor flows with phase change. This work is a continuation of our previous research, where we proposed LDG discretizations for the (non)-isothermal NSK equations with a time-implicit Runge-Kutta method. To save computing time and to capture the thin interfaces more accurately, we extend the LDG discretization with a mesh adaptation method. Given the current adapted mesh, a criterion for selecting candidate elements for refinement and coarsening is adopted based on the locally largest value of the density gradient. A strategy to refine and coarsen the candidate elements is then provided. We emphasize that the adaptive LDG discretization is relatively simple and does not require additional stabilization. The use of a locally refined mesh in combination with an implicit Runge-Kutta time method is, however, non-trivial, but results in an efficient time integration method for the NSK equations. Computations, including cases with solid wall boundaries, are provided to demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency and capabilities of the adaptive LDG discretizations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dumbser, Michael; Zanotti, Olindo; Loubère, Raphaël; Diot, Steven
2014-12-01
The purpose of this work is to propose a novel a posteriori finite volume subcell limiter technique for the Discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for nonlinear systems of hyperbolic conservation laws in multiple space dimensions that works well for arbitrary high order of accuracy in space and time and that does not destroy the natural subcell resolution properties of the DG method. High order time discretization is achieved via a one-step ADER approach that uses a local space-time discontinuous Galerkin predictor method to evolve the data locally in time within each cell. Our new limiting strategy is based on the so-called MOOD paradigm, which a posteriori verifies the validity of a discrete candidate solution against physical and numerical detection criteria after each time step. Here, we employ a relaxed discrete maximum principle in the sense of piecewise polynomials and the positivity of the numerical solution as detection criteria. Within the DG scheme on the main grid, the discrete solution is represented by piecewise polynomials of degree N. For those troubled cells that need limiting, our new limiter approach recomputes the discrete solution by scattering the DG polynomials at the previous time step onto a set of Ns=2N+1 finite volume subcells per space dimension. A robust but accurate ADER-WENO finite volume scheme then updates the subcell averages of the conservative variables within the detected troubled cells. The recomputed subcell averages are subsequently gathered back into high order cell-centered DG polynomials on the main grid via a subgrid reconstruction operator. The choice of Ns=2N+1 subcells is optimal since it allows to match the maximum admissible time step of the finite volume scheme on the subgrid with the maximum admissible time step of the DG scheme on the main grid, minimizing at the same time also the local truncation error of the subcell finite volume scheme. It furthermore provides an excellent subcell resolution of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tago, J.; Cruz-Atienza, V. M.; Etienne, V.; Virieux, J.; Benjemaa, M.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.
2010-12-01
Simulating any realistic seismic scenario requires incorporating physical basis into the model. Considering both the dynamics of the rupture process and the anelastic attenuation of seismic waves is essential to this purpose and, therefore, we choose to extend the hp-adaptive Discontinuous Galerkin finite-element method to integrate these physical aspects. The 3D elastodynamic equations in an unstructured tetrahedral mesh are solved with a second-order time marching approach in a high-performance computing environment. The first extension incorporates the viscoelastic rheology so that the intrinsic attenuation of the medium is considered in terms of frequency dependent quality factors (Q). On the other hand, the extension related to dynamic rupture is integrated through explicit boundary conditions over the crack surface. For this visco-elastodynamic formulation, we introduce an original discrete scheme that preserves the optimal code performance of the elastodynamic equations. A set of relaxation mechanisms describes the behavior of a generalized Maxwell body. We approximate almost constant Q in a wide frequency range by selecting both suitable relaxation frequencies and anelastic coefficients characterizing these mechanisms. In order to do so, we solve an optimization problem which is critical to minimize the amount of relaxation mechanisms. Two strategies are explored: 1) a least squares method and 2) a genetic algorithm (GA). We found that the improvement provided by the heuristic GA method is negligible. Both optimization strategies yield Q values within the 5% of the target constant Q mechanism. Anelastic functions (i.e. memory variables) are introduced to efficiently evaluate the time convolution terms involved in the constitutive equations and thus to minimize the computational cost. The incorporation of anelastic functions implies new terms with ordinary differential equations in the mathematical formulation. We solve these equations using the same order
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shu, Chi-Wang
2004-01-01
This project is about the investigation of the development of the discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods, for general geometry and triangulations, for solving convection dominated problems, with applications to aeroacoustics. Other related issues in high order WENO finite difference and finite volume methods have also been investigated. methods are two classes of high order, high resolution methods suitable for convection dominated simulations with possible discontinuous or sharp gradient solutions. In [18], we first review these two classes of methods, pointing out their similarities and differences in algorithm formulation, theoretical properties, implementation issues, applicability, and relative advantages. We then present some quantitative comparisons of the third order finite volume WENO methods and discontinuous Galerkin methods for a series of test problems to assess their relative merits in accuracy and CPU timing. In [3], we review the development of the Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) methods for non-linear convection-dominated problems. These robust and accurate methods have made their way into the main stream of computational fluid dynamics and are quickly finding use in a wide variety of applications. They combine a special class of Runge-Kutta time discretizations, that allows the method to be non-linearly stable regardless of its accuracy, with a finite element space discretization by discontinuous approximations, that incorporates the ideas of numerical fluxes and slope limiters coined during the remarkable development of the high-resolution finite difference and finite volume schemes. The resulting RKDG methods are stable, high-order accurate, and highly parallelizable schemes that can easily handle complicated geometries and boundary conditions. We review the theoretical and algorithmic aspects of these methods and show several applications including nonlinear conservation laws, the compressible and incompressible Navier
High order asymptotic preserving nodal discontinuous Galerkin IMEX schemes for the BGK equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Tao; Jang, Juhi; Li, Fengyan; Qiu, Jing-Mei
2015-03-01
In this paper, we develop high-order asymptotic preserving (AP) schemes for the BGK equation in a hyperbolic scaling, which leads to the macroscopic models such as the Euler and compressible Navier-Stokes equations in the asymptotic limit. Our approaches are based on the so-called micro-macro formulation of the kinetic equation which involves a natural decomposition of the problem to the equilibrium and the non-equilibrium parts. The proposed methods are formulated for the BGK equation with constant or spatially variant Knudsen number. The new ingredients for the proposed methods to achieve high order accuracy are the following: we introduce discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretization of arbitrary order of accuracy with nodal Lagrangian basis functions in space; we employ a high order globally stiffly accurate implicit-explicit (IMEX) Runge-Kutta (RK) scheme as time discretization. Two versions of the schemes are proposed: Scheme I is a direct formulation based on the micro-macro decomposition of the BGK equation, while Scheme II, motivated by the asymptotic analysis for the continuous problem, utilizes certain properties of the projection operator. Compared with Scheme I, Scheme II not only has better computational efficiency (the computational cost is reduced by half roughly), but also allows the establishment of a formal asymptotic analysis. Specifically, it is demonstrated that when 0 < ε ≪ 1, Scheme II, up to O (ε2), becomes a local DG discretization with an explicit RK method for the macroscopic compressible Navier-Stokes equations, a method in a similar spirit to the ones in Bassi and Rebay (1997) [3], Cockburn and Shu (1998) [16]. Numerical results are presented for a wide range of Knudsen number to illustrate the effectiveness and high order accuracy of the methods.
A GPU Accelerated Discontinuous Galerkin Conservative Level Set Method for Simulating Atomization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jibben, Zechariah J.
This dissertation describes a process for interface capturing via an arbitrary-order, nearly quadrature free, discontinuous Galerkin (DG) scheme for the conservative level set method (Olsson et al., 2005, 2008). The DG numerical method is utilized to solve both advection and reinitialization, and executed on a refined level set grid (Herrmann, 2008) for effective use of processing power. Computation is executed in parallel utilizing both CPU and GPU architectures to make the method feasible at high order. Finally, a sparse data structure is implemented to take full advantage of parallelism on the GPU, where performance relies on well-managed memory operations. With solution variables projected into a kth order polynomial basis, a k + 1 order convergence rate is found for both advection and reinitialization tests using the method of manufactured solutions. Other standard test cases, such as Zalesak's disk and deformation of columns and spheres in periodic vortices are also performed, showing several orders of magnitude improvement over traditional WENO level set methods. These tests also show the impact of reinitialization, which often increases shape and volume errors as a result of level set scalar trapping by normal vectors calculated from the local level set field. Accelerating advection via GPU hardware is found to provide a 30x speedup factor comparing a 2.0GHz Intel Xeon E5-2620 CPU in serial vs. a Nvidia Tesla K20 GPU, with speedup factors increasing with polynomial degree until shared memory is filled. A similar algorithm is implemented for reinitialization, which relies on heavier use of shared and global memory and as a result fills them more quickly and produces smaller speedups of 18x.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bui-Thanh, Tan
2015-08-01
By revisiting the basic Godunov approach for system of linear hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) we show that it is hybridizable. As such, it is a natural recipe for us to constructively and systematically establish a unified hybridized discontinuous Galerkin (HDG) framework for a large class of PDEs including those of Friedrichs' type. The unification is fourfold. First, it provides a single constructive procedure to devise HDG schemes for elliptic, parabolic, hyperbolic, and mixed-type PDEs. The key that we exploit is the fact that, for many PDEs, irrespective of their type, the first order form is a hyperbolic system. Second, it reveals the nature of the trace unknowns as the upwind states. Third, it provides a parameter-free HDG framework, and hence eliminating the "usual complaint" that HDG is a parameter-dependent method. Fourth, it allows us to rediscover most existing HDG methods and furthermore discover new ones. We apply the proposed unified framework to three different PDEs: the convection-diffusion-reaction equation, the Maxwell equation in frequency domain, and the Stokes equation. The purpose is to present a step-by-step construction of various HDG methods, including the most economic ones with least trace unknowns, by exploiting the particular structure of the underlying PDEs. The well-posedness of the resulting HDG schemes, i.e. the existence and uniqueness of the HDG solutions, is proved. The well-posedness result is also extended and proved for abstract Friedrichs' systems. We also discuss variants of the proposed unified framework and extend them to the popular Lax-Friedrichs flux and to nonlinear PDEs. Numerical results for transport equation, convection-diffusion equation, compressible Euler equation, and shallow water equation are presented to support the unification framework.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franchina, N.; Savini, M.; Bassi, F.
2016-06-01
A new formulation of multicomponent gas flow computation, suited to a discontinuous Galerkin discretization, is here presented and discussed. The original key feature is the use of L2-projection form of the (perfect gas) equation of state that allows all thermodynamic variables to span the same functional space. This choice greatly mitigates problems encountered by the front-capturing schemes in computing discontinuous flow field, retaining at the same time their conservation properties at the discrete level and ease of use. This new approach, combined with an original residual-based artificial dissipation technique, shows itself capable, through a series of tests illustrated in the paper, to both control the spurious oscillations of flow variables occurring in high-order accurate computations and reduce them increasing the degree of the polynomial representation of the solution. This result is of great importance in computing reacting gaseous flows, where the local accuracy of temperature and species mass fractions is crucial to the correct evaluation of the chemical source terms contained in the equations, even if the presence of the physical diffusivities somewhat brings relief to these problems. The present work can therefore also be considered, among many others already presented in the literature, as the authors' first step toward the construction of a new discontinuous Galerkin scheme for reacting gas mixture flows.
Field, Scott E.; Hesthaven, Jan S.; Lau, Stephen R.; Mroue, Abdul H.
2010-11-15
We present a high-order accurate discontinuous Galerkin method for evolving the spherically reduced Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura (BSSN) system expressed in terms of second-order spatial operators. Our multidomain method achieves global spectral accuracy and longtime stability on short computational domains. We discuss in detail both our scheme for the BSSN system and its implementation. After a theoretical and computational verification of the proposed scheme, we conclude with a brief discussion of issues likely to arise when one considers the full BSSN system.
Michoski, C. Evans, J.A.; Schmitz, P.G.; Vasseur, A.
2009-12-10
We present a solution to the conservation form (Eulerian form) of the quantum hydrodynamic equations which arise in chemical dynamics by implementing a mixed/discontinuous Galerkin (MDG) finite element numerical scheme. We show that this methodology is stable, showing good accuracy and a remarkable scale invariance in its solution space. In addition the MDG method is robust, adapting well to various initial-boundary value problems of particular significance in a range of physical and chemical applications. We further show explicitly how to recover the Lagrangian frame (or pathline) solutions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shukla, K.; Wang, Y.; Jaiswal, P.
2014-12-01
In a porous medium the seismic energy not only propagates through matrix but also through pore-fluids. The differential movement between sediment grains of the matrix and interstitial fluid generates a diffusive wave which is commonly referred to as the slow P-wave. A combined system of equation which includes both elastic and diffusive phases is known as the poroelasticity. Analyzing seismic data through poroelastic modeling results in accurate interpretation of amplitude and separation of wave modes, leading to more accurate estimation of geomehanical properties of rocks. Despite its obvious multi-scale application, from sedimentary reservoir characterization to deep-earth fractured crust, poroelasticity remains under-developed primarily due to the complex nature of its constituent equations. We present a detail formulation of poroleastic wave equations for isotropic media by combining the Biot's and Newtonian mechanics. System of poroelastic wave equation constitutes for eight time dependent hyperbolic PDEs in 2D whereas in case of 3D number goes up to thirteen. Eigen decomposition of Jacobian of these systems confirms the presence of an additional slow-P wave phase with velocity lower than shear wave, posing stability issues on numerical scheme. To circumvent the issue, we derived a numerical scheme using nodal discontinuous Galerkin approach by adopting the triangular meshes in 2D which is extended to tetrahedral for 3D problems. In our nodal DG approach the basis function over a triangular element is interpolated using Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto (LGL) function leading to a more accurate local solutions than in the case of simple DG. We have tested the numerical scheme for poroelastic media in 1D and 2D case, and solution obtained for the systems offers high accuracy in results over other methods such as finite difference , finite volume and pseudo-spectral. The nodal nature of our approach makes it easy to convert the application into a multi-threaded algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhatia, Ankush
Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods are high-order accurate, compact-stencil methods, proven to possess favorable properties for highly efficient parallel systems, complex geometries and unstructured meshes. Coding effort is significantly reduced for compact-stencil DG methods in comparison to main stream finite difference and finite volume methods. This work successfully introduces DG methods to thermal ablation and non-equilibrium hypersonic flows. In the state-of-the-art hypersonic flow codes, surface heating predictions are very sensitive to mesh resolution in the shock. A minor misalignment can cause major changes in the heating predictions. This is due to the lack of high-order accuracy in current streamline methods and numerical errors associated with the shock capturing approach. Shock capturing methods like slope limiter or artificial viscosity, being empirical have errors in the shock region. This work employs r-p adaptivity to accurately capture the shock with p = 0 elements (first order accuracy). Smooth flow regions are captured using p greater than 0. This method is stable. Implicit methods are developed for solution advancement with high CFL numbers. Error in the shock is reduced by redistributing the elements (outside of the shock) to within the shock (r adaptivity). Inviscid and viscous hypersonic flow problems, with same accuracy as in h-p adaptivity method, are simulated with one-third elements. This methodology requires no a priori knowledge of the shock's location, and is suitable for detached shock problems. r-p adaptivity method has allowed for successful prediction of surface heating rate for hypersonic flow over cylinder. Additionally, good comparisons are made, for non-equilibrium hypersonic flows, to the published results. This tool is also used to determine the effect of micro-second pulsed sinusoidal Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) plasma actuators on the surface heating reduction for hypersonic flow over cylinder. A significant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhalnin, R. V.; Ladonkina, M. E.; Masyagin, V. F.; Tishkin, V. F.
2016-06-01
A numerical algorithm is proposed for solving the problem of non-stationary filtration of substance in anisotropic media by the Galerkin method with discontinuous basis functions on unstructured triangular grids. A characteristic feature of this method is that the flux variables are considered on the dual grid. The dual grid comprises median control volumes around the nodes of the original triangular grid. The flux values of the quantities on the boundary of an element are calculated with the help of stabilizing additions. For averaging the permeability tensor over the cells of the dual grid, the method of support operators is applied. The method is studied on the example of a two-dimensional boundary value problem. The convergence and approximation of the numerical method are analyzed, and results of mathematical modeling are presented. The numerical results demonstrate the applicability of this approach for solving problems of non-stationary filtration of substance in anisotropic media by the discontinuous Galerkin method on unstructured triangular grids.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Atkins, H. L.; Helenbrook, B. T.
2005-01-01
This paper describes numerical experiments with P-multigrid to corroborate analysis, validate the present implementation, and to examine issues that arise in the implementations of the various combinations of relaxation schemes, discretizations and P-multigrid methods. The two approaches to implement P-multigrid presented here are equivalent for most high-order discretization methods such as spectral element, SUPG, and discontinuous Galerkin applied to advection; however it is discovered that the approach that mimics the common geometric multigrid implementation is less robust, and frequently unstable when applied to discontinuous Galerkin discretizations of di usion. Gauss-Seidel relaxation converges 40% faster than block Jacobi, as predicted by analysis; however, the implementation of Gauss-Seidel is considerably more expensive that one would expect because gradients in most neighboring elements must be updated. A compromise quasi Gauss-Seidel relaxation method that evaluates the gradient in each element twice per iteration converges at rates similar to those predicted for true Gauss-Seidel.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tavelli, Maurizio; Dumbser, Michael
2016-08-01
In this paper we propose a novel arbitrary high order accurate semi-implicit space-time discontinuous Galerkin method for the solution of the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on staggered unstructured curved tetrahedral meshes. As is typical for space-time DG schemes, the discrete solution is represented in terms of space-time basis functions. This allows to achieve very high order of accuracy also in time, which is not easy to obtain for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Similarly to staggered finite difference schemes, in our approach the discrete pressure is defined on the primary tetrahedral grid, while the discrete velocity is defined on a face-based staggered dual grid. While staggered meshes are state of the art in classical finite difference schemes for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, their use in high order DG schemes is still quite rare. A very simple and efficient Picard iteration is used in order to derive a space-time pressure correction algorithm that achieves also high order of accuracy in time and that avoids the direct solution of global nonlinear systems. Formal substitution of the discrete momentum equation on the dual grid into the discrete continuity equation on the primary grid yields a very sparse five-point block system for the scalar pressure, which is conveniently solved with a matrix-free GMRES algorithm. From numerical experiments we find that the linear system seems to be reasonably well conditioned, since all simulations shown in this paper could be run without the use of any preconditioner, even up to very high polynomial degrees. For a piecewise constant polynomial approximation in time and if pressure boundary conditions are specified at least in one point, the resulting system is, in addition, symmetric and positive definite. This allows us to use even faster iterative solvers, like the conjugate gradient method. The flexibility and accuracy of high order space-time DG methods on curved
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carcano, Susanna; Bonaventura, Luca
2014-05-01
in the energy equations. As an alternative to existing finite volume methods, a p-adaptive discontinuous Galerkin space discretization is proposed for the multiphase conservation equations, following the method of lines. An operator splitting approach is adopted, coupled with explicit Runge-Kutta methods for advective terms and semi-implicit time averaging methods for interphase exchange terms. Discontinuous Galerkin methods can be interpreted as an extension of finite volume methods to arbitrary order of accuracy. As finite volume methods, discontinuous Galerkin methods provide discrete conservation laws that reproduce at the discrete level the fundamental physical balances characterizing the continuous problem. Moreover, both the methods represent a good choice for the approximation of problems whose solution presents discontinuities, i.e. explosive volcanic phenomena. However, with discontinuous Galerkin methods high order accuracy can be obtained without extending the computational stencil, thus allowing for a good scalability on parallel architectures. Limiting techniques are introduced on the advective terms of the system, in order to prevent the formation of spurious oscillations and avoid unphysical negative values in the numerical solution. An automatic criterion is introduced to adapt the local number of degrees of freedom and to improve the accuracy locally. The employed technique is simple and relies on the use of orthogonal hierarchical basis functions. The p-adaptivity algorithm allows to reduce the computational cost while maintaining the accuracy of the numerical approximation. The numerical model is applied and tested to several relevant test cases, with special focus on pyroclastic flows arising in volcanic eruptions, in order to assess its accuracy and stability properties. Moreover we analyse the efficiency of the p-adaptivity approach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marras, Simone; Suckale, Jenny; Giraldo, Francis X.; Constantinescu, Emil
2016-04-01
We present the solution of the viscous shallow water equations where viscosity is built as a residual-based subgrid scale model originally designed for large eddy simulation of compressible [1] and stratified flows [2]. The necessity of viscosity for a shallow water model not only finds motivation from mathematical analysis [3], but is supported by physical reasoning as can be seen by an analysis of the energetics of the solution. We simulated the flow of an idealized wave as it hits a set of obstacles. The kinetic energy spectrum of this flow shows that, although the inviscid Galerkin solutions -by spectral elements and discontinuous Galerkin [4]- preserve numerical stability in spite of the spurious oscillations in the proximity of the wave fronts, the slope of the energy cascade deviates from the theoretically expected values. We show that only a sufficiently small amount of dynamically adaptive viscosity removes the unwanted high-frequency modes while preserving the overall sharpness of the solution. In addition, it yields a physically plausible energy decay. This work is motivated by a larger interest in the application of a shallow water model to the solution of tsunami triggered coastal flows. In particular, coastal flows in regions around the world where coastal parks made of mitigation hills of different sizes and configurations are considered as a means to deviate the power of the incoming wave. References [1] M. Nazarov and J. Hoffman (2013) "Residual-based artificial viscosity for simulation of turbulent compressible flow using adaptive finite element methods" Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids, 71:339-357 [2] S. Marras, M. Nazarov, F. X. Giraldo (2015) "Stabilized high-order Galerkin methods based on a parameter-free dynamic SGS model for LES" J. Comput. Phys. 301:77-101 [3] J. F. Gerbeau and B. Perthame (2001) "Derivation of the viscous Saint-Venant system for laminar shallow water; numerical validation" Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst. Ser. B, 1:89?102 [4] F
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le, N. T. P.; Xiao, H.; Myong, R. S.
2014-09-01
The discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method has been popular as a numerical technique for solving the conservation laws of gas dynamics. In the present study, we develop an explicit modal DG scheme for multi-dimensional conservation laws on unstructured triangular meshes in conjunction with non-Newtonian implicit nonlinear coupled constitutive relations (NCCR). Special attention is given to how to treat the complex non-Newtonian type constitutive relations arising from the high degree of thermal nonequilibrium in multi-dimensional gas flows within the Galerkin framework. The Langmuir velocity slip and temperature jump conditions are also implemented into the two-dimensional DG scheme for high Knudsen number flows. As a canonical scalar case, Newtonian and non-Newtonian convection-diffusion Burgers equations are studied to develop the basic building blocks for the scheme. In order to verify and validate the scheme, we applied the scheme to a stiff problem of the shock wave structure for all Mach numbers and to the two-dimensional hypersonic rarefied and low-speed microscale gas flows past a circular cylinder. The computational results show that the NCCR model yields the solutions in better agreement with the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) data than the Newtonian linear Navier-Stokes-Fourier (NSF) results in all cases of the problem studied.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Conroy, Colton J.; Kubatko, Ethan J.
2016-01-01
In this article, we present novel, high-order, discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods for the vertical extent of the water column in coastal settings. We examine the shallow water equations (SWE) in the context of DG spatial discretizations coupled with explicit Runge-Kutta (RK) time stepping. All the primary variables, including the free surface elevation, are discretized using discontinuous polynomial spaces of arbitrary order. The difficulty of mismatched lateral boundary faces that accompanies the use of a discontinuous free surface is overcome through the use of a so-called sigma-coordinate system in the vertical, which transforms the bottom boundary and free surface into coordinate surfaces. We develop high-order methods for the SWE that exhibit optimal orders of convergence for all the primary variables via two distinct paths: the first involves the use of a convolution kernel made up of B-splines to filter out errors in the DG discretization of the surface elevation and the corresponding pressure flux. The second involves a method that evaluates the discrete depth-integrated velocity exactly, eliminating the need to solve the depth-integrated momentum equation altogether. The result is a simple and efficient high-order scheme that can be extended to the full three-dimensional SWE.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flad, David; Beck, Andrea; Munz, Claus-Dieter
2016-05-01
Scale-resolving simulations of turbulent flows in complex domains demand accurate and efficient numerical schemes, as well as geometrical flexibility. For underresolved situations, the avoidance of aliasing errors is a strong demand for stability. For continuous and discontinuous Galerkin schemes, an effective way to prevent aliasing errors is to increase the quadrature precision of the projection operator to account for the non-linearity of the operands (polynomial dealiasing, overintegration). But this increases the computational costs extensively. In this work, we present a novel spatially and temporally adaptive dealiasing strategy by projection filtering. We show this to be more efficient for underresolved turbulence than the classical overintegration strategy. For this novel approach, we discuss the implementation strategy and the indicator details, show its accuracy and efficiency for a decaying homogeneous isotropic turbulence and the transitional Taylor-Green vortex and compare it to the original overintegration approach and a state of the art variational multi-scale eddy viscosity formulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korneev, B. A.; Levchenko, V. D.
2016-03-01
In this paper we present the Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin method (RKDG method) for the numerical solution of the Euler equations of gas dynamics. The method is being tested on a series of Riemann problems in the one-dimensional case. For the implementation of the method in the three-dimensional case, a DiamondTorre algorithm is proposed. It belongs to the class of the locally recursive non-locally asynchronous algorithms (LRnLA). With the help of this algorithm a significant increase of speed of calculations is achieved. As an example of the three-dimensional computing, a problem of the interaction of a bubble with a shock wave is considered.
DNS of Flow in a Low-Pressure Turbine Cascade Using a Discontinuous-Galerkin Spectral-Element Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garai, Anirban; Diosady, Laslo Tibor; Murman, Scott; Madavan, Nateri
2015-01-01
A new computational capability under development for accurate and efficient high-fidelity direct numerical simulation (DNS) and large eddy simulation (LES) of turbomachinery is described. This capability is based on an entropy-stable Discontinuous-Galerkin spectral-element approach that extends to arbitrarily high orders of spatial and temporal accuracy and is implemented in a computationally efficient manner on a modern high performance computer architecture. A validation study using this method to perform DNS of flow in a low-pressure turbine airfoil cascade are presented. Preliminary results indicate that the method captures the main features of the flow. Discrepancies between the predicted results and the experiments are likely due to the effects of freestream turbulence not being included in the simulation and will be addressed in the final paper.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garai, Anirban; Murman, Scott M.; Madavan, Nateri K.
2016-01-01
used involves modeling the pressure fluctuations as acoustic waves propagating in the far-field relative to a single noise-source inside the buffer region. This approach treats vorticity-induced pressure fluctuations the same as acoustic waves. Another popular approach, often referred to as the "sponge layer," attempts to dampen the flow perturbations by introducing artificial dissipation in the buffer region. Although the artificial dissipation removes all perturbations inside the sponge layer, incoming waves are still reflected from the interface boundary between the computational domain and the sponge layer. The effect of these refkections can be somewhat mitigated by appropriately selecting the artificial dissipation strength and the extent of the sponge layer. One of the most promising variants on the buffer region approach is the Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) technique. The PML technique mitigates spurious reflections from boundaries and interfaces by dampening the perturbation modes inside the buffer region such that their eigenfunctions remain unchanged. The technique was first developed by Berenger for application to problems involving electromagnetic wave propagation. It was later extended to the linearized Euler, Euler and Navier-Stokes equations by Hu and his coauthors. The PML technique ensures the no-reflection property for all waves, irrespective of incidence angle, wavelength, and propagation direction. Although the technique requires the solution of a set of auxiliary equations, the computational overhead is easily justified since it allows smaller domain sizes and can provide better accuracy, stability, and convergence of the numerical solution. In this paper, the PML technique is developed in the context of a high-order spectral-element Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method. The technique is compared to other approaches to treating the in flow and out flow boundary, such as those based on using characteristic boundary conditions and sponge layers. The
Xu, Zhiliang; Chen, Xu-Yan; Liu, Yingjie
2014-12-01
We present a new formulation of the Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) method [9, 8, 7, 6] for solving conservation Laws with increased CFL numbers. The new formulation requires the computed RKDG solution in a cell to satisfy additional conservation constraint in adjacent cells and does not increase the complexity or change the compactness of the RKDG method. Numerical computations for solving one-dimensional and two-dimensional scalar and systems of nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws are performed with approximate solutions represented by piecewise quadratic and cubic polynomials, respectively. The hierarchical reconstruction [17, 33] is applied as a limiter to eliminate spurious oscillations in discontinuous solutions. From both numerical experiments and the analytic estimate of the CFL number of the newly formulated method, we find that: 1) this new formulation improves the CFL number over the original RKDG formulation by at least three times or more and thus reduces the overall computational cost; and 2) the new formulation essentially does not compromise the resolution of the numerical solutions of shock wave problems compared with ones computed by the RKDG method. PMID:25414520
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moortgat, Joachim; Firoozabadi, Abbas
2016-06-01
Problems of interest in hydrogeology and hydrocarbon resources involve complex heterogeneous geological formations. Such domains are most accurately represented in reservoir simulations by unstructured computational grids. Finite element methods accurately describe flow on unstructured meshes with complex geometries, and their flexible formulation allows implementation on different grid types. In this work, we consider for the first time the challenging problem of fully compositional three-phase flow in 3D unstructured grids, discretized by any combination of tetrahedra, prisms, and hexahedra. We employ a mass conserving mixed hybrid finite element (MHFE) method to solve for the pressure and flux fields. The transport equations are approximated with a higher-order vertex-based discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretization. We show that this approach outperforms a face-based implementation of the same polynomial order. These methods are well suited for heterogeneous and fractured reservoirs, because they provide globally continuous pressure and flux fields, while allowing for sharp discontinuities in compositions and saturations. The higher-order accuracy improves the modeling of strongly non-linear flow, such as gravitational and viscous fingering. We review the literature on unstructured reservoir simulation models, and present many examples that consider gravity depletion, water flooding, and gas injection in oil saturated reservoirs. We study convergence rates, mesh sensitivity, and demonstrate the wide applicability of our chosen finite element methods for challenging multiphase flow problems in geometrically complex subsurface media.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greene, Patrick; Nourgaliev, Robert; Schofield, Sam
2015-11-01
A new sharp high-order interface tracking method for multi-material flow problems on unstructured meshes is presented. The method combines the marker-tracking algorithm with a discontinuous Galerkin (DG) level set method to implicitly track interfaces. DG projection is used to provide a mapping from the Lagrangian marker field to the Eulerian level set field. For the level set re-distancing, we developed a novel marching method that takes advantage of the unique features of the DG representation of the level set. The method efficiently marches outward from the zero level set with values in the new cells being computed solely from cell neighbors. Results are presented for a number of different interface geometries including ones with sharp corners and multiple hierarchical level sets. The method can robustly handle the level set discontinuities without explicit utilization of solution limiters. Results show that the expected high order (3rd and higher) of convergence for the DG representation of the level set is obtained for smooth solutions on unstructured meshes. High-order re-distancing on irregular meshes is a must for applications were the interfacial curvature is important for underlying physics, such as surface tension, wetting and detonation shock dynamics. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Information management release number LLNL-ABS-675636.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazaheri, Alireza; Nishikawa, Hiroaki
2016-09-01
We propose arbitrary high-order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) schemes that are designed based on a first-order hyperbolic advection-diffusion formulation of the target governing equations. We present, in details, the efficient construction of the proposed high-order schemes (called DG-H), and show that these schemes have the same number of global degrees-of-freedom as comparable conventional high-order DG schemes, produce the same or higher order of accuracy solutions and solution gradients, are exact for exact polynomial functions, and do not need a second-derivative diffusion operator. We demonstrate that the constructed high-order schemes give excellent quality solution and solution gradients on irregular triangular elements. We also construct a Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (WENO) limiter for the proposed DG-H schemes and apply it to discontinuous problems. We also make some accuracy comparisons with conventional DG and interior penalty schemes. A relative qualitative cost analysis is also reported, which indicates that the high-order schemes produce orders of magnitude more accurate results than the low-order schemes for a given CPU time. Furthermore, we show that the proposed DG-H schemes are nearly as efficient as the DG and Interior-Penalty (IP) schemes as these schemes produce results that are relatively at the same error level for approximately a similar CPU time.
Xu, Zhiliang; Chen, Xu-Yan; Liu, Yingjie
2014-01-01
We present a new formulation of the Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) method [9, 8, 7, 6] for solving conservation Laws with increased CFL numbers. The new formulation requires the computed RKDG solution in a cell to satisfy additional conservation constraint in adjacent cells and does not increase the complexity or change the compactness of the RKDG method. Numerical computations for solving one-dimensional and two-dimensional scalar and systems of nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws are performed with approximate solutions represented by piecewise quadratic and cubic polynomials, respectively. The hierarchical reconstruction [17, 33] is applied as a limiter to eliminate spurious oscillations in discontinuous solutions. From both numerical experiments and the analytic estimate of the CFL number of the newly formulated method, we find that: 1) this new formulation improves the CFL number over the original RKDG formulation by at least three times or more and thus reduces the overall computational cost; and 2) the new formulation essentially does not compromise the resolution of the numerical solutions of shock wave problems compared with ones computed by the RKDG method. PMID:25414520
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sébastien, T.; Vilotte, J. P.; Guillot, L.; Mariotti, C.
2014-12-01
Today seismological observation systems combine broadband seismic receivers, hydrophones and micro-barometers antenna that provide complementary observations of source-radiated waves in heterogeneous and complex geophysical media. Exploiting these observations requires accurate and multi-physics - elastic, hydro-acoustic, infrasonic - wave simulation methods. A popular approach is the Spectral Element Method (SEM) (Chaljub et al, 2006) which is high-order accurate (low dispersion error), very flexible to parallelization and computationally attractive due to efficient sum factorization technique and diagonal mass matrix. However SEMs suffer from lack of flexibility in handling complex geometry and multi-physics wave propagation. High-order Discontinuous Galerkin Methods (DGMs), i.e. Dumbser et al (2006), Etienne et al. (2010), Wilcox et al (2010), are recent alternatives that can handle complex geometry, space-and-time adaptativity, and allow efficient multi-physics wave coupling at interfaces. However, DGMs are more memory demanding and less computationally attractive than SEMs, especially when explicit time stepping is used. We propose a new class of higher-order Hybridized Discontinuous Galerkin Spectral Elements (HDGSEM) methods for spatial discretization of wave equations, following the unifying framework for hybridization of Cockburn et al (2009) and Nguyen et al (2011), which allows for a single implementation of conforming and non-conforming SEMs. When used with energy conserving explicit time integration schemes, HDGSEM is flexible to handle complex geometry, computationally attractive and has significantly less degrees of freedom than classical DGMs, i.e., the only coupled unknowns are the single-valued numerical traces of the velocity field on the element's faces. The formulation can be extended to model fractional energy loss at interfaces between elastic, acoustic and hydro-acoustic media. Accuracy and performance of the HDGSEM are illustrated and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, S.; Giraldo, F. X.; Park, J.; Jun, S.; Yi, T.; Kang, S.; Oh, T.
2013-12-01
Korea Institute of Atmospheric Prediction Systems (KIAPS) was founded in 2011 by Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) as a non-profit foundation to develop Korea's own global NWP system including it's framework, data assimilation, coupler and so on. The final goal of KIAPS is to develop a global non-hydrostatic NWP system by 2019 for operational use at KMA. In the first stage (2011-2013), we have developed a dynamical core for the Eulerian hydrostatic primitive equation as a initial effort. At the meeting, the progress and status of the core will be presented. The core is based on spectral element (SE; or continuous Galerkin method) and discontinuous Galerkin methods (DG). It is expected to take the advantages that the horizontal operators can be approximated by local high-order elements while scaling efficiently on multiprocessor computers with such high processor counts, since the properties of the methods are local in nature and have a small communication footprint. In order to overcome polar singularities and retain flexibility of the grid, we consider the hydrostatic primitive equations in 3D Cartesian space. This approach is used in Giraldo and Rosmond (MWR 2004). For the horizontal discretization, the cubed sphere grid is used for the sake of isotropy and due to the simplicity with which to use quadrilateral elements. For the vertical discretization, a Lorenz staggered grid is implemented with the terrain following σ-p coordinate. Currently, explicit time integrators, such as strong stability preserving Runge-Kutta (SSPRK) are implemented. In order to validate the developed core, some results are presented for test cases such as the Rossby-Haurwitz wavenumber 4 and the Jablonowski-Williamson balanced initial state and baroclinic instability test.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laboure, Vincent M.; McClarren, Ryan G.; Hauck, Cory D.
2016-09-01
In this work, we provide a fully-implicit implementation of the time-dependent, filtered spherical harmonics (FPN) equations for non-linear, thermal radiative transfer. We investigate local filtering strategies and analyze the effect of the filter on the conditioning of the system, showing in particular that the filter improves the convergence properties of the iterative solver. We also investigate numerically the rigorous error estimates derived in the linear setting, to determine whether they hold also for the non-linear case. Finally, we simulate a standard test problem on an unstructured mesh and make comparisons with implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) calculations.
A 3D hp-Discontinuous Galerkin Method: Revisiting the M7.3 Landers Earthquake Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tago, J.; Cruz-Atienza, V. M.; Virieux, J.; Etienne, V.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.
2011-12-01
Reliable dynamic source models should account of both fault geometry and heterogeneities in the surrounding medium. In this work we introduce a novel numerical method for modeling the dynamic rupture based on a 3D hp-Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) scheme. Our method is derived from the scheme proposed by Benjemaa et al. (2009), which is based on a Finite Volume (FV) approach. Migrating from such approach to the hp-Discontinuous Galerkin philosophy is somehow straightforward since the FV method can be seen as the DG method with its lowest order or approximation (i.e. P0 element). We present a novel approach for treating dynamic rupture boundary conditions using an hp-Discontinuous Galerkin method for unstructured tetrahedral meshes. Although the theory we have developed holds for fault elements with arbitrary order, we show that second order (P2) elements yield a very good convergence. Since the DG method does not impose continuity between elements, our strategy consists in the way we compute the fluxes across the fault elements. During rupture propagation, the fluxes in the elements where the shear traction overcomes the fault strength are such that continuity of every wavefield is imposed except for the tangential fault velocities, while in the unbroken elements tangential continuity is also imposed. Because the fault nodes of a given element are coupled through the Mass and Flux matrices, when a fault node breaks we impose the shear traction on that node and need to recompute the values throughout the rest, to avoid any violation of the friction law throughout the element. This procedure repeats itself iteratively following a predictor-corrector scheme for a given time step until the element solutions stabilize. We point out that our scheme for the fault fluxes in the case of P0 elements is exactly the same as the one proposed by Benjemaa et al. who compute them through energy balance considerations. To verify our mathematical and computational model we have solved
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mu, Dawei; Chen, Po; Wang, Liqiang
2013-12-01
We have successfully ported an arbitrary high-order discontinuous Galerkin method for solving the three-dimensional isotropic elastic wave equation on unstructured tetrahedral meshes to multiple Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) using the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) of NVIDIA and Message Passing Interface (MPI) and obtained a speedup factor of about 28.3 for the single-precision version of our codes and a speedup factor of about 14.9 for the double-precision version. The GPU used in the comparisons is NVIDIA Tesla C2070 Fermi, and the CPU used is Intel Xeon W5660. To effectively overlap inter-process communication with computation, we separate the elements on each subdomain into inner and outer elements and complete the computation on outer elements and fill the MPI buffer first. While the MPI messages travel across the network, the GPU performs computation on inner elements, and all other calculations that do not use information of outer elements from neighboring subdomains. A significant portion of the speedup also comes from a customized matrix-matrix multiplication kernel, which is used extensively throughout our program. Preliminary performance analysis on our parallel GPU codes shows favorable strong and weak scalabilities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peyrusse, Fabien; Glinsky, Nathalie; Gélis, Céline; Lanteri, Stéphane
2014-10-01
We present a discontinuous Galerkin method for site effects assessment. The P-SV seismic wave propagation is studied in 2-D space heterogeneous media. The first-order velocity-stress system is obtained by assuming that the medium is linear, isotropic and viscoelastic, thus considering intrinsic attenuation. The associated stress-strain relation in the time domain being a convolution, which is numerically intractable, we consider the rheology of a generalized Maxwell body replacing the convolution by a set of differential equations. This results in a velocity-stress system which contains additional equations for the anelastic functions expressing the strain history of the material. Our numerical method, suitable for complex triangular unstructured meshes, is based on centred numerical fluxes and a leap-frog time-discretization. The method is validated through numerical simulations including comparisons with a finite-difference scheme. We study the influence of the geological structures of the Nice basin on the surface ground motion through the comparison of 1-D and 2-D soil response in homogeneous and heterogeneous soil. At last, we compare numerical results with real recordings data. The computed multiple-sediment basin response allows to reproduce the shape of the recorded amplification in the basin. This highlights the importance of knowing the lithological structures of a basin, layers properties and interface geometry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, Eric T.; Ciarlet, Patrick; Yu, Tang Fei
2013-02-01
In this paper, a new type of staggered discontinuous Galerkin methods for the three dimensional Maxwell’s equations is developed and analyzed. The spatial discretization is based on staggered Cartesian grids so that many good properties are obtained. First of all, our method has the advantages that the numerical solution preserves the electromagnetic energy and automatically fulfills a discrete version of the Gauss law. Moreover, the mass matrices are diagonal, thus time marching is explicit and is very efficient. Our method is high order accurate and the optimal order of convergence is rigorously proved. It is also very easy to implement due to its Cartesian structure and can be regarded as a generalization of the classical Yee’s scheme as well as the quadrilateral edge finite elements. Furthermore, a superconvergence result, that is the convergence rate is one order higher at interpolation nodes, is proved. Numerical results are shown to confirm our theoretical statements, and applications to problems in unbounded domains with the use of PML are presented. A comparison of our staggered method and non-staggered method is carried out and shows that our method has better accuracy and efficiency.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schumacher, F.; Lambrecht, L.; Friederich, W.
2015-12-01
In geophysics numerical simulations are a key tool to understand the processes of earth. For example, global simulations of seismic waves excited by earthquakes are essential to infer the velocity structure within the earth. Furthermore, numerical investigations can be helpful on local scales in order to find and characterize oil and gas reservoirs. Moreover, simulations enable a better understanding of wave propagation in borehole and tunnel seismic applications. Even on microscopic scales, numerical simulations of elastic waves can help to increase knowledge about the behaviour of materials, e.g. to understand the mechanism of crack propagation in rocks. To deal with highly complex heterogeneous models, here the Nodal Discontinuous Galerkin Method (NDG) is used to calculate synthetic seismograms. The advantage of this method is that complex mesh geometries can be computed by using triangular or tetrahedral elements for domain discretization together with a high order spatial approximation of the wave field. The simulation tool NEXD is presented which has the capability of simulating elastic and anelastic wave fields for seismic experiments for one-, two- and three- dimensional settings. The implementation of poroelasticity and simulation of slip interfaces are currently in progress and are working for the one dimensional part. External models provided by e.g. Trelis/Cubit can be used for parallelized computations on triangular or tetrahedral meshes. For absorbing boundary conditions either a fluxes based approach or a Nearly Perfectly Matched Layer (NPML) can be used. Examples are presented to validate the method and to show the capability of the software for complex models such as the simulation of a tunnel seismic experiment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schoenawa, Stefan; Hartmann, Ralf
2014-04-01
In this article we consider the development of Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods for the numerical approximation of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with the shear-stress transport (SST) model by Menter. This turbulence model is based on a blending of the Wilcox k-ω model used near the wall and the k-ɛ model used in the rest of the domain where the blending functions depend on the distance to the nearest wall. For the computation of the distance of each quadrature point in the domain to the nearest of the curved, piecewise polynomial wall boundaries, we propose a stabilized continuous finite element (FE) discretization of the eikonal equation. Furthermore, we propose a new wall boundary condition for the dissipation rate ω based on the projection of the analytic near-wall behavior of ω onto the discrete ansatz space of the DG discretization. Finally, we introduce an artificial viscosity to the discretization of the turbulence kinetic energy (k-)equation to suppress oscillations of k near the underresolved boundary layer edge. The wall distance computation based on the continuous FE discretization of the eikonal equation is demonstrated for an internal and three external/aerodynamic flow geometries including a three-element high-lift configuration. The DG discretization of the RANS equations with the SST model is demonstrated for turbulent flows past a flat plate and the RAE2822 airfoil (Cases 9 and 10). The results are compared to the underlying k-ω model and experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kopera, M. A.; Maslowski, W.; Giraldo, F.
2015-12-01
One of the key outstanding challenges in modeling of climate change and sea-level rise is the ice-sheet/ocean interaction in narrow, elongated and geometrically complicated fjords around Greenland. To address this challenge we propose a new approach, a separate fjord model using discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods, or FDG. The goal of this project is to build a separate, high-resolution module for use in Earth System Models (ESMs) to realistically represent the fjord bathymetry, coastlines, exchanges with the outside ocean, circulation and fine-scale processes occurring within the fjord and interactions at the ice shelf interface. FDG is currently at the first stage of development. The DG method provides FDG with high-order accuracy as well as geometrical flexibility, including the capacity to handle non-conforming adaptive mesh refinement to resolve the processes occurring near the ice-sheet/ocean interface without introducing prohibitive computational costs. Another benefit of this method is its excellent performance on multi- and many-core architectures, which allows for utilizing modern high performance computing systems for high-resolution simulations. The non-hydrostatic model of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation will account for the stationary ice-shelf with sub-shelf ocean interaction, basal melting and subglacial meltwater influx and with boundary conditions at the surface to account for floating sea ice. The boundary conditions will be provided to FDG via a flux coupler to emulate the integration with an ESM. Initially, FDG will be tested for the Sermilik Fjord settings, using real bathymetry, boundary and initial conditions, and evaluated against available observations and other model results for this fjord. The overarching goal of the project is to be able to resolve the ice-sheet/ocean interactions around the entire coast of Greenland and two-way coupling with regional and global climate models such as the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Käser, Martin; Dumbser, Michael; de la Puente, Josep; Igel, Heiner
2007-01-01
We present a new numerical method to solve the heterogeneous anelastic, seismic wave equations with arbitrary high order accuracy in space and time on 3-D unstructured tetrahedral meshes. Using the velocity-stress formulation provides a linear hyperbolic system of equations with source terms that is completed by additional equations for the anelastic functions including the strain history of the material. These additional equations result from the rheological model of the generalized Maxwell body and permit the incorporation of realistic attenuation properties of viscoelastic material accounting for the behaviour of elastic solids and viscous fluids. The proposed method combines the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite element (FE) method with the ADER approach using Arbitrary high order DERivatives for flux calculations. The DG approach, in contrast to classical FE methods, uses a piecewise polynomial approximation of the numerical solution which allows for discontinuities at element interfaces. Therefore, the well-established theory of numerical fluxes across element interfaces obtained by the solution of Riemann problems can be applied as in the finite volume framework. The main idea of the ADER time integration approach is a Taylor expansion in time in which all time derivatives are replaced by space derivatives using the so-called Cauchy-Kovalewski procedure which makes extensive use of the governing PDE. Due to the ADER time integration technique the same approximation order in space and time is achieved automatically and the method is a one-step scheme advancing the solution for one time step without intermediate stages. To this end, we introduce a new unrolled recursive algorithm for efficiently computing the Cauchy-Kovalewski procedure by making use of the sparsity of the system matrices. The numerical convergence analysis demonstrates that the new schemes provide very high order accuracy even on unstructured tetrahedral meshes while computational cost and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dumbser, Michael; Loubère, Raphaël
2016-08-01
In this paper we propose a simple, robust and accurate nonlinear a posteriori stabilization of the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite element method for the solution of nonlinear hyperbolic PDE systems on unstructured triangular and tetrahedral meshes in two and three space dimensions. This novel a posteriori limiter, which has been recently proposed for the simple Cartesian grid case in [62], is able to resolve discontinuities at a sub-grid scale and is substantially extended here to general unstructured simplex meshes in 2D and 3D. It can be summarized as follows: At the beginning of each time step, an approximation of the local minimum and maximum of the discrete solution is computed for each cell, taking into account also the vertex neighbors of an element. Then, an unlimited discontinuous Galerkin scheme of approximation degree N is run for one time step to produce a so-called candidate solution. Subsequently, an a posteriori detection step checks the unlimited candidate solution at time t n + 1 for positivity, absence of floating point errors and whether the discrete solution has remained within or at least very close to the bounds given by the local minimum and maximum computed in the first step. Elements that do not satisfy all the previously mentioned detection criteria are flagged as troubled cells. For these troubled cells, the candidate solution is discarded as inappropriate and consequently needs to be recomputed. Within these troubled cells the old discrete solution at the previous time tn is scattered onto small sub-cells (Ns = 2 N + 1 sub-cells per element edge), in order to obtain a set of sub-cell averages at time tn. Then, a more robust second order TVD finite volume scheme is applied to update the sub-cell averages within the troubled DG cells from time tn to time t n + 1. The new sub-grid data at time t n + 1 are finally gathered back into a valid cell-centered DG polynomial of degree N by using a classical conservative and higher order
Foust, F. R.; Bell, T. F.; Spasojevic, M.; Inan, U. S.
2011-06-15
We present results showing the measured Landau damping rate using a high-order discontinuous Galerkin particle-in-cell (DG-PIC) [G. B. Jacobs and J. S. Hesthaven, J. Comput. Phys. 214, 96 (2006)] method. We show that typical damping rates measured in particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations can differ significantly from the linearized Landau damping coefficient and propose a simple numerical method to solve the plasma dispersion function exactly for moderate to high damping rates. Simulation results show a high degree of agreement between the high-order PIC results and this calculated theoretical damping rate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minatti, Lorenzo; De Cicco, Pina Nicoletta; Solari, Luca
2016-07-01
A new higher order 1D numerical scheme for the propagation of flood waves in compound channels with a movable bed is presented. The model equations are solved by means of an ADER Discontinuous Galerkin explicit scheme which can, in principle, reach any order of space-time accuracy. The higher order nature of the scheme allows the numerical coupling between flux and source terms appearing in the governing equations and, importantly, to handle moderately stiff and stiff source terms. Stiff source terms arise in the case of abrupt changes of river geometry such as in the case of hydraulic structures like bridges and weirs. Hydraulic interpretation of these conditions with 1D numerical modelling requires particular attention; for instance, a 1st order scheme might either lead to inaccurate solutions or impossibility to simulate these complex conditions. Validation is carried out with several test cases with the aim to check the scheme capability to deal with abrupt geometric changes and to capture the direction and celerity of propagation of bed and water surface disturbances. Validation is done also in a real case by using stage-discharge field measurements in the Ombrone river (Tuscany). The proposed scheme is further employed for the computation of flow rating curves in cross-sections just upstream of an abrupt narrowing, considering both fixed and movable bed conditions and different ratios of contraction for cross-section width. This problem is of particular relevance as, in common engineering practice, rating curves are derived from stage-measuring gauges installed on bridges with flow conditions that are likely to be influenced by local width narrowing. Results show that a higher order scheme is needed in order to deal with stiff source terms and reproduce realistic flow rating curves, unless a strong refinement of the computational grid is performed. This capability appears to be crucial for the computation of rating curves on coarse grids as it allows the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vater, Stefan; Beisiegel, Nicole; Behrens, Jörn
2015-11-01
An important part in the numerical simulation of tsunami and storm surge events is the accurate modeling of flooding and the appearance of dry areas when the water recedes. This paper proposes a new algorithm to model inundation events with piecewise linear Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin approximations applied to the shallow water equations. This study is restricted to the one-dimensional case and shows a detailed analysis and the corresponding numerical treatment of the inundation problem. The main feature is a velocity based "limiting" of the momentum distribution in each cell, which prevents instabilities in case of wetting or drying situations. Additional limiting of the fluid depth ensures its positivity while preserving local mass conservation. A special flux modification in cells located at the wet/dry interface leads to a well-balanced method, which maintains the steady state at rest. The discontinuous Galerkin scheme is formulated in a nodal form using a Lagrange basis. The proposed wetting and drying treatment is verified with several numerical simulations. These test cases demonstrate the well-balancing property of the method and its stability in case of rapid transition of the wet/dry interface. We also verify the conservation of mass and investigate the convergence characteristics of the scheme.
Archibald, Richard K; Gelb, Anne; Gottlieb, Sigal; Ryan, Jennifer
2006-01-01
In a previous paper by Ryan and Shu [Ryan, J. K., and Shu, C.-W. (2003). Methods Appl. Anal. 10(2), 295-307], a one-sided post-processing technique for the discontinuous Galerkin method was introduced for reconstructing solutions near computational boundaries and discontinuities in the boundaries, as well as for changes in mesh size. This technique requires prior knowledge of the discontinuity location in order to determine whether to use centered, partially one-sided, or one-sided post-processing. We now present two alternative stencil choosing schemes to automate the choice of post-processing stencil. The first is an ENO type stencil choosing procedure, which is designed to choose centered post-processing in smooth regions and one-sided or partially one-sided post-processing near a discontinuity, and the second method is based on the edge detection method designed by Archibald, Gelb, and Yoon [Archibald, R., Gelb, A., and Yoon, J. (2005). SIAM J. Numeric. Anal. 43, 259-279; Archibald, R., Gelb, A., and Yoon, J. (2006). Appl. Numeric. Math. (submitted)]. We compare these stencil choosing techniques and analyze their respective strengths and weaknesses. Finally, the automated stencil choices are applied in conjunction with the appropriate post-processing procedures and it is determine that the resulting numerical solutions are of the correct order.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kopera, Michal A.; Giraldo, Francis X.
2015-09-01
We perform a comparison of mass conservation properties of the continuous (CG) and discontinuous (DG) Galerkin methods on non-conforming, dynamically adaptive meshes for two atmospheric test cases. The two methods are implemented in a unified way which allows for a direct comparison of the non-conforming edge treatment. We outline the implementation details of the non-conforming direct stiffness summation algorithm for the CG method and show that the mass conservation error is similar to the DG method. Both methods conserve to machine precision, regardless of the presence of the non-conforming edges. For lower order polynomials the CG method requires additional stabilization to run for very long simulation times. We addressed this issue by using filters and/or additional artificial viscosity. The mathematical proof of mass conservation for CG with non-conforming meshes is presented in Appendix B.
Dai, William W. Scannapieco, Anthony J.
2015-01-15
A numerical scheme is developed for two- and three-dimensional time-dependent diffusion equations in numerical simulations involving mixed cells. The focus of the development is on the formulations for both transient and steady states, the property for large time steps, second-order accuracy in both space and time, the correct treatment of the discontinuity in material properties, and the handling of mixed cells. For a mixed cell, interfaces between materials are reconstructed within the cell so that each of resulting sub-cells contains only one material and the material properties of each sub-cell are known. Diffusion equations are solved on the resulting polyhedral mesh even if the original mesh is structured. The discontinuity of material properties between different materials is correctly treated based on governing physics principles. The treatment is exact for arbitrarily strong discontinuity. The formulae for effective diffusion coefficients across interfaces between materials are derived for general polyhedral meshes. The scheme is general in two and three dimensions. Since the scheme to be developed in this paper is intended for multi-physics code with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), we present the scheme on mesh generated from AMR. The correctness and features of the scheme are demonstrated for transient problems and steady states in one-, two-, and three-dimensional simulations for heat conduction and radiation heat transfer. The test problems involve dramatically different materials.
Non-dissipative space-time hp-discontinuous Galerkin method for the time-dependent Maxwell equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lilienthal, M.; Schnepp, S. M.; Weiland, T.
2014-10-01
A finite element method for the solution of the time-dependent Maxwell equations in mixed form is presented. The method allows for local hp-refinement in space and in time. To this end, a space-time Galerkin approach is employed. In contrast to the space-time DG method introduced in [1] test and trial spaces do not coincide. This allows for obtaining a non-dissipative method. To obtain an efficient implementation, a hierarchical tensor product basis in space and time is proposed. This allows to evaluate the local residual with a complexity of O(p4) and O(p5) for affine and non-affine elements, respectively.
HyeongKae Park; Robert R. Nourgaliev; Richard C. Martineau; Dana A. Knoll
2008-09-01
We present high-order accurate spatiotemporal discretization of all-speed flow solvers using Jacobian-free Newton Krylov framework. One of the key developments in this work is the physics-based preconditioner for the all-speed flow, which makes use of traditional semi-implicit schemes. The physics-based preconditioner is developed in the primitive variable form, which allows a straightforward separation of physical phenomena. Numerical examples demonstrate that the developed preconditioner effectively reduces the number of the Krylov iterations, and the efficiency is independent of the Mach number and mesh sizes under a fixed CFL condition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mu, Dawei; Chen, Po; Wang, Liqiang
2013-02-01
We have successfully ported an arbitrary high-order discontinuous Galerkin (ADER-DG) method for solving the three-dimensional elastic seismic wave equation on unstructured tetrahedral meshes to an Nvidia Tesla C2075 GPU using the Nvidia CUDA programming model. On average our implementation obtained a speedup factor of about 24.3 for the single-precision version of our GPU code and a speedup factor of about 12.8 for the double-precision version of our GPU code when compared with the double precision serial CPU code running on one Intel Xeon W5880 core. When compared with the parallel CPU code running on two, four and eight cores, the speedup factor of our single-precision GPU code is around 12.9, 6.8 and 3.6, respectively. In this article, we give a brief summary of the ADER-DG method, a short introduction to the CUDA programming model and a description of our CUDA implementation and optimization of the ADER-DG method on the GPU. To our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the potential of accelerating the ADER-DG method for seismic wave-propagation simulations using a GPU.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alldredge, Graham; Schneider, Florian
2015-08-01
We implement a high-order numerical scheme for the entropy-based moment closure, the so-called MN model, for linear kinetic equations in slab geometry. A discontinuous Galerkin (DG) scheme in space along with a strong-stability preserving Runge-Kutta time integrator is a natural choice to achieve a third-order scheme, but so far, the challenge for such a scheme in this context is the implementation of a linear scaling limiter when the numerical solution leaves the set of realizable moments (that is, those moments associated with a positive underlying distribution). The difficulty for such a limiter lies in the computation of the intersection of a ray with the set of realizable moments. We avoid this computation by using quadrature to generate a convex polytope which approximates this set. The half-space representation of this polytope is used to compute an approximation of the required intersection straightforwardly, and with this limiter in hand, the rest of the DG scheme is constructed using standard techniques. We consider the resulting numerical scheme on a new manufactured solution and standard benchmark problems for both traditional MN models and the so-called mixed-moment models. The manufactured solution allows us to observe the expected convergence rates and explore the effects of the regularization in the optimization.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hansbo, Peter; Larson, Mats G.
2015-11-01
Second order buckling theory involves a one-way coupled coupled problem where the stress tensor from a plane stress problem appears in an eigenvalue problem for the fourth order Kirchhoff plate. In this paper we present an a posteriori error estimate for the critical buckling load and mode corresponding to the smallest eigenvalue and associated eigenvector. A particular feature of the analysis is that we take the effect of approximate computation of the stress tensor and also provide an error indicator for the plane stress problem. The Kirchhoff plate is discretized using a continuous/discontinuous finite element method based on standard continuous piecewise polynomial finite element spaces. The same finite element spaces can be used to solve the plane stress problem.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hou, Gene
2004-01-01
The focus of this research is on the development of analysis and sensitivity analysis equations for nonlinear, transient heat transfer problems modeled by p-version, time discontinuous finite element approximation. The resulting matrix equation of the state equation is simply in the form ofA(x)x = c, representing a single step, time marching scheme. The Newton-Raphson's method is used to solve the nonlinear equation. Examples are first provided to demonstrate the accuracy characteristics of the resultant finite element approximation. A direct differentiation approach is then used to compute the thermal sensitivities of a nonlinear heat transfer problem. The report shows that only minimal coding effort is required to enhance the analysis code with the sensitivity analysis capability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Terrana, S.; Vilotte, J. P.; Guillot, L.
2015-12-01
New seismological monitoring networks combine broadband seismic receivers, hydrophones and micro-barometers antenna, providing complementary observation of source-radiated waves. Exploiting these observations requires accurate and multi-media - elastic, hydro-acoustic, infrasound - wave simulation methods, in order to improve our physical understanding of energy exchanges at material interfaces.We present here a new development of a high-order Hybridized Discontinuous Galerkin (HDG) method, for the simulation of coupled seismic and acoustic wave propagation, within a unified framework ([1],[2]) allowing for continuous and discontinuous Spectral Element Methods (SEM) to be used in the same simulation, with conforming and non-conforming meshes. The HDG-SEM approximation leads to differential - algebraic equations, which can be solved implicitly using energy-preserving time-schemes.The proposed HDG-SEM is computationally attractive, when compared with classical Discontinuous Galerkin methods, involving only the approximation of the single-valued traces of the velocity field along the element interfaces as globally coupled unknowns. The formulation is based on a variational approximation of the physical fluxes, which are shown to be the explicit solution of an exact Riemann problem at each element boundaries. This leads to a highly parallel and efficient unstructured and high-order accurate method, which can be space-and-time adaptive.A numerical study of the accuracy and convergence of the HDG-SEM is performed through a number of case studies involving elastic-acoustic (infrasound) coupling with geometries of increasing complexity. Finally, the performance of the method is illustrated through realistic case studies involving ground wave propagation associated to topography effects.In conclusion, we outline some on-going extensions of the method.References:[1] Cockburn, B., Gopalakrishnan, J., Lazarov, R., Unified hybridization of discontinuous Galerkin, mixed and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moura, R. C.; Sherwin, S. J.; Peiró, J.
2015-10-01
We investigate the potential of linear dispersion-diffusion analysis in providing direct guidelines for turbulence simulations through the under-resolved DNS (sometimes called implicit LES) approach via spectral/hp methods. The discontinuous Galerkin (DG) formulation is assessed in particular as a representative of these methods. We revisit the eigensolutions technique as applied to linear advection and suggest a new perspective to the role of multiple numerical modes, peculiar to spectral/hp methods. From this new perspective, "secondary" eigenmodes are seen to replicate the propagation behaviour of a "primary" mode, so that DG's propagation characteristics can be obtained directly from the dispersion-diffusion curves of the primary mode. Numerical dissipation is then appraised from these primary eigencurves and its effect over poorly-resolved scales is quantified. Within this scenario, a simple criterion is proposed to estimate DG's effective resolution in terms of the largest wavenumber it can accurately resolve in a given hp approximation space, also allowing us to present points per wavelength estimates typically used in spectral and finite difference methods. Although strictly valid for linear advection, the devised criterion is tested against (1D) Burgers turbulence and found to predict with good accuracy the beginning of the dissipation range on the energy spectra of under-resolved simulations. The analysis of these test cases through the proposed methodology clarifies why and how the DG formulation can be used for under-resolved turbulence simulations without explicit subgrid-scale modelling. In particular, when dealing with communication limited hardware which forces one to consider the performance for a fixed number of degrees of freedom, the use of higher polynomial orders along with moderately coarser meshes is shown to be the best way to translate available degrees of freedom into resolution power.
Proteus-MOC: A 3D deterministic solver incorporating 2D method of characteristics
Marin-Lafleche, A.; Smith, M. A.; Lee, C.
2013-07-01
A new transport solution methodology was developed by combining the two-dimensional method of characteristics with the discontinuous Galerkin method for the treatment of the axial variable. The method, which can be applied to arbitrary extruded geometries, was implemented in PROTEUS-MOC and includes parallelization in group, angle, plane, and space using a top level GMRES linear algebra solver. Verification tests were performed to show accuracy and stability of the method with the increased number of angular directions and mesh elements. Good scalability with parallelism in angle and axial planes is displayed. (authors)
A Reconstructed Discontiuous Galerkin Method for the Magnetohydrodynamics on Arbitrary Grids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Halashi, Behrouz Karami
A reconstructed discontinuous Galerkin (RDG) method based on a Hierarchical Weighted Essentially Non-oscillatory (WENO) reconstruction using a Taylor basis, designed not only to enhance the accuracy of discontinuous Galerkin methods but also to ensure the nonlinear stability of the RDG method, is developed for the solution of the magnetohydro dynamics (MHD) on arbitrary grids. In this method, a quadratic polynomial solution (P2) is first reconstructed using a Hermite WENO (HWENO) reconstruction from the underlying linear polynomial (P 1) discontinuous Galerkin solution to ensure the linear stability of the RDG method and to improve the efficiency of the underlying DG method. By taking advantage of handily available and yet invaluable information, namely the derivatives in the DG formulation, the stencils used in the reconstruction involve only Von Neumann neighborhood (adjacent face-neighboring cells) and thus are compact and consistent with the underlying DG method. The gradients (first moments) of the quadratic polynomial solution are then reconstructed using a WENO reconstruction in order to eliminate spurious oscillations in the vicinity of strong discontinuities, thus ensuring the nonlinear stability of the RDG method. Temporal discretization is done using a 4th order explicit Runge-Kutta method. The HLLD Riemann solver, introduced in the literature for one dimensional MHD problems, is extended to three dimensional problems on unstructured grids and used to compute the flux functions at interfaces in the present work. Divergence free constraint is satisfied using the so-called Locally Divergence Free (LDF) approach. The LDF formulation is especially attractive in the context of DG methods, where the gradients of independent variables are handily available and only one of the computed gradients needs simply to be modified by the divergence-free constraint at the end of each time step. The developed RDG method is used to compute a variety of fluid dynamics and
Collocation and Galerkin Time-Stepping Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huynh, H. T.
2011-01-01
We study the numerical solutions of ordinary differential equations by one-step methods where the solution at tn is known and that at t(sub n+1) is to be calculated. The approaches employed are collocation, continuous Galerkin (CG) and discontinuous Galerkin (DG). Relations among these three approaches are established. A quadrature formula using s evaluation points is employed for the Galerkin formulations. We show that with such a quadrature, the CG method is identical to the collocation method using quadrature points as collocation points. Furthermore, if the quadrature formula is the right Radau one (including t(sub n+1)), then the DG and CG methods also become identical, and they reduce to the Radau IIA collocation method. In addition, we present a generalization of DG that yields a method identical to CG and collocation with arbitrary collocation points. Thus, the collocation, CG, and generalized DG methods are equivalent, and the latter two methods can be formulated using the differential instead of integral equation. Finally, all schemes discussed can be cast as s-stage implicit Runge-Kutta methods.
Meshless Local Petrov-Galerkin Method for Bending Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Phillips, Dawn R.; Raju, Ivatury S.
2002-01-01
Recent literature shows extensive research work on meshless or element-free methods as alternatives to the versatile Finite Element Method. One such meshless method is the Meshless Local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) method. In this report, the method is developed for bending of beams - C1 problems. A generalized moving least squares (GMLS) interpolation is used to construct the trial functions, and spline and power weight functions are used as the test functions. The method is applied to problems for which exact solutions are available to evaluate its effectiveness. The accuracy of the method is demonstrated for problems with load discontinuities and continuous beam problems. A Petrov-Galerkin implementation of the method is shown to greatly reduce computational time and effort and is thus preferable over the previously developed Galerkin approach. The MLPG method for beam problems yields very accurate deflections and slopes and continuous moment and shear forces without the need for elaborate post-processing techniques.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kovalevsky, Louis; Gosselet, Pierre
2016-09-01
The Variational Theory of Complex Rays (VTCR) is an indirect Trefftz method designed to study systems governed by Helmholtz-like equations. It uses wave functions to represent the solution inside elements, which reduces the dispersion error compared to classical polynomial approaches but the resulting system is prone to be ill conditioned. This paper gives a simple and original presentation of the VTCR using the discontinuous Galerkin framework and it traces back the ill-conditioning to the accumulation of eigenvalues near zero for the formulation written in terms of wave amplitude. The core of this paper presents an efficient solving strategy that overcomes this issue. The key element is the construction of a search subspace where the condition number is controlled at the cost of a limited decrease of attainable precision. An augmented LSQR solver is then proposed to solve efficiently and accurately the complete system. The approach is successfully applied to different examples.
On Galerkin difference methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banks, J. W.; Hagstrom, T.
2016-05-01
Energy-stable difference methods for hyperbolic initial-boundary value problems are constructed using a Galerkin framework. The underlying basis functions are Lagrange functions associated with continuous piecewise polynomial approximation on a computational grid. Both theoretical and computational evidence shows that the resulting methods possess excellent dispersion properties. In the absence of boundaries the spectral radii of the operators for the first and second derivative matrices are bounded independent of discretization order. With boundaries the spectral radius of the first order derivative matrix appears to be bounded independent of discretization order, and grows only slowly with discretization order for problems in second-order form.
Non-Galerkin Coarse Grids for Algebraic Multigrid
Falgout, Robert D.; Schroder, Jacob B.
2014-06-26
Algebraic multigrid (AMG) is a popular and effective solver for systems of linear equations that arise from discretized partial differential equations. And while AMG has been effectively implemented on large scale parallel machines, challenges remain, especially when moving to exascale. Particularly, stencil sizes (the number of nonzeros in a row) tend to increase further down in the coarse grid hierarchy, and this growth leads to more communication. Therefore, as problem size increases and the number of levels in the hierarchy grows, the overall efficiency of the parallel AMG method decreases, sometimes dramatically. This growth in stencil size is due to the standard Galerkin coarse grid operator, $P^T A P$, where $P$ is the prolongation (i.e., interpolation) operator. For example, the coarse grid stencil size for a simple three-dimensional (3D) seven-point finite differencing approximation to diffusion can increase into the thousands on present day machines, causing an associated increase in communication costs. We therefore consider algebraically truncating coarse grid stencils to obtain a non-Galerkin coarse grid. First, the sparsity pattern of the non-Galerkin coarse grid is determined by employing a heuristic minimal “safe” pattern together with strength-of-connection ideas. Second, the nonzero entries are determined by collapsing the stencils in the Galerkin operator using traditional AMG techniques. The result is a reduction in coarse grid stencil size, overall operator complexity, and parallel AMG solve phase times.
Discontinuous Spectral Difference Method for Conservation Laws on Unstructured Grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel
2004-01-01
A new, high-order, conservative, and efficient discontinuous spectral finite difference (SD) method for conservation laws on unstructured grids is developed. The concept of discontinuous and high-order local representations to achieve conservation and high accuracy is utilized in a manner similar to the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) and the Spectral Volume (SV) methods, but while these methods are based on the integrated forms of the equations, the new method is based on the differential form to attain a simpler formulation and higher efficiency. Conventional unstructured finite-difference and finite-volume methods require data reconstruction based on the least-squares formulation using neighboring point or cell data. Since each unknown employs a different stencil, one must repeat the least-squares inversion for every point or cell at each time step, or to store the inversion coefficients. In a high-order, three-dimensional computation, the former would involve impractically large CPU time, while for the latter the memory requirement becomes prohibitive. In addition, the finite-difference method does not satisfy the integral conservation in general. By contrast, the DG and SV methods employ a local, universal reconstruction of a given order of accuracy in each cell in terms of internally defined conservative unknowns. Since the solution is discontinuous across cell boundaries, a Riemann solver is necessary to evaluate boundary flux terms and maintain conservation. In the DG method, a Galerkin finite-element method is employed to update the nodal unknowns within each cell. This requires the inversion of a mass matrix, and the use of quadratures of twice the order of accuracy of the reconstruction to evaluate the surface integrals and additional volume integrals for nonlinear flux functions. In the SV method, the integral conservation law is used to update volume averages over subcells defined by a geometrically similar partition of each grid cell. As the order of
A strategy to suppress recurrence in grid-based Vlasov solvers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Einkemmer, Lukas; Ostermann, Alexander
2014-07-01
In this paper we propose a strategy to suppress the recurrence effect present in grid-based Vlasov solvers. This method is formulated by introducing a cutoff frequency in Fourier space. Since this cutoff only has to be performed after a number of time steps, the scheme can be implemented efficiently and can relatively easily be incorporated into existing Vlasov solvers. Furthermore, the scheme proposed retains the advantage of grid-based methods in that high accuracy can be achieved. This is due to the fact that in contrast to the scheme proposed by Abbasi et al. no statistical noise is introduced into the simulation. We will illustrate the utility of the method proposed by performing a number of numerical simulations, including the plasma echo phenomenon, using a discontinuous Galerkin approximation in space and a Strang splitting based time integration. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Theory and Applications of the Vlasov Equation", edited by Francesco Pegoraro, Francesco Califano, Giovanni Manfredi and Philip J. Morrison.
MIB Galerkin method for elliptic interface problems.
Xia, Kelin; Zhan, Meng; Wei, Guo-Wei
2014-12-15
Material interfaces are omnipresent in the real-world structures and devices. Mathematical modeling of material interfaces often leads to elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) with discontinuous coefficients and singular sources, which are commonly called elliptic interface problems. The development of high-order numerical schemes for elliptic interface problems has become a well defined field in applied and computational mathematics and attracted much attention in the past decades. Despite of significant advances, challenges remain in the construction of high-order schemes for nonsmooth interfaces, i.e., interfaces with geometric singularities, such as tips, cusps and sharp edges. The challenge of geometric singularities is amplified when they are associated with low solution regularities, e.g., tip-geometry effects in many fields. The present work introduces a matched interface and boundary (MIB) Galerkin method for solving two-dimensional (2D) elliptic PDEs with complex interfaces, geometric singularities and low solution regularities. The Cartesian grid based triangular elements are employed to avoid the time consuming mesh generation procedure. Consequently, the interface cuts through elements. To ensure the continuity of classic basis functions across the interface, two sets of overlapping elements, called MIB elements, are defined near the interface. As a result, differentiation can be computed near the interface as if there is no interface. Interpolation functions are constructed on MIB element spaces to smoothly extend function values across the interface. A set of lowest order interface jump conditions is enforced on the interface, which in turn, determines the interpolation functions. The performance of the proposed MIB Galerkin finite element method is validated by numerical experiments with a wide range of interface geometries, geometric singularities, low regularity solutions and grid resolutions. Extensive numerical studies confirm the
Efficient stochastic Galerkin methods for random diffusion equations
Xiu Dongbin Shen Jie
2009-02-01
We discuss in this paper efficient solvers for stochastic diffusion equations in random media. We employ generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) expansion to express the solution in a convergent series and obtain a set of deterministic equations for the expansion coefficients by Galerkin projection. Although the resulting system of diffusion equations are coupled, we show that one can construct fast numerical methods to solve them in a decoupled fashion. The methods are based on separation of the diagonal terms and off-diagonal terms in the matrix of the Galerkin system. We examine properties of this matrix and show that the proposed method is unconditionally stable for unsteady problems and convergent for steady problems with a convergent rate independent of discretization parameters. Numerical examples are provided, for both steady and unsteady random diffusions, to support the analysis.
Software for the parallel adaptive solution of conservation laws by discontinous Galerkin methods.
Flaherty, J. E.; Loy, R. M.; Shephard, M. S.; Teresco, J. D.
1999-08-17
The authors develop software tools for the solution of conservation laws using parallel adaptive discontinuous Galerkin methods. In particular, the Rensselaer Partition Model (RPM) provides parallel mesh structures within an adaptive framework to solve the Euler equations of compressible flow by a discontinuous Galerkin method (LOCO). Results are presented for a Rayleigh-Taylor flow instability for computations performed on 128 processors of an IBM SP computer. In addition to managing the distributed data and maintaining a load balance, RPM provides information about the parallel environment that can be used to tailor partitions to a specific computational environment.
Parallelization of an Object-Oriented Unstructured Aeroacoustics Solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baggag, Abdelkader; Atkins, Harold; Oezturan, Can; Keyes, David
1999-01-01
A computational aeroacoustics code based on the discontinuous Galerkin method is ported to several parallel platforms using MPI. The discontinuous Galerkin method is a compact high-order method that retains its accuracy and robustness on non-smooth unstructured meshes. In its semi-discrete form, the discontinuous Galerkin method can be combined with explicit time marching methods making it well suited to time accurate computations. The compact nature of the discontinuous Galerkin method also makes it well suited for distributed memory parallel platforms. The original serial code was written using an object-oriented approach and was previously optimized for cache-based machines. The port to parallel platforms was achieved simply by treating partition boundaries as a type of boundary condition. Code modifications were minimal because boundary conditions were abstractions in the original program. Scalability results are presented for the SCI Origin, IBM SP2, and clusters of SGI and Sun workstations. Slightly superlinear speedup is achieved on a fixed-size problem on the Origin, due to cache effects.
Formulation of discontinuous Galerkin methods for relativistic astrophysics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teukolsky, Saul A.
2016-05-01
The DG algorithm is a powerful method for solving pdes, especially for evolution equations in conservation form. Since the algorithm involves integration over volume elements, it is not immediately obvious that it will generalize easily to arbitrary time-dependent curved spacetimes. We show how to formulate the algorithm in such spacetimes for applications in relativistic astrophysics. We also show how to formulate the algorithm for equations in non-conservative form, such as Einstein's field equations themselves. We find two computationally distinct formulations in both cases, one of which has seldom been used before for flat space in curvilinear coordinates but which may be more efficient. We also give a new derivation of the ALE algorithm (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) using 4-vector methods that is much simpler than the usual derivation and explains why the method preserves the conservation form of the equations. The various formulations are explored with some simple numerical experiments that also investigate the effect of the metric identities on the results. The results of this paper may also be of interest to practitioners of DG working with curvilinear elements in flat space.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shu, Chi-Wang
2000-01-01
This project is about the investigation of the development of the discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods, for general geometry and triangulations, for solving convection dominated problems, with applications to aeroacoustics. On the analysis side, we have studied the efficient and stable discontinuous Galerkin framework for small second derivative terms, for example in Navier-Stokes equations, and also for related equations such as the Hamilton-Jacobi equations. This is a truly local discontinuous formulation where derivatives are considered as new variables. On the applied side, we have implemented and tested the efficiency of different approaches numerically. Related issues in high order ENO and WENO finite difference methods and spectral methods have also been investigated. Jointly with Hu, we have presented a discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for solving the nonlinear Hamilton-Jacobi equations. This method is based on the RungeKutta discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for solving conservation laws. The method has the flexibility of treating complicated geometry by using arbitrary triangulation, can achieve high order accuracy with a local, compact stencil, and are suited for efficient parallel implementation. One and two dimensional numerical examples are given to illustrate the capability of the method. Jointly with Hu, we have constructed third and fourth order WENO schemes on two dimensional unstructured meshes (triangles) in the finite volume formulation. The third order schemes are based on a combination of linear polynomials with nonlinear weights, and the fourth order schemes are based on combination of quadratic polynomials with nonlinear weights. We have addressed several difficult issues associated with high order WENO schemes on unstructured mesh, including the choice of linear and nonlinear weights, what to do with negative weights, etc. Numerical examples are shown to demonstrate the accuracies and robustness of the
An assessment of the adaptive unstructured tetrahedral grid, Euler Flow Solver Code FELISA
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Djomehri, M. Jahed; Erickson, Larry L.
1994-01-01
A three-dimensional solution-adaptive Euler flow solver for unstructured tetrahedral meshes is assessed, and the accuracy and efficiency of the method for predicting sonic boom pressure signatures about simple generic models are demonstrated. Comparison of computational and wind tunnel data and enhancement of numerical solutions by means of grid adaptivity are discussed. The mesh generation is based on the advancing front technique. The FELISA code consists of two solvers, the Taylor-Galerkin and the Runge-Kutta-Galerkin schemes, both of which are spacially discretized by the usual Galerkin weighted residual finite-element methods but with different explicit time-marching schemes to steady state. The solution-adaptive grid procedure is based on either remeshing or mesh refinement techniques. An alternative geometry adaptive procedure is also incorporated.
2004-03-01
Amesos is the Direct Sparse Solver Package in Trilinos. The goal of Amesos is to make AX=S as easy as it sounds, at least for direct methods. Amesos provides interfaces to a number of third party sparse direct solvers, including SuperLU, SuperLU MPI, DSCPACK, UMFPACK and KLU. Amesos provides a common object oriented interface to the best sparse direct solvers in the world. A sparse direct solver solves for x in Ax = b. wheremore » A is a matrix and x and b are vectors (or multi-vectors). A sparse direct solver flrst factors A into trinagular matrices L and U such that A = LU via gaussian elimination and then solves LU x = b. Switching amongst solvers in Amesos roquires a change to a single parameter. Yet, no solver needs to be linked it, unless it is used. All conversions between the matrices provided by the user and the format required by the underlying solver is performed by Amesos. As new sparse direct solvers are created, they will be incorporated into Amesos, allowing the user to simpty link with the new solver, change a single parameter in the calling sequence, and use the new solver. Amesos allows users to specify whether the matrix has changed. Amesos can be used anywhere that any sparse direct solver is needed.« less
Stanley, Vendall S.; Heroux, Michael A.; Hoekstra, Robert J.; Sala, Marzio
2004-03-01
Amesos is the Direct Sparse Solver Package in Trilinos. The goal of Amesos is to make AX=S as easy as it sounds, at least for direct methods. Amesos provides interfaces to a number of third party sparse direct solvers, including SuperLU, SuperLU MPI, DSCPACK, UMFPACK and KLU. Amesos provides a common object oriented interface to the best sparse direct solvers in the world. A sparse direct solver solves for x in Ax = b. where A is a matrix and x and b are vectors (or multi-vectors). A sparse direct solver flrst factors A into trinagular matrices L and U such that A = LU via gaussian elimination and then solves LU x = b. Switching amongst solvers in Amesos roquires a change to a single parameter. Yet, no solver needs to be linked it, unless it is used. All conversions between the matrices provided by the user and the format required by the underlying solver is performed by Amesos. As new sparse direct solvers are created, they will be incorporated into Amesos, allowing the user to simpty link with the new solver, change a single parameter in the calling sequence, and use the new solver. Amesos allows users to specify whether the matrix has changed. Amesos can be used anywhere that any sparse direct solver is needed.
Galerkin Method for Nonlinear Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noack, Bernd R.; Schlegel, Michael; Morzynski, Marek; Tadmor, Gilead
A Galerkin method is presented for control-oriented reduced-order models (ROM). This method generalizes linear approaches elaborated by M. Morzyński et al. for the nonlinear Navier-Stokes equation. These ROM are used as plants for control design in the chapters by G. Tadmor et al., S. Siegel, and R. King in this volume. Focus is placed on empirical ROM which compress flow data in the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The chapter shall provide a complete description for construction of straight-forward ROM as well as the physical understanding and teste
A non-conforming 3D spherical harmonic transport solver
Van Criekingen, S.
2006-07-01
A new 3D transport solver for the time-independent Boltzmann transport equation has been developed. This solver is based on the second-order even-parity form of the transport equation. The angular discretization is performed through the expansion of the angular neutron flux in spherical harmonics (PN method). The novelty of this solver is the use of non-conforming finite elements for the spatial discretization. Such elements lead to a discontinuous flux approximation. This interface continuity requirement relaxation property is shared with mixed-dual formulations such as the ones based on Raviart-Thomas finite elements. Encouraging numerical results are presented. (authors)
Discontinuous Spectral Difference Method for Conservation Laws on Unstructured Grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel; Wang, Z. J.
2004-01-01
A new, high-order, conservative, and efficient method for conservation laws on unstructured grids is developed. The concept of discontinuous and high-order local representations to achieve conservation and high accuracy is utilized in a manner similar to the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) and the Spectral Volume (SV) methods, but while these methods are based on the integrated forms of the equations, the new method is based on the differential form to attain a simpler formulation and higher efficiency. A discussion on the Discontinuous Spectral Difference (SD) Method, locations of the unknowns and flux points and numerical results are also presented.
A fast Galerkin method with efficient matrix assembly and storage for a peridynamic model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Hong; Tian, Hao
2012-10-01
Peridynamic theory provides an appropriate description of the deformation of a continuous body involving discontinuities or other singularities, which cannot be described properly by classical theory of solid mechanics. However, the operators in the peridynamic models are nonlocal, so the resulting numerical methods generate dense or full stiffness matrices. Gaussian types of direct solvers were traditionally used to solve these problems, which requires O(N3) of operations and O(N2) of memory where N is the number of spatial nodes. This imposes significant computational and memory challenge for a peridynamic model, especially for problems in multiple space dimensions. A simplified model, which assumes that the horizon of the material δ=O(N-1), was proposed to reduce the computational cost and memory requirement to O(N). However, the drawback is that the corresponding error estimate becomes one-order suboptimal. Furthermore, the assumption of δ=O(N-1) does not seem to be physically reasonable since the horizon δ represents a physical property of the material that should not depend on computational mesh size. We develop a fast Galerkin method for the (non-simplified) peridynamic model by exploiting the structure of the stiffness matrix. The new method reduces the computational work from O(N3) required by the traditional methods to O(Nlog2N) and the memory requirement from O(N2) to O(N) without using any lossy compression. The significant computational and memory reduction of the fast method is better reflected in numerical experiments. When solving a one-dimensional peridynamic model with 214=16,384 unknowns, the traditional method consumed CPU time of 6 days and 11 h while the fast method used only 3.3 s. In addition, on the same computer (with 128 GB memory), the traditional method with a Gaussian elimination or conjugate gradient method ran out of memory when solving the problem with 216=131,072 unknowns. In contrast, the fast method was able to solve the
A high-order element-based Galerkin Method for the global shallow water equations.
Nair, Ramachandran D.; Tufo, Henry M.; Levy, Michael Nathan
2010-08-01
The shallow water equations are used as a test for many atmospheric models because the solution mimics the horizontal aspects of atmospheric dynamics while the simplicity of the equations make them useful for numerical experiments. This study describes a high-order element-based Galerkin method for the global shallow water equations using absolute vorticity, divergence, and fluid depth (atmospheric thickness) as the prognostic variables, while the wind field is a diagnostic variable that can be calculated from the stream function and velocity potential (the Laplacians of which are the vorticity and divergence, respectively). The numerical method employed to solve the shallow water system is based on the discontinuous Galerkin and spectral element methods. The discontinuous Galerkin method, which is inherently conservative, is used to solve the equations governing two conservative variables - absolute vorticity and atmospheric thickness (mass). The spectral element method is used to solve the divergence equation and the Poisson equations for the velocity potential and the stream function. Time integration is done with an explicit strong stability-preserving second-order Runge-Kutta scheme and the wind field is updated directly from the vorticity and divergence at each stage, and the computational domain is the cubed sphere. A stable steady-state test is run and convergence results are provided, showing that the method is high-order accurate. Additionally, two tests without analytic solutions are run with comparable results to previous high-resolution runs found in the literature.
A superconvergent LDG-hybridizable Galerkin method for second-order elliptic problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cockburn, Bernardo; Dong, Bo; Guzman, Johnny
2008-12-01
We identify and study an LDG-hybridizable Galerkin method, which is not an LDG method, for second-order elliptic problems in several space dimensions with remarkable convergence properties. Unlike all other known discontinuous Galerkin methods using polynomials of degree kge0 for both the potential as well as the flux, the order of convergence in L^2 of both unknowns is k+1 . Moreover, both the approximate potential as well as its numerical trace superconverge in L^2 -like norms, to suitably chosen projections of the potential, with order k+2 . This allows the application of element-by-element postprocessing of the approximate solution which provides an approximation of the potential converging with order k+2 in L^2 . The method can be thought to be in between the hybridized version of the Raviart-Thomas and that of the Brezzi-Douglas-Marini mixed methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papadopoulos, Vissarion; Kalogeris, Ioannis
2016-05-01
The present paper proposes a Galerkin finite element projection scheme for the solution of the partial differential equations (pde's) involved in the probability density evolution method, for the linear and nonlinear static analysis of stochastic systems. According to the principle of preservation of probability, the probability density evolution of a stochastic system is expressed by its corresponding Fokker-Planck (FP) stochastic partial differential equation. Direct integration of the FP equation is feasible only for simple systems with a small number of degrees of freedom, due to analytical and/or numerical intractability. However, rewriting the FP equation conditioned to the random event description, a generalized density evolution equation (GDEE) can be obtained, which can be reduced to a one dimensional pde. Two Galerkin finite element method schemes are proposed for the numerical solution of the resulting pde's, namely a time-marching discontinuous Galerkin scheme and the StreamlineUpwind/Petrov Galerkin (SUPG) scheme. In addition, a reformulation of the classical GDEE is proposed, which implements the principle of probability preservation in space instead of time, making this approach suitable for the stochastic analysis of finite element systems. The advantages of the FE Galerkin methods and in particular the SUPG over finite difference schemes, like the modified Lax-Wendroff, which is the most frequently used method for the solution of the GDEE, are illustrated with numerical examples and explored further.
Symmetric Galerkin boundary formulations employing curved elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kane, J. H.; Balakrishna, C.
1993-01-01
Accounts of the symmetric Galerkin approach to boundary element analysis (BEA) have recently been published. This paper attempts to add to the understanding of this method by addressing a series of fundamental issues associated with its potential computational efficiency. A new symmetric Galerkin theoretical formulation for both the (harmonic) heat conduction and the (biharmonic) elasticity problem that employs regularized singular and hypersingular boundary integral equations (BIEs) is presented. The novel use of regularized BIEs in the Galerkin context is shown to allow straightforward incorporation of curved, isoparametric elements. A symmetric reusable intrinsic sample point (RISP) numerical integration algorithm is shown to produce a Galerkin (i.e., double) integration strategy that is competitive with its counterpart (i.e., singular) integration procedure in the collocation BEA approach when the time saved in the symmetric equation solution phase is also taken into account. This new formulation is shown to be capable of employing hypersingular BIEs while obviating the requirement of C 1 continuity, a fact that allows the employment of the popular continuous element technology. The behavior of the symmetric Galerkin BEA method with regard to both direct and iterative equation solution operations is also addressed. A series of example problems are presented to quantify the performance of this symmetric approach, relative to the more conventional unsymmetric BEA, in terms of both accuracy and efficiency. It is concluded that appropriate implementations of the symmetric Galerkin approach to BEA indeed have the potential to be competitive with, if not superior to, collocation-based BEA, for large-scale problems.
Parallel Multigrid Equation Solver
2001-09-07
Prometheus is a fully parallel multigrid equation solver for matrices that arise in unstructured grid finite element applications. It includes a geometric and an algebraic multigrid method and has solved problems of up to 76 mullion degrees of feedom, problems in linear elasticity on the ASCI blue pacific and ASCI red machines.
WEAK GALERKIN METHODS FOR SECOND ORDER ELLIPTIC INTERFACE PROBLEMS.
Mu, Lin; Wang, Junping; Wei, Guowei; Ye, Xiu; Zhao, Shan
2013-10-01
Weak Galerkin methods refer to general finite element methods for partial differential equations (PDEs) in which differential operators are approximated by their weak forms as distributions. Such weak forms give rise to desirable flexibilities in enforcing boundary and interface conditions. A weak Galerkin finite element method (WG-FEM) is developed in this paper for solving elliptic PDEs with discontinuous coefficients and interfaces. Theoretically, it is proved that high order numerical schemes can be designed by using the WG-FEM with polynomials of high order on each element. Extensive numerical experiments have been carried to validate the WG-FEM for solving second order elliptic interface problems. High order of convergence is numerically confirmed in both L 2 and L ∞ norms for the piecewise linear WG-FEM. Special attention is paid to solve many interface problems, in which the solution possesses a certain singularity due to the nonsmoothness of the interface. A challenge in research is to design nearly second order numerical methods that work well for problems with low regularity in the solution. The best known numerical scheme in the literature is of order [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] for the solution itself in L ∞ norm. It is demonstrated that the WG-FEM of the lowest order, i.e., the piecewise constant WG-FEM, is capable of delivering numerical approximations that are of order [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] in the L ∞ norm for C (1) or Lipschitz continuous interfaces associated with a C (1) or H (2) continuous solution. PMID:24072935
Solving the cardiac bidomain equations for discontinuous conductivities.
Austin, Travis M; Trew, Mark L; Pullan, Andrew J
2006-07-01
Fast simulations of cardiac electrical phenomena demand fast matrix solvers for both the elliptic and parabolic parts of the bidomain equations. It is well known that fast matrix solvers for the elliptic part must address multiple physical scales in order to show robust behavior. Recent research on finding the proper solution method for the bidomain equations has addressed this issue whereby multigrid preconditioned conjugate gradients has been used as a solver. In this paper, a more robust multigrid method, called Black Box Multigrid, is presented as an alternative to conventional geometric multigrid, and the effect of discontinuities on solver performance for the elliptic and parabolic part is investigated. Test problems with discontinuities arising from inserted plunge electrodes and naturally occurring myocardial discontinuities are considered. For these problems, we explore the advantages to using a more advanced multigrid method like Black Box Multigrid over conventional geometric multigrid. Results will indicate that for certain discontinuous bidomain problems Black Box Multigrid provides 60% faster simulations than using conventional geometric multigrid. Also, for the problems examined, it will be shown that a direct usage of conventional multigrid leads to faster simulations than an indirect usage of conventional multigrid as a preconditioner unless there are sharp discontinuities. PMID:16830931
Numerical System Solver Developed for the National Cycle Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Binder, Michael P.
1999-01-01
As part of the National Cycle Program (NCP), a powerful new numerical solver has been developed to support the simulation of aeropropulsion systems. This software uses a hierarchical object-oriented design. It can provide steady-state and time-dependent solutions to nonlinear and even discontinuous problems typically encountered when aircraft and spacecraft propulsion systems are simulated. It also can handle constrained solutions, in which one or more factors may limit the behavior of the engine system. Timedependent simulation capabilities include adaptive time-stepping and synchronization with digital control elements. The NCP solver is playing an important role in making the NCP a flexible, powerful, and reliable simulation package.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crivellini, A.; D'Alessandro, V.; Di Benedetto, D.; Montelpare, S.; Ricci, R.
2014-04-01
This work is devoted to the Computational Fluid-Dynamics (CFD) simulation of laminar separation bubble (LSB) on low Reynolds number operating airfoils. This phenomenon is of large interest in several fields, such as wind energy, and it is characterised by slow recirculating flow at an almost constant pressure. Presently Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) methods, due to their limited computational requests, are the more efficient and feasible CFD simulation tool for complex engineering applications involving LSBs. However adopting RANS methods for LSB prediction is very challenging since widely used models assume a fully turbulent regime. For this reason several transitional models for RANS equations based on further Partial Differential Equations (PDE) have been recently introduced in literature. Nevertheless in some cases they show questionable results. In this work RANS equations and the standard Spalart-Allmaras (SA) turbulence model are used to deal with LSB problems obtaining promising results. This innovative result is related to: (i) a particular behaviour of the SA equation; (ii) a particular implementation of SA equation; (iii) the use of a high-order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) solver. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is tested on different airfoils at several angles of attack and Reynolds numbers. Numerical results were verified with both experimental measurements performed at the open circuit subsonic wind tunnel of Università Politecnica delle Marche (UNIVPM) and literature data.
Kotulski, Joseph D.; Womble, David E.; Greenberg, David; Driessen, Brian
2004-03-01
PLIRIS is an object-oriented solver built on top of a previous matrix solver used in a number of application codes. Puns solves a linear system directly via LU factorization with partial pivoting. The user provides the linear system in terms of Epetra Objects including a matrix and right-hand-sides. The user can then factor the matrix and perform the forward and back solve at a later time or solve for multiple right-hand-sides at once. This package is used when dense matrices are obtained in the problem formulation. These dense matrices occur whenever boundary element techniques are chosen for the solution procedure. This has been used in electromagnetics for both static and frequency domain problems.
2004-03-01
PLIRIS is an object-oriented solver built on top of a previous matrix solver used in a number of application codes. Puns solves a linear system directly via LU factorization with partial pivoting. The user provides the linear system in terms of Epetra Objects including a matrix and right-hand-sides. The user can then factor the matrix and perform the forward and back solve at a later time or solve for multiple right-hand-sides at once. This packagemore » is used when dense matrices are obtained in the problem formulation. These dense matrices occur whenever boundary element techniques are chosen for the solution procedure. This has been used in electromagnetics for both static and frequency domain problems.« less
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Franca, Leopoldo P.; Loula, Abimael F. D.; Hughes, Thomas J. R.; Miranda, Isidoro
1989-01-01
Adding to the classical Hellinger-Reissner formulation, a residual form of the equilibrium equation, a new Galerkin/least-squares finite element method is derived. It fits within the framework of a mixed finite element method and is stable for rather general combinations of stress and velocity interpolations, including equal-order discontinuous stress and continuous velocity interpolations which are unstable within the Galerkin approach. Error estimates are presented based on a generalization of the Babuska-Brezzi theory. Numerical results (not presented herein) have confirmed these estimates as well as the good accuracy and stability of the method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Regnier, D.; Verrière, M.; Dubray, N.; Schunck, N.
2016-03-01
We describe the software package FELIX that solves the equations of the time-dependent generator coordinate method (TDGCM) in N-dimensions (N ≥ 1) under the Gaussian overlap approximation. The numerical resolution is based on the Galerkin finite element discretization of the collective space and the Crank-Nicolson scheme for time integration. The TDGCM solver is implemented entirely in C++. Several additional tools written in C++, Python or bash scripting language are also included for convenience. In this paper, the solver is tested with a series of benchmarks calculations. We also demonstrate the ability of our code to handle a realistic calculation of fission dynamics.
Regnier, D.; Verriere, M.; Dubray, N.; Schunck, N.
2015-11-30
In this study, we describe the software package FELIX that solves the equations of the time-dependent generator coordinate method (TDGCM) in NN-dimensions (N ≥ 1) under the Gaussian overlap approximation. The numerical resolution is based on the Galerkin finite element discretization of the collective space and the Crank–Nicolson scheme for time integration. The TDGCM solver is implemented entirely in C++. Several additional tools written in C++, Python or bash scripting language are also included for convenience. In this paper, the solver is tested with a series of benchmarks calculations. We also demonstrate the ability of our code to handle a realistic calculation of fission dynamics.
2007-03-01
HPCCG is a simple PDE application and preconditioned conjugate gradient solver that solves a linear system on a beam-shaped domain. Although it does not address many performance issues present in real engineering applications, such as load imbalance and preconditioner scalability, it can serve as a first "sanity test" of new processor design choices, inter-connect network design choices and the scalability of a new computer system. Because it is self-contained, easy to compile and easily scaledmore » to 100s or 1000s of porcessors, it can be an attractive study code for computer system designers.« less
Cultural Discontinuities and Schooling.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ogbu, John U.
1982-01-01
Attempts to define the cultural discontinuity (between schools and students) hypothesis by distinguishing between universal, primary, and secondary discontinuities. Suggests that each of these is associated with a distinct type of school problem, and that secondary cultural discontinuities commonly affect minority students in the United States.…
Parallel tridiagonal equation solvers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stone, H. S.
1974-01-01
Three parallel algorithms were compared for the direct solution of tridiagonal linear systems of equations. The algorithms are suitable for computers such as ILLIAC 4 and CDC STAR. For array computers similar to ILLIAC 4, cyclic odd-even reduction has the least operation count for highly structured sets of equations, and recursive doubling has the least count for relatively unstructured sets of equations. Since the difference in operation counts for these two algorithms is not substantial, their relative running times may be more related to overhead operations, which are not measured in this paper. The third algorithm, based on Buneman's Poisson solver, has more arithmetic operations than the others, and appears to be the least favorable. For pipeline computers similar to CDC STAR, cyclic odd-even reduction appears to be the most preferable algorithm for all cases.
Amesos2 Templated Direct Sparse Solver Package
2011-05-24
Amesos2 is a templated direct sparse solver package. Amesos2 provides interfaces to direct sparse solvers, rather than providing native solver capabilities. Amesos2 is a derivative work of the Trilinos package Amesos.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ilin, Andrew V.
2006-01-01
The Magnetic Field Solver computer program calculates the magnetic field generated by a group of collinear, cylindrical axisymmetric electromagnet coils. Given the current flowing in, and the number of turns, axial position, and axial and radial dimensions of each coil, the program calculates matrix coefficients for a finite-difference system of equations that approximates a two-dimensional partial differential equation for the magnetic potential contributed by the coil. The program iteratively solves these finite-difference equations by use of the modified incomplete Cholesky preconditioned-conjugate-gradient method. The total magnetic potential as a function of axial (z) and radial (r) position is then calculated as a sum of the magnetic potentials of the individual coils, using a high-accuracy interpolation scheme. Then the r and z components of the magnetic field as functions of r and z are calculated from the total magnetic potential by use of a high-accuracy finite-difference scheme. Notably, for the finite-difference calculations, the program generates nonuniform two-dimensional computational meshes from nonuniform one-dimensional meshes. Each mesh is generated in such a way as to minimize the numerical error for a benchmark one-dimensional magnetostatic problem.
Sherlock Holmes, Master Problem Solver.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ballew, Hunter
1994-01-01
Shows the connections between Sherlock Holmes's investigative methods and mathematical problem solving, including observations, characteristics of the problem solver, importance of data, questioning the obvious, learning from experience, learning from errors, and indirect proof. (MKR)
The semi-discrete Galerkin finite element modelling of compressible viscous flow past an airfoil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meade, Andrew J., Jr.
1992-01-01
A method is developed to solve the two-dimensional, steady, compressible, turbulent boundary-layer equations and is coupled to an existing Euler solver for attached transonic airfoil analysis problems. The boundary-layer formulation utilizes the semi-discrete Galerkin (SDG) method to model the spatial variable normal to the surface with linear finite elements and the time-like variable with finite differences. A Dorodnitsyn transformed system of equations is used to bound the infinite spatial domain thereby permitting the use of a uniform finite element grid which provides high resolution near the wall and automatically follows boundary-layer growth. The second-order accurate Crank-Nicholson scheme is applied along with a linearization method to take advantage of the parabolic nature of the boundary-layer equations and generate a non-iterative marching routine. The SDG code can be applied to any smoothly-connected airfoil shape without modification and can be coupled to any inviscid flow solver. In this analysis, a direct viscous-inviscid interaction is accomplished between the Euler and boundary-layer codes, through the application of a transpiration velocity boundary condition. Results are presented for compressible turbulent flow past NACA 0012 and RAE 2822 airfoils at various freestream Mach numbers, Reynolds numbers, and angles of attack. All results show good agreement with experiment, and the coupled code proved to be a computationally-efficient and accurate airfoil analysis tool.
Zubac, Z; Fostier, J; De Zutter, D; Vande Ginste, D
2015-11-30
It is well-known that geometrical variations due to manufacturing tolerances can degrade the performance of optical devices. In recent literature, polynomial chaos expansion (PCE) methods were proposed to model this statistical behavior. Nonetheless, traditional PCE solvers require a lot of memory and their computational complexity leads to prohibitively long simulation times, making these methods non-tractable for large optical systems. The uncertainty quantification (UQ) of various types of large, two-dimensional lens systems is presented in this paper, leveraging a novel parallelized Multilevel Fast Multipole Method (MLFMM) based Stochastic Galerkin Method (SGM). It is demonstrated that this technique can handle large optical structures in reasonable time, e.g., a stochastic lens system with more than 10 million unknowns was solved in less than an hour by using 3 compute nodes. The SGM, which is an intrusive PCE method, guarantees the accuracy of the method. By conjunction with MLFMM, usage of a preconditioner and by constructing and implementing a parallelized algorithm, a high efficiency is achieved. This is demonstrated with parallel scalability graphs. The novel approach is illustrated for different types of lens system and numerical results are validated against a collocation method, which relies on reusing a traditional deterministic solver. The last example concerns a Cassegrain system with five random variables, for which a speed-up of more than 12× compared to a collocation method is achieved. PMID:26698717
A Galerkin formulation of the MIB method for three dimensional elliptic interface problems.
Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei
2014-10-01
We develop a three dimensional (3D) Galerkin formulation of the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method for solving elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) with discontinuous coefficients, i.e., the elliptic interface problem. The present approach builds up two sets of elements respectively on two extended subdomains which both include the interface. As a result, two sets of elements overlap each other near the interface. Fictitious solutions are defined on the overlapping part of the elements, so that the differentiation operations of the original PDEs can be discretized as if there was no interface. The extra coefficients of polynomial basis functions, which furnish the overlapping elements and solve the fictitious solutions, are determined by interface jump conditions. Consequently, the interface jump conditions are rigorously enforced on the interface. The present method utilizes Cartesian meshes to avoid the mesh generation in conventional finite element methods (FEMs). We implement the proposed MIB Galerkin method with three different elements, namely, rectangular prism element, five-tetrahedron element and six-tetrahedron element, which tile the Cartesian mesh without introducing any new node. The accuracy, stability and robustness of the proposed 3D MIB Galerkin are extensively validated over three types of elliptic interface problems. In the first type, interfaces are analytically defined by level set functions. These interfaces are relatively simple but admit geometric singularities. In the second type, interfaces are defined by protein surfaces, which are truly arbitrarily complex. The last type of interfaces originates from multiprotein complexes, such as molecular motors. Near second order accuracy has been confirmed for all of these problems. To our knowledge, it is the first time for an FEM to show a near second order convergence in solving the Poisson equation with realistic protein surfaces. Additionally, the present work offers the
A Galerkin formulation of the MIB method for three dimensional elliptic interface problems
Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei
2014-01-01
We develop a three dimensional (3D) Galerkin formulation of the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method for solving elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) with discontinuous coefficients, i.e., the elliptic interface problem. The present approach builds up two sets of elements respectively on two extended subdomains which both include the interface. As a result, two sets of elements overlap each other near the interface. Fictitious solutions are defined on the overlapping part of the elements, so that the differentiation operations of the original PDEs can be discretized as if there was no interface. The extra coefficients of polynomial basis functions, which furnish the overlapping elements and solve the fictitious solutions, are determined by interface jump conditions. Consequently, the interface jump conditions are rigorously enforced on the interface. The present method utilizes Cartesian meshes to avoid the mesh generation in conventional finite element methods (FEMs). We implement the proposed MIB Galerkin method with three different elements, namely, rectangular prism element, five-tetrahedron element and six-tetrahedron element, which tile the Cartesian mesh without introducing any new node. The accuracy, stability and robustness of the proposed 3D MIB Galerkin are extensively validated over three types of elliptic interface problems. In the first type, interfaces are analytically defined by level set functions. These interfaces are relatively simple but admit geometric singularities. In the second type, interfaces are defined by protein surfaces, which are truly arbitrarily complex. The last type of interfaces originates from multiprotein complexes, such as molecular motors. Near second order accuracy has been confirmed for all of these problems. To our knowledge, it is the first time for an FEM to show a near second order convergence in solving the Poisson equation with realistic protein surfaces. Additionally, the present work offers the
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carpenter, Mark H.; Fisher, Travis C.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Frankel, Steven H.
2013-01-01
Nonlinear entropy stability and a summation-by-parts framework are used to derive provably stable, polynomial-based spectral collocation methods of arbitrary order. The new methods are closely related to discontinuous Galerkin spectral collocation methods commonly known as DGFEM, but exhibit a more general entropy stability property. Although the new schemes are applicable to a broad class of linear and nonlinear conservation laws, emphasis herein is placed on the entropy stability of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations.
Discontinuous dual-primal mixed finite elements for elliptic problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bottasso, Carlo L.; Micheletti, Stefano; Sacco, Riccardo
2000-01-01
We propose a novel discontinuous mixed finite element formulation for the solution of second-order elliptic problems. Fully discontinuous piecewise polynomial finite element spaces are used for the trial and test functions. The discontinuous nature of the test functions at the element interfaces allows to introduce new boundary unknowns that, on the one hand enforce the weak continuity of the trial functions, and on the other avoid the need to define a priori algorithmic fluxes as in standard discontinuous Galerkin methods. Static condensation is performed at the element level, leading to a solution procedure based on the sole interface unknowns. The resulting family of discontinuous dual-primal mixed finite element methods is presented in the one and two-dimensional cases. In the one-dimensional case, we show the equivalence of the method with implicit Runge-Kutta schemes of the collocation type exhibiting optimal behavior. Numerical experiments in one and two dimensions demonstrate the order accuracy of the new method, confirming the results of the analysis.
Numerically Tracking Contact Discontinuities with an Introduction for GPU Programming
Davis, Sean L
2012-08-17
We review some of the classic numerical techniques used to analyze contact discontinuities and compare their effectiveness. Several finite difference methods (the Lax-Wendroff method, a Multidimensional Positive Definite Advection Transport Algorithm (MPDATA) method and a Monotone Upstream Scheme for Conservation Laws (MUSCL) scheme with an Artificial Compression Method (ACM)) as well as the finite element Streamlined Upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) method were considered. These methods were applied to solve the 2D advection equation. Based on our results we concluded that the MUSCL scheme produces the sharpest interfaces but can inappropriately steepen the solution. The SUPG method seems to represent a good balance between stability and interface sharpness without any inappropriate steepening. However, for solutions with discontinuities, the MUSCL scheme is superior. In addition, a preliminary implementation in a GPU program is discussed.
A novel high-order, entropy stable, 3D AMR MHD solver with guaranteed positive pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Derigs, Dominik; Winters, Andrew R.; Gassner, Gregor J.; Walch, Stefanie
2016-07-01
We describe a high-order numerical magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) solver built upon a novel non-linear entropy stable numerical flux function that supports eight travelling wave solutions. By construction the solver conserves mass, momentum, and energy and is entropy stable. The method is designed to treat the divergence-free constraint on the magnetic field in a similar fashion to a hyperbolic divergence cleaning technique. The solver described herein is especially well-suited for flows involving strong discontinuities. Furthermore, we present a new formulation to guarantee positivity of the pressure. We present the underlying theory and implementation of the new solver into the multi-physics, multi-scale adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) simulation code FLASH (http://flash.uchicago.edu)
A novel high-order, entropy stable, 3D AMR MHD solver with guaranteed positive pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Derigs, Dominik; Winters, Andrew R.; Gassner, Gregor J.; Walch, Stefanie
2016-07-01
We describe a high-order numerical magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) solver built upon a novel non-linear entropy stable numerical flux function that supports eight travelling wave solutions. By construction the solver conserves mass, momentum, and energy and is entropy stable. The method is designed to treat the divergence-free constraint on the magnetic field in a similar fashion to a hyperbolic divergence cleaning technique. The solver described herein is especially well-suited for flows involving strong discontinuities. Furthermore, we present a new formulation to guarantee positivity of the pressure. We present the underlying theory and implementation of the new solver into the multi-physics, multi-scale adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) simulation code FLASH (http://flash.uchicago.edu).
Finite element or Galerkin type semidiscrete schemes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Durgun, K.
1983-01-01
A finite element of Galerkin type semidiscrete method is proposed for numerical solution of a linear hyperbolic partial differential equation. The question of stability is reduced to the stability of a system of ordinary differential equations for which Dahlquist theory applied. Results of separating the part of numerical solution which causes the spurious oscillation near shock-like response of semidiscrete scheme to a step function initial condition are presented. In general all methods produce such oscillatory overshoots on either side of shocks. This overshoot pathology, which displays a behavior similar to Gibb's phenomena of Fourier series, is explained on the basis of dispersion of separated Fourier components which relies on linearized theory to be satisfactory. Expository results represented.
Meshless Local Petrov-Galerkin Euler-Bernoulli Beam Problems: A Radial Basis Function Approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Raju, I. S.; Phillips, D. R.; Krishnamurthy, T.
2003-01-01
A radial basis function implementation of the meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) method is presented to study Euler-Bernoulli beam problems. Radial basis functions, rather than generalized moving least squares (GMLS) interpolations, are used to develop the trial functions. This choice yields a computationally simpler method as fewer matrix inversions and multiplications are required than when GMLS interpolations are used. Test functions are chosen as simple weight functions as in the conventional MLPG method. Compactly and noncompactly supported radial basis functions are considered. The non-compactly supported cubic radial basis function is found to perform very well. Results obtained from the radial basis MLPG method are comparable to those obtained using the conventional MLPG method for mixed boundary value problems and problems with discontinuous loading conditions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaneko, Hideaki; Bey, Kim S.; Hou, Gene J. W.
2004-01-01
A recent paper is generalized to a case where the spatial region is taken in R(sup 3). The region is assumed to be a thin body, such as a panel on the wing or fuselage of an aerospace vehicle. The traditional h- as well as hp-finite element methods are applied to the surface defined in the x - y variables, while, through the thickness, the technique of the p-element is employed. Time and spatial discretization scheme based upon an assumption of certain weak singularity of double vertical line u(sub t) double vertical line 2, is used to derive an optimal a priori error estimate for the current method.
A Parallelized 3D Particle-In-Cell Method With Magnetostatic Field Solver And Its Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, Kuo-Hsien; Chen, Yen-Sen; Wu, Men-Zan Bill; Wu, Jong-Shinn
2008-10-01
A parallelized 3D self-consistent electrostatic particle-in-cell finite element (PIC-FEM) code using an unstructured tetrahedral mesh was developed. For simulating some applications with external permanent magnet set, the distribution of the magnetostatic field usually also need to be considered and determined accurately. In this paper, we will firstly present the development of a 3D magnetostatic field solver with an unstructured mesh for the flexibility of modeling objects with complex geometry. The vector Poisson equation for magnetostatic field is formulated using the Galerkin nodal finite element method and the resulting matrix is solved by parallel conjugate gradient method. A parallel adaptive mesh refinement module is coupled to this solver for better resolution. Completed solver is then verified by simulating a permanent magnet array with results comparable to previous experimental observations and simulations. By taking the advantage of the same unstructured grid format of this solver, the developed PIC-FEM code could directly and easily read the magnetostatic field for particle simulation. In the upcoming conference, magnetron is simulated and presented for demonstrating the capability of this code.
Wight, J
1993-06-01
Ethical issues relating to the withdrawal of dialysis are discussed, comparing dialysis with other life-support systems, particularly artificial ventilation. It is argued that there is no ethical difference between discontinuing treatment in each case. One practical difference between the two is that patients with chronic renal failure are less likely to have reduced autonomy, and so can engage in discussions with their doctors regarding the situations in which their life-supporting treatment might be discontinued. It is argued that doctors caring for patients on dialysis have an ethical duty to discuss with these patients the circumstances in which they may wish to discontinue dialysis. PMID:8331641
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balsara, Dinshaw S.; Amano, Takanobu; Garain, Sudip; Kim, Jinho
2016-08-01
collocation also ensures that electromagnetic radiation that is propagating in a vacuum has both electric and magnetic fields that are exactly divergence-free. Coupled relativistic fluid dynamic equations are solved for the positively and negatively charged fluids. The fluids' numerical fluxes also provide a self-consistent current density for the update of the electric field. Our reconstruction strategy ensures that fluid velocities always remain sub-luminal. Our third innovation consists of an efficient design for several popular IMEX schemes so that they provide strong coupling between the finite-volume-based fluid solver and the electromagnetic fields at high order. This innovation makes it possible to efficiently utilize high order IMEX time update methods for stiff source terms in the update of high order finite-volume methods for hyperbolic conservation laws. We also show that this very general innovation should extend seamlessly to Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin methods. The IMEX schemes enable us to use large CFL numbers even in the presence of stiff source terms. Several accuracy analyses are presented showing that our method meets its design accuracy in the MHD limit as well as in the limit of electromagnetic wave propagation. Several stringent test problems are also presented. We also present a relativistic version of the GEM problem, which shows that our algorithm can successfully adapt to challenging problems in high energy astrophysics.
Scalable Parallel Algebraic Multigrid Solvers
Bank, R; Lu, S; Tong, C; Vassilevski, P
2005-03-23
The authors propose a parallel algebraic multilevel algorithm (AMG), which has the novel feature that the subproblem residing in each processor is defined over the entire partition domain, although the vast majority of unknowns for each subproblem are associated with the partition owned by the corresponding processor. This feature ensures that a global coarse description of the problem is contained within each of the subproblems. The advantages of this approach are that interprocessor communication is minimized in the solution process while an optimal order of convergence rate is preserved; and the speed of local subproblem solvers can be maximized using the best existing sequential algebraic solvers.
General complex polynomial root solver
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skowron, J.; Gould, A.
2012-12-01
This general complex polynomial root solver, implemented in Fortran and further optimized for binary microlenses, uses a new algorithm to solve polynomial equations and is 1.6-3 times faster than the ZROOTS subroutine that is commercially available from Numerical Recipes, depending on application. The largest improvement, when compared to naive solvers, comes from a fail-safe procedure that permits skipping the majority of the calculations in the great majority of cases, without risking catastrophic failure in the few cases that these are actually required.
Self-correcting Multigrid Solver
Jerome L.V. Lewandowski
2004-06-29
A new multigrid algorithm based on the method of self-correction for the solution of elliptic problems is described. The method exploits information contained in the residual to dynamically modify the source term (right-hand side) of the elliptic problem. It is shown that the self-correcting solver is more efficient at damping the short wavelength modes of the algebraic error than its standard equivalent. When used in conjunction with a multigrid method, the resulting solver displays an improved convergence rate with no additional computational work.
Elliptic Solvers for Adaptive Mesh Refinement Grids
Quinlan, D.J.; Dendy, J.E., Jr.; Shapira, Y.
1999-06-03
We are developing multigrid methods that will efficiently solve elliptic problems with anisotropic and discontinuous coefficients on adaptive grids. The final product will be a library that provides for the simplified solution of such problems. This library will directly benefit the efforts of other Laboratory groups. The focus of this work is research on serial and parallel elliptic algorithms and the inclusion of our black-box multigrid techniques into this new setting. The approach applies the Los Alamos object-oriented class libraries that greatly simplify the development of serial and parallel adaptive mesh refinement applications. In the final year of this LDRD, we focused on putting the software together; in particular we completed the final AMR++ library, we wrote tutorials and manuals, and we built example applications. We implemented the Fast Adaptive Composite Grid method as the principal elliptic solver. We presented results at the Overset Grid Conference and other more AMR specific conferences. We worked on optimization of serial and parallel performance and published several papers on the details of this work. Performance remains an important issue and is the subject of continuing research work.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balsara, Dinshaw S.
2012-09-01
In this paper we present a genuinely two-dimensional HLLC Riemann solver. On logically rectangular meshes, it accepts four input states that come together at an edge and outputs the multi-dimensionally upwinded fluxes in both directions. This work builds on, and improves, our prior work on two-dimensional HLL Riemann solvers. The HLL Riemann solver presented here achieves its stabilization by introducing a constant state in the region of strong interaction, where four one-dimensional Riemann problems interact vigorously with one another. A robust version of the HLL Riemann solver is presented here along with a strategy for introducing sub-structure in the strongly-interacting state. Introducing sub-structure turns the two-dimensional HLL Riemann solver into a two-dimensional HLLC Riemann solver. The sub-structure that we introduce represents a contact discontinuity which can be oriented in any direction relative to the mesh. The Riemann solver presented here is general and can work with any system of conservation laws. We also present a second order accurate Godunov scheme that works in three dimensions and is entirely based on the present multidimensional HLLC Riemann solver technology. The methods presented are cost-competitive with traditional higher order Godunov schemes. The two-dimensional HLLC Riemann solver is shown to work robustly for Euler and Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows. Several stringent test problems are presented to show that the inclusion of genuinely multidimensional effects into higher order Godunov schemes indeed produces some very compelling advantages. For two dimensional problems, we were routinely able to run simulations with CFL numbers of ˜0.7, with some two-dimensional simulations capable of reaching higher CFL numbers. For three dimensional problems, CFL numbers as high as ˜0.6 were found to be stable. We show that on resolution-starved meshes, the scheme presented here outperforms unsplit second order Godunov schemes that are based
Comparison of continuous and discontinuous discretizations for the Stokes flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lehmann, Ragnar; Kaus, Boris J. P.; Lukáčová-Medvid'ová, Maria
2013-04-01
Finite element methods (FEM) of various types are widely used to solve incompressible flow problems in general and Stokes flow in particular. We present first results of a study comparing two numerical methods: the continuous Galerkin and the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method. For this purpose a Matlab code was developed employing 2D Stokes flow in a model setup with known analytical solution. [2] Nonlinearities of, e.g., the viscosity can lead to discontinuities in the velocity-pressure solution. Hence, using continuous approximations may result in avoidable inaccuracies. In contrast to the FEM, the DG method allows for discontinuities of velocity and pressure across interior mesh edges. This increases the number of degrees of freedom by a constant factor depending on the chosen element. A parameter is introduced to penalize the jumps in the velocity. The DG method provides the capability to locally adapt the polynomial degree of the shape functions. Moreover, it only needs communication between directly adjacent mesh cells, which makes it highly flexible and easy to parallelize. The velocity and pressure errors of the methods are measured in the L1-norm [1]. Orders of convergence are determined and compared. [1] Duretz, T., May, D.A., Garya, T.V. and Tackley, P.J., 2011. Discretization errors and free surface stabilization in the finite difference and marker-in-cell method for applied geodynamics: A numerical Study, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 12, Q07004, doi:10.1029/2011GC003567. [2] Zhong, S., 1996. Analytic solution for Stokes' flow with lateral variations in viscosity, Geophys. J. Int., 124, 18-128, doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.1996.tb06349.x.
Hierarchical Galerkin and non-linear Galerkin models for laminar and turbulent wakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Xia
2001-08-01
In this thesis we present a hierarchy of differential models for simulating unsteady laminar and turbulent flows in complex-geometry domains. They include high- resolution spectral methods (DNS), large-eddy simulations (LES), and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) based on Galerkin and nonlinear Galerkin projections. While the approach we develop is general, here we focus on the flow past a circular cylinder as a prototype problem. This flow exhibits many interesting fluid phenomena both in laminar and turbulent state and is subject to many bifurcations within a relatively small range in Reynolds number. The main focus of the thesis is on extracting the most energetic eigenmodes (the POD modes) of a flow state (in the L2 sense), and subsequently construct low-dimensional models that employ these POD modes as trial basis. To this end, we project the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations into the POD modes using a standard Galerkin projection and also a nonlinear Galerkin projection. The latter assumes an a priori separation of scales so that the most energetic (low) modes govern the flow dynamics (the so-called ``master modes'') while the high modes are assumed to lie on an approximate inertial manifold and their dynamics is neglected; these are the so-called ``slave modes''. The main contributions of this work are the following: (1) The first high-resolution DNS of turbulent wakes. (2) The construction of asymptotically stable two- and three- dimensional POD models consisting of a few degrees of freedom. (3) The successful simulation of a three- dimensional limit cycle representing the onset of three- dimensionality in the cylinder wake. (4) The simultaneous simulation of flow and heat transfer in cylinder wakes both in two- and three-dimensions. (5) The stabilizing effect of nonlinear Galerkin projections for severely truncated POD expansions. (6) The use of DPIV-based experimental data to extract POD modes, and the corresponding POD simulation based on such
Time-domain Raman analytical forward solvers.
Martelli, Fabrizio; Binzoni, Tiziano; Sekar, Sanathana Konugolu Venkata; Farina, Andrea; Cavalieri, Stefano; Pifferi, Antonio
2016-09-01
A set of time-domain analytical forward solvers for Raman signals detected from homogeneous diffusive media is presented. The time-domain solvers have been developed for two geometries: the parallelepiped and the finite cylinder. The potential presence of a background fluorescence emission, contaminating the Raman signal, has also been taken into account. All the solvers have been obtained as solutions of the time dependent diffusion equation. The validation of the solvers has been performed by means of comparisons with the results of "gold standard" Monte Carlo simulations. These forward solvers provide an accurate tool to explore the information content encoded in the time-resolved Raman measurements. PMID:27607645
Discontinuing benzodiazepines: best practices.
Guaiana, G; Barbui, C
2016-06-01
In July 2015, the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH) released a Rapid Response report summary, with a critical appraisal, on discontinuation strategies for patients with long-term benzodiazepines (BDZ) use. The CADTH document is a review of the literature. It includes studies whose intervention is BDZ discontinuation. Also, clinical guidelines, systematic reviews and meta-analyses are included. What emerges from the CADTH guidelines is that the best strategy remains gradual tapering of BDZ with little evidence for the use of adjunctive medications. The results show that simple interventions such as discontinuation letters from clinicians, self-help information and support in general, added to gradual tapering may be associated with a two- to three-fold higher chance of successful withdrawal, compared with treatment as usual. We suggest possible implications for day-to-day clinical practice. PMID:26818890
Explosive synchronization is discontinuous
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vlasov, Vladimir; Zou, Yong; Pereira, Tiago
2015-07-01
Spontaneous explosive is an abrupt transition to collective behavior taking place in heterogeneous networks when the frequencies of the nodes are positively correlated with the node degree. This explosive transition was conjectured to be discontinuous. Indeed, numerical investigations reveal a hysteresis behavior associated with the transition. Here, we analyze explosive synchronization in star graphs. We show that in the thermodynamic limit the transition to (and out of) collective behavior is indeed discontinuous. The discontinuous nature of the transition is related to the nonlinear behavior of the order parameter, which in the thermodynamic limit exhibits multiple fixed points. Moreover, we unravel the hysteresis behavior in terms of the graph parameters. Our numerical results show that finite-size graphs are well described by our predictions.
A generalized gyrokinetic Poisson solver
Lin, Z.; Lee, W.W.
1995-03-01
A generalized gyrokinetic Poisson solver has been developed, which employs local operations in the configuration space to compute the polarization density response. The new technique is based on the actual physical process of gyrophase-averaging. It is useful for nonlocal simulations using general geometry equilibrium. Since it utilizes local operations rather than the global ones such as FFT, the new method is most amenable to massively parallel algorithms.
On unstructured grids and solvers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barth, T. J.
1990-01-01
The fundamentals and the state-of-the-art technology for unstructured grids and solvers are highlighted. Algorithms and techniques pertinent to mesh generation are discussed. It is shown that grid generation and grid manipulation schemes rely on fast multidimensional searching. Flow solution techniques for the Euler equations, which can be derived from the integral form of the equations are discussed. Sample calculations are also provided.
A stochastic Galerkin method for the Boltzmann equation with uncertainty
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Jingwei; Jin, Shi
2016-06-01
We develop a stochastic Galerkin method for the Boltzmann equation with uncertainty. The method is based on the generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) approximation in the stochastic Galerkin framework, and can handle random inputs from collision kernel, initial data or boundary data. We show that a simple singular value decomposition of gPC related coefficients combined with the fast Fourier-spectral method (in velocity space) allows one to compute the high-dimensional collision operator very efficiently. In the spatially homogeneous case, we first prove that the analytical solution preserves the regularity of the initial data in the random space, and then use it to establish the spectral accuracy of the proposed stochastic Galerkin method. Several numerical examples are presented to illustrate the validity of the proposed scheme.
Low Order Empirical Galerkin Models for Feedback Flow Control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tadmor, Gilead; Noack, Bernd
2005-11-01
Model-based feedback control restrictions on model order and complexity stem from several generic considerations: real time computation, the ability to either measure or reliably estimate the state in real time and avoiding sensitivity to noise, uncertainty and numerical ill-conditioning are high on that list. Empirical POD Galerkin models are attractive in the sense that they are simple and (optimally) efficient, but are notoriously fragile, and commonly fail to capture transients and control effects. In this talk we review recent efforts to enhance empirical Galerkin models and make them suitable for feedback design. Enablers include `subgrid' estimation of turbulence and pressure representations, tunable models using modes from multiple operating points, and actuation models. An invariant manifold defines the model's dynamic envelope. It must be respected and can be exploited in observer and control design. These ideas are benchmarked in the cylinder wake system and validated by a systematic DNS investigation of a 3-dimensional Galerkin model of the controlled wake.
Regnier, D.; Verriere, M.; Dubray, N.; Schunck, N.
2015-11-30
In this study, we describe the software package FELIX that solves the equations of the time-dependent generator coordinate method (TDGCM) in NN-dimensions (N ≥ 1) under the Gaussian overlap approximation. The numerical resolution is based on the Galerkin finite element discretization of the collective space and the Crank–Nicolson scheme for time integration. The TDGCM solver is implemented entirely in C++. Several additional tools written in C++, Python or bash scripting language are also included for convenience. In this paper, the solver is tested with a series of benchmarks calculations. We also demonstrate the ability of our code to handle amore » realistic calculation of fission dynamics.« less
Modern Regression Discontinuity Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bloom, Howard S.
2012-01-01
This article provides a detailed discussion of the theory and practice of modern regression discontinuity (RD) analysis for estimating the effects of interventions or treatments. Part 1 briefly chronicles the history of RD analysis and summarizes its past applications. Part 2 explains how in theory an RD analysis can identify an average effect of…
Uysal, Ismail E; Arda Ülkü, H; Bağci, Hakan
2016-09-01
Transient electromagnetic interactions on plasmonic nanostructures are analyzed by solving the Poggio-Miller-Chan-Harrington-Wu-Tsai (PMCHWT) surface integral equation (SIE). Equivalent (unknown) electric and magnetic current densities, which are introduced on the surfaces of the nanostructures, are expanded using Rao-Wilton-Glisson and polynomial basis functions in space and time, respectively. Inserting this expansion into the PMCHWT-SIE and Galerkin testing the resulting equation at discrete times yield a system of equations that is solved for the current expansion coefficients by a marching on-in-time (MOT) scheme. The resulting MOT-PMCHWT-SIE solver calls for computation of additional convolutions between the temporal basis function and the plasmonic medium's permittivity and Green function. This computation is carried out with almost no additional cost and without changing the computational complexity of the solver. Time-domain samples of the permittivity and the Green function required by these convolutions are obtained from their frequency-domain samples using a fast relaxed vector fitting algorithm. Numerical results demonstrate the accuracy and applicability of the proposed MOT-PMCHWT solver. PMID:27607496
A weak Galerkin generalized multiscale finite element method
Mu, Lin; Wang, Junping; Ye, Xiu
2016-03-31
In this study, we propose a general framework for weak Galerkin generalized multiscale (WG-GMS) finite element method for the elliptic problems with rapidly oscillating or high contrast coefficients. This general WG-GMS method features in high order accuracy on general meshes and can work with multiscale basis derived by different numerical schemes. A special case is studied under this WG-GMS framework in which the multiscale basis functions are obtained by solving local problem with the weak Galerkin finite element method. Convergence analysis and numerical experiments are obtained for the special case.
A Newton-Krylov Solver for Implicit Solution of Hydrodynamics in Core Collapse Supernovae
Reynolds, D R; Swesty, F D; Woodward, C S
2008-06-12
This paper describes an implicit approach and nonlinear solver for solution of radiation-hydrodynamic problems in the context of supernovae and proto-neutron star cooling. The robust approach applies Newton-Krylov methods and overcomes the difficulties of discontinuous limiters in the discretized equations and scaling of the equations over wide ranges of physical behavior. We discuss these difficulties, our approach for overcoming them, and numerical results demonstrating accuracy and efficiency of the method.
Finite Element Interface to Linear Solvers
Williams, Alan
2005-03-18
Sparse systems of linear equations arise in many engineering applications, including finite elements, finite volumes, and others. The solution of linear systems is often the most computationally intensive portion of the application. Depending on the complexity of problems addressed by the application, there may be no single solver capable of solving all of the linear systems that arise. This motivates the desire to switch an application from one solver librwy to another, depending on the problem being solved. The interfaces provided by solver libraries differ greatly, making it difficult to switch an application code from one library to another. The amount of library-specific code in an application Can be greatly reduced by having an abstraction layer between solver libraries and the application, putting a common "face" on various solver libraries. One such abstraction layer is the Finite Element Interface to Linear Solvers (EEl), which has seen significant use by finite element applications at Sandia National Laboratories and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
Aircraft Engine Noise Scattering - A Discontinuous Spectral Element Approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stanescu, D.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Farassat, F.
2002-01-01
The paper presents a time-domain method for computation of sound radiation from aircraft engine sources to the far-field. The effects of nonuniform flow around the aircraft and scattering of sound by fuselage and wings are accounted for in the formulation. Our approach is based on the discretization of the inviscid flow equations through a collocation form of the Discontinuous Galerkin spectral element method. An isoparametric representation of the underlying geometry is used in order to take full advantage of the spectral accuracy of the method. Largescale computations are made possible by a parallel implementation based on message passing. Results obtained for radiation from an axisymmetric nacelle alone are compared with those obtained when the same nacelle is installed in a generic con.guration, with and without a wing.
Analysis Tools for CFD Multigrid Solvers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mineck, Raymond E.; Thomas, James L.; Diskin, Boris
2004-01-01
Analysis tools are needed to guide the development and evaluate the performance of multigrid solvers for the fluid flow equations. Classical analysis tools, such as local mode analysis, often fail to accurately predict performance. Two-grid analysis tools, herein referred to as Idealized Coarse Grid and Idealized Relaxation iterations, have been developed and evaluated within a pilot multigrid solver. These new tools are applicable to general systems of equations and/or discretizations and point to problem areas within an existing multigrid solver. Idealized Relaxation and Idealized Coarse Grid are applied in developing textbook-efficient multigrid solvers for incompressible stagnation flow problems.
Development and Verification of the Charring Ablating Thermal Protection Implicit System Solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Amar, Adam J.; Calvert, Nathan D.; Kirk, Benjamin S.
2010-01-01
The development and verification of the Charring Ablating Thermal Protection Implicit System Solver is presented. This work concentrates on the derivation and verification of the stationary grid terms in the equations that govern three-dimensional heat and mass transfer for charring thermal protection systems including pyrolysis gas flow through the porous char layer. The governing equations are discretized according to the Galerkin finite element method with first and second order implicit time integrators. The governing equations are fully coupled and are solved in parallel via Newton's method, while the fully implicit linear system is solved with the Generalized Minimal Residual method. Verification results from exact solutions and the Method of Manufactured Solutions are presented to show spatial and temporal orders of accuracy as well as nonlinear convergence rates.
Introduction to COFFE: The Next-Generation HPCMP CREATE-AV CFD Solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glasby, Ryan S.; Erwin, J. Taylor; Stefanski, Douglas L.; Allmaras, Steven R.; Galbraith, Marshall C.; Anderson, W. Kyle; Nichols, Robert H.
2016-01-01
HPCMP CREATE-AV Conservative Field Finite Element (COFFE) is a modular, extensible, robust numerical solver for the Navier-Stokes equations that invokes modularity and extensibility from its first principles. COFFE implores a flexible, class-based hierarchy that provides a modular approach consisting of discretization, physics, parallelization, and linear algebra components. These components are developed with modern software engineering principles to ensure ease of uptake from a user's or developer's perspective. The Streamwise Upwind/Petrov-Galerkin (SU/PG) method is utilized to discretize the compressible Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations tightly coupled with a variety of turbulence models. The mathematics and the philosophy of the methodology that makes up COFFE are presented.
An evaluation of parallel multigrid as a solver and a preconditioner for singular perturbed problems
Oosterlee, C.W.; Washio, T.
1996-12-31
In this paper we try to achieve h-independent convergence with preconditioned GMRES and BiCGSTAB for 2D singular perturbed equations. Three recently developed multigrid methods are adopted as a preconditioner. They are also used as solution methods in order to compare the performance of the methods as solvers and as preconditioners. Two of the multigrid methods differ only in the transfer operators. One uses standard matrix- dependent prolongation operators from. The second uses {open_quotes}upwind{close_quotes} prolongation operators, developed. Both employ the Galerkin coarse grid approximation and an alternating zebra line Gauss-Seidel smoother. The third method is based on the block LU decomposition of a matrix and on an approximate Schur complement. This multigrid variant is presented in. All three multigrid algorithms are algebraic methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balsara, Dinshaw S.; Vides, Jeaniffer; Gurski, Katharine; Nkonga, Boniface; Dumbser, Michael; Garain, Sudip; Audit, Edouard
2016-01-01
Just as the quality of a one-dimensional approximate Riemann solver is improved by the inclusion of internal sub-structure, the quality of a multidimensional Riemann solver is also similarly improved. Such multidimensional Riemann problems arise when multiple states come together at the vertex of a mesh. The interaction of the resulting one-dimensional Riemann problems gives rise to a strongly-interacting state. We wish to endow this strongly-interacting state with physically-motivated sub-structure. The self-similar formulation of Balsara [16] proves especially useful for this purpose. While that work is based on a Galerkin projection, in this paper we present an analogous self-similar formulation that is based on a different interpretation. In the present formulation, we interpret the shock jumps at the boundary of the strongly-interacting state quite literally. The enforcement of the shock jump conditions is done with a least squares projection (Vides, Nkonga and Audit [67]). With that interpretation, we again show that the multidimensional Riemann solver can be endowed with sub-structure. However, we find that the most efficient implementation arises when we use a flux vector splitting and a least squares projection. An alternative formulation that is based on the full characteristic matrices is also presented. The multidimensional Riemann solvers that are demonstrated here use one-dimensional HLLC Riemann solvers as building blocks. Several stringent test problems drawn from hydrodynamics and MHD are presented to show that the method works. Results from structured and unstructured meshes demonstrate the versatility of our method. The reader is also invited to watch a video introduction to multidimensional Riemann solvers on http://www.nd.edu/~dbalsara/Numerical-PDE-Course.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Owens, A. R.; Welch, J. A.; Kópházi, J.; Eaton, M. D.
2016-06-01
In this paper two discontinuous Galerkin isogeometric analysis methods are developed and applied to the first-order form of the neutron transport equation with a discrete ordinate (SN) angular discretisation. The discontinuous Galerkin projection approach was taken on both an element level and the patch level for a given Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) patch. This paper describes the detailed dispersion analysis that has been used to analyse the numerical stability of both of these schemes. The convergence of the schemes for both smooth and non-smooth solutions was also investigated using the method of manufactured solutions (MMS) for multidimensional problems and a 1D semi-analytical benchmark whose solution contains a strongly discontinuous first derivative. This paper also investigates the challenges posed by strongly curved boundaries at both the NURBS element and patch level with several algorithms developed to deal with such cases. Finally numerical results are presented both for a simple pincell test problem as well as the C5G7 quarter core MOX/UOX small Light Water Reactor (LWR) benchmark problem. These numerical results produced by the isogeometric analysis (IGA) methods are compared and contrasted against linear and quadratic discontinuous Galerkin finite element (DGFEM) SN based methods.
Code Verification of the HIGRAD Computational Fluid Dynamics Solver
Van Buren, Kendra L.; Canfield, Jesse M.; Hemez, Francois M.; Sauer, Jeremy A.
2012-05-04
The purpose of this report is to outline code and solution verification activities applied to HIGRAD, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solver of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and used to simulate various phenomena such as the propagation of wildfires and atmospheric hydrodynamics. Code verification efforts, as described in this report, are an important first step to establish the credibility of numerical simulations. They provide evidence that the mathematical formulation is properly implemented without significant mistakes that would adversely impact the application of interest. Highly accurate analytical solutions are derived for four code verification test problems that exercise different aspects of the code. These test problems are referred to as: (i) the quiet start, (ii) the passive advection, (iii) the passive diffusion, and (iv) the piston-like problem. These problems are simulated using HIGRAD with different levels of mesh discretization and the numerical solutions are compared to their analytical counterparts. In addition, the rates of convergence are estimated to verify the numerical performance of the solver. The first three test problems produce numerical approximations as expected. The fourth test problem (piston-like) indicates the extent to which the code is able to simulate a 'mild' discontinuity, which is a condition that would typically be better handled by a Lagrangian formulation. The current investigation concludes that the numerical implementation of the solver performs as expected. The quality of solutions is sufficient to provide credible simulations of fluid flows around wind turbines. The main caveat associated to these findings is the low coverage provided by these four problems, and somewhat limited verification activities. A more comprehensive evaluation of HIGRAD may be beneficial for future studies.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, Sang-Wook
1988-01-01
A velocity-pressure integrated, mixed interpolation, Galerkin finite element method for the Navier-Stokes equations is presented. In the method, the velocity variables were interpolated using complete quadratic shape functions and the pressure was interpolated using linear shape functions. For the two dimensional case, the pressure is defined on a triangular element which is contained inside the complete biquadratic element for velocity variables; and for the three dimensional case, the pressure is defined on a tetrahedral element which is again contained inside the complete tri-quadratic element. Thus the pressure is discontinuous across the element boundaries. Example problems considered include: a cavity flow for Reynolds number of 400 through 10,000; a laminar backward facing step flow; and a laminar flow in a square duct of strong curvature. The computational results compared favorable with those of the finite difference methods as well as experimental data available. A finite elememt computer program for incompressible, laminar flows is presented.
Mingus Discontinuous Multiphysics
2014-05-13
Mingus provides hybrid coupled local/non-local mechanics analysis capabilities that extend several traditional methods to applications with inherent discontinuities. Its primary features include adaptations of solid mechanics, fluid dynamics and digital image correlation that naturally accommodate dijointed data or irregular solution fields by assimilating a variety of discretizations (such as control volume finite elements, peridynamics and meshless control point clouds). The goal of this software is to provide an analysis framework form multiphysics engineering problems withmore » an integrated image correlation capability that can be used for experimental validation and model« less
Mingus Discontinuous Multiphysics
Pat Notz, Dan Turner
2014-05-13
Mingus provides hybrid coupled local/non-local mechanics analysis capabilities that extend several traditional methods to applications with inherent discontinuities. Its primary features include adaptations of solid mechanics, fluid dynamics and digital image correlation that naturally accommodate dijointed data or irregular solution fields by assimilating a variety of discretizations (such as control volume finite elements, peridynamics and meshless control point clouds). The goal of this software is to provide an analysis framework form multiphysics engineering problems with an integrated image correlation capability that can be used for experimental validation and model
MACSYMA's symbolic ordinary differential equation solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Golden, J. P.
1977-01-01
The MACSYMA's symbolic ordinary differential equation solver ODE2 is described. The code for this routine is delineated, which is of interest because it is written in top-level MACSYMA language, and may serve as a good example of programming in that language. Other symbolic ordinary differential equation solvers are mentioned.
KLU2 Direct Linear Solver Package
2012-01-04
KLU2 is a direct sparse solver for solving unsymmetric linear systems. It is related to the existing KLU solver, (in Amesos package and also as a stand-alone package from University of Florida) but provides template support for scalar and ordinal types. It uses a left looking LU factorization method.
Improving Resource-Unaware SAT Solvers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hölldobler, Steffen; Manthey, Norbert; Saptawijaya, Ari
The paper discusses cache utilization in state-of-the-art SAT solvers. The aim of the study is to show how a resource-unaware SAT solver can be improved by utilizing the cache sensibly. The analysis is performed on a CDCL-based SAT solver using a subset of the industrial SAT Competition 2009 benchmark. For the analysis, the total cycles, the resource stall cycles, the L2 cache hits and the L2 cache misses are traced using sample based profiling. Based on the analysis, several techniques - some of which have not been used in SAT solvers so far - are proposed resulting in a combined speedup up to 83% without affecting the search path of the solver. The average speedup on the benchmark is 60%. The new techniques are also applied to MiniSAT2.0 improving its runtime by 20% on average.
Belos Block Linear Solvers Package
2004-03-01
Belos is an extensible and interoperable framework for large-scale, iterative methods for solving systems of linear equations with multiple right-hand sides. The motivation for this framework is to provide a generic interface to a collection of algorithms for solving large-scale linear systems. Belos is interoperable because both the matrix and vectors are considered to be opaque objects--only knowledge of the matrix and vectors via elementary operations is necessary. An implementation of Balos is accomplished viamore » the use of interfaces. One of the goals of Belos is to allow the user flexibility in specifying the data representation for the matrix and vectors and so leverage any existing software investment. The algorithms that will be included in package are Krylov-based linear solvers, like Block GMRES (Generalized Minimal RESidual) and Block CG (Conjugate-Gradient).« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kraczek, B.
2005-03-01
We present a means for coupling dynamic atomistic and continuum simulations via a spacetime discontinuous Galerkin (SDG) finite element method. Our scheme allows the SDG method to couple a general MD simulation using Verlet time-stepping through the flux conditions on the element boundaries at the interface. These flux conditions ensure weak balance of momentum and energy to achieve reflection-free transfer of disturbance across the interface. Our work is supported by the National Science Foundation (ITR grant DMR-0121695) on Process Simulation and Design and, in part, by the Materials Computation Center (FRG grant DMR-99-76550)
Stabilized high-order Galerkin methods based on a parameter-free dynamic SGS model for LES
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marras, Simone; Nazarov, Murtazo; Giraldo, Francis X.
2015-11-01
The high order spectral element approximation of the Euler equations is stabilized via a dynamic sub-grid scale model (Dyn-SGS). This model was originally designed for linear finite elements to solve compressible flows at large Mach numbers. We extend its application to high-order spectral elements to solve the Euler equations of low Mach number stratified flows. The major justification of this work is twofold: stabilization and large eddy simulation are achieved via one scheme only. Because the diffusion coefficients of the regularization stresses obtained via Dyn-SGS are residual-based, the effect of the artificial diffusion is minimal in the regions where the solution is smooth. The direct consequence is that the nominal convergence rate of the high-order solution of smooth problems is not degraded. To our knowledge, this is the first application in atmospheric modeling of a spectral element model stabilized by an eddy viscosity scheme that, by construction, may fulfill stabilization requirements, can model turbulence via LES, and is completely free of a user-tunable parameter. From its derivation, it will be immediately clear that Dyn-SGS is independent of the numerical method; it could be implemented in a discontinuous Galerkin, finite volume, or other environments alike. Preliminary discontinuous Galerkin results are reported as well. The straightforward extension to non-linear scalar problems is also described. A suite of 1D, 2D, and 3D test cases is used to assess the method, with some comparison against the results obtained with the most known Lilly-Smagorinsky SGS model.
Kinematics of Strong Discontinuities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peterson, K.; Nguyen, G.; Sulsky, D.
2006-01-01
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) provides a detailed view of the Arctic ice cover. When processed with the RADARSAT Geophysical Processor System (RGPS), it provides estimates of sea ice motion and deformation over large regions of the Arctic for extended periods of time. The deformation is dominated by the appearance of linear kinematic features that have been associated with the presence of leads. The RGPS deformation products are based on the assumption that the displacement and velocity are smooth functions of the spatial coordinates. However, if the dominant deformation of multiyear ice results from the opening, closing and shearing of leads, then the displacement and velocity can be discontinuous. This presentation discusses the kinematics associated with strong discontinuities that describe possible jumps in displacement or velocity. Ice motion from SAR data are analyzed using this framework. It is assumed that RGPS cells deform due to the presence of a lead. The lead orientation is calculated to optimally account for the observed deformation. It is shown that almost all observed deformation can be represented by lead opening and shearing. The procedure used to reprocess motion data to account for leads will be described and applied to regions of the Beaufort Sea. The procedure not only provides a new view of ice deformation, it can be used to obtain information about the presence of leads for initialization and/or validation of numerical simulations.
A HLL-Rankine-Hugoniot Riemann solver for complex non-linear hyperbolic problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guy, Capdeville
2013-10-01
We present a new HLL-type approximate Riemann solver that aims at capturing any isolated discontinuity without necessitating extensive characteristic analysis of governing partial differential equations. This property is especially attractive for complex hyperbolic systems with more than two equations. Following Linde's (2002) approach [6], we introduce a generic middle wave into the classical two-state HLL solver. The property of this third wave is typified by the way of a "strength indicator" that is derived from polynomial considerations. The polynomial that constitutes the basis of the procedure is made non-oscillatory by an adapted fourth-order WENO algorithm (CWENO4). This algorithm makes it possible to derive an expression for the strength indicator. According to the size of this latter parameter, the resulting solver (HLL-RH), either computes the multi-dimensional Rankine-Hugoniot equations if an isolated discontinuity appears in the Riemann fan, or asymptotically tends towards the two-state HLL solver if the solution is locally smooth. The asymptotic version of the HLL-RH solver is demonstrated to be positively conservative and entropy satisfying in its first-order multi-dimensional form provided that a relevant and not too restrictive CFL condition is considered; specific limitations of the conservative increments of the numerical solution and a suited entropy condition enable to maintain these properties in its high-order version. With a monotonicity-preserving algorithm for the time integration, the numerical method so generated, is third order in time and fourth-order accurate in space for the smooth part of the solution; moreover, the scheme is stable and accurate when capturing a shock wave, whatever the complexity of the underlying differential system. Extensive numerical tests for the one- and two-dimensional Euler equation of gas dynamics and comparisons with classical Godunov-type methods help to point out the potentialities and insufficiencies
A stochastic Galerkin method for the Euler equations with Roe variable transformation
Pettersson, Per; Iaccarino, Gianluca; Nordström, Jan
2014-01-15
The Euler equations subject to uncertainty in the initial and boundary conditions are investigated via the stochastic Galerkin approach. We present a new fully intrusive method based on a variable transformation of the continuous equations. Roe variables are employed to get quadratic dependence in the flux function and a well-defined Roe average matrix that can be determined without matrix inversion. In previous formulations based on generalized polynomial chaos expansion of the physical variables, the need to introduce stochastic expansions of inverse quantities, or square roots of stochastic quantities of interest, adds to the number of possible different ways to approximate the original stochastic problem. We present a method where the square roots occur in the choice of variables, resulting in an unambiguous problem formulation. The Roe formulation saves computational cost compared to the formulation based on expansion of conservative variables. Moreover, the Roe formulation is more robust and can handle cases of supersonic flow, for which the conservative variable formulation fails to produce a bounded solution. For certain stochastic basis functions, the proposed method can be made more effective and well-conditioned. This leads to increased robustness for both choices of variables. We use a multi-wavelet basis that can be chosen to include a large number of resolution levels to handle more extreme cases (e.g. strong discontinuities) in a robust way. For smooth cases, the order of the polynomial representation can be increased for increased accuracy.
Compressible flow calculations employing the Galerkin/least-squares method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shakib, F.; Hughes, T. J. R.; Johan, Zdenek
1989-01-01
A multielement group, domain decomposition algorithm is presented for solving linear nonsymmetric systems arising in the finite-element analysis of compressible flows employing the Galerkin/least-squares method. The iterative strategy employed is based on the generalized minimum residual (GMRES) procedure originally proposed by Saad and Shultz. Two levels of preconditioning are investigated. Applications to problems of high-speed compressible flow illustrate the effectiveness of the scheme.
Galerkin/Runge-Kutta discretizations for semilinear parabolic equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keeling, Stephen L.
1987-01-01
A new class of fully discrete Galerkin/Runge-Kutta methods is constructed and analyzed for semilinear parabolic initial boundary value problems. Unlike any classical counterpart, this class offers arbitrarily high, optimal order convergence. In support of this claim, error estimates are proved, and computational results are presented. Furthermore, it is noted that special Runge-Kutta methods allow computations to be performed in parallel so that the final execution time can be reduced to that of a low order method.
Robustness of controllers designed using Galerkin type approximations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morris, K. A.
1990-01-01
One of the difficulties in designing controllers for infinite-dimensional systems arises from attempting to calculate a state for the system. It is shown that Galerkin type approximations can be used to design controllers which will perform as designed when implemented on the original infinite-dimensional system. No assumptions, other than those typically employed in numerical analysis, are made on the approximating scheme.
A hybrid perturbation-Galerkin technique for partial differential equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geer, James F.; Anderson, Carl M.
1990-01-01
A two-step hybrid perturbation-Galerkin technique for improving the usefulness of perturbation solutions to partial differential equations which contain a parameter is presented and discussed. In the first step of the method, the leading terms in the asymptotic expansion(s) of the solution about one or more values of the perturbation parameter are obtained using standard perturbation methods. In the second step, the perturbation functions obtained in the first step are used as trial functions in a Bubnov-Galerkin approximation. This semi-analytical, semi-numerical hybrid technique appears to overcome some of the drawbacks of the perturbation and Galerkin methods when they are applied by themselves, while combining some of the good features of each. The technique is illustrated first by a simple example. It is then applied to the problem of determining the flow of a slightly compressible fluid past a circular cylinder and to the problem of determining the shape of a free surface due to a sink above the surface. Solutions obtained by the hybrid method are compared with other approximate solutions, and its possible application to certain problems associated with domain decomposition is discussed.
GARDNER, P.R.
2006-04-01
Sudoku, also known as Number Place, is a logic-based placement puzzle. The aim of the puzzle is to enter a numerical digit from 1 through 9 in each cell of a 9 x 9 grid made up of 3 x 3 subgrids (called ''regions''), starting with various digits given in some cells (the ''givens''). Each row, column, and region must contain only one instance of each numeral. Completing the puzzle requires patience and logical ability. Although first published in a U.S. puzzle magazine in 1979, Sudoku initially caught on in Japan in 1986 and attained international popularity in 2005. Last fall, after noticing Sudoku puzzles in some newspapers and magazines, I attempted a few just to see how hard they were. Of course, the difficulties varied considerably. ''Obviously'' one could use Trial and Error but all the advice was to ''Use Logic''. Thinking to flex, and strengthen, those powers, I began to tackle the puzzles systematically. That is, when I discovered a new tactical rule, I would write it down, eventually generating a list of ten or so, with some having overlap. They served pretty well except for the more difficult puzzles, but even then I managed to develop an additional three rules that covered all of them until I hit the Oregonian puzzle shown. With all of my rules, I could not seem to solve that puzzle. Initially putting my failure down to rapid mental fatigue (being unable to hold a sufficient quantity of information in my mind at one time), I decided to write a program to implement my rules and see what I had failed to notice earlier. The solver, too, failed. That is, my rules were insufficient to solve that particular puzzle. I happened across a book written by a fellow who constructs such puzzles and who claimed that, sometimes, the only tactic left was trial and error. With a trial and error routine implemented, my solver successfully completed the Oregonian puzzle, and has successfully solved every puzzle submitted to it since.
ALPS - A LINEAR PROGRAM SOLVER
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Viterna, L. A.
1994-01-01
Linear programming is a widely-used engineering and management tool. Scheduling, resource allocation, and production planning are all well-known applications of linear programs (LP's). Most LP's are too large to be solved by hand, so over the decades many computer codes for solving LP's have been developed. ALPS, A Linear Program Solver, is a full-featured LP analysis program. ALPS can solve plain linear programs as well as more complicated mixed integer and pure integer programs. ALPS also contains an efficient solution technique for pure binary (0-1 integer) programs. One of the many weaknesses of LP solvers is the lack of interaction with the user. ALPS is a menu-driven program with no special commands or keywords to learn. In addition, ALPS contains a full-screen editor to enter and maintain the LP formulation. These formulations can be written to and read from plain ASCII files for portability. For those less experienced in LP formulation, ALPS contains a problem "parser" which checks the formulation for errors. ALPS creates fully formatted, readable reports that can be sent to a printer or output file. ALPS is written entirely in IBM's APL2/PC product, Version 1.01. The APL2 workspace containing all the ALPS code can be run on any APL2/PC system (AT or 386). On a 32-bit system, this configuration can take advantage of all extended memory. The user can also examine and modify the ALPS code. The APL2 workspace has also been "packed" to be run on any DOS system (without APL2) as a stand-alone "EXE" file, but has limited memory capacity on a 640K system. A numeric coprocessor (80X87) is optional but recommended. The standard distribution medium for ALPS is a 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. IBM, IBM PC and IBM APL2 are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
A scalable 2-D parallel sparse solver
Kothari, S.C.; Mitra, S.
1995-12-01
Scalability beyond a small number of processors, typically 32 or less, is known to be a problem for existing parallel general sparse (PGS) direct solvers. This paper presents a parallel general sparse PGS direct solver for general sparse linear systems on distributed memory machines. The algorithm is based on the well-known sequential sparse algorithm Y12M. To achieve efficient parallelization, a 2-D scattered decomposition of the sparse matrix is used. The proposed algorithm is more scalable than existing parallel sparse direct solvers. Its scalability is evaluated on a 256 processor nCUBE2s machine using Boeing/Harwell benchmark matrices.
SIERRA framework version 4 : solver services.
Williams, Alan B.
2005-02-01
Several SIERRA applications make use of third-party libraries to solve systems of linear and nonlinear equations, and to solve eigenproblems. The classes and interfaces in the SIERRA framework that provide linear system assembly services and access to solver libraries are collectively referred to as solver services. This paper provides an overview of SIERRA's solver services including the design goals that drove the development, and relationships and interactions among the various classes. The process of assembling and manipulating linear systems will be described, as well as access to solution methods and other operations.
Euler solvers for transonic applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vanleer, Bram
1989-01-01
The 1980s may well be called the Euler era of applied aerodynamics. Computer codes based on discrete approximations of the Euler equations are now routinely used to obtain solutions of transonic flow problems in which the effects of entropy and vorticity production are significant. Such codes can even predict separation from a sharp edge, owing to the inclusion of artificial dissipation, intended to lend numerical stability to the calculation but at the same time enforcing the Kutta condition. One effect not correctly predictable by Euler codes is the separation from a smooth surface, and neither is viscous drag; for these some form of the Navier-Stokes equation is needed. It, therefore, comes as no surprise to observe that the Navier-Stokes has already begun before Euler solutions were fully exploited. Moreover, most numerical developments for the Euler equations are now constrained by the requirement that the techniques introduced, notably artificial dissipation, must not interfere with the new physics added when going from an Euler to a full Navier-Stokes approximation. In order to appreciate the contributions of Euler solvers to the understanding of transonic aerodynamics, it is useful to review the components of these computational tools. Space discretization, time- or pseudo-time marching and boundary procedures, the essential constituents are discussed. The subject of grid generation and grid adaptation to the solution are touched upon only where relevant. A list of unanswered questions and an outlook for the future are covered.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ferencz, Donald C.; Viterna, Larry A.
1991-01-01
ALPS is a computer program which can be used to solve general linear program (optimization) problems. ALPS was designed for those who have minimal linear programming (LP) knowledge and features a menu-driven scheme to guide the user through the process of creating and solving LP formulations. Once created, the problems can be edited and stored in standard DOS ASCII files to provide portability to various word processors or even other linear programming packages. Unlike many math-oriented LP solvers, ALPS contains an LP parser that reads through the LP formulation and reports several types of errors to the user. ALPS provides a large amount of solution data which is often useful in problem solving. In addition to pure linear programs, ALPS can solve for integer, mixed integer, and binary type problems. Pure linear programs are solved with the revised simplex method. Integer or mixed integer programs are solved initially with the revised simplex, and the completed using the branch-and-bound technique. Binary programs are solved with the method of implicit enumeration. This manual describes how to use ALPS to create, edit, and solve linear programming problems. Instructions for installing ALPS on a PC compatible computer are included in the appendices along with a general introduction to linear programming. A programmers guide is also included for assistance in modifying and maintaining the program.
Parallelizing alternating direction implicit solver on GPUs
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
We present a parallel Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) solver on GPUs. Our implementation significantly improves existing implementations in two aspects. First, we address the scalability issue of existing Parallel Cyclic Reduction (PCR) implementations by eliminating their hardware resource con...
A Runge-Kutta discontinuous finite element method for high speed flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bey, Kim S.; Oden, J. T.
1991-01-01
A Runge-Kutta discontinuous finite element method is developed for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws in two space variables. The discontinuous Galerkin spatial approximation to the conservation laws results in a system of ordinary differential equations which are marched in time using Runge-Kutta methods. Numerical results for the two-dimensional Burger's equation show that the method is (p+1)-order accurate in time and space, where p is the degree of the polynomial approximation of the solution within an element and is capable of capturing shocks over a single element without oscillations. Results for this problem also show that the accuracy of the solution in smooth regions is unaffected by the local projection and that the accuracy in smooth regions increases as p increases. Numerical results for the Euler equations show that the method captures shocks without oscillations and with higher resolution than a first-order scheme.
Discontinuous approximation of viscous two-phase flow in heterogeneous porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bürger, Raimund; Kumar, Sarvesh; Sudarshan Kumar, Kenettinkara; Ruiz-Baier, Ricardo
2016-09-01
Runge-Kutta Discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) and Discontinuous Finite Volume Element (DFVE) methods are applied to a coupled flow-transport problem describing the immiscible displacement of a viscous incompressible fluid in a non-homogeneous porous medium. The model problem consists of nonlinear pressure-velocity equations (assuming Brinkman flow) coupled to a nonlinear hyperbolic equation governing the mass balance (saturation equation). The mass conservation properties inherent to finite volume-based methods motivate a DFVE scheme for the approximation of the Brinkman flow in combination with a RKDG method for the spatio-temporal discretization of the saturation equation. The stability of the uncoupled schemes for the flow and for the saturation equations is analyzed, and several numerical experiments illustrate the robustness of the numerical method.
Optimization of solver for gas flow modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savichkin, D.; Dodulad, O.; Kloss, Yu
2014-05-01
The main purpose of the work is optimization of the solver for rarefied gas flow modeling based on the Boltzmann equation. Optimization method is based on SIMD extensions for ×86 processors. Computational code is profiled and manually optimized with SSE instructions. Heat flow, shock waves and Knudsen pump are modeled with optimized solver. Dependencies of computational time from mesh sizes and CPU capabilities are provided.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balsara, Dinshaw S.
2015-08-01
In this paper we build on our prior work on multidimensional Riemann solvers by detailing the construction of a three-dimensional HLL Riemann solver. As with the two-dimensional Riemann solver, this is accomplished by introducing a constant resolved state between the states being considered, which introduces sufficient dissipation for systems of conservation laws. Closed form expressions for the resolved fluxes are provided to facilitate numerical implementation. This is accomplished by introducing a novel derivation of the multidimensional Riemann solver. The novelty consists of integrating Lagrangian fluxes across moving surfaces. This makes the problem easier to visualize in three dimensions. (A video introduction to multidimensional Riemann solvers is available on http://www.nd.edu/~dbalsara/Numerical-PDE-Course A robust and efficient second order accurate numerical scheme for three dimensional Euler and MHD flows is presented. The scheme is built on the current three-dimensional Riemann solver and has been implemented in the author's RIEMANN code. We demonstrate that schemes that are based on the three-dimensional Riemann solver permit multidimensional discontinuities to propagate more isotropically on resolution-starved meshes. The number of zones updated per second by this scheme on a modern processor is shown to be cost competitive with schemes that are based on a one-dimensional Riemann solver. However, the present scheme permits larger timesteps in three dimensions because of its inclusion of genuinely three-dimensional effects in the flow. For MHD problems it is not necessary to double the dissipation when evaluating the edge-centered electric fields. Accuracy analysis for three-dimensional Euler and MHD problems shows that the scheme meets its design accuracy. Several stringent test problems involving Euler and MHD flows are also presented and the scheme is shown to perform robustly on all of them. For the very first time, we present the formulation and
A parallel PCG solver for MODFLOW.
Dong, Yanhui; Li, Guomin
2009-01-01
In order to simulate large-scale ground water flow problems more efficiently with MODFLOW, the OpenMP programming paradigm was used to parallelize the preconditioned conjugate-gradient (PCG) solver with in this study. Incremental parallelization, the significant advantage supported by OpenMP on a shared-memory computer, made the solver transit to a parallel program smoothly one block of code at a time. The parallel PCG solver, suitable for both MODFLOW-2000 and MODFLOW-2005, is verified using an 8-processor computer. Both the impact of compilers and different model domain sizes were considered in the numerical experiments. Based on the timing results, execution times using the parallel PCG solver are typically about 1.40 to 5.31 times faster than those using the serial one. In addition, the simulation results are the exact same as the original PCG solver, because the majority of serial codes were not changed. It is worth noting that this parallelizing approach reduces cost in terms of software maintenance because only a single source PCG solver code needs to be maintained in the MODFLOW source tree. PMID:19563427
Finite Element Interface to Linear Solvers
2005-03-18
Sparse systems of linear equations arise in many engineering applications, including finite elements, finite volumes, and others. The solution of linear systems is often the most computationally intensive portion of the application. Depending on the complexity of problems addressed by the application, there may be no single solver capable of solving all of the linear systems that arise. This motivates the desire to switch an application from one solver librwy to another, depending on themore » problem being solved. The interfaces provided by solver libraries differ greatly, making it difficult to switch an application code from one library to another. The amount of library-specific code in an application Can be greatly reduced by having an abstraction layer between solver libraries and the application, putting a common "face" on various solver libraries. One such abstraction layer is the Finite Element Interface to Linear Solvers (EEl), which has seen significant use by finite element applications at Sandia National Laboratories and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.« less
Development of a new 3D OpenFOAM¯ solver to model the cooling stage in profile extrusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernandes, C.; Habla, F.; Carneiro, O. S.; Hinrichsen, O.; Nóbrega, J. M.
2016-03-01
In this work a new solver is developed in OpenFOAM® computational library, to model the cooling state in profile extrusion. The solver is able to calculate the temperature distribution in a two domain system, comprising the profile and calibrator, considering the temperature discontinuity at the interface. The derivation of the model is based on the local instantaneous energy conservation equation, in conjunction with the conditional volume averaging technique, which yields a single governing equation valid in both domains. Aiming the solution of automatic optimization/parameterization problems, the developed solver was coupled with the DAKOTA toolkit. The application of the novel calculation system is illustrated in a study of a complex geometry extruded profile cooling stage.
PSPIKE: A Parallel Hybrid Sparse Linear System Solver
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manguoglu, Murat; Sameh, Ahmed H.; Schenk, Olaf
The availability of large-scale computing platforms comprised of tens of thousands of multicore processors motivates the need for the next generation of highly scalable sparse linear system solvers. These solvers must optimize parallel performance, processor (serial) performance, as well as memory requirements, while being robust across broad classes of applications and systems. In this paper, we present a new parallel solver that combines the desirable characteristics of direct methods (robustness) and effective iterative solvers (low computational cost), while alleviating their drawbacks (memory requirements, lack of robustness). Our proposed hybrid solver is based on the general sparse solver PARDISO, and the “Spike” family of hybrid solvers. The resulting algorithm, called PSPIKE, is as robust as direct solvers, more reliable than classical preconditioned Krylov subspace methods, and much more scalable than direct sparse solvers. We support our performance and parallel scalability claims using detailed experimental studies and comparison with direct solvers, as well as classical preconditioned Krylov methods.
Courant Number and Mach Number Insensitive CE/SE Euler Solvers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Sin-Chung
2005-01-01
It has been known that the space-time CE/SE method can be used to obtain ID, 2D, and 3D steady and unsteady flow solutions with Mach numbers ranging from 0.0028 to 10. However, it is also known that a CE/SE solution may become overly dissipative when the Mach number is very small. As an initial attempt to remedy this weakness, new 1D Courant number and Mach number insensitive CE/SE Euler solvers are developed using several key concepts underlying the recent successful development of Courant number insensitive CE/SE schemes. Numerical results indicate that the new solvers are capable of resolving crisply a contact discontinuity embedded in a flow with the maximum Mach number = 0.01.
Galerkin finite-element simulation of a geothermal reservoir
Mercer, J.W., Jr.; Pinder, G.F.
1973-01-01
The equations describing fluid flow and energy transport in a porous medium can be used to formulate a mathematical model capable of simulating the transient response of a hot-water geothermal reservoir. The resulting equations can be solved accurately and efficiently using a numerical scheme which combines the finite element approach with the Galerkin method of approximation. Application of this numerical model to the Wairakei geothermal field demonstrates that hot-water geothermal fields can be simulated using numerical techniques currently available and under development. ?? 1973.
On the superconvergence of Galerkin methods for hyperbolic IBVP
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gottlieb, David; Gustafsson, Bertil; Olsson, Pelle; Strand, BO
1993-01-01
Finite element Galerkin methods for periodic first order hyperbolic equations exhibit superconvergence on uniform grids at the nodes, i.e., there is an error estimate 0(h(sup 2r)) instead of the expected approximation order 0(h(sup r)). It will be shown that no matter how the approximating subspace S(sup h) is chosen, the superconvergence property is lost if there are characteristics leaving the domain. The implications of this result when constructing compact implicit difference schemes is also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moura, R. C.; Sherwin, S. J.; Peiró, J.
2016-02-01
This study addresses linear dispersion-diffusion analysis for the spectral/hp continuous Galerkin (CG) formulation in one dimension. First, numerical dispersion and diffusion curves are obtained for the advection-diffusion problem and the role of multiple eigencurves peculiar to spectral/hp methods is discussed. From the eigencurves' behaviour, we observe that CG might feature potentially undesirable non-smooth dispersion/diffusion characteristics for under-resolved simulations of problems strongly dominated by either convection or diffusion. Subsequently, the linear advection equation augmented with spectral vanishing viscosity (SVV) is analysed. Dispersion and diffusion characteristics of CG with SVV-based stabilization are verified to display similar non-smooth features in flow regions where convection is much stronger than dissipation or vice-versa, owing to a dependency of the standard SVV operator on a local Péclet number. First a modification is proposed to the traditional SVV scaling that enforces a globally constant Péclet number so as to avoid the previous issues. In addition, a new SVV kernel function is suggested and shown to provide a more regular behaviour for the eigencurves along with a consistent increase in resolution power for higher-order discretizations, as measured by the extent of the wavenumber range where numerical errors are negligible. The dissipation characteristics of CG with the SVV modifications suggested are then verified to be broadly equivalent to those obtained through upwinding in the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) scheme. Nevertheless, for the kernel function proposed, the full upwind DG scheme is found to have a slightly higher resolution power for the same dissipation levels. These results show that improved CG-SVV characteristics can be pursued via different kernel functions with the aid of optimization algorithms.
McGhee, J.M.; Roberts, R.M.; Morel, J.E.
1997-06-01
A spherical harmonics research code (DANTE) has been developed which is compatible with parallel computer architectures. DANTE provides 3-D, multi-material, deterministic, transport capabilities using an arbitrary finite element mesh. The linearized Boltzmann transport equation is solved in a second order self-adjoint form utilizing a Galerkin finite element spatial differencing scheme. The core solver utilizes a preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm. Other distinguishing features of the code include options for discrete-ordinates and simplified spherical harmonics angular differencing, an exact Marshak boundary treatment for arbitrarily oriented boundary faces, in-line matrix construction techniques to minimize memory consumption, and an effective diffusion based preconditioner for scattering dominated problems. Algorithm efficiency is demonstrated for a massively parallel SIMD architecture (CM-5), and compatibility with MPP multiprocessor platforms or workstation clusters is anticipated.
Investigating a hybrid perturbation-Galerkin technique using computer algebra
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Andersen, Carl M.; Geer, James F.
1988-01-01
A two-step hybrid perturbation-Galerkin method is presented for the solution of a variety of differential equations type problems which involve a scalar parameter. The resulting (approximate) solution has the form of a sum where each term consists of the product of two functions. The first function is a function of the independent field variable(s) x, and the second is a function of the parameter lambda. In step one the functions of x are determined by forming a perturbation expansion in lambda. In step two the functions of lambda are determined through the use of the classical Bubnov-Gelerkin method. The resulting hybrid method has the potential of overcoming some of the drawbacks of the perturbation and Bubnov-Galerkin methods applied separately, while combining some of the good features of each. In particular, the results can be useful well beyond the radius of convergence associated with the perturbation expansion. The hybrid method is applied with the aid of computer algebra to a simple two-point boundary value problem where the radius of convergence is finite and to a quantum eigenvalue problem where the radius of convergence is zero. For both problems the hybrid method apparently converges for an infinite range of the parameter lambda. The results obtained from the hybrid method are compared with approximate solutions obtained by other methods, and the applicability of the hybrid method to broader problem areas is discussed.
Galerkin method for feedback controlled Rayleigh Bénard convection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Münch, A.; Wagner, B.
2008-11-01
The problem of feedback controlled Rayleigh-Bénard convection is considered. For this problem with the simple flow structure in the vertical direction, a Galerkin method that uses only a few basis functions in this direction is presented. This approximation yields considerable simplification of the problem, explicitly incorporates the non-classical boundary conditions at the horizontal boundaries of the fluid layer resulting from feedback control and reduces the dimension of the original problem by one. This method is in spirit very similar to lubrication theory, where the simple laminar flow in the vertical direction is integrated out across the height of the fluid layer. Using a minimal set of appropriate basis functions to capture the nonlinear behaviour of the flow, we investigate the effects of feedback control on amplitude, wavelength and selection of patterns via weakly nonlinear analysis and numerical simulations of the resulting dimension-reduced problems in two and three dimensions. In the second part of this study we discuss the derivation of the appropriate basis functions and prove convergence of the Galerkin scheme. This paper is published as part of a collection in honour of Todd Dupont's 65th birthday.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Day, Brad A.; Meade, Andrew J., Jr.
1993-01-01
A semi-discrete Galerkin (SDG) method is under development to model attached, turbulent, and compressible boundary layers for transonic airfoil analysis problems. For the boundary-layer formulation the method models the spatial variable normal to the surface with linear finite elements and the time-like variable with finite differences. A Dorodnitsyn transformed system of equations is used to bound the infinite spatial domain thereby providing high resolution near the wall and permitting the use of a uniform finite element grid which automatically follows boundary-layer growth. The second-order accurate Crank-Nicholson scheme is applied along with a linearization method to take advantage of the parabolic nature of the boundary-layer equations and generate a non-iterative marching routine. The SDG code can be applied to any smoothly-connected airfoil shape without modification and can be coupled to any inviscid flow solver. In this analysis, a direct viscous-inviscid interaction is accomplished between the Euler and boundary-layer codes through the application of a transpiration velocity boundary condition. Results are presented for compressible turbulent flow past RAE 2822 and NACA 0012 airfoils at various freestream Mach numbers, Reynolds numbers, and angles of attack.
New iterative solvers for the NAG Libraries
Salvini, S.; Shaw, G.
1996-12-31
The purpose of this paper is to introduce the work which has been carried out at NAG Ltd to update the iterative solvers for sparse systems of linear equations, both symmetric and unsymmetric, in the NAG Fortran 77 Library. Our current plans to extend this work and include it in our other numerical libraries in our range are also briefly mentioned. We have added to the Library the new Chapter F11, entirely dedicated to sparse linear algebra. At Mark 17, the F11 Chapter includes sparse iterative solvers, preconditioners, utilities and black-box routines for sparse symmetric (both positive-definite and indefinite) linear systems. Mark 18 will add solvers, preconditioners, utilities and black-boxes for sparse unsymmetric systems: the development of these has already been completed.
Using SPARK as a Solver for Modelica
Wetter, Michael; Wetter, Michael; Haves, Philip; Moshier, Michael A.; Sowell, Edward F.
2008-06-30
Modelica is an object-oriented acausal modeling language that is well positioned to become a de-facto standard for expressing models of complex physical systems. To simulate a model expressed in Modelica, it needs to be translated into executable code. For generating run-time efficient code, such a translation needs to employ algebraic formula manipulations. As the SPARK solver has been shown to be competitive for generating such code but currently cannot be used with the Modelica language, we report in this paper how SPARK's symbolic and numerical algorithms can be implemented in OpenModelica, an open-source implementation of a Modelica modeling and simulation environment. We also report benchmark results that show that for our air flow network simulation benchmark, the SPARK solver is competitive with Dymola, which is believed to provide the best solver for Modelica.
HyeongKae Park; R. Nourgaliev; Richard C. Martineau; Dana A. Knoll
2008-09-01
Multidimensional, higher-order (2nd and higher) numerical methods have come to the forefront in recent years due to significant advances of computer technology and numerical algorithms, and have shown great potential as viable design tools for realistic applications. To achieve this goal, implicit high-order accurate coupling of the multiphysics simulations is a critical component. One of the issues that arise from multiphysics simulation is the necessity to resolve multiple time scales. For example, the dynamical time scales of neutron kinetics, fluid dynamics and heat conduction significantly differ (typically >1010 magnitude), with the dominant (fastest) physical mode also changing during the course of transient [Pope and Mousseau, 2007]. This leads to the severe time step restriction for stability in traditional multiphysics (i.e. operator split, semi-implicit discretization) simulations. The lower order methods suffer from an undesirable numerical dissipation. Thus implicit, higher order accurate scheme is necessary to perform seamlessly-coupled multiphysics simulations that can be used to analyze the “what-if” regulatory accident scenarios, or to design and optimize engineering systems.
Steady potential solver for unsteady aerodynamic analyses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoyniak, Dan
1994-01-01
Development of a steady flow solver for use with LINFLO was the objective of this report. The solver must be compatible with LINFLO, be composed of composite mesh, and have transonic capability. The approaches used were: (1) steady flow potential equations written in nonconservative form; (2) Newton's Method; (3) implicit, least-squares, interpolation method to obtain finite difference equations; and (4) matrix inversion routines from LINFLO. This report was given during the NASA LeRC Workshop on Forced Response in Turbomachinery in August of 1993.
Multigrid in energy preconditioner for Krylov solvers
Slaybaugh, R.N.; Evans, T.M.; Davidson, G.G.; Wilson, P.P.H.
2013-06-01
We have added a new multigrid in energy (MGE) preconditioner to the Denovo discrete-ordinates radiation transport code. This preconditioner takes advantage of a new multilevel parallel decomposition. A multigroup Krylov subspace iterative solver that is decomposed in energy as well as space-angle forms the backbone of the transport solves in Denovo. The space-angle-energy decomposition facilitates scaling to hundreds of thousands of cores. The multigrid in energy preconditioner scales well in the energy dimension and significantly reduces the number of Krylov iterations required for convergence. This preconditioner is well-suited for use with advanced eigenvalue solvers such as Rayleigh Quotient Iteration and Arnoldi.
ODE System Solver W. Krylov Iteration & Rootfinding
Hindmarsh, Alan C.
1991-09-09
LSODKR is a new initial value ODE solver for stiff and nonstiff systems. It is a variant of the LSODPK and LSODE solvers, intended mainly for large stiff systems. The main differences between LSODKR and LSODE are the following: (a) for stiff systems, LSODKR uses a corrector iteration composed of Newton iteration and one of four preconditioned Krylov subspace iteration methods. The user must supply routines for the preconditioning operations, (b) Within the corrector iteration, LSODKR does automatic switching between functional (fixpoint) iteration and modified Newton iteration, (c) LSODKR includes the ability to find roots of given functions of the solution during the integration.
ODE System Solver W. Krylov Iteration & Rootfinding
1991-09-09
LSODKR is a new initial value ODE solver for stiff and nonstiff systems. It is a variant of the LSODPK and LSODE solvers, intended mainly for large stiff systems. The main differences between LSODKR and LSODE are the following: (a) for stiff systems, LSODKR uses a corrector iteration composed of Newton iteration and one of four preconditioned Krylov subspace iteration methods. The user must supply routines for the preconditioning operations, (b) Within the corrector iteration,more » LSODKR does automatic switching between functional (fixpoint) iteration and modified Newton iteration, (c) LSODKR includes the ability to find roots of given functions of the solution during the integration.« less
Wave Speeds, Riemann Solvers and Artificial Viscosity
Rider, W.J.
1999-07-18
A common perspective on the numerical solution of the equation Euler equations for shock physics is examined. The common viewpoint is based upon the selection of nonlinear wavespeeds upon which the dissipation (implicit or explicit) is founded. This perspective shows commonality between Riemann solver based method (i.e. Godunov-type) and artificial viscosity (i.e. von Neumann-Richtmyer). As an example we derive an improved nonlinear viscous stabilization of a Richtmyer-Lax-Wendroff method. Additionally, we will define a form of classical artificial viscosity based upon the HLL Riemann solver.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
LeFloch, Philippe G.; Thanh, Mai Duc
2011-08-01
We investigate the Riemann problem for the shallow water equations with variable and (possibly) discontinuous topography and provide a complete description of the properties of its solutions: existence; uniqueness in the non-resonant regime; multiple solutions in the resonant regime. This analysis leads us to a numerical algorithm that provides one with a Riemann solver. Next, we introduce a Godunov-type scheme based on this Riemann solver, which is well-balanced and of quasi-conservative form. Finally, we present numerical experiments which demonstrate the convergence of the proposed scheme even in the resonance regime, except in the limiting situation when Riemann data precisely belong to the resonance hypersurface.
Mixing of discontinuously deforming media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, L. D.; Rudman, M.; Lester, D. R.; Metcalfe, G.
2016-02-01
Mixing of materials is fundamental to many natural phenomena and engineering applications. The presence of discontinuous deformations—such as shear banding or wall slip—creates new mechanisms for mixing and transport beyond those predicted by classical dynamical systems theory. Here, we show how a novel mixing mechanism combining stretching with cutting and shuffling yields exponential mixing rates, quantified by a positive Lyapunov exponent, an impossibility for systems with cutting and shuffling alone or bounded systems with stretching alone, and demonstrate it in a fluid flow. While dynamical systems theory provides a framework for understanding mixing in smoothly deforming media, a theory of discontinuous mixing is yet to be fully developed. New methods are needed to systematize, explain, and extrapolate measurements on systems with discontinuous deformations. Here, we investigate "webs" of Lagrangian discontinuities and show that they provide a template for the overall transport dynamics. Considering slip deformations as the asymptotic limit of increasingly localised smooth shear, we also demonstrate exactly how some of the new structures introduced by discontinuous deformations are analogous to structures in smoothly deforming systems.
Unstable supercritical discontinuous percolation transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Wei; Cheng, Xueqi; Zheng, Zhiming; Chung, Ning Ning; D'Souza, Raissa M.; Nagler, Jan
2013-10-01
The location and nature of the percolation transition in random networks is a subject of intense interest. Recently, a series of graph evolution processes have been introduced that lead to discontinuous percolation transitions where the addition of a single edge causes the size of the largest component to exhibit a significant macroscopic jump in the thermodynamic limit. These processes can have additional exotic behaviors, such as displaying a “Devil's staircase” of discrete jumps in the supercritical regime. Here we investigate whether the location of the largest jump coincides with the percolation threshold for a range of processes, such as Erdős-Rényipercolation, percolation via edge competition and via growth by overtaking. We find that the largest jump asymptotically occurs at the percolation transition for Erdős-Rényiand other processes exhibiting global continuity, including models exhibiting an “explosive” transition. However, for percolation processes exhibiting genuine discontinuities, the behavior is substantially richer. In percolation models where the order parameter exhibits a staircase, the largest discontinuity generically does not coincide with the percolation transition. For the generalized Bohman-Frieze-Wormald model, it depends on the model parameter. Distinct parameter regimes well in the supercritical regime feature unstable discontinuous transitions—a novel and unexpected phenomenon in percolation. We thus demonstrate that seemingly and genuinely discontinuous percolation transitions can involve a rich behavior in supercriticality, a regime that has been largely ignored in percolation.
Mixing of discontinuously deforming media.
Smith, L D; Rudman, M; Lester, D R; Metcalfe, G
2016-02-01
Mixing of materials is fundamental to many natural phenomena and engineering applications. The presence of discontinuous deformations-such as shear banding or wall slip-creates new mechanisms for mixing and transport beyond those predicted by classical dynamical systems theory. Here, we show how a novel mixing mechanism combining stretching with cutting and shuffling yields exponential mixing rates, quantified by a positive Lyapunov exponent, an impossibility for systems with cutting and shuffling alone or bounded systems with stretching alone, and demonstrate it in a fluid flow. While dynamical systems theory provides a framework for understanding mixing in smoothly deforming media, a theory of discontinuous mixing is yet to be fully developed. New methods are needed to systematize, explain, and extrapolate measurements on systems with discontinuous deformations. Here, we investigate "webs" of Lagrangian discontinuities and show that they provide a template for the overall transport dynamics. Considering slip deformations as the asymptotic limit of increasingly localised smooth shear, we also demonstrate exactly how some of the new structures introduced by discontinuous deformations are analogous to structures in smoothly deforming systems. PMID:26931594
A study of sound transmission in curved duct bends by the Galerkin method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tam, C. K. W.
1976-01-01
A computational procedure based on the Galerkin method is developed to study the sound transmission and reflection characteristics of circularly curved bends of rectangular ducts. This procedure is adaptable to routine computer calculation. An important component of the computer program consists of a QR iterative algorithm which solves the matrix eigenvalue problem generated by the Galerkin method. The present procedure produced very satisfactory convergent results when applied even to cases where the incident wave has high frequency and high wave mode numbers. Some properties of the Galerkin solution are investigated. Its relationship to the classical solution by the method of separation of variables is discussed.
Phase unwrapping using discontinuity optimization
Flynn, T.J.
1998-03-01
In SAR interferometry, the periodicity of the phase must be removed using two-dimensional phase unwrapping. The goal of the procedure is to find a smooth surface in which large spatial phase differences, called discontinuities, are restricted to places where their presence is reasonable. The pioneering work of Goldstein et al. identified points of local unwrap inconsistency called residues, which must be connected by discontinuities. This paper presents an overview of recent work that treats phase unwrapping as a discrete optimization problem with the constraint that residues must be connected. Several algorithms use heuristic methods to reduce the total number of discontinuities. Constantini has introduced the weighted sum of discontinuity magnitudes as a criterion of unwrap error and shown how algorithms from optimization theory are used to minimize it. Pixels of low quality are given low weight to guide discontinuities away from smooth, high-quality regions. This method is generally robust, but if noise is severe it underestimates the steepness of slopes and the heights of peaks. This problem is mitigated by subtracting (modulo 2{pi}) a smooth estimate of the unwrapped phase from the data, then unwrapping the resulting residual phase. The unwrapped residual is added to the smooth estimate to produce the final unwrapped phase. The estimate can be computed by lowpass filtering of an existing unwrapped phase; this makes possible an iterative algorithm in which the result of each iteration provides the estimate for the next. An example illustrates the results of optimal discontinuity placement and the improvement from unwrapping of the residual phase.
Galerkin approximation for inverse problems for nonautonomous nonlinear distributed systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Banks, H. T.; Reich, Simeon; Rosen, I. G.
1988-01-01
An abstract framework and convergence theory is developed for Galerkin approximation for inverse problems involving the identification of nonautonomous nonlinear distributed parameter systems. A set of relatively easily verified conditions is provided which are sufficient to guarantee the existence of optimal solutions and their approximation by a sequence of solutions to a sequence of approximating finite dimensional identification problems. The approach is based on the theory of monotone operators in Banach spaces and is applicable to a reasonably broad class of nonlinear distributed systems. Operator theoretic and variational techniques are used to establish a fundamental convergence result. An example involving evolution systems with dynamics described by nonstationary quasilinear elliptic operators along with some applications are presented and discussed.
Element free Galerkin formulation of composite beam with longitudinal slip
Ahmad, Dzulkarnain; Mokhtaram, Mokhtazul Haizad; Badli, Mohd Iqbal; Yassin, Airil Y. Mohd
2015-05-15
Behaviour between two materials in composite beam is assumed partially interact when longitudinal slip at its interfacial surfaces is considered. Commonly analysed by the mesh-based formulation, this study used meshless formulation known as Element Free Galerkin (EFG) method in the beam partial interaction analysis, numerically. As meshless formulation implies that the problem domain is discretised only by nodes, the EFG method is based on Moving Least Square (MLS) approach for shape functions formulation with its weak form is developed using variational method. The essential boundary conditions are enforced by Langrange multipliers. The proposed EFG formulation gives comparable results, after been verified by analytical solution, thus signify its application in partial interaction problems. Based on numerical test results, the Cubic Spline and Quartic Spline weight functions yield better accuracy for the EFG formulation, compares to other proposed weight functions.
A Galerkin least squares approach to viscoelastic flow.
Rao, Rekha R.; Schunk, Peter Randall
2015-10-01
A Galerkin/least-squares stabilization technique is applied to a discrete Elastic Viscous Stress Splitting formulation of for viscoelastic flow. From this, a possible viscoelastic stabilization method is proposed. This method is tested with the flow of an Oldroyd-B fluid past a rigid cylinder, where it is found to produce inaccurate drag coefficients. Furthermore, it fails for relatively low Weissenberg number indicating it is not suited for use as a general algorithm. In addition, a decoupled approach is used as a way separating the constitutive equation from the rest of the system. A Pressure Poisson equation is used when the velocity and pressure are sought to be decoupled, but this fails to produce a solution when inflow/outflow boundaries are considered. However, a coupled pressure-velocity equation with a decoupled constitutive equation is successful for the flow past a rigid cylinder and seems to be suitable as a general-use algorithm.
On the Implementation of 3D Galerkin Boundary Integral Equations
Nintcheu Fata, Sylvain; Gray, Leonard J
2010-01-01
In this article, a reverse contribution technique is proposed to accelerate the construction of the dense influence matrices associated with a Galerkin approximation of singular and hypersingular boundary integral equations of mixed-type in potential theory. In addition, a general-purpose sparse preconditioner for boundary element methods has also been developed to successfully deal with ill-conditioned linear systems arising from the discretization of mixed boundary-value problems on non-smooth surfaces. The proposed preconditioner, which originates from the precorrected-FFT method, is sparse, easy to generate and apply in a Krylov subspace iterative solution of discretized boundary integral equations. Moreover, an approximate inverse of the preconditioner is implicitly built by employing an incomplete LU factorization. Numerical experiments involving mixed boundary-value problems for the Laplace equation are included to illustrate the performance and validity of the proposed techniques.
Technological Discontinuities and Organizational Environments.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tushman, Michael L.; Anderson, Philip
1986-01-01
Technological effects on environmental conditions are analyzed using longitudinal data from the minicomputer, cement, and airline industries. Technology evolves through periods of incremental change punctuated by breakthroughs that enhance or destroy the competence of firms. Competence-destroying discontinuities increase environmental turbulence;…
The Morphosyntax of Discontinuous Exponence
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Campbell, Amy Melissa
2012-01-01
This thesis offers a systematic treatment of discontinuous exponence, a pattern of inflection in which a single feature or a set of features bundled in syntax is expressed by multiple, distinct morphemes. This pattern is interesting and theoretically relevant because it represents a deviation from the expected one-to-one relationship between…
Multi-dimensional hybrid Fourier continuation-WENO solvers for conservation laws
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shahbazi, Khosro; Hesthaven, Jan S.; Zhu, Xueyu
2013-11-01
We introduce a multi-dimensional point-wise multi-domain hybrid Fourier-Continuation/WENO technique (FC-WENO) that enables high-order and non-oscillatory solution of systems of nonlinear conservation laws, and essentially dispersionless, spectral, solution away from discontinuities, as well as mild CFL constraints for explicit time stepping schemes. The hybrid scheme conjugates the expensive, shock-capturing WENO method in small regions containing discontinuities with the efficient FC method in the rest of the computational domain, yielding a highly effective overall scheme for applications with a mix of discontinuities and complex smooth structures. The smooth and discontinuous solution regions are distinguished using the multi-resolution procedure of Harten [A. Harten, Adaptive multiresolution schemes for shock computations, J. Comput. Phys. 115 (1994) 319-338]. We consider a WENO scheme of formal order nine and a FC method of order five. The accuracy, stability and efficiency of the new hybrid method for conservation laws are investigated for problems with both smooth and non-smooth solutions. The Euler equations for gas dynamics are solved for the Mach 3 and Mach 1.25 shock wave interaction with a small, plain, oblique entropy wave using the hybrid FC-WENO, the pure WENO and the hybrid central difference-WENO (CD-WENO) schemes. We demonstrate considerable computational advantages of the new FC-based method over the two alternatives. Moreover, in solving a challenging two-dimensional Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI), the hybrid solver results in seven-fold speedup over the pure WENO scheme. Thanks to the multi-domain formulation of the solver, the scheme is straightforwardly implemented on parallel processors using message passing interface as well as on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) using CUDA programming language. The performance of the solver on parallel CPUs yields almost perfect scaling, illustrating the minimal communication requirements of the multi
On the Convergence of Galerkin Spectral Methods for a Bioconvective Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Aguiar, R.; Climent-Ezquerra, B.; Rojas-Medar, M. A.; Rojas-Medar, M. D.
2016-06-01
Convergence rates of the spectral Galerkin method are obtained for a system consisting of the Navier-Stokes equation coupled with a linear convection-diffusion equation modeling the concentration of microorganisms in a culture fluid.
Applying the stochastic Galerkin method to epidemic models with uncertainty in the parameters.
Harman, David B; Johnston, Peter R
2016-07-01
Parameters in modelling are not always known with absolute certainty. In epidemic modelling, this is true of many of the parameters. It is important for this uncertainty to be included in any model. This paper looks at using the stochastic Galerkin method to solve an SIR model with uncertainty in the parameters. The results obtained from the stochastic Galerkin method are then compared with results obtained through Monte Carlo sampling. The computational cost of each method is also compared. It is shown that the stochastic Galerkin method produces good results, even at low order expansions, that are much less computationally expensive than Monte Carlo sampling. It is also shown that the stochastic Galerkin method does not always converge and this non-convergence is explored. PMID:27091743
Note on coefficient matrices from stochastic Galerkin methods for random diffusion equations
Zhou Tao; Tang Tao
2010-11-01
In a recent work by Xiu and Shen [D. Xiu, J. Shen, Efficient stochastic Galerkin methods for random diffusion equations, J. Comput. Phys. 228 (2009) 266-281], the Galerkin methods are used to solve stochastic diffusion equations in random media, where some properties for the coefficient matrix of the resulting system are provided. They also posed an open question on the properties of the coefficient matrix. In this work, we will provide some results related to the open question.
Verifying a Local Generic Solver in Coq
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hofmann, Martin; Karbyshev, Aleksandr; Seidl, Helmut
Fixpoint engines are the core components of program analysis tools and compilers. If these tools are to be trusted, special attention should be paid also to the correctness of such solvers. In this paper we consider the local generic fixpoint solver RLD which can be applied to constraint systems {x}sqsupseteq fx,{x}in V, over some lattice {D} where the right-hand sides f x are given as arbitrary functions implemented in some specification language. The verification of this algorithm is challenging, because it uses higher-order functions and relies on side effects to track variable dependences as they are encountered dynamically during fixpoint iterations. Here, we present a correctness proof of this algorithm which has been formalized by means of the interactive proof assistant Coq.
Aleph Field Solver Challenge Problem Results Summary.
Hooper, Russell; Moore, Stan Gerald
2015-01-01
Aleph models continuum electrostatic and steady and transient thermal fields using a finite-element method. Much work has gone into expanding the core solver capability to support enriched mod- eling consisting of multiple interacting fields, special boundary conditions and two-way interfacial coupling with particles modeled using Aleph's complementary particle-in-cell capability. This report provides quantitative evidence for correct implementation of Aleph's field solver via order- of-convergence assessments on a collection of problems of increasing complexity. It is intended to provide Aleph with a pedigree and to establish a basis for confidence in results for more challeng- ing problems important to Sandia's mission that Aleph was specifically designed to address.
Gorpas, Dimitris; Andersson-Engels, Stefan
2012-12-01
The solution of the forward problem in fluorescence molecular imaging strongly influences the successful convergence of the fluorophore reconstruction. The most common approach to meeting this problem has been to apply the diffusion approximation. However, this model is a first-order angular approximation of the radiative transfer equation, and thus is subject to some well-known limitations. This manuscript proposes a methodology that confronts these limitations by applying the radiative transfer equation in spatial regions in which the diffusion approximation gives decreased accuracy. The explicit integro differential equations that formulate this model were solved by applying the Galerkin finite element approximation. The required spatial discretization of the investigated domain was implemented through the Delaunay triangulation, while the azimuthal discretization scheme was used for the angular space. This model has been evaluated on two simulation geometries and the results were compared with results from an independent Monte Carlo method and the radiative transfer equation by calculating the absolute values of the relative errors between these models. The results show that the proposed forward solver can approximate the radiative transfer equation and the Monte Carlo method with better than 95% accuracy, while the accuracy of the diffusion approximation is approximately 10% lower. PMID:23208221
Domain decomposition for the SPN solver MINOS
Jamelot, Erell; Baudron, Anne-Marie; Lautard, Jean-Jacques
2012-07-01
In this article we present a domain decomposition method for the mixed SPN equations, discretized with Raviart-Thomas-Nedelec finite elements. This domain decomposition is based on the iterative Schwarz algorithm with Robin interface conditions to handle communications. After having described this method, we give details on how to optimize the convergence. Finally, we give some numerical results computed in a realistic 3D domain. The computations are done with the MINOS solver of the APOLLO3 (R) code. (authors)
A perspective on unstructured grid flow solvers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Venkatakrishnan, V.
1995-01-01
This survey paper assesses the status of compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes solvers on unstructured grids. Different spatial and temporal discretization options for steady and unsteady flows are discussed. The integration of these components into an overall framework to solve practical problems is addressed. Issues such as grid adaptation, higher order methods, hybrid discretizations and parallel computing are briefly discussed. Finally, some outstanding issues and future research directions are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mulder, W. A.; Zhebel, E.; Minisini, S.
2014-02-01
We analyse the time-stepping stability for the 3-D acoustic wave equation, discretized on tetrahedral meshes. Two types of methods are considered: mass-lumped continuous finite elements and the symmetric interior-penalty discontinuous Galerkin method. Combining the spatial discretization with the leap-frog time-stepping scheme, which is second-order accurate and conditionally stable, leads to a fully explicit scheme. We provide estimates of its stability limit for simple cases, namely, the reference element with Neumann boundary conditions, its distorted version of arbitrary shape, the unit cube that can be partitioned into six tetrahedra with periodic boundary conditions and its distortions. The Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy stability limit contains an element diameter for which we considered different options. The one based on the sum of the eigenvalues of the spatial operator for the first-degree mass-lumped element gives the best results. It resembles the diameter of the inscribed sphere but is slightly easier to compute. The stability estimates show that the mass-lumped continuous and the discontinuous Galerkin finite elements of degree 2 have comparable stability conditions, whereas the mass-lumped elements of degree one and three allow for larger time steps.
38 CFR 21.7635 - Discontinuance dates.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
....S.C. 3680(e)) (b) Course discontinued—course interrupted—course terminated—course not satisfactorily...) (e) Discontinued by VA. If VA discontinues payment to a reservist following the procedures stated...
MILAMIN 2 - Fast MATLAB FEM solver
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dabrowski, Marcin; Krotkiewski, Marcin; Schmid, Daniel W.
2013-04-01
MILAMIN is a free and efficient MATLAB-based two-dimensional FEM solver utilizing unstructured meshes [Dabrowski et al., G-cubed (2008)]. The code consists of steady-state thermal diffusion and incompressible Stokes flow solvers implemented in approximately 200 lines of native MATLAB code. The brevity makes the code easily customizable. An important quality of MILAMIN is speed - it can handle millions of nodes within minutes on one CPU core of a standard desktop computer, and is faster than many commercial solutions. The new MILAMIN 2 allows three-dimensional modeling. It is designed as a set of functional modules that can be used as building blocks for efficient FEM simulations using MATLAB. The utilities are largely implemented as native MATLAB functions. For performance critical parts we use MUTILS - a suite of compiled MEX functions optimized for shared memory multi-core computers. The most important features of MILAMIN 2 are: 1. Modular approach to defining, tracking, and discretizing the geometry of the model 2. Interfaces to external mesh generators (e.g., Triangle, Fade2d, T3D) and mesh utilities (e.g., element type conversion, fast point location, boundary extraction) 3. Efficient computation of the stiffness matrix for a wide range of element types, anisotropic materials and three-dimensional problems 4. Fast global matrix assembly using a dedicated MEX function 5. Automatic integration rules 6. Flexible prescription (spatial, temporal, and field functions) and efficient application of Dirichlet, Neuman, and periodic boundary conditions 7. Treatment of transient and non-linear problems 8. Various iterative and multi-level solution strategies 9. Post-processing tools (e.g., numerical integration) 10. Visualization primitives using MATLAB, and VTK export functions We provide a large number of examples that show how to implement a custom FEM solver using the MILAMIN 2 framework. The examples are MATLAB scripts of increasing complexity that address a given
A discontinuous wave-in-cell numerical scheme for hyperbolic conservation laws
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thompson, Richard J.; Moeller, Trevor
2015-10-01
A new Riemann solver scheme for hyperbolic systems is introduced. The method consists of a discretization of the initial data into an approximate representation by discrete, discontinuous waves. Instead of calculating an intercell flux based on these waves, the discontinuous waves are propagated directly. Since the sum total of all discontinuous waves represents an extension of the linear Riemann problem, the solution is determined straightforwardly. For nonlinear systems, each timestep is considered a separate linear Riemann problem, and the projected waves are weighted to a background grid. This method is strikingly similar to the particle-in-cell approach, except that discontinuous waves are pushed around instead of macroparticles. The method is applied to Maxwell's equations and the equations of inviscid gasdynamics. For linear systems, exact solutions can be achieved without dissipation, and exact transmissive boundary condition treatments are trivial to implement. For inviscid gasdynamics, the nonlinear method tended to resolve discontinuities more sharply than the Roe, HLL or HLLC methods while requiring only between 30% and 50% of the execution time under identical conditions. The approach is also extremely robust, as it works for any Courant number. In the limit that the Courant number becomes infinite, the nonlinear solution approaches the linearized solution.
Bursts in discontinuous Aeolian saltation.
Carneiro, M V; Rasmussen, K R; Herrmann, H J
2015-01-01
Close to the onset of Aeolian particle transport through saltation we find in wind tunnel experiments a regime of discontinuous flux characterized by bursts of activity. Scaling laws are observed in the time delay between each burst and in the measurements of the wind fluctuations at the fluid threshold Shields number θc. The time delay between each burst decreases on average with the increase of the Shields number until sand flux becomes continuous. A numerical model for saltation including the wind-entrainment from the turbulent fluctuations can reproduce these observations and gives insight about their origin. We present here also for the first time measurements showing that with feeding it becomes possible to sustain discontinuous flux even below the fluid threshold. PMID:26073305
Discontinuities in Jovian sulphur plasma
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mekler, Y.; Eviatar, A.; Siscoe, G. L.
1979-01-01
The radial distribution of the Jovian sulfur plasma is discussed. Spectra of the ionized sulfur in the Jovian magnetosphere indicate a sharp discontinuity in visible sulfur emission at a radial distance of six Jupiter radii (Io orbit), outside of which emission is greatly reduced and the plasma is observed not to be in corotation with the planet. Possible explanations of this phenomenon include an effect of Io on the electron temperature outside its orbit, leading to the suppression of S II emission by second ionization, and a current system in Jupiter's ionosphere which prevents plasma from diffusing outward and decouples it from the corotation field. This discontinuity also requires reconciliation with Pioneer observations of the radial and pitch-angle diffusion of energetic charged particles.
Bursts in discontinuous Aeolian saltation
Carneiro, M. V.; Rasmussen, K. R.; Herrmann, H. J.
2015-01-01
Close to the onset of Aeolian particle transport through saltation we find in wind tunnel experiments a regime of discontinuous flux characterized by bursts of activity. Scaling laws are observed in the time delay between each burst and in the measurements of the wind fluctuations at the fluid threshold Shields number θc. The time delay between each burst decreases on average with the increase of the Shields number until sand flux becomes continuous. A numerical model for saltation including the wind-entrainment from the turbulent fluctuations can reproduce these observations and gives insight about their origin. We present here also for the first time measurements showing that with feeding it becomes possible to sustain discontinuous flux even below the fluid threshold. PMID:26073305
Reinforced ceramics employing discontinuous phases
Becher, P.F.
1990-01-01
The fracture toughness of ceramics can be improved by the incorporation of a variety of discontinuous reinforcing phases and microstructures. Observations of crack paths in these systems indicate that these reinforcing phases bridge the crack tip wake region. Recent developments in micromechanics toughening models applicable to such systems are discussed and compared with experimental observations. Because material parameters and microstructural characteristics are considered, the crack bridging models provide a means to optimize the toughening effects. 18 refs., 2 figs.
Discontinuous gas exchange in insects.
Quinlan, Michael C; Gibbs, Allen G
2006-11-01
Insect respiratory physiology has been studied for many years, and interest in this area of insect biology has become revitalized recently for a number of reasons. Technical advances have greatly improved the precision, accuracy and ease with which gas exchange can be measured in insects. This has made it possible to go beyond classic models such as lepidopteran pupae and examine a far greater diversity of species. One striking result of recent work is the realization that insect gas exchange patterns are much more diverse than formerly recognized. Current work has also benefited from the inclusion of comparative methods that rigorously incorporate phylogenetic, ecological and life history information. We discuss these advances in the context of the classic respiratory pattern of insects, discontinuous gas exchange. This mode of gas exchange was exhaustively described in moth pupae in the 1950s and 1960s. Early workers concluded that discontinuous gas exchange was an adaptation to reduce respiratory water loss. This idea is no longer universally accepted, and several competing hypotheses have been proposed. We discuss the genesis of these alternative hypotheses, and we identify some of the predictions that might be used to test them. We are pleased to report that what was once a mature discipline, in which the broad parameters and adaptive significance of discontinuous gas exchange were thought to be well understood, is now a thriving and vigorous field of research. PMID:16870512
77 FR 33314 - POSTNET Barcode Discontinuation
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2012-06-06
... 111 POSTNET Barcode Discontinuation AGENCY: Postal Service. TM ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY..., Domestic Mail Manual (DMM ) which discontinued price eligibility based on the use of POSTNET TM barcodes on... Postal Service published a final rule in the Federal Register (77 FR 26185-26191) to discontinue...
Discontinuous Mixed Covolume Methods for Parabolic Problems
Zhu, Ailing
2014-01-01
We present the semidiscrete and the backward Euler fully discrete discontinuous mixed covolume schemes for parabolic problems on triangular meshes. We give the error analysis of the discontinuous mixed covolume schemes and obtain optimal order error estimates in discontinuous H(div) and first-order error estimate in L2. PMID:24983008
40 CFR 159.167 - Discontinued studies.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discontinued studies. 159.167 Section... Discontinued studies. The fact that a study has been discontinued before the planned termination must be reported to EPA, with the reason for termination, if submission of information concerning the study is,...
40 CFR 159.167 - Discontinued studies.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discontinued studies. 159.167 Section... Discontinued studies. The fact that a study has been discontinued before the planned termination must be reported to EPA, with the reason for termination, if submission of information concerning the study is,...
38 CFR 21.9635 - Discontinuance dates.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... individual is enrolled in an institution of higher learning on the date of expiration of his or her period of... Discontinuance dates. The effective date of a reduction or discontinuance of educational assistance will be as... payment, the discontinuance date of educational assistance for the purpose of that lump sum payment...
38 CFR 21.9635 - Discontinuance dates.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... individual is enrolled in an institution of higher learning on the date of expiration of his or her period of... Discontinuance dates. The effective date of a reduction or discontinuance of educational assistance will be as... payment, the discontinuance date of educational assistance for the purpose of that lump sum payment...
38 CFR 21.9635 - Discontinuance dates.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... individual is enrolled in an institution of higher learning on the date of expiration of his or her period of... Discontinuance dates. The effective date of a reduction or discontinuance of educational assistance will be as... payment, the discontinuance date of educational assistance for the purpose of that lump sum payment...
A hybrid Pade-Galerkin technique for differential equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geer, James F.; Andersen, Carl M.
1993-01-01
A three-step hybrid analysis technique, which successively uses the regular perturbation expansion method, the Pade expansion method, and then a Galerkin approximation, is presented and applied to some model boundary value problems. In the first step of the method, the regular perturbation method is used to construct an approximation to the solution in the form of a finite power series in a small parameter epsilon associated with the problem. In the second step of the method, the series approximation obtained in step one is used to construct a Pade approximation in the form of a rational function in the parameter epsilon. In the third step, the various powers of epsilon which appear in the Pade approximation are replaced by new (unknown) parameters (delta(sub j)). These new parameters are determined by requiring that the residual formed by substituting the new approximation into the governing differential equation is orthogonal to each of the perturbation coordinate functions used in step one. The technique is applied to model problems involving ordinary or partial differential equations. In general, the technique appears to provide good approximations to the solution even when the perturbation and Pade approximations fail to do so. The method is discussed and topics for future investigations are indicated.
Approximate Riemann solvers for the Godunov SPH (GSPH)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Puri, Kunal; Ramachandran, Prabhu
2014-08-01
The Godunov Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (GSPH) method is coupled with non-iterative, approximate Riemann solvers for solutions to the compressible Euler equations. The use of approximate solvers avoids the expensive solution of the non-linear Riemann problem for every interacting particle pair, as required by GSPH. In addition, we establish an equivalence between the dissipative terms of GSPH and the signal based SPH artificial viscosity, under the restriction of a class of approximate Riemann solvers. This equivalence is used to explain the anomalous “wall heating” experienced by GSPH and we provide some suggestions to overcome it. Numerical tests in one and two dimensions are used to validate the proposed Riemann solvers. A general SPH pairing instability is observed for two-dimensional problems when using unequal mass particles. In general, Ducowicz Roe's and HLLC approximate Riemann solvers are found to be suitable replacements for the iterative Riemann solver in the original GSPH scheme.
Premature discontinuation of contraception in Australia.
Bracher, M; Santow, G
1992-01-01
Life-history data from a nationally representative survey of Australian women were used to examine discontinuation of contraceptive methods because of accidental pregnancy, side effects or dissatisfaction. The pill was the most successfully used method, with a first-year discontinuation rate of 10% for all three reasons. Side effects dominated the reasons for the premature discontinuation of both the pill and the IUD, while the reasons for discontinuing the condom stemmed equally from pregnancy and dissatisfaction with the method. Discontinuation of the diaphragm resulted largely from accidental pregnancy. Hazards models were used to identify the correlates of discontinuation of each method. Predictors of premature discontinuation reflect the availability of methods, physiological reactions to them and the social characteristics of their users. Discontinuation of the pill because of side effects or dissatisfaction was more likely among poorly educated women, non-Protestants and recent users, and less likely among teenagers. Discontinuation of the IUD was related entirely to physiological factors: Nulliparous women and users of unmedicated devices were at a greater risk than other women of accidental pregnancy, and nulliparous women were at greater risk of discontinuation associated with side effects. Nulliparous women were also more likely to discontinue the condom because of pregnancy, as were non-Protestants and the Australian-born. PMID:1612144
New Multigrid Solver Advances in TOPS
Falgout, R D; Brannick, J; Brezina, M; Manteuffel, T; McCormick, S
2005-06-27
In this paper, we highlight new multigrid solver advances in the Terascale Optimal PDE Simulations (TOPS) project in the Scientific Discovery Through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program. We discuss two new algebraic multigrid (AMG) developments in TOPS: the adaptive smoothed aggregation method ({alpha}SA) and a coarse-grid selection algorithm based on compatible relaxation (CR). The {alpha}SA method is showing promising results in initial studies for Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) applications. The CR method has the potential to greatly improve the applicability of AMG.
DPS--a computerised diagnostic problem solver.
Bartos, P; Gyárfas, F; Popper, M
1982-01-01
The paper contains a short description of the DPS system which is a computerized diagnostic problem solver. The system is under development of the Research Institute of Medical Bionics in Bratislava, Czechoslovakia. Its underlying philosophy yields from viewing the diagnostic process as process of cognitive problem solving. The implementation of the system is based on the methods of Artificial Intelligence and utilisation of production systems and frame theory should be noted in this context. Finally a list of program modules and their characterisation is presented. PMID:6811229
Updates to the NEQAIR Radiation Solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cruden, Brett A.; Brandis, Aaron M.
2014-01-01
The NEQAIR code is one of the original heritage solvers for radiative heating prediction in aerothermal environments, and is still used today for mission design purposes. This paper discusses the implementation of the first major revision to the NEQAIR code in the last five years, NEQAIR v14.0. The most notable features of NEQAIR v14.0 are the parallelization of the radiation computation, reducing runtimes by about 30×, and the inclusion of mid-wave CO2 infrared radiation.
Input-output-controlled nonlinear equation solvers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Padovan, Joseph
1988-01-01
To upgrade the efficiency and stability of the successive substitution (SS) and Newton-Raphson (NR) schemes, the concept of input-output-controlled solvers (IOCS) is introduced. By employing the formal properties of the constrained version of the SS and NR schemes, the IOCS algorithm can handle indefiniteness of the system Jacobian, can maintain iterate monotonicity, and provide for separate control of load incrementation and iterate excursions, as well as having other features. To illustrate the algorithmic properties, the results for several benchmark examples are presented. These define the associated numerical efficiency and stability of the IOCS.
Flame front as hydrodynamic discontinuity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukumoto, Yasuhide; Abarzhi, Snezhana
2012-11-01
We applied generalized Rankine-Hugoniot conditions to study the dynamics of unsteady and curved fronts as a hydrodynamic discontinuity. It is shown that the front is unstable and Landau-Darrieus instability develops only if three conditions are satisfied (1) large-scale vorticity is generated in the fluid bulk; (2) energy flux across the front is imbalanced; (3) the energy imbalance is large. The structure of the solution is studied in details. Flows with and without gravity and thermal diffusion are analyzed. Stabilization mechanisms are identified. NSF 1004330.
Discontinuous dynamics with grazing points
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akhmet, M. U.; Kıvılcım, A.
2016-09-01
Discontinuous dynamical systems with grazing solutions are discussed. The group property, continuation of solutions, continuity and smoothness of solutions are thoroughly analyzed. A variational system around a grazing solution which depends on near solutions is constructed. Orbital stability of grazing cycles is examined by linearization. Small parameter method is extended for analysis of grazing orbits, and bifurcation of cycles is observed in an example. Linearization around an equilibrium grazing point is discussed. The results can be extended on functional differential equations, partial differential equations and others. Appropriate illustrations are depicted to support the theoretical results.
Comparison of electromagnetic solvers for antennas mounted on vehicles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mocker, M. S. L.; Hipp, S.; Spinnler, F.; Tazi, H.; Eibert, T. F.
2015-11-01
An electromagnetic solver comparison for various use cases of antennas mounted on vehicles is presented. For this purpose, several modeling approaches, called transient, frequency and integral solver, including the features fast resonant method and autoregressive filter, offered by CST MWS, are investigated. The solvers and methods are compared for a roof antenna itself, a simplified vehicle, a roof including a panorama window and a combination of antenna and vehicle. With these examples, the influence of different materials, data formats and parameters such as size and complexity are investigated. Also, the necessary configurations for the mesh and the solvers are described.
Galerkin projection methods for solving multiple related linear systems
Chan, T.F.; Ng, M.; Wan, W.L.
1996-12-31
We consider using Galerkin projection methods for solving multiple related linear systems A{sup (i)}x{sup (i)} = b{sup (i)} for 1 {le} i {le} s, where A{sup (i)} and b{sup (i)} are different in general. We start with the special case where A{sup (i)} = A and A is symmetric positive definite. The method generates a Krylov subspace from a set of direction vectors obtained by solving one of the systems, called the seed system, by the CG method and then projects the residuals of other systems orthogonally onto the generated Krylov subspace to get the approximate solutions. The whole process is repeated with another unsolved system as a seed until all the systems are solved. We observe in practice a super-convergence behaviour of the CG process of the seed system when compared with the usual CG process. We also observe that only a small number of restarts is required to solve all the systems if the right-hand sides are close to each other. These two features together make the method particularly effective. In this talk, we give theoretical proof to justify these observations. Furthermore, we combine the advantages of this method and the block CG method and propose a block extension of this single seed method. The above procedure can actually be modified for solving multiple linear systems A{sup (i)}x{sup (i)} = b{sup (i)}, where A{sup (i)} are now different. We can also extend the previous analytical results to this more general case. Applications of this method to multiple related linear systems arising from image restoration and recursive least squares computations are considered as examples.
On code verification of RANS solvers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eça, L.; Klaij, C. M.; Vaz, G.; Hoekstra, M.; Pereira, F. S.
2016-04-01
This article discusses Code Verification of Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) solvers that rely on face based finite volume discretizations for volumes of arbitrary shape. The study includes test cases with known analytical solutions (generated with the method of manufactured solutions) corresponding to laminar and turbulent flow, with the latter using eddy-viscosity turbulence models. The procedure to perform Code Verification based on grid refinement studies is discussed and the requirements for its correct application are illustrated in a simple one-dimensional problem. It is shown that geometrically similar grids are recommended for proper Code Verification and so the data should not have scatter making the use of least square fits unnecessary. Results show that it may be advantageous to determine the extrapolated error to cell size/time step zero instead of assuming that it is zero, especially when it is hard to determine the asymptotic order of grid convergence. In the RANS examples, several of the features of the ReFRESCO solver are checked including the effects of the available turbulence models in the convergence properties of the code. It is shown that it is required to account for non-orthogonality effects in the discretization of the diffusion terms and that the turbulence quantities transport equations can deteriorate the order of grid convergence of mean flow quantities.
Using the scalable nonlinear equations solvers package
Gropp, W.D.; McInnes, L.C.; Smith, B.F.
1995-02-01
SNES (Scalable Nonlinear Equations Solvers) is a software package for the numerical solution of large-scale systems of nonlinear equations on both uniprocessors and parallel architectures. SNES also contains a component for the solution of unconstrained minimization problems, called SUMS (Scalable Unconstrained Minimization Solvers). Newton-like methods, which are known for their efficiency and robustness, constitute the core of the package. As part of the multilevel PETSc library, SNES incorporates many features and options from other parts of PETSc. In keeping with the spirit of the PETSc library, the nonlinear solution routines are data-structure-neutral, making them flexible and easily extensible. This users guide contains a detailed description of uniprocessor usage of SNES, with some added comments regarding multiprocessor usage. At this time the parallel version is undergoing refinement and extension, as we work toward a common interface for the uniprocessor and parallel cases. Thus, forthcoming versions of the software will contain additional features, and changes to parallel interface may result at any time. The new parallel version will employ the MPI (Message Passing Interface) standard for interprocessor communication. Since most of these details will be hidden, users will need to perform only minimal message-passing programming.
Algebraic Multiscale Solver for Elastic Geomechanical Deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castelletto, N.; Hajibeygi, H.; Tchelepi, H.
2015-12-01
Predicting the geomechanical response of geological formations to thermal, pressure, and mechanical loading is important in many engineering applications. The mathematical formulation that describes deformation of a reservoir coupled with flow and transport entails heterogeneous coefficients with a wide range of length scales. Such detailed heterogeneous descriptions of reservoir properties impose severe computational challenges for the study of realistic-scale (km) reservoirs. To deal with these challenges, we developed an Algebraic Multiscale Solver for ELastic geomechanical deformation (EL-AMS). Constructed on finite element fine-scale system, EL-AMS imposes a coarse-scale grid, which is a non-overlapping decomposition of the domain. Then, local (coarse) basis functions for the displacement vector are introduced. These basis functions honor the elastic properties of the local domains subject to the imposed local boundary conditions. The basis form the Restriction and Prolongation operators. These operators allow for the construction of accurate coarse-scale systems for the displacement. While the multiscale system is efficient for resolving low-frequency errors, coupling it with a fine-scale smoother, e.g., ILU(0), leads to an efficient iterative solver. Numerical results for several test cases illustrate that EL-AMS is quite efficient and applicable to simulate elastic deformation of large-scale heterogeneous reservoirs.
A Lagrange-Galerkin hp-Finite Element Method for a 3D Nonhydrostatic Ocean Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galán del Sastre, Pedro; Bermejo, Rodolfo
2016-03-01
We introduce in this paper a Lagrange-Galerkin hp-finite element method to calculate the numerical solution of a nonhydrostatic ocean model. The Lagrange-Galerkin method yields a Stokes-like problem the solution of which is computed by a second-order rotational splitting scheme that separates the calculation of the velocity and pressure, the latter is decomposed into hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic components. We have tested the method in flows where the nonhydrostatic effects are important. The results are very encouraging.
Trigonometric quadratic B-spline subdomain Galerkin algorithm for the Burgers' equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ay, Buket; Dag, Idris; Gorgulu, Melis Zorsahin
2015-12-01
A variant of the subdomain Galerkin method has been set up to find numerical solutions of the Burgers' equation. Approximate function consists of the combination of the trigonometric B-splines. Integration of Burgers' equation has been achived by aid of the subdomain Galerkin method based on the trigonometric B-splines as an approximate functions. The resulting first order ordinary differential system has been converted into an iterative algebraic equation by use of the Crank-Nicolson method at successive two time levels. The suggested algorithm is tested on somewell-known problems for the Burgers' equation.
Stochastic Galerkin methods for the steady-state Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sousedík, Bedřich; Elman, Howard C.
2016-07-01
We study the steady-state Navier-Stokes equations in the context of stochastic finite element discretizations. Specifically, we assume that the viscosity is a random field given in the form of a generalized polynomial chaos expansion. For the resulting stochastic problem, we formulate the model and linearization schemes using Picard and Newton iterations in the framework of the stochastic Galerkin method, and we explore properties of the resulting stochastic solutions. We also propose a preconditioner for solving the linear systems of equations arising at each step of the stochastic (Galerkin) nonlinear iteration and demonstrate its effectiveness for solving a set of benchmark problems.
Approximate Harten-Lax-van Leer Riemann solvers for relativistic magnetohydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mignone, Andrea; Bodo, G.; Ugliano, M.
2012-11-01
We review a particular class of approximate Riemann solvers in the context of the equations of ideal relativistic magnetohydrodynamics. Commonly prefixed as Harten-Lax-van Leer (HLL), this family of solvers approaches the solution of the Riemann problem by providing suitable guesses to the outermots characteristic speeds, without any prior knowledge of the solution. By requiring consistency with the integral form of the conservation law, a simplified set of jump conditions with a reduced number of characteristic waves may be obtained. The degree of approximation crucially depends on the wave pattern used in prepresnting the Riemann fan arising from the initial discontinuity breakup. In the original HLL scheme, the solution is approximated by collapsing the full characteristic structure into a single average state enclosed by two outermost fast mangnetosonic speeds. On the other hand, HLLC and HLLD improves the accuracy of the solution by restoring the tangential and Alfvén modes therefore leading to a representation of the Riemann fan in terms of 3 and 5 waves, respectively.
jShyLU Scalable Hybrid Preconditioner and Solver
2012-09-11
ShyLU is numerical software to solve sparse linear systems of equations. ShyLU uses a hybrid direct-iterative Schur complement method, and may be used either as a preconditioner or as a solver. ShyLU is parallel and optimized for a single compute Solver node. ShyLU will be a package in the Trilinos software framework.
Experiences with linear solvers for oil reservoir simulation problems
Joubert, W.; Janardhan, R.; Biswas, D.; Carey, G.
1996-12-31
This talk will focus on practical experiences with iterative linear solver algorithms used in conjunction with Amoco Production Company`s Falcon oil reservoir simulation code. The goal of this study is to determine the best linear solver algorithms for these types of problems. The results of numerical experiments will be presented.
Shape reanalysis and sensitivities utilizing preconditioned iterative boundary solvers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guru Prasad, K.; Kane, J. H.
1992-01-01
The computational advantages associated with the utilization of preconditined iterative equation solvers are quantified for the reanalysis of perturbed shapes using continuum structural boundary element analysis (BEA). Both single- and multi-zone three-dimensional problems are examined. Significant reductions in computer time are obtained by making use of previously computed solution vectors and preconditioners in subsequent analyses. The effectiveness of this technique is demonstrated for the computation of shape response sensitivities required in shape optimization. Computer times and accuracies achieved using the preconditioned iterative solvers are compared with those obtained via direct solvers and implicit differentiation of the boundary integral equations. It is concluded that this approach employing preconditioned iterative equation solvers in reanalysis and sensitivity analysis can be competitive with if not superior to those involving direct solvers.
A multigrid fluid pressure solver handling separating solid boundary conditions.
Chentanez, Nuttapong; Müller-Fischer, Matthias
2012-08-01
We present a multigrid method for solving the linear complementarity problem (LCP) resulting from discretizing the Poisson equation subject to separating solid boundary conditions in an Eulerian liquid simulation’s pressure projection step. The method requires only a few small changes to a multigrid solver for linear systems. Our generalized solver is fast enough to handle 3D liquid simulations with separating boundary conditions in practical domain sizes. Previous methods could only handle relatively small 2D domains in reasonable time, because they used expensive quadratic programming (QP) solvers. We demonstrate our technique in several practical scenarios, including nonaxis-aligned containers and moving solids in which the omission of separating boundary conditions results in disturbing artifacts of liquid sticking to solids. Our measurements show, that the convergence rate of our LCP solver is close to that of a standard multigrid solver. PMID:22411885
A real-time impurity solver for DMFT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Hyungwon; Aron, Camille; Han, Jong E.; Kotliar, Gabriel
Dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) offers a non-perturbative approach to problems with strongly correlated electrons. The method heavily relies on the ability to numerically solve an auxiliary Anderson-type impurity problem. While powerful Matsubara-frequency solvers have been developed over the past two decades to tackle equilibrium situations, the status of real-time impurity solvers that could compete with Matsubara-frequency solvers and be readily generalizable to non-equilibrium situations is still premature. We present a real-time solver which is based on a quantum Master equation description of the dissipative dynamics of the impurity and its exact diagonalization. As a benchmark, we illustrate the strengths of our solver in the context of the equilibrium Mott-insulator transition of the one-band Hubbard model and compare it with iterative perturbation theory (IPT) method. Finally, we discuss its direct application to a nonequilibrium situation.
Linear iterative solvers for implicit ODE methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saylor, Paul E.; Skeel, Robert D.
1990-01-01
The numerical solution of stiff initial value problems, which lead to the problem of solving large systems of mildly nonlinear equations are considered. For many problems derived from engineering and science, a solution is possible only with methods derived from iterative linear equation solvers. A common approach to solving the nonlinear equations is to employ an approximate solution obtained from an explicit method. The error is examined to determine how it is distributed among the stiff and non-stiff components, which bears on the choice of an iterative method. The conclusion is that error is (roughly) uniformly distributed, a fact that suggests the Chebyshev method (and the accompanying Manteuffel adaptive parameter algorithm). This method is described, also commenting on Richardson's method and its advantages for large problems. Richardson's method and the Chebyshev method with the Mantueffel algorithm are applied to the solution of the nonlinear equations by Newton's method.
Scalable Adaptive Multilevel Solvers for Multiphysics Problems
Xu, Jinchao
2014-12-01
In this project, we investigated adaptive, parallel, and multilevel methods for numerical modeling of various real-world applications, including Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), complex fluids, Electromagnetism, Navier-Stokes equations, and reservoir simulation. First, we have designed improved mathematical models and numerical discretizaitons for viscoelastic fluids and MHD. Second, we have derived new a posteriori error estimators and extended the applicability of adaptivity to various problems. Third, we have developed multilevel solvers for solving scalar partial differential equations (PDEs) as well as coupled systems of PDEs, especially on unstructured grids. Moreover, we have integrated the study between adaptive method and multilevel methods, and made significant efforts and advances in adaptive multilevel methods of the multi-physics problems.
Optimising a parallel conjugate gradient solver
Field, M.R.
1996-12-31
This work arises from the introduction of a parallel iterative solver to a large structural analysis finite element code. The code is called FEX and it was developed at Hitachi`s Mechanical Engineering Laboratory. The FEX package can deal with a large range of structural analysis problems using a large number of finite element techniques. FEX can solve either stress or thermal analysis problems of a range of different types from plane stress to a full three-dimensional model. These problems can consist of a number of different materials which can be modelled by a range of material models. The structure being modelled can have the load applied at either a point or a surface, or by a pressure, a centrifugal force or just gravity. Alternatively a thermal load can be applied with a given initial temperature. The displacement of the structure can be constrained by having a fixed boundary or by prescribing the displacement at a boundary.
Construction of energy-stable Galerkin reduced order models.
Kalashnikova, Irina; Barone, Matthew Franklin; Arunajatesan, Srinivasan; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf
2013-05-01
This report aims to unify several approaches for building stable projection-based reduced order models (ROMs). Attention is focused on linear time-invariant (LTI) systems. The model reduction procedure consists of two steps: the computation of a reduced basis, and the projection of the governing partial differential equations (PDEs) onto this reduced basis. Two kinds of reduced bases are considered: the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) basis and the balanced truncation basis. The projection step of the model reduction can be done in two ways: via continuous projection or via discrete projection. First, an approach for building energy-stable Galerkin ROMs for linear hyperbolic or incompletely parabolic systems of PDEs using continuous projection is proposed. The idea is to apply to the set of PDEs a transformation induced by the Lyapunov function for the system, and to build the ROM in the transformed variables. The resulting ROM will be energy-stable for any choice of reduced basis. It is shown that, for many PDE systems, the desired transformation is induced by a special weighted L2 inner product, termed the %E2%80%9Csymmetry inner product%E2%80%9D. Attention is then turned to building energy-stable ROMs via discrete projection. A discrete counterpart of the continuous symmetry inner product, a weighted L2 inner product termed the %E2%80%9CLyapunov inner product%E2%80%9D, is derived. The weighting matrix that defines the Lyapunov inner product can be computed in a black-box fashion for a stable LTI system arising from the discretization of a system of PDEs in space. It is shown that a ROM constructed via discrete projection using the Lyapunov inner product will be energy-stable for any choice of reduced basis. Connections between the Lyapunov inner product and the inner product induced by the balanced truncation algorithm are made. Comparisons are also made between the symmetry inner product and the Lyapunov inner product. The performance of ROMs constructed
General purpose nonlinear system solver based on Newton-Krylov method.
2013-12-01
KINSOL is part of a software family called SUNDIALS: SUite of Nonlinear and Differential/Algebraic equation Solvers [1]. KINSOL is a general-purpose nonlinear system solver based on Newton-Krylov and fixed-point solver technologies [2].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niu, Yang-Yao
2016-03-01
This paper is to continue our previous work in 2008 on solving a two-fluid model for compressible liquid-gas flows. We proposed a pressure-velocity based diffusion term original derived from AUSMD scheme of Wada and Liou in 1997 to enhance its robustness. The proposed AUSMD schemes have been applied to gas and liquid fluids universally to capture fluid discontinuities, such as the fluid interfaces and shock waves, accurately for the Ransom's faucet problem, air-water shock tube problems and 2D shock-water liquid interaction problems. However, the proposed scheme failed at computing liquid-gas interfaces in problems under large ratios of pressure, density and volume of fraction. The numerical instability has been remedied by Chang and Liou in 2007 using the exact Riemann solver to enhance the accuracy and stability of numerical flux across the liquid-gas interface. Here, instead of the exact Riemann solver, we propose a simple AUSMD type primitive variable Riemann solver (PVRS) which can successfully solve 1D stiffened water-air shock tube and 2D shock-gas interaction problems under large ratios of pressure, density and volume of fraction without the expensive cost of tedious computer time. In addition, the proposed approach is shown to deliver a good resolution of the shock-front, rarefaction and cavitation inside the evolution of high-speed droplet impact on the wall.
Compressible seal flow analysis using the finite element method with Galerkin solution technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zuk, J.
1974-01-01
A finite element method with a Galerkin solution (FEMGS) technique is formulated for the solution of nonlinear problems in high-pressure compressible seal flow analyses. An example of a three-dimensional axisymmetric flow having nonlinearities, due to compressibility, area expansion, and convective inertia, is used for illustrating the application of the technique.
A Galerkin-free model reduction approach for the Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shinde, Vilas; Longatte, Elisabeth; Baj, Franck; Hoarau, Yannick; Braza, Marianna
2016-03-01
Galerkin projection of the Navier-Stokes equations on Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) basis is predominantly used for model reduction in fluid dynamics. The robustness for changing operating conditions, numerical stability in long-term transient behavior and the pressure-term consideration are generally the main concerns of the Galerkin Reduced-Order Models (ROM). In this article, we present a novel procedure to construct an off-reference solution state by using an interpolated POD reduced basis. A linear interpolation of the POD reduced basis is performed by using two reference solution states. The POD basis functions are optimal in capturing the averaged flow energy. The energy dominant POD modes and corresponding base flow are interpolated according to the change in operating parameter. The solution state is readily built without performing the Galerkin projection of the Navier-Stokes equations on the reduced POD space modes as well as the following time-integration of the resulted Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE) to obtain the POD time coefficients. The proposed interpolation based approach is thus immune from the numerical issues associated with a standard POD-Galerkin ROM. In addition, a posteriori error estimate and a stability analysis of the obtained ROM solution are formulated. A detailed case study of the flow past a cylinder at low Reynolds numbers is considered for the demonstration of proposed method. The ROM results show good agreement with the high fidelity numerical flow simulation.
Finite-difference, spectral and Galerkin methods for time-dependent problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tadmor, E.
1983-01-01
Finite difference, spectral and Galerkin methods for the approximate solution of time dependent problems are surveyed. A unified discussion on their accuracy, stability and convergence is given. In particular, the dilemma of high accuracy versus stability is studied in some detail.
Student Discontinuations: Is the System Failing?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McSherry, Wilfred; Marland, Glenn R.
1999-01-01
Discusses factors associated with fairness and equity in relation to student discontinuation in nursing education. Shows how discontinuation is an integral part of higher education quality reviews. Promotes pre-exit counseling, monitoring of attrition, and review of academic and professional standards. (SK)
A Practical Guide to Regression Discontinuity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jacob, Robin; Zhu, Pei; Somers, Marie-Andrée; Bloom, Howard
2012-01-01
Regression discontinuity (RD) analysis is a rigorous nonexperimental approach that can be used to estimate program impacts in situations in which candidates are selected for treatment based on whether their value for a numeric rating exceeds a designated threshold or cut-point. Over the last two decades, the regression discontinuity approach has…
38 CFR 21.7135 - Discontinuance dates.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
...) Eligibility expires. If the veteran is pursuing a course on the date of expiration of eligibility as... Bill-Active Duty) Payments-Educational Assistance § 21.7135 Discontinuance dates. The effective date of... dependent. If more than one type of reduction or discontinuance is involved, the earliest date will...
38 CFR 21.7135 - Discontinuance dates.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...) Eligibility expires. If the veteran is pursuing a course on the date of expiration of eligibility as... Bill-Active Duty) Payments-Educational Assistance § 21.7135 Discontinuance dates. The effective date of... dependent. If more than one type of reduction or discontinuance is involved, the earliest date will...
38 CFR 21.7135 - Discontinuance dates.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
...) Eligibility expires. If the veteran is pursuing a course on the date of expiration of eligibility as... Bill-Active Duty) Payments-Educational Assistance § 21.7135 Discontinuance dates. The effective date of... dependent. If more than one type of reduction or discontinuance is involved, the earliest date will...
27 CFR 11.38 - Discontinued products.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discontinued products. 11.38 Section 11.38 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... products. When a producer or importer discontinues the production or importation of a product, a...
Evidence for coronavirus discontinuous transcription.
Jeong, Y S; Makino, S
1994-01-01
Coronavirus subgenomic mRNA possesses a 5'-end leader sequence which is derived from the 5' end of genomic RNA and is linked to the mRNA body sequence. This study examined whether coronavirus transcription involves a discontinuous transcription step; the possibility that a leader sequence from mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) genomic RNA could be used for MHV subgenomic defective interfering (DI) RNA transcription was examined. This was tested by using helper viruses and DI RNAs that were easily distinguishable. MHV JHM variant JHM(2), which synthesizes a subgenomic mRNA encoding the HE gene, and variant JHM(3-9), which does not synthesize this mRNA, were used. An MHV DI RNA, DI(J3-9), was constructed to contain a JHM(3-9)-derived leader sequence and an inserted intergenic region derived from the region preceding the MHV JHM HE gene. DI(J3-9) replicated efficiently in JHM(2)- or JHM(3-9)-infected cells, whereas synthesis of subgenomic DI RNAs was observed only in JHM(2)-infected cells. Sequence analyses demonstrated that the 5' regions of both helper virus genomic RNAs and genomic DI RNAs maintained their original sequences in DI RNA-replicating cells, indicating that the genomic leader sequences derived from JHM(2) functioned for subgenomic DI RNA transcription. Replication and transcription of DI(J3-9) were observed in cells infected with an MHV A59 strain whose leader sequence was similar to that of JHM(2), except for one nucleotide substitution within the leader sequence. The 5' region of the helper virus genomic RNA and that of the DI RNA were the same as their original structures in virus-infected cells, and the leader sequence of DI(J3-9) subgenomic DI RNA contained the MHV A59-derived leader sequence. The leader sequence of subgenomic DI RNA was derived from that of helper virus; therefore, the genomic leader sequence had a trans-acting property indicative of a discontinuous step in coronavirus transcription. Images PMID:8139040
Comparison of open-source linear programming solvers.
Gearhart, Jared Lee; Adair, Kristin Lynn; Durfee, Justin D.; Jones, Katherine A.; Martin, Nathaniel; Detry, Richard Joseph
2013-10-01
When developing linear programming models, issues such as budget limitations, customer requirements, or licensing may preclude the use of commercial linear programming solvers. In such cases, one option is to use an open-source linear programming solver. A survey of linear programming tools was conducted to identify potential open-source solvers. From this survey, four open-source solvers were tested using a collection of linear programming test problems and the results were compared to IBM ILOG CPLEX Optimizer (CPLEX) [1], an industry standard. The solvers considered were: COIN-OR Linear Programming (CLP) [2], [3], GNU Linear Programming Kit (GLPK) [4], lp_solve [5] and Modular In-core Nonlinear Optimization System (MINOS) [6]. As no open-source solver outperforms CPLEX, this study demonstrates the power of commercial linear programming software. CLP was found to be the top performing open-source solver considered in terms of capability and speed. GLPK also performed well but cannot match the speed of CLP or CPLEX. lp_solve and MINOS were considerably slower and encountered issues when solving several test problems.
Equation-free/Galerkin-free POD-assisted computation of incompressible flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sirisup, Sirod; Karniadakis, George Em; Xiu, Dongbin; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G.
2005-08-01
We present a Galerkin-free, proper orthogonal decomposition (POD)-assisted computational methodology for numerical simulations of the long-term dynamics of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The approach is based on the "equation-free" framework: we use short, appropriate initialized bursts of full direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the Navier-Stokes equations to observe, estimate, and accelerate, through "projective integration", the evolution of the flow dynamics. The main assumption is that the long-term dynamics of the flow lie on a low-dimensional, attracting, and invariant manifold, which can be parametrized, not necessarily spanned, by a few POD basis functions. We start with a discussion of the consistency and accuracy of the approach, and then illustrate it through numerical examples: two-dimensional periodic and quasi-periodic flows past a circular cylinder. We demonstrate that the approach can successfully resolve complex flow dynamics at a reduced computational cost and that it can capture the long-term asymptotic state of the flow in cases where traditional Galerkin-POD models fail. The approach trades the overhead involved in developing POD-Galerkin and POD-nonlinear Galerkin codes, for the repeated (yet short, and on demand) use of an existing full DNS simulator. Moreover, since in this approach the POD modes are used to observe rather than span the true system dynamics, the computation is much less sensitive than POD-Galerkin to values of the system parameters (e.g., the Reynolds number) and the particular simulation data ensemble used to obtain the POD basis functions.
Multi-GPU kinetic solvers using MPI and CUDA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zabelok, Sergey; Arslanbekov, Robert; Kolobov, Vladimir
2014-12-01
This paper describes recent progress towards porting a Unified Flow Solver (UFS) to heterogeneous parallel computing. The main challenge of porting UFS to graphics processing units (GPUs) comes from the dynamically adapted mesh, which causes irregular data access. We describe the implementation of CUDA kernels for three modules in UFS: the direct Boltzmann solver using discrete velocity method (DVM), the DSMC module, and the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) solver, all using octree Cartesian mesh with adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR). Double digit speedup on single GPU and good scaling for multi-GPU has been demonstrated.
A high-order gas-kinetic Navier-Stokes flow solver
Li Qibing; Xu Kun; Fu Song
2010-09-20
The foundation for the development of modern compressible flow solver is based on the Riemann solution of the inviscid Euler equations. The high-order schemes are basically related to high-order spatial interpolation or reconstruction. In order to overcome the low-order wave interaction mechanism due to the Riemann solution, the temporal accuracy of the scheme can be improved through the Runge-Kutta method, where the dynamic deficiencies in the first-order Riemann solution is alleviated through the sub-step spatial reconstruction in the Runge-Kutta process. The close coupling between the spatial and temporal evolution in the original nonlinear governing equations seems weakened due to its spatial and temporal decoupling. Many recently developed high-order methods require a Navier-Stokes flux function under piece-wise discontinuous high-order initial reconstruction. However, the piece-wise discontinuous initial data and the hyperbolic-parabolic nature of the Navier-Stokes equations seem inconsistent mathematically, such as the divergence of the viscous and heat conducting terms due to initial discontinuity. In this paper, based on the Boltzmann equation, we are going to present a time-dependent flux function from a high-order discontinuous reconstruction. The theoretical basis for such an approach is due to the fact that the Boltzmann equation has no specific requirement on the smoothness of the initial data and the kinetic equation has the mechanism to construct a dissipative wave structure starting from an initially discontinuous flow condition on a time scale being larger than the particle collision time. The current high-order flux evaluation method is an extension of the second-order gas-kinetic BGK scheme for the Navier-Stokes equations (BGK-NS). The novelty for the easy extension from a second-order to a higher order is due to the simple particle transport and collision mechanism on the microscopic level. This paper will present a hierarchy to construct such
Advanced Multigrid Solvers for Fluid Dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brandt, Achi
1999-01-01
The main objective of this project has been to support the development of multigrid techniques in computational fluid dynamics that can achieve "textbook multigrid efficiency" (TME), which is several orders of magnitude faster than current industrial CFD solvers. Toward that goal we have assembled a detailed table which lists every foreseen kind of computational difficulty for achieving it, together with the possible ways for resolving the difficulty, their current state of development, and references. We have developed several codes to test and demonstrate, in the framework of simple model problems, several approaches for overcoming the most important of the listed difficulties that had not been resolved before. In particular, TME has been demonstrated for incompressible flows on one hand, and for near-sonic flows on the other hand. General approaches were advanced for the relaxation of stagnation points and boundary conditions under various situations. Also, new algebraic multigrid techniques were formed for treating unstructured grid formulations. More details on all these are given below.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Raju, Manthena S.
1998-01-01
Sprays occur in a wide variety of industrial and power applications and in the processing of materials. A liquid spray is a phase flow with a gas as the continuous phase and a liquid as the dispersed phase (in the form of droplets or ligaments). Interactions between the two phases, which are coupled through exchanges of mass, momentum, and energy, can occur in different ways at different times and locations involving various thermal, mass, and fluid dynamic factors. An understanding of the flow, combustion, and thermal properties of a rapidly vaporizing spray requires careful modeling of the rate-controlling processes associated with the spray's turbulent transport, mixing, chemical kinetics, evaporation, and spreading rates, as well as other phenomena. In an attempt to advance the state-of-the-art in multidimensional numerical methods, we at the NASA Lewis Research Center extended our previous work on sprays to unstructured grids and parallel computing. LSPRAY, which was developed by M.S. Raju of Nyma, Inc., is designed to be massively parallel and could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase flow and/or Monte Carlo probability density function (PDF) solver. The LSPRAY solver accommodates the use of an unstructured mesh with mixed triangular, quadrilateral, and/or tetrahedral elements in the gas-phase solvers. It is used specifically for fuel sprays within gas turbine combustors, but it has many other uses. The spray model used in LSPRAY provided favorable results when applied to stratified-charge rotary combustion (Wankel) engines and several other confined and unconfined spray flames. The source code will be available with the National Combustion Code (NCC) as a complete package.
A comparative study on low-memory iterative solvers for FFT-based homogenization of periodic media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishra, Nachiketa; Vondřejc, Jaroslav; Zeman, Jan
2016-09-01
In this paper, we assess the performance of four iterative algorithms for solving non-symmetric rank-deficient linear systems arising in the FFT-based homogenization of heterogeneous materials defined by digital images. Our framework is based on the Fourier-Galerkin method with exact and approximate integrations that has recently been shown to generalize the Lippmann-Schwinger setting of the original work by Moulinec and Suquet from 1994. It follows from this variational format that the ensuing system of linear equations can be solved by general-purpose iterative algorithms for symmetric positive-definite systems, such as the Richardson, the Conjugate gradient, and the Chebyshev algorithms, that are compared here to the Eyre-Milton scheme - the most efficient specialized method currently available. Our numerical experiments, carried out for two-dimensional elliptic problems, reveal that the Conjugate gradient algorithm is the most efficient option, while the Eyre-Milton method performs comparably to the Chebyshev semi-iteration. The Richardson algorithm, equivalent to the still widely used original Moulinec-Suquet solver, exhibits the slowest convergence. Besides this, we hope that our study highlights the potential of the well-established techniques of numerical linear algebra to further increase the efficiency of FFT-based homogenization methods.
[Prospective evaluation of antidepressant discontinuation].
Mourad, I; Lejoyeux, M; Adès, J
1998-01-01
The authors prospectively assessed symptoms induced by the interruption of antidepressants in 16 patients (11 women and 5 men), aged from 33 to 85 years (mean = 52.4 +/- 16.4), treated with antidepressants since at least two weeks. All patients were free of alcohol abuse or dependence disorder and of other dependence to psychoactive substances. None of them presented medical illness. Diagnosis were made by separate evaluations by two authors and confirmed with a semistructered assessment instrument: the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (Lifetime Version). All patients were submitted to a brutal discontinuation of their antidepressant agent. Patients were assessed twice, before the interruption of the antidepressant, and 72 hours later. Effects of antidepressant interruption were assessed by several means. Modification of anxiety and depression were evaluated using the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale. Symptoms of withdrawal were assessed with Cassano and al.'s scale SESSH including an evaluation of anxiety, agitation, irritability, anergy, difficulty on concentrating, depersonalization, sleep and appetite disorders, muscle pains, nausea, tremor, sweating, altered taste, hyperosmia, paresthesias, photophobia, motor incoordination, dizziness, hyperacousia pain, delirium. Fourteen of the 16 patients (87.5%) presented modifications of their somatic or psychic state 3 days after the interruption of the antidepressant treatment. Most frequent symptoms were: increase in anxiety (31%), increase in irritability (25%), sleep disorders (19%), decrease of anergia and fatigue (19%). Mean scores of anxiety and depression were not significantly modified by the withdrawal. Following TCAs interruption (7 patients) most frequent symptoms were sleep disorders; increase in anxiety, nausea. Among patients withdrawn from SSRIs (6 patients), most frequent symptoms were increase in anxiety, increase in irritability
Handling Vacuum Regions in a Hybrid Plasma Solver
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holmström, M.
2013-04-01
In a hybrid plasma solver (particle ions, fluid mass-less electrons) regions of vacuum, or very low charge density, can cause problems since the evaluation of the electric field involves division by charge density. This causes large electric fields in low density regions that can lead to numerical instabilities. Here we propose a self consistent handling of vacuum regions for hybrid solvers. Vacuum regions can be considered having infinite resistivity, and in this limit Faraday's law approaches a magnetic diffusion equation. We describe an algorithm that solves such a diffusion equation in regions with charge density below a threshold value. We also present an implementation of this algorithm in a hybrid plasma solver, and an application to the interaction between the Moon and the solar wind. We also discuss the implementation of hyperresistivity for smoothing the electric field in a PIC solver.
Parallel iterative solvers and preconditioners using approximate hierarchical methods
Grama, A.; Kumar, V.; Sameh, A.
1996-12-31
In this paper, we report results of the performance, convergence, and accuracy of a parallel GMRES solver for Boundary Element Methods. The solver uses a hierarchical approximate matrix-vector product based on a hybrid Barnes-Hut / Fast Multipole Method. We study the impact of various accuracy parameters on the convergence and show that with minimal loss in accuracy, our solver yields significant speedups. We demonstrate the excellent parallel efficiency and scalability of our solver. The combined speedups from approximation and parallelism represent an improvement of several orders in solution time. We also develop fast and paralellizable preconditioners for this problem. We report on the performance of an inner-outer scheme and a preconditioner based on truncated Green`s function. Experimental results on a 256 processor Cray T3D are presented.
Signal integrity analysis on discontinuous microstrip line
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiao, Qingyang; Dai, Yawen; Chen, Zipeng
2013-03-01
In high speed PCB design, microstirp lines were used to control the impedance, however, the discontinuous microstrip line can cause signal integrity problems. In this paper, we use the transmission line theory to study the characteristics of microstrip lines. Research results indicate that the discontinuity such as truncation, gap and size change result in the problems such as radiation, reflection, delay and ground bounce. We change the discontinuities to distributed parameter circuits, analysed the steady-state response and transient response and the phase delay. The transient response cause radiation and voltage jump.
Solving ordinary differential equations with discontinuities
Gear, C.W.; Osterby, O.
1981-09-01
An algorithm is described that can detect and locate some discontinuities and provide information about their size, order and position. However, the success of the algorithm is strongly dependent on the location of the discontinuity with respect to the steps that straddle it. The major advantage of the scheme appears to be that a more reliable error estimate can be used when a discontinuity is present so that codes will be more robust. In some cases significant savings may accrue but it appears that a better restarting procedure than the one used will be necessary to realize most of those benefits.
An advanced implicit solver for MHD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Udrea, Bogdan
A new implicit algorithm has been developed for the solution of the time-dependent, viscous and resistive single fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. The algorithm is based on an approximate Riemann solver for the hyperbolic fluxes and central differencing applied on a staggered grid for the parabolic fluxes. The algorithm employs a locally aligned coordinate system that allows the solution to the Riemann problems to be solved in a natural direction, normal to cell interfaces. The result is an original scheme that is robust and reduces the complexity of the flux formulas. The evaluation of the parabolic fluxes is also implemented using a locally aligned coordinate system, this time on the staggered grid. The implicit formulation employed by WARP3 is a two level scheme that was applied for the first time to the single fluid MHD model. The flux Jacobians that appear in the implicit scheme are evaluated numerically. The linear system that results from the implicit discretization is solved using a robust symmetric Gauss-Seidel method. The code has an explicit mode capability so that implementation and test of new algorithms or new physics can be performed in this simpler mode. Last but not least the code was designed and written to run on parallel computers so that complex, high resolution runs can be per formed in hours rather than days. The code has been benchmarked against analytical and experimental gas dynamics and MHD results. The benchmarks consisted of one-dimensional Riemann problems and diffusion dominated problems, two-dimensional supersonic flow over a wedge, axisymmetric magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster simulation and three-dimensional supersonic flow over intersecting wedges and spheromak stability simulation. The code has been proven to be robust and the results of the simulations showed excellent agreement with analytical and experimental results. Parallel performance studies showed that the code performs as expected when run on parallel
Benchmarking transport solvers for fracture flow problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olkiewicz, Piotr; Dabrowski, Marcin
2015-04-01
Fracture flow may dominate in rocks with low porosity and it can accompany both industrial and natural processes. Typical examples of such processes are natural flows in crystalline rocks and industrial flows in geothermal systems or hydraulic fracturing. Fracture flow provides an important mechanism for transporting mass and energy. For example, geothermal energy is primarily transported by the flow of the heated water or steam rather than by the thermal diffusion. The geometry of the fracture network and the distribution of the mean apertures of individual fractures are the key parameters with regard to the fracture network transmissivity. Transport in fractures can occur through the combination of advection and diffusion processes like in the case of dissolved chemical components. The local distribution of the fracture aperture may play an important role for both flow and transport processes. In this work, we benchmark various numerical solvers for flow and transport processes in a single fracture in 2D and 3D. Fracture aperture distributions are generated by a number of synthetic methods. We examine a single-phase flow of an incompressible viscous Newtonian fluid in the low Reynolds number limit. Periodic boundary conditions are used and a pressure difference is imposed in the background. The velocity field is primarly found using the Stokes equations. We systematically compare the obtained velocity field to the results obtained by solving the Reynolds equation. This allows us to examine the impact of the aperture distribution on the permeability of the medium and the local velocity distribution for two different mathematical descriptions of the fracture flow. Furthermore, we analyse the impact of aperture distribution on the front characteristics such as the standard deviation and the fractal dimension for systems in 2D and 3D.
A robust multilevel simultaneous eigenvalue solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Costiner, Sorin; Taasan, Shlomo
1993-01-01
Multilevel (ML) algorithms for eigenvalue problems are often faced with several types of difficulties such as: the mixing of approximated eigenvectors by the solution process, the approximation of incomplete clusters of eigenvectors, the poor representation of solution on coarse levels, and the existence of close or equal eigenvalues. Algorithms that do not treat appropriately these difficulties usually fail, or their performance degrades when facing them. These issues motivated the development of a robust adaptive ML algorithm which treats these difficulties, for the calculation of a few eigenvectors and their corresponding eigenvalues. The main techniques used in the new algorithm include: the adaptive completion and separation of the relevant clusters on different levels, the simultaneous treatment of solutions within each cluster, and the robustness tests which monitor the algorithm's efficiency and convergence. The eigenvectors' separation efficiency is based on a new ML projection technique generalizing the Rayleigh Ritz projection, combined with a technique, the backrotations. These separation techniques, when combined with an FMG formulation, in many cases lead to algorithms of O(qN) complexity, for q eigenvectors of size N on the finest level. Previously developed ML algorithms are less focused on the mentioned difficulties. Moreover, algorithms which employ fine level separation techniques are of O(q(sub 2)N) complexity and usually do not overcome all these difficulties. Computational examples are presented where Schrodinger type eigenvalue problems in 2-D and 3-D, having equal and closely clustered eigenvalues, are solved with the efficiency of the Poisson multigrid solver. A second order approximation is obtained in O(qN) work, where the total computational work is equivalent to only a few fine level relaxations per eigenvector.
Discontinuation of Statins: What Are the Risks?
Marrs, Joel C; Kostoff, Matthew D
2016-07-01
The key benefits of statin therapy have been well established in both primary and secondary prevention cardiovascular patients. Many studies have shown a significant statin discontinuation rate within the first year of initiation whether for primary or secondary prevention. National guidelines for the management of dyslipidemia highlight the lack of benefit seen with statin therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease receiving dialysis, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, and patients greater than 75 years of age without atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Available data outside of these patient populations do not support discontinuation of statin therapy. Recent studies support an association with statin discontinuation and increased risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death. Based on the available data, discontinuation of statin therapy should be carefully considered. PMID:27221503
Discontinuity stresses in metallic pressure vessels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1971-01-01
The state of the art, criteria, and recommended practices for the theoretical and experimental analyses of discontinuity stresses and their distribution in metallic pressure vessels for space vehicles are outlined. The applicable types of pressure vessels include propellant tanks ranging from main load-carrying integral tank structure to small auxiliary tanks, storage tanks, solid propellant motor cases, high pressure gas bottles, and pressurized cabins. The major sources of discontinuity stresses are discussed, including deviations in geometry, material properties, loads, and temperature. The advantages, limitations, and disadvantages of various theoretical and experimental discontinuity analysis methods are summarized. Guides are presented for evaluating discontinuity stresses so that pressure vessel performance will not fall below acceptable levels.
Discontinuous Spirals of Stable Periodic Oscillations
Sack, Achim; Freire, Joana G.; Lindberg, Erik; Pöschel, Thorsten; Gallas, Jason A. C.
2013-01-01
We report the experimental discovery of a remarkable organization of the set of self-generated periodic oscillations in the parameter space of a nonlinear electronic circuit. When control parameters are suitably tuned, the wave pattern complexity of the periodic oscillations is found to increase orderly without bound. Such complex patterns emerge forming self-similar discontinuous phases that combine in an artful way to produce large discontinuous spirals of stability. This unanticipated discrete accumulation of stability phases was detected experimentally and numerically in a Duffing-like proxy specially designed to bypass noisy spectra conspicuously present in driven oscillators. Discontinuous spirals organize the dynamics over extended parameter intervals around a focal point. They are useful to optimize locking into desired oscillatory modes and to control complex systems. The organization of oscillations into discontinuous spirals is expected to be generic for a class of nonlinear oscillators. PMID:24284508
Discontinuity Detection for Analysis of Telerobot Trajectories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yeom, Kiwon; Ellis, Stephen R.; Adelstein, Bernard D.
2013-01-01
To identify spatial and temporal discontinuities in telerobot movement in order to describe the shift in operators control and error correction strategies from continuous control to move-and-wait strategies. This shift was studied under conditions of simulated increasingly time-delayed teleoperation. The ultimate goal is to determine if the time delay associated with the shift is invariant with independently imposed control difficulty. We expect this shift to manifest itself as changes in the number of discontinuity of movement path. We proposed an approach to spatial and temporal discontinuity detection algorithm for analysis of teleoperated trajectory in three dimensional space. The algorithm provides a simple and potentially objective method for detecting the discontinuity during telerobot operation and evaluating the difficulty of rotational coordinate condition in teleoperation.
A Comparative Study of Randomized Constraint Solvers for Random-Symbolic Testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Takaki, Mitsuo; Cavalcanti, Diego; Gheyi, Rohit; Iyoda, Juliano; dAmorim, Marcelo; Prudencio, Ricardo
2009-01-01
The complexity of constraints is a major obstacle for constraint-based software verification. Automatic constraint solvers are fundamentally incomplete: input constraints often build on some undecidable theory or some theory the solver does not support. This paper proposes and evaluates several randomized solvers to address this issue. We compare the effectiveness of a symbolic solver (CVC3), a random solver, three hybrid solvers (i.e., mix of random and symbolic), and two heuristic search solvers. We evaluate the solvers on two benchmarks: one consisting of manually generated constraints and another generated with a concolic execution of 8 subjects. In addition to fully decidable constraints, the benchmarks include constraints with non-linear integer arithmetic, integer modulo and division, bitwise arithmetic, and floating-point arithmetic. As expected symbolic solving (in particular, CVC3) subsumes the other solvers for the concolic execution of subjects that only generate decidable constraints. For the remaining subjects the solvers are complementary.
Reducing discontinuation in family planning programs.
Roberts, D; Panitchpakdi, P; Loevinsohn, B
1993-01-01
Management strategies for reducing discontinuation in family planning programs are summarized; the strategies are practical and show how to analyze data for women who stop using contraception. Common factors that are associated with high levels of discontinuation are identified. Recommendations are made for how program managers can change service delivery in order to improve client continuation. Understanding the size and nature of discontinuation is an important precursor to a solution. Data collection on discontinuation could be combined with a system for tracking and follow-up of individual clients. The reasons that women stop using contraception are identified as those which clinics can or cannot control. A clinic discontinues is one who is a "no show" within a reasonable period of time. Decisions need to be made about the type of discontinues to be tracked, e.g. all new acceptors or pill users only. How to identify no shows, how to use the daily register tracking system, and how to calculate discontinuation rates are described. A special daily record tracking system can be used to track clients over years and does not replace the client medical and reproductive history record. The advantages are that client forms to not have to be redesigned and staff training is simple. The disadvantages apply to large clinics and the need for ample filing areas and proper management. An example is given of a working solution in Kenya for a community-based distribution program. Discontinuation rates may be calculated in various ways; a more exact measure tends to be the most useful. Recalculating discontinuation rates at regular intervals can provide an effective way to check standards of care. A tally sheet can be used to track characteristics of discontinues; a sample is given and analyzed to show interpretations which point the way to program changes. Comparisons may be made by age, method type, length of use. An example is given of the Rwanda service delivery system and
Origins of the 520-km discontinuity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vinnik, Lev
2016-04-01
The 520-km discontinuity is often explained by the phase transition from wadsleyite to ringwoodite, although the theoretical impedance of this transition is so small that the related converted and reflected seismic phases could hardly be seen in the seismograms. At the same time there are numerous reports on observations of a large discontinuity at this depth, especially in the data on SS precursors and P-wave wide-angle reflections. Revenaugh and Jordan (1991) argued that this discontinuity is related to the garnet/post-garnet transformation. Gu et al. (1998) preferred very deep continental roots extending into the transition zone. Deuss and Woodhouse proposed splitting of the 520-km discontinuity into two discontinuities, whilst Bock (1994) denied evidence of the 520-km discontinuity in the SS precursors. Our approach to this problem is based on the analysis of S and P receiver functions. Most of our data are related to hot-spots in and around the Atlantic where the appropriate converted phases are often comparable in amplitude with P410s and S410p. Both S and P receiver functions provide strong evidence of a low S velocity in a depth range from 450 km to 510 km at some locations. The 520-km discontinuity appears to be the base of this low-velocity layer. Our observations of the low S velocity in the upper transition zone are very consistent with the indications of a drop in the solidus temperature of carbonated peridotite in the same pressure range (Keshav et al. 2011), and this phenomenon provides a viable alternative to the other explanations of the 520-km discontinuity.
Discontinuities of multi-Regge amplitudes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fadin, V. S.
2015-04-01
In the BFKL approach, discontinuities of multiple production amplitudes in invariant masses of produced particles are discussed. It turns out that they are in evident contradiction with the BDS ansatz for n-gluon amplitudes in the planar N = 4 SYM at n ≥ 6. An explicit expression for the NLO discontinuity of the two-to-four amplitude in the invariant mass of two produced gluons is is presented.
An implementation analysis of the linear discontinuous finite element method
Becker, T. L.
2013-07-01
This paper provides an implementation analysis of the linear discontinuous finite element method (LD-FEM) that spans the space of (l, x, y, z). A practical implementation of LD includes 1) selecting a computationally efficient algorithm to solve the 4 x 4 matrix system Ax = b that describes the angular flux in a mesh element, and 2) choosing how to store the data used to construct the matrix A and the vector b to either reduce memory consumption or increase computational speed. To analyze the first of these, three algorithms were selected to solve the 4 x 4 matrix equation: Cramer's rule, a streamlined implementation of Gaussian elimination, and LAPACK's Gaussian elimination subroutine dgesv. The results indicate that Cramer's rule and the streamlined Gaussian elimination algorithm perform nearly equivalently and outperform LAPACK's implementation of Gaussian elimination by a factor of 2. To analyze the second implementation detail, three formulations of the discretized LD-FEM equations were provided for implementation in a transport solver: 1) a low-memory formulation, which relies heavily on 'on-the-fly' calculations and less on the storage of pre-computed data, 2) a high-memory formulation, which pre-computes much of the data used to construct A and b, and 3) a reduced-memory formulation, which lies between the low - and high-memory formulations. These three formulations were assessed in the Jaguar transport solver based on relative memory footprint and computational speed for increasing mesh size and quadrature order. The results indicated that the memory savings of the low-memory formulation were not sufficient to warrant its implementation. The high-memory formulation resulted in a significant speed advantage over the reduced-memory option (10-50%), but also resulted in a proportional increase in memory consumption (5-45%) for increasing quadrature order and mesh count; therefore, the practitioner should weigh the system memory constraints against any
Quantitative analysis of numerical solvers for oscillatory biomolecular system models
Quo, Chang F; Wang, May D
2008-01-01
Background This article provides guidelines for selecting optimal numerical solvers for biomolecular system models. Because various parameters of the same system could have drastically different ranges from 10-15 to 1010, the ODEs can be stiff and ill-conditioned, resulting in non-unique, non-existing, or non-reproducible modeling solutions. Previous studies have not examined in depth how to best select numerical solvers for biomolecular system models, which makes it difficult to experimentally validate the modeling results. To address this problem, we have chosen one of the well-known stiff initial value problems with limit cycle behavior as a test-bed system model. Solving this model, we have illustrated that different answers may result from different numerical solvers. We use MATLAB numerical solvers because they are optimized and widely used by the modeling community. We have also conducted a systematic study of numerical solver performances by using qualitative and quantitative measures such as convergence, accuracy, and computational cost (i.e. in terms of function evaluation, partial derivative, LU decomposition, and "take-off" points). The results show that the modeling solutions can be drastically different using different numerical solvers. Thus, it is important to intelligently select numerical solvers when solving biomolecular system models. Results The classic Belousov-Zhabotinskii (BZ) reaction is described by the Oregonator model and is used as a case study. We report two guidelines in selecting optimal numerical solver(s) for stiff, complex oscillatory systems: (i) for problems with unknown parameters, ode45 is the optimal choice regardless of the relative error tolerance; (ii) for known stiff problems, both ode113 and ode15s are good choices under strict relative tolerance conditions. Conclusions For any given biomolecular model, by building a library of numerical solvers with quantitative performance assessment metric, we show that it is possible
Multilevel additive Schwarz method for the h-p version of the Galerkin boundary element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heuer, N.; Stephan, E. P.; Tran, T.
1998-04-01
We study a multilevel additive Schwarz method for the h-p version of the Galerkin boundary element method with geometrically graded meshes. Both hypersingular and weakly singular integral equations of the first kind are considered. As it is well known the h-p version with geometric meshes converges exponentially fast in the energy-norm. However, the condition number of the Galerkin matrix in this case blows up exponentially in the number of unknowns M. We prove that the condition number kappa(P) of the multilevel additive Schwarz operator behaves like O(root Mlog(2) M). Asa direct consequence of this we also give the results for the 2-level preconditioner and also for the h-p version with quasi-uniform meshes. Numerical results supporting our theory are presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosen, I. G.
1988-01-01
An approximation and convergence theory was developed for Galerkin approximations to infinite dimensional operator Riccati differential equations formulated in the space of Hilbert-Schmidt operators on a separable Hilbert space. The Riccati equation was treated as a nonlinear evolution equation with dynamics described by a nonlinear monotone perturbation of a strongly coercive linear operator. A generic approximation result was proven for quasi-autonomous nonlinear evolution system involving accretive operators which was then used to demonstrate the Hilbert-Schmidt norm convergence of Galerkin approximations to the solution of the Riccati equation. The application of the results was illustrated in the context of a linear quadratic optimal control problem for a one dimensional heat equation.
Extensions of the Ritz-Galerkin method for the forced, damped vibrations of structural elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leissa, A. W.; Young, T. H.
1984-01-01
The Ritz-Galerkin methods were used to obtain approximate solutions for free undamped, vibration problems. It is demonstrated that these same methods may be used straightforwardly to analyze forced vibrations with damping without requiring the free vibration eigenfunctions. It was shown that the Galerkin method is an effective technique for these types of problems. The Ritz method has the advantage that it does not need to satisfy the force-type boundary conditions, which is particularly important for plates and shells. Proper functionals representing the forcing and damping terms were developed. Two types of damping--viscous and material (hysteretic) are discussed. Distributed and concentrated exciting forces are treated. Numerical results are obtained for cantilevered beams and rectangular plates. The rates of convergence of the solutions are shown. Approximate solutions from the present methods are compared with the exact solutions for the cantilever beam.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, D. M.; Liew, K. M.; Cheng, Y. M.
2014-06-01
Using the complex variable moving least-squares (CVMLS) approximation, a complex variable element-free Galerkin (CVEFG) method for two-dimensional elastoplastic large deformation problems is presented. This meshless method has higher computational precision and efficiency because in the CVMLS approximation, the trial function of a two-dimensional problem is formed with a one-dimensional basis function. For two-dimensional elastoplastic large deformation problems, the Galerkin weak form is employed to obtain its equation system. The penalty method is used to impose essential boundary conditions. Then the corresponding formulae of the CVEFG method for two-dimensional elastoplastic large deformation problems are derived. In comparison with the conventional EFG method, our study shows that the CVEFG method has higher precision and efficiency. For illustration purpose, a few selected numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the advantages of the CVEFG method.
Galerkin Spectral Method for the 2D Solitary Waves of Boussinesq Paradigm Equation
Christou, M. A.; Christov, C. I.
2009-10-29
We consider the 2D stationary propagating solitary waves of the so-called Boussinesq Paradigm equation. The fourth- order elliptic boundary value problem on infinite interval is solved by a Galerkin spectral method. An iterative procedure based on artificial time ('false transients') and operator splitting is used. Results are obtained for the shapes of the solitary waves for different values of the dispersion parameters for both subcritical and supercritical phase speeds.
Application of variational and Galerkin equations to linear and nonlinear finite element analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yu, Y.-Y.
1974-01-01
The paper discusses the application of the variational equation to nonlinear finite element analysis. The problem of beam vibration with large deflection is considered. The variational equation is shown to be flexible in both the solution of a general problem and in the finite element formulation. Difficulties are shown to arise when Galerkin's equations are used in the consideration of the finite element formulation of two-dimensional linear elasticity and of the linear classical beam.
Euler/Navier-Stokes Solvers Applied to Ducted Fan Configurations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Srivastava, Rakesh
1997-01-01
Due to noise considerations, ultra high bypass ducted fans have become a more viable design. These ducted fans typically consist of a rotor stage containing a wide chord fan and a stator stage. One of the concerns for this design is the classical flutter that keeps occurring in various unducted fan blade designs. These flutter are catastrophic and are to be avoided in the flight envelope of the engine. Some numerical investigations by Williams, Cho and Dalton, have suggested that a duct around a propeller makes it more unstable. This needs to be further investigated. In order to design an engine to safely perform a set of desired tasks, accurate information of the stresses on the blade during the entire cycle of blade motion is required. This requirement in turn demands that accurate knowledge of steady and unsteady blade loading be available. Aerodynamic solvers based on unsteady three-dimensional analysis will provide accurate and fast solutions and are best suited for aeroelastic analysis. The Euler solvers capture significant physics of the flowfield and are reasonably fast. An aerodynamic solver Ref. based on Euler equations had been developed under a separate grant from NASA Lewis in the past. Under the current grant, this solver has been modified to calculate the aeroelastic characteristics of unducted and ducted rotors. Even though, the aeroelastic solver based on three-dimensional Euler equations is computationally efficient, it is still very expensive to investigate the effects of multiple stages on the aeroelastic characteristics. In order to investigate the effects of multiple stages, a two-dimensional multi stage aeroelastic solver was also developed under this task, in collaboration with Dr. T. S. R. Reddy of the University of Toledo. Both of these solvers were applied to several test cases and validated against experimental data, where available.
A hybrid perturbation-Galerkin method for differential equations containing a parameter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geer, James F.; Andersen, Carl M.
1989-01-01
A two-step hybrid perturbation-Galerkin method to solve a variety of differential equations which involve a parameter is presented and discussed. The method consists of: (1) the use of a perturbation method to determine the asymptotic expansion of the solution about one or more values of the parameter; and (2) the use of some of the perturbation coefficient functions as trial functions in the classical Bubnov-Galerkin method. This hybrid method has the potential of overcoming some of the drawbacks of the perturbation method and the Bubnov-Galerkin method when they are applied by themselves, while combining some of the good features of both. The proposed method is illustrated first with a simple linear two-point boundary value problem and is then applied to a nonlinear two-point boundary value problem in lubrication theory. The results obtained from the hybrid method are compared with approximate solutions obtained by purely numerical methods. Some general features of the method, as well as some special tips for its implementation, are discussed. A survey of some current research application areas is presented and its degree of applicability to broader problem areas is discussed.
Performance Models for the Spike Banded Linear System Solver
Manguoglu, Murat; Saied, Faisal; Sameh, Ahmed; Grama, Ananth
2011-01-01
With availability of large-scale parallel platforms comprised of tens-of-thousands of processors and beyond, there is significant impetus for the development of scalable parallel sparse linear system solvers and preconditioners. An integral part of this design process is the development of performance models capable of predicting performance and providing accurate cost models for the solvers and preconditioners. There has been some work in the past on characterizing performance of the iterative solvers themselves. In this paper, we investigate the problem of characterizing performance and scalability of banded preconditioners. Recent work has demonstrated the superior convergence properties and robustness of banded preconditioners,more » compared to state-of-the-art ILU family of preconditioners as well as algebraic multigrid preconditioners. Furthermore, when used in conjunction with efficient banded solvers, banded preconditioners are capable of significantly faster time-to-solution. Our banded solver, the Truncated Spike algorithm is specifically designed for parallel performance and tolerance to deep memory hierarchies. Its regular structure is also highly amenable to accurate performance characterization. Using these characteristics, we derive the following results in this paper: (i) we develop parallel formulations of the Truncated Spike solver, (ii) we develop a highly accurate pseudo-analytical parallel performance model for our solver, (iii) we show excellent predication capabilities of our model – based on which we argue the high scalability of our solver. Our pseudo-analytical performance model is based on analytical performance characterization of each phase of our solver. These analytical models are then parameterized using actual runtime information on target platforms. An important consequence of our performance models is that they reveal underlying performance bottlenecks in both serial and parallel formulations. All of our results are validated
The novel high-performance 3-D MT inverse solver
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kruglyakov, Mikhail; Geraskin, Alexey; Kuvshinov, Alexey
2016-04-01
We present novel, robust, scalable, and fast 3-D magnetotelluric (MT) inverse solver. The solver is written in multi-language paradigm to make it as efficient, readable and maintainable as possible. Separation of concerns and single responsibility concepts go through implementation of the solver. As a forward modelling engine a modern scalable solver extrEMe, based on contracting integral equation approach, is used. Iterative gradient-type (quasi-Newton) optimization scheme is invoked to search for (regularized) inverse problem solution, and adjoint source approach is used to calculate efficiently the gradient of the misfit. The inverse solver is able to deal with highly detailed and contrasting models, allows for working (separately or jointly) with any type of MT responses, and supports massive parallelization. Moreover, different parallelization strategies implemented in the code allow optimal usage of available computational resources for a given problem statement. To parameterize an inverse domain the so-called mask parameterization is implemented, which means that one can merge any subset of forward modelling cells in order to account for (usually) irregular distribution of observation sites. We report results of 3-D numerical experiments aimed at analysing the robustness, performance and scalability of the code. In particular, our computational experiments carried out at different platforms ranging from modern laptops to HPC Piz Daint (6th supercomputer in the world) demonstrate practically linear scalability of the code up to thousands of nodes.
Performance of Nonlinear Finite-Difference Poisson-Boltzmann Solvers.
Cai, Qin; Hsieh, Meng-Juei; Wang, Jun; Luo, Ray
2010-01-12
We implemented and optimized seven finite-difference solvers for the full nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation in biomolecular applications, including four relaxation methods, one conjugate gradient method, and two inexact Newton methods. The performance of the seven solvers was extensively evaluated with a large number of nucleic acids and proteins. Worth noting is the inexact Newton method in our analysis. We investigated the role of linear solvers in its performance by incorporating the incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient and the geometric multigrid into its inner linear loop. We tailored and optimized both linear solvers for faster convergence rate. In addition, we explored strategies to optimize the successive over-relaxation method to reduce its convergence failures without too much sacrifice in its convergence rate. Specifically we attempted to adaptively change the relaxation parameter and to utilize the damping strategy from the inexact Newton method to improve the successive over-relaxation method. Our analysis shows that the nonlinear methods accompanied with a functional-assisted strategy, such as the conjugate gradient method and the inexact Newton method, can guarantee convergence in the tested molecules. Especially the inexact Newton method exhibits impressive performance when it is combined with highly efficient linear solvers that are tailored for its special requirement. PMID:24723843
Adaptive kinetic-fluid solvers for heterogeneous computing architectures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zabelok, Sergey; Arslanbekov, Robert; Kolobov, Vladimir
2015-12-01
We show feasibility and benefits of porting an adaptive multi-scale kinetic-fluid code to CPU-GPU systems. Challenges are due to the irregular data access for adaptive Cartesian mesh, vast difference of computational cost between kinetic and fluid cells, and desire to evenly load all CPUs and GPUs during grid adaptation and algorithm refinement. Our Unified Flow Solver (UFS) combines Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) with automatic cell-by-cell selection of kinetic or fluid solvers based on continuum breakdown criteria. Using GPUs enables hybrid simulations of mixed rarefied-continuum flows with a million of Boltzmann cells each having a 24 × 24 × 24 velocity mesh. We describe the implementation of CUDA kernels for three modules in UFS: the direct Boltzmann solver using the discrete velocity method (DVM), the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) solver, and a mesoscopic solver based on the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), all using adaptive Cartesian mesh. Double digit speedups on single GPU and good scaling for multi-GPUs have been demonstrated.
Robust parallel iterative solvers for linear and least-squares problems, Final Technical Report
Saad, Yousef
2014-01-16
The primary goal of this project is to study and develop robust iterative methods for solving linear systems of equations and least squares systems. The focus of the Minnesota team is on algorithms development, robustness issues, and on tests and validation of the methods on realistic problems. 1. The project begun with an investigation on how to practically update a preconditioner obtained from an ILU-type factorization, when the coefficient matrix changes. 2. We investigated strategies to improve robustness in parallel preconditioners in a specific case of a PDE with discontinuous coefficients. 3. We explored ways to adapt standard preconditioners for solving linear systems arising from the Helmholtz equation. These are often difficult linear systems to solve by iterative methods. 4. We have also worked on purely theoretical issues related to the analysis of Krylov subspace methods for linear systems. 5. We developed an effective strategy for performing ILU factorizations for the case when the matrix is highly indefinite. The strategy uses shifting in some optimal way. The method was extended to the solution of Helmholtz equations by using complex shifts, yielding very good results in many cases. 6. We addressed the difficult problem of preconditioning sparse systems of equations on GPUs. 7. A by-product of the above work is a software package consisting of an iterative solver library for GPUs based on CUDA. This was made publicly available. It was the first such library that offers complete iterative solvers for GPUs. 8. We considered another form of ILU which blends coarsening techniques from Multigrid with algebraic multilevel methods. 9. We have released a new version on our parallel solver - called pARMS [new version is version 3]. As part of this we have tested the code in complex settings - including the solution of Maxwell and Helmholtz equations and for a problem of crystal growth.10. As an application of polynomial preconditioning we considered the
27 CFR 17.187 - Discontinuance of business.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discontinuance of business... PRODUCTS Miscellaneous Provisions § 17.187 Discontinuance of business. The manufacturer shall notify TTB when business is to be discontinued. Upon discontinuance of business, a manufacturer's entire stock...
27 CFR 478.57 - Discontinuance of business.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discontinuance of business... Licenses § 478.57 Discontinuance of business. (a) Where a firearm or ammunition business is either discontinued or succeeded by a new owner, the owner of the business discontinued or succeeded shall within...
27 CFR 478.57 - Discontinuance of business.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discontinuance of business... Licenses § 478.57 Discontinuance of business. (a) Where a firearm or ammunition business is either discontinued or succeeded by a new owner, the owner of the business discontinued or succeeded shall within...
27 CFR 478.127 - Discontinuance of business.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discontinuance of business... Records § 478.127 Discontinuance of business. Where a licensed business is discontinued and succeeded by a... be delivered to the successor. Where discontinuance of the business is absolute, the records shall...
27 CFR 478.127 - Discontinuance of business.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discontinuance of business... Records § 478.127 Discontinuance of business. Where a licensed business is discontinued and succeeded by a... be delivered to the successor. Where discontinuance of the business is absolute, the records shall...
27 CFR 555.128 - Discontinuance of business.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discontinuance of business... Discontinuance of business. Where an explosive materials business or operations is discontinued and succeeded by... such facts and shall be delivered to the successor. Where discontinuance of the business or...
27 CFR 555.128 - Discontinuance of business.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discontinuance of business... Discontinuance of business. Where an explosive materials business or operations is discontinued and succeeded by... such facts and shall be delivered to the successor. Where discontinuance of the business or...
27 CFR 478.127 - Discontinuance of business.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Discontinuance of business... Records § 478.127 Discontinuance of business. Where a licensed business is discontinued and succeeded by a... be delivered to the successor. Where discontinuance of the business is absolute, the records shall...
27 CFR 555.128 - Discontinuance of business.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Discontinuance of business... Discontinuance of business. Where an explosive materials business or operations is discontinued and succeeded by... such facts and shall be delivered to the successor. Where discontinuance of the business or...
27 CFR 555.128 - Discontinuance of business.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discontinuance of business... Discontinuance of business. Where an explosive materials business or operations is discontinued and succeeded by... such facts and shall be delivered to the successor. Where discontinuance of the business or...
27 CFR 478.127 - Discontinuance of business.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discontinuance of business... Records § 478.127 Discontinuance of business. Where a licensed business is discontinued and succeeded by a... be delivered to the successor. Where discontinuance of the business is absolute, the records shall...
27 CFR 478.57 - Discontinuance of business.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discontinuance of business... Licenses § 478.57 Discontinuance of business. (a) Where a firearm or ammunition business is either discontinued or succeeded by a new owner, the owner of the business discontinued or succeeded shall within...
Identifying the Factors Underlying Discontinuation of Triptans
Wells, Rebecca E.; Markowitz, Shira Y.; Baron, Eric P.; Hentz, Joseph G.; Kalidas, Kavita; Mathew, Paul G.; Halker, Rashmi; Dodick, David W.; Schwedt, Todd J.
2014-01-01
Objective To identify factors associated with triptan discontinuation among migraine patients. Background It is unclear why many migraine patients who are prescribed triptans discontinue this treatment. This study investigated correlates of triptan discontinuation with a focus on potentially modifiable factors to improve compliance. Methods This multi-center cross-sectional survey (n=276) was performed at U.S. tertiary care headache clinics. Headache fellows who were members of the American Headache Society Headache Fellows Research Consortium recruited episodic and chronic migraine patients who were current triptan users (use within prior 3 months and for ≥ 1 year) or past triptan users (no use within 6 months; prior use within 2 years). Univariate analyses were first completed to compare current triptan users to past users for: migraine characteristics, other migraine treatments, triptan education, triptan efficacy, triptan side effects, type of prescribing provider, Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) scores and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores. Then, a multivariable logistic regression model was selected from all possible combinations of predictor variables to determine the factors that best correlated with triptan discontinuation. Results Compared to those still using triptans (n=207), those who had discontinued use (n=69) had higher rates of medication overuse (30 vs. 18%, p=0.04), were more likely to have ever used opioids for migraine treatment (57 vs. 38%, p=0.006) as well as higher MIDAS (mean 63 vs. 37, p=0.001) and BDI scores (mean 10.4 vs. 7.4, p=0.009). Compared to discontinued users, current triptan users were more likely to have had their triptan prescribed by a specialist (neurologist, headache specialist, or pain specialist) (74 vs. 54%, p=0.002) and were more likely to report headache resolution (53 vs. 14%, p<0.001) or a reduction in pain intensity (71 vs. 28%, p<0.001) most of the time from their triptan. On a 1-5 scale (1=disagree
General Equation Set Solver for Compressible and Incompressible Turbomachinery Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sondak, Douglas L.; Dorney, Daniel J.
2002-01-01
Turbomachines for propulsion applications operate with many different working fluids and flow conditions. The flow may be incompressible, such as in the liquid hydrogen pump in a rocket engine, or supersonic, such as in the turbine which may drive the hydrogen pump. Separate codes have traditionally been used for incompressible and compressible flow solvers. The General Equation Set (GES) method can be used to solve both incompressible and compressible flows, and it is not restricted to perfect gases, as are many compressible-flow turbomachinery solvers. An unsteady GES turbomachinery flow solver has been developed and applied to both air and water flows through turbines. It has been shown to be an excellent alternative to maintaining two separate codes.
Two Solvers for Tractable Temporal Constraints with Preferences
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rossi, F.; Khatib,L.; Morris, P.; Morris, R.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
A number of reasoning problems involving the manipulation of temporal information can naturally be viewed as implicitly inducing an ordering of potential local decisions involving time on the basis of preferences. Soft temporal constraints problems allow to describe in a natural way scenarios where events happen over time and preferences are associated to event distances and durations. In general, solving soft temporal problems require exponential time in the worst case, but there are interesting subclasses of problems which are polynomially solvable. We describe two solvers based on two different approaches for solving the same tractable subclass. For each solver we present the theoretical results it stands on, a description of the algorithm and some experimental results. The random generator used to build the problems on which tests are performed is also described. Finally, we compare the two solvers highlighting the tradeoff between performance and representational power.
A multiple right hand side iterative solver for history matching
Killough, J.E.; Sharma, Y.; Dupuy, A.; Bissell, R.; Wallis, J.
1995-12-31
History matching of oil and gas reservoirs can be accelerated by directly calculating the gradients of observed quantities (e.g., well pressure) with respect to the adjustable reserve parameters (e.g., permeability). This leads to a set of linear equations which add a significant overhead to the full simulation run without gradients. Direct Gauss elimination solvers can be used to address this problem by performing the factorization of the matrix only once and then reusing the factor matrix for the solution of the multiple right hand sides. This is a limited technique, however. Experience has shown that problems with greater than few thousand cells may not be practical for direct solvers because of computation time and memory limitations. This paper discusses the implementation of a multiple right hand side iterative linear equation solver (MRHS) for a system of adjoint equations to significantly enhance the performance of a gradient simulator.
Gpu Implementation of a Viscous Flow Solver on Unstructured Grids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Tianhao; Chen, Long
2016-06-01
Graphics processing units have gained popularities in scientific computing over past several years due to their outstanding parallel computing capability. Computational fluid dynamics applications involve large amounts of calculations, therefore a latest GPU card is preferable of which the peak computing performance and memory bandwidth are much better than a contemporary high-end CPU. We herein focus on the detailed implementation of our GPU targeting Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations solver based on finite-volume method. The solver employs a vertex-centered scheme on unstructured grids for the sake of being capable of handling complex topologies. Multiple optimizations are carried out to improve the memory accessing performance and kernel utilization. Both steady and unsteady flow simulation cases are carried out using explicit Runge-Kutta scheme. The solver with GPU acceleration in this paper is demonstrated to have competitive advantages over the CPU targeting one.
Method for simulating discontinuous physical systems
Baty, Roy S.; Vaughn, Mark R.
2001-01-01
The mathematical foundations of conventional numerical simulation of physical systems provide no consistent description of the behavior of such systems when subjected to discontinuous physical influences. As a result, the numerical simulation of such problems requires ad hoc encoding of specific experimental results in order to address the behavior of such discontinuous physical systems. In the present invention, these foundations are replaced by a new combination of generalized function theory and nonstandard analysis. The result is a class of new approaches to the numerical simulation of physical systems which allows the accurate and well-behaved simulation of discontinuous and other difficult physical systems, as well as simpler physical systems. Applications of this new class of numerical simulation techniques to process control, robotics, and apparatus design are outlined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cervone, A.; Manservisi, S.; Scardovelli, R.
2010-09-01
A multilevel VOF approach has been coupled to an accurate finite element Navier-Stokes solver in axisymmetric geometry for the simulation of incompressible liquid jets with high density ratios. The representation of the color function over a fine grid has been introduced to reduce the discontinuity of the interface at the cell boundary. In the refined grid the automatic breakup and coalescence occur at a spatial scale much smaller than the coarse grid spacing. To reduce memory requirements, we have implemented on the fine grid a compact storage scheme which memorizes the color function data only in the mixed cells. The capillary force is computed by using the Laplace-Beltrami operator and a volumetric approach for the two principal curvatures. Several simulations of axisymmetric jets have been performed to show the accuracy and robustness of the proposed scheme.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor discontinuation during pregnancy
Ejaz, Resham; Leibson, Tom; Koren, Gideon
2014-01-01
Abstract Question I have a patient who discontinued her selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor in pregnancy against my advice owing to fears it might affect the baby. She eventually attempted suicide. How can we deal effectively with this situation? Answer The “cold turkey” discontinuation of needed antidepressants is a serious public health issue strengthened by fears and misinformation. It is very important for physicians to ensure that evidence-based information is given to women in a way that is easy to understand. The risks of untreated moderate to severe depression far outweigh the theoretical risks of taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. PMID:25642484
Current discontinuities on superconducting cosmic strings
Troyan, E. Vlasov, Yu. V.
2011-07-15
The propagation of current perturbations on superconducting cosmic strings is considered. The conditions for the existence of discontinuities similar to shock waves have been found. The formulas relating the string parameters and the discontinuity propagation speed are derived. The current growth law in a shock wave is deduced. The propagation speeds of shock waves with arbitrary amplitudes are calculated. The reason why there are no shock waves in the case of time-like currents (in the 'electric' regime) is explained; this is attributable to the shock wave instability with respect to perturbations of the string world sheet.
Fast Euler solver for transonic airfoils. I - Theory. II - Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dadone, Andrea; Moretti, Gino
1988-01-01
Equations written in terms of generalized Riemann variables are presently integrated by inverting six bidiagonal matrices and two tridiagonal matrices, using an implicit Euler solver that is based on the lambda-formulation. The solution is found on a C-grid whose boundaries are very close to the airfoil. The fast solver is then applied to the computation of several flowfields on a NACA 0012 airfoil at various Mach number and alpha values, yielding results that are primarily concerned with transonic flows. The effects of grid fineness and boundary distances are analyzed; the code is found to be robust and accurate, as well as fast.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dumbser, Michael; Balsara, Dinshaw S.
2016-01-01
In this paper a new, simple and universal formulation of the HLLEM Riemann solver (RS) is proposed that works for general conservative and non-conservative systems of hyperbolic equations. For non-conservative PDE, a path-conservative formulation of the HLLEM RS is presented for the first time in this paper. The HLLEM Riemann solver is built on top of a novel and very robust path-conservative HLL method. It thus naturally inherits the positivity properties and the entropy enforcement of the underlying HLL scheme. However, with just the slight additional cost of evaluating eigenvectors and eigenvalues of intermediate characteristic fields, we can represent linearly degenerate intermediate waves with a minimum of smearing. For conservative systems, our paper provides the easiest and most seamless path for taking a pre-existing HLL RS and quickly and effortlessly converting it to a RS that provides improved results, comparable with those of an HLLC, HLLD, Osher or Roe-type RS. This is done with minimal additional computational complexity, making our variant of the HLLEM RS also a very fast RS that can accurately represent linearly degenerate discontinuities. Our present HLLEM RS also transparently extends these advantages to non-conservative systems. For shallow water-type systems, the resulting method is proven to be well-balanced. Several test problems are presented for shallow water-type equations and two-phase flow models, as well as for gas dynamics with real equation of state, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD & RMHD), and nonlinear elasticity. Since our new formulation accommodates multiple intermediate waves and has a broader applicability than the original HLLEM method, it could alternatively be called the HLLI Riemann solver, where the "I" stands for the intermediate characteristic fields that can be accounted for.
Characterization of Asymmetric Coplanar Waveguide Discontinuities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dib, Nihad I.; Katehi, Linda P. B.; Gupta, Minoo; Ponchak, George E.
1993-01-01
A general technique to characterize asymmetric coplanar waveguide (CPW) discontinuities with air bridges where both the fundamental coplanar and slotline modes may be excited together is presented. First, the CPW discontinuity without air bridges is analyzed using the space-domain integral equation (SDIE) approach. Second, the parameters (phase, amplitude, and wavelength) of the coplanar and slotline modes are extracted from an amplitude modulated-like standing wave existing in the CPW feeding lines. Then a 2n x 2n generalized scattering matrix of the n-port discontinuity without air bridges is derived which includes the occurring mode conversion. Finally, this generalized scattering matrix is reduced to an n x n matrix by enforcing suitable conditions at the ports which correspond to the excited slotline mode. For the purpose of illustration, the method is applied to a shielded asymmetric short-end CPW shunt stub, the scattering parameters of which are compared with those of a symmetric one. Experiments are performed on both discontinuities and the results are in good agreement with theoretical data. The advantages of using air bridges in CPW circuits as opposed to bond wires are also discussed.
38 CFR 21.4135 - Discontinuance dates.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
....4135, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Administration of Educational Assistance Programs Payments... veteran or eligible person dies while pursuing a program of education, the discontinuance date...
38 CFR 21.7635 - Discontinuance dates.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Educational Assistance for Members of the Selected Reserve Payments...) In all other cases if the reservist dies while pursuing a program of education, the discontinuance...) (k) Incarceration in prison or penal institution for conviction of a felony. (1) The provisions...
Stability of Conservation Laws with Discontinuous Coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klausen, Runhild Aae; Risebro, Nils Henrik
1999-09-01
We prove L1 contractivity of weak solutions to a conservation law with a flux function that may depend discontinuously on the space variable. Furthermore, we show that the L1 difference between solutions to conservation laws with different flux functions is bounded by the total variation with respect to the space variable, of the difference between the flux functions.
38 CFR 21.9635 - Discontinuance dates.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Payments-Educational Assistance § 21.9635... individual dies while pursuing a program of education, the discontinuance date of educational assistance will... effective the last date of attendance; and (ii) Independent study or distance learning effective on...
38 CFR 21.9635 - Discontinuance dates.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Payments-Educational Assistance § 21.9635... individual dies while pursuing a program of education, the discontinuance date of educational assistance will... effective the last date of attendance; and (ii) Independent study or distance learning effective on...
Nonrenewable resource extraction under discontinuous price policy
Kalt, J.P.; Otten, A.L.
1985-01-01
Temporal discontinuities in public policy with respect to nonrenewable resource pricing can have significant impacts on the time patterns of resource extraction. These impacts arise from the effect of price discontinuities on the relative values of Hotelling rents across time periods. Whether faced with intertemporal price continuity or price discontinuity, the planning task of the wealth-maximizing producer is to equate the present value of each period's marginal contribution to the stream of net revenues from production across time. This rule for extraction provides the key to understanding the response to a price jump such as occurs upon the removal of price controls. The rational producer holds back at least some output until the price jump occurs. At the moment, the producer pushes output up sharply, raising marginal extraction cost by the absolute amount of the price jump and, thereby, maintaining the value of the Hotelling rent given by the gap between price and marginal extraction cost. US natural gas policy options, as well as plausible alternatives, are simulated to illustrate the effects of discontinuous regulatory regimes. 15 references, 1 table.
Life and Literature: Continuities and Discontinuities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Freeman, Mark
2007-01-01
This essay calls attention, first, to some of the significant discontinuities between life and literature, living and telling. Perhaps foremost among them is the fact that while living takes place now, in the present moment, telling must await the passage of time. This element of delay, it is argued, underscores the potential importance of…
General practitioners' decisions about discontinuation of medication: an explorative study.
Nixon, Michael Simon; Vendelø, Morten Thanning
2016-06-20
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate how general practitioners' (GPs) decisions about discontinuation of medication are influenced by their institutional context. Design/methodology/approach - In total, 24 GPs were interviewed, three practices were observed and documents were collected. The Gioia methodology was used to analyse data, drawing on a theoretical framework that integrate the sensemaking perspective and institutional theory. Findings - Most GPs, who actively consider discontinuation, are reluctant to discontinue medication, because the safest course of action for GPs is to continue prescriptions, rather than discontinue them. The authors conclude that this is in part due to the ambiguity about the appropriateness of discontinuing medication, experienced by the GPs, and in part because the clinical guidelines do not encourage discontinuation of medication, as they offer GPs a weak frame for discontinuation. Three reasons for this are identified: the guidelines provide dominating triggers for prescribing, they provide weak priming for discontinuation as an option, and they underscore a cognitive constraint against discontinuation. Originality/value - The analysis offers new insights about decision making when discontinuing medication. It also offers one of the first examinations of how the institutional context embedding GPs influences their decisions about discontinuation. For policymakers interested in the discontinuation of medication, the findings suggest that de-stigmatising discontinuation on an institutional level may be beneficial, allowing GPs to better justify discontinuation in light of the ambiguity they experience. PMID:27296879
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stanic, Milos; Nordlund, Markus; Kuczaj, Arkadiusz; Frederix, Edoardo; Geurts, Bernard
2014-11-01
Porous media flows can be found in a large number of fields ranging from engineering to medical applications. A volume-averaged approach to simulating porous media is often used because of its practicality and computational efficiency. Derivation of the volume-averaged porous flow equations introduces additional porous resistance terms to the momentum equation. When discretized these porous resistance terms create a body force discontinuity at the porous-fluid interface, which may lead to spurious oscillations if not accounted for properly. A variety of numerical techniques has been proposed to solve this problem, but few of them have concentrated on collocated grids and segregated solvers, which have wide applications in academia and industry. In this work we discuss the source of the spurious oscillations, quantify their amplitude and apply interface treatments methods that successfully remove the oscillations. The interface treatment methods are tested in a variety of realistic scenarios, including the porous plug and Beaver-Joseph test cases and show excellent results, minimizing or entirely removing the spurious oscillations at the porous-fluid interface. This research was financially supported by Philip Morris Products S.A.
Assessment of Linear Finite-Difference Poisson-Boltzmann Solvers
Wang, Jun; Luo, Ray
2009-01-01
CPU time and memory usage are two vital issues that any numerical solvers for the Poisson-Boltzmann equation have to face in biomolecular applications. In this study we systematically analyzed the CPU time and memory usage of five commonly used finite-difference solvers with a large and diversified set of biomolecular structures. Our comparative analysis shows that modified incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient and geometric multigrid are the most efficient in the diversified test set. For the two efficient solvers, our test shows that their CPU times increase approximately linearly with the numbers of grids. Their CPU times also increase almost linearly with the negative logarithm of the convergence criterion at very similar rate. Our comparison further shows that geometric multigrid performs better in the large set of tested biomolecules. However, modified incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient is superior to geometric multigrid in molecular dynamics simulations of tested molecules. We also investigated other significant components in numerical solutions of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. It turns out that the time-limiting step is the free boundary condition setup for the linear systems for the selected proteins if the electrostatic focusing is not used. Thus, development of future numerical solvers for the Poisson-Boltzmann equation should balance all aspects of the numerical procedures in realistic biomolecular applications. PMID:20063271
Navier-Stokes Solvers and Generalizations for Reacting Flow Problems
Elman, Howard C
2013-01-27
This is an overview of our accomplishments during the final term of this grant (1 September 2008 -- 30 June 2012). These fall mainly into three categories: fast algorithms for linear eigenvalue problems; solution algorithms and modeling methods for partial differential equations with uncertain coefficients; and preconditioning methods and solvers for models of computational fluid dynamics (CFD).
Assessment of linear finite-difference Poisson-Boltzmann solvers.
Wang, Jun; Luo, Ray
2010-06-01
CPU time and memory usage are two vital issues that any numerical solvers for the Poisson-Boltzmann equation have to face in biomolecular applications. In this study, we systematically analyzed the CPU time and memory usage of five commonly used finite-difference solvers with a large and diversified set of biomolecular structures. Our comparative analysis shows that modified incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient and geometric multigrid are the most efficient in the diversified test set. For the two efficient solvers, our test shows that their CPU times increase approximately linearly with the numbers of grids. Their CPU times also increase almost linearly with the negative logarithm of the convergence criterion at very similar rate. Our comparison further shows that geometric multigrid performs better in the large set of tested biomolecules. However, modified incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient is superior to geometric multigrid in molecular dynamics simulations of tested molecules. We also investigated other significant components in numerical solutions of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. It turns out that the time-limiting step is the free boundary condition setup for the linear systems for the selected proteins if the electrostatic focusing is not used. Thus, development of future numerical solvers for the Poisson-Boltzmann equation should balance all aspects of the numerical procedures in realistic biomolecular applications. PMID:20063271
Advances in computational fluid dynamics solvers for modern computing environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hertenstein, Daniel; Humphrey, John R.; Paolini, Aaron L.; Kelmelis, Eric J.
2013-05-01
EM Photonics has been investigating the application of massively multicore processors to a key problem area: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). While the capabilities of CFD solvers have continually increased and improved to support features such as moving bodies and adjoint-based mesh adaptation, the software architecture has often lagged behind. This has led to poor scaling as core counts reach the tens of thousands. In the modern High Performance Computing (HPC) world, clusters with hundreds of thousands of cores are becoming the standard. In addition, accelerator devices such as NVIDIA GPUs and Intel Xeon Phi are being installed in many new systems. It is important for CFD solvers to take advantage of the new hardware as the computations involved are well suited for the massively multicore architecture. In our work, we demonstrate that new features in NVIDIA GPUs are able to empower existing CFD solvers by example using AVUS, a CFD solver developed by the Air Force Research Labratory (AFRL) and the Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC). The effort has resulted in increased performance and scalability without sacrificing accuracy. There are many well-known codes in the CFD space that can benefit from this work, such as FUN3D, OVERFLOW, and TetrUSS. Such codes are widely used in the commercial, government, and defense sectors.
Coordinate Projection-based Solver for ODE with Invariants
Serban, Radu
2008-04-08
CPODES is a general purpose (serial and parallel) solver for systems of ordinary differential equation (ODE) with invariants. It implements a coordinate projection approach using different types of projection (orthogonal or oblique) and one of several methods for the decompositon of the Jacobian of the invariant equations.
Intellectual Abilities That Discriminate Good and Poor Problem Solvers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meyer, Ruth Ann
1981-01-01
This study compared good and poor fourth-grade problem solvers on a battery of 19 "reference" tests for verbal, induction, numerical, word fluency, memory, perceptual speed, and simple visualization abilities. Results suggest verbal, numerical, and especially induction abilities are important to successful mathematical problem solving. (MP)
Mass-conservative reconstruction of Galerkin velocity fields for transport simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scudeler, C.; Putti, M.; Paniconi, C.
2016-08-01
Accurate calculation of mass-conservative velocity fields from numerical solutions of Richards' equation is central to reliable surface-subsurface flow and transport modeling, for example in long-term tracer simulations to determine catchment residence time distributions. In this study we assess the performance of a local Larson-Niklasson (LN) post-processing procedure for reconstructing mass-conservative velocities from a linear (P1) Galerkin finite element solution of Richards' equation. This approach, originally proposed for a-posteriori error estimation, modifies the standard finite element velocities by imposing local conservation on element patches. The resulting reconstructed flow field is characterized by continuous fluxes on element edges that can be efficiently used to drive a second order finite volume advective transport model. Through a series of tests of increasing complexity that compare results from the LN scheme to those using velocity fields derived directly from the P1 Galerkin solution, we show that a locally mass-conservative velocity field is necessary to obtain accurate transport results. We also show that the accuracy of the LN reconstruction procedure is comparable to that of the inherently conservative mixed finite element approach, taken as a reference solution, but that the LN scheme has much lower computational costs. The numerical tests examine steady and unsteady, saturated and variably saturated, and homogeneous and heterogeneous cases along with initial and boundary conditions that include dry soil infiltration, alternating solute and water injection, and seepage face outflow. Typical problems that arise with velocities derived from P1 Galerkin solutions include outgoing solute flux from no-flow boundaries, solute entrapment in zones of low hydraulic conductivity, and occurrences of anomalous sources and sinks. In addition to inducing significant mass balance errors, such manifestations often lead to oscillations in concentration
Compressible seal flow analysis using the finite element method with Galerkin solution technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zuk, J.
1974-01-01
High pressure gas sealing involves not only balancing the viscous force with the pressure gradient force but also accounting for fluid inertia--especially for choked flow. The conventional finite element method which uses a Rayleigh-Ritz solution technique is not convenient for nonlinear problems. For these problems, a finite element method with a Galerkin solution technique (FEMGST) was formulated. One example, a three-dimensional axisymmetric flow formulation has nonlinearities due to compressibility, area expansion, and convective inertia. Solutions agree with classical results in the limiting cases. The development of the choked flow velocity profile is shown.
A Meshless Local Petrov-Galerkin Method for Euler-Bernoulli Beam Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Raju, I. S.; Phillips, D. R.
2002-01-01
An accurate and yet simple Meshless Local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) formulation for analyzing beam problems is presented. In the formulation, simple weight functions are chosen as test functions. The use of these functions shows that the weak form can be integrated with conventional Gaussian integration. The MLPG method was evaluated by applying the formulation to a variety of patch test and thin beam problems. The formulation successfully reproduced exact solutions to machine accuracy when test functions with C2 continuity and an appropriate order of basis functions are used.