The threat of nuclear weapons proliferation is a problem of world wide concern. Safeguards are the key to nuclear nonproliferation and data is the key to safeguards. The safeguards community has access to a huge and steadily growing volume of data. The advantages of this data rich environment are obvious, there is a great deal of information which can be utilized. The challenge is to effectively apply proven and developing technologies to find and extract usable information from that data. That information must then be assessed and evaluated to produce the knowledge needed for crucial decision making. Efficient and effective analysis of safeguards data will depend on utilizing technologies to interpret the large, heterogeneous data sets that are available from diverse sources. With an order-of-magnitude increase in the amount of data from a wide variety of technical, textual, and historical sources there is a vital need to apply advanced computer technologies to support all-source analysis. There are techniques of data warehousing, data mining, and data analysis that can provide analysts with tools that will expedite their extracting useable information from the huge amounts of data to which they have access. Computerized tools can aid analysts by integrating heterogeneous data, evaluating diverse data streams, automating retrieval of database information, prioritizing inputs, reconciling conflicting data, doing preliminary interpretations, discovering patterns or trends in data, and automating some of the simpler prescreening tasks that are time consuming and tedious. Thus knowledge discovery technologies can provide a foundation of support for the analyst. Rather than spending time sifting through often irrelevant information, analysts could use their specialized skills in a focused, productive fashion. This would allow them to make their analytical judgments with more confidence and spend more of their time doing what they do best.
Williams, Sarah C.; Foster, Anita K.
Discovery tools are the next phase of library search systems. Illinois State University's Milner Library implemented EBSCO Discovery Service in August 2010. The authors conducted usability studies on the system in the fall of 2010. The aims of the study were twofold: first, to determine how Milner users set about using the system in order to…
Foster, Anita K.; MacDonald, Jean B.
Web-scale discovery systems are gaining momentum among academic libraries as libraries seek a means to provide their users with a one-stop searching experience. Illinois State University's Milner Library found itself in the unique position of having access to two distinct discovery products, EBSCO Discovery Service and Serials Solutions' Summon.…
Moeyaert, Mariola; Maggin, Daniel; Verkuilen, Jay
Rosati, A.; Yarmey, L.
It is well understood that a good data scientist needs domain science, analysis, programming, and communication skills to create finished data products, visualizations, and reports. Articles and blogs tout the need for "expert" skill levels in domain knowledge, statistics, storytelling, graphic design, technology…and the list goes on. Since it seems impossible that one person would encompass all these skills, it is often suggested that data science be done by a team instead of an individual. This research into, and experience with, data product design offers an augmented definition - one that elevates relationships and engagement with the final user of a product. Essentially, no matter how fantastic or technically advanced a product appears, the intended audience of that product must be able to understand, use, and find value in the product in order for it to be considered a success. Usability is often misunderstood and seen as common sense or common knowledge, but it is actually an important and challenging piece of product development. This paper describes the National Snow and Ice Data Center's process to usability test the Arctic Data Explorer (ADE). The ADE is a federated data search tool for interdisciplinary Arctic science data that has been improved in features, appearance, functionality, and quality through a series of strategic and targeted usability testing and assessments. Based on the results, it is recommended that usability testing be incorporated into the skill set of each data science team.
Alegre, R.; Blower, J. D.
Earth science datasets are highly diverse. Users of these datasets are similarly varied, ranging from research scientists through industrial users to government decision- and policy-makers. It is very important for these users to understand the applicability of any dataset to their particular problem so that they can select the most appropriate data sources for their needs. Although data providers often provide rich supporting information in the form of metadata, typically this information does not include community usage information that can help other users judge fitness-for-purpose.The CHARMe project (http://www.charme.org.uk) is filling this gap by developing a system for sharing "commentary metadata". These are annotations that are generated and shared by the user community and include: Links between publications and datasets. The CHARMe system can record information about why a particular dataset was used (e.g. the paper may describe the dataset, it may use the dataset as a source, or it may be publishing results of a dataset assessment). These publications may appear in the peer-reviewed literature, or may be technical reports, websites or blog posts. Free-text comments supplied by the user. Provenance information, including links between datasets and descriptions of processing algorithms and sensors. External events that may affect data quality (e.g. large volcanic eruptions or El Niño events); we call these "significant events". Data quality information, e.g. system maturity indices. Commentary information can be linked to anything that can be uniquely identified (e.g. a dataset with a DOI or a persistent web address). It is also possible to associate commentary with particular subsets of datasets, for example to highlight an issue that is confined to a particular geographic region. We will demonstrate tools that show these capabilities in action, showing how users can apply commentary information during data discovery, visualization and analysis. The
Fry, Amy; Rich, Linda
In early 2010, library staff at Bowling Green State University (BGSU) in Ohio designed and conducted a usability study of key parts of the library web site, focusing on the web pages generated by the library's electronic resources management system (ERM) that list and describe the library's databases. The goal was to discover how users find and…
Horton, Sarah; Leventhal, Laura
Universal usability of World Wide Web (Web) environments—that is, having 90% of households as successful users—requires universal access, usability, and universal design. Factors such as Web technology and user-centered design contribute to universal access and usability, but key to universal usability is a universal design methodology. Universal design principles for the Web follow from universal design principles for the built environment, and emphasize perceptibility, self-explanation, and tailorability for the user. Universally usable Web environments offer the benefit of expanded participation, as well as the unanticipated benefits that generally follow from innovative design initiatives. However, to achieve Web universal usability, Web designers need tools that facilitate the design of intuitive interfaces without sacrificing universal access.
de Mestre, Neville
All common fractions can be written in decimal form. In this Discovery article, the author suggests that teachers ask their students to calculate the decimals by actually doing the divisions themselves, and later on they can use a calculator to check their answers. This article presents a lesson based on the research of Bolt (1982).
Morgan, Eric Lease
Suggests that one of the best ways to get word-of-mouth marketing of library technology is to provide "usable" products and services. Provides an international standards definition on usability and notes that understanding usability combines an understanding of user needs/wants with an understanding of goals, functions, and limitations…
Song, Min; Kim, Won Chul; Lee, Dahee; Heo, Go Eun; Kang, Keun Young
Due to an enormous number of scientific publications that cannot be handled manually, there is a rising interest in text-mining techniques for automated information extraction, especially in the biomedical field. Such techniques provide effective means of information search, knowledge discovery, and hypothesis generation. Most previous studies have primarily focused on the design and performance improvement of either named entity recognition or relation extraction. In this paper, we present PKDE4J, a comprehensive text-mining system that integrates dictionary-based entity extraction and rule-based relation extraction in a highly flexible and extensible framework. Starting with the Stanford CoreNLP, we developed the system to cope with multiple types of entities and relations. The system also has fairly good performance in terms of accuracy as well as the ability to configure text-processing components. We demonstrate its competitive performance by evaluating it on many corpora and found that it surpasses existing systems with average F-measures of 85% for entity extraction and 81% for relation extraction.
tracking in usability evaluation : A practitioner’s guide. In J. Hyönä, R. Radach, & H. Deubel. (Eds.), The mind’s eye: Cognitive and applied...Advanced Usability Evaluation Methods Terence S. Andre, Lt Col, USAF Margaret Schurig, Human Factors Design Specialist, The Boeing Co...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advanced Usability Evaluation Methods 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT
Staggers, N; Xiao, Y; Chapman, L
Poor usability is a threat to patient safety and linked to productivity loss, workflow disruption, user frustration, sub-optimal product use and system de-installations. Although usability is receiving more attention nationally and internationally, myths about usability persist. This editorial debunks five common myths about usability (1) usability only concerns the look and feel of a product and is, therefore, only a minor concern, (2) usability is not measurable, (3) usability stifles innovation, (4) vendors are solely responsible for product usability, and (5) usability methods are not practical for use in healthcare.
Snider, Jean; Martin, Florence
Web usability focuses on design elements and processes that make web pages easy to use. A website for college students was evaluated for underutilization. One-on-one testing, focus groups, web analytics, peer university review and marketing focus group and demographic data were utilized to conduct usability evaluation. The results indicated that…
Razza, Bruno Montanari; Paschoarelli, Luis Carlos
Automotive sound systems vary widely in terms of functions and way of use between different brands and models what can bring difficulties and lack of consistency to the user. This study aimed to analyze the usability of car stereo commonly found in the market. Four products were analyzed by task analysis and after use reports and the results indicate serious usability issues with respect to the form of operation, organization, clarity and quality of information, visibility and readability, among others.
Potterat, Olivier; Hamburger, Matthias
A 96-well format plant extract library and a tailored technology platform have been set up for the discovery of new natural product lead compounds. The considerable advantages of the library approach are discussed. Key considerations such as sample generation, logistics, and data management are addressed. The potential of a HPLC-based profiling approach combining off-line bioassays with in-line and off-line spectroscopy (including HR-ESIMS and microprobe NMR) for tracking bioactivity is demonstrated with a selection of examples encompassing different types of bioassay formats. The information generated by this approach with regards to hit prioritization and preliminary structure activity-relationships is discussed. Practical aspects, such as validation of profiling protocols, the amounts of extracts to be applied, and the re-dissolution of fractions are addressed. Such information is intended for scientists aiming at implementing library-based discovery platforms in their own laboratory.
Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O. C.
Obviously, there are a number of literatures concerning the usability of mobile commerce (m-commerce) applications and related areas, but they do not adequately provide knowledge about usability techniques used in most of the empirical usability evaluation for m-commerce application. Therefore, this paper is aimed at producing the usability techniques frequently used in the aspect of usability evaluation for m-commerce applications. To achieve the stated objective, systematic literature review was employed. Sixty seven papers were downloaded in usability evaluation for m-commerce and related areas; twenty one most relevant studies were selected for review in order to extract the appropriate information. The results from the review shows that heuristic evaluation, formal test and think aloud methods are the most commonly used methods in m-commerce application in comparison to cognitive walkthrough and the informal test methods. Moreover, most of the studies applied control experiment (33.3% of the total studies); other studies that applied case study for usability evaluation are 14.28%. The results from this paper provide additional knowledge to the usability practitioners and research community for the current state and use of usability techniques in m-commerce application.
unpleasant and potentially unsuccessful experience. SOFTWARE USABILITY Definition Usability consultant Jakob Nielson  suggests that the usability...Bevan, N., User Requirements Analysis, Proceedings of IFIP 17th World Computer Congress, Montreal, Canada, August 2002. 4. Nielsen , J., Usability 101
This document describes the usability requirements for the Biosurveillance resource directory (BRD); that is, who will be using the tool and what tasks they will be using it for. It does not include information on technical implementation (e.g., whether specific information is contained in the database or pulled on demand from other sources). It also avoids specific design ideas (such as widget descriptions) unless they are necessary to illustrate a requirement.
User experience (UX) design is the process of enhancing user satisfaction by improving various aspects of the user's interaction with an application or website. One aspect of UX design is usability, or the extent to which an application can be used to to accomplish tasks efficiently, effectively, and with satisfaction. NASA's Earthdata Search Client recently underwent a focused usability testing project to measure usability and gain valuable user feedback and insights to increase usability for its end-users. This presentation focuses on the process by which the usability tests were administered and the lessons learned throughout the process.
Monteiro, Maria Cândida; de la Cruz, Mercedes; Cantizani, Juan; Moreno, Catalina; Tormo, José R; Mellado, Emilia; De Lucas, J Ramón; Asensio, Francisco; Valiante, Vito; Brakhage, Axel A; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Genilloud, Olga; Vicente, Francisca
Natural products are an inexhaustible source for drug discovery. However, the validation and selection of primary screening assays are vital to guarantee a selection of extracts or molecules with relevant pharmacological action and worthy of following up. The assay must be rapid, simple, easy to implement, and produce quick results and preferably at a low cost. In this work, we developed and validated a colorimetric microtiter assay using the resazurin viability dye. The parameters of the resazurin method for high-throughput screening (HTS) using natural extracts against Aspergillus fumigatus were optimized and set up. The extracts plus RPMI-1640 modified medium containing the spores and 0.002% resazurin were added per well. The fluorescence was read after 24 to 30 h of incubation. The resazurin proved to be as suitable as Alamar Blue for determining the minimal inhibitory concentration of different antifungals against A. fumigatus and effective to analyze fungicidal and fungistatic compounds. An HTS of 12 000 microbial extracts was carried out against two A. fumigatus strains, and 2.7% of the extracts displayed antifungal activity. Our group has been the first to use this methodology for screening a collection of natural extracts to identify compounds with antifungal activity against the medically important human pathogen A. fumigatus.
Pérez Del Palacio, José; Díaz, Caridad; de la Cruz, Mercedes; Annang, Frederick; Martín, Jesús; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; González-Menéndez, Víctor; de Pedro, Nuria; Tormo, José R; Algieri, Francesca; Rodriguez-Nogales, Alba; Rodríguez-Cabezas, M Elena; Reyes, Fernando; Genilloud, Olga; Vicente, Francisca; Gálvez, Julio
It is widely accepted that central nervous system inflammation and systemic inflammation play a significant role in the progression of chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, neurotropic viral infections, stroke, paraneoplastic disorders, traumatic brain injury, and multiple sclerosis. Therefore, it seems reasonable to propose that the use of anti-inflammatory drugs might diminish the cumulative effects of inflammation. Indeed, some epidemiological studies suggest that sustained use of anti-inflammatory drugs may prevent or slow down the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the anti-inflammatory drugs and biologics used clinically have the disadvantage of causing side effects and a high cost of treatment. Alternatively, natural products offer great potential for the identification and development of bioactive lead compounds into drugs for treating inflammatory diseases with an improved safety profile. In this work, we present a validated high-throughput screening approach in 96-well plate format for the discovery of new molecules with anti-inflammatory/immunomodulatory activity. The in vitro models are based on the quantitation of nitrite levels in RAW264.7 murine macrophages and interleukin-8 in Caco-2 cells. We have used this platform in a pilot project to screen a subset of 5976 noncytotoxic crude microbial extracts from the MEDINA microbial natural product collection. To our knowledge, this is the first report on an high-throughput screening of microbial natural product extracts for the discovery of immunomodulators.
Kawashima, Yusuke; Fukutomi, Toshiyuki; Tomonaga, Takeshi; Takahashi, Hiroki; Nomura, Fumio; Maeda, Tadakazu; Kodera, Yoshio
Serum proteins/peptides reflect physiological or pathological states in humans and are an attractive target for the discovery of disease biomarkers. However, the existence of high-abundance proteins and the large dynamic range of serum proteins/peptides make any quantitative analysis of low-abundance proteins/peptides challenging. Furthermore, analyses of peptides, including the cleaved fragments of proteins, are difficult because of carrier protein binding. Here, we developed a differential solubilization (DS) method to extract low-molecular-weight proteins/peptides in serum with good reproducibility and yield as compared to typical peptide-extraction methods such as organic solvent precipitation and ultrafiltration. Using the DS method combined with reverse-phase HPLC fractionation followed by MALDI-TOF-MS, we performed high-quality comparative analyses of more than 1500 peptides from 1 microL of serum samples, including low-abundance peptides in the subnanomolar range and containing many peptides bound to carrier proteins such as albumin. We applied this method and successfully discovered four new biomarker candidates of colon cancer, none of which have previously been observed in serum and one of which is a fragment of the protein zyxin that possibly originated from tumor cells. Our results indicate that serum peptide analyses based on the DS method should greatly contribute to the discovery of novel low-abundance biomarkers.
Spiliotopoulos, Dimitris; Stavropoulou, Pepi; Kouroupetroglou, Georgios
Usability is a fundamental requirement for natural language interfaces. Usability evaluation reflects the impact of the interface and the acceptance from the users. This work examines the potential of usability evaluation in terms of issues and methodologies for spoken dialogue interfaces along with the appropriate designer-needs analysis. It unfolds the perspective to the usability integration in the spoken language interface design lifecycle and provides a framework description for creating and testing usable content and applications for conversational interfaces. Main concerns include the problem identification of design issues for usability design and evaluation, the use of customer experience for the design of voice interfaces and dialogue, and the problems that arise from real-life deployment. Moreover it presents a real-life paradigm of a hands-on approach for applying usability methodologies in a spoken dialogue application environment to compare against a DTMF approach. Finally, the scope and interpretation of results from both the designer and the user standpoint of usability evaluation are discussed.
Tongtep, Nattapong; Theeramunkong, Thanaruk
Extracting named entities (NEs) and their relations is more difficult in Thai than in other languages due to several Thai specific characteristics, including no explicit boundaries for words, phrases and sentences; few case markers and modifier clues; high ambiguity in compound words and serial verbs; and flexible word orders. Unlike most previous works which focused on NE relations of specific actions, such as work_for, live_in, located_in, and kill, this paper proposes more general types of NE relations, called predicate-oriented relation (PoR), where an extracted action part (verb) is used as a core component to associate related named entities extracted from Thai Texts. Lacking a practical parser for the Thai language, we present three types of surface features, i.e. punctuation marks (such as token spaces), entity types and the number of entities and then apply five alternative commonly used learning schemes to investigate their performance on predicate-oriented relation extraction. The experimental results show that our approach achieves the F-measure of 97.76%, 99.19%, 95.00% and 93.50% on four different types of predicate-oriented relation (action-location, location-action, action-person and person-action) in crime-related news documents using a data set of 1,736 entity pairs. The effects of NE extraction techniques, feature sets and class unbalance on the performance of relation extraction are explored.
Cheng, Yiwei; Richardson, Sally
As part of the Stage Analysis Branch, human factors engineering plays an important role in relating humans to the systems of hardware and structure designs of the new launch vehicle. While many branches are involved in the technical aspects of creating a launch vehicle, human factors connects humans to the scientific systems with the goal of improving operational performance and safety while reducing operational error and damage to the hardware. Human factors engineers use physical and computerized models to visualize possible areas for improvements to ensure human accessibility to components requiring maintenance and that the necessary maintenance activities can be accomplished with minimal risks to human and hardware. Many methods of testing are used to fulfill this goal, such as physical mockups, computerized visualization, and usability testing. In this analysis, a usability test is conducted to test how usable a website is to users who are and are not familiar with it. The testing is performed using participants and Morae software to record and analyze the results. This analysis will be a preliminary test of the usability lab in preparation for use in new spacecraft programs, NASA Enterprise, or other NASA websites. The usability lab project is divided into two parts: integration of the usability lab and a preliminary test of the usability lab.
Grabher, Patrick; Durieu, Emilie; Kouloura, Eirini; Halabalaki, Maria; Skaltsounis, Leandros A; Meijer, Laurent; Hamburger, Matthias; Potterat, Olivier
The dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase DYRK1A possesses diverse roles in neuronal development and adult brain physiology, and increased activity has been linked to neurodegenerative diseases. Very few inhibitors of this kinase have been reported up to now. Screening of a library of > 900 plant and fungal extracts afforded 25 extracts with IC₅₀s < 10 µg/mL against DYRK1A. To identify the active constituents, the extracts were submitted to a process integrating physicochemical data with biological information, referred to as HPLC-based activity profiling. Follow-up investigation of four extracts led to the targeted isolation of harmine (1, IC₅₀ 0.022 µM) from Peganum harmala, emodin (3, IC₅₀ 4.2 µM) from Cassia nigricans, kaempferol (4, IC₅₀ 0.91 µM) from Cuscuta chinensis, and 3,8-di-O-methylherbacetin (11, IC₅₀ 8.6 µM), 3,3',4'-tri-O-methylmyricetin (12, IC₅₀ 7.1 µM) and ombuin (15, IC₅₀ 1.7 µM) from Larrea tridentata as the active constituents. Active extracts and compounds were also tested on the closely related cdc2-like kinase CLK1. Finally, the selectivity profile of compounds was evaluated by including other members of the DYRKs and CLKs families. While the flavonoids and emodin did not show significant differences in the potency of their activities, harmine (1) was most active against DYRK1A, CLK1, and CLK4, and less potent against the other kinases, with selectivity ranging from 2- to 20-fold.
Nguyen, Dung H M; Wang, Yefeng; Li, Min
Objective Information extraction and classification of clinical data are current challenges in natural language processing. This paper presents a cascaded method to deal with three different extractions and classifications in clinical data: concept annotation, assertion classification and relation classification. Materials and Methods A pipeline system was developed for clinical natural language processing that includes a proofreading process, with gold-standard reflexive validation and correction. The information extraction system is a combination of a machine learning approach and a rule-based approach. The outputs of this system are used for evaluation in all three tiers of the fourth i2b2/VA shared-task and workshop challenge. Results Overall concept classification attained an F-score of 83.3% against a baseline of 77.0%, the optimal F-score for assertions about the concepts was 92.4% and relation classifier attained 72.6% for relationships between clinical concepts against a baseline of 71.0%. Micro-average results for the challenge test set were 81.79%, 91.90% and 70.18%, respectively. Discussion The challenge in the multi-task test requires a distribution of time and work load for each individual task so that the overall performance evaluation on all three tasks would be more informative rather than treating each task assessment as independent. The simplicity of the model developed in this work should be contrasted with the very large feature space of other participants in the challenge who only achieved slightly better performance. There is a need to charge a penalty against the complexity of a model as defined in message minimalisation theory when comparing results. Conclusion A complete pipeline system for constructing language processing models that can be used to process multiple practical detection tasks of language structures of clinical records is presented. PMID:21737844
In spite of the goodwill and best efforts of software engineers and usability professionals, systems continue to be built and released with glaring usability flaws that are costly and difficult to fix after the system has been built. Although user interface (UI) designers, be they usability or design experts, communicate usability requirements to…
Eriksson, Elina; Cajander, Åsa; Gulliksen, Jan
How do you do usability work when no usability expertise is available? What happens in an organization when system developers, with no previous HCI knowledge, after a 3-day course, start applying usability methods, and particularly field studies? In order to answer these questions qualitative data were gathered through participatory observations, a feed back survey, field study documentation and interviews from 47 system developers from a public authority. Our results suggest that field studies enhance the developer’s understanding of the user perspective, and provide a more holistic overview of the use situation, but that some developers were unable to interpret their observations and see solutions to the users’ problems. The field study method was very much appreciated and has now become standard operating procedure within the organization. However, although field studies may be useful, it does not replace the need for usability pro fes sion als, as their knowledge is essential for more complex observations, analysis and for keeping the focus on usability.
Pilone, D.; Quinn, P.; Murphy, K. J.; Baynes, K.
Data discovery and accessibility are frequent topics in science conferences but are usually discussed in an abstract XML schema kind-of way. In the course of designing and building the NASA Earthdata Search Client, a "concept-car" discovery client for the new Common Metadata Repository (CMR) and NASA Earthdata, we learned important lessons about usability from user studies and our actual use of science metadata. In this talk we challenge the community with the issues we ran into: the critical usability stumbling blocks for even seasoned researchers, "bug reports" from users that were ultimately usability problems in metadata, the challenges and questions that arise from incorporating "visual metadata", and the state of data access services. We intend to show that high quality metadata and real human usability factors are essential to making critical data accessible.
Ammenwerth, E.; Roehrer, E.; Pelayo, S.; Vasseur, F.; Beuscart-Zéphir, M.-C.
Summary Objectives Previous research has shown that medication alerting systems face usability issues. There has been no previous attempt to systematically explore the consequences of usability flaws in such systems on users (i.e. usage problems) and work systems (i.e. negative outcomes). This paper aims at exploring and synthesizing the consequences of usability flaws in terms of usage problems and negative outcomes on the work system. Methods A secondary analysis of 26 papers included in a prior systematic review of the usability flaws in medication alerting was performed. Usage problems and negative outcomes were extracted and sorted. Links between usability flaws, usage problems, and negative outcomes were also analyzed. Results Poor usability generates a large variety of consequences. It impacts the user from a cognitive, behavioral, emotional, and attitudinal perspective. Ultimately, usability flaws have negative consequences on the workflow, the effectiveness of the technology, the medication management process, and, more importantly, patient safety. Only few complete pathways leading from usability flaws to negative outcomes were identified. Conclusion Usability flaws in medication alerting systems impede users, and ultimately their work system, and negatively impact patient safety. Therefore, the usability dimension may act as a hidden explanatory variable that could explain, at least partly, the (absence of) intended outcomes of new technology. PMID:26123906
Background Pediatric cardiomyopathies are a rare, yet heterogeneous group of pathologies of the myocardium that are routinely examined clinically using Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging (cMRI). This gold standard powerful non-invasive tool yields high resolution temporal images that characterize myocardial tissue. The complexities associated with the annotation of images and extraction of markers, necessitate the development of efficient workflows to acquire, manage and transform this data into actionable knowledge for patient care to reduce mortality and morbidity. Methods We develop and test a novel informatics framework called cMRI-BED for biomarker extraction and discovery from such complex pediatric cMRI data that includes the use of a suite of tools for image processing, marker extraction and predictive modeling. We applied our workflow to obtain and analyze a dataset of 83 de-identified cases and controls containing cMRI-derived biomarkers for classifying positive versus negative findings of cardiomyopathy in children. Bayesian rule learning (BRL) methods were applied to derive understandable models in the form of propositional rules with posterior probabilities pertaining to their validity. Popular machine learning methods in the WEKA data mining toolkit were applied using default parameters to assess cross-validation performance of this dataset using accuracy and percentage area under ROC curve (AUC) measures. Results The best 10-fold cross validation predictive performance obtained on this cMRI-derived biomarker dataset was 80.72% accuracy and 79.6% AUC by a BRL decision tree model, which is promising from this type of rare data. Moreover, we were able to verify that mycocardial delayed enhancement (MDE) status, which is known to be an important qualitative factor in the classification of cardiomyopathies, is picked up by our rule models as an important variable for prediction. Conclusions Preliminary results show the feasibility of our framework
7) Hui, D.; Sao-Xing, C. J. Nat. Prod. 1998, 61, 142-144. (8) Aldrich Libray of 13C and 1H FT NMR spectra 1992, 2, 326A. (9) Kadota, S .; Hui, D...Biodiversity in West and Central Africa: Performance of Neurochemical and Radio Receptor Assays of Plant Extracts Drug Discovery for the Central... s ) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy or decision unless so designated by other documentation
We present a case study that tracks usability problems predicted with six usability evaluation methods (Claims Analysis, Cognitive Walkthrough , GOMS...Heuristic Evaluation , User Action Notation, and simply reading the specification) through a development process. We assess the methods predictive
... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes for Processing 1 § 51.3411 Usable piece. “Usable Piece” means that portion... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Usable piece. 51.3411 Section 51.3411...
... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes for Processing 1 § 51.3411 Usable piece. “Usable Piece” means that portion... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Usable piece. 51.3411 Section 51.3411...
... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes for Processing 1 § 51.3411 Usable piece. “Usable Piece” means that portion... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Usable piece. 51.3411 Section 51.3411...
Cheng, Yiwei; Richardson, Sally
This conference poster reviews the development of the usability lab at Marshall Space Flight Center. The purpose of the lab was to integrate a fully functioning usability laboratory to provide a resource for future human factor assessments. and to implement preliminary usability testing on a MSFC website to validate the functionality of the lab.
Fink, Glenn A.; North, Christopher L.; Endert, Alexander; Rose, Stuart J.
An environment that supports cyber analytics work should enable multiple, simultaneous investigations, information foraging, and provide a solution space for organizing data. We describe our study of cyber security professionals and visualizations in a large, high-resolution display work environment. We discuss the tasks and needs of analysts that such an environment can support and present several prototypes designed to support these needs. We conclude with a usability evaluation of the prototypes and additional lessons learned.
Yen, Po-Yin; Bakken, Suzanne
Usability factors are a major obstacle to health information technology (IT) adoption. The purpose of this paper is to review and categorize health IT usability study methods and to provide practical guidance on health IT usability evaluation. 2025 references were initially retrieved from the Medline database from 2003 to 2009 that evaluated health IT used by clinicians. Titles and abstracts were first reviewed for inclusion. Full-text articles were then examined to identify final eligibility studies. 629 studies were categorized into the five stages of an integrated usability specification and evaluation framework that was based on a usability model and the system development life cycle (SDLC)-associated stages of evaluation. Theoretical and methodological aspects of 319 studies were extracted in greater detail and studies that focused on system validation (SDLC stage 2) were not assessed further. The number of studies by stage was: stage 1, task-based or user-task interaction, n=42; stage 2, system-task interaction, n=310; stage 3, user-task-system interaction, n=69; stage 4, user-task-system-environment interaction, n=54; and stage 5, user-task-system-environment interaction in routine use, n=199. The studies applied a variety of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Methodological issues included lack of theoretical framework/model, lack of details regarding qualitative study approaches, single evaluation focus, environmental factors not evaluated in the early stages, and guideline adherence as the primary outcome for decision support system evaluations. Based on the findings, a three-level stratified view of health IT usability evaluation is proposed and methodological guidance is offered based upon the type of interaction that is of primary interest in the evaluation.
Usability factors are a major obstacle to health information technology (IT) adoption. The purpose of this paper is to review and categorize health IT usability study methods and to provide practical guidance on health IT usability evaluation. 2025 references were initially retrieved from the Medline database from 2003 to 2009 that evaluated health IT used by clinicians. Titles and abstracts were first reviewed for inclusion. Full-text articles were then examined to identify final eligibility studies. 629 studies were categorized into the five stages of an integrated usability specification and evaluation framework that was based on a usability model and the system development life cycle (SDLC)-associated stages of evaluation. Theoretical and methodological aspects of 319 studies were extracted in greater detail and studies that focused on system validation (SDLC stage 2) were not assessed further. The number of studies by stage was: stage 1, task-based or user–task interaction, n=42; stage 2, system–task interaction, n=310; stage 3, user–task–system interaction, n=69; stage 4, user–task–system–environment interaction, n=54; and stage 5, user–task–system–environment interaction in routine use, n=199. The studies applied a variety of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Methodological issues included lack of theoretical framework/model, lack of details regarding qualitative study approaches, single evaluation focus, environmental factors not evaluated in the early stages, and guideline adherence as the primary outcome for decision support system evaluations. Based on the findings, a three-level stratified view of health IT usability evaluation is proposed and methodological guidance is offered based upon the type of interaction that is of primary interest in the evaluation. PMID:21828224
Bosse, Corbin; Kelly, Kandace
Electronic health record (EHR) usability concerns continue to reduce EHR effectiveness. LEAN methodology, which focuses on waste elimination, may provide an effective method to address efficiency related usability deficiencies. We aimed to improve the usability of an inpatient seclusion and restraint (SR) EHR module using LEAN methodology. A multidisciplinary team convened to evaluate and redesign clinical and technological SR workflows using LEAN techniques, including process mapping and time-series analyses. SR module modifications addressed 40 of the 60 efficiency related usability deficiencies identified in the initial SR module. Usability enhancements included elimination of 10 nonessential inputs, 21 redundancies, and nine overhead functions. Process steps were reduced from 74 to 47. Improving EHR usability is critical to assure safe, effective, and efficient care1. We demonstrated that LEAN methodology is an effective method to address efficiency related EHR usability deficiencies. More research is needed to determine how these improvements impact care quality.
Marcilly, Romaric; Peute, Linda W; Beuscart-Zephir, Marie-Catherine; Jaspers, Monique W
In a Health Information Technology (HIT) regulatory context in which the usability of this technology is more and more a critical issue, there is an increasing need for evidence based usability practice. However, a clear definition of evidence based usability practice and how to achieve it is still lacking. This paper underlines the need for evidence based HIT design and provides a definition of evidence based usability practice as the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions in design of interactive systems in health by applying usability engineering and usability design principles that have proven their value in practice. Current issues that hamper evidence based usability practice are highlighted and steps needed to achieve evidence are presented.
Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman
This paper introduces a novel augmentation to the current heuristic usability evaluation methodology. The SPAR-H human reliability analysis method was developed for categorizing human performance in nuclear power plants. Despite the specialized use of SPAR-H for safety critical scenarios, the method also holds promise for use in commercial off-the-shelf software usability evaluations. The SPAR-H method shares task analysis underpinnings with human-computer interaction, and it can be easily adapted to incorporate usability heuristics as performance shaping factors. By assigning probabilistic modifiers to heuristics, it is possible to arrive at the usability error probability (UEP). This UEP is not a literal probability of error but nonetheless provides a quantitative basis to heuristic evaluation. When combined with a consequence matrix for usability errors, this method affords ready prioritization of usability issues.
Pramuka, Michael; van Roosmalen, Linda
In the fields of telehealth and telemedicine, phone and/or video technologies are key to the successful provision of services such as remote monitoring and visits. How do these technologies affect service accessibility, effectiveness, quality, and usefulness when applied to rehabilitation services in the field of telerehabilitation? To answer this question, we provide a overview of the complex network of available technologies and discuss how they link to rehabilitation applications, services, and practices as well as to the telerehabilitation end-user. This white paper will first present the numerous professional considerations that shape the use of technology in telerehabilitation service and set it somewhat apart from telemedicine. It will then provide an overview of concepts essential to usability analysis; present a summary of various telerehabilitation technologies and their strengths and limitations, and consider how the technologies interface with end users' clinical needs for service accessibility, effectiveness, quality, and usefulness. The paper will highlight a conceptual framework (including task analyses and usability issues) that underlies a functional match between telerehabilitation technologies, clinical applications, and end-user capabilities for telerehabilitation purposes. Finally, we will discuss pragmatic issues related to user integration of telerehabilitation technology versus traditional face-to-face approaches.
Pramuka, Michael; van Roosmalen, Linda
In the fields of telehealth and telemedicine, phone and/or video technologies are key to the successful provision of services such as remote monitoring and visits. How do these technologies affect service accessibility, effectiveness, quality, and usefulness when applied to rehabilitation services in the field of telerehabilitation? To answer this question, we provide a overview of the complex network of available technologies and discuss how they link to rehabilitation applications, services, and practices as well as to the telerehabilitation end-user. This white paper will first present the numerous professional considerations that shape the use of technology in telerehabilitation service and set it somewhat apart from telemedicine. It will then provide an overview of concepts essential to usability analysis; present a summary of various telerehabilitation technologies and their strengths and limitations, and consider how the technologies interface with end users’ clinical needs for service accessibility, effectiveness, quality, and usefulness. The paper will highlight a conceptual framework (including task analyses and usability issues) that underlies a functional match between telerehabilitation technologies, clinical applications, and end-user capabilities for telerehabilitation purposes. Finally, we will discuss pragmatic issues related to user integration of telerehabilitation technology versus traditional face-to-face approaches. PMID:25945165
Ligons, Frank M; Romagnoli, Katrina M; Browell, Suzanne; Hochheiser, Harry S; Handler, Steven M
Polypharmacy and medication non-adherence are common in older adults, potentially leading to medication-related problems and increased healthcare expenditures. Medication Delivery Units (MDUs) may improve adherence, but their interfaces may present usability challenges for older adults with age-related impairments. We used a combination of three inspection methods - heuristic evaluation, cognitive walkthrough, and simulated elderly interaction, to identify potential concerns with the usability of a commercially available telemedicine MDU. Each method revealed different problems, with repeated discoveries via different methods providing triangulated evidence. Despite the MDU's general usability, issues of varying severity were discovered. Significant usability issues associated with physical interactions with the MDU included loading and unloading the medication blister packs, and opening the delivered medication prior to administration. Less severe issues centered on small text sizes and poor user feedback. Further usability testing, involving older adults with a variety of impairments, is needed to validate findings.
Ligons, Frank M.; Romagnoli, Katrina M.; Browell, Suzanne; Hochheiser, Harry S.; Handler, Steven M.
Polypharmacy and medication non-adherence are common in older adults, potentially leading to medication-related problems and increased healthcare expenditures. Medication Delivery Units (MDUs) may improve adherence, but their interfaces may present usability challenges for older adults with age-related impairments. We used a combination of three inspection methods – heuristic evaluation, cognitive walkthrough, and simulated elderly interaction, to identify potential concerns with the usability of a commercially available telemedicine MDU. Each method revealed different problems, with repeated discoveries via different methods providing triangulated evidence. Despite the MDU’s general usability, issues of varying severity were discovered. Significant usability issues associated with physical interactions with the MDU included loading and unloading the medication blister packs, and opening the delivered medication prior to administration. Less severe issues centered on small text sizes and poor user feedback. Further usability testing, involving older adults with a variety of impairments, is needed to validate findings. PMID:22195137
Marcilly, Romaric; Peute, Linda; Beuscart-Zephir, Marie-Catherine
Usability is a critical factor in the acceptance, safe use, and success of health IT. The User-Centred Design process is widely promoted to improve usability. However, this traditional case by case approach that is rooted in the sound understanding of users' needs is not sufficient to improve technologies' usability and prevent usability-induced use-errors that may harm patients. It should be enriched with empirical evidence. This evidence is on design elements (what are the most valuable design principles, and the worst usability mistakes), and on the usability evaluation methods (which combination of methods is most suitable in which context). To achieve this evidence, several steps must be fulfilled and challenges must be overcome. Some attempts to search evidence for designing elements of health IT and for usability evaluation methods exist and are summarized. A concrete instance of evidence-based usability design principles for medication-related alerting systems is briefly described.
Zhao, Lei; Feng, Chaohong; Hou, Caiting; Hu, Lingyun; Wang, Qiaochun; Wu, Yunfeng
A novel acetone extract from cottonseed oil sludge was firstly discovered against plant viruses including Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Rice stripe virus (RSV) and Southern rice black streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV). Gossypol and β-sitosterol separated from the acetone extract were tested for their effects on anti-TMV and analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) assay. In vivo and field trials in different geographic distributions and different host varieties declared that this extract mixture was more efficient than the commercial agent Ningnanmycin with a broad spectrum of anti-plant-viruses activity. No phytotoxic activity was observed in the treated plants and environmental toxicology showed that this new acetone extract was environmentally friendly, indicating that this acetone extract has potential application in the control of plant virus in the future. PMID:25705894
Orfanou, Konstantina; Tselios, Nikolaos; Katsanos, Christos
Perceived usability affects greatly student's learning effectiveness and overall learning experience, and thus is an important requirement of educational software. The System Usability Scale (SUS) is a well-researched and widely used questionnaire for perceived usability evaluation. However, surprisingly few studies have used SUS to evaluate the…
This dissertation investigates the curricular implementation of usability instruction in technical communication. Though there are a plethora of publications and studies on usability in technical communication, little discussion focuses on usability instruction in the classroom or its implementation in the curriculum. Thus, this exploratory…
de Castro Lozano, Carlos; Salcines, Enrique García; Sainz de Abajo, Beatriz; Burón Fernández, F. Javier; Ramírez, José Miguel; Recellado, José Gabriel Zato; Montoya, Rafael Sanchez; Bell, John; Marin, Francisco Alcantud
When designing "interfaces for everyone" for interactive systems, it is important to consider factors such as cost, the intended market, the state of the environment, etc. User interfaces are fundamental for the developmental process in any application, and its design must be contemplated from the start. Of the distinct parts of a system (hardware and software), it is the interface that permits the user access to computer resources. The seven principles of "Universal Design" or "Design for Everyone" focus on a universal usable design, but at the same time acknowledge the influences of internal and external factors. Structural changes in social and health services could provide an increase in the well-being of a country's citizens through the use of self-care programming and proactive management/prevention of disease. Automated home platforms can act as an accessibility instrument which permits users to avoid, compensate, mitigate, or neutralize the deficiencies and dependencies caused by living alone.
ICUE (Interactivity Centered Usability Evaluation) is an enhanced usability testing protocol created by the researcher. ICUE augments the facilitator's role for usability testing, and offers strategies in developing and presenting usability tasks during a testing session. ICUE was designed to address weaknesses found in the usability evaluation of…
Penedo, Janaina Rodrigues; Diniz, Morganna; Ferreira, Simone Bacellar Leal; Silveira, Denis S.; Capra, Eliane
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the usability of a remote learning system in its initial development phase, using a quantitative usability evaluation method through Markov models. Design/methodology/approach: The paper opted for an exploratory study. The data of interest of the research correspond to the possible accesses of users…
... AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes for Processing 1 § 51.3411 Usable... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Usable piece. 51.3411 Section 51.3411...
... AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1 2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes for Processing 1 § 51.3411 Usable... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Usable piece. 51.3411 Section 51.3411...
Anjaneyulu, K. S. R.; Singer, R. A.; Harding, R.
Describes the formative evaluation of a multimedia computer system that provides remedial support for university students learning concepts concerning the structure and function of the human brain and describes usability studies of the system using the Software Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI). Analysis of SUMI items and the student…
Billard, Isabelle; Ouadi, Ali; Gaillard, Clotilde
Liquid-liquid extraction of actinides and lanthanides by use of ionic liquids is reviewed, considering, first, phenomenological aspects, then looking more deeply at the various mechanisms. Future trends in this developing field are presented.
PARMANTO, BAMBANG; LEWIS, ALLEN NELSON; GRAHAM, KRISTIN M.; BERTOLET, MARNIE H.
Current telehealth usability questionnaires are designed primarily for older technologies, where telehealth interaction is conducted over dedicated videoconferencing applications. However, telehealth services are increasingly conducted over computer-based systems that rely on commercial software and a user supplied computer interface. Therefore, a usability questionnaire that addresses the changes in telehealth service delivery and technology is needed. The Telehealth Usability Questionnaire (TUQ) was developed to evaluate the usability of telehealth implementation and services. This paper addresses: (1) the need for a new measure of telehealth usability, (2) the development of the TUQ, (3) intended uses for the TUQ, and (4) the reliability of the TUQ. Analyses indicate that the TUQ is a solid, robust, and versatile measure that can be used to measure the quality of the computer-based user interface and the quality of the telehealth interaction and services. PMID:27563386
Sonderegger, Andreas; Schmutz, Sven; Sauer, Juergen
The effects of age in usability testing were examined in an experiment. Sixty users from two age groups (M = 23.0 yrs, M = 58.1 yrs) operated two technical devices (keyboard-based and touchscreen-based smartphones). In addition to various performance measures (e.g. task completion time, task completion rate), several subjective measures were taken (e.g. perceived usability, affect, and workload). The results showed better performance scores for younger adults than older adults for task completion time. For older adult users there was a mismatch between usability ratings and task completion time but not between usability ratings and task completion rate. Age-related differences in the importance of speed and accuracy in task completion point to the need to consider more strongly the factor user age in usability research and practice.
Parmanto, Bambang; Lewis, Allen Nelson; Graham, Kristin M; Bertolet, Marnie H
Current telehealth usability questionnaires are designed primarily for older technologies, where telehealth interaction is conducted over dedicated videoconferencing applications. However, telehealth services are increasingly conducted over computer-based systems that rely on commercial software and a user supplied computer interface. Therefore, a usability questionnaire that addresses the changes in telehealth service delivery and technology is needed. The Telehealth Usability Questionnaire (TUQ) was developed to evaluate the usability of telehealth implementation and services. This paper addresses: (1) the need for a new measure of telehealth usability, (2) the development of the TUQ, (3) intended uses for the TUQ, and (4) the reliability of the TUQ. Analyses indicate that the TUQ is a solid, robust, and versatile measure that can be used to measure the quality of the computer-based user interface and the quality of the telehealth interaction and services.
Samson, Eugenie; Arlia-Ciommo, Anthony; Dakik, Pamela; Cortes, Berly; Feldman, Rachel; Mohtashami, Sadaf; McAuley, Mélissa; Chancharoen, Marisa; Rukundo, Belise; Simard, Éric; Titorenko, Vladimir I.
We discovered six plant extracts that increase yeast chronological lifespan to a significantly greater extent than any of the presently known longevity-extending chemical compounds. One of these extracts is the most potent longevity-extending pharmacological intervention yet described. We show that each of the six plant extracts is a geroprotector which delays the onset and decreases the rate of yeast chronological aging by eliciting a hormetic stress response. We also show that each of these extracts has different effects on cellular processes that define longevity in organisms across phyla. These effects include the following: 1) increased mitochondrial respiration and membrane potential; 2) augmented or reduced concentrations of reactive oxygen species; 3) decreased oxidative damage to cellular proteins, membrane lipids, and mitochondrial and nuclear genomes; 4) enhanced cell resistance to oxidative and thermal stresses; and 5) accelerated degradation of neutral lipids deposited in lipid droplets. Our findings provide new insights into mechanisms through which chemicals extracted from certain plants can slow biological aging. PMID:26918729
Web sites within our industry serve complex information to a gamut of user audiences that are constantly evolving, making effective site design a challenge. In addition, the average lifecycle of a Web site is 2-3 years. If a site is to maintain user satisfaction and technical usability, revision is inevitable. Effective revision begins with the ability to clearly identify the successes and failures of your current site's usability. To do this, you must first ignore the science - -you must address those Web characteristics that have emerged through years of testing as indicators of usability, regardless of the site's target audiences or content. If you cannot successfully execute the basic principles of usability, any work completed to meet the specific needs of your scientific community will be ineffective. A checklist of usability principles can be used to objectively score your site's excellent or poor execution of such Web site features. With quantifiable results, you have an impartial measure of your current site's usability from which a prioritized list of recommended revisions can be created. You can find checklists of this nature, or the information you need to create a list for your organization, with some online and print investigation. This session will provide checklist examples and an explanation of how to use checklists to achieve basic Web site usability.
Boothe, Chase; Strawderman, Lesley; Hosea, Ethan
Inconsistencies among testing methods and results in previous research prompted this study that builds upon a systematic usability testing research framework to better understand how interface medium influences users' abilities to detect usability flaws in applications. Interface medium was tested to identify its effects on users' perceptions of usability and abilities to detect usability problems and severe usability problems. Results indicated that medium has no effect on users' abilities to detect usability problems or perceptions of usability. However, results did indicate an interaction between the medium and the tested application in which users were able to identify significantly more usability problems on a higher fidelity medium using a particular application. Results also indicated that as users' perceptions of an application's usability increases, the users are less able to detect usability problems in that application. Usability testing should begin early in the design process, even if low fidelity mediums will be used.
Schmidt-Kraepelin, Manuel; Dehling, Tobias; Sunyaev, Ali
To facilitate use of patient-centered health IT applications in everyday life, a high degree of usability is required. Based on the example of a patient-centered web application, we propose a usability study design enabling developers and researchers to assess usability of patient-centered health IT applications and derive implications for their improvement. Our study design integrates tasks that subjects have to process, an associated questionnaire based on Perceived Ease of Use, Perceived Usefulness, Attitude Toward Using, and Behavioral Intention to Use, a System Usability Scale questionnaire, and focus groups. Application of the usability study design demonstrates its feasibility and provides insights for assessment of usability in related projects in research and practice.
Katre, Dinesh; Bhutkar, Ganesh; Karmarkar, Shekhar
A ventilator system provides respiratory support to critically ill patients in the Intensive Care Unit. Increasing complexity in the user interface, features and functionalities of ventilator systems can cause medical errors and cost the life of a patient. Therefore, the usability of ventilator systems is most crucial to ensure patient safety. We have evolved a specialized set of heuristics combined with objectively defined usability indicators for the usability evaluation of touch screen based ventilator systems. Our study presents the heuristic evaluation of three touch screen based ventilator systems manufactured by three different companies. The heuristic evaluation has been performed by four different usability evaluators to ensure the reliability of heuristics proposed in this paper. The specialized set of heuristics linked with user interface components and the objectively defined usability indicators are found more reliable in identifying specific usability problems of ventilator systems.
Hignett, Sue; Willmott, Joseph Wayne; Clemes, Stacy
In the UK mountain rescues are carried out by highly trained volunteers in all weather conditions and at any time of the day/night. They interface with other services when they hand over the casualty to either land or air ambulances. The design of the stretcher is important to the safety of both the volunteers and casualties. This paper reports a usability trial to evaluate the features of mountain rescue stretchers and identify characteristics for future design. Two mountain rescue teams in the English Lake District participated in a five week field experiment. Data were collected using postural analysis with Rapid Entire Body Analysis, Body Part Discomfort Surveys, Rated Perceived Exertion and focus groups to compare the performance of four stretchers: Split Thomas, Ferno Titan, MacInnes mark 6 and MacInnes mark 7. None of the stretchers had an overall advantage, with benefits for some features counterbalanced by disadvantages resulting from others. All the stretchers produced shoulder discomfort with the Split Thomas and MacInnes 6 lowering the postural risks through the use of skids/wheel in the carrying phase. The key design features for future MR stretchers include: reduced unloaded weight (e.g. light weight materials and mesh platforms); undercarriage system to reduce the carrying load; adjustable handles at the front and back positions; flexible carrying system with an optional harness attachment; ease of assembly in adverse environmental conditions; large carrying capacity. It is suggested that military emergency evacuation should be considered in addition to mountain rescue tasks to identify a larger commercial market for development.
This paper focuses on the development, adoption, and integration of resource discovery, knowledge management, and/or knowledge sharing interfaces such as interactive portals, and the use of the library's World Wide Web presence to increase the availability and usability of information services. The introduction addresses changes in library…
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Edition). Springfield MA: Merriam-Webster, Incorporated, 1994. Nielsen , Jakob . Designing Web Usability. Indianapolis: New Riders Publishing, 2000... Nielsen , Jakob . "Heuristic Evaluation", in Usability Inspection Methods. Ed. by J. Nielsen and R. Mack. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 1994, pages...25-62. Nielsen , Jakob and Molich, Rolf. “Heuristic Evaluation of User Interfaces”, in Proceedings of ACM CHI’90 Conference of Human Factors in
Miller, Kristen E; Arnold, Ryan; Capan, Muge; Campbell, Michele; Zern, Susan Coffey; Dressler, Robert; Duru, Ozioma O; Ebbert, Gwen; Jackson, Eric; Learish, John; Strauss, Danielle; Wu, Pan; Bennett, Dean A
With the recognition that the introduction of new technology causes changes in workflow and may introduce new errors to the system, usability testing was performed to provide data on nursing practice and interaction with infusion pump technology. Usability testing provides the opportunity to detect and analyze potentially dangerous problems with the design of infusion pumps that could cause or allow avoidable errors. This work will reduce preventable harm through the optimization of health care delivery.
Findeis, Mark A; Schroeder, Frank; McKee, Timothy D; Yager, Debra; Fraering, Patrick C; Creaser, Steffen P; Austin, Wesley F; Clardy, Jon; Wang, Rong; Selkoe, Dennis; Eckman, Christopher B
A screen of a library of synthetic drugs and natural product extracts identified a botanical extract that modulates the processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in cultured cells to produce a lowered ratio of amyloid-beta peptide (1-42) (Aβ42) relative to Aβ40. This profile is of interest as a potential treatment for Alzheimer's disease. The extract, from the black cohosh plant (Actaea racemosa), was subjected to bioassay guided fractionation to isolate active components. Using a combination of normal-phase and reverse-phase chromatography, a novel triterpene monoglycoside, 1, was isolated. This compound was found to have an IC(50) of 100 nM for selectively reducing the production of amyloidogenic Aβ42 while having a much smaller effect on the production of Aβ40 (IC(50) 6.3 μM) in cultured cells overexpressing APP. Using IP-MS methods, this compound was found to modulate the pool of total Aβ produced by reducing the proportion of Aβ42 while increasing the relative amounts of shorter and less amyloidogenic Aβ37 and Aβ39. Concentrations of 1 sufficient to lower levels of Aβ42 substantially (up to 10 μM) did not significantly affect the processing of Notch or other aspects of APP processing. When 1 (10 μg) was administered to CD-1 normal mice intracerebroventricularly, the level of Aβ42 in brain was reduced. Assays for off-target pharmacology and the absence of overt signs of toxicity in mice dosed with compound 1 suggest a comparatively selective pharmacology for this triterpenoid. Compound 1 represents a new lead for the development of potential treatments for Alzheimer's disease via modulation of gamma-secretase.
Ratwani, Raj M; Hettinger, A Zachary; Fairbanks, Rollin J
Despite the widespread adoption of electronic health records (EHRs), usability of many EHRs continues to be suboptimal, with some vendors failing to meet usability standards, resulting in clinician frustration and patient safety hazards. In an effort to increase EHR vendor competition on usability, recommendations have been made and legislation drafted to develop comparison tools that would allow purchasers to better understand the usability of EHR products prior to purchase. Usability comparison can be based on EHR vendor design and development processes, vendor usability testing as part of the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology certification program, and usability of implemented products. Barriers exist within the current certified health technology program that prevent effective comparison of usability during each of these stages. We describe the importance of providing purchasers with improved information about EHR usability, barriers to making usability comparisons, and solutions to overcome these barriers.
Sousa, Morgan Margaret
The impetus for this project stemmed from a curiosity about two particular areas in the history of usability research. For one, I began research for this project with a desire to learn about patterns in the theory, practice, attitude, and perception about usability work, both in academic contexts and in corporate contexts, with a focus on the…
Web mapping sites are interactive maps that are accessed via Webpages. With the rapid development of Internet and Geographic Information System (GIS) field, public web mapping sites are not foreign to people. Nowadays, people use these web mapping sites for various reasons, in that increasing maps and related map services of web mapping sites are freely available for end users. Thus, increased users of web mapping sites led to more usability studies. Usability Engineering (UE), for instance, is an approach for analyzing and improving the usability of websites through examining and evaluating an interface. In this research, UE method was employed to explore usability problems of four public web mapping sites, analyze the problems quantitatively and provide guidelines for future design based on the test results. Firstly, the development progress for usability studies were described, and simultaneously several usability evaluation methods such as Usability Engineering (UE), User-Centered Design (UCD) and Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) were generally introduced. Then the method and procedure of experiments for the usability test were presented in detail. In this usability evaluation experiment, four public web mapping sites (Google Maps, Bing maps, Mapquest, Yahoo Maps) were chosen as the testing websites. And 42 people, who having different GIS skills (test users or experts), gender (male or female), age and nationality, participated in this test to complete the several test tasks in different teams. The test comprised three parts: a pretest background information questionnaire, several test tasks for quantitative statistics and progress analysis, and a posttest questionnaire. The pretest and posttest questionnaires focused on gaining the verbal explanation of their actions qualitatively. And the design for test tasks targeted at gathering quantitative data for the errors and problems of the websites. Then, the results mainly from the test part were analyzed. The
Greitzer, Frank L.
While usability testing is well established, assessing the usability of security software, tools, or methods deserves more careful consideration. It has been argued that dealing with security has become too difficult for individuals or organizations to manage effectively or to use conveniently. As difficult as it is for system administrators and developers to deal with, security is even more challenging for casual users. Indeed, it is much too easy for casual/home users to configure the security of their systems in non-optimal ways that leave their systems inadvertently insecure. This is exacerbated by the fact that casual users are focused on matters other than security, and likely would prefer not even to think about security. This brief report argues that when security and/or privacy are part of the equation, traditional methods for usability testing should be re-considered. The purpose of this brief report is to argue for and outline a method associated with a new approach to usability testing for examining usable security issues.
Van Nuland, Sonya E; Eagleson, Roy; Rogers, Kem A
Online educational technologies and e-learning tools are providing new opportunities for students to learn worldwide, and they continue to play an important role in anatomical sciences education. Yet, as we shift to teaching online, particularly within the anatomical sciences, it has become apparent that e-learning tool success is based on more than just user satisfaction and preliminary learning outcomes-rather it is a multidimensional construct that should be addressed from an integrated perspective. The efficiency, effectiveness and satisfaction with which a user can navigate an e-learning tool is known as usability, and represents a construct which we propose can be used to quantitatively evaluate e-learning tool success. To assess the usability of an e-learning tool, usability testing should be employed during the design and development phases (i.e., prior to its release to users) as well as during its delivery (i.e., following its release to users). However, both the commercial educational software industry and individual academic developers in the anatomical sciences have overlooked the added value of additional usability testing. Reducing learner frustration and anxiety during e-learning tool use is essential in ensuring e-learning tool success, and will require a commitment on the part of the developers to engage in usability testing during all stages of an e-learning tool's life cycle. Anat Sci Educ 10: 190-199. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.
Segall, Noa; Saville, Jeffrey G.; L’Engle, Pete; Carlson, Boyd; Wright, Melanie C.; Schulman, Kevin; Tcheng, James E.
The electronic personal health record (PHR) has been championed as a mediator of patient-centered care, yet its usability and utility to patients, key predictors of success, have received little attention. Human-centered design (HCD) offers validated methods for studying systems effects on users and their cognitive tasks. In HCD, user-centered activities allow potential users to shape the design of the end product and enhance its usability. We sought to evaluate the usability and functionality of HealthView, the PHR of the Duke University Health System, using HCD methods. Study participants were asked to think aloud as they carried out tasks in HealthView. They then completed surveys and interviews eliciting their reactions to the web portal. Findings were analyzed to generate redesign recommendations, which will be incorporated in a future release of HealthView. PMID:22195184
Naccache, Samia N.; Greninger, Alexander L.; Lee, Deanna; Coffey, Lark L.; Phan, Tung; Rein-Weston, Annie; Aronsohn, Andrew; Hackett, John; Delwart, Eric L.
Next-generation sequencing was used for discovery and de novo assembly of a novel, highly divergent DNA virus at the interface between the Parvoviridae and Circoviridae. The virus, provisionally named parvovirus-like hybrid virus (PHV), is nearly identical by sequence to another DNA virus, NIH-CQV, previously detected in Chinese patients with seronegative (non-A-E) hepatitis. Although we initially detected PHV in a wide range of clinical samples, with all strains sharing ∼99% nucleotide and amino acid identity with each other and with NIH-CQV, the exact origin of the virus was eventually traced to contaminated silica-binding spin columns used for nucleic acid extraction. Definitive confirmation of the origin of PHV, and presumably NIH-CQV, was obtained by in-depth analyses of water eluted through contaminated spin columns. Analysis of environmental metagenome libraries detected PHV sequences in coastal marine waters of North America, suggesting that a potential association between PHV and diatoms (algae) that generate the silica matrix used in the spin columns may have resulted in inadvertent viral contamination during manufacture. The confirmation of PHV/NIH-CQV as laboratory reagent contaminants and not bona fide infectious agents of humans underscores the rigorous approach needed to establish the validity of new viral genomes discovered by next-generation sequencing. PMID:24027301
Naccache, Samia N; Greninger, Alexander L; Lee, Deanna; Coffey, Lark L; Phan, Tung; Rein-Weston, Annie; Aronsohn, Andrew; Hackett, John; Delwart, Eric L; Chiu, Charles Y
Next-generation sequencing was used for discovery and de novo assembly of a novel, highly divergent DNA virus at the interface between the Parvoviridae and Circoviridae. The virus, provisionally named parvovirus-like hybrid virus (PHV), is nearly identical by sequence to another DNA virus, NIH-CQV, previously detected in Chinese patients with seronegative (non-A-E) hepatitis. Although we initially detected PHV in a wide range of clinical samples, with all strains sharing ∼99% nucleotide and amino acid identity with each other and with NIH-CQV, the exact origin of the virus was eventually traced to contaminated silica-binding spin columns used for nucleic acid extraction. Definitive confirmation of the origin of PHV, and presumably NIH-CQV, was obtained by in-depth analyses of water eluted through contaminated spin columns. Analysis of environmental metagenome libraries detected PHV sequences in coastal marine waters of North America, suggesting that a potential association between PHV and diatoms (algae) that generate the silica matrix used in the spin columns may have resulted in inadvertent viral contamination during manufacture. The confirmation of PHV/NIH-CQV as laboratory reagent contaminants and not bona fide infectious agents of humans underscores the rigorous approach needed to establish the validity of new viral genomes discovered by next-generation sequencing.
Presented are four mathematical discoveries made by students on an arithmetical function using the Fibonacci sequence. Discussed is the nature of the role of the teacher in directing the students' discovery activities. (KR)
Muniz, Maria Isabella de Porto Alegre; Moraes, Anamaria de
This project is about the usability of Learning Management Systems (LMS), focusing on the specific case of the open source system Moodle. Specifically, this project is about communication and collaboration tools that are used by teachers on the system. This study investigates whether usability problems hamper the use teachers make of these tools. Focused interviews were conducted with professionals working in distance education and the answers of the respondents were subjected to techniques of content analysis in order to obtain data for developing the tools needed to prove the hypothesis.
Hill, Audrey P.; Bohil, Corey J.
FEATURE AT A GLANCE In this article we review recent and potential applications of optical neuroimaging to human factors and usability research. We focus specifically on functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) because of its cost-effectiveness and ease of implementation. Researchers have used fNIRS to assess a range of psychological phenomena relevant to human factors, such as cognitive workload, attention, motor activity, and more. It offers the opportunity to measure hemodynamic correlates of mental activity during task completion in human factors and usability studies. We also consider some limitations and future research directions. PMID:28286404
Christ-Neumann, Marie-Luise; Escrich, Ana; Anguita, Alberto; Stenzhorn, Holger; Taylor, Marian; Ramay, Hena; Rüping, Stefan; Krauth, Christian; Kuchinke, Wolfgang; Graf, Norbert; Rossi, Simona
Usability testing methods are nowadays integrated into the design and development of health-care software, and the need for usability in health-care information technology (IT) is widely accepted by clinicians and researchers. Usability assessment starts with the identification of specific objectives that need to be tested and continues with the definition of evaluation criteria and monitoring procedures before usability tests are performed to assess the quality of all services and tasks. Such a process is implemented in the p-medicine environment and gives feedback iteratively to all software developers in the project. GCP (good clinical practice) criteria require additional usability testing of the software. For the p-medicine project (www.p-medicine.eu), an extended usability concept (EUC) was developed. The EUC covers topics like ease of use, likeability, and usefulness, usability in trial centres characterised by a mixed care and research environment and by extreme time constraints, confidentiality, use of source documents, standard operating procedures (SOA), and quality control during data handling to ensure that all data are reliable and have been processed correctly in terms of accuracy, completeness, legibility, consistence, and timeliness. Here, we describe the p-medicine EUC, focusing on two of the many key tools: ObTiMA and the Ontology Annotator (OA).
Wenzel, Markus A.; Schultze-Kraft, Rafael; Meinecke, Frank C.; Cardinaux, Fabien; Kemp, Thomas; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Curio, Gabriel; Blankertz, Benjamin
Objective. Neurotechnology can contribute to the usability assessment of products by providing objective measures of neural workload and can uncover usability impediments that are not consciously perceived by test persons. In this study, the neural processing effort imposed on the viewer of 3D television by shutter glasses was quantified as a function of shutter frequency. In particular, we sought to determine the critical shutter frequency at which the ‘neural flicker’ vanishes, such that visual fatigue due to this additional neural effort can be prevented by increasing the frequency of the system. Approach. Twenty-three participants viewed an image through 3D shutter glasses, while multichannel electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. In total ten shutter frequencies were employed, selected individually for each participant to cover the range below, at and above the threshold of flicker perception. The source of the neural flicker correlate was extracted using independent component analysis and the flicker impact on the visual cortex was quantified by decoding the state of the shutter from the EEG. Main Result. Effects of the shutter glasses were traced in the EEG up to around 67 Hz—about 20 Hz over the flicker perception threshold—and vanished at the subsequent frequency level of 77 Hz. Significance. The impact of the shutter glasses on the visual cortex can be detected by neurotechnology even when a flicker is not reported by the participants. Potential impact. Increasing the shutter frequency from the usual 50 Hz or 60 Hz to 77 Hz reduces the risk of visual fatigue and thus improves shutter-glass-based 3D usability.
Marcilly, Romaric; Boog, Cesar; Leroy, Nicolas; Pelayo, Sylvia
The Medical Device regulation requires manufacturers to anticipate and prevent risks of use errors of their medical device. However, manufacturers experience difficulties to understand the concept of "usability-induced use-errors". Based on a "usability framework" aiming at describing the relationship between usability design principles, usability flaws, usage problems, and outcomes, a usability evaluation reporting form had been designed to support understanding the use-error concept. This paper reports the preliminary evaluation of the perceived usefulness of this form. Results show that manufacturers found helpful the presentation of the results of a usability evaluation through this form for it supports the understanding of the usability origins and the consequences of use-errors. Even if the use of this reporting form should be made easier as usability experts experience difficulties to fill it, it seems a promising way to clearly present "usability-induced use-errors" to manufacturers.
called Nomad ( Microvision , 2003), for dismounted soldiers. In this paper, we present a brief description of key usability engineering activities...Nomad augmented vision system manufactured by Microvision ( Microvision , 2003). This display uses a low-powered laser beam to paint an image...Resolving Multiple Occluded Layers in Augmented Reality,” Submitted to ISMAR Conference. 2003. Microvision , Company website, see http
McCann, Tom; Hynes, Colin
Describes the Staples.com electronic commerce Web site; discusses its steady growth rate; and details two case studies in which data from a variety of sources were used to identify and resolve site usability issues and which are supported by compelling ROI (return on investment) figures. (Author/LRW)
Wegener, Debby R.; Moi, May Goh-Ong Ai; Li, Mae Lim Mei
The Temasek Polytechnic Library in Singapore launched its new digital library portal in December 2002. Circumstances precluded usability testing prior to this so it was with some concern that the library web team monitored its use. A few months later it became clear the users were having problems, so a new website was designed. This article deals…
Bringula, Rex P.; Basa, Roselle S.
The study investigated the factors that might significantly affect web portal usability. Results of the study were intended to serve as inputs for faculty web portal development of the University of the East-Manila. Descriptive statistics utilized questionnaire data from 82 faculty members. The data showed that most of the respondents were…
Virtanen, Viivi; Korpelainen, Helena; Kostamo, Kirsi
Two experiments were performed to test the relevance of bryophyte (Plantae, Bryophyta) material for forensic studies. The first experiment was conducted to reveal if, and how well, plant fragments attach to footwear in general. In the test, 16 persons walked outdoors wearing rubber boots or hiking boots. After 24h of use outdoors the boots were carefully cleaned, and all plant fragments were collected. Afterwards, all plant material was examined to identify the species. In the second experiment, fresh material of nine bryophyte species was kept in a shed in adverse conditions for 18 months, after which DNA was extracted and subjected to genotyping to test the quality of the material. Both experiments give support for the usability of bryophyte material in forensic studies. The bryophyte fragments become attached to shoes, where they remain even after the wearer walks on a dry road for several hours. Bryophyte DNA stays intact, allowing DNA profiling after lengthy periods following detachment from the original plant source. Based on these experiments, and considering the fact that many bryophytes are clonal plants, we propose that bryophytes are among the most usable plants to provide botanical evidence for forensic investigations.
Khajouei, Reza; Jaspers, Monique W M
Although many studies have discussed the benefits of Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) systems, their configuration can have a great impact on clinicians' adoption of these systems. Poorly designed CPOE systems can lead to usability problems, users' dissatisfaction and may disrupt normal flow of clinical activities. This paper reports on a literature review focused on the identification of CPOE medication systems' design aspects that impact CPOE systems' usability and create opportunities for medication errors. Our review is based on a systematic literature search in PubMed, EMBASE and Ovid MEDLINE for relevant publications from 1986-2006. We categorized the design aspects extracted from relevant publications into six different groups: 1) timing of alerts, 2) log in/out procedures, 3) pick lists and drop down menus, 4) clues and guidelines, 5) documentation and data entry options, and 6) screen display and layout. Our review shows that the manner in which a CPOE system is configured can have a high impact on ease of system use, task behavior of clinicians in ordering drugs, and medication errors. Characterization of consequences associated with certain CPOE design aspects provides insight into how CPOE system designs can be improved to enhance physicians' adoption of these systems and their success. Recommendations are provided to enable CPOE system designers to create CPOE systems that are not only more user friendly and efficient but safer.
Outlines the internal usability review, a systematic examination of documentation to identify basic usability issues and solve problems. Discusses typical user problems and explains the review steps that eliminate documentation problems before they become problems for the customer. (SR)
Marcilly, Romaric; Peute, Linda
This paper discusses how and why to build evidence-based knowledge on usability evaluation methods. At each step of building evidence, requisites and difficulties to achieve it are highlighted. Specifically, the paper presents how usability evaluation studies should be designed to allow capitalizing evidence. Reciprocally, it presents how evidence-based usability knowledge will help improve usability practice. Finally, it underlines that evaluation and evidence participate in a virtuous circle that will help improve scientific knowledge and evaluation practice.
Lee, Jason Chong; Wahid, Shahtab; McCrickard, D. Scott; Chewar, C. M.; Congleton, Ben
Purpose: Decades of innovation in designing usable (and unusable) interfaces have resulted in a plethora of guidelines, usability methods, and other design tools. The purpose of this research is to develop ways for novice developers to effectively leverage and contribute to the large and growing body of usability knowledge and methods.…
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Accessibility and usability... COMPLIANCE BOARD TELECOMMUNICATIONS ACT ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES Requirements for Accessibility and Usability § 1193.31 Accessibility and usability. When required by § 1193.21, telecommunications equipment...
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Accessibility and usability... COMPLIANCE BOARD TELECOMMUNICATIONS ACT ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES Requirements for Accessibility and Usability § 1193.31 Accessibility and usability. When required by § 1193.21, telecommunications equipment...
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Accessibility and usability... COMPLIANCE BOARD TELECOMMUNICATIONS ACT ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES Requirements for Accessibility and Usability § 1193.31 Accessibility and usability. When required by § 1193.21, telecommunications equipment...
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Accessibility and usability... COMPLIANCE BOARD TELECOMMUNICATIONS ACT ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES Requirements for Accessibility and Usability § 1193.31 Accessibility and usability. When required by § 1193.21, telecommunications equipment...
Can we use the methods of Web usability testing to learn about library instruction? This article is among the first in the field trying to establish a link between usability and instruction. The author discusses useful insights that Web usability can bring to our pedagogy as well as to the efficiency of library instruction. The result of a Web…
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accessibility and usability... COMPLIANCE BOARD TELECOMMUNICATIONS ACT ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES Requirements for Accessibility and Usability § 1193.31 Accessibility and usability. When required by § 1193.21, telecommunications equipment...
Chen, Yu-Hui; Germain, Carol Anne; Rorissa, Abebe
Library/information science professionals need a clearly articulated definition of usability/Web usability to implement intuitive websites. In this study, the authors analyzed usability definitions provided by the ARL library professionals and those found in the library/information science and computer science-information systems literature.…
Bunz, Ulla K.
This paper discusses Web site usability issues. Specifically, it assumes that the usability of a Web site depends more on the perception of the user than on the objectively assessable usability criteria of the Web site. Two pilot studies, based on theoretical notions of uses and gratifications theory and similar theories, are presented. In the…
The paper proposes a contingent, learner-centred usability evaluation method and a prototype tool of such systems. This is a new usability evaluation method for web-based learning systems using a set of empirically-supported usability factors and can be done effectively with limited resources. During the evaluation process, the method allows for…
Endert, Alexander; North, Chris; Chang, Remco; Zhou, Michelle
Interactive analytics provide users a myriad of computational means to aid in extracting meaningful information from large and complex datasets. Much prior work focuses either on advancing the capabilities of machine-centric approaches by the data mining and machine learning communities, or human-driven methods by the visualization and CHI communities. However, these methods do not yet support a true human-machine symbiotic relationship where users and machines work together collaboratively and adapt to each other to advance an interactive analytic process. In this paper we discuss some of the inherent issues, outlining what we believe are the steps toward usable interactive analytics that will ultimately increase the effectiveness for both humans and computers to produce insights.
The paper starts with a brief overview of the scale of disability and associated challenges and puts them in the context of the public policy on disability. It then analyses the usability challenges in public services and border control, including the issues of accessibility, safety and communication. These need to be addressed in future policy proposals, to provide the best assistance by new technologies to elderly people and people with disabilities, avoiding creating new barriers due to incorrect or incomplete initial conception. With increasing flux of novel security technology in mass transportation systems, and particularly the use of biometric identification in airports, the challenge of usability is recognized. This paper analyses these issues in the context of users with disability in an idealized process of Simplifying Passenger Travel (SPT).
Wong, Douglas T.
This slide presentation reviews the work of the Usability Testing and Analysis Facility (UTAF) at NASA Johnson Space Center. It is one of the Space Human Factors Laboratories in the Habitability and Human Factors Branch (SF3) at NASA Johnson Space Center The primary focus pf the UTAF is to perform Human factors evaluation and usability testing of crew / vehicle interfaces. The presentation reviews the UTAF expertise and capabilities, the processes and methodologies, and the equipment available. It also reviews the programs that it has supported detailing the human engineering activities in support of the design of the Orion space craft, testing of the EVA integrated spacesuit, and work done for the design of the lunar projects of the Constellation Program: Altair, Lunar Electric Rover, and Outposts
Pravettoni, Gabriella; Leotta, Salvatore Nuccio; Lucchiari, Claudio; Misuraca, Raffaella
This study assessed the role of usability in trust of e-banking services. A questionnaire was administered to 185 Italian undergraduate working students who volunteered for the experiment (M age = 30.5 yr., SD = 3.1). Participants were differentiated on computer ability (Expert, n = 104; Nonexpert, n = 81) and e-banking use (User, n = 93; Nonusers, n = 92). Analysis showed that the website usability of e-banking services did not play a very important role for the User group. Instead, institution-based trust, e.g., the trust in the security policy of the Web merchant, customers, and the overall trust of the bank were the crucial factors in the adoption of e-banking.
This grant provided Graduate Research Fellowship Program support to James Michael Herold to obtain a graduate degree from the Department of Psychology at Kansas State University and conduct usability testing of graphical user interfaces the Kennedy Space Center. The student independently took an additional internship at Boll Laboratories without informing his graduate advisor or the Department of Psychology. Because he was NOT making progress toward his degree, he elected not to pursue his graduate studies at Kansas State University and self-terminated from the program (spin without informing his advisor or the Department of Psychology]. What he accomplished for NASA in terms of usability testing at the Kennedy Space Center is unclear. NASA terminated support for the project: 07/30/99, including a $4,000 commitment to provide infrastructure support to the Department of Psychology.
Ripat, Jacquie; Becker, Pam
Play, specifically outdoor play, is crucial for a child's development. However, not all playgrounds are designed to provide usable space for children with disabilities. The aim of the study was to gain an understanding of the experiences of playground use for children with disabilities and their caregivers. Using a qualitative descriptive design, interviews were conducted with children with disabilities and their caregivers. Interview transcripts were reviewed and coded. The analysis process resulted in three overarching themes. Playground Experiences addressed the sensory experiences that children seek at playgrounds, the importance of creating environments that promote imaginative play and the need to provide an appropriate level of challenge. In the second theme, Playground Usability, participants described barriers that prevent access and features that promote use. The third theme, Inclusivity, focused on equal access and the importance of providing options in design. The Person-Environment-Occupation model was used to frame the findings and to identify practice and research recommendations. Outdoor play is a key occupation of children, and occupational therapists have a role in promoting usable environments for all children.
Russ, Alissa L; Baker, Darrell A; Fahner, W Jeffrey; Milligan, Bryce S; Cox, Leeann; Hagg, Heather K; Saleem, Jason J
Usability testing can help generate design ideas to enhance the quality and safety of health information technology. Despite these potential benefits, few healthcare organizations conduct systematic usability testing prior to software implementation. We used a Rapid Usability Evaluation (RUE) method to apply usability testing to software development at a major VA Medical Center. We describe the development of the RUE method, provide two examples of how it was successfully applied, and discuss key insights gained from this work. Clinical informaticists with limited usability training were able to apply RUE to improve software evaluation and elected to continue to use this technique. RUE methods are relatively simple, do not require advanced training or usability software, and should be easy to adopt. Other healthcare organizations may be able to implement RUE to improve software effectiveness, efficiency, and safety.
Sandor, Aniko; Holden, Kritina L.
The Usability project addresses the need for research in the area of metrics and methodologies used in hardware and software usability testing in order to define quantifiable and verifiable usability requirements. A usability test is a human-in-the-loop evaluation where a participant works through a realistic set of representative tasks using the hardware/software under investigation. The purpose of this research is to define metrics and methodologies for measuring and verifying usability in the aerospace domain in accordance with FY09 focus on errors, consistency, and mobility/maneuverability. Usability metrics must be predictive of success with the interfaces, must be easy to obtain and/or calculate, and must meet the intent of current Human Systems Integration Requirements (HSIR). Methodologies must work within the constraints of the aerospace domain, be cost and time efficient, and be able to be applied without extensive specialized training.
This paper distills core lessons about how researchers (scientists, engineers, planners, etc.) interested in promoting sustainable development can increase the likelihood of producing usable knowledge. We draw the lessons from both practical experience in diverse contexts around the world and from scholarly advances in understanding the relationships between science and society. Many of these lessons will be familiar to those with experience in crafting knowledge to support action for sustainable development. However, few are included in the formal training of researchers. As a result, when scientists and engineers first venture out of the laboratory or library with the goal of linking their knowledge with action, the outcome has often been ineffectiveness and disillusionment. We therefore articulate here a core set of lessons that we believe should become part of the basic training for researchers interested in crafting usable knowledge for sustainable development. These lessons entail at least four things researchers should know, and four things they should do. The knowing lessons involve understanding the coproduction relationships through which knowledge making and decision making shape one another in social–environmental systems. We highlight the lessons that emerge from examining those coproduction relationships through the ICAP lens, viewing them from the perspectives of Innovation systems, Complex systems, Adaptive systems, and Political systems. The doing lessons involve improving the capacity of the research community to put its understanding of coproduction into practice. We highlight steps through which researchers can help build capacities for stakeholder collaboration, social learning, knowledge governance, and researcher training. PMID:27091979
Clark, William C; van Kerkhoff, Lorrae; Lebel, Louis; Gallopin, Gilberto C
This paper distills core lessons about how researchers (scientists, engineers, planners, etc.) interested in promoting sustainable development can increase the likelihood of producing usable knowledge. We draw the lessons from both practical experience in diverse contexts around the world and from scholarly advances in understanding the relationships between science and society. Many of these lessons will be familiar to those with experience in crafting knowledge to support action for sustainable development. However, few are included in the formal training of researchers. As a result, when scientists and engineers first venture out of the laboratory or library with the goal of linking their knowledge with action, the outcome has often been ineffectiveness and disillusionment. We therefore articulate here a core set of lessons that we believe should become part of the basic training for researchers interested in crafting usable knowledge for sustainable development. These lessons entail at least four things researchers should know, and four things they should do. The knowing lessons involve understanding the coproduction relationships through which knowledge making and decision making shape one another in social-environmental systems. We highlight the lessons that emerge from examining those coproduction relationships through the ICAP lens, viewing them from the perspectives of Innovation systems, Complex systems, Adaptive systems, and Political systems. The doing lessons involve improving the capacity of the research community to put its understanding of coproduction into practice. We highlight steps through which researchers can help build capacities for stakeholder collaboration, social learning, knowledge governance, and researcher training.
Yussof, Rahmah Lob; Badioze Zaman, Halimah
Constructive evaluations on any software are needed to ensure the effectiveness and usability of the software. This assesment on the multimedia courseware is part of the researcher's study towards the development and usability of the early reading software for students with Down Syndrome (MEL-SindD). This paper will discuss the usability assesment of this courseware, the methods used for the evaluation as well as suitable approaches that can be deployed to evaluate the courseware effectiveness to disabled children.
The purposes of this article are to describe usability testing and introduce designs and methods of usability testing research as it relates to upper-limb prosthetics. This article defines usability, describes usability research, discusses research approaches to and designs for usability testing, and highlights a variety of methodological considerations, including sampling, sample size requirements, and usability metrics. Usability testing is compared with other types of study designs used in prosthetic research.
Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis; Kostrzewa, Agata; Laaksoharju, Mikael
The objectives of the tutorial are to provide knowledge of basic ethical, psychological and organizational theories that are relevant to consider ethical aspects during design and use of IT systems; knowledge and skills about handling and solving ethical problems in connection with design and use of IT-systems; and skills in using questionnaires, surveys, interviews and the like in connection with software development and IT-use. It contains lectures, workshop and exercises; use of special tools to identify and consider IT ethical issues during planning, construction, installation and use of IT systems; and group exercises where the participants train their ethical skills on IT ethical conflicts and problems. Intended participants are system developers, purchasers, usability experts, academics, HCI teachers.
Cargill, S.M.; Root, D.H.; Bailey, E.H.
The commodities considered are mercury, copper and its byproducts gold and silver, and petroleum; the production and discovery data are for the US. The results indicate that the cumulative return per unit of effort, herein measured as grade of metal ores and discovery rate of recoverable petroleum, is proportional to a negative power of total effort expended, herein measured as total ore mined and total exploratory wells or footage drilled. This power relationship can be extended to some limiting point (a lower ore grade or a maximum number of exploratory wells or footage), and the apparent quantity of available remaining resource at that limit can be calculated. -from Authors
Ullah, Rehmat; Mengistu, Eskedar Zelalem; van Elzakker, C. P. J. M.; Kraak, Menno-Jan
A time cartogram visualizes travelling-times between locations. It replaces the geographic distance by time distance and distorts the underlyingmap accordingly. By distorting themap, time cartogramsmay give a more intuitive and clear picture of travelling-times. The distortion of the map, however, can make time cartograms harder to recognize and use. Although cartograms are becoming widespread in use, very little is known about their usability. This study focuses on the usability of centered time cartograms: time cartograms that visualize travellingtimes from a fixed starting location to other destinations in a region. We created several centered time cartograms to answer spatio-temporal questions related to the Dutch railway network. Two experiments were performed: a laboratory test and an online survey. In the laboratory test, we used eye-tracking, thinking aloud, and video-recording to compare four different designs of centered time cartograms to find out which one (or combination) of these performs better in answering spatiotemporal questions and thus, to establish a favorable design strategy for these cartograms. In the online survey, centered time cartograms were evaluated against a geographic and schematic map for accuracy, response time, and preference. The first experiment suggested that among various designs, the centered time cartogram with emphasized railroads is the most preferred design and the centered time cartogram without railroads is the least preferred. The second experiment indicated that overall, centered time cartograms perform better than the two other solutions in performing spatio-temporal tasks, particularly when the task has a dominant time-related component.
Agarwal, Nitin; Kommana, Sumana S; Hansberry, David R; Kashkoush, Ahmed I; Friedlander, Robert M; Lunsford, L Dade
OBJECTIVE Closing the knowledge gap that exists between patients and health care providers is essential and is facilitated by easy access to patient education materials. Although such information has the potential to be an effective resource, it must be written in a user-friendly and understandable manner, especially when such material pertains to specialized and highly technical fields such as neurological surgery. The authors evaluated the accessibility, usability, and reliability of current educational resources provided by the American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS), Healthwise, and the National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). METHODS Online neurosurgical patient education information provided by AANS, Healthwise, and NINDS was evaluated using the LIDA scale, a website quality assessment tool, by medical professionals and nonmedical professionals. A high achieving score is regarded as 90% or greater using the LIDA scale. RESULTS Accessibility scores were 76.7% (AANS), 83.3% (Healthwise), and 75.0% (NINDS). Average usability scores for the AANS, Healthwise, and NINDS were 73.3%, 82.6%, and 82.9%, respectively, when evaluated by medical professionals and 78.5%, 80.7%, and 75.9%, respectively, for nonmedical professionals, respectively. Average reliability scores were 58.5%, 53.3%, 72.6%, respectively, for medical professionals and 70.4%, 66.7%, and 78.5%, respectively, for nonmedical professionals when evaluating the AANS, Healthwise, and NINDS websites. CONCLUSIONS Although organizations like AANS, Healthwise, and NINDS should be commended for their ongoing commitment to provide health care-oriented materials, modification of this material is suggested to improve the patient education value.
Describes one teacher's experience taking Space Discovery courses that were sponsored by the United States Space Foundation (USSF). These courses examine the history of space science, theory of orbits and rocketry, the effects of living in outer space on humans, and space weather. (DDR)
Robertson, Jenifer Wals
Addresses usability issues pertaining to the purpose of educational software, followed by suggestions for ways in which educational software can meet the language, physical, social, and cognitive needs of children. Guidelines and recommendations are provided for adapting usability engineering and testing procedures to educational software to…
Comeaux, David J.
Digital libraries continue to flourish. At the same time, the principles of user-centered design and the practice of usability testing have been growing in popularity, spreading their influence into the library sphere. This article explores the confluence of these two trends by surveying the current literature on usability studies of digital…
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Accessibility, usability, and compatibility. 1193.21 Section 1193.21 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION... Accessibility, usability, and compatibility. Where readily achievable, telecommunications equipment and...
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Accessibility, usability, and compatibility. 1193.21 Section 1193.21 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION... Accessibility, usability, and compatibility. Where readily achievable, telecommunications equipment and...
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Accessibility, usability, and compatibility. 1193.21 Section 1193.21 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION... Accessibility, usability, and compatibility. Where readily achievable, telecommunications equipment and...
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Accessibility, usability, and compatibility. 1193.21 Section 1193.21 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION... Accessibility, usability, and compatibility. Where readily achievable, telecommunications equipment and...
Skov, Mikael Brasholt; Stage, Jan
Many efforts to improve the interplay between usability evaluation and software development rely either on better methods for conducting usability evaluations or on better formats for presenting evaluation results in ways that are useful for software designers and developers. Both of these approaches depend on a complete division of work between…
2. Internal Structure ................................................................... 39 3. The Payload...usability limitations simply by their location in the taxonomic structure . B. MOTIVATION While studies continue to develop locomotion devices, many do so...insight into the usability of a device simply by the its location within the taxonomic structure . The following list summarizes the taxa of the proposed
This paper discusses our usability engineering process for the Battlefield Augmented Reality System (BARS). Usability engineering is a structured...management principals and techniques, formal and semiformal evaluation techniques, and computerized tools. BARS is an outdoor augmented reality system...originally developed the process in the context of virtual reality applications, but in this work we are adapting the procedures to an augmented
Kostaras, N.; Xenos, M.; Skodras, A. N.
This paper presents the usability evaluation of a digital systems laboratory class offered to distance-learning students. It details the way in which students can participate remotely in such a laboratory, the methodology employed in the usability assessment of the laboratory infrastructure (hardware and software), and also outlines the main…
Junus, Inas Sofiyah; Santoso, Harry Budi; Isal, R. Yugo K.; Utomo, Andika Yudha
Student Centered e-Learning Environment (SCeLE) has substantial roles to support learning activities at Faculty of Computer Science, Universitas Indonesia (Fasilkom UI). Although it has been utilized for about 10 years, the usability aspect of SCeLE as an e-Learning system has not been evaluated. Therefore, the usability aspects of SCeLE Fasilkom…
Thyvalikakath, Thankam Paul; Monaco, Valerie; Thambuganipalle, Himabindu; Schleyer, Titus
Usability methods, such as heuristic evaluation, cognitive walk-throughs and user testing, are increasingly used to evaluate and improve the design of clinical software applications. There is still some uncertainty, however, as to how those methods can be used to support the development process and evaluation in the most meaningful manner. In this study, we compared the results of a heuristic evaluation with those of formal user tests in order to determine which usability problems were detected by both methods. We conducted heuristic evaluation and usability testing on four major commercial dental computer-based patient records (CPRs), which together cover 80% of the market for chairside computer systems among general dentists. Both methods yielded strong evidence that the dental CPRs have significant usability problems. An average of 50% of empirically-determined usability problems were identified by the preceding heuristic evaluation. Some statements of heuristic violations were specific enough to precisely identify the actual usability problem that study participants encountered. Other violations were less specific, but still manifested themselves in usability problems and poor task outcomes. In this study, heuristic evaluation identified a significant portion of problems found during usability testing. While we make no assumptions about the generalizability of the results to other domains and software systems, heuristic evaluation may, under certain circumstances, be a useful tool to determine design problems early in the development cycle.
Jameson, Daphne A.
The increasing availability of recording technologies makes it easier to include usability testing projects in business communication courses. Usability testing is a method of discovering whether people can navigate, read, and understand a print or electronic communication well enough to achieve a particular purpose in a reasonable time frame.…
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accessibility, usability, and compatibility. 1193.21 Section 1193.21 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION... Accessibility, usability, and compatibility. Where readily achievable, telecommunications equipment and...
Describes the redesign of the Web site at the virtual library of the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology). Discusses usability problems with the original site, including navigation difficulties; focus groups to determine user needs; usability testing for the new Web site; and the importance of customer input. (LRW)
Chow, Anthony S.; Croxton, Rebecca A.
This study examined the usability of five virtual reference services--instant messenger chat, e-mail, telephone, text messaging, and Skype videoconferencing--by having 31 undergraduate and graduate students evaluate the usability of the virtual reference services of two different universities. The study's results suggest that user preference and…
Downey, Laura L.; Tice, Dawn M.
Examines the challenges involved in conducting an informal usability case study based on the introduction of a new information-retrieval system to experienced users. Identifies problems users were having with TREC (Text Retrieval Conference) and examines the usability of the new ZPRISE interface. (Author/LRW)
Koohang, Alex; Ondracek, James
This study examined users' views about the usability of digital libraries' current and perceived importance. Age, gender, prior experience with the Internet, college status, and digital library proficiency are the independent variables. Users' current views about the usability of digital libraries and users perceived importance of digital library…
Discusses advantages and limitations of six usability evaluation methods (heuristic evaluation, pluralistic walk-throughs, formal usability inspections, empirical methods, cognitive walk-throughs, and formal design analysis) and six data collection techniques (verbal reports, concurrent think-aloud method, questionnaire, video analysis,…
Yarmey, L.; Rosati, A.; Tressel, S.
Recent technical advances have enabled development of new scientific data discovery systems. Metadata brokering, linked data, and other mechanisms allow users to discover scientific data of interes across growing volumes of heterogeneous content. Matching this complex content with existing discovery technologies, people looking for scientific data are presented with an ever-growing array of features to sort, filter, subset, and scan through search returns to help them find what they are looking for. This paper examines the applicability of available technologies in connecting searchers with the data of interest. What metrics can be used to track success given shifting baselines of content and technology? How well do existing technologies map to steps in user search patterns? Taking a user-driven development approach, the team behind the Arctic Data Explorer interdisciplinary data discovery application invested heavily in usability testing and user search behavior analysis. Building on earlier library community search behavior work, models were developed to better define the diverse set of thought processes and steps users took to find data of interest, here called 'search pathways'. This research builds a deeper understanding of the user community that seeks to reuse scientific data. This approach ensures that development decisions are driven by clearly articulated user needs instead of ad hoc technology trends. Initial results from this research will be presented along with lessons learned for other discovery platform development and future directions for informatics research into search pathways.
Brown, M; Sharples, S; Harding, J; Parker, C J; Bearman, N; Maguire, M; Forrest, D; Haklay, M; Jackson, M
The use of Geographic Information or GI, has grown rapidly in recent years. Previous research has identified the importance of usability and user centred design in enabling the proliferation and exploitation of GI. However, the design and development of usable GI is not simply a matter of applying the tried and tested usability methods that have been developed for software and web design. Dealing with data and specifically GI brings with it a number of issues that change the way usability and user centred design can be applied. This paper describes the outcomes of a workshop held in March 2010 exploring the core issues relating to GI usability. The workshop brought together an international group of twenty experts in both human factors and GI, from a wide range of academic and industrial backgrounds. These experts considered three key issues, the stakeholders in GI, key challenges applying usability to GI and the usability methods that can be successfully applied to GI. The result of this workshop was to identify some areas for future research, such as the production of meaningful metadata and the implications of blurring of the line between data producers and data consumers.
Patton, Charles R.
This paper proposes the enhancement of the CLIPS user interface to improve the over-all usability of the CLIPS development environment. It suggests some directions for the long term growth of the user interface, and discusses some specific strengths and weaknesses of the current CLIPS PC user interface. Every user of CLIPS shares a common experience: his/her first interaction with the system itself. As with any new language, between the process of installing CLIPS on the appropriate computer and the completion of a large application, an intensive learning process takes place. For those with extensive programming knowledge and LISP backgrounds, this experience may have been mostly interesting and pleasant. Being familiar with products that are similar to CLIPS in many ways, these users enjoy a relatively short training period with the product. Already familiar with many of the functions they wish to employ, experienced users are free to focus on the capabilities of CLIPS that make it uniquely useful within their working environment.
Clements, L J; Salter, A M; Banks, C J; Poppy, G M
As organic farming prohibits the use of synthetic fertilisers, animal slurries and manures must be used. Digestate offers an alternative to these and this study reports on three experiments conducted to determine its usability in terms of: (1) the effect on earthworm populations, (2) its fertilising effects on Italian Ryegrass and wild Creeping Thistle, and (3) the suppression effects digestate has on weed emergence. The results for digestate application to field plots were intermediate between slurry and no treatment for earthworm attraction and wild thistle suppression. In glasshouse trials it led to increased ryegrass growth compared with undigested slurry. Analysis showed that the digestate had improved nitrogen availability, leading to increased plant growth, but a reduced organic matter content compared with the slurry, leading to a positive though less beneficial impact on the earthworms. Digestate therefore provides a suitable fertiliser for organic farming. This suitability could be improved by drying or separation to increase the OM content making its properties closer to those of slurry whilst still retaining the higher content of plant available nitrogen.
Smith, Benjamin; Laskowski, Sharon; Lowry, Svetlana
This paper explores the impact of graphics on the usability and accessibility of voting systems. Graphical elements, as part of voting systems, include both photographs and party logos that indicate specific candidates or political parties, informational icons such as arrows and alert symbols, and animations or other video. After an overview of the history of graphics on ballots, usability and accessibility issues concerning graphics are discussed in detail. The question of whether certain types of graphics would help people with cognitive disabilities vote is then considered in light of research and best practices for usability and accessibility.
Courtney, Karen L; Matthews, Judith T; McMillan, Julie M; Person Mecca, Laurel; Smailagic, Asim; Siewiorek, Daniel
The overall purpose of this study was to learn how community-dwelling older adults would interact with our prototype multi-user telehealth kiosk and their views about its usability. Seven subjects participated in laboratory-based usability sessions to evaluate the physical design, appearance, functionality and perceived ease of use of a multi-user telehealth kiosk prototype. During usability testing participants recommended 18 new features (29% of comments), identified 15 software errors (23% of comments) and 29 user interface errors (47% of comments).
Zhang, Yanxia; Zheng, Hongwen; Zhao, Yongheng
With the construction and development of ground-based and space-based observatories, astronomical data amount to Terascale, even Petascale. How to extract knowledge from so huge data volume by automated methods is a big challenge for astronomers. Under this situation, many researchers have studied various approaches and developed different softwares to solve this issue. According to the special task of data mining, we need to select an appropriate technique suiting the requirement of data characteristics. Moreover all algorithms have their own pros and cons. We introduce the characteristics of astronomical data, present the taxonomy of knowledge discovery, and describe the functionalities of knowledge discovery in detail. Then the methods of knowledge discovery are touched upon. Finally the successful applications of data mining techniques in astronomy are summarized and reviewed. Facing data avalanche in astronomy, knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) shows its superiority.
Andre, Terence S; Hartson, H Rex; Williges, Robert C
Despite the increased focus on usability and on the processes and methods used to increase usability, a substantial amount of software is unusable and poorly designed. Much of this is attributable to the lack of cost-effective usability evaluation tools that provide an interaction-based framework for identifying problems. We developed the user action framework and a corresponding evaluation tool, the usability problem inspector (UPI), to help organize usability concepts and issues into a knowledge base. We conducted a comprehensive comparison study to determine if our theory-based framework and tool could be effectively used to find important usability problems in an interface design, relative to two other established inspection methods (heuristic evaluation and cognitive walkthrough). Results showed that the UPI scored higher than heuristic evaluation in terms of thoroughness, validity, and effectiveness and was consistent with cognitive walkthrough for these same measures. We also discuss other potential advantages of the UPI over heuristic evaluation and cognitive walkthrough when applied in practice. Potential applications of this work include a cost-effective alternative or supplement to lab-based formative usability evaluation during any stage of development.
Introduces new procedures being used to extract knowledge from databases and discusses rationales for developing knowledge discovery methods. Methods are described for such techniques as classification, clustering, and the detection of deviations from pre-established norms. Examines potential uses of knowledge discovery in the information field.…
Smaradottir, Berglind; Gerdes, Martin; Fensli, Rune; Martinez, Santiago
Telemedicine applications have the potential to enhance patient's safety at home by remote monitoring of chronic diseases. Telemedicine involves the interaction between multiple user groups through a system, making the usability aspect of such system crucial for the continuous, efficient and satisfactory use of the application. The main objective of this study was to carry out a usability evaluation in the field of a telemedicine application for remote monitoring of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients to improve the application's user interface before system deployment. A field trial was performed with six COPD patients at their homes, continuously using the system's application on a tablet for seven days. The usability evaluation identified 23 usability problems related to users' interactions and system's functionality. These problems were solved with the refinement of the system through an iterative application development process. The outcome of the study was the improved telemedicine application that was adopted by the partners of the FP7 EU project United4Health.
St. John, Thomas C.; Marinelli, Zachary J.; Kaczmar, Justin M.; Given, Robert P.; Wenger, Kyle S.; Utter, Brian C.; Scarel, Giovanna
Light-matter interaction involving photons with large period τ of 3 fs (10-15 s) and above, i.e. infrared (IR) to microand radio-waves, displays interesting properties so far mostly unexplored. These photons indeed can produce voltages after activating charges or currents. For example, in the literature it is demonstrated that animals and plants neural system (which is similar to a system consisting of capacitors in series) can be stimulated by IR photons. Additionally, radio waves can activate currents in antennas. However, a systematic investigation of the voltages and currents produced, of the charge density changes, and of the number of photons involved is missing. Here we initiate the investigation of the voltages produced by a capacitor-type device. We shine broadband IR light in the middle IR region (MIR) at a power of 25 mW onto capacitors with capacitance C from 30 to 300 pF. We observe that the voltage produced increases with decreasing C while developing negligible temperature changes. Further increases can be obtained by increasing τ and, modestly, by deviating from normal incidence the angle of incidence θ between the IR light and the illuminated plate of the capacitor. Specifically, here we compare τ in the MIR and far IR (FIR) regions, and θ from 0° (normal incidence) to 45°. The effects of the power of the light will be explored in the near future. These results suggest that it is possible to harvest and transform IR, micro- and radio-waves into usable and sustainable electricity.
Lopez, L. A.; Scott, S.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Duerr, R.
One of the biggest challenges that interdisciplinary researchers face is finding suitable datasets in order to advance their science; this problem remains consistent across multiple disciplines. A surprising number of scientists, when asked what tool they use for data discovery, reply "Google", which is an acceptable solution in some cases but not even Google can find -or cares to compile- all the data that's relevant for science and particularly geo sciences. If a dataset is not discoverable through a well known search provider it will remain dark data to the scientific world.For the past year, BCube, an EarthCube Building Block project, has been developing, testing and deploying a technology stack capable of data discovery at web-scale using the ultimate dataset: The Internet. This stack has 2 principal components, a web-scale crawling infrastructure and a semantic aggregator. The web-crawler is a modified version of Apache Nutch (the originator of Hadoop and other big data technologies) that has been improved and tailored for data and data service discovery. The second component is semantic aggregation, carried out by a python-based workflow that extracts valuable metadata and stores it in the form of triples through the use semantic technologies.While implementing the BCube stack we have run into several challenges such as a) scaling the project to cover big portions of the Internet at a reasonable cost, b) making sense of very diverse and non-homogeneous data, and lastly, c) extracting facts about these datasets using semantic technologies in order to make them usable for the geosciences community. Despite all these challenges we have proven that we can discover and characterize data that otherwise would have remained in the dark corners of the Internet. Having all this data indexed and 'triplelized' will enable scientists to access a trove of information relevant to their work in a more natural way. An important characteristic of the BCube stack is that all
Brief History of Human-Computer Interaction Technology," interactions, 5: 44-54 (1998). Nielsen , Jakob . "Finding Usability Problems Through Heuristic...September 2005 http://www.useit.com/alertbox/20030825.html. Nielsen , Jakob and Robert L. Mack. Usability Inspection Methods. New York: Wiley, 1994... Nielsen , Jakob and Rolf Molich. "Heuristic Evaluation of User Interfaces," Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human factors in Computing
civilians. The source of the corrosion is still unknown. Oddly enough, no other users of the J85 engine have reported corrosion, including the Navy...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO10771 TITLE: Extension of the Usable Engine Life by Modelling and...report. The following component part numbers comprise the compilation report: ADPO10764 thru ADPO10778 UNCLASSIFIED 8-1 Extension of the Usable Engine
Ouhbi, Sofia; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Pozo, José Rivera; Bajta, Manal El; Toval, Ambrosio; Idri, Ali
The aim of this paper is to employ the guidelines of Android, iOS, Blackberry and Windows Phone to analyze the usability compliance of free blood donation (BD) apps. An analysis process based on a systematic review protocol is used to select free BD apps. An assessment is conducted using a questionnaire composed of 13 questions concerning the compliance of free BD apps with Android, Blackberry, iOS and Windows Phone usability guidelines. A total of 133 free BD apps have been selected from the 188 BD apps identified. Around 63% of the free BD apps selected have a good compliance with mobile OS usability recommendations. Around 72% of Android, 57% of Windows Phone, 33% of iOS and 33% of Blackberry BD apps have a high usability score. The aspect of BD app behavior should be improved along with some style components: the use of pictures to explain ideas and the adaptation of the app to both horizontal and vertical orientations. Structure patterns should also be used to improve the structure aspect of a BD app. Usability is a quality aspect that should be improved in current BD apps. Our study provides smartphone users with a list of usable free BD apps and BD app developers with recommendations.
Armstrong, E. M.; Mattmann, C. A.; Cinquini, L.; O'Brien, F. J.; Resneck, G.; Siegrist, Z.
Many resources available for coastal ocean research and management remain underutilized. Typically, the emphasis in the past has been on increasing access and usability of remote sensing satellite products from NASA data centers. Significant progress has been made in this regard although access and discovery mechanisms still remain disjointed. Less attention has been paid to discovery and usability to ocean in situ records and circulation model products, because typically these are organized and maintained on a smaller regional level such as a university or smaller division of a larger national agency. The NASA Coastal Marine Discovery Service, a NASA ACCESS funded activity, focuses on improving discovery of these regional coastal ocean web services and data portals, including databases for satellite imagery, in situ and field measurements, ocean circulation models, and GIS coverages as a few examples. Beyond resource discovery, the CMDS integrated system (http://cmds.jpl.nasa.gov) leverages open source technology for unifying coastal ocean data within the framework on a GIS web client, the Easy GIS Net Viewer. In sum, CMDS consists of an online catalog of coastal resources that allows users to quickly discover the availability of data for their region of interest, physical parameter of interest or specific regional project of interest, or any combination of these. After discovery, data can be transparently linked to Netviewer client to view, overlay and interrogate products, and make GIS-like queries on the data layers to investigate statistical relationships. In this presentation, we will review the CMDS system, it architecture and resource harvesting approach, and more importantly demonstrate real world use of cases of data exploration, visualization and ultimately understanding.
Oda, Shinobu; Kameda, Arisa; Okanan, Masanori; Sakakibara, Yusuke; Ohashi, Shinichi
An extractive liquid-surface immobilization (Ext-LSI) system, which consists of a hydrophobic organic solvent (an upper phase), a fungal cell-ballooned microsphere layer (a middle phase) and a liquid medium (a lower phase), is a unique interfacial cultivation system for fungi. The fungal cells growing at the interface between the organic and aqueous phases efficiently produce hydrophobic metabolites, which are continuously extracted into the organic phase, and/or hydrophilic metabolites that migrate into the aqueous phase without carbon catabolite repression and product and/or feed-back inhibitions. Application of the system to fermentation of Penicillium multicolor IAM 7153 and Trichoderma atroviride AG2755-5NM398 afforded remarkably different profiles of secondary metabolites in the organic phase compared with those in an aqueous phase in traditional submerged cultivation (SmC). Various hydrophobic metabolites exhibiting unique UV-visible spectra were accumulated into the organic phase. The system was applied to a novel interfacial screening system of antibiotic-producing fungi. Compared with the SmC, the interfacial cultivation system exhibited some interesting and important advantages, such as the higher accumulation of hydrophobic secondary metabolites, the lack of requirement for shaking and troublesome solvent extraction, and the small scale of the vessels (medium, 5 ml; dimethylsilicone oil, 1 ml), as well as the significantly different metabolite profiles. The interfacial screening system yielded a high incidence of antimicrobial activity, with 21.9% of the fungi tested exhibiting antifungal activity against Pichia anomala NBRC 10213. This novel interfacial high-throughput screening approach has the potential to discover new biologically active secondary metabolites even from strains previously found to be unproductive.
... accessibility, usability, and compatibility. 1193.39 Section 1193.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... Requirements for Accessibility and Usability § 1193.39 Prohibited reduction of accessibility, usability, and... accessibility, usability, or compatibility of telecommunications equipment or customer premises equipment....
... accessibility, usability, and compatibility. 1193.39 Section 1193.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... Requirements for Accessibility and Usability § 1193.39 Prohibited reduction of accessibility, usability, and... accessibility, usability, or compatibility of telecommunications equipment or customer premises equipment....
... accessibility, usability, and compatibility. 1193.39 Section 1193.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... Requirements for Accessibility and Usability § 1193.39 Prohibited reduction of accessibility, usability, and... accessibility, usability, or compatibility of telecommunications equipment or customer premises equipment....
Paul, Celeste Lyn
A review of case studies about usability in eight Free/Libre/Open Source Software (FLOSS) projects showed that an important issue regarding a usability initiative in the project was the lack of user research. User research is a key component in the user-centered design (UCD) process and a necessary step for creating usable products. Reasons why FLOSS projects suffered from a lack of user research included poor or unclear project leadership, cultural differences between developer and designers, and a lack of usability engineers. By identifying these critical issues, the FLOSS usability community can begin addressing problems in the efficacy of usability activities and work towards creating more usable FLOSS products.
Ivanov, Alexander S.; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S.
Uranium is used as the basic fuel for nuclear power plants, which generate significant amounts of electricity and have life cycle carbon emissions that are as low as renewable energy sources. However, the extraction of this valuable energy commodity from the ground remains controversial, mainly because of environmental and health impacts. Alternatively, seawater offers an enormous uranium resource that may be tapped at minimal environmental cost. Nowadays, amidoxime polymers are the most widely utilized sorbent materials for large-scale extraction of uranium from seawater, but they are not perfectly selective for uranyl, UO22+. In particular, the competition between UO22+ and VO2+/VO2+more » cations poses a significant challenge to the effi-cient mining of UO22+. Thus, screening and rational design of more selective ligands must be accomplished. One of the key components in achieving this goal is the establishment of computational techniques capable of assessing ligand selec-tivity trends. Here, we report an approach based on quantum chemical calculations that achieves high accuracy in repro-ducing experimental aqueous stability constants for VO2+/VO2+ complexes with ten different oxygen donor lig-ands. The predictive power of the developed computational protocol was demonstrated for amidoxime-type ligands, providing greater insights into new design strategies for the development of the next generation of adsorbents with high selectivity toward UO22+over VO2+/VO2+ ions. Furthermore, the results of calculations suggest that alkylation of amidox-ime moieties present in poly(acrylamidoxime) sorbents can be a potential route to better discrimination between the uranyl and competing vanadium ions within seawater.« less
In an attempt to define the role of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) within the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment in normal hematopoiesis and in leukemia development, a novel cell-blotting technique that involved cell adhesion to protein bands after separation by lithium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (LDS-PAGE) and blotting onto polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane has been developed. Human BM stromal cell membrane fractions have been prepared from Dexter-type cultures after cell lysis by sonification and differential centrifugations of the sonification contents. The 20,000 g pellets representing membrane fractions have been solubilized by 2% Triton X-100, 0.575% LDS, and 8 mol/L urea in sequential order. The protein extracts are fractionated by LDS-PAGE and screened for CAMs by the new cell-blotting technique. This led to identification of nine protein bands in lanes containing LDS extracts showing adhesion of KG1a (CD34+ progenitor myeloid) cells. Evidence that the BM proteins exhibiting KG1a cell adhesion are novel CAMs is based on the observations that these proteins, in comparison with known CAMs, specifically VCAM-1, CD54, and CD44, show (1) contrasting detergent-solubility properties, (2) different temperature requirement for mediating cell adhesion function, and (3) markedly distinct electrophoretic mobilities. The various cell types tested, notably KG1a, NALM-6, WIL-2, Ramos, HS-Sultan, K562, JY B lymphoblastoid cells, and T lymphoblasts, showed distinctive patterns of binding to different subsets of BM CAMs. These results demonstrate a new approach to studies of molecular mechanisms that may determine specificity of hematopoietic cellular localization within BM microenvironment and may play an important role in controlling hematopoiesis.
Ivanov, Alexander S; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S
Uranium is used as the basic fuel for nuclear power plants, which generate significant amounts of electricity and have life cycle carbon emissions that are as low as renewable energy sources. However, the extraction of this valuable energy commodity from the ground remains controversial, mainly because of environmental and health impacts. Alternatively, seawater offers an enormous uranium resource that may be tapped at minimal environmental cost. Nowadays, amidoxime polymers are the most widely utilized sorbent materials for large-scale extraction of uranium from seawater, but they are not perfectly selective for uranyl, UO2(2+). In particular, the competition between UO2(2+) and VO(2+)/VO2(+) cations poses a significant challenge to the efficient mining of UO2(2+). Thus, screening and rational design of more selective ligands must be accomplished. One of the key components in achieving this goal is the establishment of computational techniques capable of assessing ligand selectivity trends. Here, we report an approach based on quantum chemical calculations that achieves high accuracy in reproducing experimental aqueous stability constants for VO(2+)/VO2(+) complexes with ten different oxygen donor ligands. The predictive power of the developed computational protocol is demonstrated for amidoxime-type ligands, providing greater insights into new design strategies for the development of the next generation of adsorbents with high selectivity toward UO2(2+) over VO(2+)/VO2(+) ions. Importantly, the results of calculations suggest that alkylation of amidoxime moieties present in poly(acrylamidoxime) sorbents can be a potential route to better discrimination between the uranyl and competing vanadium ions in seawater.
Burns, Pippa; Jones, Sandra C; Iverson, Don; Caputi, Peter
There are many reasons why online self-management education is attractive to both patients and providers. AsthmaWise, an online self-management program, was developed using a Moodle platform, to enable older adults to learn asthma self-management skills. This study aimed to improve AsthmaWise through conducting: usability testing with a sample of end users; a cognitive walk-through undertaken by an independent health researcher; and assessment of content readability. A Perceived Health Web Site Usability Questionnaire score of 67% was achieved, indicating that there were usability issues that needed to be addressed. The cognitive walk-through and readability assessment identified unique issues that were not identified through usability testing with end users. The testing process allowed issues to be identified and rectified before piloting AsthmaWise, creating a more accessible and refined end product. The involvement of the site designer in the testing process was valuable and is highly recommended. This study shows that usability testing involving both end users and experts is an essential part of the design process that is relatively easy and inexpensive to undertake and can be effectively conducted by a nonexpert.
Zasada, Stefan J; Haidar, Ali N; Coveney, Peter V
Usability is an all too often neglected aspect of grid computing, although it is one of the principal factors militating against the widespread uptake of distributed computing. Many resource providers on a grid infrastructure deploy a standard middleware stack and expect users to invoke the default client tools for that middleware stack to access their resources. Unfortunately, many of these middleware client tools have been developed as an afterthought, and are widely considered difficult to use. Such tools typically require a user to interact with a machine, to stage data and launch jobs, and to use digital certificates. Our experience of working with grids over many years has led us to propose a new model of grid interaction, which we call the user-application interaction model. Similar considerations have also led us to develop environments that remove digital certificates from the user's experience, replacing them with familiar username and password authentication credentials. In this paper, we investigate the usability of this interaction model and its security system through a series of tests, which compare the usability of our systems with commonly deployed middleware tools using five usability metrics. Our middleware and security solutions are judged to be more usable than the systems in use by most of today's computational grids.
Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco
Residential thermostats play a key role in controlling heating and cooling systems. Occupants often find the controls of programmable thermostats confusing, sometimes leading to higher heating consumption than when the buildings are controlled manually. A high degree of usability is vital to a programmable thermostat's effectiveness because, unlike a more efficient heating system, occupants must engage in specific actions after installation to obtain energy savings. We developed a procedure for measuring the usability of thermostats and tested this methodology with 31 subjects on five thermostats. The procedure requires first identifying representative tasks associated with the device and then testing the subjects ability to accomplish those tasks. The procedure was able to demonstrate the subjects wide ability to accomplish tasks and the influence of a device's usability on success rates. A metric based on the time to accomplish the tasks and the fraction of subjects actually completing the tasks captured the key aspects of each thermostat's usability. The procedure was recently adopted by the Energy Star Program for its thermostat specification. The approach appears suitable for quantifying usability of controls in other products, such as heat pump water heaters and commercial lighting.
Seva, Rosemary R; Gosiaco, Katherine Grace T; Santos, Ma Crea Eurice D; Pangilinan, Denise Mae L
In this study, apparent usability and affective quality were integrated in a design framework called the Usability Perception and Emotion Enhancement Model (UPEEM). The UPEEM was validated using structural equation modeling (SEM). The methodology consists of four phases namely product selection, attribute identification, design alternative generation, and design alternative evaluation. The first stage involved the selection of a product that highly involves the consumer. In the attribute identification stage, design elements of the product were identified. The possible values of these elements were also determined for use in the experimentation process. Design of experiments was used to identify how the attributes will be varied in the design alternative stage and which of the attributes significantly contribute to affective quality, apparent usability, and desirability in the design evaluation stage. Results suggest that product attributes related to form are relevant in eliciting intense affect and perception of usability in mobile phones especially those directly related to functionality and aesthetics. This study considered only four product attributes among so many due to the constraints of the research design employed. Attributes related to aesthetic perception of a product enhance apparent usability such as those related to dimensional ratios.
The process of knowledge discovery and data mining is the process of information extraction from very large databases. Its importance is described along with several techniques and considerations for selecting the most appropriate technique for extracting information from a particular data set.
Bakar, Nur Azzah Abu; ChePa, Noraziah
Focusing on measuring the engagement towards digital Malaysian traditional games, this paper discusses engagement of digital traditional games from usability aspect. Three digital versions of Malaysian traditional games were evaluated. They are Dam Haji, Congkak and Gasing-X. Usability is one of the significant contributing factors towards engagement of digital games. Usability helps in verifying the requirements, successes and functionality of the games which are missing. The study adopted the heuristic instruments developed by Jakob Nielson in 1990 which consists of 17 heuristic component protocols based on interface design. Evaluation involved 50 respondents who are IT and domain experts. Result analysis is discussed and presented for each game. Results suggested features and aspects to be improved in the development of future digital Malaysian traditional games towards better engagement of the games.
Leon, Juan C.; Aponte, Angelica; Vega, Sebastian; Romero, Eduardo
There have existed for a long period several strategies developed by international organisms to improve their intervention at the very rst level of some public health problems. In particular, the prenatal control has been introduced as a structured strategy for the rst level as the integrated management of childhood illness (AIEPI in spanish) since more than twenty years. This paper presents a novel approach to include recent technological advances within the work ow of such process so that it facilitates interaction and decreases the training time. The method, named herein TeleAIEPI, implements the whole AIEPI questionnaire in a mobile application with high portability, little computational requirements and usability. The success of teleAIEPI application is completely dependent on the usability and integrability with any mobile device. The architecture, functional requirements and usability evaluation are herein presented, showing an adequate performance when real users interact with such an application.
The discovery of a Victorian-era microscope slide titled "Grouped Flower Seeds" began an investigation into the scientific and historical background of the antique slide to develop its usefulness as a multidisciplinary tool for PowerPoint presentations usable in contemporary biology classrooms, particularly large-enrollment sections. The resultant…
van den Oord, Edwin J C G; Sullivan, Patrick F
In the search for genes underlying complex traits, there is a tendency to impose increasingly stringent criteria to avoid false discoveries. These stringent criteria make it hard to find true effects, and we argue that it might be better to optimize our procedures for eliminating and controlling false discoveries. Focusing on achieving an acceptable ratio of true- and false-positives, we show that false discoveries could be eliminated much more efficiently using a stepwise approach. To avoid a relatively high false discovery rate, corrections for 'multiple testing' might also be needed in candidate gene studies. If the appropriate methods are used, detecting the proportion of true effects appears to be a more important determinant of the genotyping burden than the desired false discovery rate. This raises the question of whether current models for gene discovery are shaped excessively by a fear of false discoveries.
Mattson, Donald C
The digital anger thermometer is a prototype for a mobile application (app) for use with adults in anger management treatment. The digital anger thermometer incorporates standards of software development in addition to anger management resources from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. The digital anger thermometer underwent a usability study conducted by five expert reviewers. The results indicate that it is easy to learn, efficient, and ergonomically sound. However, it does not offer support features or user-error tolerance. The digital anger thermometer prototype requires additional usability studies and comparative research in order for it to become an actual mental health app.
Meza, David; Berndt, Sarah
The purpose of the Sentiment of Search Study for NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is to gain insight into the intranet search environment. With an initial usability survey, the authors were able to determine a usability score based on the Systems Usability Scale (SUS). Created in 1986, the freely available, well cited, SUS is commonly used to determine user perceptions of a system (in this case the intranet search environment). As with any improvement initiative, one must first examine and document the current reality of the situation. In this scenario, a method was needed to determine the usability of a search interface in addition to the user's perception on how well the search system was providing results. The use of the SUS provided a mechanism to quickly ascertain information in both areas, by adding one additional open-ended question at the end. The first ten questions allowed us to examine the usability of the system, while the last questions informed us on how the users rated the performance of the search results. The final analysis provides us with a better understanding of the current situation and areas to focus on for improvement. The power of search applications to enhance knowledge transfer is indisputable. The performance impact for any user unable to find needed information undermines project lifecycle, resource and scheduling requirements. Ever-increasing complexity of content and the user interface make usability considerations for the intranet, especially for search, a necessity instead of a 'nice-to-have'. Despite these arguments, intranet usability is largely disregarded due to lack of attention beyond the functionality of the infrastructure (White, 2013). The data collected from users of the JSC search system revealed their overall sentiment by means of the widely-known System Usability Scale. Results of the scores suggest 75%, +/-0.04, of the population rank the search system below average. In terms of a grading scaled, this equated to D or
Byrd, Vivian L. H.; Dodd, Allison Hedley
Background As growing numbers of Medicaid enrollees receive health benefits through comprehensive managed care, researchers and policymakers seeking to understand the service use of these enrollees must rely on encounter data. Objective To assess the availability, completeness, and quality of physician, clinic, and outpatient service (OT), inpatient (IP), and prescription drug (RX) encounter claims to judge the usability of the 2008 Medicaid Analytical eXtract (MAX) encounter data. Data 2008 MAX encounter data, which are derived from the state-submitted Medicaid Statistical Information System (MSIS) files. Methods For each basis of eligibility (BOE) group in each state that had at least ten percent participation in comprehensive managed care and submitted at least 200 encounter claims, the completeness and quality of the OT, IP, and RX encounter data were evaluated using comparison metrics created from the full-benefit, non-dual fee-for-service (FFS) population across all states with substantial FFS participation. Data that met both the completeness and quality criteria were considered usable. Results The completeness and the quality of the encounter data were high. The encounter data were considered usable for a least one BOE category for 22 of the 25 states that submitted OT encounter data, 20 of the 24 states that submitted IP data, and 13 of the 15 states that submitted RX data. Conclusions Most states that have comprehensive managed care plans are reporting OT, IP, and RX encounter data. Of those data, the majority are complete and of comparable quality to FFS data for adults, children, the disabled, and aged populations. PMID:24753961
Zhang, Tao; Maron, Deborah J.; Charles, Christopher C.
This article reports results from an empirical usability evaluation of Human-Animal Bond Research Initiative Central as part of the effort to develop an open access research repository and collaboration platform for human-animal bond researchers. By repurposing and altering key features of the original HUBzero system, Human-Animal Bond Research…
Johnson, Megan; Ochoa, Louise; Purpur, Geraldine
This paper presents the results of a usability study conducted to determine the functionality of a desktop, three-dimensional virtual library designed and supported by the Appalachian State University Distance Learning Library Services team. Formative evaluations were performed with representative students utilizing Morae software. Results…
Upitis, Rena; Boese, Karen; Abrami, Philip C.; Anwar, Zaeem
The Digital Resource Exchange About Music (DREAM) is a virtual space for exchanging information about digital learning tools. The purpose of the present study was to determine how users responded to DREAM in the first four months after its public release. This study is the second phase of usability research on DREAM, and was conducted to guide…
Hale, Michael E.; And Others
A group of faculty at the University of Georgia obtained funding for a research and development facility called the Learning and Performance Support Laboratory (LPSL). One of the LPSL's primary needs was obtaining a portable usability lab for software testing, so the facility obtained the "Luggage Lab 2000." The lab is transportable to…
Mirel, Barbara; Olsen, Leslie A.
Designs a technical-communication course for software-engineering majors to take concurrently with their capstone project course in software design. Studies effects of writing on students' user-centered beliefs and design practices and on usability of their product. Suggests the synergy of this interdisciplinary approach sensitized students to…
Briesch, Amy M.; Briesch, Jacquelyn M.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.
Although teachers are often asked to implement classroom interventions to address student behavior, little is known about their perceived usability of many evidence-based strategies. One thousand five elementary schoolteachers completed the Usage Rating Profile-Intervention-Revised (URP-IR) with regard to the use of one of five evidence-based…
Ang, Chee Siang; Avni, Einav; Zaphiris, Panayiotis
This article reviews a range of literature of computer games and learning theories and attempts to establish a link between them by proposing a typology of games which we use as a new usability measure for the development of guidelines for game-based learning. First, we examine game literature in order to understand the key elements that…
Figure 2, which is a commercial product designed to replicate racing car motions while playing computer games was used. The D-BOX is capable of three...7 3.2 Design ...standard usability issues such as interface design by using static BMS systems outside of vehicles (i.e. Command HQs or in the laboratory) (for example
Girard, Tulay; Pinar, Musa
This research advances the understanding of the usability of marketing case study modules in the area of interactive web-based technologies through the assignment of seven interactive case modules in a Principles of Marketing course. The case modules were provided for marketing students by the publisher, McGraw Hill Irwin, of the…
Liu, Min; Traphagan, Tomoko; Huh, Jin; Koh, Young Ihn; Choi, Gilok; McGregor, Allison
The purpose of this paper is to report on a usability study for ESL websites conducted to gain insights from learners of English as a second language (ESL) as they interacted with specific sites. Five carefully selected ESL sites were tested by 10 different users generating a total of fifty testing sessions. Two major research questions guided the…
As the popularity of online banking Websites has increased, the security of these sites has become increasingly critical as attacks against these sites are on the rise. However, the design decisions made during construction of the sites could make usability more difficult, where the user has difficulty making good security decisions. This study…
Torun, Fulya; Tekedere, Hakan
In this research, an E-learning environment is developed for the teacher candidates taking the course on Scientific Research Methods. The course contents were adapted to one of the constructivist approach models referred to as 5E, and an expert opinion was received for the compliance of this model. An usability analysis was also performed to…
Discusses the need for an intuitive library information gateway to meet users' information needs and describes the process involved in redesigning a library Web site based on experiences at Roger Williams University. Explains usability testing methods that were used to discover how users were interacting with the Web site interface. (Author/LRW)
Pretorius, Marco; van Biljon, Judy
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the implications of usability and learnability in learning management systems (LMS) by considering the experiences of information and communications technology (ICT) experts and non-experts in using the LMS of an open-distance university. Design/methodology/approach: The paper uses task-based…
Neuroscience has the potential to make some very exciting contributions to education and pedagogy. However, it is important to ask whether the insights from neuroscience studies can provide "usable knowledge" for educators. With respect to literacy, for example, current neuroimaging methods allow us to ask research questions about how the brain…
Chen, Yu-Hui; Rorissa, Abebe; Germain, Carol Anne
The authors compared Web usability definitions, collected from library professionals at academic institutions of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) through online surveys in 2007 and 2012, to determine whether library practitioners' perspectives had altered as information technologies evolved during this time. The authors applied three…
O'Bryan, Corliss A.; Johnson, Donald M.; Shores-Ellis, Katrina D.; Crandall, Philip G.; Marcy, John A.; Seideman, Steve C.; Ricke, Steven C.
This article provides background and an introduction to a user-centered design and usability test in an inexpensive format that allows content experts who are novices in e-learning development to perform testing on newly developed technical training modules prior to their release. The use of a small number of test participants, avoidance of…
Isman, Aytekin; Isbulan, Onur
The main goal of this research is to determine the usability of Sakarya University Adapazari Vocational Two-Year Community College's Web Site. A scale was developed to the evaluation and applied to 1512 students. From the applied questionnaire only appropriate ones were selected to be evaluated and 1229 questionnaires were analysed. Finally,…
Jones, Mark K.; And Others
The design of a re-usable instructional algorithm for computer based instruction (CBI) is described. The prototype is implemented on IBM PC compatibles running the Windows(TM) graphical environment, using the prototyping tool ToolBook(TM). The algorithm is designed to reduce development and life cycle costs for CBI by providing an authoring…
David Hairston, W; Whitaker, Keith W; Ries, Anthony J; Vettel, Jean M; Cortney Bradford, J; Kerick, Scott E; McDowell, Kaleb
Electroencephalography (EEG) holds promise as a neuroimaging technology that can be used to understand how the human brain functions in real-world, operational settings while individuals move freely in perceptually-rich environments. In recent years, several EEG systems have been developed that aim to increase the usability of the neuroimaging technology in real-world settings. Here, the usability of three wireless EEG systems from different companies are compared to a conventional wired EEG system, BioSemi's ActiveTwo, which serves as an established laboratory-grade 'gold standard' baseline. The wireless systems compared include Advanced Brain Monitoring's B-Alert X10, Emotiv Systems' EPOC and the 2009 version of QUASAR's Dry Sensor Interface 10-20. The design of each wireless system is discussed in relation to its impact on the system's usability as a potential real-world neuroimaging system. Evaluations are based on having participants complete a series of cognitive tasks while wearing each of the EEG acquisition systems. This report focuses on the system design, usability factors and participant comfort issues that arise during the experimental sessions. In particular, the EEG systems are assessed on five design elements: adaptability of the system for differing head sizes, subject comfort and preference, variance in scalp locations for the recording electrodes, stability of the electrical connection between the scalp and electrode, and timing integration between the EEG system, the stimulus presentation computer and other external events.
Hairston, W. David; Whitaker, Keith W.; Ries, Anthony J.; Vettel, Jean M.; Cortney Bradford, J.; Kerick, Scott E.; McDowell, Kaleb
Electroencephalography (EEG) holds promise as a neuroimaging technology that can be used to understand how the human brain functions in real-world, operational settings while individuals move freely in perceptually-rich environments. In recent years, several EEG systems have been developed that aim to increase the usability of the neuroimaging technology in real-world settings. Here, the usability of three wireless EEG systems from different companies are compared to a conventional wired EEG system, BioSemi’s ActiveTwo, which serves as an established laboratory-grade ‘gold standard’ baseline. The wireless systems compared include Advanced Brain Monitoring’s B-Alert X10, Emotiv Systems’ EPOC and the 2009 version of QUASAR’s Dry Sensor Interface 10-20. The design of each wireless system is discussed in relation to its impact on the system’s usability as a potential real-world neuroimaging system. Evaluations are based on having participants complete a series of cognitive tasks while wearing each of the EEG acquisition systems. This report focuses on the system design, usability factors and participant comfort issues that arise during the experimental sessions. In particular, the EEG systems are assessed on five design elements: adaptability of the system for differing head sizes, subject comfort and preference, variance in scalp locations for the recording electrodes, stability of the electrical connection between the scalp and electrode, and timing integration between the EEG system, the stimulus presentation computer and other external events.
Sumner, Tamara; Dawe, Melissa
The need for information systems to support the dissemination and reuse of educational resources has sparked a number of large-scale digital library efforts. This article describes usability findings from one such project--the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE)--focusing on its role in the process of educational resource reuse.…
Choi, Young Mi; Sprigle, Stephen H.
User input is an important component to help guide designers in producing a more usable product. Evaluation of prototypes is one method of obtaining this input, but methods for evaluating assistive technology prototypes during design have not been adequately described or evaluated. This project aimed to compare different methods of evaluating…
Recently, there are tremendous growths in the area of 3D stereoscopic visualization. The 3D stereoscopic visualization technology has been used in a growing number of consumer products such as the 3D televisions and the 3D glasses for gaming systems. This technology refers to the idea that human brain develops depth of perception by retrieving information from the two eyes. Our brain combines the left and right images on the retinas and extracts depth information. Therefore, viewing two video images taken at slightly distance apart as shown in Figure 1 can create illusion of depth . Proponents of this technology argue that the stereo view of 3D visualization increases user immersion and performance as more information is gained through the 3D vision as compare to the 2D view. However, it is still uncertain if additional information gained from the 3D stereoscopic visualization can actually improve user performance in real world situations such as in the case of teleoperation.
In recent years, there has been unprecedented growth in compound activity data in the public domain. These compound data provide an indispensable resource for drug discovery in academic environments as well as in the pharmaceutical industry. To handle large volumes of heterogeneous and complex compound data and extract discovery-relevant knowledge from these data, advanced computational mining approaches are required. Herein, major public compound data repositories are introduced, data confidence criteria reviewed, and selected data mining approaches discussed.
Kushniruk, Andre W; Triola, Marc M; Borycki, Elizabeth M; Stein, Ben; Kannry, Joseph L
This paper describes an innovative approach to the evaluation of a handheld prescription writing application. Participants (10 physicians) were asked to perform a series of tasks involving entering prescriptions into the application from a medication list. The study procedure involved the collection of data consisting of transcripts of the subjects who were asked to "think aloud" while interacting with the prescription writing program to enter medications. All user interactions with the device were video and audio recorded. Analysis of the protocols was conducted in two phases: (1) usability problems were identified from coding of the transcripts and video data, (2) actual errors in entering prescription data were also identified. The results indicated that there were a variety of usability problems, with most related to interface design issues. In examining the relationship between usability problems and errors, it was found that certain types of usability problems were closely associated with the occurrence of specific types of errors in prescription of medications. Implications for identifying and predicting technology-induced error are discussed in the context of improving the safety of health care information systems.
Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H
I understand discovery as the essence of thinking man, or to paraphrase the notable French philosopher René Descartes, "I think, therefore I discover." In this study, I introduce discovery as the foundation of modern science. Discovery consists of six stages or elements, including: concept, belief, ability, support, proof, and protection. Each element is discussed within the context of the whole discovery enterprise. Fundamental tenets for understanding discovery are given throughout the paper, and a few examples illustrate the significance of some of the most important elements. I invite clinicians, researchers, and/or clinical researchers to integrate themselves into the active process of discovery. Remember--I think, therefore I discover.
Shield, Lesley; Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes
With the intention of defining an initial research agenda for discipline-specific factors in the usability of e-learning websites, this article focuses on the example of foreign language learning. First, general notions and concepts of usability are analyzed, and the term "pedagogical usability" is proposed as a means of focusing on the close…
Buzhardt, Jay; Abbott, Mary; Greenwood, Charles; Tapia, Yolanda
The usability of classroom interventions plays a significant role in the likelihood that they will reach wide scale use. The current report describes the usability testing of a software application designed for ClassWide Peer Tutoring (CWPT), a research-based classroom intervention. Initially, CWPT teachers rated the usability of the software and…
Davids, Mogamat Razeen; Chikte, Usuf; Grimmer-Somers, Karen; Halperin, Mitchell L.
The usability of computer interfaces may have a major influence on learning. Design approaches that optimize usability are commonplace in the software development industry but are seldom used in the development of e-learning resources, especially in medical education. We conducted a usability evaluation of a multimedia resource for teaching…
several methods of evaluating the usability of software applications, such as heuristic evaluation and cognitive walkthroughs , the researcher...Software Usability Evaluation .....................................................................23 End-User Computing Satisfaction...questions, the method of analysis will consist of an evaluation questionnaire focusing on software usability and end-user computing 5 satisfaction
Kerr, Deirdre S.; Chung, Gregory K. W. K.
Commercial video games undergo usability studies to determine the degree to which the player is able to learn, control, and understand the game. Usability studies allow game designers to improve their games before they are released to the public. If usability studies could be expanded to include information about the presentation of the…
The spread of resistant organisms is producing a human health crisis, as we are witnessing the emergence of pathogens resistant to all available antibiotics. An increase in chronic infections presents an additional challenge - these diseases are difficult to treat due to antibiotic-tolerant persister cells. Overmining of soil Actinomycetes ended the golden era of antibiotic discovery in the 60s, and efforts to replace this source by screening synthetic compound libraries was not successful. Bacteria have an efficient permeability barrier, preventing penetration of most synthetic compounds. Empirically establishing rules of penetration for antimicrobials will form the knowledge base to produce libraries tailored to antibiotic discovery, and will revive rational drug design. Two untapped sources of natural products hold the promise of reviving natural product discovery. Most bacterial species, over 99%, are uncultured, and methods to grow these organisms have been developed, and the first promising compounds are in development. Genome sequencing shows that known producers harbor many more operons coding for secondary metabolites than we can account for, providing an additional rich source of antibiotics. Revival of natural product discovery will require high-throughput identification of novel compounds within a large background of known substances. This could be achieved by rapid acquisition of transcription profiles from active extracts that will point to potentially novel compounds.
Wang, Xiangyu; Chen, Irene Rui
This paper presents a usability evaluation of an Augmented Virtuality (AV)-based system dedicated for design. The philosophy behind the concept of the system is discussed based on the dimensions of transportation and artificiality in shared-space technologies. This system is introduced as a method that allows users to experience the real remote environment without the need of physically visiting the actual place. Such experience is realized by using AV technology to enrich the virtual counterparts of the place with captured real images from the real environment. The combination of the physicality reality and virtual reality provides key landmarks or features of the to-be-visited place, live video streams of the remote participants, and 3D virtual design geometry. The focus of this paper describes the implementation and a usability evaluation of the system in its current state and also discusses the limitations, issues and challenges of this AV system.
Trujillo, Anna C.
Currently, most of the displays in control rooms can be categorized as status screens, alerts/procedures screens (or paper), or control screens (where the state of a component is changed by the operator). The primary focus of this line of research is to determine which pieces of information (status, alerts/procedures, and control) should be collocated. Two collocated displays were tested for ease of understanding in an automated desktop survey. This usability study was conducted as a prelude to a larger human-in-the-loop experiment in order to verify that the 2 new collocated displays were easy to learn and usable. The results indicate that while the DC display was preferred and yielded better performance than the MDO display, both collocated displays can be easily learned and used.
Zahra, Fatima; Hussain, Azham; Mohd, Haslina
M-health has changed the conventional delivery system of health-care, permitting continuous, pervasive Health-care anywhere, anytime. Chronic disease apps are increasing, as many health workers, patients and clinicians already embracing smartphones in their comprehensive and diverse practices. There are lots of challenges and requirements that need to be addressed for mobile health applications to prevent or eliminate design problems and minimize potential threats for users, the proposed factors for chronic disease mobile applications can be used as a guide for app developers While, the usability testing, and evaluations of chronic disease apps have not yet touched the accuracy level of other web based applications. This study is being conducted to learn about challenges of m-health apps and to identify the factors that affect the usability of such applications.
Schlichtenmayer, Maurice; Hirscher, Michael
A large number of different porous materials has been investigated for their hydrogen uptake over a wide pressure range and at different temperature. From the absolute adsorption isotherms, the enthalpy of adsorption is evaluated for a wide range of surface coverage. The usable capacity, defined as the amount of hydrogen released between a maximum tank pressure and a minimum back pressure for a fuel cell, is analyzed for isothermal operation. The usable capacity as a function of temperature shows a maximum which defines the optimum operating temperature. This optimum operating temperature is higher for materials possessing a higher enthalpy of adsorption. However, the fraction of the hydrogen stored overall that can be released at the optimum operating temperature is higher for materials with a lower enthalpy of adsorption than for the ones with higher enthalpy.
Seixas, Carlos Alberto; de Godoy, Simone; Martins, JoséÉ Carlos Amado; Mazzo, Alessandra; Baptista, Rui Carlos Negrão; Mendes, Isabel Amélia Costa
Distance education has turned into an important tool for nursing education. The virtual learning environments contribute toward an interactive and attractive educational process. In this study, we assess the usability of a virtual learning environment that was developed to teach nursing students how to care for patients with urinary retention. A multicenter and descriptive study was undertaken, which involved nursing students from the University of São Paulo at Ribeirão Preto College of Nursing, Brazil, and the Escola Superior de Enfermagem de Coimbra, Portugal. The participants were 79 students, mostly female, between 20 and 24 years of age. The virtual learning environment revealed good properties in terms of usability on most criteria. Future research will help to confirm the results.
Haas, Janet; Bakken, Suzanne; Bright, Tiffani J; Melton, Genevieve B; Stetson, Peter; Johnson, Stephen B
The purpose of this evaluation was to assess perceptions of usability of a new semi-structured electronic clinical note. Two focus groups were held, one with attending physicians and one with residents. Physicians described their experiences with eNote and their perceptions about the system. Transcripts of the focus groups underwent content analysis, and four major themes emerged. These were "time", "hardware-system issues", "eNote application issues", and "patients' perceptions."
Granaas, Michael M.; Sredinski, Victoria E.
Enhancing the usability of Mission Control Center (MCC) CRT displays stands to improve the quality, productivity, and safety of flight-test research at the NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility. The results of this research suggests that much can be done to assist the user and improve the quality of flight research through the enhancement of current displays. This research has applications to a variety of flight data monitoring displays.
improve small arms coaching skills was investigated to test the willingness of soldiers to utilize anytime, anywhere self-directed training and to...determine the utility and usability of embedding small arms coaching training in future weapons. In this experiment soldiers were first tested on...their ability to identify shooting errors depicted in videos before they were issued with either a paper or digital small arms coaching training aid
A PRESENTATION WAS MADE OF THE ANALYSIS OF BEHAVIOR THAT IS REQUIRED AS A FIRST STEP IN THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING PROCEDURES AND MATERIALS FOR "DISCOVERY LEARNING." TEACHING BY THE DISCOVERY METHOD IS DESCRIBED AS REQUIRING THAT A MINIMUM OF STRUCTURED INSTRUCTIONAL SEQUENCE BE IMPOSED TO ALLOW THE CHILD TO (1) LEARN BY DISCOVERY AND (2)…
Gude, Wouter T; Simon, Airin C R; Peute, Linda W P; Holleman, Frits; Hoekstra, Joost B L; Peek, Niels; Jaspers, Monique W M
We developed a web-based system supporting patients in insulin self-titration and their caregivers in monitoring patients' self-management activities. Since usability flaws could cause user attrition and compromise patient safety, we evaluated the system's usability prior to its implementation in practice. Two pairs of researchers conducted cognitive walkthrough sessions and identified 81 unique usability problems, including four with a potential impact on patient safety. Usability evaluations could reveal many usability problems and allow solving the problems while avoiding user attrition and potential adverse patient events.
This paper concerns an applied research aimed at applying the concept of usability, as derived form the standard ISO 9241/11, in the filed of building design, namely primary schools. Starting from the concept that space characteristics play a very relevant role in learning performances, the study presented here developed an original methodology for the assessment of effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction of buildings hosting primary schools, in order to create a school environment better supporting users in their tasks. Research core is the framework of usability requirements and their related markers, indicators and technical specification that has been formulated in order to check compliance of urban area, building, rooms and architectural details with users needs. Therefore, a detailed task analysis of pupils and teacher tasks has been carried out and two questionnaires addressed to a significant users panel have been formulated for satisfaction survey. Lastly, a matrix for an overall reading of gathered data has been set-up and criteria for usability assessment based on that data has been defined. The whole study has been developed within the case study of a primary school in the Naples city centre, whose contents and results are discussed.
Conover, H.; Graves, S. J.; Ramachandran, R.; Redman, S.; Rushing, J.; Tanner, S.
The Information Technology and Systems Center (ITSC) at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) is performing research in advanced applications with the goal of improving data usability in the next generation of distributed science data and information systems. These research areas include: data mining and subsetting in real time and for post-run analysis, interchange technologies for improved data exploitation, and the use of semantics to transform data exploitation via intelligent automated processing. Taken together, these technologies will be an important contribution to an evolving standards-based network of interoperable data and services. In addition, ITSC is investigating the role of a variety of infrastructure improvements for improved data usability, such as grid technologies for seamless access to multiple computational and data resources in a virtual computing environment; cluster technologies for high-speed parallel computation, multi-agent computations, and other applications; high-performance networking for high-speed connectivity among advanced applications; and next generation technologies in videoconferencing and electronic collaboration. This presentation will highlight several current ITSC research projects and collaborations which focus on advanced tools and services for such high-performance infrastructures, and which illustrate new approaches to improving data usability.
Pu, Pearl; Faltings, Boi; Chen, Li; Zhang, Jiyong; Viappiani, Paolo
Over the past decade, our group has developed a suite of decision tools based on example critiquing to help users find their preferred products in e-commerce environments. In this chapter, we survey important usability research work relative to example critiquing and summarize the major results by deriving a set of usability guidelines. Our survey is focused on three key interaction activities between the user and the system: the initial preference elicitation process, the preference revision process, and the presentation of the systems recommendation results. To provide a basis for the derivation of the guidelines, we developed a multi-objective framework of three interacting criteria: accuracy, confidence, and effort (ACE). We use this framework to analyze our past work and provide a specific context for each guideline: when the system should maximize its ability to increase users' decision accuracy, when to increase user confidence, and when to minimize the interaction effort for the users. Due to the general nature of this multi-criteria model, the set of guidelines that we propose can be used to ease the usability engineering process of other recommender systems, especially those used in e-commerce environments. The ACE framework presented here is also the first in the field to evaluate the performance of preference-based recommenders from a user-centric point of view.
Utami, Dina; Bickmore, Timothy W; Barry, Barbara; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K
Several web-based search engines have been developed to assist individuals to find clinical trials for which they may be interested in volunteering. However, these search engines may be difficult for individuals with low health and computer literacy to navigate. The authors present findings from a usability evaluation of clinical trial search tools with 41 participants across the health and computer literacy spectrum. The study consisted of 3 parts: (a) a usability study of an existing web-based clinical trial search tool; (b) a usability study of a keyword-based clinical trial search tool; and (c) an exploratory study investigating users' information needs when deciding among 2 or more candidate clinical trials. From the first 2 studies, the authors found that users with low health literacy have difficulty forming queries using keywords and have significantly more difficulty using a standard web-based clinical trial search tool compared with users with adequate health literacy. From the third study, the authors identified the search factors most important to individuals searching for clinical trials and how these varied by health literacy level.
Hinke, Thomas H.; Kolano, Paul Z.; Keller, Chris
This paper describes a strong perimeter control system for a general purpose processing system, with the perimeter control system taking significant steps to address usability issues, thus mitigating the tension between strong perimeter protection and usability. A secure front end enforces two-factor authentication for all interactive access to an enclave that contains a large supercomputer and various associated systems, with each requiring their own authentication. Usability is addressed through a design in which the user has to perform two-factor authentication at the secure front end in order to gain access to the enclave, while an agent transparently performs public key authentication as needed to authenticate to specific systems within the enclave. The paper then describes a proxy system that allows users to transfer files into the enclave under script control, when the user is not present to perform two-factor authentication. This uses a pre-authorization approach based on public key technology, which is still strongly tied to both two-factor authentication and strict control over where files can be transferred on the target system. Finally the paper describes an approach to support network applications and systems such as grids or parallel file transfer protocols that require the use of many ports through the perimeter. The paper describes a least privilege approach that dynamically opens ports on a host-specific, if-authorized, as-needed, just-in-time basis.
Kushalnagar, Poorna; Naturale, Joan; Paludneviciene, Raylene; Smith, Scott R; Werfel, Emily; Doolittle, Richard; Jacobs, Stephen; DeCaro, James
To date, there have been efforts toward creating better health information access for Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users. However, the usability of websites with access to health information in ASL has not been evaluated. Our article focuses on the usability of four health websites that include ASL videos. We seek to obtain ASL users' perspectives on the navigation of these ASL-accessible websites, finding the health information that they needed, and perceived ease of understanding ASL video content. ASL users (n = 32) were instructed to find specific information on four ASL-accessible websites, and answered questions related to (a) navigation to find the task, (b) website usability, and (c) ease of understanding ASL video content for each of the four websites. Participants also gave feedback on what they would like to see in an ASL health library website, including the benefit of added captioning and/or signer model to medical illustration of health videos. Participants who had lower health literacy had greater difficulty in finding information on ASL-accessible health websites. This article also describes the participants' preferences for an ideal ASL-accessible health website, and concludes with a discussion on the role of accessible websites in promoting health literacy in ASL users.
Wilcox, Adam; Hripcsak, George; Knirsch, Charles
Knowledge discovery and data mining is one of the most promising areas of current informatics research. However, real successes of clinical data mining have mainly been limited to algorithms research, to specific prospectively created datasets, or to administrative databases requiring manual extraction of data. Natural language processing (NLP), which extracts clinical information from text reports, increases the available data for knowledge discovery. This allows greater use of clinical data already stored in existing clinical databases. We validated a dataset using NLP and rules to extract clinical findings with a prediction rule that was validated on manually abstracted data. The outcome variables for each study were similar, indicating the potential of using NLP extracted findings to create datasets for clinical research. The study also indicated the potential for using data external data sources to determine clinical outcomes.
Lindsey, William H.
The study attempted to determine if there is a relationship between user's psychological personality types, measured by the Myers Briggs Type Indicator[R] (MBTI[R]) and distinct measures of usability measured by the Software Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI). The study was expected to provide an answer to the following basic research…
Khajouei, R; Peute, L W P; Hasman, A; Jaspers, M W M
Various methods exist for conducting usability evaluation studies in health care. But although the methodology is clear, no usability evaluation method provides a framework by which the usability reporting activities are fully standardized. Despite the frequent use of forms to report the usability problems and their context-information, this reporting is often hindered by information losses. This is due to the fact that evaluators' problem descriptions are based on individual judgments of what they find salient about a usability problem at a certain moment in time. Moreover, usability problems are typically classified in terms of their type, number, and severity. These classes are usually devised by the evaluator for the purpose at hand and the used problem types often are not mutually exclusive, complete and distinct. Also the impact of usability problems on the task outcome is usually not taken into account. Consequently, problem descriptions are often vague and even when combined with their classification in type or severity leave room for multiple interpretations when discussed with system designers afterwards. Correct interpretation of these problem descriptions is then highly dependent upon the extent to which the evaluators can retrieve relevant details from memory. To remedy this situation a framework is needed guiding usability evaluators in high quality reporting and unique classification of usability problems. Such a framework should allow the disclosure of the underlying essence of problem causes, the severity rating and the classification of the impact of usability problems on the task outcome. The User Action Framework (UAF) is an existing validated classification framework that allows the unique classification of usability problems, but it does not include a severity rating nor does it contain an assessment of the potential impact of usability flaws on the final task outcomes. We therefore augmented the UAF with a severity rating based on Nielsen
Zhou, Ronggang; Chan, Alan H. S.
BACKGROUND: In order to take into account the inherent uncertainties during product usability evaluation, Zhou and Chan  proposed a comprehensive method of usability evaluation for products by combining the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy evaluation methods for synthesizing performance data and subjective response data. This method was designed to provide an integrated framework combining the inevitable vague judgments from the multiple stages of the product evaluation process. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: In order to illustrate the effectiveness of the model, this study used a summative usability test case to assess the application and strength of the general fuzzy usability framework. To test the proposed fuzzy usability evaluation framework , a standard summative usability test was conducted to benchmark the overall usability of a specific network management software. Based on the test data, the fuzzy method was applied to incorporate both the usability scores and uncertainties involved in the multiple components of the evaluation. Then, with Monte Carlo simulation procedures, confidence intervals were used to compare the reliabilities among the fuzzy approach and two typical conventional methods combining metrics based on percentages. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: This case study showed that the fuzzy evaluation technique can be applied successfully for combining summative usability testing data to achieve an overall usability quality for the network software evaluated. Greater differences of confidence interval widths between the method of averaging equally percentage and weighted evaluation method, including the method of weighted percentage averages, verified the strength of the fuzzy method. PMID:28035942
Tariq, Amina; Richardson, Lauren; Byrne, Mary; Robinson, Maureen; Li, Ling; Westbrook, Johanna I; Baysari, Melissa T
Background Medication is the most common intervention in health care, and written medication information can affect consumers’ medication-related behavior. Research has shown that a large proportion of Australians search for medication information on the Internet. Objective To evaluate the medication information content, based on consumer medication information needs, and usability of 4 Australian health websites: Better Health Channel, myDr, healthdirect, and NPS MedicineWise . Methods To assess website content, the most common consumer medication information needs were identified using (1) medication queries to the healthdirect helpline (a telephone helpline available across most of Australia) and (2) the most frequently used medications in Australia. The most frequently used medications were extracted from Australian government statistics on use of subsidized medicines in the community and the National Census of Medicines Use. Each website was assessed to determine whether it covered or partially covered information and advice about these medications. To assess website usability, 16 consumers participated in user testing wherein they were required to locate 2 pieces of medication information on each website. Brief semistructured interviews were also conducted with participants to gauge their opinions of the websites. Results Information on prescription medication was more comprehensively covered on all websites (3 of 4 websites covered 100% of information) than nonprescription medication (websites covered 0%-67% of information). Most websites relied on consumer medicines information leaflets to convey prescription medication information to consumers. Information about prescription medication classes was less comprehensive, with no website providing all information examined about antibiotics and antidepressants. Participants (n=16) were able to locate medication information on websites in most cases (accuracy ranged from 84% to 91%). However, a number of
Zhang, S.; Moore, A. B.
Virtual reality (VR) technology is starting to become widely and freely available (for example the online OpenSimulator tool), with potential for use in 3D urban planning and design tasks but still needing rigorous assessment to establish this. A previous study consulted with a small group of urban professionals, who concluded in a satisfaction usability test that online VR had potential value as a usable 3D communication and remote marketing tool but acknowledged that visual quality and geographic accuracy were obstacles to overcome. This research takes the investigation a significant step further to also examine the usability aspects of efficiency (how quickly tasks are completed) and effectiveness (how successfully tasks are completed), relating to OpenSimulator in an urban planning situation. The comparative study pits a three-dimensional VR model (with increased graphic fidelity and geographic content to address the feedback of the previous study) of a subdivision design (in a Dunedin suburb) against 3D models built with GIS (ArcGIS) and CAD (BricsCAD) tools, two types of software environment well established in urban professional practice. Urban professionals participated in the study by attempting to perform timed tasks correctly in each of the environments before being asked questions about the technologies involved and their perceived importance to their professional work. The results reinforce the positive feedback for VR of the previous study, with the graphical and geographic data issues being somewhat addressed (though participants stressed the need for accurate and precise object and terrain modification capabilities in VR). Ease-ofuse and associated fastest task completion speed were significant positive outcomes to emerge from the comparison with GIS and CAD, pointing to a strong future for VR in an urban planning context.
Budden, A. E.; Frame, M. T.; Tenopir, C.; Volentine, R.
DataONE was conceived as a 10-year project to enable new science and knowledge creation through universal access to data about life on Earth and the environment that sustains it. In Phase I (2009-2014) more than 300 DataONE participants designed, developed and deployed a robust cyberinfrastructure (CI) with innovative services, and directly engaged and educated a broad stakeholder community. DataONE provides a resilient, scalable infrastructure using Member Nodes (data repositories), Coordinating Nodes, and an Investigator Toolkit to support the data access and data management needs of biological, Earth, and environmental science researchers in the U.S. and across the globe. DataONE collaborators, such as the U.S. Geological Survey, University of New Mexico, and the University of Tennessee, perform research to measure both the current data practices and opinions of DataONE stakeholders and the usability of DataONE for these stakeholders. Stakeholders include scientists, data managers, librarians, and educators among others. The DataONE Usability and Assessment Working Group, which includes members from multiple sectors, does research, development, and implementation projects on DataONE processes, systems, and methods. These projects are essential to insure that DataONE products and services meet network goals, include appropriate community involvement, and demonstrate progress and achievements of DataONE. This poster will provide an overview of DataONE's usability analysis and assessment methodologies, benefits to DataONE and its collaborators, and current tools/techniques being utilized by the participants.
Viewed from across the waters of Banana Creek, clouds of smoke and steam are illuminated by the flames from Space Shuttle Discovery'''s perfect on-time launch at 7:17 p.m. EDT. Discovery carries a crew of seven on a construction flight to the International Space Station. Discovery also carries a payload that includes the Integrated Truss Structure Z-1, first of 10 trusses that will form the backbone of the Space Station, and the third Pressurized Mating Adapter that will provide a Shuttle docking port for solar array installation on the sixth Station flight and Lab installation on the seventh Station flight. Discovery'''s landing is expected Oct. 22 at 2:10 p.m. EDT.
Ou-Yang, Si-sheng; Lu, Jun-yan; Kong, Xiang-qian; Liang, Zhong-jie; Luo, Cheng; Jiang, Hualiang
Computational drug discovery is an effective strategy for accelerating and economizing drug discovery and development process. Because of the dramatic increase in the availability of biological macromolecule and small molecule information, the applicability of computational drug discovery has been extended and broadly applied to nearly every stage in the drug discovery and development workflow, including target identification and validation, lead discovery and optimization and preclinical tests. Over the past decades, computational drug discovery methods such as molecular docking, pharmacophore modeling and mapping, de novo design, molecular similarity calculation and sequence-based virtual screening have been greatly improved. In this review, we present an overview of these important computational methods, platforms and successful applications in this field. PMID:22922346
Young, Cristin C. W.; Olival, Kevin J.
Viral discovery studies in bats have increased dramatically over the past decade, yet a rigorous synthesis of the published data is lacking. We extract and analyze data from 93 studies published between 2007–2013 to examine factors that increase success of viral discovery in bats, and specific trends and patterns of infection across host taxa and viral families. Over the study period, 248 novel viruses from 24 viral families have been described. Using generalized linear models, at a study level we show the number of host species and viral families tested best explained number of viruses detected. We demonstrate that prevalence varies significantly across viral family, specimen type, and host taxonomy, and calculate mean PCR prevalence by viral family and specimen type across all studies. Using a logistic model, we additionally identify factors most likely to increase viral detection at an individual level for the entire dataset and by viral families with sufficient sample sizes. Our analysis highlights major taxonomic gaps in recent bat viral discovery efforts and identifies ways to improve future viral pathogen detection through the design of more efficient and targeted sample collection and screening approaches. PMID:26867024
Ellul, Claire; Foord, Joanna; Mooney, John
SECOA (Solutions for Environmental Contrasts in Coastal Areas) is a multi-national research project examining the effects of human mobility on urban settlements in fragile coastal environments. This paper describes the setting up of a SECOA metadata repository for non-specialist researchers such as environmental scientists and tourism experts. Conflicting usability requirements of two groups - metadata creators and metadata users - are identified along with associated limitations of current metadata standards. A description is given of a configurable metadata system designed to grow as the project evolves. This work is of relevance for similar projects such as INSPIRE.
Radziwill, Nicole; Shelton, Amy
At the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's (NRAO) Science Center in Green Bank, W. Va., visitors curious about radio astronomy and the observatory's history and operations will discover an educational, entertaining experience. Employees also visit the science center, but their thoughts are more on afternoon snacks rather than distant galaxies. The employees of NRAO's Software Development Division in Green Bank have gained tremendous insight on the topic of software usability from many visits to the Science Center Café by pontificating upon the wisdom inherent in the design and use of the liquid cheese dispenser there.
Gezahegne, A; Love, N S
The Sapphire project at the Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC) develops and applies an extensive set of data mining algorithms for the analysis of large data sets. Sapphire's algorithms are currently available as a set of C++ libraries. However many users prefer higher level scripting languages such as Python for their ease of use and flexibility. In this report, we evaluate four interoperability tools for the purpose of wrapping Sapphire's core functionality with Python. Exposing Sapphire's functionality through a Python interface would increase its usability and connect its algorithms to existing Python tools.
Nabovati, Ehsan; Vakili-Arki, Hasan; Eslami, Saeid; Khajouei, Reza
This study was conducted to evaluate the usability of widely used laboratory and radiology information systems. Three usability experts independently evaluated the user interfaces of Laboratory and Radiology Information Systems using heuristic evaluation method. They applied Nielsen's heuristics to identify and classify usability problems and Nielsen's severity rating to judge their severity. Overall, 116 unique heuristic violations were identified as usability problems. In terms of severity, 67 % of problems were rated as major and catastrophic. Among 10 heuristics, "consistency and standards" was violated most frequently. Moreover, mean severity of problems concerning "error prevention" and "help and documentation" heuristics was higher than of the others. Despite widespread use of specific healthcare information systems, they suffer from usability problems. Improving the usability of systems by following existing design standards and principles from the early phased of system development life cycle is recommended. Especially, it is recommended that the designers design systems that inhibit the initiation of erroneous actions and provide sufficient guidance to users.
Boring, R. L.; Tran, T. Q.; Gertman, D. I.; Ragsdale, A.
Boring and Gertman (2005) introduced a novel method that augments heuristic usability evaluation methods with that of the human reliability analysis method of SPAR-H. By assigning probabilistic modifiers to individual heuristics, it is possible to arrive at the usability error probability (UEP). Although this UEP is not a literal probability of error, it nonetheless provides a quantitative basis to heuristic evaluation. This method allows one to seamlessly prioritize and identify usability issues (i.e., a higher UEP requires more immediate fixes). However, the original version of this method required the usability evaluator to assign priority weights to the final UEP, thus allowing the priority of a usability issue to differ among usability evaluators. The purpose of this paper is to explore an alternative approach to standardize the priority weighting of the UEP in an effort to improve the method's reliability. (authors)
Cacciatore, Stefano; Luchinat, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo
Here we describe KODAMA (knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization), an unsupervised and semisupervised learning algorithm that performs feature extraction from noisy and high-dimensional data. Unlike other data mining methods, the peculiarity of KODAMA is that it is driven by an integrated procedure of cross-validation of the results. The discovery of a local manifold’s topology is led by a classifier through a Monte Carlo procedure of maximization of cross-validated predictive accuracy. Briefly, our approach differs from previous methods in that it has an integrated procedure of validation of the results. In this way, the method ensures the highest robustness of the obtained solution. This robustness is demonstrated on experimental datasets of gene expression and metabolomics, where KODAMA compares favorably with other existing feature extraction methods. KODAMA is then applied to an astronomical dataset, revealing unexpected features. Interesting and not easily predictable features are also found in the analysis of the State of the Union speeches by American presidents: KODAMA reveals an abrupt linguistic transition sharply separating all post-Reagan from all pre-Reagan speeches. The transition occurs during Reagan’s presidency and not from its beginning. PMID:24706821
Inoue, Eiji; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Takenaka, Osamu; Nishida, Toshisada
In many genetic studies on the great apes, fecal or hair samples have been used as sources of DNA. However, feces and hairs are difficult to collect from chimpanzee infants under 3 years of age. As alternative DNA sources, we investigated the efficiency of collecting urine samples from infants compared with fecal samples, as well as the validity of the DNA extracted from urine and saliva samples of well-habituated M group chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania. We collected 40 urine and 3 fecal samples from 10 infants under 3 years. Compared with feces, the urine samples were relatively easy to collect. The saliva of infants, which remained on the twigs sucked by them, was collected using cotton swabs. The average amounts of DNA extracted from the 40 urine and 6 saliva samples were 3,920 and 458 pg/mul, respectively. The rate of positive PCR was low and the allelic dropout rate was high when using less than 25 pg of template DNA in the PCR mixtures. Based on the amounts of DNA, 50% of the urine samples and 100% of the saliva samples were judged usable for accurate microsatellite genotyping. For infant chimpanzees in particular, collecting urine and saliva as an alternative to fecal and hair samples can reduce the effort invested in collection in the field.
Erickson, Bradley J.; Kossack, Merrick F.
User-centered design is a critical step in the product development cycle. It is an iterative process consisting of product design, implementation, and evaluation stages. Industry-standard usability metrics were employed to evaluate two sequential versions of commercial Picture Archiving and Communications System (PACS) workstation software as part of this process. They were evaluated 6 months apart by five radiologists with varying PACS experience. All radiologists were naive to the specific workstation tested. After a brief workstation overview, they were videotaped as they completed scenarios that closely simulated typical radiological practice. Each scenario consisted of various task categories. The task duration, nature and number of errors, help requests, and operator's manual consultations were recorded. After evaluating the first software version, areas for improvement were identified and the application design modified. An unexpected result was the rewriting of the software manual to be task- and process-based rather than feature-based. Testing of the second version revealed a 22% improvement in performance time and 30% decrease in the number of errors compared to the first. Usability testing objectively identifies areas for improvement in the PACS workstation software. Additionally, it provides quantitative measures that may be used to prioritize and suggest future design efforts. Performing this evaluation as early as possible results in the rapid evolution of an application that will maximize radiologists' productivity and satisfaction.
Faisal, Chaudhry Muhammad Nadeem; Shakeel Faridi, Muhammad; Javed, Zahid
Enterprise Resource Planning systems are the combination of different business IS (Information System) applications that are designed according to the organization requirements. Generally ERP systems are suffering from complex user interface issues. Recent research shows that there is a need for improvement concerning, the user interface from their perspectives. In order to design the software applications that are easy to use, memorize and apply to new problems, we must know the users philosophy and something about learning, reminiscence and problems solving. The Usability engineering is the only way to study the deeds of users while interacting with ERP (Enterprise Resource & Planning). This paper will focus on the users' experiences view of financial module in ERP system. The HCI research method, explicitly survey questionnaire method was adopted to gather users understanding in order to evaluate the selected modules for in-housed ERP system. The study involved group of users from two industries, the results can not be generalized as a whole. The study was first time successfully applied Usability evaluation on in-housed ERP in local industry (Masood Textile Mills, Interloop Ltd) in Pakistan. The results may hopefully opened-up an area of research and methodology that could provide considerable further benefits to Industry in developments of Industrial information systems.
Carvalho, Raíssa; Soares, Marcelo
This is a research study based on an analysis which sets out to identify and pinpoint ergonomic and usability problems found in a sample of automobile dashboards. The sample consisted of three dashboards, of three different makes and characterized as being a popular model, an average model and a luxury model. The examination was conducted by observation, with the aid of photography, notes and open interview, questionnaires and performing tasks with users, the bases of which are on the principles laid down by methodologies. From this it was possible to point to the existence of problems such as: complaints about the layout, lighting, colors, available area, difficult access to points of interaction, such as buttons, and the difficult nomenclature of dials. Later, the findings and recommendations presented show the need for a further, deeper study, using more accurate tools, a larger sample of users, and an anthropometric study focused on the dashboard, since reading and understanding it have to be done quickly and accurately, and that more attention be given to the study of automobile dashboards, particularly in the most popular vehicles in order to maintain the standards of usability, and drivers' comfort and safety.
Kaufmann, David; Parry, David; Carlsen, Victoria; Carter, Philip; Parry, Emma; Westbrook, Lucy
Clinical Handover in hospital is a process that can cause a major risk to patients, and be inefficient and time-consuming for staff. Software designed to support such processes needs to be used in a demanding and fast-moving environment. This work formulated Usability Design Requirements for such a handover software system. The requirements have been derived from a usability evaluation at Auckland City Hospital, where the handover was observed in two different environments during a handover improvement process. The requirements were produced using a multi-method, triangulated approach and they may be able to inform the design of systems to support clinical handover. The physical environment and the protocols adopted for handover were changed during this process, with software changes waiting for a larger project. Periods of change in work practice may be particularly favourable times to perform such studies, even if major software changes are not implemented. Staff engagement with the process may also be improved during times of change.
A new field of research, visual analytics, has recently been introduced. This has been defined as “the science of analytical reasoning facilitated by visual interfaces." Visual analytic environments, therefore, support analytical reasoning using visual representations and interactions, with data representations and transformation capabilities, to support production, presentation and dissemination. As researchers begin to develop visual analytic environments, it will be advantageous to develop metrics and methodologies to help researchers measure the progress of their work and understand the impact their work will have on the users who will work in such environments. This paper presents five areas or aspects of visual analytic environments that should be considered as metrics and methodologies for evaluation are developed. Evaluation aspects need to include usability, but it is necessary to go beyond basic usability. The areas of situation awareness, collaboration, interaction, creativity, and utility are proposed as areas for initial consideration. The steps that need to be undertaken to develop systematic evaluation methodologies and metrics for visual analytic environments are outlined.
van Kuijk, Jasper; van Driel, Liesbeth; van Eijk, Daan
This study explored how usability was dealt with in four product development organizations active in different sectors: high-end automotive, professional printers and copiers, office coffee makers and fast moving consumer goods. The primary differentiators of the selected cases were whether they were targeting businesses or consumers and the degree of product complexity. Interviews with 19 product development practitioners were conducted, focussing on three topics: 1) the product development process and the integration of user involvement, 2) multidisciplinary teamwork, and 3) organizational attitude towards usability. Based on the interviews, context descriptions of the companies were created and barriers and enablers for usability were identified. To verify the findings and to discuss remaining issues a feedback workshop was held in which the primary contact from each company participated. The results indicate that differences in product-market combination lead to differences in organizational attitude towards usability. The prioritization of usability in an organization seems to be influenced by the degree of product complexity (complex products are more prone to suffer from usability issues) and whether developers think that usability is a purchase consideration for their clients. The product-market combination a company targets also affects the methods for user-centred design that a company can apply and that are relevant. What methods for user-centred design are used also seems to be influenced by the attitude towards usability: if usability is considered more important, methods that require more resources can be applied.
Beuscart-Zéphir, M C; Watbled, L; Carpentier, A M; Degroisse, M; Alao, O
We present here an adapted methodology integrating usability engineering and early evaluation procedures to support the choice of a Clinical Information System in the context of a standard Call for Tender. We illustrate the application of this methodology with a case study. We integrated a standard 'contextual task and activity analysis' into the choice process and then drew up usability recommendations for the choice of an application. We organized a one-week on-site exhibition and test for each candidate company. During the test sessions, we performed a rapid usability assessment. The final choice of the application is strongly and positively influenced by the results of the usability assessment.
von Dincklage, Falk; Lichtner, Gregor; Suchodolski, Klaudiusz; Ragaller, Maximilian; Friesdorf, Wolfgang; Podtschaske, Beatrice
The implementation of computerized critical care information systems (CCIS) can improve the quality of clinical care and staff satisfaction, but also holds risks of disrupting the workflow with consecutive negative impacts. The usability of CCIS is one of the key factors determining their benefits and weaknesses. However, no tailored instrument exists to measure the usability of such systems. Therefore, the aim of this study was to design and validate a questionnaire that measures the usability of CCIS. Following a mixed-method design approach, we developed a questionnaire comprising two evaluation models to assess the usability of CCIS: (1) the task-specific model rates the usability individually for several tasks which CCIS could support and which we derived by analyzing work processes in the ICU; (2) the characteristic-specific model rates the different aspects of the usability, as defined by the international standard "ergonomics of human-system interaction". We tested validity and reliability of the digital version of the questionnaire in a sample population. In the sample population of 535 participants both usability evaluation models showed a strong correlation with the overall rating of the system (multiple correlation coefficients ≥0.80) as well as a very high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha ≥0.93). The novel questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument to measure the usability of CCIS and can be used to study the influence of the usability on their implementation benefits and weaknesses.
Kwahk, Jiyoung; Han, Sung H
Usability evaluation is now considered an essential procedure in consumer product development. Many studies have been conducted to develop various techniques and methods of usability evaluation hoping to help the evaluators choose appropriate methods. However, planning and conducting usability evaluation requires considerations of a number of factors surrounding the evaluation process including the product, user, activity, and environmental characteristics. In this perspective, this study suggested a new methodology of usability evaluation through a simple, structured framework. The framework was outlined by three major components: the interface features of a product as design variables, the evaluation context consisting of user, product, activity, and environment as context variables, and the usability measures as dependent variables. Based on this framework, this study established methods to specify the product interface features, to define evaluation context, and to measure usability. The effectiveness of this methodology was demonstrated through case studies in which the usability of audiovisual products was evaluated by using the methods developed in this study. This study is expected to help the usability practitioners in consumer electronics industry in various ways. Most directly, it supports the evaluators' plan and conduct usability evaluation sessions in a systematic and structured manner. In addition, it can be applied to other categories of consumer products (such as appliances, automobiles, communication devices, etc.) with minor modifications as necessary.
Lei, Jianbo; Xu, Lufei; Meng, Qun; Zhang, Jiajie; Gong, Yang
Objectives. To systematically review and analyze the current status and characteristics of usability studies in China in the field of information technology in general and in the field of healthcare in particular. Methods. We performed a quantitative literature analysis in three major Chinese academic databases and one English language database using Chinese search terms equivalent to the concept of usability. Results. Six hundred forty-seven publications were selected for analysis. We found that in China the literature on usability in the field of information technology began in 1994 and increased thereafter. The usability definitions from ISO 9241-11:1998 and Nielsen (1993) have been widely recognized and cited. Authors who have published several publications are rare. Fourteen journals have a publishing rate over 1%. Only nine publications about HIT were identified. Discussions. China's usability research started relatively late. There is a lack of organized research teams and dedicated usability journals. High-impact theoretical studies are scarce. On the application side, no original and systematic research frameworks have been developed. The understanding and definition of usability is not well synchronized with international norms. Besides, usability research in HIT is rare. Conclusions. More human and material resources need to be invested in China's usability research, particularly in HIT. PMID:25050362
Rosenman, Martin F.
The discovery of penicillin is cited in a discussion of the role of serendipity as it relates to scientific discovery. The importance of sagacity as a personality trait is noted. Successful researchers have questioning minds, are willing to view data from several perspectives, and recognize and appreciate the unexpected. (JW)
This article features Friends' Discovery Camp, a program that allows children with and without autism spectrum disorder to learn and play together. In Friends' Discovery Camp, campers take part in sensory-rich experiences, ranging from hands-on activities and performing arts to science experiments and stories teaching social skills. Now in its 7th…
For the past two-and-a-half decades, the Office of Science at the U.S. Department of Energy has been at the forefront of scientific discovery. Over 100 important discoveries supported by the Office of Science are represented in this document.
Lacerda, Thaisa Cardoso; von Wangenheim, Christiane Gresse; von Wangenheim, Aldo; Giuliano, Isabela
Accidental discoveries have been of significant value in the progress of science. Although accidental discoveries are more common in pharmacology and chemistry, other branches of science have also benefited from such discoveries. While most discoveries are the result of persistent research, famous accidental discoveries provide a fascinating…
Barrera, Junior; Cesar, Roberto M; Ferreira, João E; Gubitoso, Marco D
This paper describes a data mining environment for knowledge discovery in bioinformatics applications. The system has a generic kernel that implements the mining functions to be applied to input primary databases, with a warehouse architecture, of biomedical information. Both supervised and unsupervised classification can be implemented within the kernel and applied to data extracted from the primary database, with the results being suitably stored in a complex object database for knowledge discovery. The kernel also includes a specific high-performance library that allows designing and applying the mining functions in parallel machines. The experimental results obtained by the application of the kernel functions are reported.
Thompson, Jolinda L; Obrig, Kathe S; Abate, Laura E
Funds made available at the close of the 2010-11 fiscal year allowed purchase of the EBSCO Discovery Service (EDS) for a year-long trial. The appeal of this web-scale discovery product that offers a Google-like interface to library resources was counter-balanced by concerns about quality of search results in an academic health science setting and the challenge of configuring an interface that serves the needs of a diverse group of library users. After initial configuration, usability testing with library users revealed the need for further work before general release. Of greatest concern were continuing issues with the relevance of items retrieved, appropriateness of system-supplied facet terms, and user difficulties with navigating the interface. EBSCO has worked with the library to better understand and identify problems and solutions. External roll-out to users occurred in June 2012.
Bhowmick, Tanuka; Robinson, Anthony C; Gruver, Adrienne; MacEachren, Alan M; Lengerich, Eugene J
Background The Pennsylvania Cancer Atlas (PA-CA) is an interactive online atlas to help policy-makers, program managers, and epidemiologists with tasks related to cancer prevention and control. The PA-CA includes maps, graphs, tables, that are dynamically linked to support data exploration and decision-making with spatio-temporal cancer data. Our Atlas development process follows a user-centered design approach. To assess the usability of the initial versions of the PA-CA, we developed and applied a novel strategy for soliciting user feedback through multiple distributed focus groups and surveys. Our process of acquiring user feedback leverages an online web application (e-Delphi). In this paper we describe the PA-CA, detail how we have adapted e-Delphi web application to support usability and utility evaluation of the PA-CA, and present the results of our evaluation. Results We report results from four sets of users. Each group provided structured individual and group assessments of the PA-CA as well as input on the kinds of users and applications for which it is best suited. Overall reactions to the PA-CA are quite positive. Participants did, however, provide a range of useful suggestions. Key suggestions focused on improving interaction functions, enhancing methods of temporal analysis, addressing data issues, and providing additional data displays and help functions. These suggestions were incorporated in each design and implementation iteration for the PA-CA and used to inform a set of web-atlas design principles. Conclusion For the Atlas, we find that a design that utilizes linked map, graph, and table views is understandable to and perceived to be useful by the target audience of cancer prevention and control professionals. However, it is clear that considerable variation in experience using maps and graphics exists and for those with less experience, integrated tutorials and help features are needed. In relation to our usability assessment strategy, we find
Sims, Michael H.; Bresina, John L.
The Generate, Prune & Prove (GPP) methodology for discovering definitions of mathematical operators is introduced. GPP is a task within the IL exploration discovery system. We developed GPP for use in the discovery of mathematical operators with a wider class of representations than was possible with the previous methods by Lenat and by Shen. GPP utilizes the purpose for which an operator is created to prune the possible definitions. The relevant search spaces are immense and there exists insufficient information for a complete evaluation of the purpose constraint, so it is necessary to perform a partial evaluation of the purpose (i.e., pruning) constraint. The constraint is first transformed so that it is operational with respect to the partial information, and then it is applied to examples in order to test the generated candidates for an operator's definition. In the GPP process, once a candidate definition survives this empirical prune, it is passed on to a theorem prover for formal verification. We describe the application of this methodology to the (re)discovery of the definition of multiplication for Conway numbers, a discovery which is difficult for human mathematicians. We successfully model this discovery process utilizing information which was reasonably available at the time of Conway's original discovery. As part of this discovery process, we reduce the size of the search space from a computationally intractable size to 3468 elements.
Recent developments of technologies that promote full accessibility of electronic information by future generations of people with print disabilities will be described. ("Print disabilities" include low vision, blindness, and dyslexia.) The guiding philosophy of these developments is that information should be created and transmitted in a form that is as display-independent as possible, and that the user should have maximum freedom over how that information is to be displayed. This philosophy leads to maximum usability by everybody and is, in the long run, the only way to assure truly equal access. Research efforts to be described include access to mathematics and scientific notation and to graphs, tables, charts, diagrams, and general object-oriented graphics.
Kizilkaya, Nilgun; Onal, Mehmet; Depci, Tolga; Yucel, Aysegul
In the present study, the usability of the pyrophyllite in the traditional ceramic industry was investigated. The raw pyrophyllite was obtained in Malatya, Turkey. The characterization of the raw pyrophyllite and the prepared ceramics which were heated at the different temperatures in oven (800, 900, 1000 and 1100 °C) were done by XRF, XRD, FTIR, SEM and the main physical properties, like total shrinkage, water absorption capacity and compression strength were determined. As a result of experimental studies; the raw pyrophyllite had to be mixed with the feldspar and another clay (Unye clay) with having high plasticity in order to shape easily and a high water resistance. The optimum receipt was found as 70 wt % pyrophyllite, 20 wt % Unye clay and 10 wt % feldspar. The main properties of the obtained ceramics were specific white baking colour and high temperature resistance properties.
Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.
What mathematical discovery more than 1500 years ago: (1) Is one of the greatest, if not the greatest, single discovery in the field of mathematics? (2) Involved three subtle ideas that eluded the greatest minds of antiquity, even geniuses such as Archimedes? (3) Was fiercely resisted in Europe for hundreds of years after its discovery? (4) Even today, in historical treatments of mathematics, is often dismissed with scant mention, or else is ascribed to the wrong source? Answer: Our modern system of positional decimal notation with zero, together with the basic arithmetic computational schemes, which were discovered in India about 500 CE.
Corry, Michael D.; Frick, Theodore W.; Hansen, Lisa
Presents an overview of user-centered design and usability testing. Describes a Web site evaluation project at a university, the iterative process of rapid prototyping and usability testing, and how the findings helped to improve the design. Discusses recommendations for university Web site design and reflects on problems faced in usability…
Sugar, William A.
Details myths that illustrate novice instructional designers' perspectives on usability sessions and their users. Then offers suggestions for integrating creativity and developing enhanced perspective-taking. Two tables list the myths and guidelines, and potential effects of usability-session guidelines on novice designers' myths are charted. (AEF)
O'Connor, Rory V.
This paper explores the software processes and usability techniques used by Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) that develop web applications. The significance of this research is that it looks at development processes used by SMEs in order to assess to what degree usability is integrated into the process. This study seeks to gain an understanding into the level of awareness of usability within SMEs today and their commitment to usability in practice. The motivation for this research is to explore the current development processes used by SMEs in developing web applications and to understand how usability is represented in those processes. The background for this research is provided by the growth of the web application industry beyond informational web sites to more sophisticated applications delivering a broad range of functionality. This paper presents an analysis of the practices of several Irish SMEs that develop web applications through a series of case studies. With the focus on SMEs that develop web applications as Management Information Systems and not E-Commerce sites, informational sites, online communities or web portals. This study gathered data about the usability techniques practiced by these companies and their awareness of usability in the context of the software process in those SMEs. The contribution of this study is to further the understanding of the current role of usability within the software development processes of SMEs that develop web applications.
Oulanov, Alexei; Pajarillo, Edmund J. Y.
Reports on a usability evaluation of the wide area networked database used in the library system of the City University of New York (CUNY). Describes use of the Software Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI) criteria in student surveys and interviews that considered affect, efficiency, learnability, control, and helpfulness. Survey is appended.…
Cooper, Martyn; Colwell, Chetz; Jelfs, Anne
This paper makes the case that if e-learning research and development projects are to be successfully adopted in real-world teaching and learning contexts, then they must effectively address accessibility and usability issues; and that these need to be integrated throughout the project. As such, accessibility and usability issues need to be made…
Hafezi, Soheila; Farahi, Ahmad; Mehri, Soheil Najafi; Mahmoodi, Hosein
The web is playing a central role in distance education. The word "usability" is usually synonymous with functionality of the system for the user. Also, usability of a website is defined as something that can be used by a specific group of people to carry out specific objectives in an effective way, with efficiency and satisfaction.…
Doubleday, Eldridge G.; O'Loughlin, Valerie D.; Doubleday, Alison F.
An increasing number of instructors are seeking to provide students with online anatomy resources. Many researchers have attempted to identify associations between resource use and student learning but few studies discuss the importance of usability testing in resource design and modification. Usability testing provides information about ease of…
Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Rutherford, Tracy A.; Doerfert, David L.; Edgar, Leslie D.; Edgar, Don W.
Educational technology continues to expand with multi-user virtual environments (e.g., Second Life™) being the latest technology. Understanding a virtual environment's usability can enhance educational planning and effective use. Usability includes the interaction quality between an individual and the item being assessed. The purpose was to assess…
Chang, Chiung-sui; Huang, Ya-Ping
To ensure the quality of digital simulation game, we utilized the usability evaluation heuristic in the design and development processes of e-café operational management game-based learning material for students. The application of usability evaluations during this study is described. Additionally, participant selection, data collection and…
Marcilly, Romaric; Vasseur, Francis; Ammenwerth, Elske; Beuscart-Zephir, Marie-Catherine
This paper aims at listing the methods used to evaluate the usability of medication-related alerting functions and at knowing what type of usability issues those methods allow to detect. A sub-analysis of data from this systematic review has been performed. Methods applied in the included papers were collected. Then, included papers were sorted in four types of evaluation: "expert evaluation", "user- testing/simulation", "on site observation" and "impact studies". The types of usability issues (usability flaws, usage problems and negative outcomes) uncovered by those evaluations were analyzed. Results show that a large set of methods are used. The largest proportion of papers uses "on site observation" evaluation. This is the only evaluation type for which every kind of usability flaws, usage problems and outcomes are detected. It is somehow surprising that, in a usability systematic review, most of the papers included use a method that is not often presented as a usability method. Results are discussed about the opportunity to provide usability information collected after the implementation of the technology during their design process, i.e. before their implementation.
Kitalong, Karla Saari; Hoeppner, Athena; Scharf, Meg
Library patrons familiar with Web searching conventions often find library searching to be less familiar and even intimidating. This article describes and evaluates a series of usability research studies employing two different and popular methodologies: user-centered redesign and usability testing. Card sorting and affinity mapping were used to…
Kushniruk, Andre; Borycki, Elizabeth
In recent years there has been considerable discussion around the need for certification and regulation of healthcare information technology (IT). In particular, the usability of the products being developed needs to be evaluated. This has included the application of standards designed to ensure the process of system development is user-centered and takes usability into consideration while a product is being developed. In addition to this, in healthcare, organizations in the United States and Europe have also addressed the need and requirement for product certification. However, despite these efforts there are continued reports of unusable and unsafe implementations. In this paper we discuss the need to not only include (and require) usability testing in the one-time development process of health IT products (such as EHRs), but we also argue for the need to additionally develop specific usability standards and requirements for usability testing during the implementation of vendor products (i.e. post product development) in healthcare settings. It is further argued that health IT products that may have been certified regarding their development process will still require application of usability testing in the process of implementing them in real hospital settings in order to ensure usability and safety. This is needed in order to ensure that the final result of both product development and implementation processes take into account and apply the latest usability principles and methods.
Sauer, Juergen; Sonderegger, Andreas
An empirical study examined the effects of two influencing factors in usability tests on user performance and usability ratings. Product aesthetics (high vs. low) as the main independent factor and prior usage event (positive vs. negative) as a subsidiary independent factor were varied in a between-participants design. 60 participants took part in…
Theng, Yin-Leng, Ed.; Foo, Schubert, Ed.
This book showcases some of the best digital library practices from organizations in the Asia Pacific. Particular emphasis has been placed on the design, use and usability of digital libraries. Not only are digital libraries examined, but related technologies, the management of knowledge in digital libraries, and the associated usability and…
Zhou, Ronggang; Chan, Alan H. S.
BACKGROUND: In order to compare existing usability data to ideal goals or to that for other products, usability practitioners have tried to develop a framework for deriving an integrated metric. However, most current usability methods with this aim rely heavily on human judgment about the various attributes of a product, but often fail to take into account of the inherent uncertainties in these judgments in the evaluation process. OBJECTIVE: This paper presents a universal method of usability evaluation by combining the analytic hierarchical process (AHP) and the fuzzy evaluation method. By integrating multiple sources of uncertain information during product usability evaluation, the method proposed here aims to derive an index that is structured hierarchically in terms of the three usability components of effectiveness, efficiency, and user satisfaction of a product. METHODS: With consideration of the theoretical basis of fuzzy evaluation, a two-layer comprehensive evaluation index was first constructed. After the membership functions were determined by an expert panel, the evaluation appraisals were computed by using the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation technique model to characterize fuzzy human judgments. Then with the use of AHP, the weights of usability components were elicited from these experts. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Compared to traditional usability evaluation methods, the major strength of the fuzzy method is that it captures the fuzziness and uncertainties in human judgments and provides an integrated framework that combines the vague judgments from multiple stages of a product evaluation process. PMID:28035943
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracts for supplies and services usable by the DC Government. 529.401-71 Section 529.401-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Contracts for supplies and services usable by the DC Government. Insert 552.229-71, Federal...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contracts for supplies and services usable by the DC Government. 529.401-71 Section 529.401-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Contracts for supplies and services usable by the DC Government. Insert 552.229-71, Federal...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contracts for supplies and services usable by the DC Government. 529.401-71 Section 529.401-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Contracts for supplies and services usable by the DC Government. Insert 552.229-71, Federal...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contracts for supplies and services usable by the DC Government. 529.401-71 Section 529.401-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Contracts for supplies and services usable by the DC Government. Insert 552.229-71, Federal...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contracts for supplies and services usable by the DC Government. 529.401-71 Section 529.401-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Contracts for supplies and services usable by the DC Government. Insert 552.229-71, Federal...
Teachers often test course materials by using them in class. Usability testing provides an alternative: teachers receive student feedback and revise materials "before" teaching a class. Case studies based on interviews and observations with two teaching assistants who usability tested materials before teaching introductory technical writing…
Breuch, Lee-Ann M. Kastman; Zachry, Mark; Spinuzzi, Clay
Asserts that technical communication programs are particularly well positioned to adopt usability testing and research in their curricula because of inherent connections between usability and technical communication, such as their mutual emphases on audience analysis, technology, and information design. Describes approaches to implementation of…
Davids, Mogamat Razeen; Chikte, Usuf M. E.; Halperin, Mitchell L.
Optimizing the usability of e-learning materials is necessary to reduce extraneous cognitive load and maximize their potential educational impact. However, this is often neglected, especially when time and other resources are limited. We conducted a randomized trial to investigate whether a usability evaluation of our multimedia e-learning…
Guo, J.; Iribarren, S.; Kapsandoy, S.; Perri, S.; Staggers, N.
Background Electronic medication administration records (eMARs) have been widely used in recent years. However, formal usability evaluations are not yet available for these vendor applications, especially from the perspective of nurses, the largest group of eMAR users. Objective To conduct a formal usability evaluation of an implemented eMAR. Methods Four evaluators examined a commercial vendor eMAR using heuristic evaluation techniques. The evaluators defined seven tasks typical of eMAR use and independently evaluated the application. Consensus techniques were used to obtain 100% agreement of identified usability problems and severity ratings. Findings were reviewed with 5 clinical staff nurses and the Director of Clinical Informatics who verified findings with a small group of clinical nurses. Results Evaluators found 60 usability problems categorized into 233 heuristic violations. Match, Error, and Visibility heuristics were the most frequently violated. Administer Medication and Order and Modify Medications tasks had the highest number of heuristic violations and usability problems rated as major or catastrophic. Conclusion The high number of usability problems could impact the effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction of nurses’ medication administration activities and may include concerns about patient safety. Usability is a joint responsibility between sites and vendors. We offer a call to action for usability evaluations at all sites and eMAR application redesign as necessary to improve the user experience and promote patient safety. PMID:23616871
Adeoye, Blessing; Wentling, Rose Mary
The purpose of this study was to investigate possible relationships between national culture and the usability of an e-learning system. The theoretical frameworks that were used to guide this study were Hofstede's (1980) cultural dimensions, and Nielson's (1993) usability attributes. The sample for this study was composed of 24 international…
Downey, Steve; Wentling, Rose Mary; Wentling, Tim; Wadsworth, Andrew
This study sought to measure the relationship between national culture and the usability of an e-Learning system by using Hofstede's cultural dimensions and Nielson's usability attributes. The study revealed that high uncertainty avoidance cultures found the system more frustrating to use. The study also revealed that individuals from cultures…
Mentes, S. Ahmet; Turan, Aykut H.
Web sites are emerging as a key component of an organization's survival in our ever globalizing competitive world. Usability of a web site has assumed a great deal of importance in terms of satisfying web site users' needs and expectations. The aim of the study is to evaluate and to explore the usability level of Namik Kemal University (NKU)…
Gould, Douglas J.; Terrell, Mark A.; Fleming, Jo
This usability study evaluated users' perceptions of a multimedia prototype for a new e-learning tool: Anatomy of the Central Nervous System: A Multimedia Course. Usability testing is a collection of formative evaluation methods that inform the developmental design of e-learning tools to maximize user acceptance, satisfaction, and adoption.…
The learning discovery of youngsters is a do-it-yourself teaching method for clerical, administrative, and accountant trainees at the Bankside House headquarters of the Central Electricity Generating Board's South Eastern Region, London. (Author)
Discovery has completed its final mission, STS-133, for NASA's Space Shuttle Program landing on-time at Kennedy Space Center in Florida at 11:57 a.m. EST, March 9, 2011 after 202 orbits around Eart...
The spread of resistant bacteria, leading to untreatable infections, is a major public health threat but the pace of antibiotic discovery to combat these pathogens has slowed down. Most antibiotics were originally isolated by screening soil-derived actinomycetes during the golden era of antibiotic discovery in the 1940s to 1960s. However, diminishing returns from this discovery platform led to its collapse, and efforts to create a new platform based on target-focused screening of large libraries of synthetic compounds failed, in part owing to the lack of penetration of such compounds through the bacterial envelope. This article considers strategies to re-establish viable platforms for antibiotic discovery. These include investigating untapped natural product sources such as uncultured bacteria, establishing rules of compound penetration to enable the development of synthetic antibiotics, developing species-specific antibiotics and identifying prodrugs that have the potential to eradicate dormant persisters, which are often responsible for hard-to-treat infections.
Bahill, A.T.; Dean, F.F.
Cost and schedule overruns are often caused by poor requirements that are produced by people who do not understand the requirement process. This paper provides a high-level overview of the requirements discovery process.
Harvey, Alan L
Components from venoms have stimulated many drug discovery projects, with some notable successes. These are briefly reviewed, from captopril to ziconotide. However, there have been many more disappointments on the road from toxin discovery to approval of a new medicine. Drug discovery and development is an inherently risky business, and the main causes of failure during development programmes are outlined in order to highlight steps that might be taken to increase the chances of success with toxin-based drug discovery. These include having a clear focus on unmet therapeutic needs, concentrating on targets that are well-validated in terms of their relevance to the disease in question, making use of phenotypic screening rather than molecular-based assays, and working with development partners with the resources required for the long and expensive development process.
Harvey, Catherine; Stanton, Neville A; Pickering, Carl A; McDonald, Mike; Zheng, Pengjun
Usability must be defined specifically for the context of use of the particular system under investigation. This specific context of use should also be used to guide the definition of specific usability criteria and the selection of appropriate evaluation methods. There are four principles which can guide the selection of evaluation methods, relating to the information required in the evaluation, the stage at which to apply methods, the resources required and the people involved in the evaluation. This paper presents a framework for the evaluation of usability in the context of In-Vehicle Information Systems (IVISs). This framework guides designers through defining usability criteria for an evaluation, selecting appropriate evaluation methods and applying those methods. These stages form an iterative process of design-evaluation-redesign with the overall aim of improving the usability of IVISs and enhancing the driving experience, without compromising the safety of the driver.
In this paper, the conceptual framework of the Artifact Development Analysis (ADA) and its relationship to the usability engineering are outlined. The ADA analyses the significance of all artifacts including hardware, software, humanware and system. Its viewpoint extends both in temporal and spatial dimensions. In short, it deals with the diversity of the artifact and casts the questions "why it is so" and "why it is not so". In this respect, the ADA is related to the usability engineering as one of the value attitudes. The usability engineering puts emphasis on effectiveness and efficiency. The usability is not always the value criterion of highest importance and some people sometimes put more emphasis on other criteria such as the aesthetic aspect, the cost, etc. Based on the findings of ADA, we should focus on the extent where the usability can provide the core satisfaction and we should also summarize the guideline on how the artifact should be designed.
Nawaz, Ather; Skjæret, Nina; Helbostad, Jorunn Lægdheim; Vereijken, Beatrix; Boulton, Elisabeth; Svanaes, Dag
Serious games (exergames) have the potential to be effective for postural balance and increasing muscle strength. Several games have been developed to increase physical fitness and balance among older adults. However, it is unclear to which degree usability and acceptability of exergames for older adults have been evaluated. The aim of this study was to summarize usability evaluation and acceptability of studies in older adults. We conducted a scoping review on studies focusing on usability of exergames for older adults. The result shows that older adults consider usability and acceptability of exercise video games good. The review shows that longitudinal studies mainly use off-the-shelf exergame and evaluated game effectiveness and acceptability, whereas cross-sectional studies focus on interactional experience. Studies varied in their approaches to measure usability and acceptability of exergames for older adults. There is a need for a systematic developmental approach to involve older adults in development of exergames for longitudinal studies.
van Eijk, Daan; van Kuijk, Jasper; Hoolhorst, Frederik; Kim, Chajoong; Harkema, Christelle; Dorrestijn, Steven
The Design for Usability project aims at improving the usability of electronic professional and consumer products by creating new methodology and methods for user-centred product development, which are feasible to apply in practice. The project was focused on 5 key areas: (i) design methodology, expanding the existing approach of scenario-based design to incorporate the interaction between product design, user characteristics, and user behaviour; (ii) company processes, barriers and enablers for usability in practice; (iii) user characteristics in relation to types of products and use-situations; (iv) usability decision-making; and (v) product impact on user behaviour. The project team developed methods and techniques in each of these areas to support the design of products with a high level of usability. This paper brings together and summarizes the findings.
Kushniruk, Andre W; Monkman, Helen; Tuden, Danica; Bellwood, Paule; Borycki, Elizabeth M
Developing more usable healthcare information systems has become an important goal in health informatics. Although methods from usability engineering have appeared and been effectively applied in the design and evaluation of healthcare systems, there continues to be reports of deployment of unusable systems and issues with adoption of healthcare IT worldwide. In this paper we propose a new cost-effective usability engineering approach for healthcare IT that integrates two of the major usability inspection approaches (heuristic evaluation and cognitive walkthrough) into one combined approach that leverages the advantages of both heuristic evaluation and cognitive walkthrough. The approach will be described as will a pilot application of the method in evaluating the usability of a well-known electronic health record system. Implications and future work will also be described.
Shanklin, J.; Murdin, P.
Comet discovery in the traditional sense by an amateur astronomer may be a thing of the past. The development of increasing numbers of professional all-sky survey programs, many specifically designed to spot moving or changing objects, means that the future prospects for visual discovery of a comet by an amateur astronomer are bleak. In the near future the professional programs are likely to cover...
Komogortsev, Oleg V.; Karpov, Alexey; Holland, Corey D.
The widespread use of computers throughout modern society introduces the necessity for usable and counterfeit-resistant authentication methods to ensure secure access to personal resources such as bank accounts, e-mail, and social media. Current authentication methods require tedious memorization of lengthy pass phrases, are often prone to shouldersurfing, and may be easily replicated (either by counterfeiting parts of the human body or by guessing an authentication token based on readily available information). This paper describes preliminary work toward a counterfeit-resistant usable eye movement-based (CUE) authentication method. CUE does not require any passwords (improving the memorability aspect of the authentication system), and aims to provide high resistance to spoofing and shoulder-surfing by employing the combined biometric capabilities of two behavioral biometric traits: 1) oculomotor plant characteristics (OPC) which represent the internal, non-visible, anatomical structure of the eye; 2) complex eye movement patterns (CEM) which represent the strategies employed by the brain to guide visual attention. Both OPC and CEM are extracted from the eye movement signal provided by an eye tracking system. Preliminary results indicate that the fusion of OPC and CEM traits is capable of providing a 30% reduction in authentication error when compared to the authentication accuracy of individual traits.
Burl, Michael C.; DeCoste, D.; Enke, B. L.; Mazzoni, D.; Merline, W. J.; Scharenbroich, L.
In this paper, we explore one aspect of knowledge discovery from simulators, the landscape characterization problem, where the aim is to identify regions in the input/ parameter/model space that lead to a particular output behavior. Large-scale numerical simulators are in widespread use by scientists and engineers across a range of government agencies, academia, and industry; in many cases, simulators provide the only means to examine processes that are infeasible or impossible to study otherwise. However, the cost of simulation studies can be quite high, both in terms of the time and computational resources required to conduct the trials and the manpower needed to sift through the resulting output. Thus, there is strong motivation to develop automated methods that enable more efficient knowledge extraction.
policy changes and improve general health. Parallels in environmental sciences might be TER1 (translational environmental research 1), basic insights regarding environmental processes and relationships between environmental changes and their causes. TER2, applied environmental research, development of best practices, and development of decision support tools. TER3, might include usability and impact evaluation, effective outreach and implementation of best practices, and application of research insights to public policy and institutional change. According to the medical literature, and in anecdotal evidence from end-to-end environmental science, decision-maker and public involvement in these various forms of engaged research decreases the lag between scientific discovery and implementation of discoveries in operational practices, information tools, and organizational and public policies.
Meehan, Rebecca A; Mon, Donald T; Kelly, Kandace M; Rocca, Mitra; Dickinson, Gary; Ritter, John; Johnson, Constance M
Though substantial work has been done on the usability of health information technology, improvements in electronic health record system (EHR) usability have been slow, creating frustration, distrust of EHRs and the use of potentially unsafe work-arounds. Usability standards could be part of the solution for improving EHR usability. EHR system functional requirements and standards have been used successfully in the past to specify system behavior, the criteria of which have been gradually implemented in EHR systems through certification programs and other national health IT strategies. Similarly, functional requirements and standards for usability can help address the multitude of sequelae associated with poor usability. This paper describes the evidence-based functional requirements for usability contained in the Health Level Seven (HL7) EHR System Functional Model, and the benefits of open and voluntary EHR system usability standards.
Kneifel, A. A.; Guerrero, C.
In this web site usability case study, two methods of participative inquiry are used to align a development team's objectives with their users' needs and to promote the team awareness of the benefit of qualitative usability analysis.
Rocchio, L. E.; Davis, A. L.
Science has long served humankind. Breakthroughs in medicine have increased longevity and advances in technology have made modern-day conveniences possible. Yet, social benefits begotten by the environmental sciences, although critical for the survival of humanity, have not always been as widely recognized or used. To benefit today's rapidly growing population, the divides between environmental research, applied environmental science, and use of this information by decision makers must be bridged. Lessons about the translation from research to usable science can be learned from the four decades of Landsat history, and these lessons can serve as useful models for bridging the gaps between new technology, scientific research, and the use of that research and technology in real-world problem solving. In 1965, William Pecora, then-director of the U.S. Geological Survey, proposed the idea of a remote sensing satellite program to gather facts about natural resources of Earth. For the next seven years, an intense campaign showing the depth and diversity of satellite imagery applications was waged. This led to the 1972 launch of the first civilian land-observing satellite, Landsat 1. By 1975, successful application research based on Landsat 1 imagery prompted then-NASA Administrator Dr. James Fletcher to proclaim that if one space age development would save the world, it would be Landsat and its successor satellites. Thirty-four years of continual Landsat imaging and related-research has lead to the implementation of many socially beneficial applications, such as improved water management techniques, crop insurance fraud reduction, illicit crop inventories, natural disaster relief planning, continent-scale carbon estimates, and extensive cartographic advances. Despite these successes, the challenge of translating Landsat research into realized social benefits remains. Even in this geospatially-savvy era, the utility of Landsat largely escapes policymakers. Here, in an
Davids, Mogamat Razeen; Harvey, Justin; Halperin, Mitchell L.; Chikte, Usuf M. E.
The usability of computer interfaces has a major influence on learning. Optimising the usability of e-learning resources is therefore essential. However, this may be neglected because of time and monetary constraints. User testing is a common approach to usability evaluation and involves studying typical end-users interacting with the application…
Lim, Cheolil; Song, Hae-Deok; Lee, Yekyung
Usability is critical to the development of a user-friendly digital textbook platform interface, yet thorough research on interface development based on usability principles is in short supply. This study addresses that need by looking at usability attributes and corresponding design elements from a learning perspective. The researchers used a…
Caboral-Stevens, Meriam; Whetsell, Martha V; Evangelista, Lorraine S; Cypress, Brigitte; Nickitas, Donna
The purpose of the current study was to present a framework to determine potential usability of health websites by older adults. Review of the literature showed paucity of nursing theory related to the use of technology and usability, particularly in older adults. The Roy Adaptation Model, a widely used nursing theory, was chosen to provide framework for the new model. Technology constructs from the Technology Acceptance Model and United Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology and behavioral control construct from the Theory of Planned Behavior were integrated into the construction of the derived model. The Use of Technology for Adaptation by Older Adults and/or Those With Limited Literacy (U.S.A.B.I.L.I.T.Y.) Model was constructed from the integration of diverse theoretical/conceptual perspectives. The four determinants of usability in the conceptual model include (a) efficiency, (b) learnability, (c) perceived user experience, and (d) perceived control. Because of the lack of well-validated survey questionnaires to measure these determinants, a U.S.A.B.I.L.I.T.Y. Survey was developed. A panel of experts evaluated face and content validity of the new instrument. Internal consistency of the new instrument was 0.96. Usability is key to accepting technology. The derived U.S.A.B.I.L.I.T.Y. framework could serve as a guide for nurses in formative evaluation of technology.
Gould, Douglas J; Terrell, Mark A; Fleming, Jo
This usability study evaluated users' perceptions of a multimedia prototype for a new e-learning tool: Anatomy of the Central Nervous System: A Multimedia Course. Usability testing is a collection of formative evaluation methods that inform the developmental design of e-learning tools to maximize user acceptance, satisfaction, and adoption. Sixty-two study participants piloted the prototype and completed a usability questionnaire designed to measure two usability properties: program need and program applicability. Statistical analyses were used to test the hypothesis that the multimedia prototype was well designed and highly usable, it was perceived as: (1) highly needed across a spectrum of educational contexts, (2) highly applicable in supporting the pedagogical processes of teaching and learning neuroanatomy, and (3) was highly usable by all types of users. Three independent variables represented user differences: level of expertise (faculty vs. student), age, and gender. Analysis of the results supports the research hypotheses that the prototype was designed well for different types of users in various educational contexts and for supporting the pedagogy of neuroanatomy. In addition, the results suggest that the multimedia program will be most useful as a neuroanatomy review tool for health-professions students preparing for licensing or board exams. This study demonstrates the importance of integrating quality properties of usability with principles of human learning during the instructional design process for multimedia products.
Gould, Douglas J.; Terrell, Mark A.; Fleming, Jo
This usability study evaluated users’ perceptions of a multimedia prototype for a new e-learning tool: Anatomy of the Central Nervous System: A Multimedia Course. Usability testing is a collection of formative evaluation methods that inform the developmental design of e-learning tools to maximize user acceptance, satisfaction, and adoption. Sixty-two study participants piloted the prototype and completed a usability questionnaire designed to measure two usability properties: program need and program applicability. Statistical analyses were used to test the hypothesis that the multimedia prototype was well designed and highly usable, it was perceived as: 1) highly needed across a spectrum of educational contexts, 2) highly applicable in supporting the pedagogical processes of teaching and learning neuroanatomy, and 3) was highly usable by all types of users. Three independent variables represented user differences: level of expertise (faculty vs. student), age, and gender. Analysis of the results supports the research hypotheses that the prototype was designed well for different types of users in various educational contexts and for supporting the pedagogy of neuroanatomy. In addition, the results suggest that the multimedia program will be most useful as a neuroanatomy review tool for health-professions students preparing for licensing or board exams. This study demonstrates the importance of integrating quality properties of usability with principles of human learning during the instructional design process for multimedia products. PMID:19177405
engineering because of information losses. The causes of these losses can be attributed to a lack of an adequate conceptual framework for organizing...effective inputs to redesign for fixing the problems found during testing. These problems can be exacerbated by inadequate levels of training or...discovery of appropriate and effective solutions to these problems. For this project, the UAF was validated, extended with new material, and embodied in
Davids, Mogamat Razeen; Chikte, Usuf M E; Halperin, Mitchell L
Optimizing the usability of e-learning materials is necessary to reduce extraneous cognitive load and maximize their potential educational impact. However, this is often neglected, especially when time and other resources are limited. We conducted a randomized trial to investigate whether a usability evaluation of our multimedia e-learning resource, followed by fixing of all problems identified, would translate into improvements in usability parameters and learning by medical residents. Two iterations of our e-learning resource [version 1 (V1) and version 2 (V2)] were compared. V1 was the first fully functional version and V2 was the revised version after all identified usability problems were addressed. Residents in internal medicine and anesthesiology were randomly assigned to one of the versions. Usability was evaluated by having participants complete a user satisfaction questionnaire and by recording and analyzing their interactions with the application. The effect on learning was assessed by questions designed to test the retention and transfer of knowledge. Participants reported high levels of satisfaction with both versions, with good ratings on the System Usability Scale and adjective rating scale. In contrast, analysis of video recordings revealed significant differences in the occurrence of serious usability problems between the two versions, in particular in the interactive HandsOn case with its treatment simulation, where there was a median of five serious problem instances (range: 0-50) recorded per participant for V1 and zero instances (range: 0-1) for V2 (P < 0.001). There were no differences in tests of retention or transfer of knowledge between the two versions. In conclusion, usability evaluation followed by a redesign of our e-learning resource resulted in significant improvements in usability. This is likely to translate into improved motivation and willingness to engage with the learning material. In this population of relatively high
Matthews, Judith T.; Lingler, Jennifer H.; Campbell, Grace B.; Hunsaker, Amanda E.; Hu, Lu; Pires, Bernardo R.; Hebert, Martial; Schulz, Richard
Health care providers typically rely on family caregivers (CG) of persons with dementia (PWD) to describe difficult behaviors manifested by their underlying disease. Although invaluable, such reports may be selective or biased during brief medical encounters. Our team explored the usability of a wearable camera system with 9 caregiving dyads (CGs: 3 males, 6 females, 67.00 ± 14.95 years; PWDs: 2 males, 7 females, 80.00 ± 3.81 years, MMSE 17.33 ± 8.86) who recorded 79 salient events over a combined total of 140 hours of data capture, from 3 to 7 days of wear per CG. Prior to using the system, CGs assessed its benefits to be worth the invasion of privacy; post-wear privacy concerns did not differ significantly. CGs rated the system easy to learn to use, although cumbersome and obtrusive. Few negative reactions by PWDs were reported or evident in resulting video. Our findings suggest that CGs can and will wear a camera system to reveal their daily caregiving challenges to health care providers. PMID:26288888
Schmidt, Kristi E; Liu, Yili; Sridharan, Srivatsan
The primary objectives of this research are to identify the underlying clusters of design variables affecting the perceived usability of a webpage and to examine the effects of webpage design variables on webpage performance. Fifty-seven design variables and 10 underlying clusters that conceptualise the structure of user webpage judgement are identified through content analysis on literature and structured interviews, balanced incomplete block user survey administration and cluster analysis. Five clusters are selected to conduct three experiments that quantify the change in user aesthetic preference, perceived ease of interaction and interaction speed as a function of loading speed, image colour, image size, font size, link style, and column width. Results show that user performance alone is not a good indicator of aesthetic judgement and overall effectiveness of a webpage. The value of integrating global construct analysis processes and local controlled experimentation processes in ergonomic interface research is illustrated. Fifty-seven webpage design variables are defined, ranked and clustered according to perceived importance and overall preference. Experimental results illustrate that both technical performance and aesthetic factors are important webpage design considerations.
Tilton, M.; Rowland, W. F.; Wilkinson, D. C.; Denig, W. F.; Darnel, J.; Kress, B. T.; Loto'aniu, P. T. M.; Machol, J. L.; Redmon, R. J.; Rodriguez, J. V.
The upcoming Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite series, GOES-R, will provide critical space weather data. These data are used to prevent communication outages, mitigate the damage solar weather causes to satellites and power grids, and reduce astronaut radiation exposure. The space weather instruments aboard GOES-R will deliver an operational dataset of unprecedented breadth. However, NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI)—the organization that provides access to archived GOES-R data—has faced several challenges in delivering this information to customers in usable form. For instance, the GOES-R ground system was contracted to develop higher-level products for terrestrial data but not space weather data. Variations in GOES-R data file formats and archive locations have also threatened to create an inconsistent user experience. This presentation will examine the ways in which NCEI is making GOES-R space weather data more accessible and actionable for customers. These efforts include NCEI's development of high-level data products to meet the requirements of NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center—a role NCEI has not previously played. In addition, NCEI is creating a demonstration system to show how these products can be produced in real-time. The organization is also examining customer usage of the GOES-NOP data access system and using these access patterns to drive decisions about the GOES-R user interface.
As we begin the 21st century, we see an increase around the world in calls for science to support decision making and societal needs. Well-established modes of conducting science have been critiqued for their relevance to decision making, and in some cases found lacking by scholars and stakeholders alike. But the recent decade has seen a perceptible shift in efforts to address this difficult nexus of research and decision making experiments in management, institutions and ways of operating have emerged in a variety of contexts. For example, public funding agencies have responded through mechanisms designed to shift their portfolios to be more responsive to this demand. Likewise, universities are beginning to explore institutional arrangements and priorities that allow for more responsiveness to societal concerns. Some scientists have begun to define their careers as operating in the interface between science and practice. But significant challenges remain because of institutional organization, scientific governance practices, cultures and beliefs, inertia and professional reward structures. In addition, many programs are justified on providing science to support decision making, but lack coherent plans to develop their programs to do so and do not evaluate success on these grounds. This paper will examine new models and institutions for creating usable science, outline barriers and challenges, and seek to identify successful strategies that might be applied to future efforts.
Komine, Kazuteru; Hiruma, Nobuyuki; Ishihara, Tatsuya; Makino, Eiji; Tsuda, Takao; Ito, Takayuki; Isono, Haruo
In order to develop a useful and ergonomically attractive remote controller for ISDB (Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting), which will begin very soon in Japan, we performed experiments with elderly and young subjects to evaluate the usability and the training effects of four types of remote controller: a button type, a trackball, a touch panel and a voice recognition system. We set the subjects the task of selecting an icon on a HDTV monitor as quickly and as accurately as possible using each remote controller. Semantic differential and ranked order questionnaire surveys were also conducted, and these results were analyzed statistically. The results showed that the trackball type was the most preferred, with no major differences in preference among the other three types especially for elderly subjects. From the analyses of the questionnaire surveys and operation time, we conclude that the reasons for the rankings obtained are as follows: Users preferred devices which they could operate without having to look down; Users preferred devices with which there was a significant learning effect in a relatively short period. It is considered that these are necessary conditions for an ergonomically attractive remote controller which users will want to use.
Lin, Junfang; Lee, Zhongping; Ondrusek, Michael; Kahru, Mati
Usable solar radiation (USR) represents spectrally integrated solar energy in the spectral range of 400-560 nm, a domain where photons penetrate the most in oceanic waters and thus contribute to photosynthesis and heating at deeper depths. Through purely numerical simulations, it was found that the diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling USR (Kd(USR), m-1) is nearly a constant vertically in the upper water column for clear waters and most turbid waters. Subsequently an empirical model was developed to estimate Kd(USR) based on the diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490 nm (Kd(490), m-1). We here evaluate this relationship using data collected from a wide range of oceanic and coastal environments and found that the relationship between Kd(490) and Kd(USR) developed via the numerical simulation is quite robust. We further refined this relationship to extend the applicability to "clearest" natural waters. This refined relationship was then used to produce sample distribution of Kd(USR) of global oceans. As expected, extremely low Kd(USR) (˜0.02 m-1) was observed in ocean gyres, while significantly higher Kd(USR) (˜5.2 m-1) was found in very turbid coastal regions. A useful application of Kd(USR) is to easily and accurately propagate surface USR to deeper depths, potentially to significantly improve the estimation of basin scale primary production and heat fluxes in the upper water column.
Abbott, Patricia A.
Clinical environments are complex, stressful, and safety critical—heightening the demand for technological solutions that will help clinicians manage health information efficiently and safely. The industry has responded by creating numerous, increasingly compact and powerful health IT devices that fit in a pocket, hook to a belt, attach to eyeglasses, or wheel around on a cart. Untethering a provider from a physical “place” with compact, mobile technology while delivering the right information at the right time and at the right location are generally welcomed in clinical environments. These developments however, must be looked at ecumenically. The cognitive load of clinicians who are occupied with managing or operating several different devices during the process of a patient encounter is increased, and we know from decades of research that cognitive overload frequently leads to error. “Technology crowding,” enhanced by the plethora of mobile health IT, can actually become an additional millstone for busy clinicians. This study was designed to gain a deeper understanding of clinicians' interactions with a mobile clinical computing appliance (Motion Computing C5) designed to consolidate numerous technological functions into an all-in-one device. Features of usability and comparisons to current methods of documentation and task performance were undertaken and results are described. PMID:22548159
Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O. C.
This paper presents the results of a systematic review regarding the usability test metrics for mobile video streaming apps. In the study, 238 studies were found, but only 51 relevant papers were eventually selected for the review. The study reveals that time taken for video streaming and the video quality were the two most popular metrics used in the usability tests for mobile video streaming apps. Besides, most of the studies concentrated on the usability of mobile TV as users are switching from traditional TV to mobile TV.
de Carvalho, Lilian Regina; Évora, Yolanda Dora Martinez; Zem-Mascarenhas, Silvia Helena
ABSTRACT Objective: to assess the usability of a digital learning technology prototype as a new method for minimally invasive monitoring of intracranial pressure. Method: descriptive study using a quantitative approach on assessing the usability of a prototype based on Nielsen's ten heuristics. Four experts in the area of Human-Computer interaction participated in the study. Results: the evaluation delivered eight violated heuristics and 31 usability problems in the 32 screens of the prototype. Conclusion: the suggestions of the evaluators were critical for developing an intuitive, user-friendly interface and will be included in the final version of the digital learning technology. PMID:27579932
In my talk I will cover the period 1973 to 1976 which saw the discoveries of the J/psi and psi' resonances and most of the Psion spectroscopy, the tau lepton and the D0030099,D0015599 charmed meson doublet. Occasionally I will refer briefly to more recent results. Since this conference is on the history of the weak-interactions I will deal primarily with the properties of naked charm and in particular the weakly decaying doublet of charmed mesons. Most of the discoveries I will mention were made with the SLAC-LBL Magnetic Detector or MARK I which we operated at SPEAR from 1973 to 1976.
Zaikowski, Lori; Lichtman, Paul; Quarless, Duncan
The scientific discovery process comes alive for 70 minority students each year at Uniondale High School in New York where students have won top awards for "in-house" projects. Uniondale High School is in a middle-income school district where over 95% of students are from minority groups. Founded in 2000, the Uniondale High School Research Program…
Martin, Paul S.
Discusses a model for explaining the spread of human population explosion on North American continent since its discovery 12,000 years ago. The model may help to map the spread of Homo sapiens throughout the New World by using the extinction chronology of the Pleistocene megafauna. (Author/PS)
At the Center for Discovery (The Center), a private, non-profit agency 80 miles northwest of New York City in the Catskill Mountains, children are growing and learning at their own pace, in their own way, with careful attention focused on communication and social/emotional development. Children with autism are being educated to be social beings,…
Stone, Sally F.
The birds of New England and their particular habitats are explored in this guide which is part of a series of Nature Discovery publications. The materials are designed to directly supplement the natural science curricula and to complement other subject areas including social studies, language arts, music, and art. The program is designed for…
The "discovery of childhood" is a tricky notion because childhood is as much a fact of a biological and psychological nature as a cultural notion that through the centuries has been the object of changing perceptions, definitions, and images. Children barely speak in history; virtually everything we know about them is mediated by adults. Then how…
Norton, M. Jay
Knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) revolves around the investigation and creation of knowledge, processes, algorithms, and mechanisms for retrieving knowledge from data collections. The article is an introductory overview of KDD. The rationale and environment of its development and applications are discussed. Issues related to database design…
In the context of information systems, there is interoperability when the distinctions between separate information systems are not a barrier to accomplishing a task that spans those systems. Interoperability so defined implies that there are commonalities among the systems involved and that one can exploit such commonalities to achieve interoperability. The challenge of a particular interoperability task is to identify relevant commonalities among the systems involved and to devise mechanisms that exploit those commonalities. The present paper focuses on the particular interoperability task of information discovery. The Global Information Locator Service (GILS) is described as a policy, standards, and technology framework for addressing interoperable information discovery on a global and long-term basis. While there are many mechanisms for people to discover and use all manner of data and information resources, GILS initiatives exploit certain key commonalities that seem to be sufficient to realize useful information discovery interoperability at a global, long-term scale. This paper describes ten of the specific commonalities that are key to GILS initiatives. It presents some of the practical implications for organizations in various roles: content provider, system engineer, intermediary, and searcher. The paper also provides examples of interoperable information discovery as deployed using GILS in four types of information communities: bibliographic, geographic, environmental, and government.
Wilson, Harold C.
Discovery Education is based on the writings of Henry David Thoreau, an early champion of experiential learning. After 2 months of preparation, 10th-grade students spent 4 days in the wilderness reenacting a piece of history, such as the Lewis and Clark Expedition. The interdisciplinary approach always included journal-writing. Students gained…
Perdana, R. A.; Suzianti, A.
The growing number of internet users plays a significant role in the emergence of a variety of online e-commerce sites to meet the needs of Indonesians. However, there are still some problems faced by the users in using e-commerce sites. Therefore, a research related to user experience on their purchase intention to foster e-commerce sites is required. This study is conducted to find out the relationship between usability factors on e-commerce users’ purchase intention using a case study by using SEM to analyse the usability of the website. The result of this study shows that credibility, readability and telepresence are usability factors that directly affect purchase intention, while simplicity, consistency and interactivity are usability factors that indirectly affect purchase intention. Therefore, we can conclude that Indonesian consumers are on the Early Majority phase in adopting Company A.
Clark, Lindsey N; Benda, Natalie C; Hegde, Sudeep; McGeorge, Nicolette M; Guarrera-Schick, Theresa K; Hettinger, A Zachary; LaVergne, David T; Perry, Shawna J; Wears, Robert L; Fairbanks, Rollin J; Bisantz, Ann M
This article presents an evaluation of novel display concepts for an emergency department information system (EDIS) designed using cognitive systems engineering methods. EDISs assist emergency medicine staff with tracking patient care and ED resource allocation. Participants performed patient planning and orientation tasks using the EDIS displays and rated the display's ability to support various cognitive performance objectives along with the usability, usefulness, and predicted frequency of use for 18 system components. Mean ratings were positive for cognitive performance support objectives, usability, usefulness, and frequency of use, demonstrating the successful application of design methods to create useful and usable EDIS concepts that provide cognitive support for emergency medicine staff. Nurse and provider roles had significantly different perceptions of the usability and usefulness of certain EDIS components, suggesting that they have different information needs while working.
Mugge, Ruth; Schoormans, Jan P L
This research enhances our understanding of the relationship between aesthetics and usability by investigating the effects of novelty in product appearance on the apparent usability of a product. In two experimental studies using washing machines and digital cameras as stimuli, we systematically manipulated the level of novelty (low vs. high) in the product appearance by changing the product's color or shape. Participants were presented with one of these product appearances and a list of the product's technical specifications. Next, participants indicated how difficult or easy they expected the usage of the product to be. Our findings demonstrate that because people associate a high level of novelty with technological advancement, novelty in a product appearance negatively affects their expectations of a product's usability at the point of sale. Furthermore, novices are more likely to use the level of novelty as a cue for a product's apparent usability than experts.
Rupp, Michael A; Oppold, Paul; McConnell, Daniel S
Game controllers are emerging as a preferred choice for the manual control of unmanned vehicles, but an understanding of their usability characteristics has yet to emerge. We compared the usability of an Xbox 360 game controller in a dual task situation using MATB II to the traditional joystick and keyboard interface in two experiments. In the first experiment, performance with the game controller was associated with fewer tracking errors. In a second experiment, we trained users on the devices, and found that even after training the game controller was still associated with fewer tracking errors as well as higher usability and lower workload ratings. These results are consistent with the idea that game controllers are highly usable input devices and do not require high mental workload to operate, thus making them suitable for complex control tasks.
Wang, Tiankai; Dolezel, Diane
Personal health records (PHRs) have many benefits, including the ability to increase involvement of patients in their care, which provides better healthcare outcomes. Although issues related to usability of PHRs are a significant barrier to adoption, there is a paucity of research in this area. Thus, the researchers explored consumers' perspective on the usability of two commercially available web-based PHRs. Data from the Usefulness, Satisfaction, and Ease of Use questionnaire were collected from a sample of health information management students (N = 90). A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that Microsoft HealthVault had higher scores in most usability categories when compared to Health Companion. Study results indicated that PHR developers should evaluate Microsoft HealthVault as a model for improving PHR usability. PMID:27134611
Understanding user needs for geographic information and the factors which influence the usability of such information in diverse user contexts is an essential part of user centred development of information products. There is relatively little existing research focused on the design and usability of information products in general. This paper presents a research approach based on semi structured interviews with people working with geographic information on a day to day basis, to establish a reference base of qualitative data on user needs for geographic information with respect to context of use. From this reference data nine key categories of geographic information usability are identified and discussed in the context of limited existing research concerned with geographic information usability.
Garfin, G. M.
Actionable science, defined as 'data, analysis, and forecasts that are sufficiently predictive, accepted and understandable to support decision-making,' is the holy grail for climate scientists engaged in working with decision makers, to provide the scientific basis for adaptation planning and decisions. The literature on boundary organizations and science translation offers guidelines and best practices for the generation of climate information that is useful and usable for policy and operational decisions. Guidelines emphasize understanding decision contexts and constraints, trust building, development of a shared vision of usable science, co-production of knowledge, iterative and sustained engagement, and the development and leveraging of knowledge networks and communities of practice. Some studies offer the advice that climate change is fraught with irreducible or slowly reducible uncertainties; hence, the adoption of adaptive risk management approaches is more valuable in the near-term than scientific effort to reduce uncertainty or combine data in novel ways. Nevertheless, many water resource managers still seek science that reduces uncertainties, assurance that the range of projections will not change, evidence of cause and effect (e.g., atmospheric circulation patterns linked to regional precipitation anomalies) and information that is as close to deterministic as possible. So, how does the scientific community move forward on initiatives that integrate paleoclimate, observations, and model projections, to inform water resource management? There are no simple answers, because the uses of climate and hydrological data and information are context dependent. Scientists have products -- data and information -- and they need to research characteristics of the consumers of their product. What is the consumer's operating procedure, and world view? How does the consumer handle uncertainty? What is their tolerance for risk? What social and political factors
Ho, Yun-Xian; Cala, Cather Marie; Blakemore, Dana; Chen, Qingxia; Frisse, Mark E; Johnson, Kevin B
Objective We assessed the usability of a health information exchange (HIE) in a densely populated metropolitan region. This grant-funded HIE had been deployed rapidly to address the imminent needs of the patient population and the need to draw wider participation from regional entities. Design We conducted a cross-sectional survey of individuals given access to the HIE at participating organizations and examined some of the usability and usage factors related to the technology acceptance model. Measurements We probed user perceptions using the Questionnaire for User Interaction Satisfaction, an author-generated Trust scale, and user characteristic questions (eg, age, weekly system usage time). Results Overall, users viewed the system favorably (ratings for all usability items were greater than neutral (one-sample Wilcoxon test, p<0.0014, Bonferroni-corrected for 35 tests). System usage was regressed on usability, trust, and demographic and user characteristic factors. Three usability factors were positively predictive of system usage: overall reactions (p<0 0.01), learning (p<0.05), and system functionality (p<0.01). Although trust is an important component in collaborative relationships, we did not find that user trust of other participating healthcare entities was significantly predictive of usage. An analysis of respondents' comments revealed ways to improve the HIE. Conclusion We used a rapid deployment model to develop an HIE and found that perceptions of system usability were positive. We also found that system usage was predicted well by some aspects of usability. Results from this study suggest that a rapid development approach may serve as a viable model for developing usable HIEs serving communities with limited resources. PMID:21622933
Boger, Jennifer; Taati, Babak; Mihailidis, Alex
The changes in cognitive abilities that accompany dementia can make it difficult to use everyday products that are required to complete activities of daily living. Products that are inherently more usable for people with dementia could facilitate independent activity completion, thus reducing the need for caregiver assistance. The objectives of this research were to: (1) gain an understanding of how water tap design impacted tap usability and (2) create an automated computerized tool that could assess tap usability. 27 older adults, who ranged from cognitively intact to advanced dementia, completed 1309 trials on five tap designs. Data were manually analyzed to investigate tap usability as well as used to develop an automated usability analysis tool. Researchers collaborated to modify existing techniques and to create novel ones to accomplish both goals. This paper presents lessons learned through the course of this research, which could be applicable in the development of other usability studies, automated vision-based assessments and the development of assistive technologies for cognitively impaired older adults. Collaborative interdisciplinary teamwork, which included older adult with dementia participants, was key to enabling innovative advances that achieved the projects' research goals. Implications for Rehabilitation Products that are implicitly familiar and usable by older adults could foster independent activity completion, potentially reducing reliance on a caregiver. The computer-based automated tool can significantly reduce the time and effort required to perform product usability analysis, making this type of analysis more feasible. Interdisciplinary collaboration can result in a more holistic understanding of assistive technology research challenges and enable innovative solutions.
AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-2-0123 TITLE: Rapid Field-Usable Cyanide Sensor...ANNUAL REPORT 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 26 2012 25 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Rapid Field-Usable Cyanide Sensor Development for Blood and...Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Cyanide is a deadly poison which may be ingested or inhaled
Subbian, Vignesh; Beyette, Fred R; Wilsey, Philip A
In this paper, we present a prototype design of POCTENA (Point-Of-Care Testing Environment for Neurological Assessment), a medical computing system that will be used to assist with diagnosis of mild traumatic brain injury. The design includes an initial set of neurological tests that are built into the system. Component-based usability testing was conducted to examine the effectiveness of the user interface. Results from usability testing are then used to suggest possible system design revisions.
Gómez-Outes, Antonio; Suárez-Gea, Ma Luisa; Calvo-Rojas, Gonzalo; Lecumberri, Ramón; Rocha, Eduardo; Pozo-Hernández, Carmen; Terleira-Fernández, Ana Isabel; Vargas-Castrillón, Emilio
The history of the traditional anticoagulants is marked by both perseverance and serendipity. The anticoagulant effect of heparin was discovered by McLean in 1915, while he was searching for a procoagulant in dog liver. Link identified dicumarol from spoiled sweet clover hay in 1939 as the causal agent of the sweet clover disease, a hemorrhagic disorder in cattle. Hirudin extracts from the medicinal leech were first used for parenteral anticoagulation in the clinic in 1909, but their use was limited due to adverse effects and difficulties in achieving highly purified extracts. Heparins and coumarins (i.e.: warfarin, phenprocoumon, acenocoumarol) have been the mainstay of anticoagulant therapy for more than 60 years. Over the past decades, the drug discovery paradigm has shifted toward rational design following a target-based approach, in which specific proteins, or "targets", are chosen on current understandings of pathophysiology, small molecules that inhibit the target's activity may be identified by high-throughput screening and, in selected cases, these new molecules can be developed further as drugs. Despite the application of rational design, serendipity has still played a significant role in some of the new discoveries. This review will focus on the discovery of the main anticoagulant drugs in current clinical use, like unfractionated heparin, low-molecular-weight heparins, fondaparinux, coumarins (i.e.: warfarin, acenocoumarol, phenprocoumon), parenteral direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs) (i.e.: argatroban, recombinant hirudins, bivalirudin), oral DTIs (i.e.: dabigatran) and oral direct factor Xa inhibitors (i.e.: rivaroxaban, apixaban).
Pribeanu, Costin; Balog, Alexandru; Iordache, Dragoş Daniel
The development of Augmented Reality (AR) systems is creating new challenges and opportunities for the designers of e-learning systems. The mix of real and virtual requires appropriate interaction techniques that have to be evaluated with users in order to avoid usability problems. Formative usability aims at finding usability problems as early as possible in the development life cycle and is suitable to support the development of such novel interactive systems. This work presents an approach to the user-centered usability evaluation of an e-learning scenario for Biology developed on an Augmented Reality educational platform. The evaluation has been carried on during and after a summer school held within the ARiSE research project. The basic idea was to perform usability evaluation twice. In this respect, we conducted user testing with a small number of students during the summer school in order to get a fast feedback from users having good knowledge in Biology. Then, we repeated the user testing in different conditions and with a relatively larger number of representative users. In this paper we describe both experiments and compare the usability evaluation results.
Lyles, Courtney R.; Sarkar, Urmimala; Osborn, Chandra Y.
Consumer health technologies can educate patients about diabetes and support their self-management, yet usability evidence is rarely published even though it determines patient engagement, optimal benefit of any intervention, and an understanding of generalizability. Therefore, we conducted a narrative review of peer-reviewed articles published from 2009–2013 that tested the usability of a web- or mobile-delivered system/application designed to educate and support patients with diabetes. Overall, the 23 papers included in our review used mixed (n=11), descriptive quantitative (n=9), and qualitative methods (n=3) to assess usability, such as documenting which features performed as intended and how patients rated their experiences. More sophisticated usability evaluations combined several complementary approaches to elucidate more aspects of functionality. Future work pertaining to the design and evaluation of technology-delivered diabetes education/support interventions should aim to standardize the usability testing processes, and publish usability findings to inform interpretation of why an intervention succeeded or failed, and for whom. PMID:25173689
Viitanen, Johanna; Kuusisto, Anne; Nykänen, Pirkko
Information technologies (IT) are widely used in healthcare, however, little is known about the usability of nursing information systems. This article reports an evaluation study that aimed at researching the usability of four electronic nursing record (ENR) systems and thereby providing guidelines for further IT development. For the purposes of the study the concept of usability was defined to cover the following aspects: nurse-computer interaction in working context, information exchange, and collaboration between healthcare professionals. The study utilized two usability research methods, contextual inquiry and expert review, and was conducted with 18 nurses in Finland. Study results showed that the ENR systems share several usability problems in common, most of them relating to the efficiency of use, intuitiveness, and poor fit for multi-professional needs. Nurses had mainly negative experiences on documenting practices with ENRs: documentation requires a lot of resources, patient information is hard to find, and procedures do not meet the contextual needs. These findings suggest usability problems having significant effects on nurses' documentation practices and nursing work.
Freire, Luciana Lopes; Arezes, Pedro Miguel; Campos, José Creissac
The usability analysis of information systems has been the target of several research studies over the past thirty years. These studies have highlighted a great diversity of points of view, including researchers from different scientific areas such as Ergonomics, Computer Science, Design and Education. Within the domain of information ergonomics, the study of tools and methods used for usability evaluation dedicated to E-learning presents evidence that there is a continuous and dynamic evolution of E-learning systems, in many different contexts -academics and corporative. These systems, also known as LMS (Learning Management Systems), can be classified according to their educational goals and their technological features. However, in these systems the usability issues are related with the relationship/interactions between user and system in the user's context. This review is a synthesis of research project about Information Ergonomics and embraces three dimensions, namely the methods, models and frameworks that have been applied to evaluate LMS. The study also includes the main usability criteria and heuristics used. The obtained results show a notorious change in the paradigms of usability, with which it will be possible to discuss about the studies carried out by different researchers that were focused on usability ergonomic principles aimed at E-learning.
Nahm, Eun-Shim; Preece, Jennifer; Resnick, Barbara; Mills, Mary Etta
Although an increasing number of Web sites are devoted to providing health information to older adults, many sites have usability problems unique to this population. The purpose of this study was to explore the usability of three health-promoting Web sites specifically designed for use by older adults. This descriptive study used two usability assessment methods: (1) a heuristic evaluation by four experts in Web usability and gerontology and (2) a usability test by 10 senior Web users with a mean age of 73.9. The design aspects identified as inappropriate for seniors by experts were as follows: small font size, too much information on one page, and a failure to provide instructions. The older adults in this sample preferred a simple design with clear instructions. During testing, these individuals expressed great interest in online health information. However, they needed instructions on how to search for credible health information online. Some usability-testing methods might need to be modified for older adults' specific needs.
Agnisarman, Sruthy Orozhiyathumana; Chalil Madathil, Kapil; Smith, Kevin; Ashok, Aparna; Welch, Brandon; McElligott, James T
At-home telemedicine visits are quickly becoming an acceptable alternative for in-person patient visits. However, little work has been done to understand the usability of these home-based telemedicine solutions. It is critical for user acceptance and real-world applicability to evaluate available telemedicine solutions within the context-specific needs of the users of this technology. To address this need, this study evaluated the usability of four home-based telemedicine software platforms: Doxy.me, Vidyo, VSee, and Polycom. Using a within-subjects experimental design, twenty participants were asked to complete a telemedicine session involving several tasks using the four platforms. Upon completion of these tasks for each platform, participants completed the IBM computer system usability questionnaire (CSUQ) and the NASA Task Load Index test. Upon completing the tasks on all four platforms, the participants completed a final post-test subjective questionnaire ranking the platforms based on their preference. Of the twenty participants, 19 completed the study. Statistically significant differences among the telemedicine software platforms were found for task completion time, total workload, mental demand, effort, frustration, preference ranking and computer system usability scores. Usability problems with installation and account creation led to high mental demand and task completion time, suggesting the participants preferred a system without such requirements. Majority of the usability issues were identified at the telemedicine initiation phase. The findings from this study can be used by software developers to develop user-friendly telemedicine systems.
Peute, Linda W P; Jaspers, Monique M W
Though designing physician order entry (POE) systems has been a highly discussed research topic in the last decade, it seems that engineering POE systems that truly optimise the quality and efficiency of ordering is still a challenge. This study addresses a usability evaluation of an emerging POE for the electronically ordering of laboratory tests. By applying two complementary cognitive approaches, specifically the cognitive walkthrough and think aloud method with seven potential end users of the system, we analyzed usability problems in the prototype system and their potential effect on the quality of orders in terms of efficiency and errors in ordering. The cognitive walkthrough provided a coding scheme that was used to analyse in more detail usability errors encountered during the think aloud tests with the seven end users. The analyses revealed a total of 33 usability problems, which indeed led to inefficiency, omissions in ordering and even to cancelled orders. Most of these usability problems referred to incomprehensiveness of required actions by the user and incomprehensiveness of text used in the system. Next to the discussion of the reasons for these usability problems, the surplus value of the think aloud method as supplementary to the cognitive walkthrough in evaluating physician order entry systems is outlined in this paper.
Samal, Ashok; Rajan, Nithin; Kiviniemi, Marc T.
Web usability measures the ease of use of a website. This study attempts to find the effect of three factors – font size, italics, and colour count – on web usability. The study was performed using a set of tasks and developing a survey questionnaire. We performed the study using a set of human subjects, selected from the undergraduate students taking courses in psychology. The data computed from the tasks and survey questionnaire were statistically analysed to find if there was any effect of font size, italics, and colour count on the three web usability dimensions. We found that for the student population considered, there was no significant effect of font size on usability. However, the manipulation of italics and colour count did influence some aspects of usability. The subjects performed better for pages with no italics and high italics compared to moderate italics. The subjects rated the pages that contained only one colour higher than the web pages with four or six colours. This research will help web developers better understand the effect of font size, italics, and colour count on web usability in general, and for young adults, in particular. PMID:24358055
Sheehan, Barbara; Stetson, Peter; Bhatt, Ashish R; Field, Adele I; Patel, Chirag; Maisel, James Mark
Background The process of documentation in electronic health records (EHRs) is known to be time consuming, inefficient, and cumbersome. The use of dictation coupled with manual transcription has become an increasingly common practice. In recent years, natural language processing (NLP)–enabled data capture has become a viable alternative for data entry. It enables the clinician to maintain control of the process and potentially reduce the documentation burden. The question remains how this NLP-enabled workflow will impact EHR usability and whether it can meet the structured data and other EHR requirements while enhancing the user’s experience. Objective The objective of this study is evaluate the comparative effectiveness of an NLP-enabled data capture method using dictation and data extraction from transcribed documents (NLP Entry) in terms of documentation time, documentation quality, and usability versus standard EHR keyboard-and-mouse data entry. Methods This formative study investigated the results of using 4 combinations of NLP Entry and Standard Entry methods (“protocols”) of EHR data capture. We compared a novel dictation-based protocol using MediSapien NLP (NLP-NLP) for structured data capture against a standard structured data capture protocol (Standard-Standard) as well as 2 novel hybrid protocols (NLP-Standard and Standard-NLP). The 31 participants included neurologists, cardiologists, and nephrologists. Participants generated 4 consultation or admission notes using 4 documentation protocols. We recorded the time on task, documentation quality (using the Physician Documentation Quality Instrument, PDQI-9), and usability of the documentation processes. Results A total of 118 notes were documented across the 3 subject areas. The NLP-NLP protocol required a median of 5.2 minutes per cardiology note, 7.3 minutes per nephrology note, and 8.5 minutes per neurology note compared with 16.9, 20.7, and 21.2 minutes, respectively, using the Standard
Kushniruk, Andre; Triola, Mark; Stein, Ben; Borycki, Elizabeth; Kannry, Joseph
This paper describes an innovative approach to the evaluation of a handheld prescription writing application. Participants (10 physicians) were asked to perform a series of tasks involving entering prescriptions into the application from a medication list. The study procedure involved the collection of data consisting of transcripts of the subjects who were asked to "think aloud" while interacting with the prescription writing program to enter medications. All user interactions with the device were video and audio recorded. Analysis of the protocols was conducted in two phases: (1) usability problems were identified from coding of the transcripts and video data (2) actual errors in entering prescription data were also identified. The results indicated that there were a variety of usability problems, with most related to issues of ease of use. In addition, other problems were identified which were related to limitations of the content of the program. In examining the relationship between usability problems and errors, it was found that certain types of usability problems were closely associated with the occurrence of specific types of errors in prescription of medications. Implications for the improvement of safety of health care information systems are discussed.
Discusses recent discoveries for "Bible" translation with a focus on the "Dead Sea Scrolls." Examines recent discoveries that provide direct support for alternative reading of biblical passages and those discoveries that have contributed additional insight to knowledge of cultural practices, especially legal and religious…
Belbin, R. M.
In the form of a discussion between faceless people, this booklet concerns discovery learning and its advantages. Subjects covered in the discussions are: Introducing the Discovery Method; An Experiment with British Railways; The OECD Research Projects in U.S.A., Austria, and Sweden; How the Discovery Method Differs from Other Methods; Discovery…
Silver, Lynn L.
Summary: The discovery of novel small-molecule antibacterial drugs has been stalled for many years. The purpose of this review is to underscore and illustrate those scientific problems unique to the discovery and optimization of novel antibacterial agents that have adversely affected the output of the effort. The major challenges fall into two areas: (i) proper target selection, particularly the necessity of pursuing molecular targets that are not prone to rapid resistance development, and (ii) improvement of chemical libraries to overcome limitations of diversity, especially that which is necessary to overcome barriers to bacterial entry and proclivity to be effluxed, especially in Gram-negative organisms. Failure to address these problems has led to a great deal of misdirected effort. PMID:21233508
The discovery of four halogens is due to pharmacists. Chlorine was isolated by Carl Wilhem Scheele, a Swedish who was first an assistant to a pharmacist, then a pharmacist himself. Bernard Courtois, a pharmacist under the First Empire, the son of a saltpetre worker isolated iodine in I811, after a modification of the ancestral production protocol of potassium nitrate, which is the major component of the gunpowder: he replaced wood ashes by varech ashes which are less expensive. Antoine Jerôme Balard was still an assistant in chemistry and physics when he discovered bromine in the residues of the salt marshes. He became soon after a pharmacist and started a famous career as then he became Professor in the College de France and General Inspector of Higher Education. The last halogen: fluorine was isolated by Henri Moissan who received the Nobel Prize of Chemistry. The discovery will be the subject of our next communication.
Davies, Shelley L; Moral, Maria Angels; Bozzo, Jordi
Chronicles in Drug Discovery features special interest reports on advances in drug discovery. This month we highlight agents that target and deplete immunosuppressive regulatory T cells, which are produced by tumor cells to hinder innate immunity against, or chemotherapies targeting, tumor-associated antigens. Antiviral treatments for respiratory syncytial virus, a severe and prevalent infection in children, are limited due to their side effect profiles and cost. New strategies currently under clinical development include monoclonal antibodies, siRNAs, vaccines and oral small molecule inhibitors. Recent therapeutic lines for Huntington's disease include gene therapies that target the mutated human huntingtin gene or deliver neuroprotective growth factors and cellular transplantation in apoptotic regions of the brain. Finally, we highlight the antiinflammatory and antinociceptive properties of new compounds targeting the somatostatin receptor subtype sst4, which warrant further study for their potential application as clinical analgesics.
Danial-Saad, Alexandra; Kuflik, Tsvi; Weiss, Patrice L Tamar; Schreuer, Naomi
The aim of this study was to evaluate the usability of Ontology Supported Computerized Assistive Technology Recommender (OSCAR), a Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) for the assistive technology adaptation process, its impact on learning the matching process, and to determine the relationship between its usability and learnability. Two groups of expert and novice clinicians (total, n = 26) took part in this study. Each group filled out system usability scale (SUS) to evaluate OSCAR's usability. The novice group completed a learning questionnaire to assess OSCAR's effect on their ability to learn the matching process. Both groups rated OSCAR's usability as "very good", (M [SUS] = 80.7, SD = 11.6, median = 83.7) by the novices, and (M [SUS] = 81.2, SD = 6.8, median = 81.2) by the experts. The Mann-Whitney results indicated that no significant differences were found between the expert and novice groups in terms of OSCAR's usability. A significant positive correlation existed between the usability of OSCAR and the ability to learn the adaptation process (rs = 0.46, p = 0.04). Usability is an important factor in the acceptance of a system. The successful application of user-centered design principles during the development of OSCAR may serve as a case study that models the significant elements to be considered, theoretically and practically in developing other systems. Implications for Rehabilitation Creating a CDSS with a focus on its usability is an important factor for its acceptance by its users. Successful usability outcomes can impact the learning process of the subject matter in general, and the AT prescription process in particular. The successful application of User-Centered Design principles during the development of OSCAR may serve as a case study that models the significant elements to be considered, theoretically and practically. The study emphasizes the importance of close collaboration between the developers and
FAST offers "transformational" performance well-suited to finding new phenomena - one of which might be polarised spectral transients. But discoveries will only be made if "the system" provides its users with the necessary opportunities. In addition to designing in as much observational flexibility as possible, FAST should be operated with a philosophy which maximises its "human bandwidth". This band includes the astronomers of tomorrow - many of whom not have yet started school or even been born.
Two dozen participants assembled under the direction of the NASA Solar System Exploration Division (SEED) April 13-15, 1993. Participants supported the goals of cheaper and faster solar system exploration. The workshop concluded that the Discovery Program concept and goals are viable. Management concerns are articulated in the final report. Appendix A includes lists of participants in alphabetical order, by functional area, and by organization type. Appendix B includes the agenda for the meeting.
The three great myths, which form a sort of triumvirate of misunderstanding, are the Eureka! myth, the hypothesis myth, and the measurement myth. These myths are prevalent among scientists as well as among observers of science. The Eureka! myth asserts that discovery occurs as a flash of insight, and as such is not subject to investigation. This leads to the perception that discovery or deriving a hypothesis is a moment or event rather than a process. Events are singular and not subject to description. The hypothesis myth asserts that proper science is motivated by testing hypotheses, and that if something is not experimentally testable then it is not scientific. This myth leads to absurd posturing by some workers conducting empirical descriptive studies, who dress up their study with a ``hypothesis`` to obtain funding or get it published. Methods papers are often rejected because they do not address a specific scientific problem. The fact is that many of the great breakthroughs in silence involve methods and not hypotheses or arise from largely descriptive studies. Those captured by this myth also try to block funding for those developing methods. The third myth is the measurement myth, which holds that determining what to measure is straightforward, so one doesn`t need a lot of introspection to do science. As one ecologist put it to me ``Don`t give me any of that philosophy junk, just let me out in the field. I know what to measure.`` These myths lead to difficulties for scientists who must face peer review to obtain funding and to get published. These myths also inhibit the study of science as a process. Finally, these myths inhibit creativity and suppress innovation. In this paper I first explore these myths in more detail and then propose a new model of discovery that opens the supposedly miraculous process of discovery to doser scrutiny.
Discovery, as a public attribution, and discovering, the act of conducting research, are experiences that entail “languaging” the unknown. This distinguishing property of language ‐ its ability to bring forth, out of the unspoken realm, new knowledge, original ideas, and novel thinking – is essential to the discovery process. In sharing their ideas and views, scientists create co‐negotiated linguistic distinctions that prompt the revision of established mental maps and the adoption of new ones. While scientific mastery entails command of the conversational domain unique to a specific discipline, there is an emerging conversational domain that must be mastered that goes beyond the language unique to any particular specialty. Mastery of this new conversational domain gives researchers access to their hidden mental maps that limit their ways of thinking about and doing science. The most effective scientists use language to recontextualize their approach to problem‐solving, which triggers new insights (previously unavailable) that result in new discoveries. While language is not a replacement for intuition and other means of knowing, when we try to understand what’s outside of language we have to use language to do so. PMID:21688238
Background Changes in cognition caused by dementia can significantly alter how a person perceives familiarity, impacting the recognition and usability of everyday products. A person who is unable to use products cannot autonomously complete associated activities, resulting in increased dependence on a caregiver and potential move to assisted living facilities. The research presented in this paper hypothesised that products that are more familiar will result in better usability for older adults with dementia. Better product usability could, in turn, potentially support independence and autonomy. Methods This research investigated the impact of familiarity on the use of five faucet designs during 1309 handwashing trials by 27 older adults, who ranged from cognitively intact to the advanced (severe) stages of dementia. Human factors methods were used to collect empirical and self-reported data to gauge faucets’ usability. Participants’ data were grouped according to cognition (i.e., no/mild, moderate, or severe dementia). Logistic regression, ranking by odds, and Wald tests of odds ratios were used to compare performance of the three groups on the different faucets. Qualitative data were used in the interpretation of quantitative results. Results Results indicated that more familiar faucets correlated with lower levels of assistance from a caregiver, fewer operational errors, and greater levels of operator satisfaction. Aspects such as the ability to control water temperature and flow as well as pleasing aesthetics appeared to positively impact participants’ acceptance of a faucet. The dual lever design achieved the best overall usability. Conclusions While work must be done to expand these findings to other products and tasks, this research provides evidence that familiarity plays a substantial role in product usability for older adults that appears to become more influential as dementia progresses. The methods used in this research could be adapted to analyse
Rezaei-Hachesu, Peyman; Pesianian, Esmaeil; Mohammadian, Mohsen
Introduction and purpose: Radiology information system (RIS) in order to reduce workload and improve the quality of services must be well-designed. Heuristic evaluation is one of the methods that understand usability problems with the least time, cost and resources. The aim of present study is to evaluate the usability of RISs in hospitals. Research Method: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study (2015) that uses heuristic evaluation method to evaluate the usability of RIS used in 3 hospitals of Tabriz city. The data are collected using a standard checklist based on 13 principles of Nielsen Heuristic evaluation method. Usability of RISs was investigated based on the number of components observed from Nielsen principles and problems of usability based on the number of non-observed components as well as non-existent or unrecognizable components. Results: by evaluation of RISs in each of the hospitals 1, 2 and 3, total numbers of observed components were obtained as 173, 202 and 196, respectively. It was concluded that the usability of RISs in the studied population, on average and with observing 190 components of the 291 components related to the 13 principles of Nielsen is 65.41 %. Furthermore, problems of usability were obtained as 26.35%. Discussion and Conclusion: The established and visible nature of some components such as response time of application, visual feedbacks, colors, view and design and arrangement of software objects cause more attention to these components as principal components in designing UI software. Also, incorrect analysis before system design leads to a lack of attention to secondary needs like Help software and security issues. PMID:27041810
Neinstein, Aaron; Cucina, Russ
Background Insulin is a highly scrutinized drug in hospitals since it is both frequently used and high risk. As the insulin ordering process makes a transition from pen and paper to computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems, the effective design of these systems becomes critical. There are fundamental usability principles in the field of human–computer interaction design, which help make interfaces that are effective, efficient, and satisfying. To our knowledge, there has not been a study that specifically looks at how these principles have been applied in the design of insulin orders in a CPOE system. Method We analyzed the usability of inpatient insulin ordering in three widely deployed CPOE systems—two commercially marketed systems and the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs VistA Computerized Patient Record System. We performed a usability analysis using aspects of three different methods. Our first goal was to note each instance where a usability principle was either upheld or not upheld. Our second goal was to discover ways in which CPOE designers could exploit usability principles to make insulin ordering safer and more intuitive in the future. Results Commonly encountered usability principles included constraints, obviousness/self-evidence, natural mapping, feedback, and affordance. The three systems varied in their adherence to these principles, and each system had varying strengths and weaknesses. Conclusion Adherence to usability principles is important when building a CPOE system, yet designers observe them to varying degrees. A well-designed CPOE interface allows a clinician to focus more of his or her mental energy on clinical decisions rather than on deciphering the system itself. In the future, intelligent design of CPOE insulin orders can be used to help optimize and modernize management of hyperglycemia in the hospital. PMID:22226260
Li, Jian; Wang, Daoyao
The framework as well as the particular algorithms of pattern recognition process is widely adopted in structural health monitoring (SHM). However, as a part of the overall process of knowledge discovery from data bases (KDD), the results of pattern recognition are only changes and patterns of changes of data features. In this paper, based on the similarity between KDD and SHM and considering the particularity of SHM problems, a four-step framework of SHM is proposed which extends the final goal of SHM from detecting damages to extracting knowledge to facilitate decision making. The purposes and proper methods of each step of this framework are discussed. To demonstrate the proposed SHM framework, a specific SHM method which is composed by the second order structural parameter identification, statistical control chart analysis, and system reliability analysis is then presented. To examine the performance of this SHM method, real sensor data measured from a lab size steel bridge model structure are used. The developed four-step framework of SHM has the potential to clarify the process of SHM to facilitate the further development of SHM techniques. PMID:24574933
Deng, Jun; Li, Jian; Wang, Daoyao
The framework as well as the particular algorithms of pattern recognition process is widely adopted in structural health monitoring (SHM). However, as a part of the overall process of knowledge discovery from data bases (KDD), the results of pattern recognition are only changes and patterns of changes of data features. In this paper, based on the similarity between KDD and SHM and considering the particularity of SHM problems, a four-step framework of SHM is proposed which extends the final goal of SHM from detecting damages to extracting knowledge to facilitate decision making. The purposes and proper methods of each step of this framework are discussed. To demonstrate the proposed SHM framework, a specific SHM method which is composed by the second order structural parameter identification, statistical control chart analysis, and system reliability analysis is then presented. To examine the performance of this SHM method, real sensor data measured from a lab size steel bridge model structure are used. The developed four-step framework of SHM has the potential to clarify the process of SHM to facilitate the further development of SHM techniques.
Ivanov, Alexander S.; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S.
Uranium is used as the basic fuel for nuclear power plants, which generate significant amounts of electricity and have life cycle carbon emissions that are as low as renewable energy sources. However, the extraction of this valuable energy commodity from the ground remains controversial, mainly because of environmental and health impacts. Alternatively, seawater offers an enormous uranium resource that may be tapped at minimal environmental cost. Nowadays, amidoxime polymers are the most widely utilized sorbent materials for large-scale extraction of uranium from seawater, but they are not perfectly selective for uranyl, UO22+. In particular, the competition between UO22+ and VO2+/VO2+ cations poses a significant challenge to the effi-cient mining of UO22+. Thus, screening and rational design of more selective ligands must be accomplished. One of the key components in achieving this goal is the establishment of computational techniques capable of assessing ligand selec-tivity trends. Here, we report an approach based on quantum chemical calculations that achieves high accuracy in repro-ducing experimental aqueous stability constants for VO2+/VO2+ complexes with ten different oxygen donor lig-ands. The predictive power of the developed computational protocol was demonstrated for amidoxime-type ligands, providing greater insights into new design strategies for the development of the next generation of adsorbents with high selectivity toward UO22+over VO2+/VO2+ ions. Furthermore, the results of calculations suggest that alkylation of amidox-ime moieties present in poly(acrylamidoxime) sorbents can be a potential route to better discrimination between the uranyl and competing vanadium ions within seawater.
Butler, Mark S; Blaskovich, Mark At; Owen, Jeremy G; Cooper, Matthew A
The discovery of new antibiotics is crucial if we are to avoid a future in which simple infections once again lead to death. New antibiotics were traditionally discovered by analyzing extracts from cultured soil-derived microbes. However, in the last few years only a few new antibiotic classes have been identified using this method. Attempts to apply target-based screening approaches to antibiotic discovery have also proven to be unproductive. In this article, we describe how DNA sequencing and bioinformatic techniques are revolutionizing natural product discovery leading to new natural product antibiotics sourced from both cultivated and uncultivated microbes. New chemical structures are also being 'crowd sourced' from chemists around the world, and 'forgotten' antibiotics repositioned for clinical trials after chemical or biochemical modification of the original natural product. Collectively such approaches have the potential to revamp antibiotic lead discovery and re-invigorate the antibiotic pipeline.
Kim, Kwang Jae; Han, Sung H; Yun, Myung Hwan; Kwahk, Jiyoung
A systematic modeling approach to describing, prescribing, and predicting usability of a product has been presented. Given the evaluation results of the usability dimension (UD) and the measurement of the product's design variables, referred to as the human interface elements (HIEs), the approach enables one to systematically assess the relationship between the UD and HIEs. The assessed relationship is called a usability model. Once built, such a usability model can relate, in a quantitative manner, the HIEs directly to the UDs, and thus can serve as an effective aid to designers by evaluating and predicting the usability of an existing or hypothetical product. A usability model for elegance of audiovisual consumer electronic products has been demonstrated.
... after a complaint has been filed. (b) Methods of discovery. The following methods of discovery are... discovery methods permitted under this section; or (4) The method or scope of discovery requested by the... method of discovery; or (3) Limit the scope of discovery or preclude any inquiry into certain...
Background Decision aids are evidence-based tools designed to inform people of the potential benefit and harm of treatment options, clarify their preferences and provide a shared decision-making structure for discussion at a clinic visit. For patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who are considering methotrexate, we have developed a web-based patient decision aid called the ANSWER (Animated, Self-serve, Web-based Research Tool). This study aimed to: 1) assess the usability of the ANSWER prototype; 2) identify strengths and limitations of the ANSWER from the patient’s perspective. Methods The ANSWER prototype consisted of: 1) six animated patient stories and narrated information on the evidence of methotrexate for RA; 2) interactive questionnaires to clarify patients’ treatment preferences. Eligible participants for the usability test were patients with RA who had been prescribed methotrexate. They were asked to verbalize their thoughts (i.e., think aloud) while using the ANSWER, and to complete the System Usability Scale (SUS) to assess overall usability (range = 0-100; higher = more user friendly). Participants were audiotaped and observed, and field notes were taken. The testing continued until no new modifiable issues were found. We used descriptive statistics to summarize participant characteristics and the SUS scores. Content analysis was used to identified usability issues and navigation problems. Results 15 patients participated in the usability testing. The majority were aged 50 or over and were university/college graduates (n = 8, 53.4%). On average they took 56 minutes (SD = 34.8) to complete the tool. The mean SUS score was 81.2 (SD = 13.5). Content analysis of audiotapes and field notes revealed four categories of modifiable usability issues: 1) information delivery (i.e., clarity of the information and presentation style); 2) navigation control (i.e., difficulties in recognizing and using the navigation control buttons); 3
Fay, Nicolas; Ellison, T Mark
This study examines the intergenerational transfer of human communication systems. It tests if human communication systems evolve to be easy to learn or easy to use (or both), and how population size affects learnability and usability. Using an experimental-semiotic task, we find that human communication systems evolve to be easier to use (production efficiency and reproduction fidelity), but harder to learn (identification accuracy) for a second generation of naïve participants. Thus, usability trumps learnability. In addition, the communication systems that evolve in larger populations exhibit distinct advantages over those that evolve in smaller populations: the learnability loss (from the Initial signs) is more muted and the usability benefits are more pronounced. The usability benefits for human communication systems that evolve in a small and large population is explained through guided variation reducing sign complexity. The enhanced performance of the communication systems that evolve in larger populations is explained by the operation of a content bias acting on the larger pool of competing signs. The content bias selects for information-efficient iconic signs that aid learnability and enhance usability.
Rojas, Crystal L; Seckman, Charlotte A
Health information technology is revolutionizing the way we interact with health-related data. One example of this can be seen in the rising adoption rates of electronic health records by healthcare providers. Nursing plays a vital role in electronic health record adoption, not only because of their numbers but also their intimate understanding of workflow. The success of an electronic health record also relies on how usable the software is for clinicians, and a thorough usability evaluation is needed before implementing a system within an organization. Not all nurses have the knowledge and skills to perform extensive usability testing; therefore, the informatics nurse specialist plays a critical role in the process. This article will discuss core usability principles, provide a framework for applying these concepts, and explore the role of the informatics nurse specialist in electronic health record evaluation. Health information technology is fundamentally changing the clinical practice environment, and many nurses are seeking leadership positions in the field of informatics. As technology and software become more sophisticated, usability principles must be used under theguidance of the informatics nurse specialist to provide a relevant, robust, and well-designed electronic health record to address the needs of the busy clinician.
Schall, Mark Christopher; Cullen, Laura; Pennathur, Priyadarshini; Chen, Howard; Burrell, Keith; Matthews, Grace
Health information technology dashboards that integrate evidence-based quality indicators can efficiently and accurately display patient risk information to promote early intervention and improve overall quality of patient care. We describe the process of developing, evaluating, and implementing a dashboard designed to promote quality care through display of evidence-based quality indicators within an electronic health record. Clinician feedback was sought throughout the process. Usability evaluations were provided by three nurse pairs and one physician from medical-surgical areas. Task completion times, error rates, and ratings of system usability were collected to compare the use of quality indicators displayed on the dashboard to the indicators displayed in a conventional electronic health record across eight experimental scenarios. Participants rated the dashboard as "highly usable" following System Usability Scale (mean, 87.5 [SD, 9.6]) and Poststudy System Usability Questionnaire (mean, 1.7 [SD, 0.5]) criteria. Use of the dashboard led to reduced task completion times and error rates in comparison to the conventional electronic health record for quality indicator-related tasks. Clinician responses to the dashboard display capabilities were positive, and a multifaceted implementation plan has been used. Results suggest application of the dashboard in the care environment may lead to improved patient care.
Jung, Nam-Hae; Chang, Moonyoung
[Purpose] The effect of screen size on smartphone functionality and usability for patients with stroke, considering both the non-dominant and dominant hand smartphone usage, was investigated in this study. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen patients with stroke participated in this study-five pre-non-dominant hand users and eight pre-dominant hand users. The smartphone screen sizes used were 4.2, 4.5, and 5.6 inches. Usability was assessed in terms of discomfort experienced during dragging operations, which was self-reported using a four-point Likert scale. Functionality was assessed in terms of completion time and the frequency of errors in the task requiring users to quickly touch numbers 0 through 9 in order on the keypad. [Results] For all three screen sizes, a significant difference between the dominant and non-dominant hands was found in usability, completion time, and frequency of errors. For dominant hand users, differences in usability and completion time were found among the three screen sizes. Among the three screen sizes, no difference in the frequency of errors was found in either of the groups. [Conclusion] This study will be useful as basic research on usability and functionality with stroke patients using only pre-non-dominant or pre-dominant hand.
Sonderegger, Andreas; Sauer, Juergen
This article examines the influence of socio-cultural background and product value on different outcomes of usability tests. A study was conducted in two different socio-cultural regions, Switzerland and East Germany, which differed in a number of aspects (e.g. economic power, price sensitivity and culture). Product value (high vs. low) was varied by manipulating the price of the product. Sixty-four test participants were asked to carry out five typical user tasks in the context of coffee machine usage, measuring performance, perceived usability, and emotion. The results showed that in Switzerland, high-value products were rated higher in usability than low-value products whereas in East Germany, high-value products were evaluated lower in usability. A similar interaction effect of socio-cultural background and product value was observed for user emotion. Implications are that the outcomes of usability tests do not allow for a simple transfer across cultures and that the mediating influence of perceived product value needs to be taken into consideration.
Jiménez-Fernández, Silvia; de Toledo, Paula; del Pozo, Francisco
This paper addresses two key technological barriers to the wider adoption of patient telemonitoring systems for chronic disease management, namely, usability and sensor device interoperability. As a great percentage of chronic patients are elderly patients as well, usability of the system has to be adapted to their needs. This paper identifies (from previous research) a set of design criteria to address these challenges, and describes the resulting system based on a wireless sensor network, and including a node as a custom-made interface that follows usability design criteria stated. This system has been tested with 22 users (mean age 65) and evaluated with a validated usability questionnaire. Results are good and improve those of other systems based on TV or smartphone. Our results suggest that user interfaces alternative to TVs and smartphones could play an important role on the usability of sensor networks for patient monitoring. Regarding interoperability, only very recently a standard has been published (2010, the ISO IEEE 11073 Personal health devices) that can support the needs of limited computational power environments typical of patient monitoring sensor networks.
Leiva-Caro, José Alex; Salazar-González, Bertha Cecilia; Gallegos-Cabriales, Esther Carlota; Gómez-Meza, Marco Vinicio; Hunter, Kathleen F.
Objective: to determine connections between competence, usability, environment and risk of falls in elderly adults. Method: correlational descriptive study, 123 elderly adults, both male and female, aged 70 years and older were included. Data was collected via the Tinetti Scale, CESD-7 Scale, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Usability Questionnaire on Housing and Housing Enabler; and sociodemographic and health background certificate data. For data analysis, descriptive and inferential statistics were used, multivariate linear and logistic regression models were adjusted. Results: 42.0% of the elderly adults had presented with falls, with a higher prevalence in women, and in the group of 70-75 years. The physical environment of the house, gait, and usability were set as risk factors for falls. A negative relationship between usability and depressive symptoms, cognitive health, balance, gait, the social and physical environment was found, p <0.05; and a strong positive correlation between walking and balance, p <0.05. Conclusion: this study helps to better understand the phenomenon of falling, to find a connection between usability with the risk of falls, and other variables. PMID:26626006
Bolchini, Davide; Garzotto, Franca; Sorce, Fabio
Does usability of a web-based communication artifact affect brand, i.e., the set of beliefs, emotions, attitudes, or qualities that people mentally associate to the entity behind that artifact? Intuitively, the answer is “yes”: usability is a fundamental aspect of the quality of the experience with a website, and a “good” experience with a “product” or its reifications tends to translate into “good” brand perception. To date, however, the existence of a connection between web usability and brand perception is shown through anecdotic arguments, and is not supported by published systematic research. This paper discusses a study that empirically investigates this correlation in a more rigorous, analytical, and replicable way. Our main contribution is twofold: on the one hand, we provide empirical evidence to the heuristic principle that web usability influences branding, and we do that through four between subjects controlled experiments that involved 120 subjects. On the other hand, we inform the study with a systematic value-oriented approach to the user experience, and thus provide a conceptual framework that can be reused in other experimental settings, either for replicating our study, or for designing similar studies focusing on the correlation of web branding vs. design factors other than usability.
Background Eye-tracking technology has been used to measure human cognitive processes and has the potential to improve the usability of health information technology (HIT). However, it is still unclear how the eye-tracking method can be integrated with other traditional usability methodologies to achieve its full potential. Objective The objective of this study was to report on HIT evaluation studies that have used eye-tracker technology, and to envision the potential use of eye-tracking technology in future research. Methods We used four reference databases to initially identify 5248 related papers, which resulted in only 9 articles that met our inclusion criteria. Results Eye-tracking technology was useful in finding usability problems in many ways, but is still in its infancy for HIT usability evaluation. Limited types of HITs have been evaluated by eye trackers, and there has been a lack of evaluation research in natural settings. Conclusions More research should be done in natural settings to discover the real contextual-based usability problems of clinical and mobile HITs using eye-tracking technology with more standardized methodologies and guidance. PMID:27026079
Saadawi, Gilan M.; Legowski, Elizabeth; Medvedeva, Olga; Chavan, Girish; Crowley, Rebecca S.
Think-aloud usability analysis provides extremely useful data but is very time-consuming and expensive to perform because of the extensive manual video analysis that is required. We describe a simple method for automated detection of usability problems from client user interface events for a developing medical intelligent tutoring system. The method incorporates (1) an agent-based method for communication that funnels all interface events and system responses to a centralized database, (2) a simple schema for representing interface events and higher order subgoals, and (3) an algorithm that reproduces the criteria used for manual coding of usability problems. A correction factor was empirically determining to account for the slower task performance of users when thinking aloud. We tested the validity of the method by simultaneously identifying usability problems using TAU and manually computing them from stored interface event data using the proposed algorithm. All usability problems that did not rely on verbal utterances were detectable with the proposed method. PMID:16779121
Fay, Nicolas; Ellison, T. Mark
This study examines the intergenerational transfer of human communication systems. It tests if human communication systems evolve to be easy to learn or easy to use (or both), and how population size affects learnability and usability. Using an experimental-semiotic task, we find that human communication systems evolve to be easier to use (production efficiency and reproduction fidelity), but harder to learn (identification accuracy) for a second generation of naïve participants. Thus, usability trumps learnability. In addition, the communication systems that evolve in larger populations exhibit distinct advantages over those that evolve in smaller populations: the learnability loss (from the Initial signs) is more muted and the usability benefits are more pronounced. The usability benefits for human communication systems that evolve in a small and large population is explained through guided variation reducing sign complexity. The enhanced performance of the communication systems that evolve in larger populations is explained by the operation of a content bias acting on the larger pool of competing signs. The content bias selects for information-efficient iconic signs that aid learnability and enhance usability. PMID:23967243
Millis, R. L.; Dunham, E. W.; Sebring, T. A.; Smith, B. W.; de Kock, M.; Wiecha, O.
The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a 4.2-m telescope to be built at a new site near Happy Jack, Arizona. The DCT features a large prime focus mosaic CCD camera with a 2-degree-diameter field of view especially designed for surveys of KBOs, Centaurs, NEAs and other moving or time-variable targets. The telescope can be switched quickly to a Ritchey-Chretien configuration for optical/IR spectroscopy or near-IR imaging. This flexibility allows timely follow-up physical studies of high priority objects discovered in survey mode. The ULE (ultra-low-expansion) meniscus primary and secondary mirror blanks for the telescope are currently in fabrication by Corning Glass. Goodrich Aerospace, Vertex RSI, M3 Engineering and Technology Corp., and e2v Technologies have recently completed in-depth conceptual design studies of the optics, mount, enclosure, and mosaic focal plane, respectively. The results of these studies were subjected to a formal design review in July, 2004. Site testing at the 7760-ft altitude Happy Jack site began in 2001. Differential image motion observations from 117 nights since January 1, 2003 gave median seeing of 0.84 arcsec FWHM, and the average of the first quartile was 0.62 arcsec. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process for securing long-term access to this site on the Coconino National Forest is nearing completion and ground breaking is expected in the spring of 2005. The Discovery Channel Telescope is a project of the Lowell Observatory with major financial support from Discovery Communications, Inc. (DCI). DCI plans ongoing television programming featuring the construction of the telescope and the research ultimately undertaken with the DCT. An additional partner can be accommodated in the project. Interested parties should contact the lead author.
Loh, Stanley; De Oliveira, Jose Palazzo M.; Gastal, Fabio Leite
Presents an application of knowledge discovery in texts (KDT) concerning medical records of a psychiatric hospital. The approach helps physicians to extract knowledge about patients and diseases that may be used for epidemiological studies, for training professionals, and to support physicians to diagnose and evaluate diseases. (Author/AEF)
Khurdayan, V; Bozzo, J; Sorbera, L
Chronicles in Drug Discovery is a series of brief reports on timely topics in the field of drug R&D. This month's chronicles contain the following reports: Targeting DNA repair enzymes instead of viral proteins provides a great advantage in preventing the emergence of resistant mutants. A striking increase in therapeutic approaches for the treatment of IBD has been fueled by an improved understanding of the mechanisms that underlie its pathophysiology. Peptide deformylase inhibitors are under active investigation for bacterial infections and cancer treatment. Dopamine D3 receptors present an attractive target for alcoholism therapy since they are involved in the mechanisms of alcohol dependency and abuse.
Vensko, Nancy W; Ferguson, Steven M
This paper will discuss commercializing discoveries made at research organizations, particularly with a view to the In re Kubin case, decided April 3, 2009, by the Federal Circuit. Here, the existence of a general method of isolating DNA molecules was held to be relevant to the question whether the DNA molecules themselves would have been obvious under § 103 of the patent act. How are DNA inventions patented anyway? What does it take for academic research to reach patients? How might the decision of In re Kubin effect research commercialization and technology transfer?
Despite striking advances in the biomedical sciences, the flow of new drugs has slowed to a trickle, impairing therapeutic advances as well as the commercial success of drug companies. Reduced productivity in the drug industry is caused mainly by corporate policies that discourage innovation. This is compounded by various consequences of mega-mergers, the obsession for blockbuster drugs, the shift of control of research from scientists to marketers, the need for fast sales growth, and the discontinuation of development compounds for nontechnical reasons. Lessons from the past indicate that these problems can be overcome, and herein, new and improved directions for drug discovery are suggested. PMID:17080187
Vensko, Nancy W.; Ferguson, Steven M.
This paper will discuss commercializing discoveries made at research organizations, particularly with a view to the In re Kubin case, decided April 3, 2009, by the Federal Circuit. Here, the existence of a general method of isolating DNA molecules was held to be relevant to the question whether the DNA molecules themselves would have been obvious under § 103 of the patent act. How are DNA inventions patented anyway? What does it take for academic research to reach patients? How might the decision of In re Kubin effect research commercialization and technology transfer? PMID:20543971
Lou, Xinghua; Schiegg, Martin; Hamprecht, Fred A
One distinguishing property of life is its temporal dynamics, and it is hence only natural that time lapse experiments play a crucial role in modern biomedical research areas such as signaling pathways, drug discovery or developmental biology. Such experiments yield a very large number of images that encode complex cellular activities, and reliable automated cell tracking emerges naturally as a prerequisite for further quantitative analysis. However, many existing cell tracking methods are restricted to using only a small number of features to allow for manual tweaking. In this paper, we propose a novel cell tracking approach that embraces a powerful machine learning technique to optimize the tracking parameters based on user annotated tracks. Our approach replaces the tedious parameter tuning with parameter learning and allows for the use of a much richer set of complex tracking features, which in turn affords superior prediction accuracy. Furthermore, we developed an active learning approach for efficient training data retrieval, which reduces the annotation effort to only 17%. In practical terms, our approach allows life science researchers to inject their expertise in a more intuitive and direct manner. This process is further facilitated by using a glyph visualization technique for ground truth annotation and validation. Evaluation and comparison on several publicly available benchmark sequences show significant performance improvement over recently reported approaches. Code and software tools are provided to the public.
Koppel, Ross; Kuziemsky, Craig
Usability of health information technology (HIT), if considered at all, is usually focused on individual providers, settings and vendors. However, in light of transformative models of healthcare delivery such as collaborative care delivery that crosses providers and settings, we need to think of usability as a collective and constantly emerging process. To address this new reality we develop a matrix of usability that spans several dimensions and contexts, incorporating differing vendors, user, settings, disciplines, and display configurations. The matrix, while conceptual, extends existing work by providing the means for discussion of usability issues and needs beyond one setting and one user type.
Lilholt, Pernille Heyckendorff; Schaarup, Clara; Hejlesen, Ole Kristian
Objective. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the usability of the telehealth system, coined Telekit, by using an iterative, mixed usability approach. Materials and Methods. Ten double experts participated in two heuristic evaluations (HE1, HE2), and 11 COPD patients attended two think-aloud tests. The double experts identified usability violations and classified them into Jakob Nielsen's heuristics. These violations were then translated into measurable values on a scale of 0 to 4 indicating degree of severity. In the think-aloud tests, COPD participants were invited to verbalise their thoughts. Results. The double experts identified 86 usability violations in HE1 and 101 usability violations in HE2. The majority of the violations were rated in the 0-2 range. The findings from the think-aloud tests resulted in 12 themes and associated examples regarding the usability of the Telekit system. The use of the iterative, mixed usability approach produced both quantitative and qualitative results. Conclusion. The iterative, mixed usability approach yields a strong result owing to the high number of problems identified in the tests because the double experts and the COPD participants focus on different aspects of Telekit's usability. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01984840, November 14, 2013.
Schaarup, Clara; Hejlesen, Ole Kristian
Objective. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the usability of the telehealth system, coined Telekit, by using an iterative, mixed usability approach. Materials and Methods. Ten double experts participated in two heuristic evaluations (HE1, HE2), and 11 COPD patients attended two think-aloud tests. The double experts identified usability violations and classified them into Jakob Nielsen's heuristics. These violations were then translated into measurable values on a scale of 0 to 4 indicating degree of severity. In the think-aloud tests, COPD participants were invited to verbalise their thoughts. Results. The double experts identified 86 usability violations in HE1 and 101 usability violations in HE2. The majority of the violations were rated in the 0–2 range. The findings from the think-aloud tests resulted in 12 themes and associated examples regarding the usability of the Telekit system. The use of the iterative, mixed usability approach produced both quantitative and qualitative results. Conclusion. The iterative, mixed usability approach yields a strong result owing to the high number of problems identified in the tests because the double experts and the COPD participants focus on different aspects of Telekit's usability. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01984840, November 14, 2013. PMID:27974888
Chen, M.; Ertl, T.; Jirotka, M.; Trefethen, A.; Schmidt, A.; Coecke, B.; Bañares-Alcántara, R.
Causality is the fabric of our dynamic world. We all make frequent attempts to reason causation relationships of everyday events (e.g., what was the cause of my headache, or what has upset Alice?). We attempt to manage causality all the time through planning and scheduling. The greatest scientific discoveries are usually about causality (e.g., Newton found the cause for an apple to fall, and Darwin discovered natural selection). Meanwhile, we continue to seek a comprehensive understanding about the causes of numerous complex phenomena, such as social divisions, economic crisis, global warming, home-grown terrorism, etc. Humans analyse and reason causality based on observation, experimentation and acquired a priori knowledge. Today's technologies enable us to make observations and carry out experiments in an unprecedented scale that has created data mountains everywhere. Whereas there are exciting opportunities to discover new causation relationships, there are also unparalleled challenges to benefit from such data mountains. In this article, we present a case for developing a new piece of ICT, called Causality Discovery Technology. We reason about the necessity, feasibility and potential impact of such a technology.
Post, R. S.
(Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.
Minocha, Shailey; Reeves, Ahmad John
Three-dimensional virtual worlds are multimedia, simulated environments, often managed over the Web, which users can 'inhabit' and interact via their own graphical, self-representations known as 'avatars'. 3D virtual worlds are being used in many applications: education/training, gaming, social networking, marketing and commerce. Second Life is the most widely used 3D virtual world in education. However, problems associated with usability, navigation and way finding in 3D virtual worlds may impact on student learning and engagement. Based on empirical investigations of learning spaces in Second Life, this paper presents design guidelines to improve the usability and ease of navigation in 3D spaces. Methods of data collection include semi-structured interviews with Second Life students, educators and designers. The findings have revealed that design principles from the fields of urban planning, Human- Computer Interaction, Web usability, geography and psychology can influence the design of spaces in 3D multi-user virtual environments.
Chambers, M; Connor, S; Diver, M; McGonigle, M
The objective of the research was to evaluate the usability of a multimedia software application that provides information on coping with difficult situations, dealing with everyday caring problems, and first aid for emergency situations. Casual users (family caregivers, professional caregivers, and older people) were invited to use the software application and complete a questionnaire measuring quality and efficiency in utility and usability. Quantitative data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and qualitative data were analyzed by content analysis. Findings indicated the software application to have high global usability, correspond to user expectations, respond quickly, and be visually pleasant and easily understood. The authors conclude that software applications of this type have the potential to increase the quality of life of family caregivers, enhance their coping capacity, and enable them to continue for a longer period in their caring role.
Healthcare technologies are slowly entering into our daily lives, replacing old devices and techniques with newer intelligent ones. Although they are meant to help people, the reaction and willingness to use such new devices by the people can be unexpected, especially among the elderly. We conducted a usability study of a fall monitoring system in a long-term nursing home. The subjects were the elderly with advanced Alzheimer's disease. The study presented here highlights some of the challenges faced in the use of wearable devices and the lessons learned. The results gave us useful insights, leading to ergonomics and aesthetics modifications to our wearable systems that significantly improved their usability and acceptance. New evaluating metrics were designed for the performance evaluation of usability and acceptability. PMID:24963289
Lin, Carolyn A; Neafsey, Patricia J; Strickler, Zoe
Failure to adhere to an antihypertensive regimen and interactions between antihypertensives and other medicines represent serious health threats to older adults. This study tested the usability of a touch-screen-enabled personal education program (PEP). Findings showed that older adults rated the PEP system usability, system usefulness, and system-use satisfaction at a moderately high level for prototype-1 and at an exceptionally high level for prototype-2. A 201.91% reduction in interface errors and a 31.08% decrease in interface time also were found between the two trials. This participatory usability design was highly successful in tailoring its program interface design to accommodate older users to enhance their health communication and technology use efficacy.
Subasi, Özge; Leitner, Michael; Tscheligi, Manfred
This paper introduces a step by step framework for practitioners for combining accessibility and usability engineering processes. Following the discussions towards the needs of more user centeredness in the design of accessible solutions, there is a need for such a practical framework. In general, accessibility has been considered as a topic dealing with "hard facts". But lately terms like semantic and procedural accessibility have been introduced. In the following pages we propose a first sketch of a framework, which shows how to merge both usability and accessibility evaluation methods in the same process in order to guarantee a unified solution for both hard and soft facts of accessibility. We argue that by enhancing the user centered design process as the ISO DIS 9241-210 (revised DIN ISO 13407) describes it, accessibility and usability issues may be covered in one process.
Monkman, Helen; Kushniruk, Andre
Usability and health literacy are two critical factors in the design and evaluation of consumer health information systems. However, methods for evaluating these two factors in conjunction remain limited. This study adapted a set of existing guidelines for the design of consumer health Web sites into evidence-based evaluation heuristics tailored specifically for mobile consumer health applications. In order to test the approach, a mobile consumer health application (app) was then evaluated using these heuristics. In addition to revealing ways to improve the usability of the system, this analysis identified opportunities to augment the content to make it more understandable by users with limited health literacy. This study successfully demonstrated the utility of converting existing design guidelines into heuristics for the evaluation of usability and health literacy. The heuristics generated could be applied for assessing and revising other existing consumer health information systems.
Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman; Jeffrey C. Joe; Julie L. Marble
An ongoing issue within human-computer interaction (HCI) is the need for simplified or “discount” methods. The current economic slowdown has necessitated innovative methods that are results driven and cost effective. The myriad methods of design and usability are currently being cost-justified, and new techniques are actively being explored that meet current budgets and needs. Recent efforts in human reliability analysis (HRA) are highlighted by the ten-year development of the Standardized Plant Analysis Risk HRA (SPAR-H) method. The SPAR-H method has been used primarily for determining humancentered risk at nuclear power plants. The SPAR-H method, however, shares task analysis underpinnings with HCI. Despite this methodological overlap, there is currently no HRA approach deployed in heuristic usability evaluation. This paper presents an extension of the existing SPAR-H method to be used as part of heuristic usability evaluation in HCI.
Brunette, Mary F; Geiger, Pamela; Marsch, Lisa A; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Bartels, Stephen J
Background Smoking is one of the top preventable causes of mortality in people with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Cessation treatment improves abstinence outcomes, but access is a barrier. Mobile phone apps are one way to increase access to cessation treatment; however, whether they are usable by people with psychotic disorders, who often have special learning needs, is not known. Objective Researchers reviewed 100 randomly selected apps for smoking cessation to rate them based on US guidelines for nicotine addiction treatment and to categorize them based on app functions. We aimed to test the usability and usefulness of the top-rated apps in 21 smokers with psychotic disorders. Methods We identified 766 smoking cessation apps and randomly selected 100 for review. Two independent reviewers rated each app with the Adherence Index to US Clinical Practice Guideline for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence. Then, smokers with psychotic disorders evaluated the top 9 apps within a usability testing protocol. We analyzed quantitative results using descriptive statistics and t tests. Qualitative data were open-coded and analyzed for themes. Results Regarding adherence to practice guidelines, most of the randomly sampled smoking cessation apps scored poorly—66% rated lower than 10 out of 100 on the Adherence Index (Mean 11.47, SD 11.8). Regarding usability, three common usability problems emerged: text-dense content, abstract symbols on the homepage, and subtle directions to edit features. Conclusions In order for apps to be effective and usable for this population, developers should utilize a balance of text and simple design that facilitate ease of navigation and content comprehension that will help people learn quit smoking skills. PMID:28258047
Kim, M.S.; Shapiro, J.S.; Genes, N.; Aguilar, M.V.; Mohrer, D.; Baumlin, K.; Belden, J.L.
Objectives Employing new health information technologies while concurrently providing quality patient care and reducing risk is a major challenge in all health care sectors. In this study, we investigated the usability gaps in the Emergency Department Information System (EDIS) as ten nurses differentiated by two experience levels, namely six expert nurses and four novice nurses, completed two lists of nine scenario-based tasks. Methods Standard usability tests using video analysis, including four sets of performance measures, a task completion survey, the system usability scale (SUS), and sub-task analysis were conducted in order to analyze usability gaps between the two nurse groups. Results A varying degree of usability gaps were observed between the expert and novice nurse groups, as novice nurses completed the tasks both less efficiently, and expressed less satisfaction with the EDIS. The most interesting finding in this study was the result of ‘percent task success rate,’ the clearest performance measure, with no substantial difference observed between the two nurse groups. Geometric mean values between expert and novice nurse groups for this measure were 60% vs. 62% in scenario 1 and 66% vs. 55% in scenario 2 respectively, while there were some marginal to substantial gaps observed in other performance measures. In addition to performance measures and the SUS, sub-task analysis highlighted navigation pattern differences between users, regardless of experience level. Conclusion This study will serve as a baseline study for a future comparative usability evaluation of EDIS in other institutions with similar clinical settings. PMID:23616905
The NASA Discovery Program of small planetary missions will provide opportunities to continue scientific exploration of the solar system in today's cost-constrained environment. Using a multidisciplinary team, JPL has developed plans to provide mission operations within the financial parameters established by the Discovery Program. This paper describes experiences and methods that show promise of allowing the Discovery Missions to operate within the program cost constraints while maintaining low mission risk, high data quality, and reponsive operations.
Dick, Steven J.
Three decades after Martin Harwit's pioneering Cosmic Discovery (1981), and following on the recent IAU Symposium "Accelerating the Rate of Astronomical Discovery,” we have revisited the problem of discovery in astronomy, emphasizing new classes of objects. 82 such classes have been identified and analyzed, including 22 in the realm of the planets, 36 in the realm of the stars, and 24 in the realm of the galaxies. We find an extended structure of discovery, consisting of detection, interpretation and understanding, each with its own nuances and a microstructure including conceptual, technological and social roles. This is true with a remarkable degree of consistency over the last 400 years of telescopic astronomy, ranging from Galileo's discovery of satellites, planetary rings and star clusters, to the discovery of quasars and pulsars. Telescopes have served as "engines of discovery” in several ways, ranging from telescope size and sensitivity (planetary nebulae and spiral galaxies), to specialized detectors (TNOs) and the opening of the electromagnetic spectrum for astronomy (pulsars, pulsar planets, and most active galaxies). A few classes (radiation belts, the solar wind and cosmic rays), were initially discovered without the telescope. Classification also plays an important role in discovery. While it might seem that classification marks the end of discovery, or a post-discovery phase, in fact it often marks the beginning, even a pre-discovery phase. Nowhere is this more clearly seen than in the classification of stellar spectra, long before dwarfs, giants and supergiants were known, or their evolutionary sequence recognized. Classification may also be part of a post-discovery phase, as in the MK system of stellar classification, constructed after the discovery of stellar luminosity classes. Some classes are declared rather than discovered, as in the case of gas and ice giant planets, and, infamously, Pluto as a dwarf planet.
Background Research in the fields of human performance technology and human computer interaction are challenging the traditional macro focus of usability testing arguing for methods that help test moderators assess “use in context” (ie, cognitive skills, usability understood over time) and in authentic “real world” settings. Human factors in these complex test scenarios may impact on the quality of usability results being derived yet there is a lack of research detailing moderator experiences in these test environments. Most comparative research has focused on the impact of the physical environment on results, and rarely on how the sociotechnical elements of the test environment affect moderator and test user performance. Improving our understanding of moderator roles and experiences with conducting “real world” usability testing can lead to improved techniques and strategies Objective To understand moderator experiences of using Web-conferencing software to conduct remote usability testing of 2 eHealth interventions. Methods An exploratory case study approach was used to study 4 moderators’ experiences using Blackboard Collaborate for remote testing sessions of 2 different eHealth interventions. Data collection involved audio-recording iterative cycles of test sessions, collecting summary notes taken by moderators, and conducting 2 90-minute focus groups via teleconference. A direct content analysis with an inductive coding approach was used to explore personal accounts, assess the credibility of data interpretation, and generate consensus on the thematic structure of the results. Results Following the convergence of data from the various sources, 3 major themes were identified: (1) moderators experienced and adapted to unpredictable changes in cognitive load during testing; (2) moderators experienced challenges in creating and sustaining social presence and untangling dialogue; and (3) moderators experienced diverse technical demands, but were able
Bastien, J M Christian
The aim of this paper is to review some work conducted in the field of user testing that aims at specifying or clarifying the test procedures and at defining and developing tools to help conduct user tests. The topics that have been selected were considered relevant for evaluating applications in the field of medical and health care informatics. These topics are: the number of participants that should take part in a user test, the test procedure, remote usability evaluation, usability testing tools, and evaluating mobile applications.
Arora, Mohit; Dai, Liwei; Price, Kathleen; Vizer, Lisa; Sears, Andrew
Background Computer-mediated educational applications can provide a self-paced, interactive environment to deliver educational content to individuals about their health condition. These programs have been used to deliver health-related information about a variety of topics, including breast cancer screening, asthma management, and injury prevention. We have designed the Patient Education and Motivation Tool (PEMT), an interactive computer-based educational program based on behavioral, cognitive, and humanistic learning theories. The tool is designed to educate users and has three key components: screening, learning, and evaluation. Objective The objective of this tutorial is to illustrate a heuristic evaluation using a computer-based patient education program (PEMT) as a case study. The aims were to improve the usability of PEMT through heuristic evaluation of the interface; to report the results of these usability evaluations; to make changes based on the findings of the usability experts; and to describe the benefits and limitations of applying usability evaluations to PEMT. Methods PEMT was evaluated by three usability experts using Nielsen’s usability heuristics while reviewing the interface to produce a list of heuristic violations with severity ratings. The violations were sorted by heuristic and ordered from most to least severe within each heuristic. Results A total of 127 violations were identified with a median severity of 3 (range 0 to 4 with 0 = no problem to 4 = catastrophic problem). Results showed 13 violations for visibility (median severity = 2), 38 violations for match between system and real world (median severity = 2), 6 violations for user control and freedom (median severity = 3), 34 violations for consistency and standards (median severity = 2), 11 violations for error severity (median severity = 3), 1 violation for recognition and control (median severity = 3), 7 violations for flexibility and efficiency (median severity = 2), 9 violations
Chalil Madathil, Kapil; Greenstein, Joel S
Collaborative virtual reality-based systems have integrated high fidelity voice-based communication, immersive audio and screen-sharing tools into virtual environments. Such three-dimensional collaborative virtual environments can mirror the collaboration among usability test participants and facilitators when they are physically collocated, potentially enabling moderated usability tests to be conducted effectively when the facilitator and participant are located in different places. We developed a virtual collaborative three-dimensional remote moderated usability testing laboratory and employed it in a controlled study to evaluate the effectiveness of moderated usability testing in a collaborative virtual reality-based environment with two other moderated usability testing methods: the traditional lab approach and Cisco WebEx, a web-based conferencing and screen sharing approach. Using a mixed methods experimental design, 36 test participants and 12 test facilitators were asked to complete representative tasks on a simulated online shopping website. The dependent variables included the time taken to complete the tasks; the usability defects identified and their severity; and the subjective ratings on the workload index, presence and satisfaction questionnaires. Remote moderated usability testing methodology using a collaborative virtual reality system performed similarly in terms of the total number of defects identified, the number of high severity defects identified and the time taken to complete the tasks with the other two methodologies. The overall workload experienced by the test participants and facilitators was the least with the traditional lab condition. No significant differences were identified for the workload experienced with the virtual reality and the WebEx conditions. However, test participants experienced greater involvement and a more immersive experience in the virtual environment than in the WebEx condition. The ratings for the virtual
Song, Chenchen; Knöpfel, Thomas
Optogenetics - the use of light and genetics to manipulate and monitor the activities of defined cell populations - has already had a transformative impact on basic neuroscience research. Now, the conceptual and methodological advances associated with optogenetic approaches are providing fresh momentum to neuroscience drug discovery, particularly in areas that are stalled on the concept of 'fixing the brain chemistry'. Optogenetics is beginning to translate and transit into drug discovery in several key domains, including target discovery, high-throughput screening and novel therapeutic approaches to disease states. Here, we discuss the exciting potential of optogenetic technologies to transform neuroscience drug discovery.
Srinivas, Nuggehally R; Mullangi, Ramesh
Bioanalysis is an important aspect of drug discovery process regardless of the chosen therapeutic area. There is a general misconception that bioanalysis is seldom important during the drug discovery process because there is no scrutiny of the data from a regulatory perspective. However, bioanalytical data gathered during the discovery stage enable several key decision(s) inclusive of termination of the program and/or creating adequate differentiation from the lead competitive molecules. The review covers various stage gate screens and experimental designs where bioanalytical data are extensively used for making an informed decision during the process of drug discovery.
Hubble's discoveries have revolutionized nearly all areas of current astronomical research from planetary science to cosmology. Actor and writer Brent Spiner narrates a visual journey back in time ...
Chichester, Christine; Digles, Daniela; Siebes, Ronald; Loizou, Antonis; Groth, Paul; Harland, Lee
Modern data-driven drug discovery requires integrated resources to support decision-making and enable new discoveries. The Open PHACTS Discovery Platform (http://dev.openphacts.org) was built to address this requirement by focusing on drug discovery questions that are of high priority to the pharmaceutical industry. Although complex, most of these frequently asked questions (FAQs) revolve around the combination of data concerning compounds, targets, pathways and diseases. Computational drug discovery using workflow tools and the integrated resources of Open PHACTS can deliver answers to most of these questions. Here, we report on a selection of workflows used for solving these use cases and discuss some of the research challenges. The workflows are accessible online from myExperiment (http://www.myexperiment.org) and are available for reuse by the scientific community.
We wonder what we should do in medical care besides daily routine work as a laboratory technician. I made a discovery in my routine laboratory work, which gave me a theme for my research. This led to me successfully completing a number of scientific research projects, and these experiences have enabled me to be able to give advice on appropriate treatments for infectious diseases in medical care. It was March 1999 when I identified Escherichia coli (E. coli) in an intra-abdominal abscess resistant to antibacterial agents. The E. coli was producing an enzyme, extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL), that breaks down cefem-group antibiotics often used in Japan. Therefore, it was resistant to those antimicrobial agents. Detailed analysis was performed by us and researchers of the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, which revealed that the E. coli had a SHV12 genotype of ESBL. It was the first case report of this type of ESBL-producing E. coli infection in Japan. After this experience, I became interested in searching for the mechanism of resistance to antibiotics with various kinds of approaches, such as a method involving genomic analysis by the polymerase-chain reaction (PCR), therapeutic management of drug-resistant bacterial infection, and so on, through which I learned a series of investigative approaches. Since I had plenty of data and experiences generated from routine work, I could perform novel studies and obtained many interesting findings. I am feeding back these findings to routine work in order to improve my performance. From my experience, we should look for the seeds for research from routine work as much as possible, and knowledge and experience generated by resolving problems teaches us how to perform in a clinical setting. This may lead to the further development of our research, which, in turn, promotes the accumulation of knowledge and experience. This feed-forward cycle enables laboratory technicians to improve their quality of work. This I
Virvou, Maria; Katsionis, George
Educational software games aim at increasing the students' motivation and engagement while they learn. However, if software games are targeted to school classrooms they have to be usable and likeable by all students. Usability of virtual reality games may be a problem because these games tend to have complex user interfaces so that they are more…
Discussion of usability testing of Web interfaces for virtual libraries focuses on a usability study conducted at the University of South Florida. Highlights include testing instruments; discrepancies between actual performance and perceived performance; and the need to use plainer language and less jargon. (LRW)
Broberg, Loretta L.
With the increasing awareness of design and usability issues in regards to websites, in this case tribal college websites, there is an increasing desire to have a set of guidelines to assist in determining design and usability for academic websites. Though there is an overwhelming amount of information available to researchers in this subject area…
Lin, Yi-Chun; Hsieh, Ya-Hui; Hou, Huei-Tse
The development of a usability evaluation method for educational systems or applications, called the self-report-based sequential analysis, is described herein. The method aims to extend the current practice by proposing self-report-based sequential analysis as a new usability method, which integrates the advantages of self-report in survey…
Bush, Jonathan, Ed.; Zuidema, Leah, Ed.
In professional writing, usability testing investigates how well users can find, understand, and use a document (Lannon). Usability testing involves gathering feedback from users, analyzing how successfully they used the document, and drawing on the test results to change or refine the design. From the authors' experiences as writers and teachers,…
Tijani, O. K.
This study investigated usability of educational software: case of "?pón-Ìm?`" in Osun state, Nigeria. Specifically, the study investigated influences of gender and school locations on students' assessment of "?pón-Ìm?`" Technology Enhanced Learning System (OTELS) based on selected usability parameters. 701 students were…
This study aims to investigate the usability level of web site of a university by observing 10 participants who are required to complete 11 tasks, which have been defined by the researchers before to gather data about effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction. System Usability Scale was used to collect data about satisfaction. The research…
Balmer, David C.
This article summarizes the effect of the ASME A18.1 Standard concerning accessibility and usability of Platform Lifts and their remaining technological challenges. While elevators are currently the most effective means of vertical transportation related to speed, capacity, rise and usability, their major drawbacks for accessibility are cost and…
The study substantiates that the effectiveness of Discovery Learning method in learning English Grammar for the learners at standard V. Discovery Learning is particularly beneficial for any student learning a second language. It promotes peer interaction and development of the language and the learning of concepts with content. Reichert and…
Motivated by the question, "What exactly about a mathematical concept should students discover, when they study it via discovery learning?", I present and demonstrate an interpretation of discovery pedagogy that attempts to address its criticism. My approach hinges on decoupling the solution process from its resultant product. Whereas theories of…
Discovery learning in higher education has been reported to be effective in assisting learners to understand difficult concepts and retain long term information. This paper seeks to illustrate how one self assessment model may be used to demonstrate discovery learning in a collaborative atmosphere of students sharing and getting to know each…
Relates the story of Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen and presents one view of the extent to which the discovery of the x-ray was an accident. Reconstructs the sequence of events that led to the discovery and includes photographs of the lab where he worked and replicas of apparatus used. (GS)
Vatsavai, Raju; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Gama, Joao; Chawla, Nitesh; Gaber, Mohamed Medhat; Ganguly, Auroop R
Recent advances in distributed sensor network technology and increasing deployment of such networks to monitor wide variety of dynamic phenomena has opened new opportunities to the knowledge discovery community. Extracting knowledge and emerging patterns from sensor data is a nontrivial task. The challenges for the knowledge discovery community are expected to be immense. On one hand, dynamic data streams or events require real-time analysis methodologies and systems, while on the other hand centralized processing through high end computing is also required for generating offline predictive insights, which in turn can facilitate real-time analysis. In addition, emerging societal problems require knowledge discovery solutions that are designed to investigate anomalies, changes, extremes and nonlinear processes, and departures from the normal. Keeping in view the requirements of the emerging field of knowledge discovery from sensor data, we took initiative to develop a community of researchers with common interests and scientific goals, which culminated into the organization of Sensor-KDD series of workshops in conjunction with the prestigious ACM SIGKDD International Conference of Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. In this chapter we summarize the events of the Second ACM-SIGKDD International Workshop on Knowledge Discovery form Sensor Data (Sensor-KDD 2008).
... and Committee Proceedings § 207.109 Discovery. (a) Discovery methods. All parties may obtain discovery under such terms and limitations as the administrative law judge may order. Discovery may be by one or... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 207.109 Section 207.109 Customs...
.... (b) Methods of discovery. The following methods of discovery are permitted under this section... obtain the information through other discovery methods permitted under this section; or (4) The method or... or a determination of the method of discovery; or (3) Limit the scope of discovery or preclude...
Mostafa, Akram Fathy
The aim of the research is to explore the relation of mobile Blogging (Moblogging -MB) on the usability and development of Knowledge Management skills for Blind Students. The research followed a pretest and posttest quasi experimental design. Participants were 17 blind students from the third semester of the academic year 2015 in the course of…
Baylis, Tristin B; Kushniruk, Andre W; Borycki, Elizabeth M
Usability testing is a step of the usability engineering process that focuses on analyzing and improving user interactions with computer systems. This study was designed to determine if an approach known as Low-Cost Rapid Usability Testing can be introduced as a standard part of the system development lifecycle (SDLC) for health information syste ms in a cost effective manner by completing a full cost-benefit analysis of this testing technique. It was found that by introducing this technique into the system development lifecycle to allow for earlier detection of errors in a health information syste m it is possible for a health organization to achieve an estimated 36.5% to 78.5% cost savings compared to the impact of errors going undetected and potentially causing a technology-induced error. Overall it was found that Low-Cost Rapid Usability Testing can be implemented in a cost effective manner to develop health information systems, and computer systems in general, which will have a lower incidence of technology-induced errors.
Explains Minnesota's Foundations Project, a multiagency collaboration to improve access to environmental and natural resources information. Discusses the use of the Dublin core metadata standard for Web resources and describes three studies that included needs assessment, Bridges Web site user interface, and usability of controlled vocabulary in…
Wikis have been recently promoted as tools that foster collaborative learning. However, there has been little research devoted to the criteria that are suitable to address issues pertinent to collaborative learning. This paper proposes a set of criteria to explore technical and pedagogical usability issues of collaborative learning with wikis. The…
Hurst, Wolfgang; Welte, Martina
Purpose: Playing back recorded lectures on handheld devices offers interesting perspectives for learning, but suffers from small screen sizes. The purpose of this paper is to propose several semi-automatic post-processing steps in order to improve usability by providing a better readability and additional navigation functionality.…
Stinson, Jennifer; Gupta, Abha; Dupuis, France; Dick, Bruce; Laverdière, Caroline; LeMay, Sylvie; Sung, Lillian; Dettmer, Elizabeth; Gomer, Stephanie; Lober, Janie; Chan, Carol Y
The objective of this study was to explore the usability of a bilingual (English and French) Internet-based self-management program for adolescents with cancer and their parents and refine the Internet program. A qualitative study design with semistructured, audio-taped interviews and observation was undertaken with 4 iterative cycles. A purposive sample of English-speaking and French-speaking adolescents with cancer and one of their parents/caregivers was recruited. Adolescents and parents provided similar feedback on how to improve the usability of the Internet program. Most changes to the website were completed after the initial cycles of English and French testing. Both groups also found information presented on the website to be appropriate, credible, and relevant to their experiences of going through cancer. Participants reported the program would have been extremely helpful when they were first diagnosed with cancer. Usability testing uncovered some issues that affected the usability of the website that led to refinements in the online program.
Saita, Asumi; Inoue, Ayako; Ishibashi, Hisashi; Tominaga, Koji; Hori, Satoko; Miki, Akiko; Ohtani, Hisakazu; Ono, Nobuaki; Sawada, Yasufumi
Since patients who used brand-name and generic ketoprofen (KP) tapes dispensed in the Fukuoka City Pharmaceutical Association Pharmacy complained of a difference in feeling between the two products, we conducted a questionnaire survey in patients using KP tapes to determine the usability of brand-name and generic tapes. Patients receiving the brand-name KP tape (product A) and/or a generic KP tape (product B) in our pharmacy were interviewed concerning 20 items including 1) dosage regimen, 2) outer package, 3) liner, 4) the tape itself, and 5) condition of application sites. A significant difference in usability between products A and B was observed in 4 of the 20 items evaluated, i.e., 1) easiness of opening of the outer pouch, 2) easiness of removing the liner film, 3) condition of the application site after removal of the tape, and 4) relief of pain in the target lesion after application. As suggested by patients who had complained of a difference in usability between products A and B, the participants in the survey tended to prefer the brand-name KP tape to the generic product. The findings of the survey indicate that when a brand-name product is switched to generic products, pharmacists should evaluate the usability of such products carefully to select those that will ensure proper drug use by patients.
Saal, Leah Katherine
This article focuses on the quantitative phase of a multiphase mixed methods study investigating adults' and families' access to government food assistance. The research evaluates participants' comprehension of, and ability to, adequately complete authentic complex texts--national food assistance application documents. Summative usability testing…
Aberg, Johan; Shahmehri, Nahid
Discusses electronic commerce and presents the concept of Web assistants, human assistants working in an electronic Web shop. Presents results of a usability study of a prototype adaptive Web assistant system that show users were enthusiastic about the concept of Web assistants and its implications. (Author/LRW)
Mobile technologies are emerging as a valuable tool to collect and assess dietary intake. Adolescents readily accept and adopt new technologies, hence, a food record application (FRapp) may provide an accurate mechanism to monitor dietary intake. We examined the usability of a FRapp in 17 free-livin...
Brusilovsky, Peter; Nijhavan, Hemanta
This paper suggests that a way to the new generation of powerful E-learning systems starts on the crossroads of two emerging fields: courseware re-use and adaptive educational systems. The paper presents the KnowledgeTree, a framework for adaptive E-learning based on distributed re-usable learning activities currently under development. The goal…
Laparra-Hernández, José; Medina, Enric; Sancho, María; Soriano, Carolina; Durá, Juanvi; Barberà-Guillem, Ricard; Poveda-Puente, Rakel
Senior citizens can benefit from banking services but the lack of usability hampers this possibility. New approaches based on physiological response, eye tracking and user movement analysis can provide more information during interface interaction. This research shows the differences depending on user knowledge and use of technology, gender and type of interface.
Sun, Huey-Min; Li, Shang-Phone; Zhu, Yu-Qian; Hsiao, Bo
Technological advance in human-computer interaction has attracted increasing research attention, especially in the field of virtual reality (VR). Prior research has focused on examining the effects of VR on various outcomes, for example, learning and health. However, which factors affect the final outcomes? That is, what kind of VR system design will achieve higher usability? This question remains largely. Furthermore, when we look at VR system deployment from a human-computer interaction (HCI) lens, does user's attitude play a role in achieving the final outcome? This study aims to understand the effect of immersion and involvement, as well as users' regulatory focus on usability for a somatosensory VR learning system. This study hypothesized that regulatory focus and presence can effectively enhance user's perceived usability. Survey data from 78 students in Taiwan indicated that promotion focus is positively related to user's perceived efficiency, whereas involvement and promotion focus are positively related to user's perceived effectiveness. Promotion focus also predicts user satisfaction and overall usability perception.
Revolutionary advancements have been observed in e-learning technologies though an amalgamated evaluation methodology for new generation e-learning content development tools is not available. The evaluation of educational software for online use must consider its usability and as well as its pedagogic effectiveness. This study is a first step…
Gal, Iddo; Prigat, Ayelet
Readability and usability problems with patient information leaflets continue to be reported despite long-standing recognition of their existence and the availability of guidelines for developing health education materials. This exploratory study examined possible causes for such problems, based on interviews with professionals who developed…
Yahaya, Wan Ahmad Jaafar Wan; Salam, Sobihatun Nur Abdul
This paper presents an example of how usability design strategies for children can be designed into educational material using CD-ROM based multimedia application for assisting parents and teachers to develop children's learning and knowledge in decreasing as well as motivate children aged 7-9 years old to reduce their anxious feelings towards…
Chang, Joonho; Jung, Kihyo; Lee, Wonsup; You, Heecheon
The present study developed and tested a new usability evaluation method which considers natural product-use motions. The proposed method measures both natural product-use motions (NMs) and actual product-use motions (AMs) for a product using an optical motion capture system and examines the usability of the product based on motion similarity (MS; %) between NMs and AMs. The proposed method was applied to a usability test of four vacuum cleaners (A, B, C, and D) with 15 participants and their MSs were compared with EMG measurements and subjective discomfort ratings. Cleaners A (44.6%) and C (44.2%) showed higher MSs than cleaners B (42.9%) and D (41.7%); the MSs mostly corresponded to the EMG measurements, which could indicate that AMs deviated from NMs may increase muscular efforts. However, the MSs were slightly different from the corresponding discomfort ratings. The proposed method demonstrated its usefulness in usability testing, but further research is needed with various products to generalize its effectiveness.
Bossaller, Jenny S.; Paul, Anindita; Hill, Heather; Wang, Jiazhen; Erdelez, Sanda
This article describes an "on-the-road" usability study and explains the study's methodological challenges, solutions, and recommendations. The study concerned a library-consortium website, which is a communication and educational tool for librarians who are physically dispersed throughout the state, and an intranet for remote users.…
Zeng, Xiaoming; Sligar, Steven R.
Human resource development programs in various institutions communicate with their constituencies including persons with disabilities through websites. Web sites need to be accessible for legal, economic and ethical reasons. We used an automated web usability evaluation tool, aDesigner, to evaluate 205 home pages from the organizations of AHRD…
Crowther, Michael S.; Keller, Chris C.; Waddoups, Gregory L.
Brigham Young University's Center for Instructional Design (CID) creates online courses and multimedia instructional applications for university faculty. This paper asserts that including usability testing as a part of evaluation improves the quality and effectiveness of computer-mediated instruction. The paper describes the fundamental purpose…
Ballard, Joyce Kimberly
The purpose of this research study was to understand the construct of usability from the perspective of 74 students enrolled in six online courses offered by one online and distance learning program at a large, public university in the Midwest. Six courses, designed and developed by two different groups, professional and nonprofessional…
Olmos-Peñuela, Julia; Benneworth, Paul; Castro-Martínez, Elena
Ambiguity surrounding the effect of external engagement on academic research has raised questions about what motivates researchers to collaborate with third parties. We argue that what matters for society is research that can be absorbed by users. We define "openness" as a willingness by researchers to make research more usable by…
Williams, Peter; Nicholas, David
This paper reports on the "usability" element of a study examining the development of a multimedia Learning Environment (LE) for Special Educational Needs (SEN) students, designed to match learner requirements to learning materials, as elicited from cognitive and accessibility profiles drawn up by teachers and learning support assistants. In…
Turner, Nancy B.
Usability testing on library search tools was conducted with ten students and eighteen library staff members at Syracuse University. The study addressed three research questions: (1) Do the ways in which librarians carry out search tasks on the library Web site vary from those of student users?; (2) Are those variations indicative of different…
Nordin, Abu Bakar; Alias, Norlidah
Today teachers in schools and lecturers in institutions of higher learning are endowed with a wide range of new teaching experiences through web-based teaching and learning approaches (WBTLA), which was not possible before through the traditional classroom approach. With the use of WBTLA emerged problems related to usability in technical,…
With advances in information and communication technologies, the classical nature of educational institutions has changed. One innovative effort within teacher training is the Web-Based School Experience System (WBSES) developed by the researcher. In this study, the usability of an existing WBSES is evaluated from both teachers' (n = 13) and…
Glore, Peyton; David, Alicia
This article reviews research pertaining to the use aesthetics design, and usability in education. This article focuses on defining the role of visual elements and aesthetics in the user interface while exploring the importance of their application in a web-based learning environment. Research demonstrates that aesthetics are pivotal in…
Schmettow, Martin; Schnittker, Raphaela; Schraagen, Jan Maarten
This paper proposes and demonstrates an extended protocol for usability validation testing of medical devices. A review of currently used methods for the usability evaluation of medical devices revealed two main shortcomings. Firstly, the lack of methods to closely trace the interaction sequences and derive performance measures. Secondly, a prevailing focus on cross-sectional validation studies, ignoring the issues of learnability and training. The U.S. Federal Drug and Food Administration's recent proposal for a validation testing protocol for medical devices is then extended to address these shortcomings: (1) a novel process measure 'normative path deviations' is introduced that is useful for both quantitative and qualitative usability studies and (2) a longitudinal, completely within-subject study design is presented that assesses learnability, training effects and allows analysis of diversity of users. A reference regression model is introduced to analyze data from this and similar studies, drawing upon generalized linear mixed-effects models and a Bayesian estimation approach. The extended protocol is implemented and demonstrated in a study comparing a novel syringe infusion pump prototype to an existing design with a sample of 25 healthcare professionals. Strong performance differences between designs were observed with a variety of usability measures, as well as varying training-on-the-job effects. We discuss our findings with regard to validation testing guidelines, reflect on the extensions and discuss the perspectives they add to the validation process.
Oldham, Bonnie W.
As the World Wide Web has advanced since its inception, librarians have endeavored to keep pace with this progress in the design of their library Web pages. User recommendations collected from focus groups and usability testing have indicated that the University of Scranton's Weinberg Memorial Library's Web site was not working as intended, and…
Norman, James J; Arya, Jaya M; McClain, Maxine A; Frew, Paula M; Meltzer, Martin I; Prausnitz, Mark R
While therapeutic drugs are routinely self-administered by patients, there is little precedent for self-vaccination. Convenient self-vaccination may expand vaccination coverage and reduce administration costs. Microneedle patches are in development for many vaccines, but no reports exist on usability or acceptability. We hypothesized that naïve patients could apply patches and that self-administered patches would improve stated intent to receive an influenza vaccine. We conducted a randomized, repeated measures study with 91 venue-recruited adults. To simulate vaccination, subjects received placebo microneedle patches given three times by self-administration and once by the investigator, as well as an intramuscular injection of saline. Seventy participants inserted patches with thumb pressure alone and the remainder used snap-based devices that closed shut at a certain force. Usability was assessed by skin staining and acceptability was measured with an adaptive-choice analysis. The best usability was seen with the snap device, with users inserting a median value of 93-96% of microneedles over three repetitions. When a self-administered microneedle patch was offered, intent to vaccinate increased from 44% to 65% (CI: 55-74%). The majority of those intending vaccination would prefer to self-vaccinate: 64% (CI: 51-75%). There were no serious adverse events associated with use of microneedle patches. The findings from this initial study indicate that microneedle patches for self-vaccination against influenza are usable and may lead to improved vaccination coverage.
Chan, Albert P; Yang, Yang; Song, Wen-Fang
Purpose -The provision of appropriate personal cooling vests is recognized as an effective measure to combat heat stress. However, personal cooling vests are not widely implemented in the Hong Kong industries. The current study aims to evaluate the usability of a hybrid cooling vest that is associated with the success of its application in industrial settings. Materials and methods - A self-administrated questionnaire focusing on 10 subjective attributes of cooling effect, ergonomic design, and usability of a hybrid cooling vest was administered with 232 occupational workers in the construction, horticultural and cleaning, airport apron services and kitchen and catering industries. Results - A structural equation model estimated by analysis of moment structures was constructed to evaluate the usability of the cooling vest, as influenced by cooling effect and ergonomic design. Results showed that cooling effect (path coefficient = 0.69, p < 0.001) and ergonomic design (path coefficient = 0.55, p < 0.001) significantly affect the usability of the cooling vest. Conclusions - The structural equation model is feasible to examine the complex nature of the structural relationships among the subjective perceptions on personal cooling vests. The empirical findings furnish sound evidence for further optimization of the hybrid cooling vest in terms of cooling effect and ergonomic design for occupational workers.
Moumane, Karima; Idri, Ali; Abran, Alain
This paper presents an empirical study based on a set of measures to evaluate the usability of mobile applications running on different mobile operating systems, including Android, iOS and Symbian. The aim is to evaluate empirically a framework that we have developed on the use of the Software Quality Standard ISO 9126 in mobile environments, especially the usability characteristic. To do that, 32 users had participated in the experiment and we have used ISO 25062 and ISO 9241 standards for objective measures by working with two widely used mobile applications: Google Apps and Google Maps. The QUIS 7.0 questionnaire have been used to collect measures assessing the users' level of satisfaction when using these two mobile applications. By analyzing the results we highlighted a set of mobile usability issues that are related to the hardware as well as to the software and that need to be taken into account by designers and developers in order to improve the usability of mobile applications.
David, Alicia; Glore, Peyton
This article surveys research in the areas of aesthetics and design, usability, visual aesthetics in education, and recent statistics related to online education. The focus of the article is on defining the role of visual content and aesthetics in the user interface and exploring what importance aesthetics and visual content have to education.…
Augustine, Susan; Greene, Courtney
Discusses results of a usability study at the University of Illinois Chicago that investigated whether Internet search engines have influenced the way students search library Web sites. Results show students use the Web site's internal search engine rather than navigating through the pages; have difficulty interpreting library terminology; and…
Hyman, Jack Alan
An increasing number of technologies and applications have begun to focus on mobile computing and the wireless Web as a way to conduct commerce-oriented transactions. M-commerce Websites that are usability friendly must emphasize information quality, system quality, and service quality, as these are proxy measures to mobile commerce user…
This study was undertaken to determine the level of understanding of Gold Coast general practitioners (GPs) pertaining to such criteria as reliability, interactive and usability components associated with health websites. These are important considerations due to the increased levels of computer and World Wide Web (WWW)/Internet use and health…
Lin, Carolyn A; Neafsey, Patricia J; Anderson, Elizabeth
This study tested the usability of a touch-screen-enabled Personal Education Program with advanced practice RNs. The Personal Education Program is designed to enhance medication adherence and reduce adverse self-medication behaviors in older adults with hypertension. An iterative research process was used, which involved the use of (1) pretrial focus groups to guide the design of system information architecture, (2) two different cycles of think-aloud trials to test the software interface, and (3) post-trial focus groups to gather feedback on the think-aloud studies. Results from this iterative usability-testing process were used to systematically modify and improve the three Personal Education Program prototype versions-the pilot, prototype 1, and prototype 2. Findings contrasting the two separate think-aloud trials showed that APRN users rated the Personal Education Program system usability, system information, and system-use satisfaction at a moderately high level between trials. In addition, errors using the interface were reduced by 76%, and the interface time was reduced by 18.5% between the two trials. The usability-testing processes used in this study ensured an interface design adapted to APRNs' needs and preferences to allow them to effectively use the computer-mediated health-communication technology in a clinical setting.
Oakley, N.; Daudert, B.
Accessing scientific data through an online portal can be a frustrating task. The concept of making web interfaces easy to use known as "usability" has been thoroughly researched in the field of e-commerce but has not been explicitly addressed in the atmospheric sciences. As more observation stations are installed, satellite missions flown, models run, and field campaigns performed, large amounts of data are produced. Portals on the Internet have become the favored mechanisms to share this information and are ever increasing in number. Portals are often created without being tested for usability with the target audience though the expenses of testing are low and the returns high. To remain competitive and relevant in the provision of atmospheric data, it is imperative that developers understand design elements of a successful portal to make their product stand out among others. This presentation informs the audience of the benefits and basic principles of usability for web pages presenting atmospheric data. We will also share some of the best practices and recommendations we have formulated from the results of usability testing performed on two data provision web sites hosted by the Western Regional Climate Center.
Erickson, William; Trerise, Sharon; Lee, Camille; VanLooy, Sara; Knowlton, Samuel; Bruyère, Susanne
Thirty community college websites were evaluated for compliance with federal web accessibility standards found in Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 794d). Two typical sites were tested for usability by individuals with visual impairments, individuals with reading-related learning disabilities (LD), and a control group of…
Hamerlinck, J. D.
In 1995, the concept of ‘naive geography’ was formally introduced as an area of cognitive geographic information science representing ‘the body of knowledge that people have about the surrounding geographic world’ and reflecting ‘the way people think and reason about geographic space and time, both consciously and subconsciously’. The need to incorporate such commonsense knowledge and reasoning into design of geospatial technologies was identified but faced challenges in formalizing these relationships and processes in software implementation. Ten years later, the Google Earth geobrowser was released, marking the beginning of a new era of open access to, and application of, geographic data and information in society. Fast-forward to today, and the opportunity presents itself to take stock of twenty years of naive geography and a decade of the ubiquitous virtual globe. This paper introduces an ongoing research effort to explore the integration of naive (or commonsense) geography concepts in the Google Earth geobrowser virtual globe and their possible impact on Google Earth's usability, utility, and usefulness. A multi-phase methodology is described, combining usability reviews and usability testing with use-case scenarios involving the U.S.-Canadian Yellowstone to Yukon Initiative. Initial progress on a usability review combining cognitive walkthroughs and heuristics evaluation is presented.
Tang, Tiffany Y.; Winoto, Pinata; Leung, Hareton
A number of research studies have focused on the usability of groupware in supporting collaborative work. Unfortunately, our understanding of their impact on collaborative learning is still limited due to a lack of attention on this issue. The majority of educators and designers in Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) expect…
Carroll, John M.; Jiang, Hao; Borge, Marcela
Teams of students in an upper-division undergraduate Usability Engineering course used a collaborative environment to carry out a series of three distributed collaborative homework assignments. Assignments were case-based analyses structured using a jigsaw design; students were provided a collaborative software environment and introduced to a…
Miranda, E. N.
The temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity is taken into account to study the energy change in a capacitor that follows a cycle between a cold and a hot thermal reservoir. There is a net energy gain in the process that, in principle, can be transformed into usable work. The paper is simple enough as to be used with keen…
Akayuure, Peter; Apawu, Jones
The study was designed to engage prospective mathematics teachers in creating web learning modules. The aim was to examine the mathematical task and perceived pedagogical usability of the modules for mathematics instructions in Ghana. The study took place at University of Education, Winneba. Classes of 172 prospective mathematics teachers working…
This paper presents the pedagogical usability criteria for evaluating the digital learning material. Pedagogical aspects of designing or using digital learning material are much less frequently studied than technical ones. Further, there are relatively few inventories measuring subjective end-user satisfaction with the pedagogical aspects of…
Argues that the prevailing computer science orientation to data visualizations is severely limited for addressing usability concerns associated with supporting users in three critical problem areas: sophisticated visual literacy, complex data analysis, and new paradigms of visual inquiry. Argues that current object-oriented usability…
Nordin, Norazah; Zakaria, Effandi; Mohamed, Nik Rahimah Nik; Embi, Mohamed Amin
Teacher played an important role in ascertaining effective teaching of mathematics. The objective of this paper was to investigate the pedagogical usability of a digital module prototype that integrated a dynamic geometry software, Geometer's Sketchpad (GSP) in mathematics teaching. The prototype was developed based on Reiser's and Dick's…
Huang, Chung-Kai; Hsin, Ching-O; Chiu, Chiung-Hui
With the widespread availability of Internet and computer technology, on-line web-based learning has become prevalent in the field of teaching Chinese as a second/foreign language (CSL/CFL). This study examined the concepts of usability and types of design elements that help construct an effective web-based learning environment, as well as their…
Balas, Janet L.
In days that seem very long ago, when the card catalog was the only way to search a library's collection, there was very little debate about the usability of the catalog. Librarians were most concerned about properly formatting catalog cards and, of course, ensuring that the cards were filed correctly. Today, the card catalog has been replaced in…
al-Muslim, M.; Arifin, Zamri
Evaluation of the quality of Arabic education in Malaysia needs to be conducted on a continuous basis to achieve the objectives of Arabic education. Student Evaluation of Education Quality (SEEQ) was proposed as one of the evaluation instruments of the quality of Arabic education. This study aimed to evaluate the usability of SEEQ in the context…
Sonsteby, Alec; DeJonghe, Jennifer
Usability testing has become a routine way for many libraries to ensure that their Web presence is user-friendly and accessible. At the same time, popular subject guide creation systems, such as LibGuides, decentralize Web content creation and put authorship into the hands of librarians who may not be trained in user-centered design principles. At…
Whang, Michael; Ring, Donna M.
Three sources indicated the need for designing a usability study of the Western Michigan University Libraries' Web site: the results of the 2004 LibQUAL+ survey; the completion of the library's new strategic planning document; and suggestions by library customers and library staff. LibQUAL+ findings and customer comments suggested customers…
In this paper, data obtained from a university website accessibility and usability validation process are analyzed and used to demonstrate how the design process can affect the online experience for users with disabilities. Interviews, observations, and use data (e.g. where users clicked on a page or what path taken through a site) were collected.…
Wagner, Jennifer; Vanderheiden, Gregg C.; Sesto, Mary E.
This study investigated improving the usability of a mainstream cell phone for use by individuals with low vision by providing a means to display the text of the keys in large print on the phone's screen. Two enlarging techniques (suspend and display and delay and display) were developed, and the programs were loaded into the cell phone. The…
Zapata, Belén Cruz; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Idri, Ali; Toval, Ambrosio
The release of smartphones and tablets, which offer more advanced communication and computing capabilities, has led to the strong emergence of mHealth on the market. mHealth systems are being used to improve patients' lives and their health, in addition to facilitating communication between doctors and patients. Researchers are now proposing mHealth applications for many health conditions such as dementia, autism, dysarthria, Parkinson's disease, and so on. Usability becomes a key factor in the adoption of these applications, which are often used by people who have problems when using mobile devices and who have a limited experience of technology. The aim of this paper is to investigate the empirical usability evaluation processes described in a total of 22 selected studies related to mHealth applications by means of a Systematic Literature Review. Our results show that the empirical evaluation methods employed as regards usability could be improved by the adoption of automated mechanisms. The evaluation processes should also be revised to combine more than one method. This paper will help researchers and developers to create more usable applications. Our study demonstrates the importance of adapting health applications to users' need.
Kim, Sara; Brock, Douglas; Orkand, Adam; Astion, Michael
Describes a usability study conducted with health sciences students at the University of Washington that explored interface issues in the GramStain Tutor, an educational software program on CD-ROM, particularly the navigation of the program and the use of embedded design features. (LRW)
Segall, Noa; Doolen, Toni L.; Porter, J. David
In the last few years, schools and universities have incorporated personal digital assistants (PDAs) into their teaching curricula in an attempt to enhance students' learning experience and reduce instructors' workload. One of the most common uses of PDAs in the classroom is as a test administrator. This study compared the usability effectiveness,…
Modern academic libraries have a great number of information resources available online in the form of electronic catalogs, books, journals, and subject subscription databases. To determine whether users can easily retrieve the information they are seeking, academic librarians conduct usability testing of their libraries' Web sites. There has been…
Alexander, Gregory L; Wakefield, Bonnie J; Anbari, Allison B; Lyons, Vanessa; Prentice, Donna; Shepherd, Marilyn; Strecker, E Bradley; Weston, Marla J
National leaders are calling for opportunities to facilitate the Future of Nursing. Opportunities can be encouraged through state nurses association Web sites, which are part of the American Nurses Association, that are well designed, with appropriate content, and in a language professional nurses understand. The American Nurses Association and constituent state nurses associations provide information about nursing practice, ethics, credentialing, and health on Web sites. We conducted usability evaluations to determine compliance with heuristic and ethical principles for Web site design. We purposefully sampled 27 nursing association Web sites and used 68 heuristic and ethical criteria to perform systematic usability assessments of nurse association Web sites. Web site analysis included seven double experts who were all RNs trained in usability analysis. The extent to which heuristic and ethical criteria were met ranged widely from one state that met 0% of the criteria for "help and documentation" to states that met greater than 92% of criteria for "visibility of system status" and "aesthetic and minimalist design." Suggested improvements are simple yet make an impact on a first-time visitor's impression of the Web site. For example, adding internal navigation and tracking features and providing more details about the application process through help and frequently asked question documentation would facilitate better use. Improved usability will improve effectiveness, efficiency, and consumer satisfaction with these Web sites.
McMillen, Paula S.; Pehrsson, Dale-Elizabeth
Technology proficiency expectations have proliferated in counselor education; however, limited information in the counseling literature details how to effectively evaluate or refine online resources from a design/utility standpoint. This description of a small-scale usability study demonstrates a cost-effective strategy for improving counselor…
This article describes the card-sorting techniques used by several academic libraries, reports and discusses the results of card-sorting usability tests of the Western Michigan University Libraries' Web site, and reveals how the WMU libraries incorporated the findings into a new Web site redesign, setting the design direction early on. The article…
Koch, Gina; Wakefield, Bonnie J; Alexander, Gregory L; Wilson, Melissa A; Becker, Colleen
The American Nurses Association supports professional nurses through Web sites administered by state nursing associations, providing important information for current and potential members. Optimal usability of these Web sites is critical for nurses to obtain the information they seek. Heuristic evaluations are general criteria used to evaluate the usability of technology such as Web sites. A study published in 2014, using heuristic criteria from Nielsen's 10 principles and Health on The Web, evaluated 27 state nursing Web sites to identify usability concerns that could prevent nurses from obtaining accurate information regarding state nursing practice. The purpose of this study is to conduct a second heuristic evaluation to assess for changes in a subset of 12 Web sites. The analysis comparing the evaluation from 2012 to 2014 found that mean scores increased and variance decreased; however, no statistically significant difference was found between the two studies. Scores increased in 2014 for "help users to diagnose, and recover from errors," "match between the system and real world," and "consistency and standards." Scores decreased due to absence of mission statements and identification of intended audience. Ideally, Web site designers will use the feedback from this study and make changes that improve their usability to provide information to nurses.