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Sample records for discriminates chromophobe renal

  1. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid transformation.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, Neil A; Ayala, Alberto G; Czerniak, Bogdan

    2003-10-01

    We present a rare case of a chromophobe renal cell carcinoma that progressed to a high-grade spindle cell sarcoma. The tumor affected a 50-year-old man who had presented with right upper quadrant discomfort and hematuria and subsequently underwent a right radical nephrectomy. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of two distinct components, a chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and a sarcomatoid component. The sarcomatoid component had exhibited aggressive behavior by spreading to a regional lymph node. This case report shows that chromophobe carcinoma can develop a sarcomatoid transformation with a high propensity for invasive growth and metastasis.

  2. The somatic genomic landscape of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Caleb F.; Ricketts, Christopher; Wang, Min; Yang, Lixing; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Shen, Hui; Buhay, Christian; Kang, Hyojin; Kim, Sang Cheol; Fahey, Catherine C.; Hacker, Kathryn E.; Bhanot, Gyan; Gordenin, Dmitry A.; Chu, Andy; Gunaratne, Preethi H.; Biehl, Michael; Seth, Sahil; Kaipparettu, Benny A.; Bristow, Christopher A.; Donehower, Lawrence A.; Wallen, Eric M.; Smith, Angela B.; Tickoo, Satish K.; Tamboli, Pheroze; Reuter, Victor; Schmidt, Laura S.; Hsieh, James J.; Choueiri, Toni K.; Hakimi, A. Ari; Chin, Lynda; Meyerson, Matthew; Kucherlapati, Raju; Park, Woong-Yang; Robertson, A. Gordon; Laird, Peter W.; Henske, Elizabeth P.; Kwiatkowski, David J.; Park, Peter J.; Morgan, Margaret; Shuch, Brian; Muzny, Donna; Wheeler, David A.; Linehan, W. Marston; Gibbs, Richard A.; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Creighton, Chad J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary We describe the landscape of somatic genomic alterations of 66 chromophobe renal cell carcinomas (ChRCCs) based on multidimensional and comprehensive characterization, including mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and whole genome sequencing. The result is consistent that ChRCC originates from the distal nephron compared to other kidney cancers with more proximal origins. Combined mtDNA and gene expression analysis implicates changes in mitochondrial function as a component of the disease biology, while suggesting alternative roles for mtDNA mutations in cancers relying on oxidative phosphorylation. Genomic rearrangements lead to recurrent structural breakpoints within TERT promoter region, which correlates with highly elevated TERT expression and manifestation of kataegis, representing a mechanism of TERT up-regulation in cancer distinct from previously-observed amplifications and point mutations. PMID:25155756

  3. The somatic genomic landscape of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Davis, Caleb F; Ricketts, Christopher J; Wang, Min; Yang, Lixing; Cherniack, Andrew D; Shen, Hui; Buhay, Christian; Kang, Hyojin; Kim, Sang Cheol; Fahey, Catherine C; Hacker, Kathryn E; Bhanot, Gyan; Gordenin, Dmitry A; Chu, Andy; Gunaratne, Preethi H; Biehl, Michael; Seth, Sahil; Kaipparettu, Benny A; Bristow, Christopher A; Donehower, Lawrence A; Wallen, Eric M; Smith, Angela B; Tickoo, Satish K; Tamboli, Pheroze; Reuter, Victor; Schmidt, Laura S; Hsieh, James J; Choueiri, Toni K; Hakimi, A Ari; Chin, Lynda; Meyerson, Matthew; Kucherlapati, Raju; Park, Woong-Yang; Robertson, A Gordon; Laird, Peter W; Henske, Elizabeth P; Kwiatkowski, David J; Park, Peter J; Morgan, Margaret; Shuch, Brian; Muzny, Donna; Wheeler, David A; Linehan, W Marston; Gibbs, Richard A; Rathmell, W Kimryn; Creighton, Chad J

    2014-09-08

    We describe the landscape of somatic genomic alterations of 66 chromophobe renal cell carcinomas (ChRCCs) on the basis of multidimensional and comprehensive characterization, including mtDNA and whole-genome sequencing. The result is consistent that ChRCC originates from the distal nephron compared with other kidney cancers with more proximal origins. Combined mtDNA and gene expression analysis implicates changes in mitochondrial function as a component of the disease biology, while suggesting alternative roles for mtDNA mutations in cancers relying on oxidative phosphorylation. Genomic rearrangements lead to recurrent structural breakpoints within TERT promoter region, which correlates with highly elevated TERT expression and manifestation of kataegis, representing a mechanism of TERT upregulation in cancer distinct from previously observed amplifications and point mutations.

  4. c-Met in chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Erlmeier, Franziska; Ivanyi, Philipp; Hartmann, Arndt; Autenrieth, Michael; Wiedemann, Max; Weichert, Wilko; Steffens, Sandra

    2017-02-01

    c-Met plays a role as a prognostic marker in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. In addition, recently the tyrosine kinase inhibitor cabozantinib targeting c-Met was approved for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In contrast to clear cell RCC, little is known about c-Met expression patterns in rarer RCC subtypes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, distribution and prognostic impact of c-Met expression on chromophobe (ch)RCC. Patients who underwent renal surgery due to chRCC were retrospectively evaluated. Tumor specimens were analyzed for c-Met expression by immunohistochemistry. Expression data were associated with clinicopathological parameters including patient survival. Eighty-one chRCC patients were eligible for analysis. Twenty-four (29.6%) patients showed a high c-Met expression (c-Met(high), staining intensity higher than median). Our results showed an association between c-Met(high) expression and the existence of lymph node metastasis (p = 0.007). No further significant clinicopathological associations with c-Met were identified, also regarding c-Met expression and overall survival. In conclusion, to our knowledge this is the first study evaluating the prognostic impact of c-Met in a considerably large cohort of chRCC. High c-Met expression is associated with the occurrence of lymph node metastasis. This indicates that c-Met might be implicated into metastatic progression in chRCC.

  5. Genetic alterations of HER genes in chromophobe renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    WENG, WEN HUI; CHEN, YING TZU; YU, KAI JIE; CHANG, YING HSU; CHUANG, CHENG KENG; PANG, SEE TONG

    2016-01-01

    Chromophobe (ch) renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the 3rd most common subtype of RCC and occurs in 5% of all RCCs. Although chRCC generally demonstrates more favorable outcomes compared with other subtypes of RCC, there is a 6–7% probability of tumor progression and metastasis in this disease. The subclassification of a more aggressive subtype of chRCC may be useful for the management of this cancer. The Erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 [also known as human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) 2] gene has been reported to be important in chRCC. The present study aimed to further investigate the abnormalities of the HER family genes and their potential association with chRCC. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on 11 chRCC tissue specimens, and the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient analysis was used to assess the results. The loss of one copy of the HER2 and HER4 genes was observed to be the major alteration of the tumor cells in all chRCC cases. Statistical data indicated that loss of the HER2 gene was strongly correlated with loss of the HER4 gene (P=0.019). The findings of previous studies were also combined for analysis, and were consistent with those of the present study. In addition, the amplification of HER1 was also strongly correlated with the amplification of HER4 (P=0.004). Furthermore, a high percentage of genetic structural rearrangements was observed in HER3 genes, which was significantly associated with amplification of HER2 (P=0.005). Certain alterations in the HER gene family were also noted as a phenomenom in chRCC. Therefore, the characterization of the underlying aberrant functions of HER genes may be of interest for additional studies in the context of using HER genes to distinguish between RCC subtypes in order to establish improved treatment guidelines. PMID:26998131

  6. Temsirolimus Is Highly Effective as Third-Line Treatment in Chromophobe Renal Cell Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zardavas, Dimitrios; Meisel, Alexander; Samaras, Panagiotis; Knuth, Alexander; Renner, Christoph; Pestalozzi, Bernhard C.; Stenner-Liewen, Frank

    2011-01-01

    We report unexpectedly high efficacy of temsirolimus as third-line treatment in a patient with metastatic chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. After failure of two sequentially administered tyrosine kinase inhibitors, treatment with temsirolimus resulted in a prolonged partial remission of 14 months, and the response is still continuing. Up to now, no data from randomized clinical studies have been published addressing the question of efficacy of temsirolimus as third-line treatment after failure of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The case presented here implies that temsirolimus could be a viable option for patients with metastatic chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. PMID:21526001

  7. Temsirolimus is highly effective as third-line treatment in chromophobe renal cell cancer.

    PubMed

    Zardavas, Dimitrios; Meisel, Alexander; Samaras, Panagiotis; Knuth, Alexander; Renner, Christoph; Pestalozzi, Bernhard C; Stenner-Liewen, Frank

    2011-01-15

    We report unexpectedly high efficacy of temsirolimus as third-line treatment in a patient with metastatic chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. After failure of two sequentially administered tyrosine kinase inhibitors, treatment with temsirolimus resulted in a prolonged partial remission of 14 months, and the response is still continuing. Up to now, no data from randomized clinical studies have been published addressing the question of efficacy of temsirolimus as third-line treatment after failure of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The case presented here implies that temsirolimus could be a viable option for patients with metastatic chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

  8. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma in a pediatric living-related kidney transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Greco, Andres J; Baluarte, Jorge H; Meyers, Kevin E C; Sellers, Marty T; Suchi, Mariko; Biegel, Jaclyn A; Kaplan, Bernard S

    2005-06-01

    Renal cell carcinoma can occur in children who have received renal allografts from adults. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma is a rare variant of renal carcinoma with distinct histochemical, ultrastructural, and genetic characteristics. We describe the incidental finding of a chromophobe renal cell carcinoma in a 13 1/2-year-old boy 5 years after receiving a living-related renal transplant. This tumor was found by serendipity during the evaluation of fever and inguinal lymphadenopathy, with the presumptive diagnosis of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder. The patient was found to have cat-scratch disease. A renal cell carcinoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a pediatric recipient of an adult kidney with an incidental finding of a tumor in the graft.

  9. An atypical case of dermatomyositis associated with chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    George, Michael David; Lahouti, Arash H; Christopher-Stine, Lisa

    2016-01-19

    Dermatomyositis and polymyositis are the major idiopathic inflammatory myopathies in adults. They are associated with an elevated risk of malignancy. However, renal tumours have rarely been described in dermatomyositis patients. We report the case of a 27-year-old Caucasian man with chromophobe renal cell cancer (ChRCC) and antinuclear matrix protein (NXP-2)-associated dermatomyositis. To the best of our knowledge, there are no previous reports of ChRCC presenting with dermatomyositis.

  10. Dysregulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway in chromophobe renal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Chaux, Alcides; Albadine, Roula; Schultz, Luciana; Hicks, Jessica; Carducci, Michael A; Argani, Pedram; Allaf, Mohamad; Netto, George J

    2013-10-01

    Targeted therapy in advanced clear cell renal cell carcinomas (RCC) is now an established modality. The latter is in stark contrast to non-clear cell subtypes. We explored the translational support for the use of antagonists of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the vascular endothelial growth factor pathways in chromophobe RCC. The immunoexpression of PTEN, phos-AKT, phosphorylated S6 (phos-S6), 4EBP1, p27, c-MYC, and HIF-1α was evaluated in 33 patients with chromophobe RCC who were treated by partial/radical nephrectomy without adjuvant therapy. PTEN was lower in tumor than in normal kidney (P<.001), and loss of PTEN expression was found in 67% of the tumors. In tumor tissues, phos-S6 and 4EBP1 were higher than in normal kidney (P≤.005). Conversely, scores of p27 were lower in tumor than in normal kidney (P<.001). Finally, scores of phos-AKT, c-MYC, and HIF-1α were not significantly different in tumor and in normal kidney. Overall mortality and cancer-specific mortality were 9% and 0%, respectively. Multifocal tumors had higher levels of PTEN, phos-AKT, and HIF-1α (P≤.01). None of the clinicopathologic variables (age, ethnicity, gender, pT stage, tumor size, multifocality, and positive surgical margins) was associated with outcome. Similarly, none of the tested biomarkers predicted overall mortality, either in unadjusted or adjusted Cox regression models. In summary, our study provides new evidence of dysregulation of the mTOR pathway in chromophobe RCC. Immunohistochemistry for mTOR pathway and hypoxia-induced pathway members lacked prognostic significance in our cohort.

  11. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma with liposarcomatous dedifferentiation - report of a unique case

    PubMed Central

    Petersson, Fredrik; Michal, Michal; Franco, Marcello; Hes, Ondrej

    2010-01-01

    Sarcomatous transformation of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (CRCC) is a well recognized phenomenon. Of the published cases with sarcomatous transformation of CRCC, none have shown liposarcomatous differentiation. Out of a cohort of 250 cases of CRCC, 19 (7.6%) showed sarcomatous differentiation. In one case (female, age 46 years), the sarcomatous component of the tumor displayed histological features of a pleomorphic liposar-coma. Light microscopic examination revealed a biphasic pattern with a chromophobe renal cell carcinoma(CRCC) and a high-grade sarcomatous component containing large pleomorphic lipoblasts. In several areas both components were intermingled. The conventional CRCC component showed classic histological features with calcifications, medium-sized polygonal cells arranged in solid-alveolar structures with raisinoid nuclei, pale-eosinophilic flocculent cytoplasm with perinuclear haloes. In addition, a microcystic-adenomatous component had luminal spaces filled with erythrocytes. The CRCC was positive with Hale's colloidal iron-stain whereas the sarcomatous component was negative. The CRCC component was diffusely positive for cytokeratin 7, parvalbumin and racemase but negative for cy-tokeratin 20, vimentin, CD10, carboanhydrase IX and S100-protein. The pleomorphic liposarcomatous component displayed immunereactivity for CD10, vimentin, racemase and focally for carboanhydrase IX. The proliferative activity (Mib-1/Ki-67) was 5% in the CRCC and 30% in the pleomorphic liposarcomatous component. No immunereactivity for MDM2 or CDK4 was detected.This is the first reported case of a sarcomatoid CRCC where the sarcomatous component displayed features of a pleomorphic liposarcoma. The patient died from widespread metastatic disease 12 months after nephrectomy. PMID:20606735

  12. Genomics of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma: implications from a rare tumor for pan-cancer studies

    PubMed Central

    Rathmell, Kimryn W.; Chen, Fengju; Creighton, Chad J.

    2015-01-01

    Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma (ChRCC) is a rare subtype of the renal cell carcinomas, a heterogenous group of cancers arising from the nephron. Recently, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) profiled this understudied disease using multiple data platforms, including whole exome sequencing, whole genome sequencing (WGS), and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing. The insights gained from this study would have implications for other types of kidney cancer as well as for cancer biology in general. Global molecular patterns in ChRCC provided clues as to this cancer's cell of origin, which is distinct from that of the other renal cell carcinomas, illustrating an approach that might be applied towards elucidating the cell of origin of other cancer types. MtDNA sequencing revealed loss-of-function mutations in NADH dehydrogenase subunits, highlighting the role of deregulated metabolism in this and other cancers. Analysis of WGS data led to the discovery of recurrent genomic rearrangements involving TERT promoter region, which were associated with very high expression levels of TERT, pointing to a potential mechanism for TERT deregulation that might be found in other cancers. WGS data, generated by large scale efforts such as TCGA and the International Cancer Genomics Consortium (ICGC), could be more extensively mined across various cancer types, to uncover structural variants, mtDNA mutations, themes of tumor metabolic properties, as well as noncoding point mutations. TCGA's data on ChRCC should continue to serve as a resource for future pan-cancer as well as kidney cancer studies, and highlight the value of investigations into rare tumor types to globally inform principals of cancer biology. PMID:25859550

  13. PD-L2: A prognostic marker in chromophobe renal cell carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Erlmeier, Franziska; Weichert, Wilko; Autenrieth, Michael; Wiedemann, Max; Schrader, Andres Jan; Hartmann, Arndt; Ivanyi, Philipp; Steffens, Sandra

    2017-05-01

    In the context of cancer immunotherapy, PD-1 as well as PD-L1 has been widely studied in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). PD-1 and PD-L1 play a significant role as prognostic markers in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. In contrast, little is known about PD-L2 expression patterns in RCC, especially in rarer subtypes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, distribution and prognostic impact of PD-L2 expression in chromophobe (ch)RCC. Eighty-one patients who underwent renal surgery due to chRCC were retrospectively evaluated. Tumor specimens were analyzed for PD-L2 expression by immunohistochemistry. Expression data were associated with clinicopathological parameters and overall survival (OS). Twenty-three (28.4%) patients showed a PD-L2 > median (PD-L2 high) staining intensity. No significant association between clinicopathological parameters and PD-L2 expression was identified. A significant difference between 5- and 10-year OS in dependence of PD-L2 expression was found (PD-L2 low 96.4 and 87.7% vs. PD-L2 high 87.1 and 56%; log rank, p = 0.029). However, in multivariate analysis PD-L2 expression failed to be proofed as an independent prognostic factor. In conclusion, to our knowledge this is the first study evaluating the prognostic impact of PD-L2 in a considerably large cohort of chRCC. Our results showed a significant diminished OS in dependence of PD-L2 expression. This implicates that PD-L2 might play a role as prognostic marker in chRCC demanding further evaluation.

  14. LMP2, a novel immunohistochemical marker to distinguish renal oncocytoma from the eosinophilic variant of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Gang; Chaux, Alcides; Sharma, Rajni; Netto, George; Caturegli, Patrizio

    2013-02-01

    LMP2 is a subunit of the immunoproteasome that is overexpressed in oncocytic lesions of the thyroid gland. This study was designed to assess the expression profile and diagnostic utility of LMP2 in two renal oncocytic tumors that share similar morphologic features but have different clinical outcomes: renal oncocytoma (RO) and the eosinophilic variant of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (CHRCC-EO). A total of 56 RO, 38 classic CHRCC, and 7 CHRCC-EO cases, as well 84 normal kidney controls, were selected from the Johns Hopkins surgical pathology archive and stained for LMP2 using a standard immunohistochemical protocol. Sections were scored for cellular location (nuclear versus cytosolic), intensity (from 0 to 3), and percent of area involved (from 0 to 100%), and an H score was calculated multiplying the intensity by the extent of the staining signal. The cytoplasmic expression of LMP2 was similar among the renal lesions, being present in 44 of 56 (79%) ROs, 27 of 38 (71%) CHRCCs, and 7 of 7 (100%) CHRCC-EO cases. The nuclear expression of LMP2, however, was more informative. All CHRCC-EO cases (7 of 7, 100%) strongly showed nuclear LMP2 staining, as opposed to only 2 of 56 (4%, P<0.0001) ROs and 9 of 38 (24%, P=0.0001) classic CHRCCs. These results suggest that the nuclear LMP2 expression can be used in clinical scenarios where histological distinction between RO and CHRCC-EO remains challenging.

  15. PD-1/PD-L1 expression in chromophobe renal cell carcinoma: An immunological exception?

    PubMed

    Erlmeier, Franziska; Hartmann, Arndt; Autenrieth, Michael; Wiedemann, Max; Ivanyi, Philipp; Steffens, Sandra; Weichert, Wilko

    2016-11-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting the inhibitory cross talk between tumor and immune cells have been approved for therapy in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In contrast to clear cell RCC, little is known on PD-1/PD-L1 expression patterns in rarer RCC subtypes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, distribution and prognostic impact of PD-1 and PD-L1 expression in chromophobe (ch)RCC. Patients who underwent renal surgery due to chRCC were retrospectively evaluated. Tumor specimen was analyzed for PD-1 and PD-L1 expression by immunohistochemistry. Expression data were correlated with clinic-pathological parameters including patient survival. Eighty-one chRCC patients were eligible for analysis, thereof 25 (30.9 %) and 11 (13.6 %) patients were positive for PD-1(+) tumor-infiltrating mononuclear cells (TIMCs) and tumoral PD-L1(+) expression, respectively. No significant associations were found for PD-1(+) TIMC or tumoral PD-L1(+) expression and clinical attributes. In addition, no differences in 5- and 10-year overall survival for PD-1(-) TIMC compared to PD-1(+) TIMC (90.5 and 72.2 vs. 100 and 75 %; p = 0.41) and for PD-L1(-) tumors compared to PD-L1(+) tumors (91.9 and 76.4 vs. 100 and 50 %; p = 0.48) were observed. In conclusion, to our knowledge this is the first study to evaluate the prognostic impact of PD-1 and PD-L1 in chRCC. PD-L1 does seem to be expressed in a minority of all chRCC, likewise only a minority of chRCC was infiltrated by PD-1-positive inflammatory cells. Neither PD-1(+) TIMC nor tumoral PD-L1(+) expression was associated with parameters of aggressiveness or survival.

  16. Specific loss of chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 10, 13, 17, and 21 in chromophobe renal cell carcinomas revealed by comparative genomic hybridization.

    PubMed Central

    Speicher, M. R.; Schoell, B.; du Manoir, S.; Schröck, E.; Ried, T.; Cremer, T.; Störkel, S.; Kovacs, A.; Kovacs, G.

    1994-01-01

    We analyzed 19 chromophobe renal cell carcinomas by means of comparative genomic hybridization. Two tumors revealed no numerical abnormalities. In the remaining 17 cases we found loss of entire chromosomes with underrepresentation of chromosome 1 occurring in all 17 cases; loss of chromosomes 2, 10, and 13 in 16 cases; loss of chromosomes 6 and 21 in 15 tumors; and loss of chromosome 17 in 13 cases. The loss of the Y chromosome was observed in 6 of 13 tumors from male patients, whereas 1 X chromosome was lost in 3 of 4 tumors obtained from females. Comparative genomic hybridization results were verified by interphase cytogenetics. We conclude that a specific combination of multiple chromosomal losses characterizes chromophobe renal cell carcinomas and may help to differentiate them unequivocally from other types of kidney cancer. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7519827

  17. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma with and without sarcomatoid change: a clinicopathological, comparative genomic hybridization, and whole-exome sequencing study

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yuan; Liu, Kunpeng; Kang, Xueling; Pang, Lijuan; Qi, Yan; Hu, Zhenyan; Jia, Wei; Zhang, Haijun; Li, Li; Hu, Jianming; Liang, Weihua; Zhao, Jin; Zou, Hong; Yuan, Xianglin; Li, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Chromophobe renal cell carcinomas (CRCC) with and without sarcomatoid change have different outcomes; however, fewstudies have compared their genetic profiles. Therefore, we identified the genomic alterationsin CRCC common type (CRCC C) (n=8) and CRCC with sarcomatoid change (CRCC S) (n=4) using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and whole-exome sequencing. The CGH profiles showed that the CRCC C group had more chromosomal losses (72 vs. 18) but fewer chromosomal gains (23 vs. 57) than the CRCC S group. Losses of chromosomes 1p, 8p21-23, 10p16-20, 10p12-ter, 13p20-30, and 17p13 and gains of chromosomes 1q11, 1q21-23, 1p13-15, 2p23-24, and 3p21-ter differed between the groups. Whole-exome sequencing showed that the mutational status of 270 genes differed between CRCC (n=12) and normal renal tissues (n=18). In the functional enrichment analysis, the missense-mutated genes were classified into 6 biological processes (38 functions) and 5 pathways. The biological processes included cell adhesion, cell motility, ATP metabolism, sensory perception, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and transport. The pathways included ATP-binding cassette transporter, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, olfactory transduction, chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Whole-exome sequencing analysis revealed that the missense mutation statuses of 49 genes differed between the CRCC C and CRCC S groups. Furthermore, genetic alterations in metastasis suppressor 1, serine peptidase inhibitor Kazal type 8, transient receptor potential cation channel super family M member 6, Rh family B glycoprotein, and mannose receptor C type 1 were located in different chromosomal regions. These alterations may provide clues regarding CRCC tumorigenesis and provide a basis for future targeted therapies. PMID:26807193

  18. A new method using multiphoton imaging and morphometric analysis for differentiating chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and oncocytoma kidney tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Binlin; Mukherjee, Sushmita; Jain, Manu

    2016-03-01

    Distinguishing chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC) from oncocytoma on hematoxylin and eosin images may be difficult and require time-consuming ancillary procedures. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM), an optical imaging modality, was used to rapidly generate sub-cellular histological resolution images from formalin-fixed unstained tissue sections from chRCC and oncocytoma.Tissues were excited using 780nm wavelength and emission signals (including second harmonic generation and autofluorescence) were collected in different channels between 390 nm and 650 nm. Granular structure in the cell cytoplasm was observed in both chRCC and oncocytoma. Quantitative morphometric analysis was conducted to distinguish chRCC and oncocytoma. To perform the analysis, cytoplasm and granules in tumor cells were segmented from the images. Their area and fluorescence intensity were found in different channels. Multiple features were measured to quantify the morphological and fluorescence properties. Linear support vector machine (SVM) was used for classification. Re-substitution validation, cross validation and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were implemented to evaluate the efficacy of the SVM classifier. A wrapper feature algorithm was used to select the optimal features which provided the best predictive performance in separating the two tissue types (classes). Statistical measures such as sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and area under curve (AUC) of ROC were calculated to evaluate the efficacy of the classification. Over 80% accuracy was achieved as the predictive performance. This method, if validated on a larger and more diverse sample set, may serve as an automated rapid diagnostic tool to differentiate between chRCC and oncocytoma. An advantage of such automated methods are that they are free from investigator bias and variability.

  19. Biomarker and competing endogenous RNA potential of tumor-specific long noncoding RNA in chromophobe renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    He, Hai-Tao; Xu, Mu; Kuang, Ye; Han, Xiao-Yun; Wang, Ming-Qi; Yang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence suggests long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in the initiation and progression of cancers. However, their functions in chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC) are not fully understood. Methods We analyzed the expression profiles of lncRNA, microRNA, and protein-coding RNA, along with the clinical information of 59 primary chRCC patients collected from The Cancer Genome Atlas database to identify lncRNA biomarkers for prognosis. We also constructed an lncRNA–microRNA–mRNA coexpression network (competitive endogenous RNAs network) by bioinformational approach. Results One hundred and forty-two lncRNAs were found to be differentially expressed between the cancer and normal tissues (fold change ≥1.5, P<0.001). Among them, 12 lncRNAs were also differentially expressed with the corresponding clinical characteristics (fold change ≥1.5, P<0.01). Besides, 7 lncRNAs (COL18A1-AS, BRE-AS1, SNHG7, TMEM51-AS1, C21orf62-AS1, LINC00336, and LINC00882) were identified to be significantly correlated with overall survival (log-rank P<0.05). A competitive endogenous RNA network in chRCC containing 16 lncRNAs, 18 miRNAs, and 168 protein-coding RNAs was constructed. Conclusion Our results identified specific lncRNAs associated with chRCC progression and prognosis, and presented competing endogenous RNA potential of lncRNAs in the tumor. PMID:27799788

  20. Gene expression-based biomarkers for discriminating early and late stage of clear cell renal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bhalla, Sherry; Chaudhary, Kumardeep; Kumar, Ritesh; Sehgal, Manika; Kaur, Harpreet; Sharma, Suresh; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, an attempt has been made to identify expression-based gene biomarkers that can discriminate early and late stage of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) patients. We have analyzed the gene expression of 523 samples to identify genes that are differentially expressed in the early and late stage of ccRCC. First, a threshold-based method has been developed, which attained a maximum accuracy of 71.12% with ROC 0.67 using single gene NR3C2. To improve the performance of threshold-based method, we combined two or more genes and achieved maximum accuracy of 70.19% with ROC of 0.74 using eight genes on the validation dataset. These eight genes include four underexpressed (NR3C2, ENAM, DNASE1L3, FRMPD2) and four overexpressed (PLEKHA9, MAP6D1, SMPD4, C11orf73) genes in the late stage of ccRCC. Second, models were developed using state-of-art techniques and achieved maximum accuracy of 72.64% and 0.81 ROC using 64 genes on validation dataset. Similar accuracy was obtained on 38 genes selected from subset of genes, involved in cancer hallmark biological processes. Our analysis further implied a need to develop gender-specific models for stage classification. A web server, CancerCSP, has been developed to predict stage of ccRCC using gene expression data derived from RNAseq experiments. PMID:28349958

  1. A rare case of pituitary chromophobe carcinoma in a dog: clinical, tomographic and histopathological findings

    PubMed Central

    Longo, M.; Binanti, D.; Zagarella, P.G.; Iocca, F.; Zani, D. De; Ravasio, G.; Giancamillo, M. Di; Zani, D.D.

    2016-01-01

    A 9 year old male mixed-breed dog was presented for progressive aggressiveness towards the owner. The neurological evaluation was consistent with a forebrain syndrome. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed enlargement of the third ventricle and presence of a large spheroidal neoplasm in the sellar/parasellar region suggestive of a pituitary macroadenoma. On the owner request, the dog was euthanized. Histopathological examination revealed the presence of a pituitary chromophobe carcinoma. To the author’s knowledge, pituitary carcinomas have been rarely described in dogs, especially the chromophobe subtype. PMID:27800300

  2. Renal

    MedlinePlus

    ... term "renal" refers to the kidney. For example, renal failure means kidney failure. Related topics: Kidney disease Kidney disease - diet Kidney failure Kidney function tests Renal scan Kidney transplant

  3. Micro electrical impedance spectroscopy on a needle for ex vivo discrimination between human normal and cancer renal tissues.

    PubMed

    Yun, Joho; Kim, Hyeon Woo; Park, Yangkyu; Cha, Jung-Joon; Lee, Jeong Zoo; Shin, Dong Gil; Lee, Jong-Hyun

    2016-05-01

    The ex-vivo discrimination between human normal and cancer renal tissues was confirmed using μEoN (micro electrical impedance spectroscopy-on-a-needle) by measuring and comparing the electrical impedances in the frequency domain. To quantify the extent of discrimination between dissimilar tissues and to determine the optimal frequency at which the discrimination capability is at a maximum, discrimination index (DI) was employed for both magnitude and phase. The highest values of DI for the magnitude and phase were 5.15 at 1 MHz and 3.57 at 1 kHz, respectively. The mean magnitude and phase measured at the optimal frequency for normal tissues were 5013.40 ± 94.39 Ω and -68.54 ± 0.72°, respectively; those for cancer tissues were 4165.19 ± 70.32 Ω and -64.10 ± 0.52°, respectively. A statistically significant difference (p< 0.05) between the two tissues was observed at all the investigated frequencies. To extract the electrical properties (resistance and capacitance) of these bio-tissues through curve fitting with experimental results, an equivalent circuit was proposed based on the μEoN structure on the condition that the μEoN was immersed in the bio-tissues. The average and standard deviation of the extracted resistance and capacitance for the normal tissues were 6.22 ± 0.24 kΩ and 280.21 ± 32.25 pF, respectively, and those for the cancer tissues were 5.45 ± 0.22 kΩ and 376.32 ± 34.14 pF, respectively. The electrical impedance was higher in the normal tissues compared with the cancer tissues. The μEoN could clearly discriminate between normal and cancer tissues by comparing the results at the optimal frequency (magnitude and phase) and those of the curve fitting (extracted resistance and capacitance).

  4. Supremacy of modern morphometry in typing renal oncocytoma and malignant look-alikes.

    PubMed

    Erlmeier, Franziska; Feuchtinger, Annette; Borgmann, Daniela; Rudelius, Martina; Autenrieth, Michael; Walch, Axel Karl; Weirich, Gregor

    2015-08-01

    In the era of tumour type-specific therapies, the correct typing of renal tumours is of prime importance. As immunotyping and genotyping approaches are laborious and fall short of standardization, we used whole-scale computer-assisted morphometry instead. Three different types of renal tumours with different prognoses and therapies, notoriously prone to mistyping, were analysed . The sample of 335 tumours included clear cell renal cell carcinoma, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and renal oncocytoma. The sample was analysed using H&E stains of tissue microarrrays in combination with an image-scanning software. Nuclear and cytoplasmic features were registered with the aid of computer-assisted morphometry. Features included shape, texture, colour and colour intensity for different cell compartments, e.g. nuclei and cytoplasm. The software passed several training steps for final validation. Using morphometry, we were able to classify the three renal tumour types correctly, with a 100 % specificity compared to the WHO typing. Nuclear features dominated the typing of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, whereas cytoplasmic features were the leading classificators for renal oncocytoma. The grading of clear cell renal cell carcinoma attained a specificity of 80 %. In conclusion, modern morphometry may serve as a tool for typing renal epithelial tumours and additionally draws the attention to future nuclear research in chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

  5. Review of renal cell carcinoma and its common subtypes in radiology

    PubMed Central

    Low, Gavin; Huang, Guan; Fu, Winnie; Moloo, Zaahir; Girgis, Safwat

    2016-01-01

    Representing 2%-3% of adult cancers, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for 90% of renal malignancies and is the most lethal neoplasm of the urologic system. Over the last 65 years, the incidence of RCC has increased at a rate of 2% per year. The increased incidence is at least partly due to improved tumor detection secondary to greater availability of high-resolution cross-sectional imaging modalities over the last few decades. Most RCCs are asymptomatic at discovery and are detected as unexpected findings on imaging performed for unrelated clinical indications. The 2004 World Health Organization Classification of adult renal tumors stratifies RCC into several distinct histologic subtypes of which clear cell, papillary and chromophobe tumors account for 70%, 10%-15%, and 5%, respectively. Knowledge of the RCC subtype is important because the various subtypes are associated with different biologic behavior, prognosis and treatment options. Furthermore, the common RCC subtypes can often be discriminated non-invasively based on gross morphologic imaging appearances, signal intensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images, and the degree of tumor enhancement on dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging examinations. In this article, we review the incidence and survival data, risk factors, clinical and biochemical findings, imaging findings, staging, differential diagnosis, management options and post-treatment follow-up of RCC, with attention focused on the common subtypes. PMID:27247714

  6. Expression of histone methyltransferases as novel biomarkers for renal cell tumor diagnosis and prognostication

    PubMed Central

    Pires-Luís, Ana Sílvia; Vieira-Coimbra, Márcia; Vieira, Filipa Quintela; Costa-Pinheiro, Pedro; Silva-Santos, Rui; Dias, Paula C; Antunes, Luís; Lobo, Francisco; Oliveira, Jorge; Gonçalves, Céline S; Costa, Bruno M; Henrique, Rui; Jerónimo, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell tumors (RCTs) are the most lethal of the common urological cancers. The widespread use of imaging entailed an increased detection of small renal masses, emphasizing the need for accurate distinction between benign and malignant RCTs, which is critical for adequate therapeutic management. Histone methylation has been implicated in renal tumorigenesis, but its potential clinical value as RCT biomarker remains mostly unexplored. Hence, the main goal of this study was to identify differentially expressed histone methyltransferases (HMTs) and histone demethylases (HDMs) that might prove useful for RCT diagnosis and prognostication, emphasizing the discrimination between oncocytoma (a benign tumor) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC), especially the chromophobe subtype (chRCC). We found that the expression levels of 3 genes—SMYD2, SETD3, and NO66—was significantly altered in a set of RCTs, which was further validated in a large independent cohort. Higher expression levels were found in RCTs compared to normal renal tissues (RNTs) and in chRCCs comparatively to oncocytomas. SMYD2 and SETD3 mRNA levels correlated with protein expression assessed by immunohistochemistry. SMYD2 transcript levels discriminated RCTs from RNT, with 82.1% sensitivity and 100% specificity [area under curve (AUC) = 0.959], and distinguished chRCCs from oncocytomas, with 71.0% sensitivity and 73.3% specificity (AUC = 0.784). Low expression levels of SMYD2, SETD3, and NO66 were significantly associated with shorter disease-specific and disease-free survival, especially in patients with non-organ confined tumors. We conclude that expression of selected HMTs and HDMs might constitute novel biomarkers to assist in RCT diagnosis and assessment of tumor aggressiveness. PMID:26488939

  7. Genome-Wide Uniparental Disomy and Copy Number Variations in Renal Cell Carcinomas Associated with Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Iribe, Yasuhiro; Yao, Masahiro; Tanaka, Reiko; Kuroda, Naoto; Nagashima, Yoji; Nakatani, Yukio; Furuya, Mitsuko

    2016-02-01

    Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome is an inherited disorder caused by germline mutations of the folliculin gene (FLCN). The affected patients are prone to developing renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). Most mutant FLCN-associated RCCs (mFLCN-RCCs) are histologically chromophobe RCCs and hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumors. It is incompletely understood whether mFLCN-RCCs have different chromosomal abnormalities compared with their sporadic histological counterparts. Herein, we describe somatic mutations of FLCN and DNA-copy number abnormalities using a high-density, whole-genome, single-nucleotide polymorphism array. The histological types included chromophobe RCC (n = 12), hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumor (n = 5), and clear-cell RCC (n = 2). Of 19 tumors, 8 had pathological somatic mutations of FLCN. Among 11 mFLCN-RCCs investigated by single-nucleotide polymorphism array, 8 showed balanced genomic profiles, 2 had gains in chromosome 3q, and 1 had gains in chromosomes 1q and 7. All had copious numbers of loss of heterozygosity in a wide range of chromosomes. The common loss-of-heterozygosity regions were chromosomes 3p24, 8q11, 16q11, Xp22-21, Xp11, Xq11, Xq13, and Xq23. Most of the loss of heterozygosity was because of uniparental disomy. Common uniparental disomy patterns in chromophobe RCCs and hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumors indicated that these types were relatively similar in cytogenetic events. Two clear-cell RCCs also shared several uniparental disomy regions with chromophobe RCCs and hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumors. mFLCN-RCCs may have common therapeutic targets among different histological types.

  8. The use of immunohistochemical expression of SF-1 and EMA in distinguishing adrenocortical tumors from renal neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Enriquez, Miriam L; Lal, Priti; Ziober, Amy; Wang, Liping; Tomaszewski, John E; Bing, Zhanyong

    2012-03-01

    Steroidogenic factor -1 (SF-1) is an orphan member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, and is considered to play an important role in the differentiation of steroidogenic tissues. In this study, we compared the immunohistochemical stains of SF-1 and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) in non-neoplastic adrenal tissue, and adrenal and renal tumors using tissue microarrays (TMAs). The adrenal tissue array included 19 cases of normal adrenal cortex, 22 cases of adrenal adenoma, and 20 cases of adrenal cortical carcinoma. The renal tissue array included 20 cases of each of the following types of renal cell carcinoma: clear cell, papillary, and chromophobe. In addition, 20 cases of renal oncocytoma were also included in the study. SF-1 showed positive staining in all cases (100%) of normal adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical adenoma, and in 18 (90%) cases of adrenocortical carcinoma. In renal tumors, SF-1 showed negative stains in all of oncocytoma, papillary, and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. Only 3 out of 20 cases of clear cell renal cell carcinoma showed weak positivity in approximately 10% of tumor cells. EMA stained positively in 85%, 95%, 100%, and 95% of clear cell, papillary, chromophobe renal cell carcinomas, and oncocytomas, respectively. EMA was completely negative in the adrenal TMAs. In conclusion, SF-1 and EMA may be helpful in the differentiation of adrenal tumors from renal tumors in difficult cases.

  9. Intratumoral peripheral small papillary tufts: a diagnostic clue of renal tumors associated with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Naoto; Furuya, Mitsuko; Nagashima, Yoji; Gotohda, Hiroko; Moritani, Suzuko; Kawakami, Fumi; Imamura, Yoshiaki; Bando, Yoshimi; Takahashi, Masayuki; Kanayama, Hiro-omi; Ota, Satoshi; Michal, Michal; Hes, Ondrej; Nakatani, Yukio

    2014-06-01

    In this article, we searched for the common histologic characteristic of renal tumors in patients with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHDS). We selected 6 patients with histologically confirmed renal tumor in BHDS. Germline FLCN gene mutation has been identified in 5 patients. Multifocality and bilaterality of the renal tumors were pathologically or radiologically confirmed in 5 and 2 cases, respectively. Histologic subtypes of the dominant tumor included 3 previously described hybrid oncocytic tumors, one composite chromophobe/papillary/clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and one unclassified RCC resembling hybrid chromophobe/clear cell RCC. In one case, chromophobe RCC and clear cell RCC were separately observed. Small papillary lesions located in the peripheral area of the tumor, which we designated as intratumoral peripheral small papillary tufts, were identified in all patients. In conclusion, multifocality/bilaterality of renal tumors, discordance of histologic subtypes, and the presence of intratumoral peripheral small papillary tufts may be important clues to identify BHDS-associated renal tumors.

  10. Rapidly enlarging renal tumor during pregnancy: diagnostic and management dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Tiang, Kor Woi; Ng, Keng Lim; Vega-Vega, Antonio; Wood, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Urological tumors diagnosed during pregnancy are rare. However, the incidence seems to be increasing largely due to advancements in modern imaging techniques and improved antenatal care. The diagnosis and management of renal tumors during pregnancy poses a dilemma to clinicians. This case report highlights the challenges in managing a large chromophobe renal cell carcinoma in a young primigravida patient. Proper antenatal assessment, a multidisciplinary team approach and appropriate discussion with patient are important determinants to achieve the best clinical outcomes for both the mother and the baby.

  11. Immunohistochemical characterization of renal tumors in patients with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome.

    PubMed

    Iribe, Yasuhiro; Kuroda, Naoto; Nagashima, Yoji; Yao, Masahiro; Tanaka, Reiko; Gotoda, Hiroko; Kawakami, Fumi; Imamura, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Yasushi; Ando, Midori; Araki, Akinobu; Matsushima, Jun; Nakatani, Yukio; Furuya, Mitsuko

    2015-03-01

    Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD) is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with a germline mutation of folliculin (FLCN). The affected families are at a high risk for developing multiple renal cell carcinomas (RCC). Little is known about the immunostaining patterns of mutant FLCN-associated RCCs. We investigated 32 RCCs obtained from 17 BHD patients. The studied tumors included chromophobe RCCs (n = 15), hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumors (HOCT) (n = 14) and clear cell RCCs (n = 3). Almost all chromophobe RCCs and HOCTs revealed positive staining for S100A1, Ksp-cadherin and CD82. They stained either focally or diffusely for CK7, and were negative for CA-IX. All clear cell RCCs were positively stained for CA-IX and negative for CK7. These data confirmed that mutant FLCN-associated oncocytic and clear cell RCCs exhibited generally similar immunostaining patterns compared to their sporadic counterparts. Frequent positive staining for S100A1, Ksp-cadherin and CD82 in chromophobe RCCs and HOCTs indicated that these two types were relatively similar rather than distinctively different in their patterns of immunoreactivity. Characteristic peri-nuclear halos and polygonal cells with clear cytoplasm, which often misleads pathologists into the diagnosis of clear cell RCC, should be carefully examined using an immunohistochemical panel including CA-IX, Ksp-cadherin, CD82 and CK7.

  12. Diagnostic biomarkers for renal cell carcinoma: selection using novel bioinformatics systems for microarray data analysis

    PubMed Central

    Osunkoya, Adeboye O; Yin-Goen, Qiqin; Phan, John H; Moffitt, Richard A; Stokes, Todd H; Wang, May D; Young, Andrew N

    2009-01-01

    Summary The differential diagnosis of clear cell, papillary and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma is clinically important, because these tumor subtypes are associated with different pathobiology and clinical behavior. For cases in which histopathology is equivocal, immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR can assist in the differential diagnosis by measuring expression of subtype-specific biomarkers. Several renal tumor biomarkers have been discovered in expression microarray studies. However, due to heterogeneity of gene and protein expression, additional biomarkers are needed for reliable diagnostic classification. We developed novel bioinformatics systems to identify candidate renal tumor biomarkers from the microarray profiles of 45 clear cell, 16 papillary and 10 chromophobe renal cell carcinoma; the microarray data was derived from two independent published studies. The ArrayWiki biocomputing system merged the microarray datasets into a single file, so gene expression could be analyzed from a larger number of tumors. The caCORRECT system removed non-random sources of error from the microarray data, and the omniBioMarker system analyzed data with several gene-ranking algorithms, in order to identify algorithms effective at recognizing previously described renal tumor biomarkers. We predicted these algorithms would also be effective at identifying unknown biomarkers that could be verified by independent methods. We selected six novel candidate biomakers from the omniBioMarker analysis, and verified their differential expression in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The candidate biomarkers were carbonic anhydrase IX, ceruloplasmin, schwannomin-interacting protein 1, E74-like factor 3, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5a and acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed on 17 clear cell, 13 papillary and 7 chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. Carbonic anhydrase IX and ceruloplasmin were

  13. Multimodality Imaging Characteristics of the Common Renal Cell Carcinoma Subtypes: An Analysis of 544 Pathologically Proven Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Winnie; Huang, Guan; Moloo, Zaahir; Girgis, Safwat; Patel, Vimal H; Low, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to define the characteristic imaging appearances of the common renal cell carcinoma (RCC) subtypes. Materials and Methods: The Institutional Review Board approval was obtained for this HIPAA-compliant retrospective study, and informed consent was waived. 520 patients (336 men, 184 women; age range, 22–88 years) underwent preoperative cross-sectional imaging of 544 RCCs from 2008 to 2013. The imaging appearances of the RCCs and clinical information were reviewed. Data analysis was performed using parametric and nonparametric statistics, descriptive statistics, and receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results: The RCC subtypes showed significant differences (P < 0.001) in several imaging parameters such as tumor margins, tumor consistency, tumor homogeneity, the presence of a central stellate scar, T2 signal intensity, and the degree of tumor enhancement. Low T2 signal intensity on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allowed differentiation of papillary RCC from clear cell and chromophobe RCCs with 90.9% sensitivity and 93.1% specificity. A tumor-to-cortex ratio ≥1 on the corticomedullary phase had 98% specificity for clear cell RCC. Conclusion: The T2 signal intensity of the tumor on MRI and its degree of enhancement are useful imaging parameters for discriminating between the RCC subtypes while gross morphological findings offer additional value in RCC profiling. PMID:28123840

  14. Deregulation of PAX2 expression in renal cell tumours: mechanisms and potential use in differential diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Patrício, Patrícia; Ramalho-Carvalho, João; Costa-Pinheiro, Pedro; Almeida, Mafalda; Barros-Silva, João Diogo; Vieira, Joana; Dias, Paula Cristina; Lobo, Francisco; Oliveira, Jorge; Teixeira, Manuel R; Henrique, Rui; Jeronimo, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Expression of PAX2 (Paired-box 2) is suppressed through promoter methylation at the later stages of embryonic development, but eventually reactivated during carcinogenesis. Pax-2 is commonly expressed in the most prevalent renal cell tumour (RCT) subtypes—clear cell RCC (ccRCC), papillary RCC (pRCC) and oncocytoma—but not in chromophobe RCC (chrRCC), which frequently displays chromosome 10 loss (to which PAX2 is mapped). Herein, we assessed the epigenetic and/or genetic alterations affecting PAX2 expression in RCTs and evaluated its potential as biomarker. We tested 120 RCTs (30 of each main subtype) and four normal kidney tissues. Pax-2 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry and PAX2 mRNA expression levels were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. PAX2 promoter methylation status was assessed by methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing. Chromosome 10 and PAX2 copy number alterations were determined by FISH. Pax-2 immunoexpression was significantly lower in chrRCC compared to other RCT subtypes. Using a 10% immunoexpression cut-off, Pax-2 immunoreactivity discriminated chrRCC from oncocytoma with 67% sensitivity and 90% specificity. PAX2 mRNA expression was significantly lower in chrRCC, compared to ccRCC, pRCC and oncocytoma, and transcript levels correlated with immunoexpression. Whereas no promoter methylation was found in RCTs or normal kidney, 69% of chrRCC displayed chromosome 10 monosomy, correlating with Pax-2 immunoexpression. We concluded that Pax-2 expression might be used as an ancillary tool to discriminate chrRCC from oncocytomas with overlapping morphological features. The biological rationale lies on the causal relation between Pax-2 expression and chromosome 10 monosomy, but not PAX2 promoter methylation, in chrRCC. PMID:23890189

  15. Molecular genetics and immunohistochemistry characterization of uncommon and recently described renal cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Qiu; Xia, Qiu-Yuan; Cheng, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) compromises multiple types and has been emerging dramatically over the recent several decades. Advances and consensus have been achieved targeting common RCCs, such as clear cell carcinoma, papillary RCC and chromophobe RCC. Nevertheless, little is known on the characteristics of several newly-identified RCCs, including clear cell (tubulo) papillary RCC, Xp11 translocation RCC, t(6;11) RCC, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-deficient RCC, acquired cystic disease-associated RCC, hereditary leiomyomatosis RCC syndrome-associated RCC, ALK translocation RCC, thyroid-like follicular RCC, tubulocystic RCC and hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumors (HOCT). In current review, we will collect available literature of these newly-described RCCs, analyze their clinical pathologic characteristics, discuss their morphologic and immunohistologic features, and finally summarize their molecular and genetic evidences. We expect this review would be beneficial for the understanding of RCCs, and eventually promote clinical management strategies. PMID:27041925

  16. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and chromatographic methods identify altered lipid composition in human renal neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Tosi, M R; Rodriguez-Estrada, M T; Lercker, G; Poerio, A; Trinchero, A; Reggiani, A; Tugnoli, V

    2004-07-01

    We report on the characterization of the lipid obtained from cortical and medullary normal human kidney tissue, benign renal neoplasms (oncocytoma) and 2 different types of malignant renal neoplasms (chromophobic cell carcinoma and clear cell carcinoma). The total lipid fractions were analyzed by 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy and thin-layer chromatography, whereas the composition of the total fatty acids and the content of total cholesterol were determined by gas chromatography. alpha-Tocopherol was detected and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The spectroscopic and chromatographic analysis revealed significant differences in the renal tissues examined. It was confirmed that cholesteryl esters (mainly oleate) are typical of clear cell renal carcinomas. Their potential role as prognostic and diagnostic factors is discussed, with particular emphasis on its capability to indicate the tumor diffusion in healthy renal parenchyma. alpha-Tocopherol is prevalent in clear cell carcinoma and it is present in nearly the same low amounts in cortex, medulla and chromophobic cell renal carcinoma. Q10 coenzyme and dolichols were detected by thin-layer chromatography and they are present in significant amounts in the cortex and the benign oncocytoma. Great variations were found in the distribution of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, especially in the docosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids and the corresponding omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids ratio.

  17. Renal arteriography

    MedlinePlus

    Renal angiogram; Angiography - kidney; Renal angiography; Renal artery stenosis - arteriography ... an artery by a blood clot Renal artery stenosis Renal cell cancer Angiomyolipomas (noncancerous tumors of the ...

  18. Review of renal tumors associated with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome with focus on clinical and pathobiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, N; Furuya, M; Nagashima, Y; Gotohda, H; Kawakami, F; Moritani, S; Ota, S; Hora, M; Michal, M; Hes, O; Nakatani, Y

    2014-06-01

    Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHDS) is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder characterized by clinical features of skin lesions, pulmonary lesions and renal tumor. The gene responsible for this syndrome is located on chromosome 17p11.2 and designated as FLCN. In this article, we review renal tumors associated with BHDS with a focus on clinical and pathobiological aspects. Renal tumors often occur multifocally or bilaterally in the imaging analyses or gross examination. Histological examination of renal tumors includes a variety of subtypes such as hybrid oncocytic tumor, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC), oncocytoma, clear cell RCC and papillary RCC. The histologic discordance in multiple tumors seems to be characteristic of this syndrome. Oncocytosis is observed histologically in about half of the cases. Several investigations have elucidated that folliculin may be involved in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway recently. Renal tumors composed of clear cells may behave in an aggressive fashion. However, renal tumors including hybrid oncocytic tumor, chromophobe RCC and oncocytoma behave mostly in an indolent fashion.

  19. Qualitative and Quantitative Imaging Evaluation of Renal Cell Carcinoma Subtypes with Grating-based X-ray Phase-contrast CT

    PubMed Central

    Braunagel, Margarita; Birnbacher, Lorenz; Willner, Marian; Marschner, Mathias; De Marco, Fabio; Viermetz, Manuel; Notohamiprodjo, Susan; Hellbach, Katharina; Auweter, Sigrid; Link, Vera; Woischke, Christine; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Notohamiprodjo, Mike; Herzen, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Current clinical imaging methods face limitations in the detection and correct characterization of different subtypes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), while these are important for therapy and prognosis. The present study evaluates the potential of grating-based X-ray phase-contrast computed tomography (gbPC-CT) for visualization and characterization of human RCC subtypes. The imaging results for 23 ex vivo formalin-fixed human kidney specimens obtained with phase-contrast CT were compared to the results of the absorption-based CT (gbCT), clinical CT and a 3T MRI and validated using histology. Regions of interest were placed on each specimen for quantitative evaluation. Qualitative and quantitative gbPC-CT imaging could significantly discriminate between normal kidney cortex (54 ± 4 HUp) and clear cell (42 ± 10), papillary (43 ± 6) and chromophobe RCCs (39 ± 7), p < 0.05 respectively. The sensitivity for detection of tumor areas was 100%, 50% and 40% for gbPC-CT, gbCT and clinical CT, respectively. RCC architecture like fibrous strands, pseudocapsules, necrosis or hyalinization was depicted clearly in gbPC-CT and was not equally well visualized in gbCT, clinical CT and MRI. The results show that gbPC-CT enables improved discrimination of normal kidney parenchyma and tumorous tissues as well as different soft-tissue components of RCCs without the use of contrast media. PMID:28361951

  20. [International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Vancouver Classification of Renal Neoplasia 2012].

    PubMed

    Hes, Ondřej

    2014-01-01

    Kidney tumours form a broad spectrum of distinguished histopathological and molecular genetic entities. The last WHO classification is dated to 2004. Current classification has been published in October 2013 by ISUP (International Society of Urological Pathology). There were 5 new epithelials tumours: tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), acquired cystic disease-associated RCC, clear cell (tubulo-)papillary RCC, the MiT family translocation RCCs (in particular t(6;11) RCC), and hereditary leiomyomatosis RCC syndrome-associated RCC. Another 3 subtypes of RCC were added as "provisional" entities: thyroid-like follicular RCC; succinate dehydrogenase B deficiency-associated RCC; and ALK translocation RCC. Modifications were performed in already existing entities: multicystic clear cell RCC (formerly multilocular cystic RCC) is newly included as a subcategory of clear cell RCC with low malignant potential. Oncocytic papillary RCC (PRCC) has not been recognized as a distinctive subcategory of PRCC yet. Hybrid oncocytic-chromophobe tumour was placed within the chromophobe RCC category. Recent advances related to collecting duct carcinoma, renal medullary carcinoma, and mucinous spindle cell and tubular RCC were elucidated. Outside of the epithelial category, current approach to our understanding of angiomyolipoma, including the epithelioid variant and angiomyolipoma with epithelial cysts was clarified. Cystic nephroma and mixed epithelial and stromal tumour were considered as a spectrum of one entity. Synovial sarcoma was placed within the sarcoma group. The new classification is to be referred to as the International Society of Urological Pathology Vancouver Classification of Renal Neoplasia.

  1. Expression of Von Hippel – Lindau (VHL) gene mutation in diagnosed cases of renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shahzad, Humera; Kehar, Shahnaz Imdad; Ali, Shahzad; Tariq, Naila

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the expression of Von Hippel Lindau (VHL) gene in diagnosed cases of renal cell carcinoma. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in department of Pathology, Basic Medical Sciences Institute, JPMC, Karachi, from January 2007 to December 2012. Paraffin embedded blocks of 30 cases of radical nephrectomy specimens diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma including CCRCC 21 (70%) CCPRCC, 3 (10%), PRCC 2 (6.79%), hybrid tumor 4 (13.3%), chromophobe tumor (0%) processed for VHL gene expression on Polymerase Chain Reaction. Results: All the 30 cases previously diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma were processed on PCR, VHL gene mutations were seen in 20 (95.23%) of CCRCC while a single case was negative for VHL mutations. All CCPRCC were negative for VHL mutation. Among the hybrid tumor 03 cases with foci of clear cells show VHL mutation while a single case showing combination of clear cells and chromophobe cells was negative for mutation. Both the cases of PRCC were positive for mutation. Exon 3 mutation at base pair 194 seen in 8 (32%) cases and Exon 2 mutation at base pair 150-159 seen in 17 (68%) cases. None of the cases showed Exon 1 mutation. Conclusion: The present study shows that majority of CCRCC showed VHL mutation including the hybrid tumor with clear cell component in our population. PMID:25097537

  2. Altered glutamyl-aminopeptidase activity and expression in renal neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Advances in the knowledge of renal neoplasms have demonstrated the implication of several proteases in their genesis, growth and dissemination. Glutamyl-aminopeptidase (GAP) (EC. 3.4.11.7) is a zinc metallopeptidase with angiotensinase activity highly expressed in kidney tissues and its expression and activity have been associated wtih tumour development. Methods In this prospective study, GAP spectrofluorometric activity and immunohistochemical expression were analysed in clear-cell (CCRCC), papillary (PRCC) and chromophobe (ChRCC) renal cell carcinomas, and in renal oncocytoma (RO). Data obtained in tumour tissue were compared with those from the surrounding uninvolved kidney tissue. In CCRCC, classic pathological parameters such as grade, stage and tumour size were stratified following GAP data and analyzed for 5-year survival. Results GAP activity in both the membrane-bound and soluble fractions was sharply decreased and its immunohistochemical expression showed mild staining in the four histological types of renal tumours. Soluble and membrane-bound GAP activities correlated with tumour grade and size in CCRCCs. Conclusions This study suggests a role for GAP in the neoplastic development of renal tumours and provides additional data for considering the activity and expression of this enzyme of interest in the diagnosis and prognosis of renal neoplasms. PMID:24885240

  3. Increased risk of solid renal tumors in lithium-treated patients.

    PubMed

    Zaidan, Mohamad; Stucker, Fabien; Stengel, Bénédicte; Vasiliu, Viorel; Hummel, Aurélie; Landais, Paul; Boffa, Jean-Jacques; Ronco, Pierre; Grünfeld, Jean-Pierre; Servais, Aude

    2014-07-01

    Cystic kidney diseases and toxic interstitial nephritis may be complicated by renal tumors. Long-term lithium intake is associated with tubulointerstitial nephritis and renal cysts but to date such an association with tumors has not been determined. We evaluated this in a retrospective study to determine whether lithium-treated patients were at higher risk of renal tumors compared with lithium-free patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and to the general population. Over a 16-year period, 14 of 170 lithium-treated patients had renal tumors, including seven malignant and seven benign tumors. The mean duration of lithium exposure at diagnosis was 21.4 years. The renal cancers included three clear-cell and two papillary renal cell carcinomas, one hybrid tumor with chromophobe and oncocytoma characteristics, and one clear-cell carcinoma with leiomyomatous stroma. The benign tumors included four oncocytomas, one mixed epithelial and stromal tumor, and two angiomyolipomas. The percentage of renal tumors, particularly cancers and oncocytomas, was significantly higher in lithium-treated patients compared with 340 gender-, age-, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)-matched lithium-free patients. Additionally, the Standardized Incidence Ratio of renal cancer was significantly higher in lithium-treated patients compared with the general population: 7.51 (95% confidence interval (CI) (1.51-21.95)) and 13.69 (95% CI (3.68-35.06)) in men and women, respectively. Thus, there is an increased risk of renal tumors in lithium-treated patients.

  4. The diagnostic value of cytokeratins expression in the renal parenchyma tumors.

    PubMed

    Alexa, Aurora; Baderca, Flavia; Lighezan, Rodica; Izvernariu, D; Raica, M

    2010-01-01

    Renal carcinomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors, difficult to classify and identify precisely. Since their prognosis depends very much upon their type, precise diagnosis might mean the difference between therapeutic success and patient death. Cytokeratins are particularly useful for the identification of the epithelial nature of the tumors, because their expression is maintained even in poorly differentiated tumors. Monoclonal cytokeratins such as CK7 and CK20 stain different components of the renal tubular system and are a useful duo for the identification of the origin of the different tumors that might arise in the kidney. Along with polyclonal cytokeratins such as AE1/AE3 and high molecular weight cytokeratin antibodies (34betaE12, Cam 5.2), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and vimentin, they are included in every diagnostic panel for renal tumors. We have selected 138 renal parenchyma tumor specimens, performed morphological diagnosis and then stained them with polyclonal cytokeratin antibody AE1/AE3, and monoclonal antibodies to CK7 and CK20. AE1/AE3 was expressed in 61.7% of the renal parenchyma tumors, with high intensity and percentage of positive cases in the papillary carcinomas (100%), and with rare and weakly positive cells in chromophobic cells carcinomas, clear cells carcinomas and sarcomatous carcinomas. CK7 was positive in 68% of the renal parenchyma tumors, with positive reaction in 100% of the cases of chromophobic cells and sarcomatous carcinomas. Clear cells carcinomas had the less percentage of positive cells, whereas papillary carcinomas were positive in seven out of eight cases. No difference in the staining pattern was noticed between type I and type II papillary carcinomas. CK20 was negative in all cases studied.

  5. Analysis of clinical laboratory data by biplot methods using a three-dimensional display: discrimination of renal stone-patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria and primary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Tschöpe, W; Schmidt-Gayk, H; Ritz, E; Weber, E; Berger, J

    1979-08-01

    The biplot technique is a very useful graphical method to display the relationships between row and column characteristics in two-way tables. This method is applicable as long as the rank-2 approximation explains a large part (e.g. 95%) of the whole variability. However, since in large tables only a rank-3 approximation will yield such a high degree of explanation, a three-dimensional biplot technique has been introduced, using a 3d-screen as a matter of presentation of clinical laboratory data. The value of such a procedure is illustrated using as a clinical example a patient population with recurrent renal stone formation due either to primary hyperparathyroidism or to idiopathic hypercalciuria.

  6. A novel grading system for clear cell renal cell carcinoma incorporating tumor necrosis.

    PubMed

    Delahunt, Brett; McKenney, Jesse K; Lohse, Christine M; Leibovich, Bradley C; Thompson, Robert Houston; Boorjian, Stephen A; Cheville, John C

    2013-03-01

    Grading of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has prognostic significance, and there is recent consensus by the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) that for clear cell and papillary RCC, grading should primarily be based on nucleolar prominence. Microscopic tumor necrosis also predicts outcome independent of tumor grading. This study was undertaken to assess whether the incorporation of microscopic tumor necrosis into the ISUP grading system provides survival information superior to ISUP grading alone. Data on 3017 patients treated surgically for clear cell RCC, 556 for papillary RCC, and 180 for chromophobe RCC were retrieved from the Mayo Clinic Registry. Median follow-up periods were 8.9, 9.7, and 8.5 years, respectively. Four proposed grades were defined: grade 1: ISUP grade 1+ISUP grade 2 without necrosis; grade 2: ISUP grade 2 with necrosis+ISUP grade 3 without necrosis; grade 3: ISUP grade 3 with necrosis+ISUP grade 4 without necrosis; grade 4: ISUP grade 4 with necrosis or sarcomatoid/rhabdoid tumors. There was a significant difference in survival between each of the grades for clear cell RCC, and the concordance index was superior to that of ISUP grading. The proposed grading system also outperformed the ISUP grading system when cases were stratified according to the TNM stage. Similar results were not obtained for papillary RCC or chromophobe RCC. We conclude that grading for clear cell RCC should be based on nucleolar prominence and necrosis, that ISUP grading should be used for papillary RCC, and that chromophobe RCC should not be graded.

  7. [The WHO/ISUP grading system for renal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Moch, H

    2016-07-01

    Histological tumor grading is an accepted prognostic parameter of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In 2012, the International Society of Urologic Pathologists (ISUP) proposed a novel grading system for RCC, mainly based on the evaluation of nucleoli: grade 1 tumors have nucleoli that are inconspicuous and basophilic at ×400 magnification; grade 2 tumors have nucleoli that are clearly visible at ×400 magnification and eosinophilic; grade 3 tumors have clearly visible nucleoli at ×100 magnification; and grade 4 tumors have extreme pleomorphism or rhabdoid and/or sarcomatoid morphology. This grading system was validated for clear cell renal cell carcinoma and papillary renal cell carcinoma. At the same time, the ISUP proposed not grading chromophobe renal cell carcinomas according to this system. At a consensus conference in Zurich the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended the ISUP grading system; thus, the WHO/ISUP grading system is now going to be implemented internationally. The ISUP/WHO grading system has not been validated as a prognostic parameter for other tumor subtypes, but can be used for descriptive purposes.

  8. Mismatch repair genes in renal cortical neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Baiyee, Daniel; Banner, Barbara

    2006-02-01

    Mutation of human mutL homolog 1 (MLH-1) and human mutS homolog 2 (MSH-2) has been linked with the pathogenesis of colorectal carcinoma in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome and other carcinomas. Mutations of these genes in renal cell carcinomas were recently described. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of MLH-1 and MSH-2 in renal cortical neoplasms of various histological types by immunohistochemistry. Thirty-eight (n = 38) resected renal tumors were obtained from the surgical pathology files of the UMass Memorial Healthcare, including clear cell carcinomas (CLEARs, n = 20), papillary carcinomas (PAPs, n = 8), chromophobe carcinomas (CHRs, n = 4), and oncocytomas (ONCs, n = 6). Positive immunostaining for MLH-1 and MSH-2 was graded by the number of positive tumor cell nuclei, as follows: 0, negative; 1, up to one third of positive nuclei; 2, one to two thirds positive; and 3, greater than two thirds positive. Loss of MLH-1 or MSH-2 was defined as a tumor with grade 0 or 1, compared with the normal tubules. Normal tubules and intercalated ducts contained cells positive for MLH-1 and MSH-2 in all cases. For both antibodies, positive staining in tumors ranged from grade 1 to 3 in the CLEAR and PAP but was only grade 2 to 3 in the CHR and ONC. Loss of MLH-1 and/or MSH-2 occurred in malignant tumors but not in ONC. Loss of MLH-1 was present in 8 (40%) of 20 CLEARs and 4 (50%) of 8 PAPs, compared with loss of MSH-2 in 4 (20%) of 20 CLEARs and 1 (25%) of 4 CHRs. Our results suggest that loss of mismatch repair genes is involved in the malignant transformation in some renal carcinomas, particularly those derived from the proximal tubules.

  9. [HNF1B-related disease: paradigm of a developmental gene and unexpected recognition of a new renal disease].

    PubMed

    Chauveau, Dominique; Faguer, Stanislas; Bandin, Flavio; Guigonis, Vincent; Chassaing, Nicolas; Decramer, Stéphane

    2013-11-01

    HNF1B encodes for a transcription factor involved in the early development of the kidney, pancreas, liver and genital tract. Mutations in HNF1B are dominantly inherited and consist of whole-gene deletion, or small mutation. De novo mutation occurs in half of tested kindreds. HNF1B-related disease combines renal and non-renal manifestations. Renal involvement is heterogeneous and may escape early recognition. During fetal life and childhood, it mostly consists of hyperechogenic kidneys or bilateral renal cystic hypodysplasia. The adult phenotype encompasses tubulointerstitial profile at presentation and slowly progressive renal decline (-2 ml/min/year). Renal involvement includes renal cysts (mostly few cortical cysts), a solitary kidney, pelvi-caliceal abnormalities, hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia related to tubular leak, and more rarely, Fanconi syndrome and chromophobe renal carcinoma. The latter warrants ultrasound screening. Extrarenal phenotype consists of diabetes mellitus (MODY-5), exocrine pancreas failure and pancreas atrophy; fluctuation liver tests abnormalities; diverse genital tract abnormalities in females or infertility in males; and mild mental retardation in rare individuals. Phenotype heterogeneity within families is striking. Individuals progressing to end-stage renal disease are eligible for kidney transplantation (or combined pancreas and kidney transplantation for diabetic individuals). While HNF1B disease was still unknown one decade ago, it has emerged as the second most prevalent dominantly inherited kidney disease. Data available pave the way for early recognition and improved specific management, including genetic counselling.

  10. A Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein Antagonist Is Down-Regulated in Renal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Blish, Kimberly Rose; Wang, Wei; Willingham, Mark C.; Du, Wei; Birse, Charles E.; Krishnan, Surekha R.; Brown, Julie C.; Hawkins, Gregory A.; Garvin, A. Julian; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Torti, Frank M.

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed expression of candidate genes encoding cell surface or secreted proteins in normal kidney and kidney cancer. This screen identified a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist, SOSTDC1 (sclerostin domain–containing-1) as down-regulated in kidney tumors. To confirm screening results, we probed cDNA dot blots with SOSTDC1. The SOSTDC1 message was decreased in 20/20 kidney tumors compared with normal kidney tissue. Immunohistochemistry confirmed significant decrease of SOSTDC1 protein in clear cell renal carcinomas relative to normal proximal renal tubule cells (p < 0.001). Expression of SOSTDC1 was not decreased in papillary and chromophobe kidney tumors. SOSTDC1 was abundantly expressed in podocytes, distal tubules, and transitional epithelia of the normal kidney. Transfection experiments demonstrated that SOSTDC1 is secreted and binds to neighboring cells and/or the extracellular matrix. SOSTDC1 suppresses both BMP-7–induced phosphorylation of R-Smads-1, -5, and -8 and Wnt-3a signaling. Restoration of SOSTDC1 in renal clear carcinoma cells profoundly suppresses proliferation. Collectively, these results demonstrate that SOSTDC1 is expressed in the human kidney and decreased in renal clear cell carcinoma. Because SOSTDC1 suppresses proliferation of renal carcinoma cells, restoration of SOSTDC1 signaling may represent a novel target in treatment of renal clear cell carcinoma. PMID:18032587

  11. Renal cell carcinoma: histological classification and correlation with imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Muglia, Valdair F; Prando, Adilson

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the seventh most common histological type of cancer in the Western world and has shown a sustained increase in its prevalence. The histological classification of RCCs is of utmost importance, considering the significant prognostic and therapeutic implications of its histological subtypes. Imaging methods play an outstanding role in the diagnosis, staging and follow-up of RCC. Clear cell, papillary and chromophobe are the most common histological subtypes of RCC, and their preoperative radiological characterization, either followed or not by confirmatory percutaneous biopsy, may be particularly useful in cases of poor surgical condition, metastatic disease, central mass in a solitary kidney, and in patients eligible for molecular targeted therapy. New strategies recently developed for treating renal cancer, such as cryo and radiofrequency ablation, molecularly targeted therapy and active surveillance also require appropriate preoperative characterization of renal masses. Less common histological types, although sharing nonspecific imaging features, may be suspected on the basis of clinical and epidemiological data. The present study is aimed at reviewing the main clinical and imaging findings of histological RCC subtypes.

  12. Distinctive expression patterns of glycoprotein non-metastatic B and folliculin in renal tumors in patients with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Mitsuko; Hong, Seung-Beom; Tanaka, Reiko; Kuroda, Naoto; Nagashima, Yoji; Nagahama, Kiyotaka; Suyama, Takahito; Yao, Masahiro; Nakatani, Yukio

    2015-03-01

    Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD) is an inherited disorder associated with a germline mutation of the folliculin gene (FLCN). The affected families have a high risk for developing multiple renal cell carcinomas (RCC). Diagnostic markers that distinguish between FLCN-related RCC and sporadic RCC have not been investigated, and many patients with undiagnosed BHD fail to receive proper medical care. We investigated the histopathology of 27 RCCs obtained from 18 BHD patients who were diagnosed by genetic testing. Possible somatic mutations of RCC lesions were investigated by DNA sequencing. Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining were used to compare the expression levels of FLCN and glycoprotein non-metastatic B (GPNMB) between FLCN-related RCCs and sporadic renal tumors (n = 62). The expression of GPNMB was also evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR. Histopathological analysis revealed that the most frequent histological type was chromophobe RCC (n = 12), followed by hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumor (n = 6). Somatic mutation analysis revealed small intragenic mutations in six cases and loss of heterozygosity in two cases. Western blot and immunostaining analyses revealed that FLCN-related RCCs showed overexpression of GPNMB and underexpression of FLCN, whereas sporadic tumors showed inverted patterns. GPNMB mRNA in FLCN-related RCCs was 23-fold more abundant than in sporadic tumors. The distinctive expression patterns of GPNMB and FLCN might identify patients with RCCs who need further work-up for BHD.

  13. Renal perfusion scintiscan

    MedlinePlus

    Renal perfusion scintigraphy; Radionuclide renal perfusion scan; Perfusion scintiscan - renal; Scintiscan - renal perfusion ... supply the kidneys. This is a condition called renal artery stenosis. Significant renal artery stenosis may be ...

  14. Expression of Epstein-Barr virus in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shimakage, Misuzu; Kawahara, Kunimitsu; Harada, Shizuko; Sasagawa, Toshiyuki; Shinka, Toshiaki; Oka, Toshitsugu

    2007-07-01

    There have been few studies regarding the etiology of renal cell carcinoma. To examine the possible involvement of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in this disease, 9 renal cell carcinoma (RCC), 2 nephroblastoma (Wilms' tumor) and 2 RCC cell lines were subjected to mRNA in situ hybridization and indirect immunofluorescence staining. Messenger RNA in situ hybridization using BamHIW, EBNA LP, EBNA 2 and EBER1 probes of EBV revealed signals in all the examined samples, although some samples showed weak signals using the EBNA LP probe. Indirect immunofluorescence staining using anti-EBNA LP, anti-EBNA2, anti-LMP1 and anti-BZLF1 antibodies showed definitive fluorescence. PCR also revealed EBV DNA in all 8 RCC specimens including 7 cases other than hybridization and fluorescence. EBV infected all the RCC and nephroblastoma irrespective of the histological or clinical stage. On the other hand, EBV expression was stronger in papillary and clear cell-type RCC than chromophobe cell-type, as well as being stronger in the higher grades of RCC. These results suggest that the expression of EBV may be involved in the pathogenesis of RCC and nephroblastoma.

  15. The International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Vancouver Classification of Renal Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Srigley, John R; Delahunt, Brett; Eble, John N; Egevad, Lars; Epstein, Jonathan I; Grignon, David; Hes, Ondrej; Moch, Holger; Montironi, Rodolfo; Tickoo, Satish K; Zhou, Ming; Argani, Pedram

    2013-10-01

    The classification working group of the International Society of Urological Pathology consensus conference on renal neoplasia was in charge of making recommendations regarding additions and changes to the current World Health Organization Classification of Renal Tumors (2004). Members of the group performed an exhaustive literature review, assessed the results of the preconference survey and participated in the consensus conference discussion and polling activities. On the basis of the above inputs, there was consensus that 5 entities should be recognized as new distinct epithelial tumors within the classification system: tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), acquired cystic disease-associated RCC, clear cell (tubulo) papillary RCC, the MiT family translocation RCCs (in particular t(6;11) RCC), and hereditary leiomyomatosis RCC syndrome-associated RCC. In addition, there are 3 rare carcinomas that were considered as emerging or provisional new entities: thyroid-like follicular RCC; succinate dehydrogenase B deficiency-associated RCC; and ALK translocation RCC. Further reports of these entities are required to better understand the nature and behavior of these highly unusual tumors. There were a number of new concepts and suggested modifications to the existing World Health Organization 2004 categories. Within the clear cell RCC group, it was agreed upon that multicystic clear cell RCC is best considered as a neoplasm of low malignant potential. There was agreement that subtyping of papillary RCC is of value and that the oncocytic variant of papillary RCC should not be considered as a distinct entity. The hybrid oncocytic chromophobe tumor, which is an indolent tumor that occurs in 3 settings, namely Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome, renal oncocytosis, and as a sporadic neoplasm, was placed, for the time being, within the chromophobe RCC category. Recent advances related to collecting duct carcinoma, renal medullary carcinoma, and mucinous spindle cell and tubular RCC

  16. Renal Stones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Renal stones are never convenient, but they are a particular concern for astronauts who have limited access to treatment during flight. Researchers are examining how earthbound preventions for renal stone formation work in flight, ensuring missions are not ended prematurely due to this medical condition. The micrograph shows calcium oxalate crystals in urine. These small crystals can develop to form renal stones. Principal Investigator: Dr. Peggy Whitson, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX.

  17. Renal cell carcinoma in kidney allografts: histologic types, including biphasic papillary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Troxell, Megan L; Higgins, John P

    2016-11-01

    Kidney transplant recipients are at increased risk for malignancy, with about 5% incidence of cancer in native end-stage kidneys. Carcinoma in the renal allograft is far less common. Prior studies have demonstrated a propensity for renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) of papillary subtypes in end-stage kidneys, and perhaps in allograft kidneys, but most allograft studies lack detailed pathologic review and predate the current classification system. We reviewed our experience with renal carcinoma in kidney allografts at 2 academic centers applying the International Society of Urological Pathology classification, informed by immunohistochemistry. The incidence of renal allograft carcinoma was about 0.26% in our population. Of 12 allograft carcinomas, 6 were papillary (50%), 4 were clear cell (33%), 1 was clear cell (tubulo)papillary, and 1 chromophobe. Two of the papillary carcinomas had distinctive biphasic glomeruloid architecture matching the newly named "biphasic squamoid alveolar" pattern and were difficult to classify on core biopsies. The 2 cell types had different immunophenotypes in our hands (eosinophilic cells: RCC-/CK34betaE12+ weight keratin +/cyclin D1+; clear cells: RCC+/cytokeratin high molecular weight negative to weak/cyclin D1-). None of the patients experienced cancer recurrences or metastasis. Our study confirms the predilection for papillary RCCs in kidney allografts and highlights the occurrence of rare morphologic variants. Larger studies are needed with careful pathologic review, which has been lacking in the literature.

  18. Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome: novel FLCN frameshift deletion in daughter and father with renal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Näf, Ernst; Laubscher, Dominik; Hopfer, Helmut; Streit, Markus; Matyas, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    Germline mutation of the FLCN gene causes Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD), a rare autosomal dominant condition characterized by skin fibrofolliculomas, lung cysts, spontaneous pneumothorax and renal tumours. We identified a hitherto unreported pathogenic FLCN frameshift deletion c.563delT (p.Phe188Serfs*35) in a family of a 46-year-old woman presented with macrohematuria due to bilateral chromophobe renal carcinomas. A heritable renal cancer was suspected due to the bilaterality of the tumour and as the father of this woman had suffered from renal cancer. Initially, however, BHD was overlooked by the medical team despite the highly suggestive clinical presentation. We assume that BHD is underdiagnosed, at least partially, due to low awareness of this variable condition and to insufficient use of appropriate genetic testing. Our study indicates that BHD and FLCN testing should be routinely considered in patients with positive family or personal history of renal tumours. In addition, we demonstrate how patients and their families can play a driving role in initiating genetic diagnosis, presymptomatic testing of at-risk relatives, targeted disease management, and genetic counselling of rare diseases such as BHD.

  19. Prognostic Factors for Renal Cell Carcinoma Subtypes Diagnosed According to the 2016 WHO Renal Tumor Classification: a Study Involving 928 Patients.

    PubMed

    Kuthi, Levente; Jenei, Alex; Hajdu, Adrienn; Németh, István; Varga, Zoltán; Bajory, Zoltán; Pajor, László; Iványi, Béla

    2016-12-28

    The morphotype and grade of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in 928 nephrectomies were reclassified according to the 2016 WHO classification in order to analyze the distribution and outcomes of RCC subtypes in Hungary, to assess whether microscopic tumor necrosis is an independent prognostic factor in clear cell RCC, and to study whether a two-tiered grading (low/high) for clear cell and papillary RCC provides similar prognostic information to that of the four-tiered ISUP grading system. 83.4% of the cohort were clear cell, 6.9% papillary, 4.5% chromophobe, 2.3% unclassified, 1.1% Xp11 translocation, 1.1% clear cell papillary, 0.3% collecting duct and 0.1% mucinous tubular and spindle cell RCCs. RCC occurred in 16 patients with end-stage kidney disease and none of them displayed features of acquired cystic kidney disease-associated RCC. The 5-year survival rates were as follows: chromophobe 100%, clear cell papillary 100%, clear cell low-grade 96%, papillary type 1 92%, clear cell high-grade 63%, papillary type 2 65%, unclassified 46%, Xp11 translocation 20%, and collecting duct 0%. The 5-year survival rates in low-grade and high-grade papillary RCC were 95% and 59%, respectively. In clear cell RCC, only the grade, the stage and the positive surgical margin proved to be independent prognostic factors statistically. Overall, papillary RCC occurred relatively infrequently; microscopic tumor necrosis in clear cell RCC did not predict the outcome independently of the tumor grading; and the assignment of clear cell and papillary RCCs into low-grade or high-grade tumors was in terms of survival no worse than the ISUP grading.

  20. Renal Scintigraphy

    MedlinePlus

    ... size with caption Related Articles and Media General Nuclear Medicine Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to Renal Scintigraphy Sponsored by ...

  1. Discriminating harmonicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidd, Gerald; Mason, Christine R.; Brughera, Andrew; Chiu, Chung-Yiu Peter

    2003-08-01

    Simultaneous tones that are harmonically related tend to be grouped perceptually to form a unitary auditory image. A partial that is mistuned stands out from the other tones, and harmonic complexes with different fundamental frequencies can readily be perceived as separate auditory objects. These phenomena are evidence for the strong role of harmonicity in perceptual grouping and segregation of sounds. This study measured the discriminability of harmonicity directly. In a two interval, two alternative forced-choice (2I2AFC) paradigm, the listener chose which of two sounds, signal or foil, was composed of tones that more closely matched an exact harmonic relationship. In one experiment, the signal was varied from perfectly harmonic to highly inharmonic by adding frequency perturbation to each component. The foil always had 100% perturbation. Group mean performance decreased from greater than 90% correct for 0% signal perturbation to near chance for 80% signal perturbation. In the second experiment, adding a masker presented simultaneously with the signals and foils disrupted harmonicity. Both monaural and dichotic conditions were tested. Signal level was varied relative to masker level to obtain psychometric functions from which slopes and midpoints were estimated. Dichotic presentation of these audible stimuli improved performance by 3-10 dB, due primarily to a release from ``informational masking'' by the perceptual segregation of the signal from the masker.

  2. Evaluation of EGFR, KRAS and BRAF gene mutations in renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Haluk; Bulut, Ersan; Cengiz, Beyhan; Karakok, Metin; Erturhan, Sakip; Seckiner, Ilker

    2014-01-01

    A subset of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients has been shown to respond to anti-EGFR therapy. As KRAS and BRAF mutations are associated with poor response to anti-EGFR therapy in some cancers, it has been suggested that screening for KRAS and BRAF mutations in RCC may be a promising strategy to identify patients who might respond to EGFR-targeted therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the mutation status of EGFR, KRAS and BRAF in RCC patients. Renal tumors and normal renal samples from forty-eight patients who underwent radical or partial nephrectomy for kidney cancer were used in this study. Histological classification of the tumors was performed according to International Union against Cancer (UICC) / American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) classification. Seventeen patients (48%) had clear-cell RCC, 7 (20%) had chromophobe RCC, and 11 patients (32%) had papillary RCC. DNA isolated from the samples was subjected to melting curve mutation analysis for EGFR, BRAF and KRAS using ABI-3130 DNA sequencer. DNA sequencing analysis of RCC samples, when compared with morphologically normal matched regions, did not show any exon mutations. Our results do not support the notion that EGFR, KRAS and BRAF might be mutated in RCC.

  3. Prognostic significance of MST1R dysregulation in renal cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pires-Luís, Ana S; Vieira-Coimbra, Márcia; Ferreira, Maria João; Ramalho-Carvalho, João; Costa-Pinheiro, Pedro; Antunes, Luís; Dias, Paula C; Lobo, Francisco; Oliveira, Jorge; Graça, Inês; Henrique, Rui; Jerónimo, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage stimulating 1 receptor (MST1R) is a C-MET proto-oncogene family receptor tyrosine kinase. Promoter methylation patterns determine transcription of MST1R variants as hypermethylation of a region upstream of transcription start site (TSS) is associated with lack of MST1R long transcript (MST1R long) and expression of a short transcript with oncogenic potential. Thus, we aimed to investigate MST1R variant transcript regulation in renal cell tumors (RCT) and assess their prognostic potential. We found, in a series of 120 RCT comprising the four main subtypes (clear cell, papillary and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, and oncocytoma), that higher methylation levels close to TSS were associated with total MST1R expression levels (MST1R total) in primary tumors (p=0.049) and renal cancer cell lines. After demethylating treatment, MST1R long/MST1R total ratio increased, as expected, in two renal cell carcinoma cell lines tested. However, in primary tumors with hypermethylation upstream of TSS, a decrease in MST1R long/MST1R total ratio was not detected, although higher expression ratio of nuclear factor-κB was apparent. Furthermore, survival analysis demonstrated that MST1R long/MST1R total ratio was independently associated with shorter disease-specific and disease-free survival, whereas MST1R total expression associated with shorter disease-specific survival. In conclusion, although promoter methylation patterns seem to determine MST1R global transcription regulation in renal cell carcinoma, other mechanisms might contribute to deregulate MST1R variant expression in RCT. Nevertheless, MST1R total expression and MST1R long/MST1R total ratio modulate the biological and clinical aggressiveness of renal cell carcinoma, as depicted by its prognostic significance, a finding that requires validation in a larger independent series. PMID:27648366

  4. Advances in renal neoplasia: recommendations from the 2012 International Society of Urological Pathology Consensus Conference.

    PubMed

    Delahunt, Brett; Srigley, John R; Montironi, Rodolfo; Egevad, Lars

    2014-05-01

    The International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) 2012 Consensus Conference made recommendations regarding the classification, prognostic factors, staging, and immunohistochemical and molecular assessment of adult renal tumors. There was consensus that 5 entities should be recognized as novel tumors: tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), acquired cystic disease-associated RCC, clear cell papillary RCC, microphthalmia transcription factor-family translocation RCC [in particular t(6; 11) RCC], and hereditary leiomyomatosis RCC syndrome-associated RCC. In addition, 3 rare epithelial carcinomas were considered emerging or provisional entities: thyroid-like follicular RCC, succinate dehydrogenase B deficiency-associated RCC, and anaplastic lymphoma kinase translocation RCC. There were also a number of suggested modifications to existing World Health Organization 2004 categories, with the new classification to be known as the ISUP Vancouver Classification. Tumor morphotype, sarcomatoid/rhabdoid differentiation, and tumor necrosis were identified as significant prognostic parameters for RCC. The ISUP Grading System was accepted with grades 1-3 of clear cell and papillary RCC being based on nucleolar prominence, whereas extreme nuclear pleomorphism or sarcomatoid and/or rhabdoid differentiation defined grade 4 tumors. It was agreed that chromophobe RCC should not be graded. Consensus guidelines were formulated for specimen handling, and it was agreed that renal sinus invasion is present when tumor is in direct contact with fat or loose connective tissue of the sinus or if there is involvement of endothelial-lined spaces within the renal sinus, regardless of the size. The role of biomarkers in the diagnosis and assessment of prognosis of renal tumors was considered, and panels of immunohistochemical markers were identified for use in specific differential diagnostic scenarios.

  5. Renal Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... as “simple” cysts, meaning they have a thin wall and contain water-like fluid. Renal cysts are fairly common in ... simple kidney cysts, meaning they have a thin wall and only water-like fluid inside. They are fairly common in ...

  6. The diagnostic value of EMA expression in the renal parenchyma tumors.

    PubMed

    Alexa, Aurora; Baderca, Flavia; Lighezan, Rodica; Zăhoi, Delia Elena; Izvernariu, D

    2011-01-01

    Renal parenchyma tumors are a heterogeneous group of malignancies that are difficult to diagnose and classify. Immunohistochemistry begun to be routinely used for the diagnosis of these tumors. Panels of antibodies are developed for the diagnostic assessment of these tumors, which include cytokeratins, epithelial membrane antigen and vimentin. Epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) is expressed by most of the tumor cell types. Forty-seven specimens of renal parenchyma tumors were studied immunohistochemically for the expression of EMA. In the majority of the cases, clear cells carcinoma was positive for EMA (25/33, 75.70%). All of the papillary carcinomas were positive, with different staining patterns between the two subtypes. The two cases of chromophobe cells carcinomas were intensely positive with a granular cytoplasmic staining pattern. The mixed epithelial-stromal tumor was negative for EMA in both of the components. Out of the three cases of sarcomatoid carcinomas, one was negative, one was weakly positive (+1) and the last was positive (+2). Intensely positive normal tubes were caught by the tumor proliferation in the negative case and in the negative stained areas of the weakly positive case.

  7. Preoperative Evaluation of Renal Cell Carcinoma by Using 18F-FDG PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Miwako; Kume, Haruki; Koyama, Keitaro; Nakagawa, Tohru; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Morikawa, Teppei; Fukayama, Masashi; Homma, Yukio; Ohtomo, Kuni; Momose, Toshimitsu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to characterize the FDG uptake of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) by the pathological subtype and nuclear grade. Patients and Methods We retrospectively identified patients who underwent 18F-FDG PET and subsequent partial or radical nephrectomy for renal tumors. The relationships of the SUV of renal tumor with subtypes, nuclear grade, and clinicopathological variables were investigated. Results Ninety-two tumors were analyzed, including 52 low-grade (G1 and G2) and 18 high-grade (G3 and G4) clear cell RCC; 7 chromophobe, 5 papillary, and 1 unclassified RCC; and 9 benign tumors (7 angiomyolipoma and 2 oncocytoma). The SUVs of high-grade clear cell RCC (mean ± SD, 6.8 ± 5.1) and papillary RCC (6.6 ± 3.7) were significantly higher than that of the controls (2.2 ± 0.3). The SUV of high-grade clear cell RCC was higher than that of low-grade tumors (median, 4.0 vs. 2.2; P < 0.001). The optimal SUV cutoff value of 3.0 helped to differentiate high-grade from low-grade clear cell RCC, with 89% sensitivity and 87% specificity. On multiple regression analysis, a high grade was the most significant predictor of SUV for clear cell RCC. Conclusions FDG uptake higher than that observed in normal kidney tissues suggests a high-grade clear cell RCC or papillary RCC subtype. FDG-PET using SUV may have a role in prediction of pathological grade of renal tumor. PMID:26164183

  8. Expression of CD44 isoforms in renal cell tumors. Positive correlation to tumor differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Terpe, H. J.; Störkel, S.; Zimmer, U.; Anquez, V.; Fischer, C.; Pantel, K.; Günthert, U.

    1996-01-01

    CD44 isoforms have been implicated in tumor progression and embryogenesis. Primary renal cell tumors (n = 100) of various histopathological differentiation and grading stages were analyzed for expression of CD44 isoforms in comparison with nonmalignant adult and fetal renal tissues. Evaluations were performed by immunohistochemistry using CD44 isoform-specific monoclonal antibodies and by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR). In the nonmalignant kidney no CD44 variant isoforms were detected. There was a significant increase in expression of CD44 standard (CD44s) and several variant isoforms (CD44v) in the course of tumor differentiation in clear cell carcinomas (n = 68) from stages G1 to G3 (P < 0.0001 for CD44s and isoforms containing CD44-6v, and P < 0.007 for those containing CD44-9v). Also, in chromophilic cell carcinomas (n = 13), CD44 isoform expression correlated with grading; ie, no CD44 expression was detected in G1 tumors, whereas in approximately 50% of the G2 tumors, CD44s, CD44-6v, and CD44-9v isoforms were present. Oncocytomas (n = 8), which are benign renal cell tumors, did not express CD44 isoforms, whereas invasive chromophobe cell carcinomas (n = 11) were positive for CD44s and CD44v isoforms. Transcript analyses by RT-PCR revealed that the upregulated isoforms in the carcinoma cells contained exons 8 to 10 and 3, 8 to 10 in combination from the variant region. In conclusion, expression of variant CD44 isoforms was strongly correlated with grading and appears to mediate a more aggressive phenotype to renal cell tumors. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8579108

  9. Prognostic Significance of CD24 in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Arik, Deniz; Can, Cavit; Dündar, Emine; Kabukçuoğlu, Sare; Paşaoğlu, Özgül

    2016-10-13

    The role of cancer stem cells in the initiation and progression of cancer has become a well-studied area of emerging research, and stem cells with different surface markers have been identified in various types of cancer. CD24 is a membrane protein that acts as the ligand for P-selectin and has been defined as a stem cell marker of colonic cancer. The immunohistochemical expression of CD24 is associated with worse patient outcomes in small cell lung cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, breast cancer, and colon cancer. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry to determine CD24 expression in clear cell, papillary and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and investigated its relationship with other clinicopathological parameters and prognosis. A total of 108 cases of clear cell, 12 papillary and 13 choromophobe renal cell carcinoma were examined. Clinicopathological features including age, gender, vascular invasion, tumor necrosis, and T stage were recorded. Clinical stage and overall survival and disease-free survival times were recorded. The immunohistochemical expression of CD24 was classified as low or high based on the percentage and intensity of positive staining. CD24 expression was associated with both tumor grade and recurrence rates. The survival analysis revealed that patients with high CD24 expression exhibited significantly lower overall and disease-free survival. Increased expression of CD24 is related to the prognosis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma. This is the first study identifying a strong association between CD24 expression levels and survival. Thus, CD24 expression may aid in predicting prognosis in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

  10. Color measurement and discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandell, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with new results which show that for test lights with slow temporal modulations, and thus little effect on the luminance system, the vector-difference hypothesis represents an adequate characterization of discrimination data. It is pointed out that for certain experimental conditions color measurements can be successfully extended to include a difference measure which predicts the discriminability of pairs of lights. When discrimination depends principally on opponent-channel responses, discrimination thresholds can be predicted from the detection contour alone. Attention is given to discriminations with a 6-Hz Gabor function, the categorization of stimulus regions, and the nature of the visual mechanisms.

  11. Renal disease in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Thorsen, Martha S; Poole, Judith H

    2002-03-01

    Anatomic and physiologic adaptations within the renal system during pregnancy are significant. Alterations are seen in renal blood flow and glomerular filtration, resulting in changes in normal renal laboratory values. When these normal renal adaptations are coupled with pregnancy-induced complications or preexisting renal dysfunction, the woman may demonstrate a reduction of renal function leading to an increased risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. This article will review normal pregnancy adaptations of the renal system and discuss common pregnancy-related renal complications.

  12. Renal Denervation

    PubMed Central

    Persu, Alexandre; Renkin, Jean; Thijs, Lutgarde; Staessen, Jan A.

    2013-01-01

    The term “ultima ratio” has multiple, though related, meanings. The motto “ultima ratio regum,” cast on the cannons of the French army of King Louis XIV, meant that war is the last argument of kings, that is, the one to be used after all diplomatic arguments have failed. Along similar lines, we propose that, given the current evidence, renal denervation should be used as a last resort, after state-of-the-art drug treatment optimized at expert centers failed to control blood pressure. PMID:22851728

  13. Functions of the Renal Nerves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koepke, John P.; DiBona, Gerald F.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses renal neuroanatomy, renal vasculature, renal tubules, renin secretion, renorenal reflexes, and hypertension as related to renal nerve functions. Indicates that high intensitites of renal nerve stimulation have produced alterations in several renal functions. (A chart with various stimulations and resultant renal functions and 10-item,…

  14. The International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grading system for renal cell carcinoma and other prognostic parameters.

    PubMed

    Delahunt, Brett; Cheville, John C; Martignoni, Guido; Humphrey, Peter A; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; McKenney, Jesse; Egevad, Lars; Algaba, Ferran; Moch, Holger; Grignon, David J; Montironi, Rodolfo; Srigley, John R

    2013-10-01

    The International Society of Urological Pathology 2012 Consensus Conference made recommendations regarding classification, prognostic factors, staging, and immunohistochemical and molecular assessment of adult renal tumors. Issues relating to prognostic factors were coordinated by a workgroup who identified tumor morphotype, sarcomatoid/rhabdoid differentiation, tumor necrosis, grading, and microvascular invasion as potential prognostic parameters. There was consensus that the main morphotypes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) were of prognostic significance, that subtyping of papillary RCC (types 1 and 2) provided additional prognostic information, and that clear cell tubulopapillary RCC was associated with a more favorable outcome. For tumors showing sarcomatoid or rhabdoid differentiation, there was consensus that a minimum proportion of tumor was not required for diagnostic purposes. It was also agreed upon that the underlying subtype of carcinoma should be reported. For sarcomatoid carcinoma, it was further agreed upon that if the underlying carcinoma subtype was absent the tumor should be classified as a grade 4 unclassified carcinoma with a sarcomatoid component. Tumor necrosis was considered to have prognostic significance, with assessment based on macroscopic and microscopic examination of the tumor. It was recommended that for clear cell RCC the amount of necrosis should be quantified. There was consensus that nucleolar prominence defined grades 1 to 3 of clear cell and papillary RCCs, whereas extreme nuclear pleomorphism or sarcomatoid and/or rhabdoid differentiation defined grade 4 tumors. It was agreed upon that chromophobe RCC should not be graded. There was consensus that microvascular invasion should not be included as a staging criterion for RCC.

  15. Expression and activity profiles of DPP IV/CD26 and NEP/CD10 glycoproteins in the human renal cancer are tumor-type dependent

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cell-surface glycoproteins play critical roles in cell-to-cell recognition, signal transduction and regulation, thus being crucial in cell proliferation and cancer etiogenesis and development. DPP IV and NEP are ubiquitous glycopeptidases closely linked to tumor pathogenesis and development, and they are used as markers in some cancers. In the present study, the activity and protein and mRNA expression of these glycoproteins were analysed in a subset of clear-cell (CCRCC) and chromophobe (ChRCC) renal cell carcinomas, and in renal oncocytomas (RO). Methods Peptidase activities were measured by conventional enzymatic assays with fluorogen-derived substrates. Gene expression was quantitatively determined by qRT-PCR and membrane-bound protein expression and distribution analysis was performed by specific immunostaining. Results The activity of both glycoproteins was sharply decreased in the three histological types of renal tumors. Protein and mRNA expression was strongly downregulated in tumors from distal nephron (ChRCC and RO). Moreover, soluble DPP IV activity positively correlated with the aggressiveness of CCRCCs (higher activities in high grade tumors). Conclusions These results support the pivotal role for DPP IV and NEP in the malignant transformation pathways and point to these peptidases as potential diagnostic markers. PMID:20459800

  16. TGDA: Nonparametric Discriminant Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Norval F.; Bruno, Albert V.

    1976-01-01

    A computer program for two-group nonparametric discriminant analysis is presented. Based on Bayes' Theorem for probability revision, the statistical rationale for this program uses the calculation of maximum likelihood estimates of group membership. The program compares the Bayesian procedure to the standard Linear Discriminant Function.…

  17. Flash-Type Discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the significant progress made in the flash-type discrimination algorithm development. The contents include: 1) Highlights of Progress for GLM-R3 Flash-Type discrimination Algorithm Development; 2) Maximum Group Area (MGA) Data; 3) Retrieval Errors from Simulations; and 4) Preliminary Global-scale Retrieval.

  18. The "Taste" for Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiswick, Barry R.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses, in terms of consumers, employers, and employees, how a "taste for discrimination," that is, someone's preference for or against association with some group in the labor market, can influence behavior and hence who gets hired. Argues that people with the strongest tastes for discrimination pay the heaviest cost. (RDN)

  19. Discrimination against Black Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aloud, Ashwaq; Alsulayyim, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is a structured way of abusing people based on racial differences, hence barring them from accessing wealth, political participation and engagement in many spheres of human life. Racism and discrimination are inherently rooted in institutions in the society, the problem has spread across many social segments of the society including…

  20. Microscale acceleration history discriminators

    DOEpatents

    Polosky, Marc A.; Plummer, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of micromechanical acceleration history discriminators is claimed. These discriminators allow the precise differentiation of a wide range of acceleration-time histories, thereby allowing adaptive events to be triggered in response to the severity (or lack thereof) of an external environment. Such devices have applications in airbag activation, and other safety and surety applications.

  1. Circulating Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (Fgf21) as Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarker in Renal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Knott, ME; Minatta, JN; Roulet, L; Gueglio, G; Pasik, L; Ranuncolo, SM; Nuñez, M; Puricelli, L; De Lorenzo, MS

    2016-01-01

    Background The finding of new biomarkers is needed to have a better sub-classification of primary renal tumors (RCC) as well as more reliable predictors of outcome and therapy response. In this study, we evaluated the role of circulating FGF21, an endocrine factor, as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for ccRCC. Materials and Methods Serum samples from healthy controls (HC), clear cell and chromophobe RCC cancer patients were obtained from the serum biobank “Biobanco Público de Muestras Séricas Oncológicas” (BPMSO) of the “Instituto de Oncología “Ángel H. Roffo”. Serum FGF21 and leptin were measured by ELISA while other metabolic markers were measured following routinely clinical procedures. Results One of our major findings was that FGF21 levels were significantly increased in ccRCC patients compared with HC. Moreover, we showed an association between the increased serum FGF21 levels and the shorter disease free survival in a cohort of 98 ccRCC patients, after adjustment for other predictors of outcome. Conclusion Our results suggest that higher FGF21 serum level is an independent prognostic biomarker, associated with worse free-disease survival. PMID:27358750

  2. Renal arteries (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A renal angiogram is a test used to examine the blood vessels of the kidneys. The test is performed ... main vessel of the pelvis, up to the renal artery that leads into the kidney. Contrast medium ...

  3. Primary renal carcinoid tumor.

    PubMed

    Kanodia, K V; Vanikar, A V; Patel, R D; Suthar, K S; Kute, V B; Modi, P R; Trivedi, H L

    2013-09-01

    Primary renal carcinoid tumor is extremely rare and, therefore, its pathogenesis and prognosis is not well known. We report a primary renal carcinoid in a 26-year-old man treated by radical nephrectomy.

  4. Kidney (Renal) Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Kidney Failure Kidney failure, also known as renal failure, ... evaluated? How is kidney failure treated? What is kidney (renal) failure? The kidneys are designed to maintain ...

  5. Renal vein thrombosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the kidneys. Possible Complications Complications may include: Acute renal failure (especially if thrombosis occurs in a dehydrated child) ... Saunders; 2012:chap 34. Read More Acute kidney failure Arteriogram Blood ... embolus Renal Tumor Review Date 5/19/2015 Updated by: ...

  6. Quantity discrimination in salamanders.

    PubMed

    Krusche, Paul; Uller, Claudia; Dicke, Ursula

    2010-06-01

    We investigated discrimination of large quantities in salamanders of the genus Plethodon. Animals were challenged with two different quantities (8 vs 12 or 8 vs 16) in a two-alternative choice task. Stimuli were live crickets, videos of live crickets or images animated by a computer program. Salamanders reliably chose the larger of two quantities when the ratio between the sets was 1:2 and stimuli were live crickets or videos thereof. Magnitude discrimination was not successful when the ratio was 2:3, or when the ratio was 1:2 when stimuli were computer animated. Analysis of the salamanders' success and failure as well as analysis of stimulus features points towards movement as a dominant feature for quantity discrimination. The results are generally consistent with large quantity discrimination investigated in many other animals (e.g. primates, fish), current models of quantity representation (analogue magnitudes) and data on sensory aspects of amphibian prey-catching behaviour (neuronal motion processing).

  7. Mass discrimination during weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment concerned with the ability of astronauts to discriminate between the mass of objects when both the objects and the astronauts are in weightless states is described. The main object of the experiment is to compare the threshold for weight-discrimination on Earth with that for mass-discrimination in orbit. Tests will be conducted premission and postmission and early and late during the mission while the crew is experiencing weightlessness. A comparison of early and late tests inflight and postflight will reveal the rate of adaptation to zero-gravity and 1-g. The mass discrimination box holds 24 balls which the astronaut will compare to one another in a random routine.

  8. Renal disease in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sanders, C L; Lucas, M J

    2001-09-01

    Women with renal disease who conceive and continue a pregnancy are at significant risk for adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Risk is inversely related to the degree of renal insufficiency. Pregnancy-induced changes in the urinary tract can temporarily increase renal function compromise, such as nephrosis, but most often results in no net increase in dysfunction. Common complications of pregnancy--such as hypertension and hypovolemia--can be associated with acute renal injury or aggravation of pre-existing disease.

  9. Angular velocity discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments designed to investigate the ability of naive observers to discriminate rotational velocities of two simultaneously viewed objects are described. Rotations are constrained to occur about the x and y axes, resulting in linear two-dimensional image trajectories. The results indicate that observers can discriminate angular velocities with a competence near that for linear velocities. However, perceived angular rate is influenced by structural aspects of the stimuli.

  10. Renal Denervation

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Tao; Guo, Jin-he; Teng, Gao-jun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a group of metabolic diseases of multiple etiologies. Although great progress has been made, researchers are still working on the pathogenesis of T2DM and how to best use the treatments available. Aside from several novel pharmacological approaches, catheter-based sympathetic renal denervation (RDN) has gained a significant role in resistant hypertension, as well as improvements in glycemic control in T2DM. In this article, we will summarize herein the role sympathetic activation plays in the progression of T2DM and review the recent clinical RDN experience in glucose metabolism. We performed systematic review in online databases, including PubMed, EmBase, and Web of Science, from inception until 2015. Studies were included if a statistical relationship was investigated between RDN and T2DM. The quality of each included study was assessed by Newcastle–Ottawa scale score. To synthesize these studies, a random-effects model or a fixed-effects model was applied as appropriate. Then, we calculated heterogeneity, performed sensitivity analysis, tested publication bias, and did meta-regression analysis. Finally, we identified 4 eligible articles. In most studies, RDN achieved via novel catheter-based approach using radiofrequency energy has gained a significant role in resistant hypertension, as well as improvements in glycemic control in T2DM. But the DREAMS-Study showed that RDN did not change median insulin sensitivity nor systemic sympathetic activity. Firstly, the current published studies lacked a proper control group, along with the sample capacity was small. Also, data obtained in the subgroups of diabetic patients were not separately analyzed and the follow-up period was very short. In addition, a reduction in blood pressure accounts for the improvements in glucose metabolism and insulin resistance cannot be excluded. If the favorable result of better glucose metabolism is confirmed in large-scale, randomized studies

  11. Renal Tubular Acidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Renal Tubular Acidosis KidsHealth > For Parents > Renal Tubular Acidosis Print A A A What's in ... Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment en español Acidosis tubular renal Each time our internal organs do something, such ...

  12. [Idiopathic renal arteriovenous fistula].

    PubMed

    Bennani, S; Ait Bolbarod, A; el Mrini, M; Kadiri, R; Benjelloun, S

    1996-06-01

    The authors report a case of idiopathic renal arteriovenous fistula. The diagnosis was established angiographically in a 24 year old man presenting gross hematuria. Embolization of the fistula was performed. Efficiency of this treatment was appreciated clinically and by duplex renal ultrasonography. The characteristics of renal arteriovenous fistulas are reviewed.

  13. Cardio-renal syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gnanaraj, Joseph; Radhakrishnan, Jai

    2016-01-01

    Cardio-renal syndrome is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice. Its pathogenesis is not fully understood. The purpose of this article is to highlight the interaction between the cardiovascular system and the renal system and how their interaction results in the complex syndrome of cardio-renal dysfunction. Additionally, we outline the available therapeutic strategies to manage this complex syndrome. PMID:27635229

  14. Renal artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    González, J; Esteban, M; Andrés, G; Linares, E; Martínez-Salamanca, J I

    2014-01-01

    A renal artery aneurysm is defined as a dilated segment of renal artery that exceeds twice the diameter of a normal renal artery. Although rare, the diagnosis and incidence of this entity have been steadily increasing due to the routine use of cross-sectional imaging. In certain cases, renal artery aneurysms may be clinically important and potentially lethal. However, knowledge of their occurrence, their natural history, and their prognosis with or without treatment is still limited. This article aims to review the recent literature concerning renal artery aneurysms, with special consideration given to physiopathology, indications for treatment, different technical options, post-procedure complications and treatment outcomes.

  15. Discriminant learning analysis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jing; Zhang, Peng; Riedel, Norbert

    2008-12-01

    Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) as a dimension reduction method is widely used in classification such as face recognition. However, it suffers from the small sample size (SSS) problem when data dimensionality is greater than the sample size, as in images where features are high dimensional and correlated. In this paper, we propose to address the SSS problem in the framework of statistical learning theory. We compute linear discriminants by regularized least squares regression, where the singularity problem is resolved. The resulting discriminants are complete in that they include both regular and irregular information. We show that our proposal and its nonlinear extension belong to the same framework where powerful classifiers such as support vector machines are formulated. In addition, our approach allows us to establish an error bound for LDA. Finally, our experiments validate our theoretical analysis results.

  16. Bias, discrimination, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Puhl, R; Brownell, K D

    2001-12-01

    This article reviews information on discriminatory attitudes and behaviors against obese individuals, integrates this to show whether systematic discrimination occurs and why, and discusses needed work in the field. Clear and consistent stigmatization, and in some cases discrimination, can be documented in three important areas of living: employment, education, and health care. Among the findings are that 28% of teachers in one study said that becoming obese is the worst thing that can happen to a person; 24% of nurses said that they are "repulsed" by obese persons; and, controlling for income and grades, parents provide less college support for their overweight than for their thin children. There are also suggestions but not yet documentation of discrimination occurring in adoption proceedings, jury selection, housing, and other areas. Given the vast numbers of people potentially affected, it is important to consider the research-related, educational, and social policy implications of these findings.

  17. Optical fiber phase discriminator.

    PubMed

    Danielson, B L

    1978-11-15

    Phase discriminators are devices widely used at rf and microwave frequencies to convert phase, or frequency, changes to amplitude changes. They find widespread use in generating audio feedback signals for frequency stabilization of oscillators and in angle demodulation applications. This paper demonstrates that similar devices, with similar functions, can be constructed in the visible region using optical fibers as delay-line elements. The operating principles of an optical-fiber delay-line phase discriminator are discussed. The sensitivity is shown to be proportional to the fiber propagation-delay time. A device working at 0.6328 microm is described and compared with predictions.

  18. Renal scintiscanning. A review

    PubMed Central

    Davies, E. Rhys

    1970-01-01

    Renal scintiscanning is a simple investigation that does not require special preparation and is well tolerated by patients. Radiopharmaceuticals used in linear scanning are accumulated in the renal cortex. This accumulation is diminished: (a) when the cortex is destroyed, e.g. by pyelonephritis, injury, etc.; and (b) when the amount available to the cortex is reduced, e.g. by ischaemia. The scintigram depicts the kidneys unimpeded by bowel contents, gives a qualitative assessment of renal function and shows the distribution of zones of normal function. Recent technical improvements show great promise in deriving a quantitative measure of renal function in some circumstances. The location of normally functioning cortex is often important in the management of renal diseases and the value of scintiscanning is then considerable. It is occasionally useful in planning surgery. The anatomy of the renal collecting system can be shown only by urography. High dose techniques achieve this even in the face of renal failure, and scintiscanning has few indications in investigating lesions that distort the renal anatomy, e.g. tumours and cysts. Renal scintiscanning is a very valuable additional method to urography, arteriography and renography in investigation of renal disorders. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:4905447

  19. Renal replacement therapy for acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Macedo, E; Bouchard, J; Mehta, R L

    2009-09-01

    Renal replacement therapy became a common clinical tool to treat patients with severe acute kidney injury (AKI) since the 1960s. During this time dialytic options have expanded considerably; biocompatible membranes, bicarbonate dialysate and dialysis machines with volumetric ultrafiltration control have improved the treatment for acute kidney injury. Along with advances in methods of intermittent hemodialysis, continuous renal replacement therapies have gained widespread acceptance in the treatment of dialysis-requiring AKI. However, many of the fundamental aspects of the renal replacement treatment such as indication, timing of dialytic intervention, and choice of dialysis modality are still controversial and may influence AKI patient's outcomes. This review outlines current concepts in the use of dialysis techniques for AKI and suggests an approach for selecting the optimal method of renal replacement therapy.

  20. Renal Artery Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Sauk, Steven; Zuckerman, Darryl A.

    2011-01-01

    Renal artery embolization (RAE) is an effective minimally invasive alternative procedure for the treatment of a variety of conditions. Since the 1970s when RAE was first developed, technical advances and growing experience have expanded the indications to not only include treatment of conditions such as symptomatic hematuria and palliation for metastatic renal cancer, but also preoperative infarction of renal tumors, treatment of angiomyolipomas, vascular malformations, medical renal disease, and complications following renal transplantation. With the drastically improved morbidity associated with this technique in part due to the introduction of more precise embolic agents and smaller delivery catheters, RAE continues to gain popularity for various urologic conditions. The indications and techniques for renal artery embolization are reviewed in the following sections. PMID:23204638

  1. Education and Gender Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumi, V. S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the status of women education in present education system and some measures to overcome the lags existing. Discrimination against girls and women in the developing world is a devastating reality. It results in millions of individual tragedies, which add up to lost potential for entire countries. Gender bias in education is an…

  2. Analytic boosted boson discrimination

    DOE PAGES

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian; Neill, Duff

    2016-05-20

    Observables which discriminate boosted topologies from massive QCD jets are of great importance for the success of the jet substructure program at the Large Hadron Collider. Such observables, while both widely and successfully used, have been studied almost exclusively with Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper we present the first all-orders factorization theorem for a two-prong discriminant based on a jet shape variable, D2, valid for both signal and background jets. Our factorization theorem simultaneously describes the production of both collinear and soft subjets, and we introduce a novel zero-bin procedure to correctly describe the transition region between these limits.more » By proving an all orders factorization theorem, we enable a systematically improvable description, and allow for precision comparisons between data, Monte Carlo, and first principles QCD calculations for jet substructure observables. Using our factorization theorem, we present numerical results for the discrimination of a boosted Z boson from massive QCD background jets. We compare our results with Monte Carlo predictions which allows for a detailed understanding of the extent to which these generators accurately describe the formation of two-prong QCD jets, and informs their usage in substructure analyses. In conclusion, our calculation also provides considerable insight into the discrimination power and calculability of jet substructure observables in general.« less

  3. Analytic boosted boson discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian; Neill, Duff

    2016-05-20

    Observables which discriminate boosted topologies from massive QCD jets are of great importance for the success of the jet substructure program at the Large Hadron Collider. Such observables, while both widely and successfully used, have been studied almost exclusively with Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper we present the first all-orders factorization theorem for a two-prong discriminant based on a jet shape variable, D2, valid for both signal and background jets. Our factorization theorem simultaneously describes the production of both collinear and soft subjets, and we introduce a novel zero-bin procedure to correctly describe the transition region between these limits. By proving an all orders factorization theorem, we enable a systematically improvable description, and allow for precision comparisons between data, Monte Carlo, and first principles QCD calculations for jet substructure observables. Using our factorization theorem, we present numerical results for the discrimination of a boosted Z boson from massive QCD background jets. We compare our results with Monte Carlo predictions which allows for a detailed understanding of the extent to which these generators accurately describe the formation of two-prong QCD jets, and informs their usage in substructure analyses. In conclusion, our calculation also provides considerable insight into the discrimination power and calculability of jet substructure observables in general.

  4. Airborne particulate discriminator

    DOEpatents

    Creek, Kathryn Louise; Castro, Alonso; Gray, Perry Clayton

    2009-08-11

    A method and apparatus for rapid and accurate detection and discrimination of biological, radiological, and chemical particles in air. A suspect aerosol of the target particulates is treated with a taggant aerosol of ultrafine particulates. Coagulation of the taggant and target particles causes a change in fluorescent properties of the cloud, providing an indication of the presence of the target.

  5. Discrimination Learning in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochocki, Thomas E.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Examined the learning performance of 192 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children on either a two or four choice simultaneous color discrimination task. Compared the use of verbal reinforcement and/or punishment, under conditions of either complete or incomplete instructions. (Author/SDH)

  6. RISE TIME DELAY DISCRIMINATOR

    DOEpatents

    Johnstone, C.W.

    1959-09-29

    A pulse-height discriminator for generating an output pulse when the accepted input pulse is approximately at its maximum value is described. A gating tube and a negative bias generator responsive to the derivative of the input pulse and means for impressing the output of the bias generator to at least one control electrode of the gating tube are included.

  7. Aptitude Tests and Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coupland, D. E.

    1970-01-01

    Explains why in the United States the feeling is increasing that much of the aptitude testing now being done discriminates against minority group members seeking employment. Skeptical of eliminating the discriminatory aspects of testing, the article raises the question of eliminating testing itself. (DM)

  8. Sex Discrimination in Coaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessem, Lawrence

    1980-01-01

    Even in situations in which the underpayment of girls' coaches is due to the sex of the students coached rather than to the sex of the coaches, the coaches and the girls coached are victims of unlawful discrimination. Available from Harvard Women's Law Journal, Harvard Law School, Cambridge, MA 02138. (Author/IRT)

  9. Color measurement and discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandell, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Theories of color measurement attempt to provide a quantative means for predicting whether two lights will be discriminable to an average observer. All color measurement theories can be characterized as follows: suppose lights a and b evoke responses from three color channels characterized as vectors, v(a) and v(b); the vector difference v(a) - v(b) corresponds to a set of channel responses that would be generated by some real light, call it *. According to theory a and b will be discriminable when * is detectable. A detailed development and test of the classic color measurement approach are reported. In the absence of a luminance component in the test stimuli, a and b, the theory holds well. In the presence of a luminance component, the theory is clearly false. When a luminance component is present discrimination judgements depend largely on whether the lights being discriminated fall in separate, categorical regions of color space. The results suggest that sensory estimation of surface color uses different methods, and the choice of method depends upon properties of the image. When there is significant luminance variation a categorical method is used, while in the absence of significant luminance variation judgments are continuous and consistant with the measurement approach.

  10. Discrimination. Opposing Viewpoints Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mary E., Ed.

    Books in the Opposing Viewpoints series challenge readers to question their own opinions and assumptions. By reading carefully balanced views, readers confront new ideas on the topic of interest. The Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibited job discrimination based on age, race, religion, gender, or national origin, provided the groundwork for…

  11. Systematic expression analysis of the mitochondrial complex III subunits identifies UQCRC1 as biomarker in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ellinger, Jörg; Gromes, Arabella; Poss, Mirjam; Brüggemann, Maria; Schmidt, Doris; Ellinger, Nadja; Tolkach, Yuri; Dietrich, Dimo; Kristiansen, Glen; Müller, Stefan C.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is common in cancer, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain is often affected in carcinogenesis. So far, few is known about the expression of the mitochondrial complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase complex) subunits in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). In this study, the NextBio database was used to determine an expression profile of the mitochondrial complex III subunits based on published microarray studies. We observed that five out of 11 subunits of the complex III were downregulated in at least three microarray studies. The decreased mRNA expression level of UQCRFS1 and UQCRC1 in ccRCC was confirmed using PCR. Low mRNA levels UQCRC1 were also correlated with a shorter period of cancer-specific and overall survival. Furthermore, UQCRFS1 and UQCRC1 were also decreased in ccRCC on the protein level as determined using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. UQCRC1 protein expression was also lower in ccRCC than in papillary and chromophobe subtypes. Analyzing gene expression and DNA methylation in The Cancer Genome Atlas cohort revealed an inverse correlation of gene expression and DNA methylation, suggesting that DNA hypermethylation is regulating the expression of UQCRC1 and UQCRFS1. Taken together, our data implicate that dysregulated UQCRC1 and UQCRFS1 are involved in impaired mitochondrial electron transport chain function. PMID:27845902

  12. Renal pelvis or ureter cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis or ureter; Kidney cancer - renal pelvis; Ureter cancer ... Cancer can grow in the urine collection system, but it is uncommon. Renal pelvis and ureter cancers ...

  13. The Struggle against Sex Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Jane

    1982-01-01

    Provides overview of laws, policies, and regulations available to women to secure their job rights when faced with sex discrimination. Equal pay, sexual harassment, pregnancy discrimination, and affirmative action are discussed, noting procedures involved in filing a complaint. (EJS)

  14. The Case for Positive Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses both three basic strategies, preferences, allocational priorities, and incentives--and four principles of positive discrimination--compensation and rectification, appropriate meritocratic criteria, the development of the discriminated, and fairness. (JM)

  15. Genetic discrimination in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Miller, P S

    1998-01-01

    Author argues that the Americans with Disabilities Act prohibits discrimination against workers based on their genetic makeup. He also examines state legislation and recently proposed federal legislation prohibiting genetic discrimination.

  16. Stimulus Structure, Discrimination, and Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runquist, Willard N.

    1975-01-01

    The general purpose of this experiment was to determine whether differences in stimulus discrimination, as determined by the MIR (missing-item recognition) test, are correlated with interference in recall, as demanded by the discriminative coding hypothesis. (Author/RK)

  17. Transgender Discrimination and the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Richard

    2010-01-01

    An emerging area of law is developing regarding sex/gender identity discrimination, also referred to as transgender discrimination, as distinguished from discrimination based on sexual orientation. A transgendered individual is defined as "a person who has a gender-identity disorder which is a persistent discomfort about one?s assigned sex or…

  18. Price Discrimination: A Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguiló, Paula; Sard, Maria; Tugores, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a classroom experiment aimed at familiarizing students with different types of price discrimination (first-, second-, and third-degree price discrimination). During the experiment, the students were asked to decide what tariffs to set as monopolists for each of the price discrimination scenarios under…

  19. Price Discrimination: Lessons for Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynes, E. Scott

    1990-01-01

    Explains price and product discrimination, showing how intelligent consumers can achieve increased purchasing power of their income and discusses how consumer educators can explain this discrimination. Evaluates the pros and cons of price/product discrimination from the social viewpoint. (Author/JOW)

  20. FET Frequency Discriminator.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    conversion . characteristic of the frequency discriminator is significant and :ending upon the specific system - may be the limiting factor in the accu of...the results obtained did not .-" allow for the accurate determinat ion of the change in impedance, addit ional 14 -~ 12V - - Figure 7. Impedance plot...44*. -. 7 ’I -- -..- ,. -, 4., /-.,’ .3 8 V ............... ... .. .$, L- 12v - Figure 9. Impedance plot tor five diodes inl parallel. A circuit was

  1. Symmetry impedes symmetry discrimination.

    PubMed

    Tjan, Bosco S; Liu, Zili

    2005-12-16

    Objects in the world, natural and artificial alike, are often bilaterally symmetric. The visual system is likely to take advantage of this regularity to encode shapes for efficient object recognition. The nature of encoding a symmetric shape, and of encoding any departure from it, is therefore an important matter in visual perception. We addressed this issue of shape encoding empirically, noting that a particular encoding scheme necessarily leads to a specific profile of sensitivity in perceptual discriminations. We studied symmetry discrimination using human faces and random dots. Each face stimulus was a frontal view of a three-dimensional (3-D) face model. The 3-D face model was a linearly weighted average (a morph) between the model of an original face and that of the corresponding mirror face. Using this morphing technique to vary the degree of asymmetry, we found that, for faces and analogously generated random-dot patterns alike, symmetry discrimination was worst when the stimuli were nearly symmetric, in apparent opposition to almost all studies in the literature. We analyzed the previous work and reconciled the old and new results using a generic model with a simple nonlinearity. By defining asymmetry as the minimal difference between the left and right halves of an object, we found that the visual system was disproportionately more sensitive to larger departures from symmetry than to smaller ones. We further demonstrated that our empirical and modeling results were consistent with Weber-Fechner's and Stevens's laws.

  2. Discrimination in lexical decision

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Laurie Beth; Ramscar, Michael; Hendrix, Peter; Baayen, R. Harald

    2017-01-01

    In this study we present a novel set of discrimination-based indicators of language processing derived from Naive Discriminative Learning (ndl) theory. We compare the effectiveness of these new measures with classical lexical-distributional measures—in particular, frequency counts and form similarity measures—to predict lexical decision latencies when a complete morphological segmentation of masked primes is or is not possible. Data derive from a re-analysis of a large subset of decision latencies from the English Lexicon Project, as well as from the results of two new masked priming studies. Results demonstrate the superiority of discrimination-based predictors over lexical-distributional predictors alone, across both the simple and primed lexical decision tasks. Comparable priming after masked corner and cornea type primes, across two experiments, fails to support early obligatory segmentation into morphemes as predicted by the morpho-orthographic account of reading. Results fit well with ndl theory, which, in conformity with Word and Paradigm theory, rejects the morpheme as a relevant unit of analysis. Furthermore, results indicate that readers with greater spelling proficiency and larger vocabularies make better use of orthographic priors and handle lexical competition more efficiently. PMID:28235015

  3. Workplace discrimination and cancer.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Maureen A; Fabian, Ellen; Hurley, Jessica E; McMahon, Brian T; West, Steven L

    2007-01-01

    Data from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Integrated Mission System database were analyzed with specific reference to allegations of workplace discrimination filed by individuals with cancer under ADA Title One. These 6,832 allegations, filed between July 27, 1992 and September 30, 2003, were compared to 167,798 allegations from a general disability population on the following dimensions: type of workplace discrimination; demographic characteristics of the charging parties (CPs); the industry designation, location, and size of employers; and the outcome or resolution of EEOC investigations. Results showed allegations derived from CPs with cancer were more likely than those in the general disability population to include issues involving discharge, terms and conditions of employment, lay-off, wages, and demotion. Compared to the general disability group, CPs with cancer were more likely to be female, older, and White. Allegations derived from CPs with cancer were also more likely to be filed against smaller employers (15-100 workers) or those in service industries. Finally, the resolution of allegations by CPs with cancer were more likely to be meritorious than those filed from the general disability population; that is, actual discrimination is more likely to have occurred.

  4. [Comment on] Statistical discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinn, Douglas

    In the December 8, 1981, issue of Eos, a news item reported the conclusion of a National Research Council study that sexual discrimination against women with Ph.D.'s exists in the field of geophysics. Basically, the item reported that even when allowances are made for motherhood the percentage of female Ph.D.'s holding high university and corporate positions is significantly lower than the percentage of male Ph.D.'s holding the same types of positions. The sexual discrimination conclusion, based only on these statistics, assumes that there are no basic psychological differences between men and women that might cause different populations in the employment group studied. Therefore, the reasoning goes, after taking into account possible effects from differences related to anatomy, such as women stopping their careers in order to bear and raise children, the statistical distributions of positions held by male and female Ph.D.'s ought to be very similar to one another. Any significant differences between the distributions must be caused primarily by sexual discrimination.

  5. Atheroembolic renal disease.

    PubMed

    Scolari, Francesco; Ravani, Pietro

    2010-05-08

    Atheroembolic renal disease develops when atheromatous aortic plaques rupture, releasing cholesterol crystals into the small renal arteries. Embolisation often affects other organs, such as the skin, gastrointestinal system, and brain. Although the disease can develop spontaneously, it usually develops after vascular surgery, catheterisation, or anticoagulation. The systemic nature of atheroembolism makes diagnosis difficult. The classic triad of a precipitating event, acute or subacute renal failure, and skin lesions, are strongly suggestive of the disorder. Eosinophilia further supports the diagnosis, usually confirmed by biopsy of an affected organ or by the fundoscopic finding of cholesterol crystals in the retinal circulation. Renal and patient prognosis are poor. Treatment is mostly preventive, based on avoidance of further precipitating factors, and symptomatic, aimed to the optimum treatment of hypertension and cardiac and renal failure. Statins, which stabilise atherosclerotic plaques, should be offered to all patients. Steroids might have a role in acute or subacute progressive forms with systemic inflammation.

  6. [Sarcoidosis : Renal manifestations].

    PubMed

    Löffler, C; Bergner, R

    2017-04-12

    Renal involvement in sarcoidosis is much more common than generally assumed from old epidemiological studies and is often only detected when actively searched for. Many patients with renal sarcoidosis present with no or only few symptoms. The diagnostic work-up of sarcoidosis should always include a possible renal involvement. In cases of impaired renal function, proteinuria or a pathological urine sediment, a renal biopsy specimen should be obtained to assess the type, severity and prognosis of the kidney disease. Treatment is primarily based on the use of corticosteroids. Steroid-sparing agents, such as disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and infliximab can be applied; however, the evidence for efficacy of these therapies is mostly based on case series and expert opinions. Discontinuation of immunosuppression therapy bears a high risk of relapse.

  7. Perceptual learning in maze discriminations.

    PubMed

    Trobalon, J B; Sansa, J; Chamizo, V D; Mackintosh, N J

    1991-11-01

    In Experiment 1, rats were trained on a discrimination between rubber- and sandpaper-covered arms of a maze after one group had been pre-exposed to these intra-maze cues. Pre-exposure facilitated subsequent discrimination learning, unless the discrimination was made easier by adding further discriminative stimuli, when it now significantly retarded learning. In Experiment 2, rats were trained on an extra-maze spatial discrimination, again after one group, but not another, had been pre-exposed to the extra-maze landmarks. Here too, pre-exposure facilitated subsequent discrimination learning, unless the discrimination was made substantially easier by arranging that the two arms between which rats had to choose were always separated by 135 degrees. The results of both experiments can be explained by supposing that perceptual learning depends on the presence of features common to S+ and S-.

  8. A Protective Role for Androgen Receptor in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Based on Mining TCGA Data

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongjuan; Leppert, John T.; Peehl, Donna M.

    2016-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) is expressed in normal murine and human kidneys of both genders, but its physiologic role is uncertain. Several studies showed loss of AR in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in conjunction with increasing clinical stage and pathological grade, but others found that higher AR expression correlated with worse outcomes. Limited functional studies with renal cell lines suggested tumor-promoting activity of AR. In this study, we queried transcriptomic, proteomic, epigenetic and survival data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to evaluate AR expression and its association with overall survival in three subtypes of RCC (clear cell [ccRCC], papillary [pRCC], and chromophobe [chRCC]). We found that although there was no significant difference in AR mRNA expression in ccRCC of males vs. females, AR protein expression in ccRCC was significantly higher in male compared to female patients. More importantly, higher expression of AR at both transcript and protein levels was associated with improved overall survival in both genders with ccRCC, but did not predict survival of either gender with pRCC or chRCC. Genes whose transcript levels were associated with AR mRNA levels significantly overlapped between ccRCC and pRCC, but not with chRCC, suggesting a similar transcriptional program mediated by AR in ccRCC and pRCC. Ingenuity pathway analysis also identified overlapping pathways and upstream regulators enriched in AR-associated genes in ccRCC and pRCC. Hypermethylation of CpG sites located in the promoter and first exon of AR was associated with loss of AR expression and poor overall survival. Our findings support a tumor suppressor role for AR in both genders that might be exploited to decrease the incidence or progression of ccRCC. PMID:26814892

  9. Cadmium and renal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Il'yasova, Dora; Schwartz, Gary G. . E-mail: gschwart@wfubmc.edu

    2005-09-01

    Background: Rates of renal cancer have increased steadily during the past two decades, and these increases are not explicable solely by advances in imaging modalities. Cadmium, a widespread environmental pollutant, is a carcinogen that accumulates in the kidney cortex and is a cause of end-stage renal disease. Several observations suggest that cadmium may be a cause of renal cancer. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature on cadmium and renal cancer using MEDLINE for the years 1966-2003. We reviewed seven epidemiological and eleven clinical studies. Results: Despite different methodologies, three large epidemiologic studies indicate that occupational exposure to cadmium is associated with increased risk renal cancer, with odds ratios varying from 1.2 to 5.0. Six of seven studies that compared the cadmium content of kidneys from patients with kidney cancer to that of patients without kidney cancer found lower concentrations of cadmium in renal cancer tissues. Conclusions: Exposure to cadmium appears to be associated with renal cancer, although this conclusion is tempered by the inability of studies to assess cumulative cadmium exposure from all sources including smoking and diet. The paradoxical findings of lower cadmium content in kidney tissues from patients with renal cancer may be caused by dilution of cadmium in rapidly dividing cells. This and other methodological problems limit the interpretation of studies of cadmium in clinical samples. Whether cadmium is a cause of renal cancer may be answered more definitively by future studies that employ biomarkers of cadmium exposure, such as cadmium levels in blood and urine.

  10. Acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2011-10-01

    Acute renal failure (now acute kidney injury) is a common complication of critical illness affecting between 30 and 60% of critically ill patients. The development of a consensus definition (RIFLE--risk, injury, failure, loss, end-stage system) has allowed standardization of reporting and epidemiological work. Multicenter multinational epidemiological studies indicate that sepsis is now the most common cause of acute renal failure in the intensive care unit (ICU) followed by cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury. Unfortunately, our understanding of the pathogenesis of acute renal failure in these settings remains limited. Because of such limited understanding, no reproducibly effective therapies have been developed. In addition the diagnosis of acute renal failure still rests upon the detection of changes in serum creatinine, which only occur if more than 50% of glomerular filtration is lost and are often delayed by more than 24 hours. Such diagnostic delays make the implementation of early therapy nearly impossible. In response to these difficulties, there has been a concerted effort to use proteomics to identify novel early biomarkers of acute renal failure. The identification and study of neutrophil gelatinase- associated lipocalin has been an important step in this field. Another area of active interest and investigation relates to the role of intravenous fluid resuscitation and fluid balance. Data from large observational studies and randomized, controlled trials consistently indicate that a positive fluid balance in patients with acute renal failure represents a major independent risk factor for mortality and provides no protection of renal function. The pendulum is clearly swinging away from a fluid-liberal approach to a fluid-conservative approach in these patients. Finally, there is a growing appreciation that acute renal failure may identify patients who are at increased risk of subsequent chronic renal dysfunction and mortality, opening the way

  11. Renal oncocytoma: new observations

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, M.J.; Hartman, D.S.; Friedman, A.C.; Sherman, J.L.; Lautin, E.M.; Pyatt, R.S.; Ho, C.K.; Csere, R.; Fromowitz, F.B.

    1984-10-01

    Renal oncocytomas are uncommon, benign tumors that can be treated by local incision or heminephrectomy; their preoperative differentiation from renal cell carcinoma, treated by radical nephrectomy, would be invaluable. A particularly important finding, a central scar, not stressed in previous reports, is frequently demonstrated by CT examination. The authors evaluated radiographic studies of 18 pathologically confirmed cases of oncocytoma and compared findings with results of CT, sonography, and angiogrpahy studies of 18 renal cell carcinoma cases. Oncocytomas can be suggested if a stellate scar is identified within an otherwise homogeneous tumor on ultrasound (US) and CT; if the mass appears homogeneous but no scar is present, angiography should be performed.

  12. HLA-E expression and its clinical relevance in human renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Seliger, Barbara; Jasinski-Bergner, Simon; Quandt, Dagmar; Stoehr, Christine; Bukur, Juergen; Wach, Sven; Legal, Wolfgang; Taubert, Helge; Wullich, Bernd; Hartmann, Arndt

    2016-01-01

    The non-classical human leukocyte antigen E (HLA-E) expression is frequently overexpressed in tumor diseases, transplants and virus-infected cells and represents an immunomodulatory molecule by binding to the receptors CD94/NKG2A, -B and –C on NK and T cells. Due to its immune suppressive features HLA-E expression might represent an important mechanism of tumors to escape immune surveillance. While an aberrant expression of the non-classical HLA-G antigen in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been demonstrated to be associated with a worse outcome of patients and reduced sensitivity to immune effector cell-mediated cytotoxicity, the expression and function of HLA-E has not yet been analyzed in this tumor entity. Higher levels of HLA-E transcripts were detected in all RCC cell lines and tumor lesions, which were tested in comparison to normal kidney epithelium. Immunohistochemical staining of a tissue microarray (TMA) using the HLA-E-specific monoclonal antibody TFL-033 recognizing the cytoplasmic HLA-E α-chain as monomer revealed a heterogeneous HLA-E expression in RCC lesions with the highest frequency in chromophobe RCC when compared to other RCC subtypes. HLA-E expression did not correlate with the frequency of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and FoxP3+ immune cell infiltrations, but showed an inverse correlation with infiltrating CD56+ cells. In contrast to HLA-G, HLA-E expression in RCCs was not statistically significant associated with a decreased disease specific survival. These data suggest that HLA-E overexpression frequently occurs in RCC and correlates with reduced immunogenicity. PMID:27589686

  13. Renal scintigraphy in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Reid; Daniel, Gregory B

    2014-01-01

    Renal scintigraphy is performed commonly in dogs and cats and has been used in a variety of other species. In a 2012 survey of the members of the Society of Veterinary Nuclear Medicine, 95% of the respondents indicated they perform renal scintigraphy in their practice. Renal scintigraphy is primarily used to assess renal function and to evaluate postrenal obstruction. This article reviews how renal scintigraphy is used in veterinary medicine and describes the methods of analysis. Species variation is also discussed.

  14. Renal and perirenal abscesses

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, J.E.; Andriole, V.T.

    1987-12-01

    Our knowledge of the spectrum of renal abscesses has increased as a result of more sensitive radiologic techniques. The classification of intrarenal abscess now includes acute focal bacterial nephritis and acute multifocal bacterial nephritis, as well as the previously recognized renal cortical abscess, renal corticomedullary abscess, and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. In general, the clinical presentation of these entities does not differentiate them; various radiographic studies can distinguish them, however. The intrarenal abscess is usually treated successfully with antibiotic therapy alone. Antistaphylococcal therapy is indicated for the renal cortical abscess, whereas therapy directed against the common gram-negative uropathogens is indicated for most of the other entities. The perinephric abscess is often an elusive diagnosis, has a more serious prognosis, and is more difficult to treat. Drainage of the abscess and sometimes partial or complete nephrectomy are required for resolution. 73 references.

  15. Renal papillary necrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... ureters. Causes Renal papillary necrosis often occurs with analgesic nephropathy . This is damage to one or both ... Treatment depends on the cause. For example, if analgesic nephropathy is the cause, your doctor will recommend ...

  16. Proximal renal tubular acidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... References Krapf R, Seldin DW, Alpern RJ. Clinical syndromes of metabolic acidosis. In: Alpern RJ, Caplan M, Moe OW, ... 529. Read More Distal renal tubular acidosis Fanconi syndrome Low potassium level Metabolic acidosis Osteomalacia Respiratory acidosis Rickets Review Date 10/ ...

  17. Renal primitive neuroectodermal tumors.

    PubMed

    Bartholow, Tanner; Parwani, Anil

    2012-06-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors exist as a part of the Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor family. These tumors most commonly arise in the chest wall and paraspinal regions; cases with a renal origin are rare entities, but have become increasingly reported in recent years. Although such cases occur across a wide age distribution, the average age for a patient with a renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor is the mid- to late 20s, with both males and females susceptible. Histologically, these tumors are characterized by pseudorosettes. Immunohistochemically, CD99 is an important diagnostic marker. Clinically, these are aggressive tumors, with an average 5-year disease-free survival rate of only 45% to 55%. Given that renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor bears many similarities to other renal tumors, it is important to review the histologic features, immunostaining profile, and genetic abnormalities that can be used for its correct diagnosis.

  18. Distal renal tubular acidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... get better with treatment. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of distal renal tubular acidosis. Get medical help right away if you develop emergency symptoms ...

  19. Discrimination against Muslim American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Aroian, Karen J

    2012-06-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This descriptive qualitative study complements the few existing studies on Muslim American adolescents by obtaining in-depth description of the discrimination they encounter. The sample was 14 Muslim American adolescents who participated in one of two gender-specific focus groups about their discrimination experiences. Findings identified school settings as rife with discrimination toward Muslims, portrayed Muslim girls as at risk for harassment by strangers in public places, and illustrated how Muslim youth cope with discrimination. The study findings sensitize school nurses to the nature of the problem and provide direction for intervention.

  20. 'Transcollateral' Renal Angioplasty for a Completely Occluded Renal Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, Subash; Chadha, Davinder S. Swamy, Ajay

    2011-02-15

    Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty with stenting has been effective in the control of hypertension, renal function, and pulmonary edema caused by atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis. However, the role of the procedure has not been fully established in the context of chronic total occlusion of renal artery. We report the successful use of this procedure in 57-year-old male patient who reported for evaluation of a recent episode of accelerated hypertension. A renal angiogram in this patient showed ostial stenosis of the right renal artery, which was filling by way of the collateral artery. Renal angioplasty for chronic total occlusion of right renal artery was successfully performed in a retrograde fashion through a collateral artery, thereby leading to improvement of renal function and blood pressure control.

  1. Renal pathology in reptiles.

    PubMed

    Zwart, Peernel

    2006-01-01

    The class of Reptilia varies widely. Both the gross morphology and microscopic anatomy of the kidneys are specific for each species. In each species of reptile, the physiology of the renal system has adapted to the specific conditions of life, including, among other factors, the type of food, environmental temperature, and the availability of water. The pathology of the kidneys in reptiles has been poorly studied, but in recent years a number of investigators have specifically studied reptilian renal pathology.

  2. [Imaging renal cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Bazan, F; Busto, M

    2014-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is the eighth most common malignancy in adults and the most common malignancy in the kidney. It is thus a very common disease for radiologists. This review aims to provide a general overview of the imaging techniques used to diagnose, characterize, and help plan the treatment of renal cell carcinoma as well as to review basic aspects related to staging, imaging-guided percutaneous treatment, and follow-up in the most common clinical scenarios.

  3. Interpreting past religious discrimination today.

    PubMed

    Schumm, Walter R

    2003-10-01

    Much of modern western law now presupposes opposition to discrimination based on race, religion, sex, national origin, and other factors. However, ancient religious Scriptures may have sanctioned certain types of discrimination. Whether those who are inclined to accept literal interpretations of their Scriptures will condone certain forms of discrimination could be evaluated to contrast the effects of modernization versus religious indoctrination on various kinds of prejudice.

  4. Laparoscopic Renal Cryoablation

    PubMed Central

    Schiffman, Marc; Moshfegh, Amiel; Talenfeld, Adam; Del Pizzo, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    In light of evidence linking radical nephrectomy and consequent suboptimal renal function to adverse cardiovascular events and increased mortality, research into nephron-sparing techniques for renal masses widely expanded in the past two decades. The American Urological Association (AUA) guidelines now explicitly list partial nephrectomy as the standard of care for the management of T1a renal tumors. Because of the increasing utilization of cross-sectional imaging, up to 70% of newly detected renal masses are stage T1a, making them more amenable to minimally invasive nephron-sparing therapies including laparoscopic and robotic partial nephrectomy and ablative therapies. Cryosurgery has emerged as a leading option for renal ablation, and compared with surgical techniques it offers benefits in preserving renal function with fewer complications, shorter hospitalization times, and allows for quicker convalescence. A mature dataset exists at this time, with intermediate and long-term follow-up data available. Cryosurgical recommendations as a first-line therapy are made at this time in limited populations, including elderly patients, patients with multiple comorbidities, and those with a solitary kidney. As more data emerge on oncologic efficacy, and technical experience and the technology continue to improve, the application of this modality will likely be extended in future treatment guidelines. PMID:24596441

  5. Hereditary Renal Cancer Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Naomi B.

    2013-01-01

    Inherited susceptibility to kidney cancer is a fascinating and complex topic. Our knowledge about types of genetic syndromes associated with an increased risk of disease is continually expanding. Currently, there are 10 syndromes associated with an increased risk of all types of renal cancer, which are reviewed herein. Clear cell renal cancer is associated with von Hippel Lindau disease, chromosome 3 translocations, PTEN hamartomatous syndrome and mutations in BAP1, as well as several of the genes encoding the proteins comprising the succinate dehydrogenase complex (SDHB/C/D). Type 1 papillary renal cancers arise in conjunction with germline mutations in MET and type 2 as part of Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Cancer (FH mutations). Chromophone and oncocytic renal cancers are predominantly associated with Birt Hogg Dubé syndrome. Angiomyolipomas are commonly and their malignant counterpart epitheliod angiomyolipomas rarely are found in patients with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex. The targeted therapeutic options for the renal cancer associated with these diseases are just starting to expand, and are an area of active clinical research. PMID:24359990

  6. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted.

  7. Introduction to multivariate discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kégl, Balázs

    2013-07-01

    Multivariate discrimination or classification is one of the best-studied problem in machine learning, with a plethora of well-tested and well-performing algorithms. There are also several good general textbooks [1-9] on the subject written to an average engineering, computer science, or statistics graduate student; most of them are also accessible for an average physics student with some background on computer science and statistics. Hence, instead of writing a generic introduction, we concentrate here on relating the subject to a practitioner experimental physicist. After a short introduction on the basic setup (Section 1) we delve into the practical issues of complexity regularization, model selection, and hyperparameter optimization (Section 2), since it is this step that makes high-complexity non-parametric fitting so different from low-dimensional parametric fitting. To emphasize that this issue is not restricted to classification, we illustrate the concept on a low-dimensional but non-parametric regression example (Section 2.1). Section 3 describes the common algorithmic-statistical formal framework that unifies the main families of multivariate classification algorithms. We explain here the large-margin principle that partly explains why these algorithms work. Section 4 is devoted to the description of the three main (families of) classification algorithms, neural networks, the support vector machine, and AdaBoost. We do not go into the algorithmic details; the goal is to give an overview on the form of the functions these methods learn and on the objective functions they optimize. Besides their technical description, we also make an attempt to put these algorithm into a socio-historical context. We then briefly describe some rather heterogeneous applications to illustrate the pattern recognition pipeline and to show how widespread the use of these methods is (Section 5). We conclude the chapter with three essentially open research problems that are either

  8. Racial/Ethnic Workplace Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Chavez, Laura J.; Ornelas, India J.; Lyles, Courtney R.; Williams, Emily C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Experiences of discrimination are associated with tobacco and alcohol use, and work is a common setting where individuals experience racial/ethnic discrimination. Few studies have evaluated the association between workplace discrimination and these behaviors, and none have described associations across race/ethnicity. Purpose To examine the association between workplace discrimination and tobacco and alcohol use in a large, multistate sample of U.S. adult respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey Reactions to Race Module (2004–2010). Methods Multivariable logistic regression analyses evaluated cross-sectional associations between self-reported workplace discrimination and tobacco (current and daily smoking) and alcohol use (any and heavy use, and binge drinking) among all participants and stratified by race/ethnicity, adjusting for relevant covariates. Data were analyzed in 2013. Results Among respondents, 70,080 completed the workplace discrimination measure. Discrimination was more common among black non-Hispanic (21%), Hispanic (12%), and other race respondents (11%) than white non-Hispanics (4%) (p<0.001). In the total sample, discrimination was associated with current smoking (risk ratio [RR]=1.32, 95% CI=1.19, 1.47), daily smoking (RR=1.41, 95% CI=1.24, 1.61), and heavy drinking (RR=1.11, 95% CI=1.01, 1.22), but not binge or any drinking. Among Hispanics, workplace discrimination was associated with increased heavy and binge drinking, but not any alcohol use or smoking. Workplace discrimination among black non-Hispanics and white Non-Hispanics was associated with increased current and daily smoking, but not alcohol outcomes. Conclusions Workplace discrimination is common, associated with smoking and alcohol use, and merits further policy attention given the impact of these behaviors on morbidity and mortality. PMID:25441232

  9. Perceived weight discrimination and obesity.

    PubMed

    Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index≥30; BMI) by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female) completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.58-4.08) and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.06-4.97) than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education) and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race) were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity.

  10. Therapeutic effects of renal denervation on renal failure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yutang; Seto, Sai-Wang; Golledge, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    Sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) is increased in both patients and experimental animals with renal failure. The kidney is a richly innervated organ and has both efferent and afferent nerves. Renal denervation shows protective effects against renal failure in both animals and humans. The underlying mechanisms include a decrease in blood pressure, a decrease in renal efferent SNA, a decrease in central SNA and sympathetic outflow, and downregulation of the reninangiotensin system. It has been demonstrated that re-innervation occurs within weeks after renal denervation in animals but that no functional re-innervation occurs in humans for over two years after denervation. Renal denervation might not be renal protective in some situations including bile duct ligation-induced renal failure and ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury. Catheter-based renal denervation has been applied to patients with both early and end stage renal failure and the published results so far suggest that this procedure is safe and effective at decreasing blood pressure. The effectiveness of renal denervation in improving renal function in patients with renal failure needs to be further investigated.

  11. Update on Renal Mass Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Haifler, Miki; Kutikov, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Renal masses are diagnosed with an increasing frequency. However, a significant proportion of these masses are benign, and the majority of malignant tumors are biologically indolent. Furthermore, renal tumors are often harbored by the elderly and comorbid patients. As such, matching of renal tumor biology to appropriate treatment intensity is an urgent clinical need. Renal mass biopsy is currently a very useful clinical tool that can assist with critical clinical decision-making in patients with renal mass. Yet, renal mass biopsy is associated with limitations and, as such, may not be appropriate for all patients.

  12. Malignant renal tumors in children

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Thomas Ray; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Renal malignancies are common in children. While the majority of malignant renal masses are secondary to Wilms tumor, it can be challenging to distinguish from more aggressive renal masses. For suspicious renal lesions, it is crucial to ensure prompt diagnosis in order to select the appropriate surgical procedure and treatment. This review article will discuss the common differential diagnosis that can be encountered when evaluating a suspicious renal mass in the pediatric population. This includes clear cell sarcoma of the kidney, malignant rhabdoid tumor, renal medullary carcinoma and lymphoma. PMID:28326263

  13. Vibrotactile Discrimination of Musical Timbre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Frank A.; Ammirante, Paolo; Fels, Deborah I.

    2012-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the ability to discriminate between musical timbres based on vibrotactile stimulation alone. Participants made same/different judgments on pairs of complex waveforms presented sequentially to the back through voice coils embedded in a conforming chair. Discrimination between cello, piano, and trombone tones matched…

  14. Variable Selection in Discriminant Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huberty, Carl J.; Mourad, Salah A.

    Methods for ordering and selecting variables for discriminant analysis in multiple group comparison or group prediction studies include: univariate Fs, stepwise analysis, learning discriminant function (LDF) variable correlations, communalities, LDF standardized coefficients, and weighted standardized coefficients. Five indices based on distance,…

  15. THE HIGH COST OF DISCRIMINATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROPER, ELMO

    ON THE BASIS OF EMPLOYEE SURVEYS AND IN-PLANT RESEARCH, THE TOTAL COST OF DISCRIMINATION TO AMERICAN BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY IN ACTUAL DOLLARS IS ESTIMATED AT ROUGHLY $30 BILLION ANNUALLY. DISCRIMINATION IN INDUSTRY BEGINS AT THE HIRING GATE WHERE MINORITY GROUPS ARE REFUSED EMPLOYMENT BECAUSE OF RACE, COLOR, RELIGION, NATIONALITY, POLITICAL…

  16. Memory Retrieval as Temporal Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gordon D. A.; Vousden, Janet I.; McCormack, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Temporal distinctiveness models of memory retrieval claim that memories are organised partly in terms of their positions along a temporal dimension, and suggest that memory retrieval involves temporal discrimination. According to such models the retrievability of memories should be related to the discriminability of their temporal distances at the…

  17. Addressing Discrimination in School Matters!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    Every student has the right to an education free from discrimination that provides high-quality, equitable opportunities to learn. Unfortunately, sometimes individuals or systems may act in ways that violate this right. Discrimination occurs when people are treated unequally or less favorably than others because of some real or perceived…

  18. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  19. Invidious Discrimination: Second Generation Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Robert J.; Dee, Paul

    1976-01-01

    Discusses school law issues dealing with various forms of invidious discrimination. Considers discrimination based on forms of involuntary association (ethnicity, economic status, primary language, and maturity) and forms of voluntary association (sexual proclivity, marital status, pregnancy and parenthood, self-expression and appearance, religion…

  20. Gender Discrimination in Jessica's Career.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Ellen Piel

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on the sexual harassment and other gender-related difficulties faced by a Chinese-American woman. Profiles her encounters with gender discrimination and how it hindered career advancement and led to professional isolation. Relates how this case study can be used to sensitize workers to gender discrimination. (RJM)

  1. Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark C.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews developments in 2000 in the law of disability discrimination as it relates to higher education, which falls into five categories: (1) definition of a qualified individual; (2) accommodations, access, undue burden, and fundamental alteration of programs; (3) intentional discrimination, harassment, and retaliation; (4) Eleventh Amendment…

  2. Employment Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustoles, Thomas P.; Griffin, Oren R.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews court decisions related to employment discrimination in higher education. The most significant development was a series of cases affirming that Eleventh Amendment immunity from private money damage claims brought pursuant to various federal employment discrimination statutes applied to state colleges and universities. (SLD)

  3. Perceptions of Discrimination during Downsizing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkey, Linda Kathryn

    1993-01-01

    Demonstrates that perceptions of ethnic discrimination during layoffs are moderately correlated with perceptions of selection fairness and information access during the layoff process. Shows that, in the company studied, both minority and majority ethnic group members felt equally discriminated against. (SR)

  4. Price Discrimination in Academic Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Patrick; Merz, Thomas E.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of price discrimination (charging different prices to different customers for same product) for 89 academic journals in 6 disciplines reveals: incidence of price discrimination rose between 1974 and 1984, increase in mean institutional (library) subscription price exceeded increase in mean individual subscription price. Journal list…

  5. Vibrotactile discrimination of musical timbre.

    PubMed

    Russo, Frank A; Ammirante, Paolo; Fels, Deborah I

    2012-08-01

    Five experiments investigated the ability to discriminate between musical timbres based on vibrotactile stimulation alone. Participants made same/different judgments on pairs of complex waveforms presented sequentially to the back through voice coils embedded in a conforming chair. Discrimination between cello, piano, and trombone tones matched for F0, duration, and magnitude was above chance with white noise masking the sound output of the voice coils (Experiment 1), with additional masking to control for bone-conducted sound (Experiment 2), and among a group of deaf individuals (Experiment 4a). Hearing (Experiment 3) and deaf individuals (Experiment 4b) also successfully discriminated between dull and bright timbres varying only with regard to spectral centroid. We propose that, as with auditory discrimination of musical timbre, vibrotactile discrimination may involve the cortical integration of filtered output from frequency-tuned mechanoreceptors functioning as critical bands.

  6. Renal disease in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Rafael Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Chronic renal disease represents a problem of public health in Colombia. Its prevalence has increased in last decade, with a prevalence of 44.7 patients per million (ppm) in 1993 to 294.6 ppm in 2004, considering that only 56.2% of the population has access to the health. This increase complies with the implementation of Law 100 of 1993, offering greater coverage of health services to the Colombian population. The cost of these pathologies is equivalent to the 2.49% of the budget for health of the nation. The three most common causes of renal failure are diabetes mellitus (DM; 30%), arterial hypertension (30%), and glomerulonephritis (7.85%). In incident patients, the DM accounts for 32.9%. The rate of global mortality is 15.8%, 17.4% in hemodialysis and 15.1% in peritoneal dialysis. In 2004, 467 renal transplants were made, 381 of deceased donor with an incidence of 10.3 ppm. The excessive cost of these pathologies can cause the nation's health care system to collapse if preventative steps are not taken. In December of 2004, the Colombian Association of Nephrology with the participation of the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Arterial Hypertension wrote the "Declaration of Bogotá," committing the state's scientific societies and promotional health companies to develop a model of attention for renal health that, in addition to implementing national registries, continues to manage renal disease.

  7. Renal physiology of nocturia.

    PubMed

    Verbalis, Joseph G

    2014-04-01

    Renal function, diurnal fluctuations in arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion, sex, and advanced age affect urine formation and may contribute to nocturia. Renal effects of AVP are mediated by AVP V2 receptors in the kidney collecting duct. Changes in AVP concentration have the greatest relative effects on urine volume when AVP levels are low; therefore small changes can have a large effect on renal water excretion. AVP is the major regulator of water excretion by the kidneys, and AVP levels have been shown to affect nocturnal voiding. Results of several studies show that patients with nocturia had no significant variation in plasma AVP, whereas patients without nocturia had significant diurnal variation in plasma AVP. The V2 receptor gene is located on the X chromosome, which has important sex-specific consequences. For example, mutations in the V2 gene can cause nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, predominantly in men. Age-related changes in water metabolism are associated with overall body composition, kidney, and brain. Older people generally experience decreased extracellular fluid and plasma volume, which leads to increased adverse consequences from net body water gain or loss. Renal function declines with age, and the ability to concentrate urine and conserve sodium is reduced in the elderly. Thirst perception is also decreased in the elderly, who, compared with younger people, tend to hypersecrete AVP in response to higher plasma osmolality, possibly resulting in hyponatremia. These aspects of renal physiology should be considered when antidiuretic drugs are prescribed for the treatment of nocturia.

  8. Visualizing renal primary cilia.

    PubMed

    Deane, James A; Verghese, Elizabeth; Martelotto, Luciano G; Cain, Jason E; Galtseva, Alya; Rosenblum, Norman D; Watkins, D Neil; Ricardo, Sharon D

    2013-03-01

    Renal primary cilia are microscopic sensory organelles found on the apical surface of epithelial cells of the nephron and collecting duct. They are based upon a microtubular cytoskeleton, bounded by a specialized membrane, and contain an array of proteins that facilitate their assembly, maintenance and function. Cilium-based signalling is important for the control of epithelial differentiation and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various cystic kidney diseases and in renal repair. As such, visualizing renal primary cilia and understanding their composition has become an essential component of many studies of inherited kidney disease and mechanisms of epithelial regeneration. Primary cilia were initially identified in the kidney using electron microscopy and this remains a useful technique for the high resolution examination of these organelles. New reagents and techniques now also allow the structure and composition of primary cilia to be analysed in detail using fluorescence microscopy. Primary cilia can be imaged in situ in sections of kidney, and many renal-derived cell lines produce primary cilia in culture providing a simplified and accessible system in which to investigate these organelles. Here we outline microscopy-based techniques commonly used for studying renal primary cilia.

  9. Studies in genetic discrimination. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    We have screened 1006 respondents in a study of genetic discrimination. Analysis of these responses has produced evidence of the range of institutions engaged in genetic discrimination and demonstrates the impact of this discrimination on the respondents to the study. We have found that both ignorance and policy underlie genetic discrimination and that anti-discrimination laws are being violated.

  10. Relation between minimum-error discrimination and optimum unambiguous discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu Daowen; Li Lvjun

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, we investigate the relationship between the minimum-error probability Q{sub E} of ambiguous discrimination and the optimal inconclusive probability Q{sub U} of unambiguous discrimination. It is known that for discriminating two states, the inequality Q{sub U{>=}}2Q{sub E} has been proved in the literature. The main technical results are as follows: (1) We show that, for discriminating more than two states, Q{sub U{>=}}2Q{sub E} may not hold again, but the infimum of Q{sub U}/Q{sub E} is 1, and there is no supremum of Q{sub U}/Q{sub E}, which implies that the failure probabilities of the two schemes for discriminating some states may be narrowly or widely gapped. (2) We derive two concrete formulas of the minimum-error probability Q{sub E} and the optimal inconclusive probability Q{sub U}, respectively, for ambiguous discrimination and unambiguous discrimination among arbitrary m simultaneously diagonalizable mixed quantum states with given prior probabilities. In addition, we show that Q{sub E} and Q{sub U} satisfy the relationship that Q{sub U{>=}}(m/m-1)Q{sub E}.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: renal hypouricemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Share on Twitter Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Search MENU Toggle navigation Home Page Search ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions renal hypouricemia renal hypouricemia Enable ...

  12. Renal Artery Stent Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Timothy P.; Cooper, Christopher J.; Matsumoto, Alan H.; Cutlip, Donald E.; Pencina, Karol M.; Jamerson, Kenneth; Tuttle, Katherine R.; Shapiro, Joseph I.; D’Agostino, Ralph; Massaro, Joseph; Henrich, William; Dworkin, Lance D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Multiple randomized clinical trials comparing renal artery stent placement plus medical therapy with medical therapy alone have not shown any benefit of stent placement. However, debate continues whether patients with extreme pressure gradients, stenosis severity, or baseline blood pressure benefit from stent revascularization. OBJECTIVES The study sought to test the hypothesis that pressure gradients, stenosis severity, and/or baseline blood pressure affects outcomes after renal artery stent placement. METHODS Using data from 947 patients with a history of hypertension or chronic kidney disease from the largest randomized trial of renal artery stent placement, the CORAL (Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions) study, we performed exploratory analyses to determine if subsets of patients experienced better outcomes after stent placement than the overall cohort. We examined baseline stenosis severity, systolic blood pressure, and translesion pressure gradient (peak systolic and mean) and performed interaction tests and Cox proportional hazards analyses for the occurrence of the primary endpoint through all follow-up, to examine the effect of these variables on outcomes by treatment group. RESULTS There were no statistically significant differences in outcomes based on the examined variables nor were there any consistent nonsignificant trends. CONCLUSIONS Based on data from the CORAL randomized trial, there is no evidence of a significant treatment effect of the renal artery stent procedure compared with medical therapy alone based on stenosis severity, level of systolic blood pressure elevation, or according to the magnitude of the transstenotic pressure gradient. (Benefits of Medical Therapy Plus Stenting for Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions [CORAL]; NCT00081731) PMID:26653621

  13. [Renal duplex: clinical usefulness].

    PubMed

    Miralles, M; Giménez, A; Cairols, M A; Riambau, V; Sáez, A

    1993-01-01

    It is the purpose of this report to focus attention on the clinical usefulness of Renal Duplex for the diagnosis of patients with vasculo-renal diseases in terms of: 1. Accuracy of Duplex/Angiography in the measurement of the renal stenosis degree. 2. Correlationship between Duplex ans Isotopic Renogram with respect to the study of the parenchyma's perfusion. 3. The effect of the inhibitors of the conversor enzyme (Captopril) on the Doppler signal of the parenchyma, comparing it with the results from the captopril test about the peripheral plasmatic renin activity and the isotopic renogram, in patients with vasculo-renal HTA. Results obtains by Duplex and Angiography were compared in 92 renal arteries from 46 patients. For both technics, three degrees of stenosis were established: 0-59%, 60-99% and occlusion. The Duplex technique identified 49/54 stenosis < 60%, 28/33 stenosis > 60% and 5/5 occlusions (Kappa 0.8). Sensibility and specificity of Duplex for the diagnosis of stenosis > 60% were, respectively, 89.5% and 90.7%; with an exactness of 90.2%. The angiographies showed stenosis > 60% in 23 patients with HTA (diastolic pressures > 100 mmHg). In all of the patients, a measurement of the plasmatic renin activity, an isotopic renogram and a Doppler of the interlobar arteries basal and post-captopril, were performed. The correlationship between Duplex and isotopic renogram with respect to the measurement of the relative renal perfusion was statistically significant (r = 0.91; p < 0.0001). The captopril test for renin and isotopic renogram were positives for 5 patients (4 with unilateral stenosis an 1 with bilateral stenosis). All of them showed severe stenosis (> 80%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Renal adaptation during hibernation.

    PubMed

    Jani, Alkesh; Martin, Sandra L; Jain, Swati; Keys, Daniel; Edelstein, Charles L

    2013-12-01

    Hibernators periodically undergo profound physiological changes including dramatic reductions in metabolic, heart, and respiratory rates and core body temperature. This review discusses the effect of hypoperfusion and hypothermia observed during hibernation on glomerular filtration and renal plasma flow, as well as specific adaptations in renal architecture, vasculature, the renin-angiotensin system, and upregulation of possible protective mechanisms during the extreme conditions endured by hibernating mammals. Understanding the mechanisms of protection against organ injury during hibernation may provide insights into potential therapies for organ injury during cold storage and reimplantation during transplantation.

  15. Amphibian renal disease.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Todd R

    2006-01-01

    Amphibians by nature have an intimate connection with the aquatic environment at some stage of development and fight an osmotic battle due to the influx of water. Many amphibians have acquired a more terrestrial existence at later stages of development and consequently have physiologic adaptations to conserve moisture. Renal adaptations have allowed amphibians successfully to bridge the gap between aqueous and terrestrial habitats. The kidneys, skin,and, in many amphibian species, the urinary bladder play key roles in fluid homeostasis. Renal impairment may be responsible for the clinical manifestation of disease, morbidity, and mortality.

  16. Hypothyroid acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Birewar, Sonali; Oppenheimer, Mark; Zawada, Edward T

    2004-03-01

    Muscular disorders and even hypothyroid myopathy with elevated muscle enzymes are commonly seen in hypothyroidism. In this paper, we report a case of acute renal failure in a 35-year old male patient with myalgia. His serum creatinine reached a level of 2.4 mg/dl. Later, his myalgia was found to be due to hypothyroidism with TSH of over 500 uiv/ml. With thyroid replacement therapy, myalgia and his serum creatinine stabilized and subsequently improved. Hypothyroidism, although rare, has been reported as a definite and authentic cause of rhabdomyolysis. As a result, hypothyroidism must be considered in patients presenting with acute renal failure and elevated muscle enzymes.

  17. Renal Failure in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Balofsky, Ari; Fedarau, Maksim

    2016-01-01

    Renal failure during pregnancy affects both mother and fetus, and may be related to preexisting disease or develop secondary to diseases of pregnancy. Causes include hypovolemia, sepsis, shock, preeclampsia, thrombotic microangiopathies, and renal obstruction. Treatment focuses on supportive measures, while pharmacologic treatment is viewed as second-line therapy, and is more useful in mitigating harmful effects than treating the underlying cause. When supportive measures and pharmacotherapy prove inadequate, dialysis may be required, with the goal being to prolong pregnancy until delivery is feasible. Outcomes and recommendations depend primarily on the underlying cause.

  18. Obesity and renal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gati, Asma; Kouidhi, Soumaya; Marrakchi, Raja; El Gaaied, Amel; Kourda, Nadia; Derouiche, Amine; Chebil, Mohamed; Caignard, Anne; Perier, Aurélie

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies link obesity, as measured by increased body mass index (BMI) to the incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) as well as to the cancer-related mortality of RCC patients. RCC is the third cancer most robustly associated with increased BMI. Understanding the role of the adipose tissue in renal carcinogenesis is therefore of major importance for the development of novel paradigms of RCC prevention and treatment. Here, we discuss the current knowledge on the impact of obesity on the development and progression of RCC as well as the role of adipose tissue-derived hormones (adipokines) in the conflict between growing tumors and the immune system. PMID:24804162

  19. Renal lithiasis and nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Grases, Felix; Costa-Bauza, Antonia; Prieto, Rafel M

    2006-01-01

    Renal lithiasis is a multifactorial disease. An important number of etiologic factors can be adequately modified trough diet, since it must be considered that the urine composition is directly related to diet. In fact, the change of inappropriate habitual diet patterns should be the main measure to prevent kidney stones. In this paper, the relation between different dietary factors (liquid intake, pH, calcium, phosphate, oxalate, citrate, phytate, urate and vitamins) and each type of renal stone (calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary, calcium oxalate monohydrate unattached, calcium oxalate dihydrate, calcium oxalate dihydrate/hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite, struvite infectious, brushite, uric acid, calcium oxalate/uric acid and cystine) is discussed. PMID:16956397

  20. Renal adaptation during hibernation

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Sandra L.; Jain, Swati; Keys, Daniel; Edelstein, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    Hibernators periodically undergo profound physiological changes including dramatic reductions in metabolic, heart, and respiratory rates and core body temperature. This review discusses the effect of hypoperfusion and hypothermia observed during hibernation on glomerular filtration and renal plasma flow, as well as specific adaptations in renal architecture, vasculature, the renin-angiotensin system, and upregulation of possible protective mechanisms during the extreme conditions endured by hibernating mammals. Understanding the mechanisms of protection against organ injury during hibernation may provide insights into potential therapies for organ injury during cold storage and reimplantation during transplantation. PMID:24049148

  1. Physiology of the Renal Interstitium

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Long overlooked as the virtual compartment and then strictly characterized through descriptive morphologic analysis, the renal interstitium has finally been associated with function. With identification of interstitial renin- and erythropoietin-producing cells, the most prominent endocrine functions of the kidney have now been attributed to the renal interstitium. This article reviews the functional role of renal interstitium. PMID:25813241

  2. Tubulocystic Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Rare Renal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Bindroo, Sandiya; Varshney, Neha; Mittal, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma of the kidney is a rare entity with less than one hundred cases reported so far. It was previously considered to have some similarities to various other renal cancers although this tumor has distinct macroscopic, microscopic and immuno-histochemical features. It is now a well-established entity in renal neoplastic pathology and has been recognized as a distinct entity in the 2012 Vancouver classification of renal tumors. This review aims to give an overview of tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma after extensive literature search using PubMed and CrossRef.

  3. Renal diagnosis without renal biopsy. Nephritis and sensorineural deafness.

    PubMed

    Richardson, D; Shires, M; Davison, A M

    2001-06-01

    Two examples of hereditary nephropathy within the context of clinical syndromes are described. Emphasis is put on the ability to make a renal diagnosis without renal biopsy and the benefits of screening relatives once a diagnosis is achieved. A variant of Alport's syndrome with associated macrothrombocytic thrombocytopenia, known as Epstein's syndrome, is reported. In addition siblings with Alström's syndrome characterized by pigmentary retinal degeneration (causing blindness in early childhood), progressive sensorineural hearing loss, and progressive renal failure are reported. Both cases had previously presented for non-renal pathology in advance of the onset of symptomatic renal failure and may have benefited from appropriate screening.

  4. Lesbians still face job discrimination.

    PubMed

    Ryniker, Margaret R

    2008-01-01

    This article examines continued discrimination against lesbians in the workplace. A number of cases from various jurisdictions in the United States are highlighted. The paper studies two common forms of discrimination: denial of employment benefits to same sex partners, and sexual harassment. On the first front, the case law suggests that health insurance coverage for one's partner is becoming the norm. On the question of sexual harassment in the workplace, the case law did not provide protection for lesbians. Finally, U.S. employment policies related to sexual orientation are contrasted with those in Israel, which provides much greater protection from discrimination.

  5. The animal farm philosophy of genetic discrimination.

    PubMed

    Wolbring, Gregor

    2004-01-01

    The paper by Dr. Gregor Wolbring addresses the issue of genetic discrimination from disabled people's rights perspective asking a) what the interpretation of genetic discrimination and the scope of Anti Genetic discrimination laws and law proposals is and b) whether the scope and interpretation of genetic discrimination and Anti Genetic discrimination laws and law proposal lead to more protection for-or increased discrimination against- disabled people"

  6. Manual discrimination of force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, Xiao-Dong; Tan, HONG-Z.; Durlach, Nathaniel I.

    1991-01-01

    Optimal design of human-machine interfaces for teleoperators and virtual-environment systems which involve the tactual and kinesthetic modalities requires knowledge of the human's resolving power in these modalities. The resolution of the interface should be appropriately matched to that of the human operator. We report some preliminary results on the ability of the human hand to distinguish small differences in force under a variety of conditions. Experiments were conducted on force discrimination with the thumb pushing an interface that exerts a constant force over the pushing distance and the index finger pressing against a fixed support. The dependence of the sensitivity index d' on force increment can be fit by a straight line through the origin and the just-noticeable difference (JND) in force can thus be described by the inverse of the slope of this line. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) was measured by varying the a priori probabilities of the two alternatives, reference force and reference force plus an increment, in one-interval, two-alternative, forced-choice experiments. When plotted on normal deviate coordinates, the ROC's were roughly straight lines of unit slope, thus supporting the assumption of equal-variance normal distributions and the use of the conventional d' measure. The JND was roughly 6-8 percent for reference force ranging from 2.5 to 10 newtons, pushing distance from 5 to 30 mm, and initial finger-span from 45 to 125 mm. Also, the JND remained the same when the subjects were instructed to change the average speed of pushing from 23 to 153 mm/sec. The pushing was terminated by reaching either a wall or a well, and the JND's were essentially the same in both cases.

  7. LITHIUM AND RENAL FUNCTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, N.; Trivedi, J.K.; Sethi, B.B.

    1987-01-01

    SUMMARY Thirty patients of affective disorder who were on lithium for a year and thirty patients on antidepressant were studied in detail for renal functions. Our observation is that lithium therapy does not lead to any deterioration in kidney functions. The results are discussed. PMID:21927211

  8. Kidney (Renal) Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... the ureter (s) or a tube connected to an external drainage bag. Both options are used to unblock the ureters in order to allow proper urine flow from the kidneys if this has been identified as the cause for the renal failure. Surgical treatment such as a urinary stent or ...

  9. Management of Renal Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Nalbant, Ismail; Can Sener, Nevzat; Firat, Hacer; Yeşil, Süleyman; Zengin, Kürşad; Yalcınkaya, Fatih; Imamoglu, Abdurrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Renal cysts have a high prevalence in the general population, and their estimated incidence increases with age. Renal cyst aspiration (usually with sclerotherapy) or open/laparoscopic decortication is a generally effective and safe method in the treatment of symptomatic simple renal cysts. The success rates of laparoscopic decortication and percutaneous aspiration-sclerotherapy were compared to assist in the decision making for the procedure. Methods: A total of 184 patients with symptomatic simple renal cysts were treated with either laparoscopic decortication in 149 cases or percutaneous aspiration-sclerotherapy in 35 cases. The follow-up period was approximately 35 months, and the symptomatic and radiologic success rates of the 2 techniques were compared retrospectively. Results: Laparoscopic decortication was found to have high success rates, a low recurrence rate, and minimal morbidity. Percutaneous aspiration-sclerotherapy is an outpatient procedure with a minimally higher recurrence rate. Conclusion: When a symptomatic cyst is encountered and treatment of the cyst is indicated, laparoscopic decortication is a more efficient method that offers better results than percutaneous aspiration-sclerotherapy. PMID:25848184

  10. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease.

  11. Discriminative Stimulus Effects of Psychostimulants.

    PubMed

    Berquist, Michael D; Fantegrossi, William E

    2017-03-25

    Numerous drugs elicit locomotor stimulant effects at appropriate doses; however, we typically reserve the term psychostimulant to refer to drugs with affinity for monoamine reuptake transporters. This chapter comprises select experiments that have characterized the discriminative stimulus effects of psychostimulants using drug discrimination procedures. The substitution profiles of psychostimulants in laboratory rodents are generally consistent with those observed in human and nonhuman primate drug discrimination experiments. Notably, two major classes of psychostimulants can be distinguished as those that function as passive monoamine reuptake inhibitors (such as cocaine) and those that function as substrates for monoamine transporters and stimulate monoamine release (such as the amphetamines). Nevertheless, the discriminative stimulus effects of both classes of psychostimulant are quite similar, and drugs from different classes will substitute for one another. Most importantly, for both the cocaine-like and amphetamine-like psychostimulants, dopaminergic mechanisms most saliently determine discriminative stimulus effects, but these effects can be modulated by alterations in noradrenergic and serotonergic neurotransmission as well. Thusly, the drug discrimination assay is useful for characterizing the interoceptive effects of psychostimulants and determining the mechanisms that contribute to their subjective effects in humans.

  12. Chronic renal disease in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ramin, Susan M; Vidaeff, Alex C; Yeomans, Edward R; Gilstrap, Larry C

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this review was to examine the impact of varying degrees of renal insufficiency on pregnancy outcome in women with chronic renal disease. Our search of the literature did not reveal any randomized clinical trials or meta-analyses. The available information is derived from opinion, reviews, retrospective series, and limited observational series. It appears that chronic renal disease in pregnancy is uncommon, occurring in 0.03-0.12% of all pregnancies from two U.S. population-based and registry studies. Maternal complications associated with chronic renal disease include preeclampsia, worsening renal function, preterm delivery, anemia, chronic hypertension, and cesarean delivery. The live birth rate in women with chronic renal disease ranges between 64% and 98% depending on the severity of renal insufficiency and presence of hypertension. Significant proteinuria may be an indicator of underlying renal insufficiency. Management of pregnant women with underlying renal disease should ideally entail a multidisciplinary approach at a tertiary center and include a maternal-fetal medicine specialist and a nephrologist. Such women should receive counseling regarding the pregnancy outcomes in association with maternal chronic renal disease and the effect of pregnancy on renal function, especially within the ensuing 5 years postpartum. These women will require frequent visits and monitoring of renal function during pregnancy. Women whose renal disease is further complicated by hypertension should be counseled regarding the increased risk of adverse outcome and need for blood pressure control. Some antihypertensives, especially angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers, should be avoided during pregnancy, if possible, because of the potential for both teratogenic (hypocalvaria) and fetal effects (renal failure, oliguria, and demise).

  13. Prevalence of von Hippel-Lindau gene mutations in sporadic renal cell carcinoma: results from the Netherlands cohort study

    PubMed Central

    van Houwelingen, Kjeld P; van Dijk, Boukje AC; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina A; Schouten, Leo J; Gorissen, Hanneke JM; Schalken, Jack A; van den Brandt, Piet A; Oosterwijk, Egbert

    2005-01-01

    Background Biallelic von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene defects, a rate-limiting event in the carcinogenesis, occur in approximately 75% of sporadic clear-cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC). We studied the VHL mutation status in a large population-based case group. Methods Cases were identified within the Netherlands cohort study on diet and cancer, which includes 120,852 men and women. After 11.3 years of follow-up, 337 incident cases with histologically confirmed epithelial cancers were identified. DNA was isolated from paraffin material collected from 51 pathology laboratories and revised by one pathologist, leaving material from 235 cases. VHL mutational status was assessed by SSCP followed by direct sequencing, after testing SSCP as a screening tool in a subsample. Results The number of mutations was significantly higher for clear-cell RCC compared to other histological types. We observed 131 mutations in 114 out of 187 patients (61%) with clear-cell RCC. The majority of mutations were truncating mutations (47%). The mean tumor size was 72.7 mm for mutated tumors compared to 65.3 mm for wildtype tumors (p = 0.06). No statistically significant differences were observed for nuclear grade, TNM distribution or stage. In other histological types, we observed 8 mutations in 7 out of 48 patients (15%), 1 mutation in 1 of 6 oncocytoma, 3 mutations in 2 of 7 chromophobe RCC, 2 mutations in 2 of 30 papillary RCC, no mutations in 1 collecting duct carcinoma and 2 mutations in 2 of 4 unclassified RCC. Conclusion VHL mutations were detected in 61% of sporadic clear-cell RCC. VHL mutated and wildtype clear-cell RCC did not differ with respect to most parameters. PMID:15932632

  14. Overall survival in renal cell carcinoma after introduction of targeted therapies: a Norwegian population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Beisland, Christian; Johannesen, Tom B; Klepp, Olbjorn; Axcrona, Ulrika; Torgersen, Knut Martin; Kowalski, Jan; Solli, Oddvar; Sandin, Rickard; Oldenburg, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Background This population-wide retrospective, non-interventional registry study assessed changes in overall survival (OS) and factors influencing OS in Norwegian patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Methods Two population-wide health registries were used to identify all RCC patients with (mRCC) or without metastases diagnosed before (2002–2005) and after (2006–2008 and 2009–2011) introduction of targeted therapies. Median OS was estimated using Kaplan–Meier method. Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was used to identify prognostic factors. Results Overall, 5,463 patients were diagnosed with RCC during 2002–2005 (n=1,898), 2006–2008 (n=1,631), and 2009–2011 (n=1,934); of these, 1,678 (31%) had mRCC. Patients diagnosed in 2009–2011 and 2006–2008 had significant (P<0.001) improvements in OS versus those diagnosed in 2002–2005: median OS, not reached and not reached versus 82.0 months in RCC; 14.0 and 12.0 months versus 9.0 months in mRCC. Similarly, OS improvements were seen in the primary and elderly (≥75 years) mRCC populations. Median OS was comparable (12 months) between clear cell and papillary mRCC, but it was longer (24.0 months) for chromophobe mRCC. Multivariate regression analyses showed that younger age, previous nephrectomy, and 1 or more prescriptions of targeted therapy were significantly associated with longer OS in mRCC patients. Conclusion OS increased in RCC and mRCC patients in Norway between 2002 and 2011 following introduction of targeted therapies. PMID:28144152

  15. Discrimination Report: ESTCP UXO Discrimination Study, ESTCPProject #MM-0437

    SciTech Connect

    Gasperikova, Erika; Smith, J. Torquil; Morrison, H. Frank; Becker, Alex

    2007-12-21

    The FY06 Defense Appropriation contains funding for the 'Development of Advanced, Sophisticated, Discrimination Technologies for UXO Cleanup' in the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program. In 2003, the Defense Science Board observed: 'The problem is that instruments that can detect the buried UXOs also detect numerous scrap metal objects and other artifacts, which leads to an enormous amount of expensive digging. Typically 100 holes may be dug before a real UXO is unearthed! The Task Force assessment is that much of this wasteful digging can be eliminated by the use of more advanced technology instruments that exploit modern digital processing and advanced multi-mode sensors to achieve an improved level of discrimination of scrap from UXOs.' Significant progress has been made in discrimination technology. To date, testing of these approaches has been primarily limited to test sites with only limited application at live sites. Acceptance of discrimination technologies requires demonstration of system capabilities at real UXO sites under real world conditions. Any attempt to declare detected anomalies to be harmless and requiring no further investigation require demonstration to regulators of not only individual technologies, but of an entire decision making process. This discrimination study was be the first phase in what is expected to be a continuing effort that will span several years.

  16. 45 CFR 1624.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1624.4 Section 1624.4... AGAINST DISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY § 1624.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No qualified... the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination by any legal services program,...

  17. 14 CFR 399.36 - Unreasonable discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Unreasonable discrimination. 399.36 Section... Unreasonable discrimination. (a) As used in this section: (1) Unreasonable discrimination means unjust discrimination or unreasonable preference or prejudice; and (2) Rate means rate, fare, or charge. (b) Except...

  18. 14 CFR 399.36 - Unreasonable discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Unreasonable discrimination. 399.36 Section... Unreasonable discrimination. (a) As used in this section: (1) Unreasonable discrimination means unjust discrimination or unreasonable preference or prejudice; and (2) Rate means rate, fare, or charge. (b) Except...

  19. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination...

  20. 14 CFR 399.36 - Unreasonable discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Unreasonable discrimination. 399.36 Section... Unreasonable discrimination. (a) As used in this section: (1) Unreasonable discrimination means unjust discrimination or unreasonable preference or prejudice; and (2) Rate means rate, fare, or charge. (b) Except...

  1. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination...

  2. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination...

  3. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination...

  4. 14 CFR 399.36 - Unreasonable discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Unreasonable discrimination. 399.36 Section... Unreasonable discrimination. (a) As used in this section: (1) Unreasonable discrimination means unjust discrimination or unreasonable preference or prejudice; and (2) Rate means rate, fare, or charge. (b) Except...

  5. Discrimination. Prejudice in Action. Multicultural Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillam, Scott

    This book for young readers explains what discrimination is and explores different types of discrimination and how they have developed over the years. Laws that make it more difficult to discriminate against others are described, and the struggle for human rights is outlined. Discrimination means acting unfavorably toward someone based on the…

  6. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination...

  7. 45 CFR 1624.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1624.4 Section 1624.4... AGAINST DISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY § 1624.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No qualified... the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination by any legal services program,...

  8. Sensory Discrimination as Related to General Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acton, G. Scott; Schroeder, David H.

    2001-01-01

    Attempted to replicate the pitch discrimination findings of previous research and expand them to the modality of color discrimination in a sample of 899 teenagers and adults by correlating 2 sensory discrimination measures with the general factor from a battery of 13 cognitive ability tests. Results suggest that sensory discrimination is…

  9. [Tuberculosis after renal transplantation].

    PubMed

    Korzeniewska, Anna; Dyła, Tomasz; Kosacka, Monika; Jankowska, Renata

    2009-01-01

    Renal transplant recipients carry a relatively high risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). In most cases, active TB is the result of reactivation of a latent infection and is located in the lungs. In these patients, clinical presentation of TB can often be atypical and there is a high risk of dissemination and high mortality rates. Therefore, the use of invasive procedures for proper diagnosis is recommended, as well as anti-tuberculosis therapy instituted whenever there is a strong suspicion of TB on clinical grounds, even without microbiological evidence. The treatment of active TB in renal transplant recipients should be the same as in the general population. To avoid graft rejection, blood levels of calcineurin inhibitors should be monitored closely. Prophylaxis is recommended for high-risk patients.

  10. Renal transplantation in infants.

    PubMed

    Jalanko, Hannu; Mattila, Ilkka; Holmberg, Christer

    2016-05-01

    Renal transplantation (RTx) has become an accepted mode of therapy in infants with severe renal failure. The major indications are structural abnormalities of the urinary tract, congenital nephrotic syndrome, polycystic diseases, and neonatal kidney injury. Assessment of these infants needs expertise and time as well as active treatment before RTx to ensure optimal growth and development, and to avoid complications that could lead to permanent neurological defects. RTx can be performed already in infants weighing around 5 kg, but most operations occur in infants with a weight of 10 kg or more. Perioperative management focuses on adequate perfusion of the allograft and avoidance of thrombotic and other surgical complications. Important long-term issues include rejections, infections, graft function, growth, bone health, metabolic problems, neurocognitive development, adherence to medication, pubertal maturation, and quality of life. The overall outcome of infant RTx has dramatically improved, with long-term patient and graft survivals of over 90 and 80 %, respectively.

  11. Renal stones in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Norma; DasGupta, Ranan

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of renal stones during pregnancy is a complex problem. Risks to the fetus from ionising radiation and interventional procedures need to be balanced with optimising clinical care for the mother. Management of such patients requires a clear understanding of available options, with a multidisciplinary team approach. In this review, we discuss the role of different diagnostic tests including ultrasound, magnetic resonance urography, and computerized tomography. We also provide an update on recent developments in the treatment of renal stones during pregnancy. Expectant management remains first-line treatment. Where definitive treatment of the stone is required, new evidence suggests that ureteroscopic stone removal may be equally safe, and possibly better than traditional temporising procedures. PMID:27512433

  12. Renal Medullary Interstitial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Reena; Hao, Chuan-Ming; Breyer, Matthew D.

    2007-04-01

    Renal medullary interstitial cells (RMICs) are specialized fibroblast-like cells that reside in the renal medulla among the vasa recta, the thin limbs of Henle's loop, and medullary collecting ducts. These cells are characterized by abundant lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. The lipid droplets are composed of triglycerides, cholesterol esters and free long-chain fatty acids, including arachidonic acid. RMICs are also a major site of cyclooxygenase2 (COX-2) expression, and thus a major site of COX-2 derived prostanoid biosynthesis. RMICs are also a potential target of hormones such as angiotensin II and endothelin. The RMIC COX-2 expression and the abundance of lipid droplets change with salt and water intake. These properties of RMICs are consistent with an important role of these cells in modulating physiologic and pathologic processes of the kidney.

  13. [Giant renal angiomyolipoma].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Fernández, G; Mansilla Roselló, A; Rubio Gil, F; Martínez Domínguez, A P; Villar Del Moral, J; Ferrón Orihuela, A

    2003-06-01

    We present a case report of a renal angiomyolipoma with the special feature of its big size at the moment of the diagnosis. It is appreciated an important alteration of the kidney morphology and the repercussion produced in the rest of the abdominal organs. Due to this an exeresis with nefrectomy is performed. We do a bibliographic review and we analyzed the relevant aspects of this tumour.

  14. Renal phosphate handling: Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Narayan; Bhadauria, Dharmendra

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus is a common anion. It plays an important role in energy generation. Renal phosphate handling is regulated by three organs parathyroid, kidney and bone through feedback loops. These counter regulatory loops also regulate intestinal absorption and thus maintain serum phosphorus concentration in physiologic range. The parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, Fibrogenic growth factor 23 (FGF23) and klotho coreceptor are the key regulators of phosphorus balance in body. PMID:23961477

  15. User discrimination in automotive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makrushin, Andrey; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Leich, Marcus

    2011-03-01

    The recently developed dual-view touch screens, which are announced to be installed in cars in a near future, give rise to completely new challenges in human-machine interaction. The automotive system should be able to identify if the driver or the passenger is currently interacting with the touch screen to provide a correct response to the touch. The optical devices, due to availability, acceptance by the users and multifunctional usage, approved to be the most appropriate sensing technology for driver/passenger discrimination. In this work the prototypic optical user discrimination system is implemented in the car simulator and evaluated in the laboratory environment with entirely controlled illumination. Three tests were done for this research. One of them examined if the near-infrared illumination should be switched on around the clock, the second one if there is a difference in discrimination performance between day, twilight and night conditions, and the third one examined how the intensive directional lighting influences the performance of the implemented user discrimination algorithm. Despite the high error rates, the evaluation results show that very simple computer vision algorithms are able to solve complicated user discrimination task. The average error rate of 10.42% (daytime with near-infrared illumination) is a very promising result for optical systems.

  16. Shape and size discrimination compared.

    PubMed

    Nachmias, Jacob

    2011-02-23

    Observers presented with pairs of figures differing in area (SIZE) or aspect ratio (SHAPE) spontaneously make use of both height and width differences. whether or not they are forced to do so by between-interval jittering or even instructed to do so. SHAPE discrimination is considerably better than SIZE discrimination. The superiority of SHAPE discrimination is probably due to partial correlation between the encoding noise of height and width of a figure. Discrimination of height differences is seemingly increased (decreased) by negatively (positively) correlated width differences, relative to leaving width unchanged. This is true whether the different types of trials are presented in separate blocks or intermixed. Perhaps SIZE and SHAPE comparisons are always made and their decision variables are optimally combined. The difference between SIZE and SHAPE discrimination is reduced, if not reversed, when figures are presented simultaneously rather than successively. This interaction between type of task and mode of presentation, may be due to the increased amount of correlation between test and standard figures of the encoding noise common to the two dimensions of each figure.

  17. Renal artery aneurysm mimicking renal calculus with hydronephrosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shanwen; Meng, Hongzhou; Cao, Min; Shen, Baihua

    2013-06-01

    A 51-year-old woman was found to have a left renal calculus with hydronephrosis. She underwent unsuccessful extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, leading to the recommendation that percutaneous lithotomy was necessary to remove the renal calculus. In view of the unusual shape of the calculus and absence of abnormalities in urine sediment, preoperative computed tomography and renal angiography were performed, which instead showed a calcified left renal artery aneurysm. Subsequent efforts to perform an aneurysmectomy also failed, eventually necessitating left nephrectomy. This case illustrates the pitfalls in the diagnosis of a renal artery aneurysm, which is a relatively common condition that may have unusual presentations. Hence, it is suggested that the possibility of a renal artery aneurysm be considered in the differential diagnosis when one detects a renal calculus with an unusual appearance. In addition, we propose that 3-dimensional reconstruction computed tomography be performed before considering surgical options for such renal calculi to rule out the possibility of a renal artery aneurysm.

  18. Renal functional outcomes after surgery for renal cortical tumors

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Julia B.; DeCastro, G. Joel; McKiernan, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, radical nephrectomy represented the gold standard for the treatment of small (≤ 4cm) as well as larger renal masses. Recently, for small renal masses, the risk of ensuing chronic kidney disease and end stage renal disease has largely favored nephron-sparing surgical techniques, mainly partial nephrectomy. In this review, we surveyed the literature on renal functional outcomes after partial nephrectomy for renal tumors. The largest randomized control trial comparing radical and partial nephrectomy failed to show a survival benefit for partial nephrectomy. With regards to overall survival, surgically induced chronic kidney disease (GFR < 60 ml/min/ 1.73m2) caused by nephrectomy might not be as deleterious as medically induced chronic kidney disease. In evaluating patients who underwent donor nephrectomy, transplant literature further validates that surgically induced reductions in GFR may not affect patient survival, unlike medically induced GFR declines. Yet, because patients who present with a renal mass tend to be elderly with multiple comorbidities, many develop a mixed picture of medically, and surgically-induced renal disease after extirpative renal surgery. In this population, we believe that nephron sparing surgery optimizes oncological control while protecting renal function.

  19. [Inherited tubular renal acidosis].

    PubMed

    Bouzidi, Hassan; Hayek, Donia; Nasr, Dhekra; Daudon, Michel; Fadhel Najjar, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is a tubulopathy characterized by metabolic acidosis with normal anion gap secondary to abnormalities of renal acidification. RTA can be classified into four main subtypes: distal RTA, proximal RTA, combined proximal and distal RTA, and hyperkalemic RTA. Distal RTA (type 1) is caused by the defect of H(+) secretion in the distal tubules and is characterized by the inability to acidify the urine below pH 5.5 during systemic acidemia. Proximal RTA (type 2) is caused by an impairment of bicarbonate reabsorption in the proximal tubules and characterized by a decreased renal bicarbonate threshold. Combined proximal and distal RTA (type 3) secondary to a reduction in tubular reclamation of bicarbonate and an inability to acidify the urine in the face of severe acidemia. Hyperkalemic RTA (type 4) may occur as a result of aldosterone deficiency or tubular insensitivity to aldosterone. Clinicians should be alert to the presence of RTA in patients with an unexplained normal anion gap acidosis, hypokalemia, recurrent nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. The mainstay of treatment of RTA remains alkali replacement.

  20. Management of renal anemia.

    PubMed

    Peco-Antic, Amira

    2005-01-01

    Normochromic normocytic anemia is common in children with chronic renal failure (CRF) when their glomerular filtration rate is below 35 ml/min/1.73 m2 BSA, but it may develop earlier in some forms of renal disease. An inadequate erythropoiesis due to insufficient erythropoietin synthesis in the kidneys is the main cause of renal anemia. Other reasons include reduced red blood cell lifespan, chronic blood loss, iron deficiency, inhibitors of erythropoiesis, and malnutrition. The presence of anemia contributes to many of the symptoms of uremia, including decreased appetite, decreased energy, poor cardiac function, and poor school performance. Therefore, correction of anemia dramatically improves the life of the child with CRF. Presently, the goal of anemia management is to maintain hematocrit concentrations at 33% to 36% and a hemoglobin concentration of at least 11 g/L. This can be accomplished by intravenous or subcutaneous administration of recombinant erythropoietin (rHuEPO, 100-300 U/kg/week) and iron preparations. If adequate iron stores cannot be maintained with oral therapy (2-3, max 6 mg/kg/day), intravenous iron should be administered. In order to optimize anemia management in children with CRF, future research should be concentrated on the normalization of hemoglobin early in the course of CRF, and the long-term effects on the child's development.

  1. Renal Replacement Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Zaccaria; Romagnoli, Stefano; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    During the last few years, due to medical and surgical evolution, patients with increasingly severe diseases causing multiorgan dysfunction are frequently admitted to intensive care units. Therapeutic options, when organ failure occurs, are frequently nonspecific and mostly directed towards supporting vital function. In these scenarios, the kidneys are almost always involved and, therefore, renal replacement therapies have become a common routine practice in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. Recent technological improvement has led to the production of safe, versatile and efficient dialysis machines. In addition, emerging evidence may allow better individualization of treatment with tailored prescription depending on the patients’ clinical picture (e.g. sepsis, fluid overload, pediatric). The aim of the present review is to give a general overview of current practice in renal replacement therapies for critically ill patients. The main clinical aspects, including dose prescription, modality of dialysis delivery, anticoagulation strategies and timing will be addressed. In addition, some technical issues on physical principles governing blood purification, filters characteristics, and vascular access, will be covered. Finally, a section on current standard nomenclature of renal replacement therapy is devoted to clarify the “Tower of Babel” of critical care nephrology. PMID:26918174

  2. [Primary renal angiosarcoma].

    PubMed

    Costero-Barrios, Cesáreo B; Oros-Ovalle, Cuauhtémoc

    2004-01-01

    The twenty-fourth case of primary renal angiosarcoma is described, according to the available international literature, this present in a 71-year-old male, a mechanic by trade, without carcinogenic antecedents. Hematuria, pain in flank, and left-side tumoral mass of approximately 20 cm in diameter located in kidney by computerized axial tomography (CT) constituted manifestations. A left nefrectomy was performed. No metastasis was found. The tumor replaced 4/5 of the organ and weighed 1145 g. It showed angiomatous structure with atypical proliferation of endothelial cells in a sinusoldal trauma and anastomosatic vascular channels that invaded neighboring parenchymal and capsule. Tymorous cells were positive for CD31 and CD34 and negative for cytokeratins, S100 and HMB 45 proteins. The patient was subjected to treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy (lineal accelerator), but 12 months after surgery he presented retroperitonal tumoral relapse and hepatic metastasis. Diagnostic differentiation with benign vascular tumors is pointed out, as well as carcinomas and sarcomas that showed an outstanding angiomatous component, both primary and/or secondary. Primary renal angiosarcoma exposes the multiplicity of localizations that it is capable of with a tumor of this type, as well as renal parenquimatous capacity to be the seat of a great variety of neoplasias.

  3. Detecting Renal Allograft Inflammation Using Quantitative Urine Metabolomics and CXCL10

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Julie; Sharma, Atul; Mandal, Rupasri; Wishart, David S.; Wiebe, Chris; Storsley, Leroy; Karpinski, Martin; Gibson, Ian W.; Nickerson, Peter W.; Rush, David N.

    2016-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to characterize urinary metabolomics for the noninvasive detection of cellular inflammation and to determine if adding urinary chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10) improves the overall diagnostic discrimination. Methods Urines (n = 137) were obtained before biopsy in 113 patients with no (n = 66), mild (borderline or subclinical; n = 58), or severe (clinical; n = 13) rejection from a prospective cohort of adult renal transplant patients (n = 113). Targeted, quantitative metabolomics was performed with direct flow injection tandem mass spectrometry using multiple reaction monitoring (ABI 4000 Q-Trap). Urine CXCL10 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A projection on latent structures discriminant analysis was performed and validated using leave-one-out cross-validation, and an optimal 2-component model developed. Chemokine ligand 10 area under the curve (AUC) was determined and net reclassification index and integrated discrimination index analyses were performed. Results PLS2 demonstrated that urinary metabolites moderately discriminated the 3 groups (Cohen κ, 0.601; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.46-0.74; P < 0.001). Using binary classifiers, urinary metabolites and CXCL10 demonstrated an AUC of 0.81 (95% CI, 0.74-0.88) and 0.76 (95% CI, 0.68-0.84), respectively, and a combined AUC of 0.84 (95% CI, 0.78-0.91) for detecting alloimmune inflammation that was improved by net reclassification index and integrated discrimination index analyses. Urinary CXCL10 was the best univariate discriminator, followed by acylcarnitines and hexose. Conclusions Urinary metabolomics can noninvasively discriminate noninflamed renal allografts from those with subclinical and clinical inflammation, and the addition of urine CXCL10 had a modest but significant effect on overall diagnostic performance. These data suggest that urinary metabolomics and CXCL10 may be useful for noninvasive monitoring of alloimmune inflammation in renal

  4. Radionuclide evaluation of renal function.

    PubMed

    Bueschen, A J; Witten, D M

    1979-06-01

    The renal scintillation camera study and the excretory urogram should be considered to be complementary studies. The renal scintillation camera study provides an accurate evaluation of changes in total, differential, and segmental renal function but affords only a gross assessment of anatomic changes. The excretory urogram provides superior information about renal anatomic changes but only inferior information about functional changes of the kidney. The advantages of a renal scintillation camera study with regard to the patient are that it is done in a state of normal hydration, it requires no bowel preparation, it is not associated with allergic reactions, it provides a low radiation exposure, and it is a noninvasive procedure for differential renal function which requires no ureteral catheters.

  5. Scintigraphic imaging in renal infections.

    PubMed

    Rossleigh, M A

    2009-02-01

    The scintigraphic imaging modality of choice in the evaluation of renal infections is renal cortical scintigraphy utilizing [(99m)Tc]dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). This technique is able to demonstrate upper tract involvement with infection and to assess for the presence of renal cortical scarring following a urinary tract infection (UTI). There are recent publications advocating its use to determine which patients need to proceed to further investigation with cystography. It is also being utilized in the evaluation of different treatment regimes used in patients with UTI. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET and leukocyte scanning have only a minor role in the diagnosis of renal infection. Their main application is in the diagnosis of renal cyst infections in patients with polycystic renal disease.

  6. Multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Velasquez, G.; Glass, T.A.; D'Souza, V.J.; Formanek, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Renal oncocytoma, although rare, is being diagnosed more frequently, and criteria to differentiate it from other tumors have been described. Multiple oncocytomas have been reported, but an association between multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma in the same kidney has not been described. The authors report a case with two oncocytomas and a renal carcinoma in the right kidney as well as a right adrenal adenoma.

  7. Model discrimination using data collaboration.

    PubMed

    Feeley, Ryan; Frenklach, Michael; Onsum, Matt; Russi, Trent; Arkin, Adam; Packard, Andrew

    2006-06-01

    This paper introduces a practical data-driven method to discriminate among large-scale kinetic reaction models. The approach centers around a computable measure of model/data mismatch. We introduce two provably convergent algorithms that were developed to accommodate large ranges of uncertainty in the model parameters. The algorithms are demonstrated on a simple toy example and a methane combustion model with more than 100 uncertain parameters. They are subsequently used to discriminate between two models for a contemporarily studied biological signaling network.

  8. Stigma: ignorance, prejudice or discrimination?

    PubMed

    Thornicroft, Graham; Rose, Diana; Kassam, Aliya; Sartorius, Norman

    2007-03-01

    The term stigma refers to problems of knowledge (ignorance), attitudes (prejudice) and behaviour (discrimination). Most research in this area has been based on attitude surveys, media representations of mental illness and violence, has only focused upon schizophrenia, has excluded direct participation by service users, and has included few intervention studies. However, there is evidence that interventions to improve public knowledge about mental illness can be effective. The main challenge in future is to identify which interventions will produce behaviour change to reduce discrimination against people with mental illness.

  9. Task-dependent color discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poirson, Allen B.; Wandell, Brian A.

    1990-01-01

    When color video displays are used in time-critical applications (e.g., head-up displays, video control panels), the observer must discriminate among briefly presented targets seen within a complex spatial scene. Color-discrimination threshold are compared by using two tasks. In one task the observer makes color matches between two halves of a continuously displayed bipartite field. In a second task the observer detects a color target in a set of briefly presented objects. The data from both tasks are well summarized by ellipsoidal isosensitivity contours. The fitted ellipsoids differ both in their size, which indicates an absolute sensitivity difference, and orientation, which indicates a relative sensitivity difference.

  10. The future of renal denervation.

    PubMed

    Esler, Murray; Guo, Ling

    2017-05-01

    The rationale for the renal denervation treatment of severe, drug-resistant essential hypertension remains valid, but the field is now at a procedural watershed. With the commonly flawed procedures of the past, most notably in the Symplicity HTN-3 trial, which typically directed ablating energy into the proximal renal arteries, coupled with the absence of testing for achieved denervation, who could guess which of the past negative renal denervation trials, if any, are valid? But renal denervation procedures will now be different in two important ways. First, energy will be directed into the distal renal arteries and renal artery branches, where the renal nerves lie closest to the artery lumen. The need for this change is emphatic and unequivocal. Second, the number of energy point applications will be increased to 12-16 bilaterally. This is required because local perivascular anatomy distorts energy flow, making it unpredictable, so that multiple overlapping energy doses are needed. Applying these principles in experimental animals achieves near-total renal sympathetic nerve ablation, and lowers blood pressure. The "smart" renal denervation trials of the future will include a sham procedure and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure endpoints, but more important than these, which in comparison is clinical trialist "tinkering", will be the procedural revolution in ablative energy delivery.

  11. Haemostatic aspects of renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, P J; Schmidt, E B; Knudsen, F; Nielsen, A H; Kristensen, S D; Dyerberg, J; Kornerup, H J

    1988-01-01

    Platelet function and protein C activity and antigen level was studied in 31 renal transplant recipients and 10 healthy controls. The patients were divided into three groups: (I) cyclosporin treated, (II) azathioprine treated, and (III) azathioprine treated patients with chronic rejection. The platelet function in the renal transplant patients was normal and there was no difference between groups I and II. The specific activity of protein C was decreased in patients after renal transplantation and decreasing protein C activity and progressive renal failure was found to be positively correlated in the azathioprine treated groups.

  12. Solid renal masses in adults

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Mahesh Kumar; Sureka, Binit

    2016-01-01

    With the ever increasing trend of using cross-section imaging in today's era, incidental detection of small solid renal masses has dramatically multiplied. Coincidentally, the number of asymptomatic benign lesions being detected has also increased. The role of radiologists is not only to identify these lesions, but also go a one step further and accurately characterize various renal masses. Earlier detection of small renal cell carcinomas means identifying at the initial stage which has an impact on prognosis, patient management and healthcare costs. In this review article we share our experience with the typical and atypical solid renal masses encountered in adults in routine daily practice. PMID:28104933

  13. Computed tomography of renal oncocytoma

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, E.; Huntrakoon, M.

    1983-10-01

    Renal oncocytoma is a relatively rare tumor that has an excellent prognosis and usually may be treated adequately by local resection. Preoperative differentiation from renal cell carcinoma, which requires radical nephrectomy, is thus of importance. The computed tomographic (CT) and pathologic features of three incidentally-detected renal oncocytomas were compared with those of six renal cell carcinomas of comparable size. Renal cell carcinoma appears on CT as a solid mass that generally has an indistinct interface with normal renal parenchyma, a lobulated contour, and a nonhomogeneous pattern of contrast enhancement. These features correlate with the pathologic findings of an irregular tumor margin and the frequent presence of tumor hemorrhage and necrosis. Oncocytoma, on the other hand, generally has a distinct margin, a smooth contour, and a homogeneous appearance on contrast-enhanced CT scans. These findings correlate with a smooth tumor margin and absence of tumor hemorrhage and necrosis on pathologic examination. These features are not pathognomonic of oncocytoma, as angiographic evidence suggests that renal cell carcinoma may show both distinct margination and a homogeneous blush in 6% of cases. However, their demonstration by CT should alert radiologists and surgeons to the possibility that a renal mass may be an oncocytoma. Such a presumptive diagnosis then can lead to a surgical approach that allows for renal-conserving surgery.

  14. Image-Guided Renal Intervention.

    PubMed

    Frey, Gregory T; Sella, David M; Atwell, Thomas D

    2015-09-01

    The role of interventional radiology in the management of renal malignancy has expanded in the past 2 decades, largely because of the efficacy of image-guided ablation in treating renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Clinical guidelines now incorporate ablation into standardized RCC management algorithms. Importantly, both radiofrequency ablation and cryoablation have shown long-term durability in the definitive treatment of RCC, and early outcomes following microwave ablation are equally promising. While selective renal artery embolization has a role in the palliation of select patients with RCC, it can also be used to minimize complications in the ablation of larger renal masses.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: renal coloboma syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions renal coloboma syndrome renal coloboma syndrome Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Renal coloboma syndrome (also known as papillorenal syndrome) is ...

  16. Renal cirsoid arteriovenous malformation masquerading as neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, K; George, D

    1988-12-01

    A woman with renal colic and microscopic hematuria had filling defects in the left renal collecting system detected on excretory urography. A nephrectomy, performed because of suspected malignancy, might have been averted by renal angiography.

  17. Delayed rupture of renal artery after renal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Puijlaert, C.B.A.J.; Mali, W.P.; Rosenbusch, G.; van Straalen, A.M.; Klinge, J.; Feldberg, M.A.M.

    1986-06-01

    Two cases are reported in which rupture of the renal artery occurred many hours after renal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Delayed rupture can be recognized by the angiographic appearance and by the presence of persistent flank pain. The typical angiographic finding is a poorly defined zone of contrast medium at the site of perforation.

  18. The renal scan in pregnant renal transplant patients

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, H.A.; Ziessman, H.A.; Fahey, F.H.; Collea, J.V.; Alijani, M.R.; Helfrich, G.B.

    1985-05-01

    With the greater frequency of renal transplant surgery, more female pts are becoming pregnant and carrying to term. In the renal allograft blood vessels and ureter may be compressed resulting in impaired renal function and/or, hypertension. Toxemia of pregnancy is seen more frequently than normal. Radionuclide renal scan monitoring may be of significant value in this high risk obstetrical pt. After being maintained during the pregnancy, renal function may also deteriorate in the post partum period. 5 pregnant renal transplant pts who delivered live babies had renal studies with Tc-99m DTPA to assess allograft perfusion and function. No transplanted kidney was lost during or after pregnancy as a result of pregnancy. No congenital anomalies were associated with transplant management. 7 studies were performed on these 5 pts. The 7 scans all showed the uterus/placenta. The bladder was always distorted. The transplanted kidney was rotated to a more vertical position in 3 pts. The radiation dose to the fetus is calculated at 0.024 rad/mCi administered. This study demonstrates the anatomic and physiologic alterations expected in the transplanted kidney during pregnancy when evaluated by renal scan and that the radiation burden may be acceptable in management of these pts.

  19. Discriminant Analysis for Content Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John H., Jr.

    A series of experiments was performed to investigate the effectiveness and utility of automatically classifying documents through the use of multiple discriminant functions. Classification is accomplished by computing the distance from the mean vector of each category to the vector of observed frequencies of a document and assigning the document…

  20. Macaque Monkeys Discriminate Pitch Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosch, Michael; Selezneva, Elena; Bucks, Cornelia; Scheich, Henning

    2004-01-01

    This study demonstrates that non-human primates can categorize the direction of the pitch change of tones in a sequence. Two "Macaca fascicularis" were trained in a positive-reinforcement behavioral paradigm in which they listened to sequences of a variable number of different acoustic items. The training of discriminating pitch direction was…

  1. Experiencing discrimination increases risk taking.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Jeremy P; Koslov, Katrina; Nock, Matthew K; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2013-02-01

    Prior research has revealed racial disparities in health outcomes and health-compromising behaviors, such as smoking and drug abuse. It has been suggested that discrimination contributes to such disparities, but the mechanisms through which this might occur are not well understood. In the research reported here, we examined whether the experience of discrimination affects acute physiological stress responses and increases risk-taking behavior. Black and White participants each received rejecting feedback from partners who were either of their own race (in-group rejection) or of a different race (out-group rejection, which could be interpreted as discrimination). Physiological (cardiovascular and neuroendocrine) changes, cognition (memory and attentional bias), affect, and risk-taking behavior were assessed. Significant participant race × partner race interactions were observed. Cross-race rejection, compared with same-race rejection, was associated with lower levels of cortisol, increased cardiac output, decreased vascular resistance, greater anger, increased attentional bias, and more risk-taking behavior. These data suggest that perceived discrimination is associated with distinct profiles of physiological reactivity, affect, cognitive processing, and risk taking, implicating direct and indirect pathways to health disparities.

  2. Spatial layout affects speed discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verghese, P.; Stone, L. S.

    1997-01-01

    We address a surprising result in a previous study of speed discrimination with multiple moving gratings: discrimination thresholds decreased when the number of stimuli was increased, but remained unchanged when the area of a single stimulus was increased [Verghese & Stone (1995). Vision Research, 35, 2811-2823]. In this study, we manipulated the spatial- and phase relationship between multiple grating patches to determine their effect on speed discrimination thresholds. In a fusion experiment, we merged multiple stimulus patches, in stages, into a single patch. Thresholds increased as the patches were brought closer and their phase relationship was adjusted to be consistent with a single patch. Thresholds increased further still as these patches were fused into a single patch. In a fission experiment, we divided a single large patch into multiple patches by superimposing a cross with luminance equal to that of the background. Thresholds decreased as the large patch was divided into quadrants and decreased further as the quadrants were maximally separated. However, when the cross luminance was darker than the background, it was perceived as an occluder and thresholds, on average, were unchanged from that for the single large patch. A control experiment shows that the observed trend in discrimination thresholds is not due to the differences in perceived speed of the stimuli. These results suggest that the parsing of the visual image into entities affects the combination of speed information across space, and that each discrete entity effectively provides a single independent estimate of speed.

  3. Haptic Visual Discrimination and Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarron, Lawrence; Horn, Paul W.

    1979-01-01

    The Haptic Visual Discrimination Test of tactual-visual information processing was administered to 39 first-graders, along with standard intelligence, academic potential, and spatial integration tests. Results revealed consistently significant associations between the importance of parieto-occipital areas for organizing sensory data as well as for…

  4. Discrimination of petroleum fluorescence spectra.

    PubMed

    Stelmaszewski, Adam

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents studies of the total spectra (fluorescence-excitation matrix) of petroleum with regard to the utilization of fluorescence for determining petroleum pollutants. Thorough testing of one group, comprising almost forty lubricating oils in the form of their hexane solutions, points out their discrimination.

  5. Preferential Remedies for Employment Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry T.; Zaretsky, Barry L.

    1975-01-01

    An overview of the problem of preferential remedies to achieve equal employment opportunities for women and minority groups. Contends that "color blindness" will not end discrimination but that some form of "color conscious" affirmative action program must be employed. Temporary preferential treatment is justified, according to…

  6. Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark C.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews court cases in 1999 related to disability discrimination in higher education focusing on the Americans with Disabilities Act and section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. The "Garrett" case regarding Eleventh Amendment immunity is the case most likely to be significant in the development of the law of disability…

  7. Visualization of Term Discrimination Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jin; Wolfram, Dietmar

    2001-01-01

    Discusses information visualization techniques and introduces a visual term discrimination value analysis method using a document density space within a distance-angle-based visual information retrieval environment. Explains that applications of these methods facilitate more effective assignment of term weights to index terms within documents and…

  8. Renal cyst puncture studies.

    PubMed

    Lang, E K

    1987-02-01

    The edict to contain costs and meet goals imposed by DRG remuneration policies mandates the work-up of asymptomatic renal mass lesions on an outpatient basis. This proved feasible in 98 per cent of patients. The vast majority of such mass lesions (82 to 90 per cent) is diagnosed with acceptable confidence by computed tomography and sonography alone. For a shrinking group of such patients, yet still 16 to 18 per cent, guided percutaneous aspiration biopsy is necessary to affirm the diagnosis. However, this technique has been refined during recent years to incorporate the use of thin needle equipment and can now be performed on an outpatient basis without significant risk of morbidity. For diagnosing hyperdense inflammatory and infected renal cysts, guided percutaneous aspiration is recommended as the most effective method. This procedure should take precedence over surgical exploration because it can diagnose and provide pertinent bacteriologic information that may determine the course of therapy. In many instances inflammatory cysts or even silent renal abscesses are diagnosed by a percutaneous aspiration technique that is then expanded to serve therapeutic purposes such as percutaneous drainage. Even these procedures can be performed safely on an outpatient basis provided the patient is followed closely. Because complications of percutaneous aspiration procedures are extremely rare, the procedure can be used safely on an outpatient basis. The impact of magnetic resonance imaging on the diagnosis of asymptomatic space-occupying lesions of the kidney is as yet not fully determined; however, this method appears promising for diagnosing some of the refractory lesions such as hemorrhagic cysts, aneurysms, or arteriovenous malformations.

  9. Acute Renal Failure in the Neonate.

    PubMed

    Khan, Owais A; Hageman, Joseph R; Clardy, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) in a neonate is a serious condition that impacts 8% to 24% of hospitalized neonates. There is a need for prompt evaluation and treatment to avoid additional complications. In this review, a neonate was found to have renal failure associated with renal vein thrombosis. There are varying etiologies of ARF. Causes of ARF are typically divided into three subsets: pre-renal, renal or intrinsic, and post-renal. Treatment of ARF varies based on the cause. Renal vein thrombosis is an interesting cause of renal or intrinsic ARF and can be serious, often leading to a need for dialysis.

  10. Autopsy Renal Pathology.

    PubMed

    Paueksakon, Paisit; Fogo, Agnes B

    2014-09-01

    We provide an overview of assessment of the kidneys at autopsy, with special considerations for pediatric versus adult kidneys. We describe the approach to gross examination, tissue allocation when needed for additional studies of potential medical renal disease, the spectrum of congenital abnormalities of the kidneys and urinary tract, and approach to cystic diseases of the kidney. We also discuss common lesions seen at autopsy, including acute tubular injury, ischemic versus toxic contributions to this injury, interstitial nephritis, and common vascular diseases. Infections commonly involve the kidney at autopsy, and the key features and differential diagnoses are also discussed.

  11. [Tubular renal acidosis].

    PubMed

    Seidowsky, A; Moulonguet-Doleris, L; Hanslik, T; Yattara, H; Ayari, H; Rouveix, E; Massy, Z A; Prinseau, J

    2014-01-01

    Renal tubular acidosis (RTAs) are a group of metabolic disorders characterized by metabolic acidosis with normal plasma anion gap. There are three main forms of RTA: a proximal RTA called type II and a distal RTA (type I and IV). The RTA type II is a consequence of the inability of the proximal tubule to reabsorb bicarbonate. The distal RTA is associated with the inability to excrete the daily acid load and may be associated with hyperkalaemia (type IV) or hypokalemia (type I). The most common etiology of RTA type IV is the hypoaldosteronism. The RTAs can be complicated by nephrocalcinosis and obstructive nephrolithiasis. Alkalinization is the cornerstone of treatment.

  12. Ifosfamide induced renal rickets.

    PubMed

    Lionel, Arul P; Chinnaswamy, Girish; John, Rikki R; Mathai, Sarah

    2014-09-01

    Ifosfamide is commonly used as a chemotherapeutic agent in children. The authors report a 4-y-old boy who developed proximal renal tubulopathy with florid rickets a year after completion of ifosfamide therapy for Ewing's sarcoma. After initiation of treatment, there was complete healing of rickets and he did not need supplements beyond 18 mo. Growth monitoring and musculoskeletal system examination is important in all children who have received ifosfamide therapy. Routine monitoring for nephrotoxicity during and after ifosfamide therapy helps in early identification and intervention.

  13. Legitimating Racial Discrimination: Emotions, Not Beliefs, Best Predict Discrimination in a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Talaska, Cara A.; Chaiken, Shelly

    2013-01-01

    Investigations of racial bias have emphasized stereotypes and other beliefs as central explanatory mechanisms and as legitimating discrimination. In recent theory and research, emotional prejudices have emerged as another, more direct predictor of discrimination. A new comprehensive meta-analysis of 57 racial attitude-discrimination studies finds a moderate relationship between overall attitudes and discrimination. Emotional prejudices are twices as closely related to racial discrimination as stereotypes and beliefs are. Moreover, emotional prejudices are closely related to both observed and self-reported discrimination, whereas stereotypes and beliefs are related only to self-reported discrimination. Implications for justifying discrimination are discussed. PMID:24052687

  14. Legitimating Racial Discrimination: Emotions, Not Beliefs, Best Predict Discrimination in a Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Talaska, Cara A; Fiske, Susan T; Chaiken, Shelly

    2008-09-01

    Investigations of racial bias have emphasized stereotypes and other beliefs as central explanatory mechanisms and as legitimating discrimination. In recent theory and research, emotional prejudices have emerged as another, more direct predictor of discrimination. A new comprehensive meta-analysis of 57 racial attitude-discrimination studies finds a moderate relationship between overall attitudes and discrimination. Emotional prejudices are twices as closely related to racial discrimination as stereotypes and beliefs are. Moreover, emotional prejudices are closely related to both observed and self-reported discrimination, whereas stereotypes and beliefs are related only to self-reported discrimination. Implications for justifying discrimination are discussed.

  15. Contemporary Renal Cell Cancer Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Wong-Ho; Devesa, Susan S.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed renal cell cancer incidence patterns in the United States and reviewed recent epidemiologic evidence with regard to environmental and host genetic determinants of renal cell cancer risk. Renal cell cancer incidence rates continued to rise among all racial/ethnic groups in the United States, across all age groups, and for all tumor sizes, with the most rapid increases for localized stage disease and small tumors. Recent cohort studies confirmed the association of smoking, excess body weight, and hypertension with an elevated risk of renal cell cancer, and suggested that these factors can be modified to reduce the risk. There is increasing evidence for an inverse association between renal cell cancer risk and physical activity and moderate intake of alcohol. Occupational exposure to TCE has been positively associated with renal cell cancer risk in several recent studies, but its link with somatic mutations of the VHL gene has not been confirmed. Studies of genetic polymorphisms in relation to renal cell cancer risk have produced mixed results, but genome-wide association studies with larger sample size and a more comprehensive approach are underway. Few epidemiologic studies have evaluated risk factors by subtypes of renal cell cancer defined by somatic mutations and other tumor markers. PMID:18836333

  16. [Pediatric renal transplant in Japan].

    PubMed

    Uchida, Kazuharu

    2010-09-01

    Transplantation is the optimal renal replacement therapy for children with end-stage renal disease. Compared with dialysis, successful transplantation in children and adolescents not only ameliorates uremic symptoms but also allows for significant improvement of delayed growth, sexual maturation, and psychosocial functioning. The child with a well-functioning kidney can enjoy a quality of life that cannot be achieved with dialysis therapy. The 5- and 10-year patient/graft survival rate in transplant recipients are 97.9/88.8% and 96.2%/79.4% based on Japanese Renal Transplant Registry Society data. This article reviews recent reports of pediatric renal transplantation including ABO-incompatible and preemptive renal transplantation in Japan.

  17. Renal denervation and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Michael; Ewen, Sebastian; Kindermann, Ingrid; Linz, Dominik; Ukena, Christian; Mahfoud, Felix

    2014-06-01

    Renal denervation has been developed in order to lower systolic blood pressure in resistant hypertension by a reduction in renal afferent and efferent sympathetic nerve activity. In heart failure sympathetic activation, in particular, renal norepinephrine release is closely associated with morbidity and mortality. Initial studies have shown that renal denervation is able to reduce not only blood pressure but also heart rate, and is associated with a reduction in myocardial hypertrophy, improved glucose tolerance, and ameliorated microalbuminuria. Since some experimental and observational data suggest an antiarrhythmic effect, it is possible that renal denervation might also play a therapeutic role in arrhythmias often occurring in chronic heart failure. The first proof-of-concept studies are planned to evaluate the clinical effect of this pathophysiologically plausible method, which might be able to change clinical practice.

  18. Development of the renal arterioles.

    PubMed

    Sequeira Lopez, Maria Luisa S; Gomez, R Ariel

    2011-12-01

    The kidney is a highly vascularized organ that normally receives a fifth of the cardiac output. The unique spatial arrangement of the kidney vasculature with each nephron is crucial for the regulation of renal blood flow, GFR, urine concentration, and other specialized kidney functions. Thus, the proper and timely assembly of kidney vessels with their respective nephrons is a crucial morphogenetic event leading to the formation of a functioning kidney necessary for independent extrauterine life. Mechanisms that govern the development of the kidney vasculature are poorly understood. In this review, we discuss the anatomical development, embryological origin, lineage relationships, and key regulators of the kidney arterioles and postglomerular circulation. Because renal disease is associated with deterioration of the kidney microvasculature and/or the reenactment of embryonic pathways, understanding the morphogenetic events and processes that maintain the renal vasculature may open new avenues for the preservation of renal structure and function and prevent the progression of renal disease.

  19. 14 CFR 1250.103 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 1250.103 Section 1250.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN... Discrimination prohibited....

  20. 14 CFR 1250.103 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1250.103 Section 1250.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN... Discrimination prohibited....

  1. 14 CFR 1250.103 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1250.103 Section 1250.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN... Discrimination prohibited....

  2. Racial Discrimination in the British Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firth, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Contains results of a study of racial discrimination in the British job market for accountants and financial executives. Results show that considerable discrimination remains several years after the adoption of the Race Relations Act of 1968. (CT)

  3. 14 CFR 1250.103 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1250.103 Section 1250.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN... Discrimination prohibited....

  4. Targeting Strategies for Renal Cell Carcinoma: From Renal Cancer Cells to Renal Cancer Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhi-Xiang; Mo, Jingxin; Zhao, Guixian; Shu, Gang; Fu, Hua-Lin; Zhao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common form of urologic tumor that originates from the highly heterogeneous epithelium of renal tubules. Over the last decade, targeting therapies to renal cancer cells have transformed clinical care for RCC. Recently, it was proposed that renal cancer stem cells (CSCs) isolated from renal carcinomas were responsible for driving tumor growth and resistance to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, according to the theory of CSCs; this has provided the rationale for therapies targeting this aggressive cell population. Precise identification of renal CSC populations and the complete cell hierarchy will accurately inform characterization of disease subtypes. This will ultimately contribute to more personalized and targeted therapies. Here, we summarize potential targeting strategies for renal cancer cells and renal CSCs, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTOR), interleukins, CSC marker inhibitors, bone morphogenetic protein-2, antibody drug conjugates, and nanomedicine. In conclusion, targeting therapies for RCC represent new directions for exploration and clinical investigation and they plant a seed of hope for advanced clinical care.

  5. Targeting Strategies for Renal Cell Carcinoma: From Renal Cancer Cells to Renal Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zhi-xiang; Mo, Jingxin; Zhao, Guixian; Shu, Gang; Fu, Hua-lin; Zhao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common form of urologic tumor that originates from the highly heterogeneous epithelium of renal tubules. Over the last decade, targeting therapies to renal cancer cells have transformed clinical care for RCC. Recently, it was proposed that renal cancer stem cells (CSCs) isolated from renal carcinomas were responsible for driving tumor growth and resistance to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, according to the theory of CSCs; this has provided the rationale for therapies targeting this aggressive cell population. Precise identification of renal CSC populations and the complete cell hierarchy will accurately inform characterization of disease subtypes. This will ultimately contribute to more personalized and targeted therapies. Here, we summarize potential targeting strategies for renal cancer cells and renal CSCs, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTOR), interleukins, CSC marker inhibitors, bone morphogenetic protein-2, antibody drug conjugates, and nanomedicine. In conclusion, targeting therapies for RCC represent new directions for exploration and clinical investigation and they plant a seed of hope for advanced clinical care. PMID:27891093

  6. Unfused renal ectopia: a rare form of congenital renal anomaly.

    PubMed

    Nursal, Gül Nihal; Büyükdereli, Gülgün

    2005-09-01

    Unfused crossed renal ectopia observed 1 in 75,000 autopsies is a rare congenital anomaly. Typically one kidney is located in the proximity of the other kidney, and the ureter of the anatomically anomalous kidney crosses the midline to insert to the bladder in its normal anatomic position. Although renal function is usually not affected, the condition is generally accompanied by other congenital anomalies. In this case report, static and dynamic scintigraphic images of two patients with unfused crossed renal ectopia are presented. Besides properties of imaging modalities, clinical features are discussed in light of the available literature.

  7. Kernel Optimization in Discriminant Analysis

    PubMed Central

    You, Di; Hamsici, Onur C.; Martinez, Aleix M.

    2011-01-01

    Kernel mapping is one of the most used approaches to intrinsically derive nonlinear classifiers. The idea is to use a kernel function which maps the original nonlinearly separable problem to a space of intrinsically larger dimensionality where the classes are linearly separable. A major problem in the design of kernel methods is to find the kernel parameters that make the problem linear in the mapped representation. This paper derives the first criterion that specifically aims to find a kernel representation where the Bayes classifier becomes linear. We illustrate how this result can be successfully applied in several kernel discriminant analysis algorithms. Experimental results using a large number of databases and classifiers demonstrate the utility of the proposed approach. The paper also shows (theoretically and experimentally) that a kernel version of Subclass Discriminant Analysis yields the highest recognition rates. PMID:20820072

  8. 29 CFR 34.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 34.3 Section 34.3 Labor Office... Discrimination prohibited. No individual in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color, religion, sex... discrimination under, or denied employment in the administration of or in connection with any JTPA-funded...

  9. 6 CFR 21.5 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 21.5 Section 21.5... FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY § 21.5 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, any program...

  10. 45 CFR 1170.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1170.21 Section 1170.21... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Employment Practices § 1170.21 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in...

  11. 7 CFR 15b.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.4 Section 15b.4... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 15b.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  12. 29 CFR 500.9 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 500.9 Section 500.9 Labor... SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION General Provisions § 500.9 Discrimination prohibited. (a) It is a... Secretary alleging such discrimination....

  13. 29 CFR 500.9 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 500.9 Section 500.9 Labor... SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION General Provisions § 500.9 Discrimination prohibited. (a) It is a... Secretary alleging such discrimination....

  14. 29 CFR 501.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 501.4 Section 501.4 Labor... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT General Provisions § 501.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) A person may not... discrimination against any person under paragraph (a) of this section will be investigated by the WHD. Where...

  15. 7 CFR 15d.2 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15d.2 Section 15d.2... THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE § 15d.2 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No agency, officer... participation in, deny the benefits of, or subject to discrimination any person in the United States under...

  16. 45 CFR 84.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.4 Section 84.4... § 84.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of... discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance. (b)...

  17. 7 CFR 15d.2 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15d.2 Section 15d.2... THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE § 15d.2 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No agency, officer... participation in, deny the benefits of, or subject to discrimination any person in the United States under...

  18. 45 CFR 84.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.11 Section 84.11... § 84.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which...

  19. 22 CFR 217.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.21 Section 217... Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities within the... excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  20. 14 CFR 1251.300 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1251.300 Section... OF HANDICAP Accessibility § 1251.300 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall... benefits of, be excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under...

  1. 34 CFR 104.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.4 Section 104.4... ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 104.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal...

  2. 24 CFR 8.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.4... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT General Provisions § 8.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No... in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  3. 6 CFR 21.5 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 21.5 Section 21.5... FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY § 21.5 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, any program...

  4. 24 CFR 6.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 6.4... COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT ACT OF 1974 General Provisions § 6.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) Section 109... benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity funded in whole or in...

  5. 38 CFR 18.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 General § 18.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to...

  6. 45 CFR 84.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.21 Section 84.21... Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities are... in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which this...

  7. 22 CFR 209.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 209.4 Section 209.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NON-DISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS... § 209.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the grounds...

  8. 38 CFR 18.421 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Accessibility § 18.421 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's... from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  9. 38 CFR 18.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 General § 18.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to...

  10. 45 CFR 605.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.21 Section 605.21... Accessibility § 605.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's... from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  11. 45 CFR 1110.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1110.3 Section 1110.3... HUMANITIES GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS § 1110.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a... from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected, to discrimination...

  12. 22 CFR 209.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 209.4 Section 209.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NON-DISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS... § 209.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the grounds...

  13. 45 CFR 1110.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1110.3 Section 1110.3... HUMANITIES GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS § 1110.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a... from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected, to discrimination...

  14. 43 CFR 27.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 27.3 Section 27... ISSUED UNDER TITLE II OF PUBLIC LAW 93-153 § 27.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person shall... through contractual or other arrangements, subject an individual to discrimination on the grounds of...

  15. 7 CFR 15.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15.3 Section 15.3... Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color, or... discrimination under any program or activity of the applicant or recipient to which these regulations...

  16. 45 CFR 605.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.21 Section 605.21... Accessibility § 605.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's... from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  17. 14 CFR 380.26 - Discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination. 380.26 Section 380.26... REGULATIONS PUBLIC CHARTERS Requirements Applicable to Charter Operators § 380.26 Discrimination. No charter... unjust discrimination or any undue or unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage in any respect whatsoever....

  18. 22 CFR 142.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.4 Section 142.4... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 142.4 Discrimination... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  19. 49 CFR 21.5 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 21.5 Section 21.5... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 21.5 Discrimination... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited:...

  20. 49 CFR 374.101 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 374.101 Section 374.101... REGULATIONS Discrimination in Operations of Interstate Motor Common Carriers of Passengers § 374.101 Discrimination prohibited. No motor common carrier of passengers subject to 49 U.S.C. subtitle IV, part B...

  1. 28 CFR 42.503 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.503 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 General Provisions § 42.503 Discrimination... from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under...

  2. 18 CFR 1307.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination... NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO HANDICAP § 1307.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which this part applies....

  3. 38 CFR 18.421 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Accessibility § 18.421 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's... from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  4. 45 CFR 84.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.4 Section 84.4... § 84.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of... discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance. (b)...

  5. 45 CFR 80.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 80.3 Section 80.3... TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 80.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to...

  6. 22 CFR 217.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.11 Section 217... Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which this part applies. (2)...

  7. 15 CFR 8.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.4 Section... General Provisions; Prohibitions: Nondiscrimination Clause; Applicability to Programs § 8.4 Discrimination... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory acts prohibited. (1)...

  8. 28 CFR 42.520 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.520 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Accessibility § 42.520 Discrimination prohibited... participation in, or otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving...

  9. 34 CFR 104.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.21 Section 104.21... ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 104.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a... excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  10. 6 CFR 21.5 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 21.5 Section 21.5... FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY § 21.5 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, any program...

  11. 7 CFR 15b.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.4 Section 15b.4... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 15b.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  12. 49 CFR 27.7 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 27.7 Section 27.7... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General § 27.7 Discrimination prohibited. (a... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  13. 50 CFR 3.1 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 3.1 Section 3.1... PROVISIONS NONDISCRIMINATION-CONTRACTS, PERMITS, AND USE OF FACILITIES § 3.1 Discrimination prohibited. No..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to any form of discrimination or...

  14. 38 CFR 18.411 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Practices § 18.411 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to...

  15. 28 CFR 42.203 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.203 Section...) of the Justice System Improvement Act of 1979 § 42.203 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No person in... participation in, be denied the benefits of, be subjected to discrimination under, or denied employment...

  16. 45 CFR 605.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.11 Section 605.11... Employment Practices § 605.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program...

  17. 22 CFR 209.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 209.4 Section 209.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NON-DISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS... § 209.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the grounds...

  18. 45 CFR 605.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.21 Section 605.21... Accessibility § 605.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's... from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  19. 22 CFR 217.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.21 Section 217... Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities within the... excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  20. 15 CFR 8.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.4 Section... General Provisions; Prohibitions: Nondiscrimination Clause; Applicability to Programs § 8.4 Discrimination... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory acts prohibited. (1)...

  1. 34 CFR 104.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.4 Section 104.4... ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 104.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal...

  2. 29 CFR 502.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 502.3 Section 502.3 Labor... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT (SUSPENDED 6-29-2009) General Provisions § 502.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a... Department regulation promulgated pursuant to sec. 218 of the INA. (b) Allegations of discrimination...

  3. 10 CFR 1040.63 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.63 Section 1040.63 Energy... Provisions § 1040.63 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity that receives Federal financial assistance...

  4. 49 CFR 27.7 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 27.7 Section 27.7... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General § 27.7 Discrimination prohibited. (a... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  5. 50 CFR 3.1 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 3.1 Section 3.1... PROVISIONS NONDISCRIMINATION-CONTRACTS, PERMITS, AND USE OF FACILITIES § 3.1 Discrimination prohibited. No..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to any form of discrimination or...

  6. 15 CFR 8b.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.11 Section 8b.11 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Practices § 8b.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped individual shall,...

  7. 49 CFR 374.101 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 374.101 Section 374.101... REGULATIONS Discrimination in Operations of Interstate Motor Common Carriers of Passengers § 374.101 Discrimination prohibited. No motor common carrier of passengers subject to 49 U.S.C. subtitle IV, part B...

  8. 49 CFR 27.7 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 27.7 Section 27.7... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General § 27.7 Discrimination prohibited. (a... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  9. 24 CFR 6.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 6.4... COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT ACT OF 1974 General Provisions § 6.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) Section 109... benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity funded in whole or in...

  10. 38 CFR 18.404 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Provisions § 18.404 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance....

  11. 34 CFR 104.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.4 Section 104.4... ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 104.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activitiy which receives Federal...

  12. 10 CFR 1040.71 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.71 Section 1040.71 Energy... § 1040.71 Discrimination prohibited. No handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities are... in, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity that receives or benefits...

  13. 14 CFR 271.9 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 271.9 Section... TRANSPORTATION § 271.9 Discrimination prohibited. (a) All air carriers receiving subsidy under this part shall comply with the following: (1) The Age Discrimination Act of 1975; (2) The Civil Rights Act of 1964...

  14. 14 CFR 271.9 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 271.9 Section... TRANSPORTATION § 271.9 Discrimination prohibited. (a) All air carriers receiving subsidy under this part shall comply with the following: (1) The Age Discrimination Act of 1975; (2) The Civil Rights Act of 1964...

  15. 49 CFR 27.7 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 27.7 Section 27.7... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General § 27.7 Discrimination prohibited. (a... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  16. 45 CFR 1110.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1110.3 Section 1110.3... HUMANITIES GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS § 1110.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a... from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected, to discrimination...

  17. 38 CFR 18.411 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Practices § 18.411 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to...

  18. 34 CFR 104.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.11 Section 104.11... ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 104.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program...

  19. 15 CFR 8.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.4 Section... General Provisions; Prohibitions: Nondiscrimination Clause; Applicability to Programs § 8.4 Discrimination... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory acts prohibited. (1)...

  20. 10 CFR 19.32 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 19.32 Section 19.32 Energy... § 19.32 Discrimination prohibited. No person shall on the grounds of sex be excluded from participation in, be denied a license, be denied the benefit of, or be subjected to discrimination under...

  1. 22 CFR 142.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.4 Section 142.4... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 142.4 Discrimination... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  2. 29 CFR 32.26 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 32.26 Section 32.26 Labor Office... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 32.26 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified... discrimination under any program or activity to which this part applies....

  3. 10 CFR 19.32 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 19.32 Section 19.32 Energy... § 19.32 Discrimination prohibited. No person shall on the grounds of sex be excluded from participation in, be denied a license, be denied the benefit of, or be subjected to discrimination under...

  4. 14 CFR 372.22 - Discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination. 372.22 Section 372.22... REGULATIONS OVERSEAS MILITARY PERSONNEL CHARTERS Conditions and Limitations § 372.22 Discrimination. No... any unjust discrimination or any undue or unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage in any...

  5. 38 CFR 18.404 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Provisions § 18.404 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance....

  6. 29 CFR 32.26 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 32.26 Section 32.26 Labor Office... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 32.26 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified... discrimination under any program or activity to which this part applies....

  7. 14 CFR 372.22 - Discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination. 372.22 Section 372.22... REGULATIONS OVERSEAS MILITARY PERSONNEL CHARTERS Conditions and Limitations § 372.22 Discrimination. No... any unjust discrimination or any undue or unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage in any...

  8. 7 CFR 15b.12 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.12 Section 15b.12... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 15b.12 Discrimination prohibited. (a... discrimination in employment under any program or activity receiving assistance from this Department. (2)...

  9. 45 CFR 1110.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1110.3 Section 1110.3... HUMANITIES GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS § 1110.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a... from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected, to discrimination...

  10. 43 CFR 27.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 27.3 Section 27... ISSUED UNDER TITLE II OF PUBLIC LAW 93-153 § 27.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person shall... through contractual or other arrangements, subject an individual to discrimination on the grounds of...

  11. 22 CFR 217.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.4 Section 217.4... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 217.4 Discrimination... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  12. 28 CFR 42.104 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.104 Section... Civil Rights Act of 1964 1 § 42.104 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United... denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which...

  13. 45 CFR 605.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.4 Section 605.4... Provisions § 605.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance....

  14. 10 CFR 1040.63 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.63 Section 1040.63 Energy... Provisions § 1040.63 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity that receives Federal financial assistance...

  15. 13 CFR 112.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 112.3... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 112.3 Discrimination... be otherwise subjected to discrimination by any business or other activity. (b)...

  16. 45 CFR 84.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.21 Section 84.21... Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities are... in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which this...

  17. 10 CFR 1040.13 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.13 Section 1040.13 Energy..., as Amended; and Section 401 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 § 1040.13 Discrimination... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this subpart...

  18. 38 CFR 18.404 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Provisions § 18.404 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance....

  19. 38 CFR 18.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 General § 18.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to...

  20. 45 CFR 1151.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1151.21 Section 1151.21... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited Accessibility § 1151.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall,...

  1. 5 CFR 950.110 - Prohibited discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prohibited discrimination. 950.110 Section 950.110 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... PRIVATE VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS General Provisions § 950.110 Prohibited discrimination. Discrimination...

  2. 13 CFR 112.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 112.3... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 112.3 Discrimination... be otherwise subjected to discrimination by any business or other activity. (b)...

  3. 45 CFR 84.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.21 Section 84.21... Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities are... in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which this...

  4. 10 CFR 19.32 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 19.32 Section 19.32 Energy... § 19.32 Discrimination prohibited. No person shall on the grounds of sex be excluded from participation in, be denied a license, be denied the benefit of, or be subjected to discrimination under...

  5. 14 CFR 1251.200 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1251.200 Section... OF HANDICAP Employment Practices § 1251.200 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under...

  6. 28 CFR 42.520 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.520 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Accessibility § 42.520 Discrimination prohibited... participation in, or otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving...

  7. 45 CFR 605.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.11 Section 605.11... Employment Practices § 605.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program...

  8. 15 CFR 8b.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.4 Section 8b.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Provisions § 8b.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped individual shall, on...

  9. 45 CFR 1151.31 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1151.31 Section 1151.31... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited Employment § 1151.31 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No qualified handicapped person shall, on...

  10. 29 CFR 32.26 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 32.26 Section 32.26 Labor Office... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 32.26 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified... discrimination under any program or activity to which this part applies....

  11. 22 CFR 142.15 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.15 Section 142... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 142.15 Discrimination... be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which the part applies....

  12. 28 CFR 42.104 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.104 Section... Civil Rights Act of 1964 1 § 42.104 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United... denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which...

  13. 28 CFR 42.520 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.520 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Accessibility § 42.520 Discrimination prohibited... participation in, or otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving...

  14. 45 CFR 84.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.21 Section 84.21... Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities are... in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which this...

  15. 22 CFR 142.15 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.15 Section 142... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 142.15 Discrimination... be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which the part applies....

  16. 50 CFR 3.1 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 3.1 Section 3.1... PROVISIONS NONDISCRIMINATION-CONTRACTS, PERMITS, AND USE OF FACILITIES § 3.1 Discrimination prohibited. No..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to any form of discrimination or...

  17. 34 CFR 104.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.4 Section 104.4... ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 104.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activitiy which receives Federal...

  18. 7 CFR 15b.12 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.12 Section 15b.12... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 15b.12 Discrimination prohibited. (a... discrimination in employment under any program or activity receiving assistance from this Department. (2)...

  19. 7 CFR 15b.12 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.12 Section 15b.12... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 15b.12 Discrimination prohibited. (a... discrimination in employment under any program or activity receiving assistance from this Department. (2)...

  20. 38 CFR 18.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 General § 18.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to...

  1. 45 CFR 80.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 80.3 Section 80.3... TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 80.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to...

  2. 45 CFR 605.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.4 Section 605.4... Provisions § 605.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance....

  3. 10 CFR 19.32 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 19.32 Section 19.32 Energy... § 19.32 Discrimination prohibited. No person shall on the grounds of sex be excluded from participation in, be denied a license, be denied the benefit of, or be subjected to discrimination under...

  4. 29 CFR 34.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 34.3 Section 34.3 Labor Office... Discrimination prohibited. No individual in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color, religion, sex... discrimination under, or denied employment in the administration of or in connection with any JTPA-funded...

  5. 45 CFR 605.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.4 Section 605.4... Provisions § 605.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance....

  6. 28 CFR 42.203 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.203 Section...) of the Justice System Improvement Act of 1979 § 42.203 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No person in... participation in, be denied the benefits of, be subjected to discrimination under, or denied employment...

  7. 49 CFR 21.5 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 21.5 Section 21.5... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 21.5 Discrimination... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited:...

  8. 22 CFR 217.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.4 Section 217.4... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 217.4 Discrimination... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  9. 10 CFR 1040.13 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.13 Section 1040.13 Energy..., as Amended; and Section 401 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 § 1040.13 Discrimination... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this subpart...

  10. 28 CFR 42.503 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.503 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 General Provisions § 42.503 Discrimination... from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under...

  11. 10 CFR 1040.66 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.66 Section 1040.66 Energy... Practices § 1040.66 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination employment under any program or activity...

  12. 10 CFR 1040.71 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.71 Section 1040.71 Energy... § 1040.71 Discrimination prohibited. No handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities are... in, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity that receives or benefits...

  13. 10 CFR 1040.63 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.63 Section 1040.63 Energy... Provisions § 1040.63 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity that receives Federal financial assistance...

  14. 7 CFR 15b.12 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.12 Section 15b.12... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 15b.12 Discrimination prohibited. (a... discrimination in employment under any program or activity receiving assistance from this Department. (2)...

  15. 45 CFR 1151.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1151.21 Section 1151.21... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited Accessibility § 1151.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall,...

  16. 28 CFR 42.203 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.203 Section...) of the Justice System Improvement Act of 1979 § 42.203 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No person in... participation in, be denied the benefits of, be subjected to discrimination under, or denied employment...

  17. 38 CFR 18.411 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Practices § 18.411 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to...

  18. 22 CFR 217.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.4 Section 217.4... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 217.4 Discrimination... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  19. 5 CFR 900.704 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 900.704... Federally Assisted Programs of the Office of Personnel Management § 900.704 Discrimination prohibited. (a..., be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  20. 24 CFR 232.625 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 232.625... Fire Safety Equipment Special Requirements § 232.625 Discrimination prohibited. Any contract or... provide that there shall be no discrimination against any employee or applicant for employment because...

  1. 10 CFR 1040.71 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.71 Section 1040.71 Energy... § 1040.71 Discrimination prohibited. No handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities are... in, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity that receives or benefits...

  2. 43 CFR 17.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 17.3 Section 17... National Origin § 17.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the..., or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this part applies....

  3. 7 CFR 15b.17 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.17 Section 15b.17... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 15b.17 Discrimination prohibited. No... to discrimination under any program or activity receiving assistance from this Department....

  4. 34 CFR 104.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.21 Section 104.21... ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 104.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a... excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  5. 18 CFR 705.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Discrimination... Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the grounds of race, color, or... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited....

  6. 34 CFR 104.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.11 Section 104.11... ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 104.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program...

  7. 14 CFR 380.26 - Discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination. 380.26 Section 380.26... REGULATIONS PUBLIC CHARTERS Requirements Applicable to Charter Operators § 380.26 Discrimination. No charter... unjust discrimination or any undue or unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage in any respect whatsoever....

  8. 29 CFR 32.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 32.4 Section 32.4 Labor Office... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 32.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No... denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  9. 28 CFR 42.104 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.104 Section... Civil Rights Act of 1964 1 § 42.104 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United... denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which...

  10. 50 CFR 3.1 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 3.1 Section 3.1... PROVISIONS NONDISCRIMINATION-CONTRACTS, PERMITS, AND USE OF FACILITIES § 3.1 Discrimination prohibited. No..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to any form of discrimination or...

  11. 5 CFR 900.704 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 900.704... Federally Assisted Programs of the Office of Personnel Management § 900.704 Discrimination prohibited. (a..., be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  12. 24 CFR 232.625 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 232.625... Fire Safety Equipment Special Requirements § 232.625 Discrimination prohibited. Any contract or... provide that there shall be no discrimination against any employee or applicant for employment because...

  13. 10 CFR 1040.71 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.71 Section 1040.71 Energy... § 1040.71 Discrimination prohibited. No handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities are... in, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity that receives or benefits...

  14. 6 CFR 21.5 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 21.5 Section 21.5... FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY § 21.5 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, any program...

  15. 18 CFR 705.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination... Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the grounds of race, color, or... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited....

  16. 38 CFR 18.404 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Provisions § 18.404 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance....

  17. 45 CFR 84.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.11 Section 84.11... § 84.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which...

  18. 22 CFR 217.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.11 Section 217... Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which this part applies. (2)...

  19. 22 CFR 217.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.11 Section 217... Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which this part applies. (2)...

  20. 7 CFR 15b.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.4 Section 15b.4... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 15b.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  1. 43 CFR 17.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 17.3 Section 17... National Origin § 17.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the..., or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this part applies....

  2. 15 CFR 8b.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.4 Section 8b.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Provisions § 8b.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped individual shall, on...

  3. 14 CFR 1251.300 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 1251.300 Section... OF HANDICAP Accessibility § 1251.300 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall... benefits of, be excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under...

  4. 22 CFR 217.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.21 Section 217... Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities within the... excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  5. 15 CFR 8b.16 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.16 Section 8b.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Accessibility § 8b.16 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped individual shall, because a...

  6. 5 CFR 950.110 - Prohibited discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Prohibited discrimination. 950.110 Section 950.110 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... PRIVATE VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS General Provisions § 950.110 Prohibited discrimination. Discrimination...

  7. 29 CFR 34.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 34.3 Section 34.3 Labor Office... Discrimination prohibited. No individual in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color, religion, sex... discrimination under, or denied employment in the administration of or in connection with any JTPA-funded...

  8. 14 CFR 1251.200 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 1251.200 Section... OF HANDICAP Employment Practices § 1251.200 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under...

  9. 28 CFR 42.520 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.520 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Accessibility § 42.520 Discrimination prohibited... participation in, or otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving...

  10. 22 CFR 142.15 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.15 Section 142... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 142.15 Discrimination... be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which the part applies....

  11. 45 CFR 605.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.4 Section 605.4... Provisions § 605.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance....

  12. 34 CFR 104.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.11 Section 104.11... ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 104.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program...

  13. 43 CFR 34.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 34.4 Section 34... DURING CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE ALASKA NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM § 34.4 Discrimination... part applies. (b) Specific actions in which discrimination is prohibited. No person shall directly...

  14. 15 CFR 8b.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.11 Section 8b.11 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Practices § 8b.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped individual shall,...

  15. 29 CFR 500.9 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 500.9 Section 500.9 Labor... SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION General Provisions § 500.9 Discrimination prohibited. (a) It is a... Secretary alleging such discrimination....

  16. 24 CFR 8.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.4... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT General Provisions § 8.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No... in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  17. 29 CFR 32.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 32.4 Section 32.4 Labor Office... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 32.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No... denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  18. 34 CFR 104.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.21 Section 104.21... ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 104.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a... excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  19. 18 CFR 1307.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination... NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO HANDICAP § 1307.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which this part applies....

  20. 18 CFR 705.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination... Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the grounds of race, color, or... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited....

  1. 22 CFR 142.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.11 Section 142... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 142.11 Discrimination... discrimination in employment under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance. (2)...

  2. 22 CFR 142.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.4 Section 142.4... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 142.4 Discrimination... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  3. 28 CFR 35.149 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 35.149 Section... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Program Accessibility § 35.149 Discrimination prohibited. Except as... subjected to discrimination by any public entity....

  4. 45 CFR 1151.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1151.21 Section 1151.21... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited Accessibility § 1151.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall,...

  5. 29 CFR 32.26 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 32.26 Section 32.26 Labor Office... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 32.26 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified... discrimination under any program or activity to which this part applies....

  6. 10 CFR 1040.66 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.66 Section 1040.66 Energy... Practices § 1040.66 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination employment under any program or activity...

  7. 24 CFR 6.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 6.4... COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT ACT OF 1974 General Provisions § 6.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) Section 109... benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity funded in whole or in...

  8. 14 CFR 372.22 - Discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination. 372.22 Section 372.22... REGULATIONS OVERSEAS MILITARY PERSONNEL CHARTERS Conditions and Limitations § 372.22 Discrimination. No... any unjust discrimination or any undue or unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage in any...

  9. 38 CFR 18.411 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Practices § 18.411 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to...

  10. 22 CFR 142.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.11 Section 142... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 142.11 Discrimination... discrimination in employment under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance. (2)...

  11. 38 CFR 18.421 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Accessibility § 18.421 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's... from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  12. 24 CFR 232.625 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 232.625... Fire Safety Equipment Special Requirements § 232.625 Discrimination prohibited. Any contract or... provide that there shall be no discrimination against any employee or applicant for employment because...

  13. 14 CFR 1251.103 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 1251.103 Section... OF HANDICAP General Provisions § 1251.103 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified... of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives...

  14. 18 CFR 1307.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Discrimination... NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO HANDICAP § 1307.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which this part applies....

  15. 18 CFR 705.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrimination... Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the grounds of race, color, or... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited....

  16. 28 CFR 35.149 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 35.149 Section... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Program Accessibility § 35.149 Discrimination prohibited. Except as... subjected to discrimination by any public entity....

  17. 22 CFR 142.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.11 Section 142... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 142.11 Discrimination... discrimination in employment under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance. (2)...

  18. 28 CFR 42.503 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.503 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 General Provisions § 42.503 Discrimination... from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under...

  19. 24 CFR 232.625 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 232.625... Fire Safety Equipment Special Requirements § 232.625 Discrimination prohibited. Any contract or... provide that there shall be no discrimination against any employee or applicant for employment because...

  20. 29 CFR 1630.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1630.4 Section 1630.4 Labor... EQUAL EMPLOYMENT PROVISIONS OF THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT § 1630.4 Discrimination prohibited..., condition, or privilege of employment. (2) The term discrimination includes, but is not limited to, the...

  1. 45 CFR 605.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.21 Section 605.21... Accessibility § 605.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's... from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  2. 38 CFR 18.421 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Accessibility § 18.421 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's... from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  3. 5 CFR 900.704 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 900.704... Federally Assisted Programs of the Office of Personnel Management § 900.704 Discrimination prohibited. (a..., be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  4. 10 CFR 1040.66 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.66 Section 1040.66 Energy... Practices § 1040.66 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination employment under any program or activity...

  5. 13 CFR 112.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 112.3... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 112.3 Discrimination... be otherwise subjected to discrimination by any business or other activity. (b)...

  6. 15 CFR 8b.16 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.16 Section 8b.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Accessibility § 8b.16 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped individual shall, because a...

  7. 28 CFR 35.149 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 35.149 Section... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Program Accessibility § 35.149 Discrimination prohibited. Except as... subjected to discrimination by any public entity....

  8. 24 CFR 8.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.4... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT General Provisions § 8.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No... in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  9. 43 CFR 27.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 27.3 Section 27... ISSUED UNDER TITLE II OF PUBLIC LAW 93-153 § 27.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person shall... through contractual or other arrangements, subject an individual to discrimination on the grounds of...

  10. 34 CFR 104.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.21 Section 104.21... ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 104.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a... excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  11. 28 CFR 35.149 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 35.149 Section... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Program Accessibility § 35.149 Discrimination prohibited. Except as... subjected to discrimination by any public entity....

  12. 45 CFR 84.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.4 Section 84.4... § 84.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of... discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance. (b)...

  13. 24 CFR 8.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.4... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT General Provisions § 8.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No... in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  14. 15 CFR 8b.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.11 Section 8b.11 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Practices § 8b.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped individual shall,...

  15. 10 CFR 1040.13 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.13 Section 1040.13 Energy..., as Amended; and Section 401 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 § 1040.13 Discrimination... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this subpart...

  16. 14 CFR 380.26 - Discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination. 380.26 Section 380.26... REGULATIONS PUBLIC CHARTERS Requirements Applicable to Charter Operators § 380.26 Discrimination. No charter... unjust discrimination or any undue or unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage in any respect whatsoever....

  17. 29 CFR 32.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 32.4 Section 32.4 Labor Office of... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 32.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No... denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  18. 49 CFR 21.5 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 21.5 Section 21.5... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 21.5 Discrimination... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited:...

  19. 15 CFR 8b.16 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.16 Section 8b.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Accessibility § 8b.16 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped individual shall, because a...

  20. 18 CFR 1307.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrimination... NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO HANDICAP § 1307.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which this part applies....

  1. 22 CFR 142.15 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.15 Section 142... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 142.15 Discrimination... be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which the part applies....

  2. 22 CFR 217.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.4 Section 217.4... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 217.4 Discrimination... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  3. 45 CFR 1151.31 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1151.31 Section 1151.31... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited Employment § 1151.31 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No qualified handicapped person shall, on...

  4. 15 CFR 8.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.4 Section... General Provisions; Prohibitions: Nondiscrimination Clause; Applicability to Programs § 8.4 Discrimination... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory acts prohibited. (1)...

  5. 14 CFR 372.22 - Discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination. 372.22 Section 372.22... REGULATIONS OVERSEAS MILITARY PERSONNEL CHARTERS Conditions and Limitations § 372.22 Discrimination. No... any unjust discrimination or any undue or unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage in any...

  6. 10 CFR 1040.66 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.66 Section 1040.66 Energy... Practices § 1040.66 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination employment under any program or activity...

  7. 7 CFR 15b.17 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.17 Section 15b.17... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 15b.17 Discrimination prohibited. No... to discrimination under any program or activity receiving assistance from this Department....

  8. 29 CFR 500.9 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 500.9 Section 500.9 Labor... SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION General Provisions § 500.9 Discrimination prohibited. (a) It is a... Secretary alleging such discrimination....

  9. 5 CFR 950.110 - Prohibited discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prohibited discrimination. 950.110 Section 950.110 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... PRIVATE VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS General Provisions § 950.110 Prohibited discrimination. Discrimination...

  10. 45 CFR 1203.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1203.4 Section 1203.4... OF 1964 § 1203.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. A person in the United States shall not, on... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, a program to which this part applies....

  11. 15 CFR 8b.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.11 Section 8b.11 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Practices § 8b.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped individual shall,...

  12. 14 CFR 380.26 - Discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination. 380.26 Section 380.26... REGULATIONS PUBLIC CHARTERS Requirements Applicable to Charter Operators § 380.26 Discrimination. No charter... unjust discrimination or any undue or unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage in any respect whatsoever....

  13. 7 CFR 15b.17 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.17 Section 15b.17... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 15b.17 Discrimination prohibited. No... to discrimination under any program or activity receiving assistance from this Department....

  14. 7 CFR 15b.17 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.17 Section 15b.17... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 15b.17 Discrimination prohibited. No... to discrimination under any program or activity receiving assistance from this Department....

  15. 15 CFR 8b.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.4 Section 8b.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Provisions § 8b.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped individual shall, on...

  16. 45 CFR 611.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 611.3 Section 611.3... CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 611.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this part applies....

  17. 49 CFR 374.101 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 374.101 Section 374.101... REGULATIONS Discrimination in Operations of Interstate Motor Common Carriers of Passengers § 374.101 Discrimination prohibited. No motor common carrier of passengers subject to 49 U.S.C. subtitle IV, part B...

  18. 14 CFR 271.9 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 271.9 Section... TRANSPORTATION § 271.9 Discrimination prohibited. (a) All air carriers receiving subsidy under this part shall comply with the following: (1) The Age Discrimination Act of 1975; (2) The Civil Rights Act of 1964...

  19. 43 CFR 27.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 27.3 Section 27... ISSUED UNDER TITLE II OF PUBLIC LAW 93-153 § 27.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person shall... through contractual or other arrangements, subject an individual to discrimination on the grounds of...

  20. 45 CFR 611.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 611.3 Section 611.3... CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 611.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this part applies....