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Sample records for discriminates chromophobe renal

  1. Parvalbumin is constantly expressed in chromophobe renal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Martignoni, G; Pea, M; Chilosi, M; Brunelli, M; Scarpa, A; Colato, C; Tardanico, R; Zamboni, G; Bonetti, F

    2001-08-01

    Chromophobe renal carcinoma is composed of neoplastic cell showing several features similar to those found in the intercalated cells of the collecting ducts. Because the distal nephron expresses calcium-binding proteins playing a role in calcium homeostasis, we reasoned that these proteins could be expressed by chromophobe carcinoma and therefore represent a diagnostic marker. We studied the immunohistochemical expression of different calcium-binding proteins (parvalbumin, calbindin-D28K, and calretinin) in 140 renal tumors, including 75 conventional (clear cell) carcinomas, 32 chromophobe carcinomas, 17 papillary renal cell carcinomas, and 16 oncocytomas. Parvalbumin was strongly positive in all primary chromophobe carcinomas and in one pancreatic metastasis; it was positive in 11 of 16 oncocytomas and absent in conventional (clear cell) and papillary renal cell carcinomas, either primary or metastatic. Calbindin-D28K and calretinin were negative in all tumors, with the exception of two chromophobe carcinomas, four oncocytomas, and two papillary renal cell carcinomas showing inconspicuous calretinin expression. Our data demonstrate that parvalbumin may be a suitable marker for distinguishing primary and metastatic chromophobe carcinoma from conventional (clear cell) and papillary renal cell carcinoma. Moreover, they suggest a relationship between chromophobe renal carcinoma and renal oncocytoma and indicate that chromophobe carcinoma exhibits differentiation toward the collecting-duct phenotype.

  2. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid transformation in a dog.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Naohito; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Murakami, Hironobu; Kagawa, Eriko; Aoki, Itirou; Nagashima, Yoji

    2010-11-01

    A 12-year-old spayed female Siberian husky dog presented with hematuria and weight loss. An abdominal ultrasonographic examination revealed a left renal tumor measuring 8 cm in diameter, and a nephrectomy was performed. The resected kidney contained a cavitated tumor with a white solid region. Histologically, this tumor was composed of large polygonal cells with abundant and cloudy cytoplasm and focal sarcomatoid change. The neoplastic epithelial cells were reactive with colloidal iron staining; Dolichos biflorus agglutinin, peanut agglutinin, and Ulex europaeus agglutinin I lectins; and cluster of differentiation 10 and c-KIT antigens but not for periodic acid-Schiff or vimentin stain. Neoplastic sarcomatoid cells stained positive for vimentin. Because these histopathologic features are identical to those of human chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, the present case was diagnosed as canine chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

  3. Chromosomal gains in the sarcomatoid transformation of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Brunelli, Matteo; Gobbo, Stefano; Cossu-Rocca, Paolo; Cheng, Liang; Hes, Ondrej; Delahunt, Brett; Pea, Maurizio; Bonetti, Franco; Mina, Maria M; Ficarra, Vincenzo; Chilosi, Marco; Eble, John N; Menestrina, Fabio; Martignoni, Guido

    2007-03-01

    The hallmark of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma is multiple chromosomal losses from among chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 10 and 17. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma with distant metastases or sarcomatoid transformation are uncommon and little is known about their chromosomal abnormalities. We collected six sarcomatoid chromophobe renal cell carcinomas and three primary chromophobe renal cell carcinomas with distant metastases. A cytogenetic analysis by fluorescent in situ hybridization on paraffin-embedded tissue was performed using centromeric probes for chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 10 and 17. We found more than one signal in four of six (66%) sarcomatoid chromophobe renal cell carcinomas, in both sarcomatoid and adjacent epithelial components. Both primary chromophobe renal cell carcinomas and matched metastases showed single signals for all chromosomes studied in two cases and no abnormalities in the remaining case. We concluded that: (1) both epithelial and sarcomatoid components of sarcomatoid chromophobe renal cell carcinoma show different genetic abnormalities from those characteristic of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma; (2) sarcomatoid chromophobe renal cell carcinomas frequently have multiple gains (polysomy) of chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 10 and 17; (3) distant metastases show the same genetic patterns, usually chromosomal losses (monosomy), found in the primary tumors.

  4. The somatic genomic landscape of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Davis, Caleb F; Ricketts, Christopher J; Wang, Min; Yang, Lixing; Cherniack, Andrew D; Shen, Hui; Buhay, Christian; Kang, Hyojin; Kim, Sang Cheol; Fahey, Catherine C; Hacker, Kathryn E; Bhanot, Gyan; Gordenin, Dmitry A; Chu, Andy; Gunaratne, Preethi H; Biehl, Michael; Seth, Sahil; Kaipparettu, Benny A; Bristow, Christopher A; Donehower, Lawrence A; Wallen, Eric M; Smith, Angela B; Tickoo, Satish K; Tamboli, Pheroze; Reuter, Victor; Schmidt, Laura S; Hsieh, James J; Choueiri, Toni K; Hakimi, A Ari; Chin, Lynda; Meyerson, Matthew; Kucherlapati, Raju; Park, Woong-Yang; Robertson, A Gordon; Laird, Peter W; Henske, Elizabeth P; Kwiatkowski, David J; Park, Peter J; Morgan, Margaret; Shuch, Brian; Muzny, Donna; Wheeler, David A; Linehan, W Marston; Gibbs, Richard A; Rathmell, W Kimryn; Creighton, Chad J

    2014-09-01

    We describe the landscape of somatic genomic alterations of 66 chromophobe renal cell carcinomas (ChRCCs) on the basis of multidimensional and comprehensive characterization, including mtDNA and whole-genome sequencing. The result is consistent that ChRCC originates from the distal nephron compared with other kidney cancers with more proximal origins. Combined mtDNA and gene expression analysis implicates changes in mitochondrial function as a component of the disease biology, while suggesting alternative roles for mtDNA mutations in cancers relying on oxidative phosphorylation. Genomic rearrangements lead to recurrent structural breakpoints within TERT promoter region, which correlates with highly elevated TERT expression and manifestation of kataegis, representing a mechanism of TERT upregulation in cancer distinct from previously observed amplifications and point mutations.

  5. The somatic genomic landscape of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Caleb F.; Ricketts, Christopher; Wang, Min; Yang, Lixing; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Shen, Hui; Buhay, Christian; Kang, Hyojin; Kim, Sang Cheol; Fahey, Catherine C.; Hacker, Kathryn E.; Bhanot, Gyan; Gordenin, Dmitry A.; Chu, Andy; Gunaratne, Preethi H.; Biehl, Michael; Seth, Sahil; Kaipparettu, Benny A.; Bristow, Christopher A.; Donehower, Lawrence A.; Wallen, Eric M.; Smith, Angela B.; Tickoo, Satish K.; Tamboli, Pheroze; Reuter, Victor; Schmidt, Laura S.; Hsieh, James J.; Choueiri, Toni K.; Hakimi, A. Ari; Chin, Lynda; Meyerson, Matthew; Kucherlapati, Raju; Park, Woong-Yang; Robertson, A. Gordon; Laird, Peter W.; Henske, Elizabeth P.; Kwiatkowski, David J.; Park, Peter J.; Morgan, Margaret; Shuch, Brian; Muzny, Donna; Wheeler, David A.; Linehan, W. Marston; Gibbs, Richard A.; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Creighton, Chad J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary We describe the landscape of somatic genomic alterations of 66 chromophobe renal cell carcinomas (ChRCCs) based on multidimensional and comprehensive characterization, including mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and whole genome sequencing. The result is consistent that ChRCC originates from the distal nephron compared to other kidney cancers with more proximal origins. Combined mtDNA and gene expression analysis implicates changes in mitochondrial function as a component of the disease biology, while suggesting alternative roles for mtDNA mutations in cancers relying on oxidative phosphorylation. Genomic rearrangements lead to recurrent structural breakpoints within TERT promoter region, which correlates with highly elevated TERT expression and manifestation of kataegis, representing a mechanism of TERT up-regulation in cancer distinct from previously-observed amplifications and point mutations. PMID:25155756

  6. The somatic genomic landscape of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Davis, Caleb F; Ricketts, Christopher J; Wang, Min; Yang, Lixing; Cherniack, Andrew D; Shen, Hui; Buhay, Christian; Kang, Hyojin; Kim, Sang Cheol; Fahey, Catherine C; Hacker, Kathryn E; Bhanot, Gyan; Gordenin, Dmitry A; Chu, Andy; Gunaratne, Preethi H; Biehl, Michael; Seth, Sahil; Kaipparettu, Benny A; Bristow, Christopher A; Donehower, Lawrence A; Wallen, Eric M; Smith, Angela B; Tickoo, Satish K; Tamboli, Pheroze; Reuter, Victor; Schmidt, Laura S; Hsieh, James J; Choueiri, Toni K; Hakimi, A Ari; Chin, Lynda; Meyerson, Matthew; Kucherlapati, Raju; Park, Woong-Yang; Robertson, A Gordon; Laird, Peter W; Henske, Elizabeth P; Kwiatkowski, David J; Park, Peter J; Morgan, Margaret; Shuch, Brian; Muzny, Donna; Wheeler, David A; Linehan, W Marston; Gibbs, Richard A; Rathmell, W Kimryn; Creighton, Chad J

    2014-09-01

    We describe the landscape of somatic genomic alterations of 66 chromophobe renal cell carcinomas (ChRCCs) on the basis of multidimensional and comprehensive characterization, including mtDNA and whole-genome sequencing. The result is consistent that ChRCC originates from the distal nephron compared with other kidney cancers with more proximal origins. Combined mtDNA and gene expression analysis implicates changes in mitochondrial function as a component of the disease biology, while suggesting alternative roles for mtDNA mutations in cancers relying on oxidative phosphorylation. Genomic rearrangements lead to recurrent structural breakpoints within TERT promoter region, which correlates with highly elevated TERT expression and manifestation of kataegis, representing a mechanism of TERT upregulation in cancer distinct from previously observed amplifications and point mutations. PMID:25155756

  7. Lymphangitic retroperitoneal carcinomatosis occurring from metastatic sarcomatoid chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Alimchandani, Meghna; Lara, Karlena; Tsokos, Maria; Linehan, W M; Merino, Maria J

    2014-03-01

    Forty -five year-old man with left renal mass underwent nephrectomy to reveal 20cm tumor diagnosed as sarcomatoid chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (CRCC). Lymph node metastasis of chromophobe and sarcomatoid components, disseminated tumor in retroperitoneal fat, lymphatic vessels, peri-renal adipose tissue in lymphangitic carcinomatosis pattern were identified. Chromophobe epithelial cells EMA, c-Kit, cytokeratin 7 positive; sarcomatoid cells were CD10, SMA positive with high proliferation index . Chromophobe epithelial cells had loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in chromosomes 1p, 1q while sarcomatoid cells had LOH in 3p,1p, 1q. In conclusion, sarcomatoid CRCC has aggressive biologic behavior and potential to metastasize in unusual patterns. PMID:24696789

  8. Computed Tomography Appearance of Renal Hybrid Oncocytic/Chromophobe Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Akrita; Rowe, Steven P.; Gorin, Michael A.; Pomper, Martin G.; Fishman, Elliot K.; Allaf, Mohamad E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective A series of renal hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumors (HOCTs) was retrospectively assessed for morphologic features and enhancement characteristics by computed tomography (CT). Materials (Subjects) and Methods Nine patients with pathologically proven HOCTs were identified. These patients harbored a total of 12 lesions. All patients had available preoperative contrast-enhanced CT examinations, although a proportion of the studies had been carried out at outside institutions. The morphologic characteristics and enhancement patterns of each tumor were evaluated systematically. Results Seventy-eight percent of the patients were men, with a mean age of 62 years. None of the patients had evidence of metastatic disease at the time of surgery. Mean tumor diameter was 4.4 cm. All the lesions were solid and well circumscribed. Calcifications were not seen in any of these masses. Thirty-three percent of the tumors demonstrated a central stellate hypodensity pattern, whereas a further 42% of the tumors demonstrated a heterogenous appearance. Mean attenuation values were 25.7 HU (noncontrast), 77.4 HU (arterial), 124.8 HU (venous), and 76.8 HU (delayed). Tumor-to-cortex ratios for the 2 enhanced phases (arterial and venous) were 0.56 and 0.79, respectively. Conclusions A series of HOCTs were found on CT to have 2 distinct patterns—a heterogenous enhancement pattern and an “oncocytoma-like” pattern with a central stellate hypodensity. Although the prospective diagnosis of HOCTs on the basis of CT findings is unlikely, an awareness of the existence of these lesions is important as new means of characterizing renal masses on imaging arise. PMID:27096398

  9. Insertion (8;11) in a renal oncocytoma with multifocal transformation to chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Salido, Marta; Lloreta, Josep; Melero, Carme; García, Mar; Placer, José; Espinet, Blanca; Villa, Olaya; Bielsa, Oscar; Gelabert-Mas, Antoni; Serrano, Sergi; Solé, Francesc

    2005-12-01

    We report the case of a 43-year-old male with multiple tumor foci showing microscopic features of chromophobe renal carcinoma (ChRCC) arising in an oncocytoma. Conventional cytogenetics of fresh tumor cells and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed the following abnormal karyotype: 46,XY,der(8)ins(8;11)(p?;q13),der(11)ins(8;11)inv(11)(q12?p15) with CCND1 (11q13) rearrangement. To our knowledge, chromosome 8 has not been reported as a partner involved in structural rearrangements of 11q13 in oncocytomas. FISH in paraffin tissue sections revealed a rearrangement of CCND1 (11q13) in the oncocytoma cells. The multiple foci of chromophobe carcinoma presented multiple copies of CCND1, suggesting that they represented a transformation from oncocytoma into ChRCC. There was immunohistochemical overexpression of CCND1 in both oncocytoma and chromophobe carcinoma cells. In this case, the correlation of the microscopic findings with changes in CCND1 gene associated to CCND1 overexpression in both components suggest that the ChRCC would have originated from the preexisting oncocytoma. It is not possible to detect, by cytogenetic techniques alone, if the ChRCC component have also the CCND1 rearrangement in addition to the detected polysomy. FISH techniques on paraffin tissue sections may help to identify genetic aberrations such as CCND1 rearrangement in order to establish a diagnosis of oncocytoma.

  10. Mutations in BHD and TP53 genes, but not in HNF1β gene, in a large series of sporadic chromophobe renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gad, S; Lefèvre, S H; Khoo, S K; Giraud, S; Vieillefond, A; Vasiliu, V; Ferlicot, S; Molinié, V; Denoux, Y; Thiounn, N; Chrétien, Y; Méjean, A; Zerbib, M; Benoît, G; Hervé, J M; Allègre, G; Bressac-de Paillerets, B; Teh, B T; Richard, S

    2006-01-01

    BHD, TP53, and HNF1β on chromosome 17 were studied in 92 cases of renal cell carcinoma (46 chromophobe, 19 clear cell, 18 oncocytoma, and nine papillary). Six, thirteen, and zero cases had, respectively BHD, TP53, and HNF1β mutations, (84% mutations involved chromophobe), suggesting a role for BHD and TP53 in chromophobe subtype. PMID:17133269

  11. Cervical lymph node metastasis in chromophobe renal cell carcinoma: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bouadel, Noureddine; El Ayoubi, Fahd; Bennani-Baiti, A Anass; Benbouzid, Mohamed Anas; Essakalli, Leila; Kzadri, Mohammed; El Ayoubi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    The metastasis of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma to head and neck region, described herein, has never been reported before to our knowledge. A 56-year-old woman with a history of nephrectomy, that revealed chromophobe renal cell carcinoma six years before, presented left cervical mass. Imaging showed with left cervical lymphadenopathies and thyroid nodule. Surgery with histopathological examination confirmed that it was a left central and lateral jugular lymph node metastasis of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma treated postoperatively by antiangiogenic therapy. The patient was successfully treated by surgery and antiangiogenic drugs with stabilization and no recurrence of the metastatic disease. The case and the literature reported here support that chromophobe renal cell carcinoma can metastasize to the head and neck region and should preferentially be treated with surgery and antiangiogenic therapy because of the associated morbidity and quality-of-life issues. PMID:24187640

  12. Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis in Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Bouadel, Noureddine; El Ayoubi, Fahd; Bennani-Baiti, A. Anass; Benbouzid, Mohamed Anas; Essakalli, Leila; Kzadri, Mohammed; El Ayoubi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    The metastasis of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma to head and neck region, described herein, has never been reported before to our knowledge. A 56-year-old woman with a history of nephrectomy, that revealed chromophobe renal cell carcinoma six years before, presented left cervical mass. Imaging showed with left cervical lymphadenopathies and thyroid nodule. Surgery with histopathological examination confirmed that it was a left central and lateral jugular lymph node metastasis of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma treated postoperatively by antiangiogenic therapy. The patient was successfully treated by surgery and antiangiogenic drugs with stabilization and no recurrence of the metastatic disease. The case and the literature reported here support that chromophobe renal cell carcinoma can metastasize to the head and neck region and should preferentially be treated with surgery and antiangiogenic therapy because of the associated morbidity and quality-of-life issues. PMID:24187640

  13. DOG1, cyclin D1, CK7, CD117 and vimentin are useful immunohistochemical markers in distinguishing chromophobe renal cell carcinoma from clear cell renal cell carcinoma and renal oncocytoma.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Tian, Bo; Wu, Chao; Peng, Yan; Wang, Hui; Gu, Wen-Li; Gao, Feng-Hou

    2015-04-01

    The distinction between chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC), clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CRCC) and renal oncocytoma may cause a diagnostic dilemma. The usefulness of DOG1, cyclin D1, CK7, CD117 and vimentin in the differential diagnosis of these renal epithelial tumors was investigated. DOG1 was positive in ChRCC (32 of 32, 100%) and in renal oncocytoma (21 of 21, 100%). In contrast, DOG1 was absent in all CRCC (0 of 30). Cyclin D1 was positive in renal oncocytomas (17 of 21, 81%) but negative in the ChRCC (0/23) and CRCC (0 of 30). CK7 was positive in ChRCC (30 of 32, 94%), but was negative in oncocytoma (only scattered single positive cells), and was only focal positive in two cases of CRCC. CD117 was expressed in 88% of ChRCC (28 of 32), 86% of renal oncocytoma (18 of 21), and was negative in all CRCC (0 of 30). Twenty-six of the 30 cases of CRCC were positive (87%) for vimentin with prominent membrane staining patterns. All 23 chromophobe carcinomas were negative for vimentin and 15 of 21 oncocytomas demonstrated focal vimentin positivity, but less than 10%. The above results demonstrate that: (1) DOG1 was very sensitive and specific marker for distinguish ChRCC from CRCC; (2) Cyclin D1 was a useful marker to discriminate between ChRCC and renal oncocytoma; (3) CK7 and CD117 were useful markers to distinguish ChRCC from renal oncocytoma and CRCC. (4) Vimentin was helpful for distinguishing clear cell RCC from chromophobe and oncocytoma (87% of clear cell RCC positive, negative in chromophobe, only focally positive in oncocytoma). (5) CK8/18, CK19, CD10, β-catenin and E-cadherin could not be used to distinguish ChRCC from renal oncocytoma and CRCC. PMID:25596994

  14. Ultrastructural appearance and cytoskeletal architecture of the clear, chromophilic, and chromophobe types of human renal cell carcinoma in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gerharz, C D; Moll, R; Störkel, S; Ramp, U; Thoenes, W; Gabbert, H E

    1993-03-01

    The clear, chromophilic, and chromophobe types of human renal cell carcinoma have been defined as distinct morphological entities and can be clearly separated by differences of ultrastructural appearance, cytoskeletal architecture, enzyme synthesis, and cytogenetic aberrations. In this report, the cytomorphological aspects of these tumor types are compared in vitro, showing that essential ultrastructural and cytoskeletal characteristics of each tumor type are expressed even after prolonged in vitro cultivation. The pattern of intermediate filament proteins of each tumor type was preserved in vitro, permitting the separation of exclusively cytokeratin-positive chromophobe tumor cells from clear and chromophilic tumor cells with a co-expression of vimentin and cytokeratins. In vitro, the chromophobe tumor cells continued to exhibit abundant cytoplasmatic microvesicles and sparsely distributed "studded" vesicles, which are known to be characteristic features of this tumor type in vivo. This observation confirmed the structural similarity of the chromophobe cell to the 'intercalated cell' of the cortical collecting duct and provided further evidence for the histogenetic derivation of this tumor subtype from the collecting duct system.

  15. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma occurring in the renal allograft of a transplant recipient presenting with weight loss.

    PubMed

    Althaf, Mohammed Mahdi; Al-Sunaid, Mohammed S; Abdelsalam, Mohamed Said; Alkorbi, Lutfi A; Al-Hussain, Turki O; Dababo, Mohammed Anas; Haq, Naveed

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) in renal transplant recipients is reported as 1.1-1.5% in the native kidneys and 0.22-0.25% in the renal allograft. There are no data to support routine surveillance for tumors in transplant recipients. Most reported cases of RCCs occurring in renal allografts were incidental findings in asymptomatic patients. Herein, we report the second case of lone chromophobe RCC (ChRCC) of the renal allograft presenting with weight loss. Loss of weight is a presenting symptom in one-third of ChRCCs occurring in the native kidneys in the general population. Based on the age of the patient, R.E.N.A.L nephrometry score of the tumor and the lack of data on the prognosis of this histological subtype in a climate of long-term immunosuppression, we elected for radical nephrectomy. We suggest that RCCs should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a transplant recipient presenting with weight loss even in the absence of localizing symptoms or signs.

  16. CD 9 and vimentin distinguish clear cell from chromophobe renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC) can usually be distinguished by histologic characteristics. Occasionally, diagnosis proves challenging and diagnostic difficulty will likely increase as needle biopsies of renal lesions become more common. Methods To identify markers that aid in differentiating ccRCC from chRCC, we used gene expression profiles to identify candidate markers that correlate with histology. 39 antisera and antibodies, including 35 for transcripts identified from gene expression profiling, were evaluated. Promising markers were tested on a tissue microarray (TMA) containing 428 renal neoplasms. Strength of staining of each core on the TMA was formally scored and the distribution of staining across different types of renal neoplasms was analyzed. Results Based on results from initial immunohistochemical staining of multitissue titer arrays, 23 of the antisera and antibodies were selected for staining of the TMA. For 7 of these markers, strength of staining of each core on the TMA was formally scored. Vimentin (positive in ccRCC) and CD9 (positive in chRCC) best distinguished ccRCC from chRCC. The combination of vimentin negativity and CD9 positivity was found to distinguish chRCC from ccRCC with a sensitivity of 100.0% and a specificity of 95.2%. Conclusion Based on gene expression analysis, we identify CD9 and vimentin as candidate markers for distinguishing between ccRCC and chRCC. In difficult cases and particularly when the amount of diagnostic tissue is limited, vimentin and CD9 staining could serve as a useful adjunct in the differential diagnosis of ccRCC and chRCC. PMID:19922654

  17. Robot-assisted heminephrectomy for chromophobe renal cell carcinoma in L-shaped fused crossed ectopia: Surgical challenge.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Shivanshu; Jain, Siddharth; Bora, Girdhar Singh; Singh, Shrawan Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Renal cell carcinoma associated with fused ectopic kidneys has rarely been reported in the literature. Here we report the first case of robot-assisted heminephrectomy for chromophobe renal cell carcinoma in an L-shaped fused ectopic kidney. The present case report highlights the importance of three-dimensional vision and enhanced maneuverability with the EndoWrist technology of the robotic surgical system for precise dissection. This report also highlights the importance of preoperative contrast-enhanced computed tomography with three-dimensional arterial reconstruction for surgical planning. PMID:26495075

  18. Fluorescent and chromogenic in situ hybridization of CEN17q as a potent useful diagnostic marker for Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome-associated chromophobe renal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kato, Ikuma; Iribe, Yasuhiro; Nagashima, Yoji; Kuroda, Naoto; Tanaka, Reiko; Nakatani, Yukio; Hasumi, Hisashi; Yao, Masahiro; Furuya, Mitsuko

    2016-06-01

    Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD) is a familial disorder associated with a germline mutation of FLCN that is a tumor suppressor gene. Patients with BHD have high risks for developing multiple renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). The frequent histological types are hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumors (HOCTs) and chromophobe RCCs. The morphology of HOCTs could alert pathologists to the possibility of BHD. On the other hand, chromophobe RCCs occurring in BHD patients demonstrate positive immunostaining for cytokeratin-7, CD82, and Ksp-cadherin similar to their sporadic counterparts. Highly reliable markers for BHD-associated chromophobe RCCs have not been identified. In the present study, we analyzed the state of chromosome 17 in 18 renal tumors composed of 8 chromophobe RCCs, 7 HOCTs, and 3 papillary RCCs obtained from BHD patients using fluorescent and chromogenic in situ hybridization probes for the centromeric region of chromosome 17 long arm. All chromophobe RCCs and HOCTs were disomic except for 1 chromophobe RCC that showed monosomy. On the other hand, 12 of 14 sporadic chromophobe RCCs were monosomic (P = .0008). The state of chromosomes 2 and 6 were also statistically different (P = .0074 and P = .0007, respectively). Three BHD-associated papillary RCCs demonstrated either trisomy (n = 2) or disomy (n = 1). Three of 5 sporadic papillary RCCs showed trisomy. The results indicate that fluorescent and chromogenic in situ hybridization of the centromeric region of chromosome 17 long arm should be a potent useful marker for chromophobe RCCs in patients who have not been diagnosed with BHD and thereby help to determine whether the cases should be considered for genetic testing. PMID:26980015

  19. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma with and without sarcomatoid change: a clinicopathological, comparative genomic hybridization, and whole-exome sequencing study

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yuan; Liu, Kunpeng; Kang, Xueling; Pang, Lijuan; Qi, Yan; Hu, Zhenyan; Jia, Wei; Zhang, Haijun; Li, Li; Hu, Jianming; Liang, Weihua; Zhao, Jin; Zou, Hong; Yuan, Xianglin; Li, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Chromophobe renal cell carcinomas (CRCC) with and without sarcomatoid change have different outcomes; however, fewstudies have compared their genetic profiles. Therefore, we identified the genomic alterationsin CRCC common type (CRCC C) (n=8) and CRCC with sarcomatoid change (CRCC S) (n=4) using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and whole-exome sequencing. The CGH profiles showed that the CRCC C group had more chromosomal losses (72 vs. 18) but fewer chromosomal gains (23 vs. 57) than the CRCC S group. Losses of chromosomes 1p, 8p21-23, 10p16-20, 10p12-ter, 13p20-30, and 17p13 and gains of chromosomes 1q11, 1q21-23, 1p13-15, 2p23-24, and 3p21-ter differed between the groups. Whole-exome sequencing showed that the mutational status of 270 genes differed between CRCC (n=12) and normal renal tissues (n=18). In the functional enrichment analysis, the missense-mutated genes were classified into 6 biological processes (38 functions) and 5 pathways. The biological processes included cell adhesion, cell motility, ATP metabolism, sensory perception, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and transport. The pathways included ATP-binding cassette transporter, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, olfactory transduction, chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Whole-exome sequencing analysis revealed that the missense mutation statuses of 49 genes differed between the CRCC C and CRCC S groups. Furthermore, genetic alterations in metastasis suppressor 1, serine peptidase inhibitor Kazal type 8, transient receptor potential cation channel super family M member 6, Rh family B glycoprotein, and mannose receptor C type 1 were located in different chromosomal regions. These alterations may provide clues regarding CRCC tumorigenesis and provide a basis for future targeted therapies. PMID:26807193

  20. A new method using multiphoton imaging and morphometric analysis for differentiating chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and oncocytoma kidney tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Binlin; Mukherjee, Sushmita; Jain, Manu

    2016-03-01

    Distinguishing chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC) from oncocytoma on hematoxylin and eosin images may be difficult and require time-consuming ancillary procedures. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM), an optical imaging modality, was used to rapidly generate sub-cellular histological resolution images from formalin-fixed unstained tissue sections from chRCC and oncocytoma.Tissues were excited using 780nm wavelength and emission signals (including second harmonic generation and autofluorescence) were collected in different channels between 390 nm and 650 nm. Granular structure in the cell cytoplasm was observed in both chRCC and oncocytoma. Quantitative morphometric analysis was conducted to distinguish chRCC and oncocytoma. To perform the analysis, cytoplasm and granules in tumor cells were segmented from the images. Their area and fluorescence intensity were found in different channels. Multiple features were measured to quantify the morphological and fluorescence properties. Linear support vector machine (SVM) was used for classification. Re-substitution validation, cross validation and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were implemented to evaluate the efficacy of the SVM classifier. A wrapper feature algorithm was used to select the optimal features which provided the best predictive performance in separating the two tissue types (classes). Statistical measures such as sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and area under curve (AUC) of ROC were calculated to evaluate the efficacy of the classification. Over 80% accuracy was achieved as the predictive performance. This method, if validated on a larger and more diverse sample set, may serve as an automated rapid diagnostic tool to differentiate between chRCC and oncocytoma. An advantage of such automated methods are that they are free from investigator bias and variability.

  1. Biomarker and competing endogenous RNA potential of tumor-specific long noncoding RNA in chromophobe renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    He, Hai-Tao; Xu, Mu; Kuang, Ye; Han, Xiao-Yun; Wang, Ming-Qi; Yang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence suggests long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in the initiation and progression of cancers. However, their functions in chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC) are not fully understood. Methods We analyzed the expression profiles of lncRNA, microRNA, and protein-coding RNA, along with the clinical information of 59 primary chRCC patients collected from The Cancer Genome Atlas database to identify lncRNA biomarkers for prognosis. We also constructed an lncRNA–microRNA–mRNA coexpression network (competitive endogenous RNAs network) by bioinformational approach. Results One hundred and forty-two lncRNAs were found to be differentially expressed between the cancer and normal tissues (fold change ≥1.5, P<0.001). Among them, 12 lncRNAs were also differentially expressed with the corresponding clinical characteristics (fold change ≥1.5, P<0.01). Besides, 7 lncRNAs (COL18A1-AS, BRE-AS1, SNHG7, TMEM51-AS1, C21orf62-AS1, LINC00336, and LINC00882) were identified to be significantly correlated with overall survival (log-rank P<0.05). A competitive endogenous RNA network in chRCC containing 16 lncRNAs, 18 miRNAs, and 168 protein-coding RNAs was constructed. Conclusion Our results identified specific lncRNAs associated with chRCC progression and prognosis, and presented competing endogenous RNA potential of lncRNAs in the tumor. PMID:27799788

  2. Immunohistochemical expression of tumor antigens MAGE-A3/4 and NY-ESO-1 in renal oncocytoma and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Demirović, Alma; Džombeta, Tihana; Tomas, Davor; Spajić, Borislav; Pavić, Ivana; Hudolin, Tvrtko; Milošević, Milan; Cupić, Hrvoje; Krušlin, Božo

    2010-10-15

    The distinction between renal oncocytoma (RO) and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC), especially the eosinophilic variant, can often be difficult. Our study has documented for the first time the expression of MAGE-A3/4 and NY-ESO-1 cancer testis antigens (CTAs) in these tumors. A total of 35 patients (17 ROs and 18 ChRCCs) were included in the study. Two antibodies were used for immunohistochemical staining: 57B recognizing multiple MAGE-A and D8.38 recognizing NY-ESO-1 CTAs. Fifteen (88.2%) samples of RO stained positively for both MAGE-A3/4 and NY-ESO-1 antigens. Regarding ChRCC, seven (38.9%) stained positively for MAGE-A3/4 and six (33.3%) for NY-ESO-1 antigens. Median MAGE-A3/4 expression was moderately positive in RO and negative in ChRCC. The difference in MAGE-A3/4 expression between two tumor groups was significant (P=0.0013). Median NY-ESO-1 expression was strongly positive in RO and negative in ChRCC. The difference in NY-ESO-1 expression between two tumor groups was also significant (P=0.0008). Our study has shown that RO had a significantly higher expression of both CTAs. However, additional research is needed to clarify their potential diagnostic implications.

  3. Amylase α-1A (AMY1A): a novel immunohistochemical marker to differentiate chromophobe renal cell carcinoma from benign oncocytoma.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sarika; Roy, Somak; Amin, Milon; Acquafondata, Marie; Yin, Ming; Laframboise, William; Bastacky, Sheldon; Pantanowitz, Liron; Dhir, Rajiv; Parwani, Anil

    2013-12-01

    Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC) and oncocytoma present with a perplexing overlap of morphologic and immunohistochemical features. ChRCC have deletions in the 1p21.1 region including the amylase α-1A gene (AMY1A). No such deletions are found in oncocytoma. Instead, oncocytomas shared other deletions on chromosome 1: 1p31.3, 1q25.2, and 1q44. We performed AMY1A immunostaining on 75 oncocytomas (57 tissue microarray [TMA] cores, 18 whole slides) and 54 ChRCCs (20 TMA cores, 34 whole slides). Staining was assessed using the H-score method. The intensity was graded as follows: no staining=0, weak=1, moderate=2, and strong=3. The AMY1A immunostain preferentially stained the distal tubules and collecting ducts of normal kidney. All oncocytomas (100%) expressed AMY1A with an H-score that varied from 100 to 300 (mean 205). Mild to moderate heterogeneity in staining intensity was noted within a given oncocytoma. For oncocytomas, 87% (65/75) cases had H-scores of at least 120 with a mean score of 221. Notably, the 13% (10/75) of oncocytoma cases that had an H-score of 100 were derived from the TMA. A total of 87% (47/54) of the ChRCC cases were negative for the AMY1A immunostain. Of the ChRCC cases, 4% (2/54) showed very weak cytoplasmic staining (H-score of 70 each), which was less than the lowest H-score of oncocytoma cases. All 5 cases of ChRCC, which showed an H-score of 100 or more, were referred to as eosinophilic variants of ChRCC. Three of these 5 cases showed a very nondescript, diffuse staining of the cytoplasm. Two of these 5 cases showed an H-score of 130. We think that as the staining pattern of these 2 cases is similar to that of oncocytoma, they should be put in a category of renal oncocytic neoplasms favoring oncocytoma. This result shows that AMY1A staining could be very helpful in further classifying even a subset of the eosinophilic variants of ChRCC. The difference between ChRCC and oncocytoma was statistically significant (χ test, P<0

  4. Renal

    MedlinePlus

    ... term "renal" refers to the kidney. For example, renal failure means kidney failure. Related topics: Kidney disease Kidney disease - diet Kidney failure Kidney function tests Renal scan Kidney transplant

  5. A single center's approach to discriminating donor versus host origin of renal neoplasia in the allograft kidney.

    PubMed

    Robin, Adam J; Cohen, Eric P; Chongkrairatanakul, Tepsiri; Saad, Ehad; Mackinnon, A Craig

    2016-08-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in the allograft of kidney transplant recipient (KTR) patients is rare and may represent a de novo process arising from the transplanted organ or metastasis from a clinically undetectable host primary. Determination of host versus donor origin is important for staging and management. We report our experience utilizing Penta-C (PC) and Penta-D (PD) short-tandem repeat (STR) microsatellite analysis to discriminate between host and donor origin of RCC identified in renal allografts. We identified 5 KTR patients with RCC in the allograft kidney. The PC and PD microsatellite analysis was applied to tumor, host, and donor formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections and/or fresh blood leukocytes to identify the origin of the neoplastic cells. The PC and PD microsatellite alleles were robustly amplified in all samples. Each case showed one or more informative alleles indicating that the neoplastic cells originate from donor tissue. Allele frequency data indicate that by using both PC and PD markers, we will be able to discriminate between host and donor cell of origin in over 99% of cases. The PC and PD microsatellite analysis is a convenient, robust, and efficient strategy to determine donor versus host origin or RCC in transplant kidney specimens. PMID:27402221

  6. A rare case of pituitary chromophobe carcinoma in a dog: clinical, tomographic and histopathological findings

    PubMed Central

    Longo, M.; Binanti, D.; Zagarella, P.G.; Iocca, F.; Zani, D. De; Ravasio, G.; Giancamillo, M. Di; Zani, D.D.

    2016-01-01

    A 9 year old male mixed-breed dog was presented for progressive aggressiveness towards the owner. The neurological evaluation was consistent with a forebrain syndrome. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed enlargement of the third ventricle and presence of a large spheroidal neoplasm in the sellar/parasellar region suggestive of a pituitary macroadenoma. On the owner request, the dog was euthanized. Histopathological examination revealed the presence of a pituitary chromophobe carcinoma. To the author’s knowledge, pituitary carcinomas have been rarely described in dogs, especially the chromophobe subtype. PMID:27800300

  7. Urinary fibrinogen and renal tubulointerstitial fibrinogen deposition: Discriminating between primary FSGS and minimal change disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Zheng, Chunxia; Xu, Feng; Liu, Zhihong

    2016-09-23

    Primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and minimal change disease (MCD) are common types of primary glomerular disease; they share numerous clinical and pathological similarities but have different treatment regimens and prognoses. It is therefore necessary to distinguish between them and to explore the mechanism underlying their differences. Fibrinogen is reportedly involved in podocyte damage and in renal fibrosis in vitro and in animal models of kidney disease. We thus tested urinary fibrinogen, serum fibrinogen, and renal fibrinogen deposition levels in a cohort comprising 50 patients with FSGS and 40 patients with MCD. Our results suggested that urinary fibrinogen and renal interstitial fibrinogen deposition levels were significantly higher in the FSGS patients than in the MCD patients, while serum fibrinogen levels did not differ between the groups. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed an excellent diagnostic ability for urinary fibrinogen and a fair diagnostic ability for tubulointerstitial fibrinogen deposition in differentiating FSGS from MCD. Additionally, we found that urinary fibrinogen levels were positively correlated with the 24-h urine protein levels in patients with FSGS but not in patients with MCD. In conclusion, urinary fibrinogen and renal interstitial fibrinogen deposition is elevated in primary FSGS compared to MCD, which may be relevant to both diagnosis and pathogenesis.

  8. Micro electrical impedance spectroscopy on a needle for ex vivo discrimination between human normal and cancer renal tissues.

    PubMed

    Yun, Joho; Kim, Hyeon Woo; Park, Yangkyu; Cha, Jung-Joon; Lee, Jeong Zoo; Shin, Dong Gil; Lee, Jong-Hyun

    2016-05-01

    The ex-vivo discrimination between human normal and cancer renal tissues was confirmed using μEoN (micro electrical impedance spectroscopy-on-a-needle) by measuring and comparing the electrical impedances in the frequency domain. To quantify the extent of discrimination between dissimilar tissues and to determine the optimal frequency at which the discrimination capability is at a maximum, discrimination index (DI) was employed for both magnitude and phase. The highest values of DI for the magnitude and phase were 5.15 at 1 MHz and 3.57 at 1 kHz, respectively. The mean magnitude and phase measured at the optimal frequency for normal tissues were 5013.40 ± 94.39 Ω and -68.54 ± 0.72°, respectively; those for cancer tissues were 4165.19 ± 70.32 Ω and -64.10 ± 0.52°, respectively. A statistically significant difference (p< 0.05) between the two tissues was observed at all the investigated frequencies. To extract the electrical properties (resistance and capacitance) of these bio-tissues through curve fitting with experimental results, an equivalent circuit was proposed based on the μEoN structure on the condition that the μEoN was immersed in the bio-tissues. The average and standard deviation of the extracted resistance and capacitance for the normal tissues were 6.22 ± 0.24 kΩ and 280.21 ± 32.25 pF, respectively, and those for the cancer tissues were 5.45 ± 0.22 kΩ and 376.32 ± 34.14 pF, respectively. The electrical impedance was higher in the normal tissues compared with the cancer tissues. The μEoN could clearly discriminate between normal and cancer tissues by comparing the results at the optimal frequency (magnitude and phase) and those of the curve fitting (extracted resistance and capacitance).

  9. Review of renal cell carcinoma and its common subtypes in radiology

    PubMed Central

    Low, Gavin; Huang, Guan; Fu, Winnie; Moloo, Zaahir; Girgis, Safwat

    2016-01-01

    Representing 2%-3% of adult cancers, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for 90% of renal malignancies and is the most lethal neoplasm of the urologic system. Over the last 65 years, the incidence of RCC has increased at a rate of 2% per year. The increased incidence is at least partly due to improved tumor detection secondary to greater availability of high-resolution cross-sectional imaging modalities over the last few decades. Most RCCs are asymptomatic at discovery and are detected as unexpected findings on imaging performed for unrelated clinical indications. The 2004 World Health Organization Classification of adult renal tumors stratifies RCC into several distinct histologic subtypes of which clear cell, papillary and chromophobe tumors account for 70%, 10%-15%, and 5%, respectively. Knowledge of the RCC subtype is important because the various subtypes are associated with different biologic behavior, prognosis and treatment options. Furthermore, the common RCC subtypes can often be discriminated non-invasively based on gross morphologic imaging appearances, signal intensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images, and the degree of tumor enhancement on dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging examinations. In this article, we review the incidence and survival data, risk factors, clinical and biochemical findings, imaging findings, staging, differential diagnosis, management options and post-treatment follow-up of RCC, with attention focused on the common subtypes. PMID:27247714

  10. Discriminative value of frailty screening instruments in end-stage renal disease

    PubMed Central

    van Munster, Barbara C.; Drost, Diederik; Kalf, Annette; Vogtlander, Nils P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Numerous frailty screening instruments are available, but their applicability for identifying frailty in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is unknown. We aimed to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of three instruments used for frailty screening in an ESRD population. Methods The study was conducted in 2013 in a teaching hospital in The Netherlands and included patients receiving haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and pre-dialysis care. We determined the sensitivity and specificity of three screening instruments: the Groningen Frailty Indicator (GFI), the Identification of Seniors at Risk–Hospitalized Patients (ISAR-HP) and the Veiligheidsmanagementsysteem (VMS), which is a safety management system for vulnerable elderly patients. The Frailty Index was the gold standard used. Results The prevalence of frailty was 37% in a total of 95 participants with ESRD [mean age 65.2 years (SD 12.0), 57% male]. Frailty prevalence in participants ≥65 years of age and <65 years of age was 44% and 28%, respectively (P = 0.11). Sensitivity and specificity for frailty of the GFI were 89% and 57%, respectively; ISAR-HP 83% and 77%, respectively; and VMS 77% and 67%, respectively. Conclusions Although the GFI showed the highest sensitivity, it is not yet possible to propose a firm choice for one of these screening instruments or specific items due to the small scale of the study. Since there is a high prevalence of frailty in ESRD patients, translation and testing of the effectiveness of screening using the GFI in the prognostication and prevention of development or deterioration of frailty in this population should be the next step. PMID:27478606

  11. Genome-Wide Uniparental Disomy and Copy Number Variations in Renal Cell Carcinomas Associated with Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Iribe, Yasuhiro; Yao, Masahiro; Tanaka, Reiko; Kuroda, Naoto; Nagashima, Yoji; Nakatani, Yukio; Furuya, Mitsuko

    2016-02-01

    Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome is an inherited disorder caused by germline mutations of the folliculin gene (FLCN). The affected patients are prone to developing renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). Most mutant FLCN-associated RCCs (mFLCN-RCCs) are histologically chromophobe RCCs and hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumors. It is incompletely understood whether mFLCN-RCCs have different chromosomal abnormalities compared with their sporadic histological counterparts. Herein, we describe somatic mutations of FLCN and DNA-copy number abnormalities using a high-density, whole-genome, single-nucleotide polymorphism array. The histological types included chromophobe RCC (n = 12), hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumor (n = 5), and clear-cell RCC (n = 2). Of 19 tumors, 8 had pathological somatic mutations of FLCN. Among 11 mFLCN-RCCs investigated by single-nucleotide polymorphism array, 8 showed balanced genomic profiles, 2 had gains in chromosome 3q, and 1 had gains in chromosomes 1q and 7. All had copious numbers of loss of heterozygosity in a wide range of chromosomes. The common loss-of-heterozygosity regions were chromosomes 3p24, 8q11, 16q11, Xp22-21, Xp11, Xq11, Xq13, and Xq23. Most of the loss of heterozygosity was because of uniparental disomy. Common uniparental disomy patterns in chromophobe RCCs and hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumors indicated that these types were relatively similar in cytogenetic events. Two clear-cell RCCs also shared several uniparental disomy regions with chromophobe RCCs and hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumors. mFLCN-RCCs may have common therapeutic targets among different histological types. PMID:26776076

  12. Clinical evaluation of microRNA-145 expression in renal cell carcinoma: a promising molecular marker for discriminating and staging the clear cell histological subtype.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Emmanuel I; Petraki, Constantina; Gregorakis, Alkiviadis; Fragoulis, Emmanuel G; Scorilas, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    The vast majority of malignancies detected in renal parenchyma are diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma (RCC), whose subtype discrimination and determination of prognosis may contribute to the selection of the adequate therapy. Recently, a new class of small non-coding RNAs, known as microRNAs, has proven to be among the most promising biomarkers for providing this information. Herein, we sought to add up to this knowledge by evaluating the expression levels of microRNA-145 (miR-145) in RCC. For that purpose, total RNA from 58 cancerous and 44 adjacent non-cancerous renal tissues was firstly extracted and then polyadenylated and reverse transcribed to cDNA. MiR-145 levels were finally analyzed by developing and applying a highly sensitive real-time PCR protocol, while their clinical significance was determined via comprehensive statistical analysis. Our data showed that miR-145 was significantly downregulated in cancerous samples and could discriminate between clear cell and non-clear cell subtypes. Moreover, miR-145 expression was found to be correlated with primary tumor staging of cancerous samples, something also noticed in the clear cell RCC subset, in which miR-145 levels were negatively correlated with tumor size as well. Overall, these results indicate that miR-145 might constitute a promising molecular marker for RCC classification and staging. PMID:26866880

  13. Renal cell carcinoma: Evolving and emerging subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Crumley, Suzanne M; Divatia, Mukul; Truong, Luan; Shen, Steven; Ayala, Alberto G; Ro, Jae Y

    2013-01-01

    Our knowledge of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is rapidly expanding. For those who diagnose and treat RCC, it is important to understand the new developments. In recent years, many new renal tumors have been described and defined, and our understanding of the biology and clinical correlates of these tumors is changing. Evolving concepts in Xp11 translocation carcinoma, mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma, multilocular cystic clear cell RCC, and carcinoma associated with neuroblastoma are addressed within this review. Tubulocystic carcinoma, thyroid-like follicular carcinoma of kidney, acquired cystic disease-associated RCC, and clear cell papillary RCC are also described. Finally, candidate entities, including RCC with t(6;11) translocation, hybrid oncocytoma/chromophobe RCC, hereditary leiomyomatosis and RCC syndrome, and renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor are reviewed. Knowledge of these new entities is important for diagnosis, treatment and subsequent prognosis. This review provides a targeted summary of new developments in RCC. PMID:24364021

  14. A new translocation between chromosomes 6 and 9 helps to establish diagnosis of renal oncocytoma.

    PubMed

    Hudacko, Rachel; May, Michael; Aviv, Hana

    2011-08-01

    Renal oncocytomas are benign epithelial tumors of the kidney. Histologically, they resemble certain malignant renal tumors, such as chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and the eosinophilic or granular form of clear cell renal carcinoma. It is, therefore, important to be able to differentiate among these tumors. Cytogenetic analysis is an important adjunct to the diagnosis of renal tumors, as the various subtypes have specific acquired chromosome abnormalities. Oncocytomas present either with loss of chromosome 1 and a sex chromosome, or with recurring translocations involving chromosome 11. We describe 2 patients with renal oncocytoma and a new translocation between chromosomes 6 and 9. The tumors in both patients were histologically virtually identical. The t(6;9)(p21;p23) may be a new translocation associated with renal oncocytomas.

  15. Molecular genetics and immunohistochemistry characterization of uncommon and recently described renal cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Qiu; Xia, Qiu-Yuan; Cheng, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) compromises multiple types and has been emerging dramatically over the recent several decades. Advances and consensus have been achieved targeting common RCCs, such as clear cell carcinoma, papillary RCC and chromophobe RCC. Nevertheless, little is known on the characteristics of several newly-identified RCCs, including clear cell (tubulo) papillary RCC, Xp11 translocation RCC, t(6;11) RCC, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-deficient RCC, acquired cystic disease-associated RCC, hereditary leiomyomatosis RCC syndrome-associated RCC, ALK translocation RCC, thyroid-like follicular RCC, tubulocystic RCC and hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumors (HOCT). In current review, we will collect available literature of these newly-described RCCs, analyze their clinical pathologic characteristics, discuss their morphologic and immunohistologic features, and finally summarize their molecular and genetic evidences. We expect this review would be beneficial for the understanding of RCCs, and eventually promote clinical management strategies. PMID:27041925

  16. Differential expression of a new isoform of DLG2 in renal oncocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Zubakov, Dmitry; Stupar, Zorica; Kovacs, Gyula

    2006-01-01

    Background Renal oncocytoma, a benign tumour of the kidney, may pose a differential diagnostic problem due to overlapping phenotype with chromophobe renal cell carcinoma or other types of renal cell tumours. Therefore, identification of molecular markers would be of great value for molecular diagnostics of this tumour type. Methods In the current study we applied various techniques, including Affymetrix microarray hybridization and semiquantitative RT-PCR, to identify genes expressed differentially in renal oncocytomas. Subsequently, we used RACE and Northern blot hybridization to characterize the potential candidates for molecular diagnosis. Results We have identified new isoform of DLG2 gene, which contains 3'-end exons of the known DLG2 gene along with the hypothetical gene FLJ37266. The new isoform is specifically upregulated in renal oncocytoma, whereas the known DLG2 gene is downregulated in this type of kidney tumour. Conclusion The new isoform of DLG2 is the promising candidate gene for molecular differential diagnostics of renal oncocytoma. PMID:16640776

  17. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and chromatographic methods identify altered lipid composition in human renal neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Tosi, M R; Rodriguez-Estrada, M T; Lercker, G; Poerio, A; Trinchero, A; Reggiani, A; Tugnoli, V

    2004-07-01

    We report on the characterization of the lipid obtained from cortical and medullary normal human kidney tissue, benign renal neoplasms (oncocytoma) and 2 different types of malignant renal neoplasms (chromophobic cell carcinoma and clear cell carcinoma). The total lipid fractions were analyzed by 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy and thin-layer chromatography, whereas the composition of the total fatty acids and the content of total cholesterol were determined by gas chromatography. alpha-Tocopherol was detected and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The spectroscopic and chromatographic analysis revealed significant differences in the renal tissues examined. It was confirmed that cholesteryl esters (mainly oleate) are typical of clear cell renal carcinomas. Their potential role as prognostic and diagnostic factors is discussed, with particular emphasis on its capability to indicate the tumor diffusion in healthy renal parenchyma. alpha-Tocopherol is prevalent in clear cell carcinoma and it is present in nearly the same low amounts in cortex, medulla and chromophobic cell renal carcinoma. Q10 coenzyme and dolichols were detected by thin-layer chromatography and they are present in significant amounts in the cortex and the benign oncocytoma. Great variations were found in the distribution of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, especially in the docosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids and the corresponding omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids ratio.

  18. Renal arteriography

    MedlinePlus

    Renal angiogram; Angiography - kidney; Renal angiography; Renal artery stenosis - arteriography ... Renal arteriography is often needed to help decide on the best treatment after other tests are done ...

  19. A novel germline mutation in SDHA identified in a rare case of gastrointestinal stromal tumor complicated with renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Quan; Zhang, Yong; Zhou, Yu-Hong; Hou, Ying-Yong; Wang, Jiong-Yuan; Li, Jing-Lei; Li, Ming; Tong, Han-Xing; Lu, Wei-Qi

    2015-01-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), which is located on the mitochondrial inner membrane, is essential to the Krebs cycle. Mutations of the SDH gene are associated with many tumors, such as renal cell carcinoma, wild type gastrointestinal stromal tumors (WT GISTs) and hereditary paragangliomas/pheochromocytomas. Herein we present a rare case diagnosed as a WT GIST complicated with a renal chromophobe cell tumor and detected a novel germline heterozygous mutation (c.2T>C: p.M1T) in the initiation codon of the SDHA gene. We also conduct a preliminary exploration for the mechanism of reduced expression of SDHB without mutation of SDHB gene. Our case enriches the mutation spectrum of the SDH gene. After reviewing previous studies, we found it to be the first case diagnosed as a WT GIST complicated with a synchronous renal chromophobe cell tumor and identified a novel germline heterozygous mutation. It was also the second reported case of a renal cell carcinoma associated with an SDHA mutation. PMID:26722403

  20. Serum Adiponectin Level May be an Independent Predictor of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongkai; Wu, Junlong; Gu, Weijie; Wang, Beihe; Wan, Fangning; Dai, Bo; Zhang, Hailiang; Shi, Guohai; Shen, Yijun; Zhu, Yiping; Zhu, Yao; Ye, Dingwei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether serum adiponectin or leptin level has the ability to differentiate clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) from other subtypes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in a Chinese population. Patients and methods: We recruited 198 consecutive patients who were treated with radical or partial nephrectomy in our department from September 2011 to June 2013. Their histological types were all malignant, including clear cell, papillary, chromophobe and unclassified RCC. We also enrolled 86 people with no cancer or cancer-related diseases as normal controls. We measured patients' preoperative blood samples for plasma adiponectin and leptin concentrations using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Statistical methods were used to analyze ccRCC and other subtypes as they relate to serum adiponectin/leptin level and other factors such as body mass index or visceral fat area. Results: In our database, normal controls had significantly higher circulating adiponectin (p < 0.001) and leptin levels (p < 0.001) than patients with RCC. Among the 198 RCC patients, 156 patients had ccRCC while 42 patients had other histological types. Serum adiponectin levels were lower in ccRCC patients than in non-clear-cell RCC patients (p = 0.004). However, the plasma leptin level was not differently distributed between ccRCC and non-ccRCC patients (p = 0.940). In multivariate analysis, we found that serum adiponectin level may be an independent predictor for discriminating ccRCC patients from others (p = 0.004). Furthermore, in the ccRCC subgroup, we observed that men with ccRCC had lower leptin (p < 0.001) and adiponectin (p = 0.002) levels, and diabetic patients had lower plasma adiponectin levels (p = 0.001). Conclusions: Lower plasma adiponectin concentration was related to an increased incidence of ccRCC and may act as an independent predictor for ccRCC. Our study may help define the process from obesity to adipose tissue, to cytokines and finally to ccRCC. PMID

  1. Increased risk of solid renal tumors in lithium-treated patients.

    PubMed

    Zaidan, Mohamad; Stucker, Fabien; Stengel, Bénédicte; Vasiliu, Viorel; Hummel, Aurélie; Landais, Paul; Boffa, Jean-Jacques; Ronco, Pierre; Grünfeld, Jean-Pierre; Servais, Aude

    2014-07-01

    Cystic kidney diseases and toxic interstitial nephritis may be complicated by renal tumors. Long-term lithium intake is associated with tubulointerstitial nephritis and renal cysts but to date such an association with tumors has not been determined. We evaluated this in a retrospective study to determine whether lithium-treated patients were at higher risk of renal tumors compared with lithium-free patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and to the general population. Over a 16-year period, 14 of 170 lithium-treated patients had renal tumors, including seven malignant and seven benign tumors. The mean duration of lithium exposure at diagnosis was 21.4 years. The renal cancers included three clear-cell and two papillary renal cell carcinomas, one hybrid tumor with chromophobe and oncocytoma characteristics, and one clear-cell carcinoma with leiomyomatous stroma. The benign tumors included four oncocytomas, one mixed epithelial and stromal tumor, and two angiomyolipomas. The percentage of renal tumors, particularly cancers and oncocytomas, was significantly higher in lithium-treated patients compared with 340 gender-, age-, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)-matched lithium-free patients. Additionally, the Standardized Incidence Ratio of renal cancer was significantly higher in lithium-treated patients compared with the general population: 7.51 (95% confidence interval (CI) (1.51-21.95)) and 13.69 (95% CI (3.68-35.06)) in men and women, respectively. Thus, there is an increased risk of renal tumors in lithium-treated patients.

  2. Molecular Sub-Classification of Renal Epithelial Tumors Using Meta-Analysis of Gene Expression Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Sanford, Thomas; Chung, Paul H.; Reinish, Ariel; Valera, Vladimir; Srinivasan, Ramaprasad; Linehan, W. Marston; Bratslavsky, Gennady

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the accuracy of the sub-classification of renal cortical neoplasms using molecular signatures. Experimental Design A search of publicly available databases was performed to identify microarray datasets with multiple histologic sub-types of renal cortical neoplasms. Meta-analytic techniques were utilized to identify differentially expressed genes for each histologic subtype. The lists of genes obtained from the meta-analysis were used to create predictive signatures through the use of a pair-based method. These signatures were organized into an algorithm to sub-classify renal neoplasms. The use of these signatures according to our algorithm was validated on several independent datasets. Results We identified three Gene Expression Omnibus datasets that fit our criteria to develop a training set. All of the datasets in our study utilized the Affymetrix platform. The final training dataset included 149 samples represented by the four most common histologic subtypes of renal cortical neoplasms: 69 clear cell, 41 papillary, 16 chromophobe, and 23 oncocytomas. When validation of our signatures was performed on external datasets, we were able to correctly classify 68 of the 72 samples (94%). The correct classification by subtype was 19/20 (95%) for clear cell, 14/14 (100%) for papillary, 17/19 (89%) for chromophobe, 18/19 (95%) for oncocytomas. Conclusions Through the use of meta-analytic techniques, we were able to create an algorithm that sub-classified renal neoplasms on a molecular level with 94% accuracy across multiple independent datasets. This algorithm may aid in selecting molecular therapies and may improve the accuracy of subtyping of renal cortical tumors. PMID:21818257

  3. Diagnostic Approach to Eosinophilic Renal Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Kryvenko, Oleksandr N.; Jorda, Merce; Argani, Pedram; Epstein, Jonathan I.

    2015-01-01

    Context Eosinophilic renal neoplasms include a spectrum of solid and papillary tumors ranging from indolent benign oncocytoma to highly aggressive malignancies. Recognition of the correct nature of the tumor, especially in biopsy specimens, is paramount for patient management. Objective To review the diagnostic approach to eosinophilic renal neoplasms with light microscopy and ancillary techniques. Data Sources Review of the published literature and personal experience. Conclusions The following tumors are in the differential diagnosis of oncocytic renal cell neoplasm: oncocytoma, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC), hybrid tumor, tubulocystic carcinoma, papillary RCC, clear cell RCC with predominant eosinophilic cell morphology, follicular thyroid-like RCC, hereditary leiomyomatosis–associated RCC, acquired cystic disease–associated RCC, rhabdoid RCC, microphthalmia transcription factor translocation RCC, epithelioid angiomyolipoma, and unclassified RCC. In low-grade nonpapillary eosinophilic neoplasms, distinction between oncocytoma and low-grade RCC mostly rests on histomorphology; however, cytokeratin 7 immunostain may be helpful. In high-grade nonpapillary lesions, there is more of a role for ancillary techniques, including immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin 7, CA9, CD10, racemase, HMB45, and Melan-A. In papillary eosinophilic neoplasms, it is important to distinguish sporadic type 2 papillary RCC from microphthalmia transcription factor translocation and hereditary leiomyomatosis–associated RCC. Histologic and cytologic features along with immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization tests for TFE3 (Xp11.2) and TFEB [t(6;11)] are reliable confirmatory tests. Eosinophilic epithelial neoplasms with architecture, cytology, and/or immunoprofile not qualifying for either of the established types of RCC should be classified as unclassified eosinophilic RCC and arbitrarily assigned a grade (low or high). PMID:25357116

  4. Renal cell carcinoma in tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ping; Cornejo, Kristine M; Sadow, Peter M; Cheng, Liang; Wang, Mingsheng; Xiao, Yu; Jiang, Zhong; Oliva, Esther; Jozwiak, Sergiusz; Nussbaum, Robert L; Feldman, Adam S; Paul, Elahna; Thiele, Elizabeth A; Yu, Jane J; Henske, Elizabeth P; Kwiatkowski, David J; Young, Robert H; Wu, Chin-Lee

    2014-07-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) occurs in 2% to 4% of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Previous reports have noted a variety of histologic appearances in these cancers, but the full spectrum of morphologic and molecular features has not been fully elucidated. We encountered 46 renal epithelial neoplasms from 19 TSC patients and analyzed their clinical, pathologic, and molecular features, enabling separation of these 46 tumors into 3 groups. The largest subset of tumors (n=24) had a distinct morphologic, immunologic, and molecular profile, including prominent papillary architecture and uniformly deficient succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) expression prompting the novel term "TSC-associated papillary RCC (PRCC)." The second group (n=15) were morphologically similar to a hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumor (HOCT), whereas the last 7 renal epithelial neoplasms of group 3 remained unclassifiable. The TSC-associated PRCCs had prominent papillary architecture lined by clear cells with delicate eosinophilic cytoplasmic thread-like strands that occasionally appeared more prominent and aggregated to form eosinophilic globules. All 24 (100%) of these tumors were International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) nucleolar grade 2 or 3 with mostly basally located nuclei. Tumor cells from 17 of 24 TSC-associated PRCCs showed strong, diffuse labeling for carbonic anhydrase IX (100%), CK7 (94%), vimentin (88%), and CD10 (83%) and were uniformly negative for SDHB, TFE3, and AMACR. Gains of chromosomes 7 and 17 were found in 2 tumors, whereas chromosome 3p deletion and TFE3 translocations were not detected. In this study, we reported a sizable cohort of renal tumors seen in TSC and were able to identify them as different morphotypes, which may help to expand the morphologic spectrum of TSC-associated RCC. PMID:24832166

  5. Fluorescence in situ hybridization as an adjunct tool in the diagnosis of primary and metastatic renal cell carcinoma in fine needle aspiration specimens.

    PubMed

    Kos, Zuzana; Williams, Phillip A; Belanger, Eric C; Mai, Kien T

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the role of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in the diagnosis of primary renal neoplasms and lesions suspicious for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Consecutive fine-needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB) of 39 renal masses and 41 metastatic tumours suspicious for renal cell origin were assessed with an immunohistochemical panel for CK7, RCC antigen, CD10, AMACR, PAX8, vimentin, and CD117. In addition, FISH was performed using probes for chromosomes 1p, 3p, 7, 17, X, and Y. A total of 31 of 39 primary renal masses and 33 of 41 metastatic tumors suspicious for renal origin demonstrated typical cytological and immunohistochemical (IHC) features of subtypes of renal neoplasms (40 clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC), 20 papillary RCC, and 4 renal oncocytomas). FISH analysis of 15 randomly selected cases each of primary and metastatic lesions revealed chromosomal abnormalities consistent with the diagnosis in 73% of these cases. Of 8 primary renal masses demonstrating atypical microscopic features and noncontributory IHC profiles, FISH was helpful in subtyping 5 (62%) of these lesions (2 clear cell RCC, 1 solid variant of oncocytic papillary RCC, 1 mixed clear cell and papillary RCC, and 1 chromophobe RCC with papillary architecture). Of 8 metastatic tumors clinically suspicious for renal cell origin and supportive, but nondiagnostic IHC, FISH revealed supportive chromosomal changes in 6 (75%) cases. In conclusion FISH analysis on FNAB material, even with limited tissue, may be contributory to the diagnosis and subtyping of RCC in diagnostically challenging biopsies. PMID:24692327

  6. Renal cell carcinoma: histological classification and correlation with imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Muglia, Valdair F; Prando, Adilson

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the seventh most common histological type of cancer in the Western world and has shown a sustained increase in its prevalence. The histological classification of RCCs is of utmost importance, considering the significant prognostic and therapeutic implications of its histological subtypes. Imaging methods play an outstanding role in the diagnosis, staging and follow-up of RCC. Clear cell, papillary and chromophobe are the most common histological subtypes of RCC, and their preoperative radiological characterization, either followed or not by confirmatory percutaneous biopsy, may be particularly useful in cases of poor surgical condition, metastatic disease, central mass in a solitary kidney, and in patients eligible for molecular targeted therapy. New strategies recently developed for treating renal cancer, such as cryo and radiofrequency ablation, molecularly targeted therapy and active surveillance also require appropriate preoperative characterization of renal masses. Less common histological types, although sharing nonspecific imaging features, may be suspected on the basis of clinical and epidemiological data. The present study is aimed at reviewing the main clinical and imaging findings of histological RCC subtypes.

  7. Ochratoxin A is not detectable in renal and testicular tumours

    PubMed Central

    Fahmy, Nader; Woo, Mark; Alameldin, Mona; MacDonald, Kyle; Goneau, Lee W.; Cadieux, Peter; Pautler, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Ochratoxin-A (OTA) is one of the most abundant food-contaminating mycotoxins, known for its nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, gonadotoxicity, teratogenicity, immunosuppression and carcinogenesis. OTA has been linked to several genitourinary pathologies, including Balkan nephropathy and genitourinary malignancies. We examine OTA levels in serum samples and tumour specimens collected from patients with renal and testicular tumours. Methods: Frozen samples were obtained from the Ontario Tumour Bank. Serum specimens, along with renal and testicular tumour biopsies, were included in this study. Normal tissue from the negative surgical margins of each tumour served as a control. OTA levels in serum was measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while OTA detection in tissue specimens was determined using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results: We included specimens collected from 56 patients (36 men and 20 women). Histopathology of the 52 renal tumours included 31 (60%) conventional type renal cell carcinomas (RCC), 5 (10%) chromophobe RCC, 5 (10%) papillary RCC, 1 (2%) oncocytoma and 10 (19%) upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UC). The 4 testicular tumours included 1 seminomatous (25%) germ cell tumour and 3 (75%) non-seminomatous germ cell tumours. OTA was detected in the serum of renal tumour patients, with a range from 0.004 to 0.25 ng/mL (mean: 0.07 and median 0.06 ng/mL). There was no OTA signal detected by IHC staining in all tested renal and testicular tumours. Conclusions: The OTA levels detected in the serum of patients were highly variable and relatively low. No OTA was detected in the tissue samples. PMID:24578744

  8. Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma is the fourth most common histologic type of renal cell carcinoma in 290 consecutive nephrectomies for renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haijun; Zheng, Shaojiang; Truong, Luan D; Ro, Jae Y; Ayala, Alberto G; Shen, Steven S

    2014-01-01

    Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCP-RCC) has recently been recognized as a distinct subtype of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) due to its unique morphologic, immunohistochemical, and genetic features and indolent clinical behavior. However, the incidence of this tumor in a nephrectomy series for renal mass has not been fully investigated. Twelve cases of CCP-RCC were identified from a total of 290 consecutive partial (n = 137) or radical nephrectomies (n = 153) for RCC from 2010 to 2012 in our hospital. In this series, CCP-RCC was the fourth most common (4.1%) kidney tumor following clear cell (conventional) (70%), papillary (16.6%), and chromophobe (5.9%) RCCs. The average age of the CCP-RCC patients was 58.2 years (range, 18-81 years), with an equal sex distribution. Four cases (33.3%) were associated with end-stage renal disease. Of the 12 CCP-RCCs, 9 presented as solitary tumors; 2 coexisted with clear cell RCC; and 1 with papillary RCC. The average size of tumors was 2.5 cm (range, 0.8-6.0 cm). All tumors were pT1 (10 pT1a and 2 pT1b). Two cases were initially misclassified as clear cell RCC. Strong positive cytokeratin 7 stain and negative stains with α-methylacyl-CoA racemase and RCC marker differentiate CCP-RCC from low-grade clear cell RCC with similar histologic features. We conclude that CCP-RCC is a common renal neoplastic entity, representing the fourth most common (4.1%) RCC. It can be easily misclassified due to its overlapping features with low-grade clear cell RCC. In equivocal cases, immunohistochemical stains with a small panel of markers (cytokeratin 7, α-methylacyl-CoA racemase, RCC marker, or CD10) are warranted in making the correct histologic classification. PMID:24182559

  9. Renal perfusion scintiscan

    MedlinePlus

    Renal perfusion scintigraphy; Radionuclide renal perfusion scan; Perfusion scintiscan - renal; Scintiscan - renal perfusion ... supply the kidneys. This is a condition called renal artery stenosis. Significant renal artery stenosis may be ...

  10. Genetic Discrimination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicine Working Group New Horizons and Research Patient Management Policy and Ethics Issues Quick Links for Patient Care ... genetic discrimination. April 25, 2007, Statement of Administration Policy, Office of Management and Budget Official Statement from the Office of ...

  11. Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome: novel FLCN frameshift deletion in daughter and father with renal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Näf, Ernst; Laubscher, Dominik; Hopfer, Helmut; Streit, Markus; Matyas, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    Germline mutation of the FLCN gene causes Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD), a rare autosomal dominant condition characterized by skin fibrofolliculomas, lung cysts, spontaneous pneumothorax and renal tumours. We identified a hitherto unreported pathogenic FLCN frameshift deletion c.563delT (p.Phe188Serfs*35) in a family of a 46-year-old woman presented with macrohematuria due to bilateral chromophobe renal carcinomas. A heritable renal cancer was suspected due to the bilaterality of the tumour and as the father of this woman had suffered from renal cancer. Initially, however, BHD was overlooked by the medical team despite the highly suggestive clinical presentation. We assume that BHD is underdiagnosed, at least partially, due to low awareness of this variable condition and to insufficient use of appropriate genetic testing. Our study indicates that BHD and FLCN testing should be routinely considered in patients with positive family or personal history of renal tumours. In addition, we demonstrate how patients and their families can play a driving role in initiating genetic diagnosis, presymptomatic testing of at-risk relatives, targeted disease management, and genetic counselling of rare diseases such as BHD.

  12. Atheroembolic renal disease

    MedlinePlus

    Renal disease - atheroembolic; Cholesterol embolization syndrome; Atheroemboli - renal; Atherosclerotic disease - renal ... disorder of the arteries. It occurs when fat, cholesterol, and other substances build up in the walls ...

  13. TERT promoter mutations in renal cell carcinomas and upper tract urothelial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Liu, Tiantian; Liu, Li; Liu, Jikai; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Chang; Ge, Nan; Ren, Hongbo; Yan, Keqiang; Hu, Sanyuan; Björkholm, Magnus; Fan, Yidong; Xu, Dawei

    2014-04-15

    TERT promoter mutations are identified in many malignancies including bladder cancer (BC) and upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). In contrast, no mutations were found in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) as reported in a recent study. Because the mutant TERT promoter in urine DNA was recently tested as a marker for BC, it is important to ascertain whether these mutations are truly absent in RCCs. Here we determined TERT promoter mutations in 109 patients with RCC and 14 patients with UTUC. The mutations were found in 9/96 (9.3%) clear cell RCC (ccRCC) tumors and 1/8 (13%) chromophobe RCC tumors. Among ccRCC patients, the mutation was correlated with the advanced stages and metastasis, and higher TERT expression. Among UTUCs, the mutation was detected in tumors from 3/5 (60%) patients with renal pelvic cancer and 1/9 (11%) patients with ureter cancer. The mutation was also detected in 1 of 4 urine samples from patients with mutation+ UTUC. Collectively, TERT promoter mutations do occur in RCCs and are associated with aggressive disease. The mutation is more frequent in renal pelvic cancer. Thus, the mutant TERT promoter found in urine may come from not only BC, but also RCC or UTUC. PMID:24742867

  14. Spectrum of diverse genomic alterations define non–clear cell renal carcinoma subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Bijay S; Zhang, Na; Toffessi-Tcheuyap, Vanina; Nguyen, Thong T; Pahuja, Kanika Bajaj; Chen, Ying-Jiun; Saleem, Sadia; Chaudhuri, Subhra; Heldens, Sherry; Jackson, Marlena; Peña-Llopis, Samuel; Guillory, Joseph; Toy, Karen; Ha, Connie; Harris, Corissa J; Holloman, Eboni; Hill, Haley M; Stinson, Jeremy; Rivers, Celina Sanchez; Janakiraman, Vasantharajan; Wang, Weiru; Kinch, Lisa N; Grishin, Nick V; Haverty, Peter M; Chow, Bernard; Gehring, Julian S; Reeder, Jens; Pau, Gregoire; Wu, Thomas D; Margulis, Vitaly; Lotan, Yair; Sagalowsky, Arthur; Pedrosa, Ivan; de Sauvage, Frederic J; Brugarolas, James; Seshagiri, Somasekar

    2015-01-01

    To further understand the molecular distinctions between kidney cancer subtypes, we analyzed exome, transcriptome and copy number alteration data from 167 primary human tumors that included renal oncocytomas and non–clear cell renal cell carcinomas (nccRCCs), consisting of papillary (pRCC), chromophobe (chRCC) and translocation (tRCC) subtypes. We identified ten significantly mutated genes in pRCC, including MET, NF2, SLC5A3, PNKD and CPQ. MET mutations occurred in 15% (10/65) of pRCC samples and included previously unreported recurrent activating mutations. In chRCC, we found TP53, PTEN, FAAH2, PDHB, PDXDC1 and ZNF765 to be significantly mutated. Gene expression analysis identified a five-gene set that enabled the molecular classification of chRCC, renal oncocytoma and pRCC. Using RNA sequencing, we identified previously unreported gene fusions, including ACTG1-MITF fusion. Ectopic expression of the ACTG1-MITF fusion led to cellular transformation and induced the expression of downstream target genes. Finally, we observed upregulation of the anti-apoptotic factor BIRC7 in MiTF-high RCC tumors, suggesting a potential therapeutic role for BIRC7 inhibitors. PMID:25401301

  15. TERT promoter mutations in renal cell carcinomas and upper tract urothelial carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jikai; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Chang; Ge, Nan; Ren, Hongbo; Yan, Keqiang; Hu, Sanyuan; Björkholm, Magnus; Fan, Yidong; Xu, Dawei

    2014-01-01

    TERT promoter mutations are identified in many malignancies including bladder cancer (BC) and upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). In contrast, no mutations were found in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) as reported in a recent study. Because the mutant TERT promoter in urine DNA was recently tested as a marker for BC, it is important to ascertain whether these mutations are truly absent in RCCs. Here we determined TERT promoter mutations in 109 patients with RCC and 14 patients with UTUC. The mutations were found in 9/96 (9.3%) clear cell RCC (ccRCC) tumors and 1/8 (13%) chromophobe RCC tumors. Among ccRCC patients, the mutation was correlated with the advanced stages and metastasis, and higher TERT expression. Among UTUCs, the mutation was detected in tumors from 3/5 (60%) patients with renal pelvic cancer and 1/9 (11%) patients with ureter cancer. The mutation was also detected in 1 of 4 urine samples from patients with mutation+ UTUC. Collectively, TERT promoter mutations do occur in RCCs and are associated with aggressive disease. The mutation is more frequent in renal pelvic cancer. Thus, the mutant TERT promoter found in urine may come from not only BC, but also RCC or UTUC. PMID:24742867

  16. Prognostic significance of MST1R dysregulation in renal cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pires-Luís, Ana S; Vieira-Coimbra, Márcia; Ferreira, Maria João; Ramalho-Carvalho, João; Costa-Pinheiro, Pedro; Antunes, Luís; Dias, Paula C; Lobo, Francisco; Oliveira, Jorge; Graça, Inês; Henrique, Rui; Jerónimo, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage stimulating 1 receptor (MST1R) is a C-MET proto-oncogene family receptor tyrosine kinase. Promoter methylation patterns determine transcription of MST1R variants as hypermethylation of a region upstream of transcription start site (TSS) is associated with lack of MST1R long transcript (MST1R long) and expression of a short transcript with oncogenic potential. Thus, we aimed to investigate MST1R variant transcript regulation in renal cell tumors (RCT) and assess their prognostic potential. We found, in a series of 120 RCT comprising the four main subtypes (clear cell, papillary and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, and oncocytoma), that higher methylation levels close to TSS were associated with total MST1R expression levels (MST1R total) in primary tumors (p=0.049) and renal cancer cell lines. After demethylating treatment, MST1R long/MST1R total ratio increased, as expected, in two renal cell carcinoma cell lines tested. However, in primary tumors with hypermethylation upstream of TSS, a decrease in MST1R long/MST1R total ratio was not detected, although higher expression ratio of nuclear factor-κB was apparent. Furthermore, survival analysis demonstrated that MST1R long/MST1R total ratio was independently associated with shorter disease-specific and disease-free survival, whereas MST1R total expression associated with shorter disease-specific survival. In conclusion, although promoter methylation patterns seem to determine MST1R global transcription regulation in renal cell carcinoma, other mechanisms might contribute to deregulate MST1R variant expression in RCT. Nevertheless, MST1R total expression and MST1R long/MST1R total ratio modulate the biological and clinical aggressiveness of renal cell carcinoma, as depicted by its prognostic significance, a finding that requires validation in a larger independent series. PMID:27648366

  17. Prognostic significance of MST1R dysregulation in renal cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pires-Luís, Ana S; Vieira-Coimbra, Márcia; Ferreira, Maria João; Ramalho-Carvalho, João; Costa-Pinheiro, Pedro; Antunes, Luís; Dias, Paula C; Lobo, Francisco; Oliveira, Jorge; Graça, Inês; Henrique, Rui; Jerónimo, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage stimulating 1 receptor (MST1R) is a C-MET proto-oncogene family receptor tyrosine kinase. Promoter methylation patterns determine transcription of MST1R variants as hypermethylation of a region upstream of transcription start site (TSS) is associated with lack of MST1R long transcript (MST1R long) and expression of a short transcript with oncogenic potential. Thus, we aimed to investigate MST1R variant transcript regulation in renal cell tumors (RCT) and assess their prognostic potential. We found, in a series of 120 RCT comprising the four main subtypes (clear cell, papillary and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, and oncocytoma), that higher methylation levels close to TSS were associated with total MST1R expression levels (MST1R total) in primary tumors (p=0.049) and renal cancer cell lines. After demethylating treatment, MST1R long/MST1R total ratio increased, as expected, in two renal cell carcinoma cell lines tested. However, in primary tumors with hypermethylation upstream of TSS, a decrease in MST1R long/MST1R total ratio was not detected, although higher expression ratio of nuclear factor-κB was apparent. Furthermore, survival analysis demonstrated that MST1R long/MST1R total ratio was independently associated with shorter disease-specific and disease-free survival, whereas MST1R total expression associated with shorter disease-specific survival. In conclusion, although promoter methylation patterns seem to determine MST1R global transcription regulation in renal cell carcinoma, other mechanisms might contribute to deregulate MST1R variant expression in RCT. Nevertheless, MST1R total expression and MST1R long/MST1R total ratio modulate the biological and clinical aggressiveness of renal cell carcinoma, as depicted by its prognostic significance, a finding that requires validation in a larger independent series.

  18. Prognostic significance of MST1R dysregulation in renal cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Pires-Luís, Ana S; Vieira-Coimbra, Márcia; Ferreira, Maria João; Ramalho-Carvalho, João; Costa-Pinheiro, Pedro; Antunes, Luís; Dias, Paula C; Lobo, Francisco; Oliveira, Jorge; Graça, Inês; Henrique, Rui; Jerónimo, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage stimulating 1 receptor (MST1R) is a C-MET proto-oncogene family receptor tyrosine kinase. Promoter methylation patterns determine transcription of MST1R variants as hypermethylation of a region upstream of transcription start site (TSS) is associated with lack of MST1R long transcript (MST1R long) and expression of a short transcript with oncogenic potential. Thus, we aimed to investigate MST1R variant transcript regulation in renal cell tumors (RCT) and assess their prognostic potential. We found, in a series of 120 RCT comprising the four main subtypes (clear cell, papillary and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, and oncocytoma), that higher methylation levels close to TSS were associated with total MST1R expression levels (MST1R total) in primary tumors (p=0.049) and renal cancer cell lines. After demethylating treatment, MST1R long/MST1R total ratio increased, as expected, in two renal cell carcinoma cell lines tested. However, in primary tumors with hypermethylation upstream of TSS, a decrease in MST1R long/MST1R total ratio was not detected, although higher expression ratio of nuclear factor-κB was apparent. Furthermore, survival analysis demonstrated that MST1R long/MST1R total ratio was independently associated with shorter disease-specific and disease-free survival, whereas MST1R total expression associated with shorter disease-specific survival. In conclusion, although promoter methylation patterns seem to determine MST1R global transcription regulation in renal cell carcinoma, other mechanisms might contribute to deregulate MST1R variant expression in RCT. Nevertheless, MST1R total expression and MST1R long/MST1R total ratio modulate the biological and clinical aggressiveness of renal cell carcinoma, as depicted by its prognostic significance, a finding that requires validation in a larger independent series. PMID:27648366

  19. Renal organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the absence of new treatment modalities has become a strong driver for innovation in nephrology. An increasing understanding of stem cell biology has kindled the prospects of regenerative options for kidney disease. However, the kidney itself is not a regenerative organ, as all the nephrons are formed during embryonic development. Here, we will investigate advances in the molecular genetics of renal organogenesis, including what this can tell us about lineage relationships, and discuss how this may serve to inform us about both the normal processes of renal repair and options for regenerative therapies. PMID:22198432

  20. [Renal disease].

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Cuevas, María de Los Ángeles

    2016-09-01

    Chronic renal failure in its various stages, requires certain nutritional restrictions associated with the accumulation of minerals and waste products that cannot be easily eliminated by the kidneys. Some of these restrictions modify the intake of proteins, sodium, and phosphorus. Milk and dairy products are sources of these nutrients. This article aims to inform the reader about the benefits including milk and dairy products relying on a scientific and critical view according to the clinical conditions and the stage of renal disease in which the patient is. PMID:27603894

  1. [Renal disease].

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Cuevas, María de Los Ángeles

    2016-09-01

    Chronic renal failure in its various stages, requires certain nutritional restrictions associated with the accumulation of minerals and waste products that cannot be easily eliminated by the kidneys. Some of these restrictions modify the intake of proteins, sodium, and phosphorus. Milk and dairy products are sources of these nutrients. This article aims to inform the reader about the benefits including milk and dairy products relying on a scientific and critical view according to the clinical conditions and the stage of renal disease in which the patient is.

  2. Fighting discrimination.

    PubMed

    Wientjens, Wim; Cairns, Douglas

    2012-10-01

    In the fight against discrimination, the IDF launched the first ever International Charter of Rights and Responsibilities of People with Diabetes in 2011: a balance between rights and duties to optimize health and quality of life, to enable as normal a life as possible and to reduce/eliminate the barriers which deny realization of full potential as members of society. It is extremely frustrating to suffer blanket bans and many examples exist, including insurance, driving licenses, getting a job, keeping a job and family affairs. In this article, an example is given of how pilots with insulin treated diabetes are allowed to fly by taking the responsibility of using special blood glucose monitoring protocols. At this time the systems in the countries allowing flying for pilots with insulin treated diabetes are applauded, particularly the USA for private flying, and Canada for commercial flying. Encouraging developments may be underway in the UK for commercial flying and, if this materializes, could be used as an example for other aviation authorities to help adopt similar protocols. However, new restrictions implemented by the new European Aviation Authority take existing privileges away for National Private Pilot Licence holders with insulin treated diabetes in the UK. PMID:22784927

  3. Fighting discrimination.

    PubMed

    Wientjens, Wim; Cairns, Douglas

    2012-10-01

    In the fight against discrimination, the IDF launched the first ever International Charter of Rights and Responsibilities of People with Diabetes in 2011: a balance between rights and duties to optimize health and quality of life, to enable as normal a life as possible and to reduce/eliminate the barriers which deny realization of full potential as members of society. It is extremely frustrating to suffer blanket bans and many examples exist, including insurance, driving licenses, getting a job, keeping a job and family affairs. In this article, an example is given of how pilots with insulin treated diabetes are allowed to fly by taking the responsibility of using special blood glucose monitoring protocols. At this time the systems in the countries allowing flying for pilots with insulin treated diabetes are applauded, particularly the USA for private flying, and Canada for commercial flying. Encouraging developments may be underway in the UK for commercial flying and, if this materializes, could be used as an example for other aviation authorities to help adopt similar protocols. However, new restrictions implemented by the new European Aviation Authority take existing privileges away for National Private Pilot Licence holders with insulin treated diabetes in the UK.

  4. Renal cell carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Renal cancer; Kidney cancer; Hypernephroma; Adenocarcinoma of renal cells; Cancer - kidney ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 57. National Cancer Institute: PDQ renal cell cancer treatment. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. ...

  5. Preoperative Evaluation of Renal Cell Carcinoma by Using 18F-FDG PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Miwako; Kume, Haruki; Koyama, Keitaro; Nakagawa, Tohru; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Morikawa, Teppei; Fukayama, Masashi; Homma, Yukio; Ohtomo, Kuni; Momose, Toshimitsu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to characterize the FDG uptake of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) by the pathological subtype and nuclear grade. Patients and Methods We retrospectively identified patients who underwent 18F-FDG PET and subsequent partial or radical nephrectomy for renal tumors. The relationships of the SUV of renal tumor with subtypes, nuclear grade, and clinicopathological variables were investigated. Results Ninety-two tumors were analyzed, including 52 low-grade (G1 and G2) and 18 high-grade (G3 and G4) clear cell RCC; 7 chromophobe, 5 papillary, and 1 unclassified RCC; and 9 benign tumors (7 angiomyolipoma and 2 oncocytoma). The SUVs of high-grade clear cell RCC (mean ± SD, 6.8 ± 5.1) and papillary RCC (6.6 ± 3.7) were significantly higher than that of the controls (2.2 ± 0.3). The SUV of high-grade clear cell RCC was higher than that of low-grade tumors (median, 4.0 vs. 2.2; P < 0.001). The optimal SUV cutoff value of 3.0 helped to differentiate high-grade from low-grade clear cell RCC, with 89% sensitivity and 87% specificity. On multiple regression analysis, a high grade was the most significant predictor of SUV for clear cell RCC. Conclusions FDG uptake higher than that observed in normal kidney tissues suggests a high-grade clear cell RCC or papillary RCC subtype. FDG-PET using SUV may have a role in prediction of pathological grade of renal tumor. PMID:26164183

  6. Renal actinomycosis with concomitant renal vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Dong-Suk; Jang, Won Ik; Jung, Ji Yoon; Chung, Sarah; Choi, Dae Eun; Na, Ki-Ryang; Lee, Kang Wook; Shin, Yong-Tai

    2012-02-01

    Renal actinomycosis is a rare infection caused by fungi of the genus Actinomyces. A 74-year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of gross hematuria with urinary symptoms and intermittent chills. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed thrombosis in the left renal vein and diffuse, heterogeneous enlargement of the left kidney. After nephrectomy, sulfur granules with chronic suppurative inflammation were seen microscopically, and the histopathological diagnosis was renal actinomycosis. Our case is the first report of renal actinomycosis with renal vein thrombosis.

  7. Comparison between computed tomography multislice and high-field magnetic resonance in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with renal masses

    PubMed Central

    Baldari, Diana; Capece, Sergio; Mainenti, Pier Paolo; Tucci, Anna Giacoma; Klain, Michele; Cozzolino, Immacolata; Salvatore, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background Renal masses are a common finding in diagnostic imaging; these lesions usually are solid or cystic, benign or malignant, and the correct diagnosis may be difficult. The aim of our study was the comparison of multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) and high-field magnetic resonance (MR) in the diagnostic evaluation of renal masses. Methods We studied 29 patients, 16 men and 13 women aged 8-85 years (mean 61±17 years) with histo-cytological diagnosis of renal masses (n=31), of which the majority (74%; n=23) was represented by malignant lesions [renal cell carcinoma (Ca) =16, chromophobe renal cell Ca =2, squamous cell Ca =1, urothelial Ca =2, lymphoma =1, Wilms tumor =1]; the remaining 8 masses (26%) were benign (pyelonephritis =2, simple cyst =1, hematic cyst =1, lipoma =1 and oncocytoma =3). All patients underwent MSCT and MR (3.0 Tesla) before and after contrast injection; the images were evaluated in double-blind by two expert radiologists. The results of the images were then compared with the histo-cytological data to calculate the values of diagnostic accuracy for both methods in the identification and characterization of renal masses. The benign or malignant nature of the lesions was established according to the regularity of the margins, presence or absence of significant contrast enhancement, infiltration of perirenal fat and vascular invasion. The concordance of the results of the two imaging techniques was then calculated using the coefficient Kappa Cohen. Results For both identification and characterization of renal masses, MSCT and MR showed comparable values of diagnostic accuracy with a significant concordance (k=1); in particular, the diagnostic accuracy of MSCT/MR was 100%/100% for lesion identification, 90%/90% for lesion characterization in terms of benign or malignant nature, 97%/97% for the evaluation of lesion edges, 90%/90% for the assessment of lesion contrast enhancement, 93%/93% for the evaluation of peri-renal fat infiltration

  8. Discrimination in Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovarsky, Irving

    Intended as a guide on discrimination problems and issues for students and practitioners in the area of employment relations, this book interrelates historical, religious, economic, medical, and sociological factors surrounding racial, religious, national, sex, age, and physical and mental discrimination to explain discrimination in employment.…

  9. Functions of the Renal Nerves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koepke, John P.; DiBona, Gerald F.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses renal neuroanatomy, renal vasculature, renal tubules, renin secretion, renorenal reflexes, and hypertension as related to renal nerve functions. Indicates that high intensitites of renal nerve stimulation have produced alterations in several renal functions. (A chart with various stimulations and resultant renal functions and 10-item,…

  10. The International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grading system for renal cell carcinoma and other prognostic parameters.

    PubMed

    Delahunt, Brett; Cheville, John C; Martignoni, Guido; Humphrey, Peter A; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; McKenney, Jesse; Egevad, Lars; Algaba, Ferran; Moch, Holger; Grignon, David J; Montironi, Rodolfo; Srigley, John R

    2013-10-01

    The International Society of Urological Pathology 2012 Consensus Conference made recommendations regarding classification, prognostic factors, staging, and immunohistochemical and molecular assessment of adult renal tumors. Issues relating to prognostic factors were coordinated by a workgroup who identified tumor morphotype, sarcomatoid/rhabdoid differentiation, tumor necrosis, grading, and microvascular invasion as potential prognostic parameters. There was consensus that the main morphotypes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) were of prognostic significance, that subtyping of papillary RCC (types 1 and 2) provided additional prognostic information, and that clear cell tubulopapillary RCC was associated with a more favorable outcome. For tumors showing sarcomatoid or rhabdoid differentiation, there was consensus that a minimum proportion of tumor was not required for diagnostic purposes. It was also agreed upon that the underlying subtype of carcinoma should be reported. For sarcomatoid carcinoma, it was further agreed upon that if the underlying carcinoma subtype was absent the tumor should be classified as a grade 4 unclassified carcinoma with a sarcomatoid component. Tumor necrosis was considered to have prognostic significance, with assessment based on macroscopic and microscopic examination of the tumor. It was recommended that for clear cell RCC the amount of necrosis should be quantified. There was consensus that nucleolar prominence defined grades 1 to 3 of clear cell and papillary RCCs, whereas extreme nuclear pleomorphism or sarcomatoid and/or rhabdoid differentiation defined grade 4 tumors. It was agreed upon that chromophobe RCC should not be graded. There was consensus that microvascular invasion should not be included as a staging criterion for RCC.

  11. Combining differential expression, chromosomal and pathway analyses for the molecular characterization of renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Furge, Kyle A; Dykema, Karl; Petillo, David; Westphal, Michael; Zhang, Zhongfa; Kort, Eric J; Teh, Bin Tean

    2007-01-01

    Using high-throughput gene-expression profiling technology, we can now gain a better understanding of the complex biology that is taking place in cancer cells. This complexity is largely dictated by the abnormal genetic makeup of the cancer cells. This abnormal genetic makeup can have profound effects on cellular activities such as cell growth, cell survival and other regulatory processes. Based on the pattern of gene expression, or molecular signatures of the tumours, we can distinguish or subclassify different types of cancers according to their cell of origin, behaviour, and the way they respond to therapeutic agents and radiation. These approaches will lead to better molecular subclassification of tumours, the basis of personalized medicine. We have, to date, done whole-genome microarray gene-expression profiling on several hundreds of kidney tumours. We adopt a combined bioinformatic approach, based on an integrative analysis of the gene-expression data. These data are used to identify both cytogenetic abnormalities and molecular pathways that are deregulated in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). For example, we have identified the deregulation of the VHL-hypoxia pathway in clear-cell RCC, as previously known, and the c-Myc pathway in aggressive papillary RCC. Besides the more common clear-cell, papillary and chromophobe RCCs, we are currently characterizing the molecular signatures of rarer forms of renal neoplasia such as carcinoma of the collecting ducts, mixed epithelial and stromal tumours, chromosome Xp11 translocations associated with papillary RCC, renal medullary carcinoma, mucinous tubular and spindle-cell carcinoma, and a group of unclassified tumours. Continued development and improvement in the field of molecular profiling will better characterize cancer and provide more accurate diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of drug response. PMID:18542781

  12. Circulating Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (Fgf21) as Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarker in Renal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Knott, ME; Minatta, JN; Roulet, L; Gueglio, G; Pasik, L; Ranuncolo, SM; Nuñez, M; Puricelli, L; De Lorenzo, MS

    2016-01-01

    Background The finding of new biomarkers is needed to have a better sub-classification of primary renal tumors (RCC) as well as more reliable predictors of outcome and therapy response. In this study, we evaluated the role of circulating FGF21, an endocrine factor, as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for ccRCC. Materials and Methods Serum samples from healthy controls (HC), clear cell and chromophobe RCC cancer patients were obtained from the serum biobank “Biobanco Público de Muestras Séricas Oncológicas” (BPMSO) of the “Instituto de Oncología “Ángel H. Roffo”. Serum FGF21 and leptin were measured by ELISA while other metabolic markers were measured following routinely clinical procedures. Results One of our major findings was that FGF21 levels were significantly increased in ccRCC patients compared with HC. Moreover, we showed an association between the increased serum FGF21 levels and the shorter disease free survival in a cohort of 98 ccRCC patients, after adjustment for other predictors of outcome. Conclusion Our results suggest that higher FGF21 serum level is an independent prognostic biomarker, associated with worse free-disease survival. PMID:27358750

  13. Renal infarction after aerobics.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, J H; Moinuddin, M; Buchignani, J S; Rockett, J F; Callison, M K

    1984-11-01

    Renal infarction is most frequently due to emboli from the heart or aorta. Other causes include atheromatous disease, renal artery aneurysm, vasculitis, hypotension, hypercoagulable states, aortic dissection, and major trauma. Most renal infarctions are segmental. The extent of disease is dependent upon the size and number of renal vessels involved, coexistent renal disease, and collateral circulation. Flank pain, fever, leukocytosis, hematuria, renal failure, or hypertension may suggest the diagnosis, but these findings are nonspecific and diagnosis will depend not only on history and physical examination, but also on the appropriate imaging tests. The type of treatment is dictated by the etiology of the infarction.

  14. Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Metastatic Kidney Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-18

    Carcinoma of the Collecting Ducts of Bellini; Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma; Kidney Medullary Carcinoma; Kidney Oncocytoma; Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma; Sarcomatoid Renal Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer

  15. Renal vein thrombosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the kidneys. Possible Complications Complications may include: Acute renal failure (especially if thrombosis occurs in a dehydrated child) ... Saunders; 2012:chap 34. Read More Acute kidney failure Arteriogram Blood ... embolus Renal Tumor Update Date 5/19/2015 Updated by: ...

  16. Renal papillary necrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... your provider. Alternative Names Necrosis - renal papillae; Renal medullary necrosis Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Ruggenenti P, Cravedi P, Remuzzi G. Microvascular and macrovascular diseases of the kidney. In: Taal MW, Chertow GM, ...

  17. Renal arteries (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A renal angiogram is a test used to examine the blood vessels of the kidneys. The test is performed ... main vessel of the pelvis, up to the renal artery that leads into the kidney. Contrast medium ...

  18. Kidney (Renal) Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... renal function using ureteral stenting, nephrostomy, surgery or dialysis. What is kidney (renal) failure? How is kidney ... as a urinary stent or kidney stone removal. Dialysis , including hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis: These procedures remove ...

  19. Renal Denervation

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Tao; Guo, Jin-he; Teng, Gao-jun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a group of metabolic diseases of multiple etiologies. Although great progress has been made, researchers are still working on the pathogenesis of T2DM and how to best use the treatments available. Aside from several novel pharmacological approaches, catheter-based sympathetic renal denervation (RDN) has gained a significant role in resistant hypertension, as well as improvements in glycemic control in T2DM. In this article, we will summarize herein the role sympathetic activation plays in the progression of T2DM and review the recent clinical RDN experience in glucose metabolism. We performed systematic review in online databases, including PubMed, EmBase, and Web of Science, from inception until 2015. Studies were included if a statistical relationship was investigated between RDN and T2DM. The quality of each included study was assessed by Newcastle–Ottawa scale score. To synthesize these studies, a random-effects model or a fixed-effects model was applied as appropriate. Then, we calculated heterogeneity, performed sensitivity analysis, tested publication bias, and did meta-regression analysis. Finally, we identified 4 eligible articles. In most studies, RDN achieved via novel catheter-based approach using radiofrequency energy has gained a significant role in resistant hypertension, as well as improvements in glycemic control in T2DM. But the DREAMS-Study showed that RDN did not change median insulin sensitivity nor systemic sympathetic activity. Firstly, the current published studies lacked a proper control group, along with the sample capacity was small. Also, data obtained in the subgroups of diabetic patients were not separately analyzed and the follow-up period was very short. In addition, a reduction in blood pressure accounts for the improvements in glucose metabolism and insulin resistance cannot be excluded. If the favorable result of better glucose metabolism is confirmed in large-scale, randomized studies

  20. Cardio-renal syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gnanaraj, Joseph; Radhakrishnan, Jai

    2016-01-01

    Cardio-renal syndrome is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice. Its pathogenesis is not fully understood. The purpose of this article is to highlight the interaction between the cardiovascular system and the renal system and how their interaction results in the complex syndrome of cardio-renal dysfunction. Additionally, we outline the available therapeutic strategies to manage this complex syndrome. PMID:27635229

  1. Cardio-renal syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gnanaraj, Joseph; Radhakrishnan, Jai

    2016-01-01

    Cardio-renal syndrome is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice. Its pathogenesis is not fully understood. The purpose of this article is to highlight the interaction between the cardiovascular system and the renal system and how their interaction results in the complex syndrome of cardio-renal dysfunction. Additionally, we outline the available therapeutic strategies to manage this complex syndrome.

  2. [Idiopathic renal arteriovenous fistula].

    PubMed

    Bennani, S; Ait Bolbarod, A; el Mrini, M; Kadiri, R; Benjelloun, S

    1996-06-01

    The authors report a case of idiopathic renal arteriovenous fistula. The diagnosis was established angiographically in a 24 year old man presenting gross hematuria. Embolization of the fistula was performed. Efficiency of this treatment was appreciated clinically and by duplex renal ultrasonography. The characteristics of renal arteriovenous fistulas are reviewed. PMID:8763700

  3. Justice and Reverse Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Alan H.

    Defining reverse discrimination as hiring or admissions decisions based on normally irrelevant criteria, this book develops principles of rights, compensation, and equal opportunity applicable to the reverse discrimination issue. The introduction defines the issue and discusses deductive and inductive methodology as applied to reverse…

  4. Employment Discrimination: A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Gerald A.

    Chapter 4 in a book on school law provides a general overview of the various federal statutes directed toward discrimination in employment and considers some of the recent developments under these statutes. The first section is a survey of the employment discrimination laws and their interrelationships. The second section analyzes more closely…

  5. Flash-Type Discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the significant progress made in the flash-type discrimination algorithm development. The contents include: 1) Highlights of Progress for GLM-R3 Flash-Type discrimination Algorithm Development; 2) Maximum Group Area (MGA) Data; 3) Retrieval Errors from Simulations; and 4) Preliminary Global-scale Retrieval.

  6. Discrimination and health inequities.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    In 1999, only 20 studies in the public health literature employed instruments to measure self-reported experiences of discrimination. Fifteen years later, the number of empirical investigations on discrimination and health easily exceeds 500, with these studies increasingly global in scope and focused on major types of discrimination variously involving race/ethnicity, indigenous status, immigrant status, gender, sexuality, disability, and age, separately and in combination. And yet, as I also document, even as the number of investigations has dramatically expanded, the scope remains narrow: studies remain focused primarily on interpersonal discrimination, and scant research investigates the health impacts of structural discrimination, a gap consonant with the limited epidemiologic research on political systems and population health. Accordingly, to help advance the state of the field, this updated review article: (a) briefly reviews definitions of discrimination, illustrated with examples from the United States; (b) discusses theoretical insights useful for conceptualizing how discrimination can become embodied and produce health inequities, including via distortion of scientific knowledge; (c) concisely summarizes extant evidence--both robust and inconsistent--linking discrimination and health; and (d) addresses several key methodological controversies and challenges, including the need for careful attention to domains, pathways, level, and spatiotemporal scale, in historical context. PMID:25626224

  7. Microscale acceleration history discriminators

    DOEpatents

    Polosky, Marc A.; Plummer, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of micromechanical acceleration history discriminators is claimed. These discriminators allow the precise differentiation of a wide range of acceleration-time histories, thereby allowing adaptive events to be triggered in response to the severity (or lack thereof) of an external environment. Such devices have applications in airbag activation, and other safety and surety applications.

  8. Reverse Discrimination: Recent Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhilber, August W.

    This paper discusses reverse discrimination cases with particular emphasis on Bakke v. Regents of University of California and those cases which preceded it. A brief history is given of court cases used by opponents and proponents in the discussion of reverse discrimination. Legal theory and a discussion of court cases that preceded Bakke follow.…

  9. Dynamics of temporal discrimination.

    PubMed

    Guilhardi, Paulo; Church, Russell M

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to describe and explain the acquisition of temporal discriminations, transitions from one temporal interval to another, and asymptotic performance of stimulus and temporal discriminations. Rats were trained on a multiple cued interval (MCI) procedure with a head entry response on three signaled fixed-interval schedules of reinforcement (30, 60, and 120 sec). They readily learned the three temporal discriminations, whether they were presented simultaneously or successively, and they rapidly adjusted their performance to new intervals when the intermediate interval was varied daily. Although exponential functions provided good descriptions of many measures of temporal discrimination, different parameter values were required for each measure. The addition of a linear operator to a packet theory of timing with a single set of parameters provided a quantitative process model that fit many measures of the dynamics of temporal discrimination.

  10. Renal infarction resulting from traumatic renal artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyung Pyo; Lee, Sik; Kim, Won; Jin, Gong Yong; Na, Ki Ryang; Yun, Il Yong; Park, Sung Kwang

    2008-06-01

    Renal artery dissection may be caused by iatrogenic injury, trauma, underlying arterial diseases such as fibromuscular disease, atherosclerotic disease, or connective tissue disease. Radiological imaging may be helpful in detecting renal artery pathology, such as renal artery dissection. For patients with acute, isolated renal artery dissection, surgical treatment, endovascular management, or medical treatment have been considered effective measures to preserve renal function. We report a case of renal infarction that came about as a consequence of renal artery dissection.

  11. Postpartum renal vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Rubens, D; Sterns, R H; Segal, A J

    1985-01-01

    Renal vein thrombosis in adults is usually a complication of the nephrotic syndrome. Rarely, it has been reported in nonnephrotic women postpartum. The thrombosis may be a complication of the hypercoagulable state associated with both the nephrotic syndrome and pregnancy. Two postpartum patients with renal vein thrombosis and no prior history of renal disease are reported here. Neither patient had heavy proteinuria. In both cases, pyelonephritis was suspected clinically and the diagnosis of renal vein thrombosis was first suggested and confirmed by radiologic examination. Renal vein thrombosis should be considered in women presenting postpartum with flank pain.

  12. Optimal discrimination index and discrimination efficiency for essay questions.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wing-shing

    2014-01-01

    Recommended guidelines for discrimination index of multiple choice questions are often indiscriminately applied to essay type questions also. Optimal discrimination index under normality condition for essay question is independently derived. Satisfactory region for discrimination index of essay questions with passing mark at 50% of the total is between 0.12 and 0.31 instead of 0.40 or more in the case for multiple-choice questions. Optimal discrimination index for essay question is shown to increase proportional to the range of scores. Discrimination efficiency as the ratio of the observed discrimination index over the optimal discrimination index is defined. Recommended guidelines for discrimination index of essay questions are provided.

  13. Quadratic negative evidence discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.N.; Redgate, T.; Anderson, K.K.; Rohay, A.C.; Ryan, F.M.

    1997-05-01

    This paper develops regional discrimination methods which use information inherent in phase magnitudes that are unmeasurable due to small amplitudes and/or high noise levels. The methods are enhancements to teleseismic techniques proposed by, and are extended to regional discrimination. Events observed at teleseismic distances are effectively identified with the M{sub s} vs m{sub b} discriminant because relative to the pressure wave energy (m{sub b}) of an event, an earthquake generates more shear wave energy (M{sub s}) than does an explosion. For some teleseismic events, the M{sub s} magnitude is difficult to measure and is known only to be below a threshold . With M{sub s} unmeasurable, the M{sub s} vs m{sub b} discriminant cannot be formed. However, if the M{sub s} is sufficiently small relative to a measured m{sub b}, then the event is still likely to be an explosion. The methods presented in this report are developed for a single seismic station, and make use of empirical evidence in the regional L{sub g} vs p{sub g} discriminant. The L{sub g} vs p{sub g} discriminant is analogous to the teleseismic M{sub s} vs m{sub b} discriminant.

  14. Frequency discriminator/phase detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    Circuit provides dual function of frequency discriminator/phase detector which reduces frequency acquisition time without adding to circuit complexity. Both frequency discriminators, in evaluated frequency discriminator/phase detector circuits, are effective two decades above and below center frequency.

  15. Tectonic discrimination diagrams revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeesch, Pieter

    2006-06-01

    The decision boundaries of most tectonic discrimination diagrams are drawn by eye. Discriminant analysis is a statistically more rigorous way to determine the tectonic affinity of oceanic basalts based on their bulk-rock chemistry. This method was applied to a database of 756 oceanic basalts of known tectonic affinity (ocean island, mid-ocean ridge, or island arc). For each of these training data, up to 45 major, minor, and trace elements were measured. Discriminant analysis assumes multivariate normality. If the same covariance structure is shared by all the classes (i.e., tectonic affinities), the decision boundaries are linear, hence the term linear discriminant analysis (LDA). In contrast with this, quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA) allows the classes to have different covariance structures. To solve the statistical problems associated with the constant-sum constraint of geochemical data, the training data must be transformed to log-ratio space before performing a discriminant analysis. The results can be mapped back to the compositional data space using the inverse log-ratio transformation. An exhaustive exploration of 14,190 possible ternary discrimination diagrams yields the Ti-Si-Sr system as the best linear discrimination diagram and the Na-Nb-Sr system as the best quadratic discrimination diagram. The best linear and quadratic discrimination diagrams using only immobile elements are Ti-V-Sc and Ti-V-Sm, respectively. As little as 5% of the training data are misclassified by these discrimination diagrams. Testing them on a second database of 182 samples that were not part of the training data yields a more reliable estimate of future performance. Although QDA misclassifies fewer training data than LDA, the opposite is generally true for the test data. Therefore LDA is a cruder but more robust classifier than QDA. Another advantage of LDA is that it provides a powerful way to reduce the dimensionality of the multivariate geochemical data in a similar

  16. Recurrent renal giant leiomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Öziş, Salih Erpulat; Gülpınar, Kamil; Şahlı, Zafer; Konak, Baha Burak; Keskin, Mete; Özdemir, Süleyman; Ataoğlu, Ömür

    2016-01-01

    Primary renal leiomyosarcomas are rare, aggressive tumors. They constitute 1-2% of adult malignant renal tumors. Although leiomyosarcomas are the most common histological type (50-60%) of renal sarcomas, information on renal leiomyosarcoma is limited. Local or systemic recurrences are common. The radiological appearance of renal leiomyosarcomas is not specific, therefore renal leiomyosarcoma cannot be distinguished from renal cell carcinoma by imaging methods in all patients. A 74-year-old female patient presented to our clinic complaining of a palpable mass on the right side of her abdomen in November 2012. The abdominal magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass, 25 × 24 × 23 cm in size. Her past medical history revealed that she has undergone right radical nephrectomy in 2007, due to a 11 × 12 × 13 cm renal mass that was then reported as renal cell carcinoma on abdominal magnetic resonance imaging, but the pathological diagnosis was low-grade renal leiomyosarcoma. The most recent follow-up of the patient was in 2011, with no signs of local recurrence or distant metastases within this four-year period. The patient underwent laparotomy on November 2012, and a 35 cm retroperitoneal mass was excised. The pathological examination of the mass was reported as high-grade leiomyosarcoma. The formation of this giant retroperitoneal mass in 1 year can be explained by the transformation of the lesion's pathology from low-grade to a high-grade tumor. PMID:27436926

  17. Mass discrimination during weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment concerned with the ability of astronauts to discriminate between the mass of objects when both the objects and the astronauts are in weightless states is described. The main object of the experiment is to compare the threshold for weight-discrimination on Earth with that for mass-discrimination in orbit. Tests will be conducted premission and postmission and early and late during the mission while the crew is experiencing weightlessness. A comparison of early and late tests inflight and postflight will reveal the rate of adaptation to zero-gravity and 1-g. The mass discrimination box holds 24 balls which the astronaut will compare to one another in a random routine.

  18. Angular velocity discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments designed to investigate the ability of naive observers to discriminate rotational velocities of two simultaneously viewed objects are described. Rotations are constrained to occur about the x and y axes, resulting in linear two-dimensional image trajectories. The results indicate that observers can discriminate angular velocities with a competence near that for linear velocities. However, perceived angular rate is influenced by structural aspects of the stimuli.

  19. [Rupture of simple renal cyst after minimal renal injury].

    PubMed

    Fernández Férnandez, A; Mayayo Dehesa, T; Rodríguez Luna, J M; Platas Sancho, A; Gómez Aguinaga, M A; Castaño Llaneza, C; Berenguer Sánchez, A

    1989-01-01

    A case is presented of minimum renal trauma, leading to a retroperitoneal hematoma as a consequence of a simple renal cyst rupture as well as an artery contained therein. The etiopathogenicity of this phenomenon is commented. The different clinical manifestations of renal trauma are highlighted, as well as the suspicion of previous renal pathology when a large renal lesion is found secondary to minimum renal trauma. The approach of the renal pediculum must be the first step in the surgical treatment of renal trauma.

  20. Renal pelvis or ureter cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis or ureter; Kidney cancer - renal pelvis; Ureter cancer ... Cancer can grow in the urine collection system, but it is uncommon. Renal pelvis and ureter cancers ...

  1. DIFFERENTIAL PULSE HEIGHT DISCRIMINATOR

    DOEpatents

    Test, L.D.

    1958-11-11

    Pulse-height discriminators are described, specifically a differential pulse-height discriminator which is adapted to respond to pulses of a band of amplitudes, but to reject pulses of amplitudes greater or less than tbe preselected band. In general, the discriminator includes a vacuum tube having a plurality of grids adapted to cut off plate current in the tube upon the application of sufficient negative voltage. One grid is held below cutoff, while a positive pulse proportional to the amplltude of each pulse is applled to this grid. Another grid has a negative pulse proportional to the amplitude of each pulse simultaneously applied to it. With this arrangement the tube will only pass pulses which are of sufficlent amplitude to counter the cutoff bias but not of sufficlent amplitude to cutoff the tube.

  2. Bilateral renal lymphoangiomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Raed, Alqahtani; Sultan, Alkhateeb; Bader, Al-Mutairi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Renal lymphangiomatosis is a rare congenital benign disease of renal lymphatic system, here we are presenting a very rare form of disease which is bilateral form. Presentation of the case A young adult presented to our clinic after being referred from primary care clinic with intermittent bilateral flank pain and no other symptoms after extensive radiological investigations diagnosis has been made and confirmed by radiological finding of disease. Active treatment usually preserved for complex cases and for the complications of the disease but in our patient as needed analgesia worked well in controlling his intermittent pain and his wish not to pursue any intervention. The vague presentation with initial imaging rising suspicion of renal tumor or complex renal cyst might cause psychological street on the patient, which our patient had, but reassurance after extensive radiological work up relive that's stress. Discussion Although it is very rare disease to be bilateral but wide variety of other differential diagnoses make importance of disease recognition and accurate diagnosis is the key. Conclusion Renal lymphangiomatosis is a rare benign disease of renal lymphatic, which usually affect one side, but bilateral form is very rare form, which may raise the suspicions of genetic form of renal malignancy. Accurate diagnosis requires work up to role out malignant and other renal tumor, which require active surgical management. PMID:26719997

  3. Drugs, discrimination and disability.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Frances

    2009-12-01

    Whether addiction to prohibited drugs should be classified as a disability for the purposes of disability discrimination is a controversial question in Australia. The leading Australian case of Marsden v Human Rights Equal Opportunity Commission & Coffs Harbour & District Ex-Servicemen & Women's Memorial Club Ltd (HREOC, No H98/51, 30 August 1999); [2000] FCA 1619 concerned a disability discrimination complaint brought by Mr Marsden as a result of his treatment by the club. The case was brought as a public interest test case by the New South Wales Legal Aid Commission. Mr Marsden was on a methadone program at the time. The reasoning of the decision at the Federal Court opened the way for a finding that dependence on illegal drugs constituted a disability under disability discrimination legislation. The media reaction to the court's decision led to State and federal governments proposing legislation limiting legal protection from discrimination for people addicted to illegal drugs on the basis of their drug use. While the proposed federal legislation lapsed after objections from a coalition of medical, legal and other advocacy groups, the New South Wales legislation still provides that, in employment matters, it is not unlawful to discriminate against a person on the ground of disability if the disability relates to the person's addiction to a prohibited drug and the person is actually addicted to a prohibited drug at the time of the discrimination. The article details the sequence of events in the Marsden case, reflects on the role of public interest litigation in achieving social justice outcomes and suggests that Australia's recent ratification of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities on 17 July 2008 should encourage legislators to review legislation which may have a discriminatory effect on people suffering from addictions. PMID:20169800

  4. Discrimination Learning in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochocki, Thomas E.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Examined the learning performance of 192 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children on either a two or four choice simultaneous color discrimination task. Compared the use of verbal reinforcement and/or punishment, under conditions of either complete or incomplete instructions. (Author/SDH)

  5. Reversing Discrimination: A Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pati, Gopal; Reilly, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    Examines the debate over affirmative action and reverse discrimination, and discusses how and why the present dilemma has developed. Suggests that organizations can best address the problem through an honest, in-depth analysis of their organizational structure and management practices. (JG)

  6. Airborne particulate discriminator

    DOEpatents

    Creek, Kathryn Louise; Castro, Alonso; Gray, Perry Clayton

    2009-08-11

    A method and apparatus for rapid and accurate detection and discrimination of biological, radiological, and chemical particles in air. A suspect aerosol of the target particulates is treated with a taggant aerosol of ultrafine particulates. Coagulation of the taggant and target particles causes a change in fluorescent properties of the cloud, providing an indication of the presence of the target.

  7. Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, F. C.; Markle, D. A.

    1969-01-01

    Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator enables prospecting for fluorescent materials, hydrography with fluorescent dyes, and plant studies based on fluorescence of chlorophyll. Optical unit design is the coincidence of Fraunhofer lines in the solar spectrum occurring at the characteristic wavelengths of some fluorescent materials.

  8. Sex Discrimination in Coaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessem, Lawrence

    1980-01-01

    Even in situations in which the underpayment of girls' coaches is due to the sex of the students coached rather than to the sex of the coaches, the coaches and the girls coached are victims of unlawful discrimination. Available from Harvard Women's Law Journal, Harvard Law School, Cambridge, MA 02138. (Author/IRT)

  9. Education and Gender Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumi, V. S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the status of women education in present education system and some measures to overcome the lags existing. Discrimination against girls and women in the developing world is a devastating reality. It results in millions of individual tragedies, which add up to lost potential for entire countries. Gender bias in education is an…

  10. Ideal Point Discriminant Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takane, Yoshio; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A new method of multiple discriminant analysis allows a mixture of continuous and discrete predictors. It handles conditional, joint, or separate sampling. Subjects and criterion groups are represented as points in a multidimensional Euclidean space. Advantages of the method, deriving from Akaike Information Criterion model evaluation, are…

  11. Analytic boosted boson discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian; Neill, Duff

    2016-05-01

    Observables which discriminate boosted topologies from massive QCD jets are of great importance for the success of the jet substructure program at the Large Hadron Collider. Such observables, while both widely and successfully used, have been studied almost exclusively with Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper we present the first all-orders factorization theorem for a two-prong discriminant based on a jet shape variable, D 2, valid for both signal and background jets. Our factorization theorem simultaneously describes the production of both collinear and soft subjets, and we introduce a novel zero-bin procedure to correctly describe the transition region between these limits. By proving an all orders factorization theorem, we enable a systematically improvable description, and allow for precision comparisons between data, Monte Carlo, and first principles QCD calculations for jet substructure observables. Using our factorization theorem, we present numerical results for the discrimination of a boosted Z boson from massive QCD background jets. We compare our results with Monte Carlo predictions which allows for a detailed understanding of the extent to which these generators accurately describe the formation of two-prong QCD jets, and informs their usage in substructure analyses. Our calculation also provides considerable insight into the discrimination power and calculability of jet substructure observables in general.

  12. Discrimination and its Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Clarence

    1983-01-01

    Reviews challenges facing Black professionals committed to further promoting civil rights. Focuses on the Federal government role, particularly regarding racial discrimination in employment. Warns against the acceptance of orthodoxies, and calls for new action and the exercising of intellectual freedom. (KH)

  13. Color measurement and discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandell, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Theories of color measurement attempt to provide a quantative means for predicting whether two lights will be discriminable to an average observer. All color measurement theories can be characterized as follows: suppose lights a and b evoke responses from three color channels characterized as vectors, v(a) and v(b); the vector difference v(a) - v(b) corresponds to a set of channel responses that would be generated by some real light, call it *. According to theory a and b will be discriminable when * is detectable. A detailed development and test of the classic color measurement approach are reported. In the absence of a luminance component in the test stimuli, a and b, the theory holds well. In the presence of a luminance component, the theory is clearly false. When a luminance component is present discrimination judgements depend largely on whether the lights being discriminated fall in separate, categorical regions of color space. The results suggest that sensory estimation of surface color uses different methods, and the choice of method depends upon properties of the image. When there is significant luminance variation a categorical method is used, while in the absence of significant luminance variation judgments are continuous and consistant with the measurement approach.

  14. Analytic boosted boson discrimination

    DOE PAGES

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian; Neill, Duff

    2016-05-20

    Observables which discriminate boosted topologies from massive QCD jets are of great importance for the success of the jet substructure program at the Large Hadron Collider. Such observables, while both widely and successfully used, have been studied almost exclusively with Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper we present the first all-orders factorization theorem for a two-prong discriminant based on a jet shape variable, D2, valid for both signal and background jets. Our factorization theorem simultaneously describes the production of both collinear and soft subjets, and we introduce a novel zero-bin procedure to correctly describe the transition region between these limits.more » By proving an all orders factorization theorem, we enable a systematically improvable description, and allow for precision comparisons between data, Monte Carlo, and first principles QCD calculations for jet substructure observables. Using our factorization theorem, we present numerical results for the discrimination of a boosted Z boson from massive QCD background jets. We compare our results with Monte Carlo predictions which allows for a detailed understanding of the extent to which these generators accurately describe the formation of two-prong QCD jets, and informs their usage in substructure analyses. In conclusion, our calculation also provides considerable insight into the discrimination power and calculability of jet substructure observables in general.« less

  15. RISE TIME DELAY DISCRIMINATOR

    DOEpatents

    Johnstone, C.W.

    1959-09-29

    A pulse-height discriminator for generating an output pulse when the accepted input pulse is approximately at its maximum value is described. A gating tube and a negative bias generator responsive to the derivative of the input pulse and means for impressing the output of the bias generator to at least one control electrode of the gating tube are included.

  16. Digital frequency discriminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, W. J.

    1970-01-01

    Frequency discriminator has five integrated circuit chips interconnected to provide a divide function, exclusive OR function, phase shifting, and holding so that a single binary output signal results. The state of the binary signal indicates which one of the two input signals has a lower frequency than the other.

  17. Justice and Reverse Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strike, Kenneth A.

    1976-01-01

    Although this article does not necessarily recommend policies of reverse discrimination, arguments indicating that such policies are not contradictory to accepted concepts of justice are presented. The necessity of dispersing any consequent injury to society as a whole rather than to individuals is stressed. (RW)

  18. Renal autotransplantation: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Stewart, B H; Banowsky, L H; Hewitt, C B; Straffon, R A

    1976-01-01

    Autotransplantation, with or without an extracorporeal renal operation, has been done 39 times in 37 patients. Indications for the procedure included severe ureteral injury in 4 patients, failed supravesical diversion in 2, renal carcinoma in a solitary kidney in 1, renovascular hypertension in 1 and donor arterial reconstruction before renal transplantation in 29. Success was obtained in all but 2 procedures, both of which involved previously operated kidneys with severe inflammation and adhesions involving the renal pelvis and pedicle. Based on our experience and a review of currently available literature we believe that renal autotransplantation and extracorporeal reconstruction can provide the best solution for patients with severe renovascular and ureteral disease not correctable by conventional operative techniques. The technique can be of particular value in removing centrally located tumors in solitary kidneys and in preparing donor kidneys with abnormal arteries for renal transplantation. The role of autotransplantation in the management of advanced renal trauma and calculus disease is less clear. A long-term comparison of patients treated by extracorporeal nephrolithotomy versus conventional lithotomy techniques will be necessary before a conclusion is reached in these disease categories.

  19. Renal autotransplantation: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Stewart, B H; Banowsky, L H; Hewitt, C B; Straffon, R A

    1977-09-01

    Autotransplantation, with or without an extracorporeal renal operation, has been done 39 times in 37 patients. Indications for the procedure included several ureteral injury in 4 patients, failed supravesical diversion in 2, renal carcinoma in a solitary kidney in 1, renovascular hypertension in 1 and donor arterial reconstruction before renal transplantation in 29. Success was obtained in all but 2 procedures, both of which involved previously operated kidneys with severe inflammation and adhesions involving the renal pelvis and pedicle. Based on our experience and a review of currently available literature we believe that renal autotransplantation and extracorporeal reconstruction can provide the best solution for patients with severe renovascular and ureteral disease not correctable by conventional operative techniques. The technique can be of particular value in removing centrally located tumors in solitary kidneys and in preparing donor kidneys with abnormal arteries for renal transplantation. The role of autotransplantation in the management of advanced renal trauma and calculus disease is less clear. A long-term comparison of patients treated by extracorporeal nephrolithotomy versus conventional lithotomy techniques will be necessary before a conclusion is reached in these disease categories.

  20. [Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis].

    PubMed

    Sauguet, A; Honton, B

    2014-12-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis can cause ischaemic nephropathy and arterial hypertension. Renal artery stenosis (RAS) continues to be a problem for clinicians, with no clear consensus on how to investigate and assess the clinical significance of stenotic lesions and manage the findings. RAS caused by fibromuscular dysplasia is probably commoner than previously appreciated, should be actively looked for in younger hypertensive patients and can be managed successfully with angioplasty. Atheromatous RAS is associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular events and increased cardiovascular mortality, and is likely to be seen with increasing frequency. Many patients with RAS may be managed effectively with medical therapy for several years without endovascular stenting, as demonstrated by randomized, prospective trials including the cardiovascular outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions (CORAL) trial, the Angioplasty and Stenting for Renal Artery Lesions (ASTRAL) trial. These trials share the limitation of excluding subsets of patients with high-risk clinical presentations, including episodic pulmonary edema and rapidly progressing renal failure and hypertension. Blood pressure control and medication adjustment may become more difficult with declining renal function and may prevent the use of angiotensin receptor blocker and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. The objective of this review is to evaluate the current management of RAS for cardiologists in the context of recent randomized clinical trials. There is now interest in looking more closely at patient selection for intervention, with focus on intervening only in patients with the highest-risk presentations such as flash pulmonary edema, rapidly declining renal function and severe resistant hypertension. PMID:25450992

  1. Cadmium and renal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Il'yasova, Dora; Schwartz, Gary G. . E-mail: gschwart@wfubmc.edu

    2005-09-01

    Background: Rates of renal cancer have increased steadily during the past two decades, and these increases are not explicable solely by advances in imaging modalities. Cadmium, a widespread environmental pollutant, is a carcinogen that accumulates in the kidney cortex and is a cause of end-stage renal disease. Several observations suggest that cadmium may be a cause of renal cancer. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature on cadmium and renal cancer using MEDLINE for the years 1966-2003. We reviewed seven epidemiological and eleven clinical studies. Results: Despite different methodologies, three large epidemiologic studies indicate that occupational exposure to cadmium is associated with increased risk renal cancer, with odds ratios varying from 1.2 to 5.0. Six of seven studies that compared the cadmium content of kidneys from patients with kidney cancer to that of patients without kidney cancer found lower concentrations of cadmium in renal cancer tissues. Conclusions: Exposure to cadmium appears to be associated with renal cancer, although this conclusion is tempered by the inability of studies to assess cumulative cadmium exposure from all sources including smoking and diet. The paradoxical findings of lower cadmium content in kidney tissues from patients with renal cancer may be caused by dilution of cadmium in rapidly dividing cells. This and other methodological problems limit the interpretation of studies of cadmium in clinical samples. Whether cadmium is a cause of renal cancer may be answered more definitively by future studies that employ biomarkers of cadmium exposure, such as cadmium levels in blood and urine.

  2. Midterm renal functions following acute renal infarction.

    PubMed

    Ongun, Sakir; Bozkurt, Ozan; Demir, Omer; Cimen, Sertac; Aslan, Guven

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore clinical features of renal infarction (RI) that may have a role in diagnosis and treatment in our patient cohort and provide data on midterm renal functions. Medical records of patients with diagnosis of acute RI, established by contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) and at least 1 year follow-up data, who were hospitalized in our clinic between 1998 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed; including descriptive data, clinical signs and symptoms, etiologic factors, laboratory findings, and prescribed treatments. Patients with solitary infarct were treated with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) only, whereas patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) or multiple or global infarct were treated with anticoagulants. Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) referring to renal functions was determined by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula. Twenty-seven renal units of 23 patients with acute RI were identified. The mean age was 59.7 ± 15.7 years. Fourteen patients (60.8%) with RI had atrial fibrillation (AF) as an etiologic factor of which four had concomitant mesenteric ischemia at diagnosis. At presentation, 20 patients (86.9%) had elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), 18 patients (78.2%) had leukocytosis, and 16 patients (69.5%) had microscopic hematuria. Two patients with concomitant mesenteric ischemia and AF passed away during follow up. Mean eGFR was 70.8 ± 23.2 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at admission and increased to 82.3 ± 23.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at 1 year follow up. RI should be considered in patients with persistent flank or abdominal pain, particularly if they are at high risk of thromboembolism. Antiplatelet and/or anticoagulant drugs are both effective treatment options according to the amplitude of the infarct for preserving kidney functions.

  3. Sympatho-renal interactions.

    PubMed

    Zanchetti, A; Stella, A

    1987-10-01

    The renal nerves appear to be involved in the control of cardiovascular homeostasis and volume balance both in physiological and in pathological conditions such as experimental hypertension. Anatomical and electrophysiological evidence suggests that the kidney has a diffuse sensory innervation connected with areas in the brain and spinal cord that are known to regulate cardiovascular functions by both neural and humoral mechanisms. The demonstration of the existence of neural reno-renal reflexes controlling several renal functions indicates that a functional balance between the two kidneys exists and may play an important role in the moment-to-moment control of kidney functions.

  4. The Case for Positive Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses both three basic strategies, preferences, allocational priorities, and incentives--and four principles of positive discrimination--compensation and rectification, appropriate meritocratic criteria, the development of the discriminated, and fairness. (JM)

  5. Stimulus Structure, Discrimination, and Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runquist, Willard N.

    1975-01-01

    The general purpose of this experiment was to determine whether differences in stimulus discrimination, as determined by the MIR (missing-item recognition) test, are correlated with interference in recall, as demanded by the discriminative coding hypothesis. (Author/RK)

  6. Genetic discrimination in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Miller, P S

    1998-01-01

    Author argues that the Americans with Disabilities Act prohibits discrimination against workers based on their genetic makeup. He also examines state legislation and recently proposed federal legislation prohibiting genetic discrimination.

  7. Renal scintigraphy in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Reid; Daniel, Gregory B

    2014-01-01

    Renal scintigraphy is performed commonly in dogs and cats and has been used in a variety of other species. In a 2012 survey of the members of the Society of Veterinary Nuclear Medicine, 95% of the respondents indicated they perform renal scintigraphy in their practice. Renal scintigraphy is primarily used to assess renal function and to evaluate postrenal obstruction. This article reviews how renal scintigraphy is used in veterinary medicine and describes the methods of analysis. Species variation is also discussed.

  8. Complete renal recovery from severe acute renal failure after thrombolysis of bilateral renal vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Ramadoss, Suresh; Jones, Robert G; Foggensteiner, Lukas; Willis, Andrew P; Duddy, Martin J

    2012-10-01

    A previously healthy young man presented with acute renal failure due to extensive spontaneous deep vein thrombosis, including the inferior vena cava (IVC) and both renal veins. The patient was treated with selectively delivered thrombolytic therapy over a 7-day-period, which resulted in renal vein patency and complete recovery of renal function. A stent was placed over a segment stenosis of the IVC. No thrombophilic factors were identified. Bilateral renal vein thrombosis in young fit individuals is an unusual cause of acute renal failure. Thrombolytic therapy, even with delay, can completely restore renal function.

  9. Methodology for target discrimination.

    PubMed

    McNolty, F; Clow, R

    1980-03-15

    The objective is to distinguish the true target from point-target imitators and from extended-target clutter in the exoatmospheric regime. Matched filters are carefully studied from the viewpoint of SNR enhancement and pulse recognition. The matched filter structure takes into account photon noise, modulation noise, generation-recombination (GR) noise, contact noise, and various thermal noise sources. A multicolor radiant-intensity structure for target discrimination is developed by analyzing the uncertainties in such target irradiance parameters as range, temperature, projected area, and emissivity. Bias terms, variances, and other statistical descriptors are derived. Certain statistical discrimination techniques are discussed that exploit the radiant-intensity format. Helstrom's method for processing radar signals is adapted to a fourchannel pulse-recognition system for which degradation due to arrival time delays and mismatched filters is discussed.

  10. Renal Mitochondrial Cytopathies

    PubMed Central

    Emma, Francesco; Montini, Giovanni; Salviati, Leonardo; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Renal diseases in mitochondrial cytopathies are a group of rare diseases that are characterized by frequent multisystemic involvement and extreme variability of phenotype. Most frequently patients present a tubular defect that is consistent with complete De Toni-Debré-Fanconi syndrome in most severe forms. More rarely, patients present with chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, cystic renal diseases, or primary glomerular involvement. In recent years, two clearly defined entities, namely 3243 A > G tRNALEU mutations and coenzyme Q10 biosynthesis defects, have been described. The latter group is particularly important because it represents the only treatable renal mitochondrial defect. In this paper, the physiopathologic bases of mitochondrial cytopathies, the diagnostic approaches, and main characteristics of related renal diseases are summarized. PMID:21811680

  11. Price Discrimination: A Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguiló, Paula; Sard, Maria; Tugores, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a classroom experiment aimed at familiarizing students with different types of price discrimination (first-, second-, and third-degree price discrimination). During the experiment, the students were asked to decide what tariffs to set as monopolists for each of the price discrimination scenarios under…

  12. Affirmative Action, or Reverse Discrimination?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dansby, Ike

    1996-01-01

    Determines the impact of affirmative action programs in response to charges that they are policies of reverse discrimination. Reviewing affirmative action programs submitted by Michigan State departments, researchers determined no reverse discrimination was apparent based on low numbers of reverse discrimination complaints filed by whites. (GR)

  13. Nativity, Gender, and Earnings Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Andres

    1992-01-01

    Studied the estimated cost of labor market discrimination faced by Puerto Ricans in the United States. Results indicated that (1) Puerto Rican females are equally affected by discrimination, regardless of nativity; and (2) the cost of discrimination is less for males, and men born in Puerto Rico are more affected than U.S.-born Puerto Rican males.…

  14. Transgender Discrimination and the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Richard

    2010-01-01

    An emerging area of law is developing regarding sex/gender identity discrimination, also referred to as transgender discrimination, as distinguished from discrimination based on sexual orientation. A transgendered individual is defined as "a person who has a gender-identity disorder which is a persistent discomfort about one?s assigned sex or…

  15. Quotas Are Not Reverse Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Gabrielle K.

    1975-01-01

    The findings of the Morrow v. Crisler and NAACP v. Allen civil rights cases are discussed. It is concluded from these employment discrimination cases that quotas are not reverse discrimination because no one has the right to continue to receive the benefits of racial discrimination at the expense of others. (LBH)

  16. 'Transcollateral' Renal Angioplasty for a Completely Occluded Renal Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, Subash; Chadha, Davinder S. Swamy, Ajay

    2011-02-15

    Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty with stenting has been effective in the control of hypertension, renal function, and pulmonary edema caused by atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis. However, the role of the procedure has not been fully established in the context of chronic total occlusion of renal artery. We report the successful use of this procedure in 57-year-old male patient who reported for evaluation of a recent episode of accelerated hypertension. A renal angiogram in this patient showed ostial stenosis of the right renal artery, which was filling by way of the collateral artery. Renal angioplasty for chronic total occlusion of right renal artery was successfully performed in a retrograde fashion through a collateral artery, thereby leading to improvement of renal function and blood pressure control.

  17. [Hyperuricemia and renal risk].

    PubMed

    Viazzi, Francesca; Bonino, Barbara; Ratto, Elena; Desideri, Giovambattista; Pontremoli, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed an association between elevated levels of uric acid and conditions correlated to chronic kidney diseases such as hypertension, cardiovascular and cerebral disease, insulin resistance. Several pathogenetic mechanisms at cellular and tissue levels could justify a direct correlation between serum uric acid levels and renal damage. Growing evidence indicating a correlation between urate lowering therapy and renal morbidity could encourage the use of urate lowering therapy in primary or secondary prevention in chronic kidney disease.

  18. Laparoscopic retroperitoneal renal cystectomy.

    PubMed

    Munch, L C; Gill, I S; McRoberts, J W

    1994-01-01

    Laparoscopic manipulation of retroperitoneal organs is usually performed by the transperitoneal approach primarily because of the ease of access by way of the pneumoperitoneum. However, difficulty in adequately accessing structures that are surrounded by bowel, liver, spleen or postoperative adhesions makes this approach suboptimal in certain cases. We describe the use of the retroperitoneal laparoscopic approach to the upper pole of a kidney for marsupialization of a symptomatic, recurrent, complex renal cyst. An algorithm for current management of symptomatic renal cysts is discussed.

  19. Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD)

    SciTech Connect

    Gasperikova, Erika; Smith, J. Torquil; Morrison, H. Frank; Becker, Alex

    2007-01-01

    The Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD) is an optimally designed active electromagnetic system that not only detects but also characterizes UXO. The system incorporates three orthogonal transmitters and eight pairs of differenced receivers. it has two modes of operation: (1) search mode, in which BUD moves along a profile and exclusively detects targets in its vicinity, providing target depth and horizontal location, and (2) discrimination mode, in which BUD, stationary above a target, from a single position, determines three discriminating polarizability responses together with the object location and orientation. The performance of the system is governed by a target size-depth curve. Maximum detection depth is 1.5 m. While UXO objects have a single major polarizability coincident with the long axis of the object and two equal transverse polarizabilities, scrap metal has three different principal polarizabilities. The results clearly show that there are very clear distinctions between symmetric intact UXO and irregular scrap metal, and that BUD can resolve the intrinsic polarizabilities of the target. The field survey at the Yuma Proving Ground in Arizona showed excellent results within the predicted size-depth range.

  20. [Comment on] Statistical discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinn, Douglas

    In the December 8, 1981, issue of Eos, a news item reported the conclusion of a National Research Council study that sexual discrimination against women with Ph.D.'s exists in the field of geophysics. Basically, the item reported that even when allowances are made for motherhood the percentage of female Ph.D.'s holding high university and corporate positions is significantly lower than the percentage of male Ph.D.'s holding the same types of positions. The sexual discrimination conclusion, based only on these statistics, assumes that there are no basic psychological differences between men and women that might cause different populations in the employment group studied. Therefore, the reasoning goes, after taking into account possible effects from differences related to anatomy, such as women stopping their careers in order to bear and raise children, the statistical distributions of positions held by male and female Ph.D.'s ought to be very similar to one another. Any significant differences between the distributions must be caused primarily by sexual discrimination.

  1. Neonatal renal vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Leonardo R; Simpson, Ewurabena A; Lau, Keith K

    2011-12-01

    Neonatal renal vein thrombosis (RVT) continues to pose significant challenges for pediatric hematologists and nephrologists. The precise mechanism for the onset and propagation of renal thrombosis within the neonatal population is unclear, but there is suggestion that acquired and/or inherited thrombophilia traits may increase the risk for renal thromboembolic disease during the newborn period. This review summarizes the most recent studies of neonatal RVT, examining its most common features, the prevalence of acquired and inherited prothrombotic risk factors among these patients, and evaluates their short and long term renal and thrombotic outcomes as they may relate to these risk factors. Although there is some consensus regarding the management of neonatal RVT, the most recent antithrombotic therapy guidelines for the management of childhood thrombosis do not provide a risk-based algorithm for the acute management of RVT among newborns with hereditary prothrombotic disorders. Whereas neonatal RVT is not a condition associated with a high mortality rate, it is associated with significant morbidity due to renal impairment. Recent evidence to evaluate the effects of heparin-based anticoagulation and thrombolytic therapy on the long term renal function of these patients has yielded conflicting results. Long term cohort studies and randomized trials may be helpful to clarify the impact of acute versus prolonged antithrombotic therapy for reducing the morbidity that is associated with neonatal RVT.

  2. Spontaneous renal artery dissection with renal infarction.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Sophie; Leray-Moraguès, Hélène; Chenine, Leila; Canaud, Ludovic; Vernhet-Kovacsik, Hélène; Canaud, Bernard

    2012-06-01

    Spontaneous renal artery dissection (SRAD) is a rare entity, which often presents diagnostic difficulties because of its non-specific clinical presentation. We report six cases complicated with renal infarction, occurring in middle-aged male patients without risk factors, illustrating the difficulty and delay for diagnosing SRAD. Ultrasound and Doppler imaging were not sensitive enough to confirm the diagnosis, and contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography was used to correct the diagnosis and allow the clinicians to propose appropriate treatment. We conclude that considering the urgency in diagnosing and treating SRAD, contrast enhanced abdominal tomography and/or abdominal magnetic resonance imaging should be proposed as soon as a suspicion of SRAD is evoked by the clinical presentation.

  3. Frequency discriminating laser

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, M.D.

    1987-10-20

    A laser is described for discriminating between a higher gain transition and a lower gain transition to permit the laser to lase at the lower gain transition. It consists of: a laser cavity, including more than two mirrors each of which is highly transmissive at the frequency of the higher gain transition, one of which is partially reflective at the frequency of the lower gain transition, and all but the one of which are highly reflective at the frequency of the lower gain transition; an active laser medium disposed within the cavity; and means for pumping the active laser medium.

  4. Visualizing renal primary cilia.

    PubMed

    Deane, James A; Verghese, Elizabeth; Martelotto, Luciano G; Cain, Jason E; Galtseva, Alya; Rosenblum, Norman D; Watkins, D Neil; Ricardo, Sharon D

    2013-03-01

    Renal primary cilia are microscopic sensory organelles found on the apical surface of epithelial cells of the nephron and collecting duct. They are based upon a microtubular cytoskeleton, bounded by a specialized membrane, and contain an array of proteins that facilitate their assembly, maintenance and function. Cilium-based signalling is important for the control of epithelial differentiation and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various cystic kidney diseases and in renal repair. As such, visualizing renal primary cilia and understanding their composition has become an essential component of many studies of inherited kidney disease and mechanisms of epithelial regeneration. Primary cilia were initially identified in the kidney using electron microscopy and this remains a useful technique for the high resolution examination of these organelles. New reagents and techniques now also allow the structure and composition of primary cilia to be analysed in detail using fluorescence microscopy. Primary cilia can be imaged in situ in sections of kidney, and many renal-derived cell lines produce primary cilia in culture providing a simplified and accessible system in which to investigate these organelles. Here we outline microscopy-based techniques commonly used for studying renal primary cilia.

  5. Nox and renal disease.

    PubMed

    Holterman, Chet E; Read, Naomi C; Kennedy, Chris R J

    2015-04-01

    Since the first demonstration of Nox enzyme expression in the kidney in the early 1990s and the subsequent identification of Nox4, or RENOX, a decade later, it has become apparent that the Nox family of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating enzymes plays an integral role in the normal physiological function of the kidney. As our knowledge of Nox expression patterns and functions in various structures and specialized cell types within the kidney grows, so does the realization that Nox-derived oxidative stress contributes significantly to a wide variety of renal pathologies through their ability to modify lipids and proteins, damage DNA and activate transcriptional programmes. Diverse studies demonstrate key roles for Nox-derived ROS in kidney fibrosis, particularly in settings of chronic renal disease such as diabetic nephropathy. As the most abundant Nox family member in the kidney, much emphasis has been placed on the role of Nox4 in this setting. However, an ever growing body of work continues to uncover key roles for other Nox family members, not only in diabetic kidney disease, but in a diverse array of renal pathological conditions. The objective of the present review is to highlight the latest novel developments in renal Nox biology with an emphasis not only on diabetic nephropathy but many of the other renal disease contexts where oxidative stress is implicated.

  6. Renal disease in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Rafael Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Chronic renal disease represents a problem of public health in Colombia. Its prevalence has increased in last decade, with a prevalence of 44.7 patients per million (ppm) in 1993 to 294.6 ppm in 2004, considering that only 56.2% of the population has access to the health. This increase complies with the implementation of Law 100 of 1993, offering greater coverage of health services to the Colombian population. The cost of these pathologies is equivalent to the 2.49% of the budget for health of the nation. The three most common causes of renal failure are diabetes mellitus (DM; 30%), arterial hypertension (30%), and glomerulonephritis (7.85%). In incident patients, the DM accounts for 32.9%. The rate of global mortality is 15.8%, 17.4% in hemodialysis and 15.1% in peritoneal dialysis. In 2004, 467 renal transplants were made, 381 of deceased donor with an incidence of 10.3 ppm. The excessive cost of these pathologies can cause the nation's health care system to collapse if preventative steps are not taken. In December of 2004, the Colombian Association of Nephrology with the participation of the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Arterial Hypertension wrote the "Declaration of Bogotá," committing the state's scientific societies and promotional health companies to develop a model of attention for renal health that, in addition to implementing national registries, continues to manage renal disease. PMID:17162422

  7. [The focal renal lesions].

    PubMed

    Tuma, Jan

    2013-06-01

    The focal renal lesions are altogether common. Most frequently are found Columna Bertini hypertrophies (so called pseudotumors) and simple renal cysts. The role of sonography in the practice is to distinguish pseudotumors from real renal tumors, and simple renal cysts from complex cysts. The differentiation of complex renal cysts is possible with the help of the CEUS (= contrast enhanced ultrasound) and other imaging modalities such as CT or MRI. In these cases, the CEUS imaging agent has clear advantages over CT and MRI, because it is composed of gas bubbles, which are only slightly smaller than red blood cells and remains exclusively intravascularly while the CT and MRI contrast agents diffuse into the interstitial space without any real perfusion. The real tumors can be differentiated from certain focal non-tumorous changes based on the ultrasound and clinic. The further differentiation of individual kidney tumors and metastases using ultrasound, MRI, CT and CEUS is only partly possible. In all uncertain or unclear cases, therefore, an open or ultrasound-guided biopsy is useful.

  8. Can renal infarction occur after renal cyst aspiration? Case report.

    PubMed

    Emre, Habib; Soyoral, Yasemin Usul; Tanik, Serhat; Gecit, Ilhan; Begenik, Huseyin; Pirincci, Necip; Erkoc, Reha

    2011-01-01

    Renal infarction (RI) is a rarely seen disorder, and the diagnosis is often missed. The two major causes of RI are thromboemboli originhating from a thrombus in the heart or aorta, and in-situ thrombosis of a renal artery. We report a case of RI that developed due to renal artery and vein thrombosis, as confirmed by pathological evaluation of the nephrectomy material, three weeks after renal cyst aspiration.

  9. Discriminative sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Keith

    2008-10-01

    The typical human vision system is able to discriminate between a million or so different colours, yet is able to do this with a chromatic sensor array that is fundamentally based on three different receptors, sensitive to light in the blue, green and red portions of the visible spectrum. Some biological organisms have extended capabilities, providing vision in the ultra-violet, whilst others, such as some species of mantis shrimp reportedly have sixteen different types of photo-receptors. In general the biological imaging sensor takes a minimalist approach to sensing its environment, whereas current optical engineering approaches follow a 'brute' force solution where the challenge of hyperspectral imaging is addressed by various schemes for spatial and spectral dispersion of radiation across existing detector arrays. This results in a problem for others to solve in the processing and communication of the generated hypercube of data. This paper explores the parallels between some of those biological systems and the various design concepts being developed for discriminative imaging, drawing on activity supported by the UK Electro-Magnetic Remote Sensing Defence Technology Centre (EMRS DTC).

  10. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    MedlinePlus

    ... PKD1 genes, severe kidney disease can develop in infancy or early childhood and renal failure most often ... of renal angiomyolipoma and TSC is in its infancy and we will have further information in a ...

  11. [Management of renal stones].

    PubMed

    Lechevallier, E; Traxer, O; Saussine, C

    2008-12-01

    The management of renal stones needs a recent and good quality imaging. Contrast medium injection is optional. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) is the most common treatment of renal stones. ESWL is indicated as first line treatment for less than 1.5cm stones. The stone-free (SF) rate at 3 months of ESWL is 70-80%. Results of ESWL for stones with more than 1000UH density or located in the lower calyx are poor. Flexible ureteroscopy (URS) is indicated in case of ESWL failure or for hyperdense, 1-2cm stones. The SF rate of flexible is 80%. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is indicated for complex or more than 2cm stones. Asymptomatic and non infected stones, especially if located in the lower calyx, do not need urological treatment but must be followed up. In all cases, renal stones needs a metabolic evaluation and treatment, and annual follow-up.

  12. Renal denervation and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Schlaich, Markus P; Krum, Henry; Sobotka, Paul A; Esler, Murray D

    2011-06-01

    Essential hypertension remains one of the biggest challenges in medicine with an enormous impact on both individual and society levels. With the exception of relatively rare monogenetic forms of hypertension, there is now general agreement that the condition is multifactorial in nature and hence requires therapeutic approaches targeting several aspects of the underlying pathophysiology. Accordingly, all major guidelines promote a combination of lifestyle interventions and combination pharmacotherapy to reach target blood pressure (BP) levels in order to reduce overall cardiovascular risk in affected patients. Although this approach works for many, it fails in a considerable number of patients for various reasons including drug-intolerance, noncompliance, physician inertia, and others, leaving them at unacceptably high cardiovascular risk. The quest for additional therapeutic approaches to safely and effectively manage hypertension continues and expands to the reappraisal of older concepts such as renal denervation. Based on the robust preclinical and clinical data surrounding the role of renal sympathetic nerves in various aspects of BP control very recent efforts have led to the development of a novel catheter-based approach using radiofrequency (RF) energy to selectively target and disrupt the renal nerves. The available evidence from the limited number of uncontrolled hypertensive patients in whom renal denervation has been performed are auspicious and indicate that the procedure has a favorable safety profile and is associated with a substantial and presumably sustained BP reduction. Although promising, a myriad of questions are far from being conclusively answered and require our concerted research efforts to explore the full potential and possible risks of this approach. Here we briefly review the science surrounding renal denervation, summarize the current data on safety and efficacy of renal nerve ablation, and discuss some of the open questions that need

  13. Renal adaptation during hibernation.

    PubMed

    Jani, Alkesh; Martin, Sandra L; Jain, Swati; Keys, Daniel; Edelstein, Charles L

    2013-12-01

    Hibernators periodically undergo profound physiological changes including dramatic reductions in metabolic, heart, and respiratory rates and core body temperature. This review discusses the effect of hypoperfusion and hypothermia observed during hibernation on glomerular filtration and renal plasma flow, as well as specific adaptations in renal architecture, vasculature, the renin-angiotensin system, and upregulation of possible protective mechanisms during the extreme conditions endured by hibernating mammals. Understanding the mechanisms of protection against organ injury during hibernation may provide insights into potential therapies for organ injury during cold storage and reimplantation during transplantation.

  14. Renal Failure in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Balofsky, Ari; Fedarau, Maksim

    2016-01-01

    Renal failure during pregnancy affects both mother and fetus, and may be related to preexisting disease or develop secondary to diseases of pregnancy. Causes include hypovolemia, sepsis, shock, preeclampsia, thrombotic microangiopathies, and renal obstruction. Treatment focuses on supportive measures, while pharmacologic treatment is viewed as second-line therapy, and is more useful in mitigating harmful effects than treating the underlying cause. When supportive measures and pharmacotherapy prove inadequate, dialysis may be required, with the goal being to prolong pregnancy until delivery is feasible. Outcomes and recommendations depend primarily on the underlying cause.

  15. Associated proteins and renal epithelial Na+ channel function.

    PubMed

    Ismailov, I I; Berdiev, B K; Bradford, A L; Awayda, M S; Fuller, C M; Benos, D J

    1996-01-01

    The hypothesis that amiloride-sensitive Na+ channel complexes immunopurified from bovine renal papillary collecting tubules contain, as their core conduction component, an ENaC subunit, was tested by functional and immunological criteria. Disulfide bond reduction with dithiothreitol (DTT) of renal Na+ channels incorporated into planar lipid bilayers caused a reduction of single channel conductance from 40 pS to 13 pS, and uncoupled PKA regulation of this channel. The cation permeability sequence, as assessed from bi-ionic reversal potential measurements, and apparent amiloride equilibrium dissociation constant (K(amil)i) of the Na+ channels were unaltered by DTT treatment. Like ENaC, the DTT treated renal channel became mechanosensitive, and displayed a substantial decrease in K(amil)i following stretch (0.44 +/- 0.12 microM versus 6.9 +/- 1.0 microM). Moreover, stretch activation induced a loss in the channel's ability to discriminate between monovalent cations, and even allowed Ca2+ to permeate. Polyclonal antibodies generated against a fusion protein of alpha bENaC recognized a 70 kDa polypeptide component of the renal Na+ channel complex. These data suggest that ENaC is present in the immunopurified renal Na+ channel protein complex, and that PKA sensitivity is conferred by other associated proteins. PMID:8834119

  16. Physiology of the Renal Interstitium

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Long overlooked as the virtual compartment and then strictly characterized through descriptive morphologic analysis, the renal interstitium has finally been associated with function. With identification of interstitial renin- and erythropoietin-producing cells, the most prominent endocrine functions of the kidney have now been attributed to the renal interstitium. This article reviews the functional role of renal interstitium. PMID:25813241

  17. Racial discrimination & health: pathways & evidence.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ameena T; Mohammed, Selina A; Williams, David R

    2007-10-01

    This review provides an overview of the existing empirical research of the multiple ways by which discrimination can affect health. Institutional mechanisms of discrimination such as restricting marginalized groups to live in undesirable residential areas can have deleterious health consequences by limiting socio-economic status (SES) and creating health-damaging conditions in residential environments. Discrimination can also adversely affect health through restricting access to desirable services such as medical care and creating elevated exposure to traditional stressors such as unemployment and financial strain. Central to racism is an ideology of inferiority that can adversely affect non-dominant groups because some members of marginalized populations will accept as true the dominant society's ideology of their group's inferiority. Limited empirical research indicates that internalized racism is inversely related to health. In addition, the existence of these negative stereotypes can lead dominant group members to consciously and unconsciously discriminate against the stigmatized. An overview of the growing body of research examining the ways in which psychosocial stress generated by subjective experiences of discrimination can affect health is also provided. We review the evidence from the United States and other societies that suggest that the subjective experience of discrimination can adversely affect health and health enhancing behaviours. Advancing our understanding of the relationship between discrimination and health requires improved assessment of the phenomenon of discrimination and increased attention to identifying the psychosocial and biological pathways that may link exposure to discrimination to health status.

  18. Gaussian discriminating strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigovacca, L.; Farace, A.; De Pasquale, A.; Giovannetti, V.

    2015-10-01

    We present a quantifier of nonclassical correlations for bipartite, multimode Gaussian states. It is derived from the Discriminating Strength measure, introduced for finite dimensional systems in Farace et al., [New J. Phys. 16, 073010 (2014), 10.1088/1367-2630/16/7/073010]. As the latter the new measure exploits the quantum Chernoff bound to gauge the susceptibility of the composite system with respect to local perturbations induced by unitary gates extracted from a suitable set of allowed transformations (the latter being identified by posing some general requirements). Closed expressions are provided for the case of two-mode Gaussian states obtained by squeezing or by linearly mixing via a beam splitter a factorized two-mode thermal state. For these density matrices, we study how nonclassical correlations are related with the entanglement present in the system and with its total photon number.

  19. Convex Discriminative Multitask Clustering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Lei

    2015-01-01

    Multitask clustering tries to improve the clustering performance of multiple tasks simultaneously by taking their relationship into account. Most existing multitask clustering algorithms fall into the type of generative clustering, and none are formulated as convex optimization problems. In this paper, we propose two convex Discriminative Multitask Clustering (DMTC) objectives to address the problems. The first one aims to learn a shared feature representation, which can be seen as a technical combination of the convex multitask feature learning and the convex Multiclass Maximum Margin Clustering (M3C). The second one aims to learn the task relationship, which can be seen as a combination of the convex multitask relationship learning and M3C. The objectives of the two algorithms are solved in a uniform procedure by the efficient cutting-plane algorithm and further unified in the Bayesian framework. Experimental results on a toy problem and two benchmark data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms. PMID:26353206

  20. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. PMID:23731874

  1. Genetic discrimination: international perspectives.

    PubMed

    Otlowski, M; Taylor, S; Bombard, Y

    2012-01-01

    Genetic discrimination (GD) is a complex, multifaceted ethical, psychosocial, and legal phenomenon. It is defined as the differential treatment of asymptomatic individuals or their relatives on the basis of their real or assumed genetic characteristics. This article presents an overview of GD within the contemporary international context. It describes the concept of GD and its contextual features, reviews research evidence regarding people's experiences of GD and the impact of GD within a range of domains, and provides an overview of legal and policy responses to GD that have emerged globally. We argue that GD is a significant and internationally established phenomenon that requires multilevel responses to ensure social justice and equitable outcomes for all citizens. Future research should monitor GD and its impacts within the community as well as institutions and should evaluate the effectiveness of legislative, policy, community education, and systemic responses. PMID:22607273

  2. Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC): extended immunohistochemical profile emphasizing novel RCC markers.

    PubMed

    Argani, Pedram; Hicks, Jessica; De Marzo, Angelo M; Albadine, Roula; Illei, Peter B; Ladanyi, Marc; Reuter, Victor E; Netto, George J

    2010-09-01

    Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC) harbor various TFE3 gene fusions, and are known to underexpress epithelial immunohistochemical (IHC) markers such as cytokeratin and EMA relative to usual adult type RCC; however, their profile in reference to other IHC markers that are differentially expressed in other subtypes of RCC has not been systematically assessed. Few therapeutic targets have been identified in these aggressive cancers. We created 2 tissue microarrays (TMA) containing five 1.4-mm cores from each of 21 Xp11 translocation RCC (all confirmed by TFE3 IHC, 6 further confirmed by genetics), 7 clear cell RCC (CCRCC), and 6 papillary RCC (PRCC). These TMA were labeled for a panel of IHC markers. In contrast to earlier published data, Xp11 translocation RCC frequently expressed renal transcription factors PAX8 (16/21 cases) and PAX2 (14/21 cases), whereas only 1 of 21 cases focally expressed MiTF and only 5 of 21 overexpressed p21. Although experimental data suggest otherwise, Xp11 translocation RCC did not express WT-1 (0/21 cases). Although 24% of Xp11 translocation RCC expressed HIF-1alpha (like CCRCC), unlike CCRCC CA IX expression was characteristically only focal (mean 6% cell labeling) in Xp11 translocation RCC. Other markers preferentially expressed in CCRCC or PRCC, such as HIG-2, claudin 7, and EpCAM, yielded inconsistent results in Xp11 translocation RCC. Xp11 translocation RCC infrequently expressed Ksp-cadherin (3/21 cases) and c-kit (0/21 cases), markers frequently expressed in chromophobe RCC. Using an H-score that is the product of intensity and percentage labeling, Xp11 translocation RCC expressed higher levels of phosphorylated S6, a measure of mTOR pathway activation (mean H score=88), than did CCRCC (mean H score=54) or PRCC (mean H score=44). In conclusion, in contrast to prior reports, Xp11 translocation RCC usually express PAX2 and PAX8 but do not usually express MiTF. Although they may express HIF-1alpha, they only focally

  3. Introduction to multivariate discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kégl, Balázs

    2013-07-01

    Multivariate discrimination or classification is one of the best-studied problem in machine learning, with a plethora of well-tested and well-performing algorithms. There are also several good general textbooks [1-9] on the subject written to an average engineering, computer science, or statistics graduate student; most of them are also accessible for an average physics student with some background on computer science and statistics. Hence, instead of writing a generic introduction, we concentrate here on relating the subject to a practitioner experimental physicist. After a short introduction on the basic setup (Section 1) we delve into the practical issues of complexity regularization, model selection, and hyperparameter optimization (Section 2), since it is this step that makes high-complexity non-parametric fitting so different from low-dimensional parametric fitting. To emphasize that this issue is not restricted to classification, we illustrate the concept on a low-dimensional but non-parametric regression example (Section 2.1). Section 3 describes the common algorithmic-statistical formal framework that unifies the main families of multivariate classification algorithms. We explain here the large-margin principle that partly explains why these algorithms work. Section 4 is devoted to the description of the three main (families of) classification algorithms, neural networks, the support vector machine, and AdaBoost. We do not go into the algorithmic details; the goal is to give an overview on the form of the functions these methods learn and on the objective functions they optimize. Besides their technical description, we also make an attempt to put these algorithm into a socio-historical context. We then briefly describe some rather heterogeneous applications to illustrate the pattern recognition pipeline and to show how widespread the use of these methods is (Section 5). We conclude the chapter with three essentially open research problems that are either

  4. Perceived weight discrimination and obesity.

    PubMed

    Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index≥30; BMI) by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female) completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.58-4.08) and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.06-4.97) than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education) and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race) were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity.

  5. Racial/Ethnic Workplace Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Chavez, Laura J.; Ornelas, India J.; Lyles, Courtney R.; Williams, Emily C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Experiences of discrimination are associated with tobacco and alcohol use, and work is a common setting where individuals experience racial/ethnic discrimination. Few studies have evaluated the association between workplace discrimination and these behaviors, and none have described associations across race/ethnicity. Purpose To examine the association between workplace discrimination and tobacco and alcohol use in a large, multistate sample of U.S. adult respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey Reactions to Race Module (2004–2010). Methods Multivariable logistic regression analyses evaluated cross-sectional associations between self-reported workplace discrimination and tobacco (current and daily smoking) and alcohol use (any and heavy use, and binge drinking) among all participants and stratified by race/ethnicity, adjusting for relevant covariates. Data were analyzed in 2013. Results Among respondents, 70,080 completed the workplace discrimination measure. Discrimination was more common among black non-Hispanic (21%), Hispanic (12%), and other race respondents (11%) than white non-Hispanics (4%) (p<0.001). In the total sample, discrimination was associated with current smoking (risk ratio [RR]=1.32, 95% CI=1.19, 1.47), daily smoking (RR=1.41, 95% CI=1.24, 1.61), and heavy drinking (RR=1.11, 95% CI=1.01, 1.22), but not binge or any drinking. Among Hispanics, workplace discrimination was associated with increased heavy and binge drinking, but not any alcohol use or smoking. Workplace discrimination among black non-Hispanics and white Non-Hispanics was associated with increased current and daily smoking, but not alcohol outcomes. Conclusions Workplace discrimination is common, associated with smoking and alcohol use, and merits further policy attention given the impact of these behaviors on morbidity and mortality. PMID:25441232

  6. Serial Radiohippurate Renal Scintiphotography

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthall, Leonard; Greyson, N. David; Martin, Robert H.

    1970-01-01

    The results of serial radiohippurate scintiphotography in 222 patients are analyzed. The findings in various renal diseases are discussed and compared with those obtained from the excretory urogram, BUN, serum creatinine and creatinine clearance. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4aFIG. 4bFIG. 5aFIG. 5b PMID:5536740

  7. Management of Renal Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Nalbant, Ismail; Can Sener, Nevzat; Firat, Hacer; Yeşil, Süleyman; Zengin, Kürşad; Yalcınkaya, Fatih; Imamoglu, Abdurrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Renal cysts have a high prevalence in the general population, and their estimated incidence increases with age. Renal cyst aspiration (usually with sclerotherapy) or open/laparoscopic decortication is a generally effective and safe method in the treatment of symptomatic simple renal cysts. The success rates of laparoscopic decortication and percutaneous aspiration-sclerotherapy were compared to assist in the decision making for the procedure. Methods: A total of 184 patients with symptomatic simple renal cysts were treated with either laparoscopic decortication in 149 cases or percutaneous aspiration-sclerotherapy in 35 cases. The follow-up period was approximately 35 months, and the symptomatic and radiologic success rates of the 2 techniques were compared retrospectively. Results: Laparoscopic decortication was found to have high success rates, a low recurrence rate, and minimal morbidity. Percutaneous aspiration-sclerotherapy is an outpatient procedure with a minimally higher recurrence rate. Conclusion: When a symptomatic cyst is encountered and treatment of the cyst is indicated, laparoscopic decortication is a more efficient method that offers better results than percutaneous aspiration-sclerotherapy. PMID:25848184

  8. Ablative therapies for renal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Rajan; Leveillee, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    Owing to an increased use of diagnostic imaging for evaluating patients with other abdominal conditions, incidentally discovered kidney masses now account for a majority of renal tumors. Renal ablative therapy is assuming a more important role in patients with borderline renal impairment. Renal ablation uses heat or cold to bring about cell death. Radiofrequency ablation and cryoablation are two such procedures, and 5-year results are now emerging from both modalities. Renal biopsy at the time of ablation is extremely important in order to establish tissue diagnosis. Real-time temperature monitoring at the time of radiofrequency ablation is very useful to ensure adequacy of ablation. PMID:21789083

  9. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease. PMID:22520483

  10. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease.

  11. Institutional Discrimination in Agricultural Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, William C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Examines history of discrimination within U.S. agricultural programs, specifically in U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Compares USDA employment and grant allocations for Blacks and Whites since Civil Rights Act of 1964. Cites other examples of institutional discrimination in federal agriculture programs. Calls for development of policy…

  12. White Attitudes Toward Black Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, B. William

    1976-01-01

    Reviews several national surveys of white racial attitudes done between 1963 and 1974 by Harris and Associates, the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research, and Potomac Associates, focusing on perceptions of discrimination and attitudes towards housing, jobs, education, the police, legislation, and reverse discrimination. (JM)

  13. Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark C.

    1999-01-01

    Reviewed 1998 and early 1999 court decisions related to disability discrimination in higher education. This period witnessed major developments in the law of disability discrimination as it relates to higher education. A major focus was on whether persons whose impairments are ameliorated by treatment are individuals with disabilities covered by…

  14. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  15. Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark C.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews court cases in 1999 related to disability discrimination in higher education focusing on the Americans with Disabilities Act and section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. The "Garrett" case regarding Eleventh Amendment immunity is the case most likely to be significant in the development of the law of disability discrimination. (SLD)

  16. Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark C.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews developments in 2000 in the law of disability discrimination as it relates to higher education, which falls into five categories: (1) definition of a qualified individual; (2) accommodations, access, undue burden, and fundamental alteration of programs; (3) intentional discrimination, harassment, and retaliation; (4) Eleventh Amendment…

  17. Employment Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustoles, Thomas P.; Griffin, Oren R.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews court decisions related to employment discrimination in higher education. The most significant development was a series of cases affirming that Eleventh Amendment immunity from private money damage claims brought pursuant to various federal employment discrimination statutes applied to state colleges and universities. (SLD)

  18. MEANING DISCRIMINATION IN BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IANNUCCI, JAMES E.

    SEMANTIC DISCRIMINATION OF POLYSEMOUS ENTRY WORDS IN BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES WAS DISCUSSED IN THE PAPER. HANDICAPS OF PRESENT BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES AND BARRIERS TO THEIR FULL UTILIZATION WERE ENUMERATED. THE AUTHOR CONCLUDED THAT (1) A BILINGUAL DICTIONARY SHOULD HAVE A DISCRIMINATION FOR EVERY TRANSLATION OF AN ENTRY WORD WHICH HAS SEVERAL…

  19. Invidious Discrimination: Second Generation Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Robert J.; Dee, Paul

    1976-01-01

    Discusses school law issues dealing with various forms of invidious discrimination. Considers discrimination based on forms of involuntary association (ethnicity, economic status, primary language, and maturity) and forms of voluntary association (sexual proclivity, marital status, pregnancy and parenthood, self-expression and appearance, religion…

  20. Children's Perceptions of Gender Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christia Spears; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2004-01-01

    Children (N = 76; ages 5-10 years) participated in a study designed to examine perceptions of gender discrimination. Children were read scenarios in which a teacher determined outcomes for 2 students (1 boy and 1 girl). Contextual information (i.e., teacher's past behavior), the gender of the target of discrimination (i.e., student), and the…

  1. THE HIGH COST OF DISCRIMINATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROPER, ELMO

    ON THE BASIS OF EMPLOYEE SURVEYS AND IN-PLANT RESEARCH, THE TOTAL COST OF DISCRIMINATION TO AMERICAN BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY IN ACTUAL DOLLARS IS ESTIMATED AT ROUGHLY $30 BILLION ANNUALLY. DISCRIMINATION IN INDUSTRY BEGINS AT THE HIRING GATE WHERE MINORITY GROUPS ARE REFUSED EMPLOYMENT BECAUSE OF RACE, COLOR, RELIGION, NATIONALITY, POLITICAL…

  2. Employment Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Barbara A.

    1999-01-01

    Reviewed academic employment discrimination cases decided in 1998. Concludes that such cases added little to civil rights jurisprudence, but demonstrated the frustration felt by many over the fact that federal employment discrimination statures were not designed with universities in mind. The complexity of academic employment decisions ensures…

  3. Addressing Discrimination in School Matters!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    Every student has the right to an education free from discrimination that provides high-quality, equitable opportunities to learn. Unfortunately, sometimes individuals or systems may act in ways that violate this right. Discrimination occurs when people are treated unequally or less favorably than others because of some real or perceived…

  4. Vibrotactile Discrimination of Musical Timbre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Frank A.; Ammirante, Paolo; Fels, Deborah I.

    2012-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the ability to discriminate between musical timbres based on vibrotactile stimulation alone. Participants made same/different judgments on pairs of complex waveforms presented sequentially to the back through voice coils embedded in a conforming chair. Discrimination between cello, piano, and trombone tones matched…

  5. Transarterial embolization for serious renal hemorrhage following renal biopsy.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Dan; Liu, Guihua; Sun, Xiangzhou; Zhuang, Wenquan; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Guo, Wenbo; Yang, Jianyong; Chen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of percutaneous transarterial embolization for the treatment of serious renal hemorrhage after renal biopsy. Nine patients with renal hemorrhage had frank pain and gross hematuria as main symptoms after renal biopsy. Intrarenal arterial injuries and perinephric hematoma were confirmed by angiography in all cases. The arterial injuries led to two types of renal hemorrhage, Type I: severe renal injure or intrarenal renal artery rupture (n=5), with contrast medium spilling out of the artery and spreading into renal pelvis or kidney capsule in angiography; Type II, pseudo aneurysm or potential risk of intrarenal artery injure (n=4), where contrast medium that spilled out of intraartery was retained in the parenchyma as little spots less than 5 mm in diameter in angiography. Transcatheter superselective intrarenal artery embolization was performed with coils or microcoils (Type I intrarenal artery injure) and polyvinyl alcohol particles (Type II injure). The intrarenal arterial injuries were occluded successfully in all patients. Light or mild back or abdominal pain in the side of the embolized kidney was found in three patients following embolization procedures and disappeared 3 days later. Serum creatinine and perinephric hematoma were stable, and gross hematuresis stopped immediately (n=4) or 3-5 days (n=3) after embolization. In conclusions, transcatheter superselective intrarenal artery embolization as a minimally invasive therapy is safe and effective for treatment of serious renal hemorrhage following percutaneous renal biopsy.

  6. Relation between minimum-error discrimination and optimum unambiguous discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu Daowen; Li Lvjun

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, we investigate the relationship between the minimum-error probability Q{sub E} of ambiguous discrimination and the optimal inconclusive probability Q{sub U} of unambiguous discrimination. It is known that for discriminating two states, the inequality Q{sub U{>=}}2Q{sub E} has been proved in the literature. The main technical results are as follows: (1) We show that, for discriminating more than two states, Q{sub U{>=}}2Q{sub E} may not hold again, but the infimum of Q{sub U}/Q{sub E} is 1, and there is no supremum of Q{sub U}/Q{sub E}, which implies that the failure probabilities of the two schemes for discriminating some states may be narrowly or widely gapped. (2) We derive two concrete formulas of the minimum-error probability Q{sub E} and the optimal inconclusive probability Q{sub U}, respectively, for ambiguous discrimination and unambiguous discrimination among arbitrary m simultaneously diagonalizable mixed quantum states with given prior probabilities. In addition, we show that Q{sub E} and Q{sub U} satisfy the relationship that Q{sub U{>=}}(m/m-1)Q{sub E}.

  7. Studies in genetic discrimination. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    We have screened 1006 respondents in a study of genetic discrimination. Analysis of these responses has produced evidence of the range of institutions engaged in genetic discrimination and demonstrates the impact of this discrimination on the respondents to the study. We have found that both ignorance and policy underlie genetic discrimination and that anti-discrimination laws are being violated.

  8. Discriminant Incoherent Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    Georgakis, Christos; Panagakis, Yannis; Pantic, Maja

    2016-05-01

    Face images convey rich information which can be perceived as a superposition of low-complexity components associated with attributes, such as facial identity, expressions, and activation of facial action units (AUs). For instance, low-rank components characterizing neutral facial images are associated with identity, while sparse components capturing non-rigid deformations occurring in certain face regions reveal expressions and AU activations. In this paper, the discriminant incoherent component analysis (DICA) is proposed in order to extract low-complexity components, corresponding to facial attributes, which are mutually incoherent among different classes (e.g., identity, expression, and AU activation) from training data, even in the presence of gross sparse errors. To this end, a suitable optimization problem, involving the minimization of nuclear-and l1 -norm, is solved. Having found an ensemble of class-specific incoherent components by the DICA, an unseen (test) image is expressed as a group-sparse linear combination of these components, where the non-zero coefficients reveal the class(es) of the respective facial attribute(s) that it belongs to. The performance of the DICA is experimentally assessed on both synthetic and real-world data. Emphasis is placed on face analysis tasks, namely, joint face and expression recognition, face recognition under varying percentages of training data corruption, subject-independent expression recognition, and AU detection by conducting experiments on four data sets. The proposed method outperforms all the methods that are compared with all the tasks and experimental settings. PMID:27008268

  9. Discriminant Incoherent Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    Georgakis, Christos; Panagakis, Yannis; Pantic, Maja

    2016-05-01

    Face images convey rich information which can be perceived as a superposition of low-complexity components associated with attributes, such as facial identity, expressions, and activation of facial action units (AUs). For instance, low-rank components characterizing neutral facial images are associated with identity, while sparse components capturing non-rigid deformations occurring in certain face regions reveal expressions and AU activations. In this paper, the discriminant incoherent component analysis (DICA) is proposed in order to extract low-complexity components, corresponding to facial attributes, which are mutually incoherent among different classes (e.g., identity, expression, and AU activation) from training data, even in the presence of gross sparse errors. To this end, a suitable optimization problem, involving the minimization of nuclear-and l1 -norm, is solved. Having found an ensemble of class-specific incoherent components by the DICA, an unseen (test) image is expressed as a group-sparse linear combination of these components, where the non-zero coefficients reveal the class(es) of the respective facial attribute(s) that it belongs to. The performance of the DICA is experimentally assessed on both synthetic and real-world data. Emphasis is placed on face analysis tasks, namely, joint face and expression recognition, face recognition under varying percentages of training data corruption, subject-independent expression recognition, and AU detection by conducting experiments on four data sets. The proposed method outperforms all the methods that are compared with all the tasks and experimental settings.

  10. Renal Medullary Interstitial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Reena; Hao, Chuan-Ming; Breyer, Matthew D.

    2007-04-01

    Renal medullary interstitial cells (RMICs) are specialized fibroblast-like cells that reside in the renal medulla among the vasa recta, the thin limbs of Henle's loop, and medullary collecting ducts. These cells are characterized by abundant lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. The lipid droplets are composed of triglycerides, cholesterol esters and free long-chain fatty acids, including arachidonic acid. RMICs are also a major site of cyclooxygenase2 (COX-2) expression, and thus a major site of COX-2 derived prostanoid biosynthesis. RMICs are also a potential target of hormones such as angiotensin II and endothelin. The RMIC COX-2 expression and the abundance of lipid droplets change with salt and water intake. These properties of RMICs are consistent with an important role of these cells in modulating physiologic and pathologic processes of the kidney.

  11. Renal stones in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Norma; DasGupta, Ranan

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of renal stones during pregnancy is a complex problem. Risks to the fetus from ionising radiation and interventional procedures need to be balanced with optimising clinical care for the mother. Management of such patients requires a clear understanding of available options, with a multidisciplinary team approach. In this review, we discuss the role of different diagnostic tests including ultrasound, magnetic resonance urography, and computerized tomography. We also provide an update on recent developments in the treatment of renal stones during pregnancy. Expectant management remains first-line treatment. Where definitive treatment of the stone is required, new evidence suggests that ureteroscopic stone removal may be equally safe, and possibly better than traditional temporising procedures. PMID:27512433

  12. Parafoveal color discrimination: A chromaticity locus of enhanced discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Danilova, Marina V.; Mollon, J. D.

    2010-01-01

    Are boundaries between color categories associated with enhanced discrimination? In the present experiments, chromatic thresholds were obtained for discriminations along lines orthogonal to the yellow-blue axis of color space. The targets were parafoveal and thresholds were measured with a spatial two-alternative forced choice. In interleaved experimental runs, we also obtained empirical estimates of the subjective yellow-blue line by asking observers to categorize colors as reddish or greenish. Both types of measurement were made in the presence of a steady background that was metameric to equal-energy white. In a limited region from desaturated yellow to desaturated blue, an enhanced discrimination is found near the subjective transition between reddish and greenish hues. This line of optimal discrimination is not aligned with either of the cardinal axes of color space: In a MacLeod-Boynton chromaticity diagram, it runs obliquely with negative slope. PMID:20143897

  13. Renal Replacement Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Zaccaria; Romagnoli, Stefano; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    During the last few years, due to medical and surgical evolution, patients with increasingly severe diseases causing multiorgan dysfunction are frequently admitted to intensive care units. Therapeutic options, when organ failure occurs, are frequently nonspecific and mostly directed towards supporting vital function. In these scenarios, the kidneys are almost always involved and, therefore, renal replacement therapies have become a common routine practice in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. Recent technological improvement has led to the production of safe, versatile and efficient dialysis machines. In addition, emerging evidence may allow better individualization of treatment with tailored prescription depending on the patients’ clinical picture (e.g. sepsis, fluid overload, pediatric). The aim of the present review is to give a general overview of current practice in renal replacement therapies for critically ill patients. The main clinical aspects, including dose prescription, modality of dialysis delivery, anticoagulation strategies and timing will be addressed. In addition, some technical issues on physical principles governing blood purification, filters characteristics, and vascular access, will be covered. Finally, a section on current standard nomenclature of renal replacement therapy is devoted to clarify the “Tower of Babel” of critical care nephrology. PMID:26918174

  14. Renal Replacement Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Zaccaria; Romagnoli, Stefano; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    During the last few years, due to medical and surgical evolution, patients with increasingly severe diseases causing multiorgan dysfunction are frequently admitted to intensive care units. Therapeutic options, when organ failure occurs, are frequently nonspecific and mostly directed towards supporting vital function. In these scenarios, the kidneys are almost always involved and, therefore, renal replacement therapies have become a common routine practice in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. Recent technological improvement has led to the production of safe, versatile and efficient dialysis machines. In addition, emerging evidence may allow better individualization of treatment with tailored prescription depending on the patients' clinical picture (e.g. sepsis, fluid overload, pediatric). The aim of the present review is to give a general overview of current practice in renal replacement therapies for critically ill patients. The main clinical aspects, including dose prescription, modality of dialysis delivery, anticoagulation strategies and timing will be addressed. In addition, some technical issues on physical principles governing blood purification, filters characteristics, and vascular access, will be covered. Finally, a section on current standard nomenclature of renal replacement therapy is devoted to clarify the "Tower of Babel" of critical care nephrology. PMID:26918174

  15. Manual discrimination of force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, Xiao-Dong; Tan, HONG-Z.; Durlach, Nathaniel I.

    1991-01-01

    Optimal design of human-machine interfaces for teleoperators and virtual-environment systems which involve the tactual and kinesthetic modalities requires knowledge of the human's resolving power in these modalities. The resolution of the interface should be appropriately matched to that of the human operator. We report some preliminary results on the ability of the human hand to distinguish small differences in force under a variety of conditions. Experiments were conducted on force discrimination with the thumb pushing an interface that exerts a constant force over the pushing distance and the index finger pressing against a fixed support. The dependence of the sensitivity index d' on force increment can be fit by a straight line through the origin and the just-noticeable difference (JND) in force can thus be described by the inverse of the slope of this line. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) was measured by varying the a priori probabilities of the two alternatives, reference force and reference force plus an increment, in one-interval, two-alternative, forced-choice experiments. When plotted on normal deviate coordinates, the ROC's were roughly straight lines of unit slope, thus supporting the assumption of equal-variance normal distributions and the use of the conventional d' measure. The JND was roughly 6-8 percent for reference force ranging from 2.5 to 10 newtons, pushing distance from 5 to 30 mm, and initial finger-span from 45 to 125 mm. Also, the JND remained the same when the subjects were instructed to change the average speed of pushing from 23 to 153 mm/sec. The pushing was terminated by reaching either a wall or a well, and the JND's were essentially the same in both cases.

  16. Renal implications of arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ruilope, L M

    1997-03-01

    Renal vascular damage caused by arterial hypertension participates in alterations of the systemic vascular function and structure. Nephrosclerosis seems to run in parallel with the systemic atherosclerosis that accounts for the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality seen in hypertensive patients. Parameters indicating the existence of an alteration in renal function (increased serum creatinine, proteinuria and microalbuminuria) are independent predictors for an increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Hence, parameters of renal function must be considered in any stratification of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients.

  17. Multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Velasquez, G.; Glass, T.A.; D'Souza, V.J.; Formanek, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Renal oncocytoma, although rare, is being diagnosed more frequently, and criteria to differentiate it from other tumors have been described. Multiple oncocytomas have been reported, but an association between multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma in the same kidney has not been described. The authors report a case with two oncocytomas and a renal carcinoma in the right kidney as well as a right adrenal adenoma.

  18. Discrimination networks for maximum selection.

    PubMed

    Jain, Brijnesh J; Wysotzki, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    We construct a novel discrimination network using differentiating units for maximum selection. In contrast to traditional competitive architectures like MAXNET the discrimination network does not only signal the winning unit, but also provides information about its evidence. In particular, we show that a discrimination network converges to a stable state within finite time and derive three characteristics: intensity normalization (P1), contrast enhancement (P2), and evidential response (P3). In order to improve the accuracy of the evidential response we incorporate distributed redundancy into the network. This leads to a system which is not only robust against failure of single units and noisy data, but also enables us to sharpen the focus on the problem given in terms of a more accurate evidential response. The proposed discrimination network can be regarded as a connectionist model for competitive learning by evidence.

  19. Racial Discrimination in College Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Jones A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a research study investigating racial discrimination in college football. In particular, the study focuses on the concept of stacking, which is the disproportional allocation of players to central and noncentral team positions based on race or ethnicity. (RKM)

  20. Reverse Discrimination and Aggressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Stephen D.

    1980-01-01

    White subjects were aggressive toward Black opponents when contest results appeared to reflect elements of reverse discrimination; but they showed less aggressive behavior toward Black opponents when they thought their loss was due to their opponents' superior ability. (RL)

  1. [Fibromuscular dysplasia of renal arteries].

    PubMed

    Plouin, Pierre-François; Fiquet, Béatrice; Bobrie, Guillaume; Jeunemaître, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    Fibromuscular dysplasia is non-atherosclerotic, non-inflammatory disease of the medium caliber arteries causing segmental stenosis, and sometimes aneurysm and/or dissection. Renal involvement is either asymptomatic or revealed by hypertension, rarely acute complications (renal infarction/hemorrhage). Cross-sectional imaging or angiography differentiates multifocal fibromuscular dysplasia (pearl necklace appearance) and focal fibromuscular dysplasia (tubular stenosis). Several differential diagnoses are to be mentioned. Carotid and vertebral involvement are possible. Smoking cessation must be encouraged. Selected patients benefit from renal revascularization. The best indications are recent or resistant hypertension, and progressive renal atrophy. Angioplasty without stent revascularization is the technique of choice in purely stenotic forms. PMID:26968476

  2. How to interpret cardiac biomarkers in renal failure and elderly?

    PubMed

    Bargnoux, Anne-Sophie; Kuster, Nils; Moréna, Marion; Baptista, Gregory; Chenine, Leila; Badiou, Stéphanie; Leray, Hélène; Dupuy, Anne-Marie; Cristol, Jean-Paul

    2016-08-01

    New highly sensitive (hs) assays have challenged the interpretation of cardiac troponins (cTn) as markers of injury while natriuretic peptides remain the markers of choice for myocardial dysfunction. However, variability extracardiac factors such as age, gender and renal function may alter circulating levels. In chronic kidney disease (CKD), the increase in circulating levels of these biomarkers in the absence of cardiac disease underlines the problem of discriminative value for diagnosis as well as the need to redefine the thresholds. In addition, these biomarkers are of potential interest to stratify cardiovascular risk, the leading cause of death in CKD. The aim of this work is to clarify the effect of age and renal function on circulating levels of high-sensitivity troponins and natriuretic peptides.

  3. Renal cirsoid arteriovenous malformation masquerading as neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, K; George, D

    1988-12-01

    A woman with renal colic and microscopic hematuria had filling defects in the left renal collecting system detected on excretory urography. A nephrectomy, performed because of suspected malignancy, might have been averted by renal angiography.

  4. Detecting Renal Allograft Inflammation Using Quantitative Urine Metabolomics and CXCL10

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Julie; Sharma, Atul; Mandal, Rupasri; Wishart, David S.; Wiebe, Chris; Storsley, Leroy; Karpinski, Martin; Gibson, Ian W.; Nickerson, Peter W.; Rush, David N.

    2016-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to characterize urinary metabolomics for the noninvasive detection of cellular inflammation and to determine if adding urinary chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10) improves the overall diagnostic discrimination. Methods Urines (n = 137) were obtained before biopsy in 113 patients with no (n = 66), mild (borderline or subclinical; n = 58), or severe (clinical; n = 13) rejection from a prospective cohort of adult renal transplant patients (n = 113). Targeted, quantitative metabolomics was performed with direct flow injection tandem mass spectrometry using multiple reaction monitoring (ABI 4000 Q-Trap). Urine CXCL10 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A projection on latent structures discriminant analysis was performed and validated using leave-one-out cross-validation, and an optimal 2-component model developed. Chemokine ligand 10 area under the curve (AUC) was determined and net reclassification index and integrated discrimination index analyses were performed. Results PLS2 demonstrated that urinary metabolites moderately discriminated the 3 groups (Cohen κ, 0.601; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.46-0.74; P < 0.001). Using binary classifiers, urinary metabolites and CXCL10 demonstrated an AUC of 0.81 (95% CI, 0.74-0.88) and 0.76 (95% CI, 0.68-0.84), respectively, and a combined AUC of 0.84 (95% CI, 0.78-0.91) for detecting alloimmune inflammation that was improved by net reclassification index and integrated discrimination index analyses. Urinary CXCL10 was the best univariate discriminator, followed by acylcarnitines and hexose. Conclusions Urinary metabolomics can noninvasively discriminate noninflamed renal allografts from those with subclinical and clinical inflammation, and the addition of urine CXCL10 had a modest but significant effect on overall diagnostic performance. These data suggest that urinary metabolomics and CXCL10 may be useful for noninvasive monitoring of alloimmune inflammation in renal

  5. The renal scan in pregnant renal transplant patients

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, H.A.; Ziessman, H.A.; Fahey, F.H.; Collea, J.V.; Alijani, M.R.; Helfrich, G.B.

    1985-05-01

    With the greater frequency of renal transplant surgery, more female pts are becoming pregnant and carrying to term. In the renal allograft blood vessels and ureter may be compressed resulting in impaired renal function and/or, hypertension. Toxemia of pregnancy is seen more frequently than normal. Radionuclide renal scan monitoring may be of significant value in this high risk obstetrical pt. After being maintained during the pregnancy, renal function may also deteriorate in the post partum period. 5 pregnant renal transplant pts who delivered live babies had renal studies with Tc-99m DTPA to assess allograft perfusion and function. No transplanted kidney was lost during or after pregnancy as a result of pregnancy. No congenital anomalies were associated with transplant management. 7 studies were performed on these 5 pts. The 7 scans all showed the uterus/placenta. The bladder was always distorted. The transplanted kidney was rotated to a more vertical position in 3 pts. The radiation dose to the fetus is calculated at 0.024 rad/mCi administered. This study demonstrates the anatomic and physiologic alterations expected in the transplanted kidney during pregnancy when evaluated by renal scan and that the radiation burden may be acceptable in management of these pts.

  6. Persistent Increase in Blood Pressure After Renal Nerve Stimulation in Accessory Renal Arteries After Sympathetic Renal Denervation.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Mark R; Hoogerwaard, Annemiek F; Gal, Pim; Adiyaman, Ahmet; Smit, Jaap Jan J; Delnoy, Peter Paul H M; Ramdat Misier, Anand R; van Hasselt, Boudewijn A A M; Heeg, Jan-Evert; le Polain de Waroux, Jean-Benoit; Lau, Elizabeth O Y; Staessen, Jan A; Persu, Alexandre; Elvan, Arif

    2016-06-01

    Blood pressure response to renal denervation is highly variable, and the proportion of responders is disappointing. This may be partly because of accessory renal arteries too small for denervation, causing incomplete ablation. Renal nerve stimulation before and after renal denervation is a promising approach to assess completeness of renal denervation and may predict blood pressure response to renal denervation. The objective of the current study was to assess renal nerve stimulation-induced blood pressure increase before and after renal sympathetic denervation in main and accessory renal arteries of anaesthetized patients with drug-resistant hypertension. The study included 21 patients. Nine patients had at least 1 accessory renal artery in which renal denervation was not feasible. Renal nerve stimulation was performed in the main arteries of all patients and in accessory renal arteries of 6 of 9 patients with accessory arteries, both before and after renal sympathetic denervation. Renal nerve stimulation before renal denervation elicited a substantial increase in systolic blood pressure, both in main (25.6±2.9 mm Hg; P<0.001) and accessory (24.3±7.4 mm Hg; P=0.047) renal arteries. After renal denervation, renal nerve stimulation-induced systolic blood pressure increase was blunted in the main renal arteries (Δ systolic blood pressure, 8.6±3.7 mm Hg; P=0.020), but not in the nondenervated renal accessory renal arteries (Δ systolic blood pressure, 27.1±7.6 mm Hg; P=0.917). This residual source of renal sympathetic tone may result in persistent hypertension after ablation and partly account for the large response variability.

  7. LLNL's Regional Seismic Discrimination Research

    SciTech Connect

    Hanley, W; Mayeda, K; Myers, S; Pasyanos, M; Rodgers, A; Sicherman, A; Walter, W

    1999-07-23

    As part of the Department of Energy's research and development effort to improve the monitoring capability of the planned Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty international monitoring system, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) is testing and calibrating regional seismic discrimination algorithms in the Middle East, North Africa and Western Former Soviet Union. The calibration process consists of a number of steps: (1) populating the database with independently identified regional events; (2) developing regional boundaries and pre-identifying severe regional phase blockage zones; (3) measuring and calibrating coda based magnitude scales; (4a) measuring regional amplitudes and making magnitude and distance amplitude corrections (MDAC); (4b) applying the DOE modified kriging methodology to MDAC results using the regionalized background model; (5) determining the thresholds of detectability of regional phases as a function of phase type and frequency; (6) evaluating regional phase discriminant performance both singly and in combination; (7) combining steps 1-6 to create a calibrated discrimination surface for each stations; (8) assessing progress and iterating. We have now developed this calibration procedure to the point where it is fairly straightforward to apply earthquake-explosion discrimination in regions with ample empirical data. Several of the steps outlined above are discussed in greater detail in other DOE papers in this volume or in recent publications. Here we emphasize the results of the above process: station correction surfaces and their improvement to discrimination results compared with simpler calibration methods. Some of the outstanding discrimination research issues involve cases in which there is little or no empirical data. For example in many cases there is no regional nuclear explosion data at IMS stations or nearby surrogates. We have taken two approaches to this problem, first finding and using mining explosion data when available, and

  8. Early diagnosis of renal disease and renal failure.

    PubMed

    Lees, George E

    2004-07-01

    The main goal of early diagnosis of renal disease and renal failure in dogs and cats is to enable timely application of therapeutic interventions that may slow or halt disease progression. Strategies for early diagnosis of renal disease use urine tests that detect proteinuria that is a manifestation of altered glomerular permselectivity or impaired urine-concentrating ability as well blood tests to evaluate plasma creatinine concentration. Animals with progressive renal disease should be carefully investigated and treated appropriately. Animals with mild, possibly nonprogressive, renal disease should be monitored adequately to detect any worsening trends,which should lead to further investigation and treatment even if the increments of change are small. PMID:15223206

  9. Discrimination Report: ESTCP UXO Discrimination Study, ESTCPProject #MM-0437

    SciTech Connect

    Gasperikova, Erika; Smith, J. Torquil; Morrison, H. Frank; Becker, Alex

    2007-12-21

    The FY06 Defense Appropriation contains funding for the 'Development of Advanced, Sophisticated, Discrimination Technologies for UXO Cleanup' in the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program. In 2003, the Defense Science Board observed: 'The problem is that instruments that can detect the buried UXOs also detect numerous scrap metal objects and other artifacts, which leads to an enormous amount of expensive digging. Typically 100 holes may be dug before a real UXO is unearthed! The Task Force assessment is that much of this wasteful digging can be eliminated by the use of more advanced technology instruments that exploit modern digital processing and advanced multi-mode sensors to achieve an improved level of discrimination of scrap from UXOs.' Significant progress has been made in discrimination technology. To date, testing of these approaches has been primarily limited to test sites with only limited application at live sites. Acceptance of discrimination technologies requires demonstration of system capabilities at real UXO sites under real world conditions. Any attempt to declare detected anomalies to be harmless and requiring no further investigation require demonstration to regulators of not only individual technologies, but of an entire decision making process. This discrimination study was be the first phase in what is expected to be a continuing effort that will span several years.

  10. Renal metabolism of calcitonin

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, R.E.; Hjelle, J.T.; Mahoney, C.; Deftos, L.J.; Lisker, W.; Kato, P.; Rabkin, R.

    1988-04-01

    The kidneys account for approximately two-thirds of the metabolism of calcitonin, but relatively little is known regarding the details thereof. To further characterize this process, we examined the renal handling and metabolism of human calcitonin (hCT) by the isolated perfused rat kidney. We also studied the degradation of radiolabeled salmon calcitonin (sCT) by subcellular fractions prepared from isolated rabbit proximal tubules. The total renal (organ) clearance of immunoreactive hCT by the isolated kidney was 1.96 +/- 0.18 ml/min. This was independent of the perfusate total calcium concentration from 5.5 to 10.2 mg/dl. Total renal clearance exceeded the glomerular filtration rate (GFR, 0.68 +/- 0.05 ml/min), indicating filtration-independent removal. Urinary calcitonin clearance as a fraction of GFR averaged 2.6%. Gel filtration chromatography of medium from isolated kidneys perfused with /sup 125/I-labeled sCT showed the principal degradation products to be low molecular weight forms eluting with monoiodotyrosine. Intermediate size products were not detected. In the subcellular fractionation experiments, when carried out at pH 5.0, calcitonin hydrolysis exclusively followed the activities of the lysosomal enzyme N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase. Typically, at pH 7.5, 42% of total degradation occurred in the region of the brush-border enzyme alanyl aminopeptidase and 29% occurred in the region of the cytosolic enzyme phosphoglucomutase. Although 9% of the calcitonin-degrading activity was associated with basolateral membrane fractions, most of this activity could be accounted for by the presence of brush-border membranes.

  11. Renal failure in Yemen.

    PubMed

    Al-Rohani, M

    2004-01-01

    Renal failure remains a serious cause of mortality in Yemen. Our region has 1.25 million population and our hospital is the central hospital, which has a nephrology department and performs dialysis for the region. Between January 1998 and December 2002, we admitted 547 patients; including children, with acute renal failure (ARF) and chronic renal failure (CRF). CRF was observed in 400 patients, an incidence of 64 per million per year and a prevalence of 320 per million. ARF occurred in 147 persons with an incidence of 23.5 per million per year and a prevalence of 117.5 patients per million. Of all patients, 72% were adults (age range, 20-60 years) with a male preponderance. As a tropical country, malaria (27.9%), diarrhea (13.6%), and other infectious diseases were the main causes. Next most common were obstructive diseases causing CRF and ARF (26.8% and 12.9%, respectively), mainly urolithiasis, Schistosomiasis, and prostatic enlargement. However the cause of CRF in 57.5% of patients was unknown as most persons presented late with end-stage disease (64.7%), requiring immediate intervention. Other causes, such as hepatorenal syndrome, snake bite, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension, showed low occurrence rates. Patients presented to the hospital mostly in severe uremia and without a clear history of prior medications. The major findings were vomiting, acidosis, and hypertension with serum creatinine values ranging between 2.8-45 mg/dL (mean value, 13.4 mg/dL). Anemia was observed in 80.4% of CRF versus 62.6% of ARF patients. Hypertension prevalence was 65.5% among CRF patients, of whom 25% were in hypertensive crisis, whereas among ARF the prevalence was only 26.5%. PMID:15350475

  12. Renal calculus disease.

    PubMed

    Schulsinger, D A; Sosa, R E

    1998-03-01

    We have seen an explosion in technical innovations for the management of urolithiasis. Today, the endourologist possesses an assortment of minimally invasive tools to treat renal stones. Most patients receive fast, safe and effective treatment in the outpatient setting. Despite the many technical advances, however, anatomical malformations and complex stones still provide significant challenges in diagnosis, access to a targeted stone, fragmentation, and clearance of the resulting fragments. This review examines a variety of urinary stone presentations and treatment strategies for cost-effective management.

  13. Ifosfamide induced renal rickets.

    PubMed

    Lionel, Arul P; Chinnaswamy, Girish; John, Rikki R; Mathai, Sarah

    2014-09-01

    Ifosfamide is commonly used as a chemotherapeutic agent in children. The authors report a 4-y-old boy who developed proximal renal tubulopathy with florid rickets a year after completion of ifosfamide therapy for Ewing's sarcoma. After initiation of treatment, there was complete healing of rickets and he did not need supplements beyond 18 mo. Growth monitoring and musculoskeletal system examination is important in all children who have received ifosfamide therapy. Routine monitoring for nephrotoxicity during and after ifosfamide therapy helps in early identification and intervention. PMID:23912821

  14. 14 CFR 399.36 - Unreasonable discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Unreasonable discrimination. 399.36 Section... Unreasonable discrimination. (a) As used in this section: (1) Unreasonable discrimination means unjust discrimination or unreasonable preference or prejudice; and (2) Rate means rate, fare, or charge. (b) Except...

  15. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination...

  16. 14 CFR 399.36 - Unreasonable discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unreasonable discrimination. 399.36 Section... Unreasonable discrimination. (a) As used in this section: (1) Unreasonable discrimination means unjust discrimination or unreasonable preference or prejudice; and (2) Rate means rate, fare, or charge. (b) Except...

  17. 14 CFR 399.36 - Unreasonable discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Unreasonable discrimination. 399.36 Section... Unreasonable discrimination. (a) As used in this section: (1) Unreasonable discrimination means unjust discrimination or unreasonable preference or prejudice; and (2) Rate means rate, fare, or charge. (b) Except...

  18. 14 CFR 399.36 - Unreasonable discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Unreasonable discrimination. 399.36 Section... Unreasonable discrimination. (a) As used in this section: (1) Unreasonable discrimination means unjust discrimination or unreasonable preference or prejudice; and (2) Rate means rate, fare, or charge. (b) Except...

  19. 14 CFR 399.36 - Unreasonable discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Unreasonable discrimination. 399.36 Section... Unreasonable discrimination. (a) As used in this section: (1) Unreasonable discrimination means unjust discrimination or unreasonable preference or prejudice; and (2) Rate means rate, fare, or charge. (b) Except...

  20. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination...

  1. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination...

  2. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination...

  3. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination...

  4. Heuristics to Facilitate Understanding of Discriminant Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Epps, Pamela D.

    This paper discusses the principles underlying discriminant analysis and constructs a simulated data set to illustrate its methods. Discriminant analysis is a multivariate technique for identifying the best combination of variables to maximally discriminate between groups. Discriminant functions are established on existing groups and used to…

  5. [Renal oncocytoma: 2 clinical cases].

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, M; Boschi, L; Zamboni, W; Mandrioli, M

    1990-05-31

    Renal oncocytoma is an uncommon benign neoplasm of tubular epithelial origin. It usually occurs as single mass and clinically may be confused with renal cell carcinoma. Angiographic, CT and ultrasound studies may suggest the diagnosis but they are not pathognomonic. The clinical, diagnostic and anatomopathological features of two cases are presented and discussed.

  6. Polyhydramnios and acute renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, D. V.; Kelly, Moira B.; Pryor, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    Acute renal failure secondary to ureteric obstruction is described in a primigravida with twin gestation and polyhydramnios. Relief of the obstruction occurred on drainage of the liquor and return to normal renal function following delivery. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:7022419

  7. Heterogeneity of bilateral renal agenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, N.

    1977-01-01

    Bilateral and unilateral renal agenesis may be expressions of single dominant gene. Chromosome abnormalities may be present and the renal agenesis may be part of a syndrome of multiple abnormalities. Apparently normal relatives of affected individuals should be screened by intravenous pyelography before genetic counselling given. PMID:844022

  8. Renal response to environmental toxins.

    PubMed

    Finn, W F

    1977-10-01

    Several characteristics of normal renal function increase the risk to the kidney of damage by environmental toxins. Due to the magnitude of renal blood flow the total amount of noxious substance delivered may be disproportionately high. Furthermore, the capacity to concentrate substances within the kidney by processes of filtration, reabsorption and secretion has the potential to increase the toxicity of agents which would otherwise not lead to tissue injury. Unfortunately, there are few tests of renal function which are able to detect early functional abnormalities and which, at the same time, are suited for screening purposes by virtue of their simplicity, cost and safety. Furthermore, interpretation of the tests is complicated by adaptive changes in renal function which occur with aging and in response to other disease processes. Environmental agents produce a wide spectrum of renal dysfunction. Acute renal damage follows exposure to glycols, organic solvents, heavy metals, diagnostic and therapeutic agents and a variety of miscellaneous substances. Chronic renal disease may take the form of isolated tubular defects as seen with cadmium, interstitial nephritis due to the ingestion of lead, or vascular damage induced by external radiation. Some forms of glomerulonephritis may also be related to environmental toxins as are certain tumors of the urinary tract. In a somewhat different fashion, patients whose renal function is limited by the presence of pre-existing disease may manifest toxicity from substances ordinarily excreted in the urine. Particular problems exist with the patients on dialysis, as they are at considerable risk to alterations in the environment.

  9. Contemporary Renal Cell Cancer Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Wong-Ho; Devesa, Susan S.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed renal cell cancer incidence patterns in the United States and reviewed recent epidemiologic evidence with regard to environmental and host genetic determinants of renal cell cancer risk. Renal cell cancer incidence rates continued to rise among all racial/ethnic groups in the United States, across all age groups, and for all tumor sizes, with the most rapid increases for localized stage disease and small tumors. Recent cohort studies confirmed the association of smoking, excess body weight, and hypertension with an elevated risk of renal cell cancer, and suggested that these factors can be modified to reduce the risk. There is increasing evidence for an inverse association between renal cell cancer risk and physical activity and moderate intake of alcohol. Occupational exposure to TCE has been positively associated with renal cell cancer risk in several recent studies, but its link with somatic mutations of the VHL gene has not been confirmed. Studies of genetic polymorphisms in relation to renal cell cancer risk have produced mixed results, but genome-wide association studies with larger sample size and a more comprehensive approach are underway. Few epidemiologic studies have evaluated risk factors by subtypes of renal cell cancer defined by somatic mutations and other tumor markers. PMID:18836333

  10. Development of the Renal Arterioles

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, R. Ariel

    2011-01-01

    The kidney is a highly vascularized organ that normally receives a fifth of the cardiac output. The unique spatial arrangement of the kidney vasculature with each nephron is crucial for the regulation of renal blood flow, GFR, urine concentration, and other specialized kidney functions. Thus, the proper and timely assembly of kidney vessels with their respective nephrons is a crucial morphogenetic event leading to the formation of a functioning kidney necessary for independent extrauterine life. Mechanisms that govern the development of the kidney vasculature are poorly understood. In this review, we discuss the anatomical development, embryological origin, lineage relationships, and key regulators of the kidney arterioles and postglomerular circulation. Because renal disease is associated with deterioration of the kidney microvasculature and/or the reenactment of embryonic pathways, understanding the morphogenetic events and processes that maintain the renal vasculature may open new avenues for the preservation of renal structure and function and prevent the progression of renal disease. PMID:22052047

  11. Renal biopsy: methods and interpretation.

    PubMed

    Vaden, Shelly L

    2004-07-01

    Renal biopsy most often is indicated in the management of dogs and cats with glomerular disease or acute renal failure. Renal biopsy can readily be performed in dogs and cats via either percutaneous or surgical methods. Care should be taken to ensure that proper technique is used. When proper technique is employed and patient factors are properly addressed, renal biopsy is a relatively safe procedure that minimally affects renal function. Patients should be monitored during the post biopsy period for severe hemorrhage, the most common complication. Accurate diagnosis of glomerular disease, and therefore, accurate treatment planning,requires that the biopsy specimens not only be evaluated by light microscopy using special stains but by electron and immunofluorescent microscopy. PMID:15223207

  12. Renal Denervation: Where to Now?

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Neil J; Mauri, Laura

    2015-12-01

    Resistant hypertension remains a growing problem worldwide. Renal sympathetic denervation was thought to be a new method for the treatment for resistant hypertension. Early studies demonstrated a marked benefit in patients who underwent renal denervation procedures, but the pivotal SYMPLICITY 3-HTN trial, the only sham-controlled randomized trial performed, did not show a benefit for patients treated with the procedure compared to sham. There is still much to learn about the physiology and anatomy of renal sympathetic pathways as well as careful attention to medication adherence in order to understand the role of renal sympathetic denervation in treating hypertensive patients. While renal denervation technology remains available in clinical practice outside of the USA, we expect further development of this technology in the upcoming years and the continued evaluation of this technology in patients with hypertension as well as other disease states to fully understand its role. PMID:26482759

  13. User discrimination in automotive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makrushin, Andrey; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Leich, Marcus

    2011-03-01

    The recently developed dual-view touch screens, which are announced to be installed in cars in a near future, give rise to completely new challenges in human-machine interaction. The automotive system should be able to identify if the driver or the passenger is currently interacting with the touch screen to provide a correct response to the touch. The optical devices, due to availability, acceptance by the users and multifunctional usage, approved to be the most appropriate sensing technology for driver/passenger discrimination. In this work the prototypic optical user discrimination system is implemented in the car simulator and evaluated in the laboratory environment with entirely controlled illumination. Three tests were done for this research. One of them examined if the near-infrared illumination should be switched on around the clock, the second one if there is a difference in discrimination performance between day, twilight and night conditions, and the third one examined how the intensive directional lighting influences the performance of the implemented user discrimination algorithm. Despite the high error rates, the evaluation results show that very simple computer vision algorithms are able to solve complicated user discrimination task. The average error rate of 10.42% (daytime with near-infrared illumination) is a very promising result for optical systems.

  14. Renal transplantation in infants.

    PubMed

    Jalanko, Hannu; Mattila, Ilkka; Holmberg, Christer

    2016-05-01

    Renal transplantation (RTx) has become an accepted mode of therapy in infants with severe renal failure. The major indications are structural abnormalities of the urinary tract, congenital nephrotic syndrome, polycystic diseases, and neonatal kidney injury. Assessment of these infants needs expertise and time as well as active treatment before RTx to ensure optimal growth and development, and to avoid complications that could lead to permanent neurological defects. RTx can be performed already in infants weighing around 5 kg, but most operations occur in infants with a weight of 10 kg or more. Perioperative management focuses on adequate perfusion of the allograft and avoidance of thrombotic and other surgical complications. Important long-term issues include rejections, infections, graft function, growth, bone health, metabolic problems, neurocognitive development, adherence to medication, pubertal maturation, and quality of life. The overall outcome of infant RTx has dramatically improved, with long-term patient and graft survivals of over 90 and 80 %, respectively. PMID:26115617

  15. Renal histology and immunopathology in distal renal tubular acidosis.

    PubMed

    Feest, T G; Lockwood, C M; Morley, A R; Uff, J S

    1978-11-01

    Renal biospy studies are reported from 10 patients with distal renal tubular acidosis (DRTA). On the biopsies from 6 patients who had associated immunological abnormalities immunofluorescent studies for immunoglobulins, complement, and fibrin were performed. Interstitial cellular infiltration and fibrosis were common findings in patients with and without immunological abnormalities, and were usually associated with nephrocalcinosis and/or recurrent urinary infection. No immune deposits were demonstrated in association with the renal tubules. This study shows that DRTA in immunologically abnormal patients is not caused by tubular deposition of antibody or immune complexes. The possibility of cell mediated immune damage is discussed.

  16. Spontaneous renal artery dissection complicating with renal infarction.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsung-Han; Su, Jung-Tsung; Hu, Sung-Yuan; Chao, Chih-Chung; Tsan, Yu-Tse; Lin, Tzu-Chieh

    2010-12-01

    Spontaneous renal artery dissection (SRAD) is a rare entity. We reported a 30-year-old healthy man presenting with sudden onset of left flank pain. Abdominal plain film and sonography were unremarkable. The contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomographic (CT) scan demonstrated a dissecting intimal flap of the left distal renal artery (RA) complicating infarction. Selective angiography of the renal artery disclosed a long dissection of left distal RA with a patent true lumen and occlusion of left accessory RA. Conservative treatment with control of blood pressure and antiplatelet agent was prescribed. The patient was discharged with an uneventful condition on day 5.

  17. Task-dependent color discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poirson, Allen B.; Wandell, Brian A.

    1990-01-01

    When color video displays are used in time-critical applications (e.g., head-up displays, video control panels), the observer must discriminate among briefly presented targets seen within a complex spatial scene. Color-discrimination threshold are compared by using two tasks. In one task the observer makes color matches between two halves of a continuously displayed bipartite field. In a second task the observer detects a color target in a set of briefly presented objects. The data from both tasks are well summarized by ellipsoidal isosensitivity contours. The fitted ellipsoids differ both in their size, which indicates an absolute sensitivity difference, and orientation, which indicates a relative sensitivity difference.

  18. Renal Toxicities of Targeted Therapies.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Anum; Mirza, Mohsin M; Ganti, Apar Kishor; Tendulkar, Ketki

    2015-12-01

    With the incorporation of targeted therapies in routine cancer therapy, it is imperative that the array of toxicities associated with these agents be well-recognized and managed, especially since these toxicities are distinct from those seen with conventional cytotoxic agents. This review will focus on these renal toxicities from commonly used targeted agents. This review discusses the mechanisms of these side effects and management strategies. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents including the monoclonal antibody bevacizumab, aflibercept (VEGF trap), and anti-VEGF receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) all cause hypertension, whereas some of them result in proteinuria. Monoclonal antibodies against the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family of receptors, such as cetuximab and panitumumab, cause electrolyte imbalances including hypomagnesemia and hypokalemia due to the direct nephrotoxic effect of the drug on renal tubules. Cetuximab may also result in renal tubular acidosis. The TKIs, imatinib and dasatinib, can result in acute or chronic renal failure. Rituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, can cause acute renal failure following initiation of therapy because of the onset of acute tumor lysis syndrome. Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, can result in proteinuria. Discerning the renal adverse effects resulting from these agents is essential for safe treatment strategies, particularly in those with pre-existing renal disease.

  19. Wegener's granulomatosis with renal involvement: patient survival and correlations between initial renal function, renal histology, therapy and renal outcome.

    PubMed

    Andrassy, K; Erb, A; Koderisch, J; Waldherr, R; Ritz, E

    1991-04-01

    Patient survival and renal outcome were followed in 25 patients with biopsy confirmed Wegener's granulomatosis and renal involvement. Fourteen out of 25 patients required dialysis on admission, 11/25 patients did not. All patients were treated with a novel protocol comprising methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide. The median follow-up observation was 36 months (12-113 months). With the exception of 1 patient (who died from causes not related to Wegener's granulomatosis) all patients are alive. Among the patients initially requiring dialysis (n = 14) 4 are in terminal renal failure after 0, 7, 21 and 38 months respectively. In the nondialysis group (n = 11) only 1 patient subsequently required chronic dialysis 30 months after clinical admission. Renal failure was due to non-compliance with immunosuppressive therapy in at least 2 patients. Percentage of obsolescent glomeruli and the degree of tubulointerstitial lesions, but not active glomerular lesions (crescents, necroses) predicted renal outcome. The major cause of renal functional impairment was relapse of Wegener's granulomatosis usually within 2 years after clinical remission. Therefore prolonged treatment with cyclophosphamide for at least 2 years after clinical remission is recommended. Two patients with initially negative immunohistology had a second renal biopsy which revealed de novo appearance of mesangial IgA deposits.

  20. Renal Toxicities of Targeted Therapies.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Anum; Mirza, Mohsin M; Ganti, Apar Kishor; Tendulkar, Ketki

    2015-12-01

    With the incorporation of targeted therapies in routine cancer therapy, it is imperative that the array of toxicities associated with these agents be well-recognized and managed, especially since these toxicities are distinct from those seen with conventional cytotoxic agents. This review will focus on these renal toxicities from commonly used targeted agents. This review discusses the mechanisms of these side effects and management strategies. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents including the monoclonal antibody bevacizumab, aflibercept (VEGF trap), and anti-VEGF receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) all cause hypertension, whereas some of them result in proteinuria. Monoclonal antibodies against the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family of receptors, such as cetuximab and panitumumab, cause electrolyte imbalances including hypomagnesemia and hypokalemia due to the direct nephrotoxic effect of the drug on renal tubules. Cetuximab may also result in renal tubular acidosis. The TKIs, imatinib and dasatinib, can result in acute or chronic renal failure. Rituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, can cause acute renal failure following initiation of therapy because of the onset of acute tumor lysis syndrome. Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, can result in proteinuria. Discerning the renal adverse effects resulting from these agents is essential for safe treatment strategies, particularly in those with pre-existing renal disease. PMID:25922090

  1. Angio-embolization of a renal pseudoaneurysm complicating a percutaneous renal biopsy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rafik, Hicham; Azizi, Mounia; El Kabbaj, Driss; Benyahia, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    We report the treatment of a bleeding renal pseudoaneurysm by angio-embolization. A 21 years old woman developed macroscopic haematuria following renal biopsy. Renal angio-scan showed a 1.4 cm renal pseudoaneurysm in the left kidney. The presence of pseudoaneurysm was confirmed by selective renal angiography. Successful embolization was performed using gelatine sponge particles.

  2. Angio-embolization of a renal pseudoaneurysm complicating a percutaneous renal biopsy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Rafik, Hicham; Azizi, Mounia; Kabbaj, Driss El; Benyahia, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    We report the treatment of a bleeding renal pseudoaneurysm by angio-embolization. A 21 years old woman developed macroscopic haematuria following renal biopsy. Renal angio-scan showed a 1.4 cm renal pseudoaneurysm in the left kidney. The presence of pseudoaneurysm was confirmed by selective renal angiography. Successful embolization was performed using gelatine sponge particles. PMID:26958141

  3. Successful management of neonatal renal venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Piscitelli, Antonio; Galiano, Rossella; Piccolo, Vincenzo; Concolino, Daniela; Strisciuglio, Pietro

    2014-10-01

    Renal vein thrombosis is the most common vascular condition involving the newborn kidney and it can result in severe renal damage. We report a newborn with renal vein thrombosis treated with continuous infusion of unfractionated heparin who had normal total renal function after 3 years of follow up, despite reduction of the functional contribution of the affected kidney.

  4. Diagnosis and management of renal angioma.

    PubMed Central

    Abercrombie, J F; Holmes, S A; Ball, A J

    1992-01-01

    Five patients with symptomatic renal angiomata are described. All presented with heavy haematuria and unilateral ureteric obstruction without evidence of a mass distorting the renal architecture. Renal angiomata are most easily diagnosed by selective renal angiography. They may be treated by intraarterial embolization, avoiding the need for major ablative surgery. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:1433042

  5. [Travel and renal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Lavelle, O; Berland, Y

    1997-01-01

    Traveling can be dangerous for subjects with kidney insufficiency. Water loss or septic episodes can further increase renal dysfunction. Poor diet can lead to hyperkaliemia. Immunosuppression not only enhances the risk of infection but also complicates administration of live vaccines. Some antimalarial drugs are contraindicated (e.g. mefloquine) and others must be used with precaution. Prior to departure persons requiring hemodialysis should book sessions at centers listed in specialized guidebooks. In addition to infection, risks for hemodialysis patients include thrombosis of the arteriovenous fistula in case of dehydration or hypotension. In subjects with transplanted kidney, the risk of rejection can be enhanced either by poor compliance with immunodepressor treatment or by vaccination-induced antigenic stimulation. Pre-travel evaluation is necessary to determine metabolic, nutritional, and immune status. Subjects with kidney insufficiency and transplanted kidneys should be informed of the dangers and appropriate action in case of trouble.

  6. Hyperparathyroidism of Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Noah K; Ananthakrishnan, Shubha; Campbell, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Renal hyperparathyroidism (rHPT) is a common complication of chronic kidney disease characterized by elevated parathyroid hormone levels secondary to derangements in the homeostasis of calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D. Patients with rHPT experience increased rates of cardiovascular problems and bone disease. The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines recommend that screening and management of rHPT be initiated for all patients with chronic kidney disease stage 3 (estimated glomerular filtration rate, < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2). Since the 1990s, improving medical management with vitamin D analogs, phosphate binders, and calcimimetic drugs has expanded the treatment options for patients with rHPT, but some patients still require a parathyroidectomy to mitigate the sequelae of this challenging disease. PMID:27479950

  7. Renal Ablation Update

    PubMed Central

    Khiatani, Vishal; Dixon, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal ablative technologies have evolved considerably in the recent past and are now an important component of current clinical guidelines for the treatment of small renal masses. Both radiofrequency ablation and cryoablation have intermediate-term oncologic control that rivals surgical options, with favorable complication profiles. Studies comparing cryoablation and radiofrequency ablation show no significant difference in oncologic control or complication profile between the two modalities. Early data from small series with microwave ablation have shown similar promising results. Newer technologies including irreversible electroporation and high-intensity–focused ultrasound have theoretical advantages, but will require further research before becoming a routine part of the ablation armamentarium. The purpose of this review article is to discuss the current ablative technologies available, briefly review their mechanisms of action, discuss technical aspects of each, and provide current data supporting their use. PMID:25049445

  8. Renal rickets-practical approach

    PubMed Central

    Sahay, Manisha; Sahay, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Rickets/osteomalacia is an important problem in a tropical country. Many cases are due to poor vitamin D intake or calcium deficient diets and can be corrected by administration of calcium and vitamin D. However, some cases are refractory to vitamin D therapy and are related to renal defects. These include rickets of renal tubular acidosis (RTA), hypophosphatemic rickets, and vitamin D dependent rickets (VDDR). The latter is due to impaired action of 1α-hydroxylase in renal tubule. These varieties need proper diagnosis and specific treatment. PMID:24251212

  9. Renal Cancer in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    González León, Tania; Morera Pérez, Maricela

    2016-01-01

    The increase of the aging population corresponds with the rise of renal cancer in elderly patients. The distinction between functional and chronological age, quality of life, and survival estimate are important issues, among others, that should be considered in the management of renal cancer in elderly patients. We made this review with the purpose of synthesizing the most updated criteria regarding indications and outcomes of the different therapeutic options in the management of elderly patients with renal cancer, beginning from the physiologic considerations that characterize them, their capacity to tolerate different therapeutic possibilities, and the prognosis of the patients' risks and comorbidity assessment.

  10. Unusual renal tumour: multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Palmeiro, Marta Morna; Niza, João Luz; Loureiro, Ana Luisa; Conceição e Silva, João Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma (MCRCC) is a rare presentation of renal cell carcinoma. Most patients are asymptomatic and frequently MCRCCs are detected incidentally. MCRCCs have good prognosis because of their low malignant potential. We report a case of a 39-year-old woman who presented with mild right flank pain and normal laboratory data. On imaging examinations, a Bosniak III cystic lesion was detected in the lower third of the right kidney. She underwent right partial nephrectomy and histopathology showed a multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma Fuhrman grade 1. In this article, we also present a review of the literature on MCRCC, highlight the correlation of the pathological and imaging characteristics of these low aggressive renal lesions, and underscore the importance of their recognition to prevent unnecessary radical surgery. PMID:26957035

  11. Bacterial discrimination: Dictyostelium's discerning taste.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Michelle L D

    2013-05-20

    New research indicates that the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum recognizes distinctions between Gram(-) and Gram(+) bacterial prey and responds discriminately to these two groups of bacteria. These findings may lend insight to the origins of microbial pattern recognition in innate immunity.

  12. Macaque Monkeys Discriminate Pitch Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosch, Michael; Selezneva, Elena; Bucks, Cornelia; Scheich, Henning

    2004-01-01

    This study demonstrates that non-human primates can categorize the direction of the pitch change of tones in a sequence. Two "Macaca fascicularis" were trained in a positive-reinforcement behavioral paradigm in which they listened to sequences of a variable number of different acoustic items. The training of discriminating pitch direction was…

  13. Spatial layout affects speed discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verghese, P.; Stone, L. S.

    1997-01-01

    We address a surprising result in a previous study of speed discrimination with multiple moving gratings: discrimination thresholds decreased when the number of stimuli was increased, but remained unchanged when the area of a single stimulus was increased [Verghese & Stone (1995). Vision Research, 35, 2811-2823]. In this study, we manipulated the spatial- and phase relationship between multiple grating patches to determine their effect on speed discrimination thresholds. In a fusion experiment, we merged multiple stimulus patches, in stages, into a single patch. Thresholds increased as the patches were brought closer and their phase relationship was adjusted to be consistent with a single patch. Thresholds increased further still as these patches were fused into a single patch. In a fission experiment, we divided a single large patch into multiple patches by superimposing a cross with luminance equal to that of the background. Thresholds decreased as the large patch was divided into quadrants and decreased further as the quadrants were maximally separated. However, when the cross luminance was darker than the background, it was perceived as an occluder and thresholds, on average, were unchanged from that for the single large patch. A control experiment shows that the observed trend in discrimination thresholds is not due to the differences in perceived speed of the stimuli. These results suggest that the parsing of the visual image into entities affects the combination of speed information across space, and that each discrete entity effectively provides a single independent estimate of speed.

  14. Experiencing discrimination increases risk taking.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Jeremy P; Koslov, Katrina; Nock, Matthew K; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2013-02-01

    Prior research has revealed racial disparities in health outcomes and health-compromising behaviors, such as smoking and drug abuse. It has been suggested that discrimination contributes to such disparities, but the mechanisms through which this might occur are not well understood. In the research reported here, we examined whether the experience of discrimination affects acute physiological stress responses and increases risk-taking behavior. Black and White participants each received rejecting feedback from partners who were either of their own race (in-group rejection) or of a different race (out-group rejection, which could be interpreted as discrimination). Physiological (cardiovascular and neuroendocrine) changes, cognition (memory and attentional bias), affect, and risk-taking behavior were assessed. Significant participant race × partner race interactions were observed. Cross-race rejection, compared with same-race rejection, was associated with lower levels of cortisol, increased cardiac output, decreased vascular resistance, greater anger, increased attentional bias, and more risk-taking behavior. These data suggest that perceived discrimination is associated with distinct profiles of physiological reactivity, affect, cognitive processing, and risk taking, implicating direct and indirect pathways to health disparities.

  15. Visualization of Term Discrimination Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jin; Wolfram, Dietmar

    2001-01-01

    Discusses information visualization techniques and introduces a visual term discrimination value analysis method using a document density space within a distance-angle-based visual information retrieval environment. Explains that applications of these methods facilitate more effective assignment of term weights to index terms within documents and…

  16. Discriminant Analysis for Content Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John H., Jr.

    A series of experiments was performed to investigate the effectiveness and utility of automatically classifying documents through the use of multiple discriminant functions. Classification is accomplished by computing the distance from the mean vector of each category to the vector of observed frequencies of a document and assigning the document…

  17. Preferential Remedies for Employment Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry T.; Zaretsky, Barry L.

    1975-01-01

    An overview of the problem of preferential remedies to achieve equal employment opportunities for women and minority groups. Contends that "color blindness" will not end discrimination but that some form of "color conscious" affirmative action program must be employed. Temporary preferential treatment is justified, according to the author, by the…

  18. Law: Reverse Discrimination, Legal Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation's Schools and Colleges, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Just as schools and colleges are starting to hire more black and female faculty members through affirmative action programs, there is a new battle cry on the civil rights front: "reverse discrimination." Qualified whites claim they are being shoved aside in the scramble for less-qualified blacks, Chicanos, American Indians, and members of other…

  19. Renal Histologic Parameters Influencing Postoperative Renal Function in Renal Cell Carcinoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Myoung Ju; Lim, Beom Jin; Choi, Kyu Hun; Kim, Yon Hee

    2013-01-01

    Background Pre-existing non-neoplastic renal diseases or lesions may influence patient renal function after tumor removal. However, its description is often neglected or omitted in pathologic reports. To determine the incidence and clinical significance of non-neoplastic lesions, we retrospectively examined renal tissues obtained during 85 radical nephrectomies for renal cell carcinoma. Methods One paraffin-embedded tissue block from each case containing a sufficient amount of non-tumorous renal parenchyma was cut and processed with hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff methods. Non-neoplastic lesions of each histological compartment were semi-quantitatively and quantitatively evaluated. Results Among the various histologic lesions found, tubular atrophy, arterial intimal thickening, and glomerulosclerosis were the most common (94.1%, 91.8%, and 88.2%, respectively). Glomerulosclerosis correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate at the time of surgery, as well as at 1- and 5-years post-surgery (p=.0071), but tubulointerstitial fibrosis or arterial fibrous intimal thickening did not. Post-hoc analysis revealed that glomerulosclerosis of more than 20% predicted post-operative renal function. However, its significance disappeared when gender and age were considered. Conclusions In conclusion, non-neoplastic lesions, especially with regard to glomerulosclerosis percentage, should be described in pathology reports to provide additional information on renal function decline. PMID:24421849

  20. [Spontaneous renal artery dissection with renal infarction: a case report].

    PubMed

    Oki, Takashi; Adachi, Hiroyuki; Tahara, Hideo; Kino, Sigeo

    2011-11-01

    A 58-year-old woman visited our hospital with nausea and right flank pain. At first abdominal ultrasonography was performed, suggesting a right renal infarction. Computed tomography (CT) study of the abdomen with intravenous contrast was performed to determine the cause of the symptoms. The scan revealed poor enhancement in the lower half of the right kidney. She was diagnosed with a right renal infarction. She was initially treated with anticoagulant therapy, but 5 days later, she complained of nausea. This time, CT demonstrated exacerbation of a right renal infarction with renal artery dissection. Based on this finding, we performed a right nephrectomy. The result of pathology was segmental arterial mediolysis. She was discharged 12 days after the surgery and is doing well at 6 months after discharge. Spontaneous renal artery dissection is a rare disease. It constitutes approximately 0.05% of arteriographic dissections. In addition, spontaneous renal artery dissection shows nonspecific symptoms. Together, these two factors may cause a delay in diagnosis.

  1. Legitimating Racial Discrimination: Emotions, Not Beliefs, Best Predict Discrimination in a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Talaska, Cara A.; Chaiken, Shelly

    2013-01-01

    Investigations of racial bias have emphasized stereotypes and other beliefs as central explanatory mechanisms and as legitimating discrimination. In recent theory and research, emotional prejudices have emerged as another, more direct predictor of discrimination. A new comprehensive meta-analysis of 57 racial attitude-discrimination studies finds a moderate relationship between overall attitudes and discrimination. Emotional prejudices are twices as closely related to racial discrimination as stereotypes and beliefs are. Moreover, emotional prejudices are closely related to both observed and self-reported discrimination, whereas stereotypes and beliefs are related only to self-reported discrimination. Implications for justifying discrimination are discussed. PMID:24052687

  2. Robotic-assisted transperitoneal nephron-sparing surgery for small renal masses with associated surgical procedures: surgical technique and preliminary experience.

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, Graziano; Codacci-Pisanelli, Massimo; Patriti, Alberto; Ceribelli, Cecilia; Biancafarina, Alessia; Casciola, Luciano

    2013-09-01

    Small renal masses (T1a) are commonly diagnosed incidentally and can be treated with nephron-sparing surgery, preserving renal function and obtaining the same oncological results as radical surgery. Bigger lesions (T1b) may be treated in particular situations with a conservative approach too. We present our surgical technique based on robotic assistance for nephron-sparing surgery. We retrospectively analysed our series of 32 consecutive patients (two with 2 tumours and one with 4 bilateral tumours), for a total of 37 robotic nephron-sparing surgery (RNSS) performed between June 2008 and July 2012 by a single surgeon (G.C.). The technique differs depending on tumour site and size. The mean tumour size was 3.6 cm; according to the R.E.N.A.L. Nephrometry Score 9 procedures were considered of low, 14 of moderate and 9 of hight complexity with no conversion in open surgery. Vascular clamping was performed in 22 cases with a mean warm ischemia time of 21.5 min and the mean total procedure time was 149.2 min. Mean estimated blood loss was 187.1 ml. Mean hospital stay was 4.4 days. Histopathological evaluation confirmed 19 cases of clear cell carcinoma (all the multiple tumours were of this nature), 3 chromophobe tumours, 1 collecting duct carcinoma, 5 oncocytomas, 1 leiomyoma, 1 cavernous haemangioma and 2 benign cysts. Associated surgical procedures were performed in 10 cases (4 cholecystectomies, 3 important lyses of peritoneal adhesions, 1 adnexectomy, 1 right hemicolectomy, 1 hepatic resection). The mean follow-up time was 28.1 months ± 12.3 (range 6-54). Intraoperative complications were 3 cases of important bleeding not requiring conversion to open or transfusions. Regarding post-operative complications, there were a bowel occlusion, 1 pleural effusion, 2 pararenal hematoma, 3 asymptomatic DVT (deep vein thrombosis) and 1 transient increase in creatinine level. There was no evidence of tumour recurrence in the follow-up. RNSS is a safe and feasible technique

  3. Urea distribution in renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Blackmore, D. J.; Elder, W. J.; Bowden, C. H.

    1963-01-01

    An assessment of intracellular urea removed during haemodialysis has been made from urea extraction and plasma urea estimations. An apparent wide variation in the movement of intracellular urea in patients with acute renal failure from obstetric and traumatic causes and with chronic renal failure is reported. A method for the estimation of red cell water urea is presented. In two patients with chronic renal failure the red cell urea level was much higher than would have been expected from the plasma urea level before dialysis. In two obstetric patients there was no such discrepancy. The conclusion is drawn that research should be directed to variations of intracellular metabolism in renal failure before a more rational approach can be made to its management. PMID:16811009

  4. The renal mononuclear phagocytic system.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Peter J; Rees, Andrew J; Griffin, Matthew D; Hughes, Jeremy; Kurts, Christian; Duffield, Jeremy

    2012-02-01

    The renal mononuclear phagocytic system, conventionally composed of macrophages (Mø) and dendritic cells (DCs), plays a central role in health and disease of the kidney. Overlapping definitions of renal DCs and Mø, stemming from historically separate research tracks and the lack of experimental tools to specifically study the roles of these cells in vivo, have generated confusion and controversy, however, regarding their immunologic function in the kidney. This brief review provides an appraisal of the current state of knowledge of the renal mononuclear phagocytic system interpreted from the perspective of immunologic function. Physical characteristics, ontogeny, and known functions of the main subsets of renal mononuclear phagocytes as they relate to homeostasis, surveillance against injury and infection, and immune-mediated inflammatory injury and repair within the kidney are described. Gaps and inconsistencies in current knowledge are used to create a roadmap of key questions to be answered in future research. PMID:22135312

  5. Mucormycosis (zygomycosis) of renal allograft.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Krishan L; Joshi, Kusum; Kohli, Harbir S; Jha, Vivekanand; Sakhuja, Vinay

    2012-12-01

    Fungal infection is relatively common among renal transplant recipients from developing countries. Mucormycosis, also known as zygomycosis, is one of the most serious fungal infections in these patients. The most common of presentation is rhino-cerebral. Isolated involvement of a renal allograft is very rare. A thorough search of literature and our medical records yielded a total of 24 cases with mucormycosis of the transplanted kidney. There was an association with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and anti-rejection treatment in these patients and most of these transplants were performed in the developing countries from unrelated donors. The outcome was very poor with an early mortality in 13 (54.5%) patients. Renal allograft mucormycosis is a relatively rare and potentially fatal complication following renal transplantation. Early diagnosis, graft nephrectomy and appropriate antifungal therapy may result in an improved prognosis for these patients.

  6. Renal infarction complicating fibromuscular dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Gavalas, M; Meisner, R; Labropoulos, N; Gasparis, A; Tassiopoulos, A

    2014-01-01

    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a nonatherosclerotic, noninflammatory vascular disease that most commonly affects the renal and extracranial carotid arteries. We present 3 cases of renal infarction complicating renal artery FMD in 42-, 43-, and 46-year-old females and provide a comprehensive review of the literature on this topic. In our patients, oral anticoagulation therapy was used to treat all cases of infarction, and percutaneous angioplasty was used nonemergently in one case to treat refractory hypertension. All patients remained stable at 1-year follow-up. This is consistent with outcomes in previously published reports where conservative medical management was comparable to surgical and interventional therapies. Demographic differences may also exist in patients with renal infarction and FMD. A higher prevalence of males and a younger age at presentation have been found in these patients when compared to the general population with FMD.

  7. Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  8. Primary carcinoma of renal calyx.

    PubMed

    Williams, Phillip A; Mai, Kien T

    2013-10-01

    Renal calyx carcinoma (RCXC) may mimic collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) or urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the renal pelvis. RCXC is distinguished from CDC and UC of the renal pelvis as having the tumor epicenter in the renal calyx, with limited involvement of the surrounding renal pelvis surface urothelium. In this study, we summarize our experience with this entity. Ten cases of RCXC, including 9 cases with urothelial differentiation (RCXC-UC) and 1 case with salivary gland-type differentiation (RCXC-SC), were identified. Ten consecutive cases of UC were selected for comparison, with extensive renal pelvis involvement and with secondary renal parenchymal invasion. Two cases of collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) were also examined. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on representative tissue blocks for PAX8, PAX2, CK5, CK7, CK20, p63, GATA3, AMACR, RCC, CD10, vimentin, S100, and MSA. The 10 cases of RCXC (M:F=4:6, ages: 62-91 years, mean: 76) presented with renal masses of 3-6cm. Ureteroscopic studies and renal pelvic washings showed atypical/malignant cells in three cases. Seven patients were treated with nephrectomy followed by radiation±chemotherapy, and all cases developed metastases to lymph nodes or liver/lung/bone. In all 7 cases with nephrectomy, there was extensive renal parenchymal involvement with infiltrating borders and diffuse spread along collecting ducts. Six RCXC-UC contained focal squamous differentiation. The RCXC-SC displayed features of adenoid cystic and basaloid features. In situ UC, with or without papillary components, was identified in the calyces in all 7 nephrectomy cases with remaining renal pelvis harboring small tumor burden in 5 cases, and no tumor in another 2 cases. Of the three cases without nephrectomy, no tumor in the renal pelvis could be visualized with endoscopy, however one case was associated with UC of the urinary bladder. Of 10 control UC cases, tumor was limited to the tip of renal papilla in 7 cases, extensive in 3

  9. Renal protection in cardiovascular surgery

    PubMed Central

    Di Tomasso, Nora; Monaco, Fabrizio; Landoni, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most relevant complications after major surgery and is a predictor of mortality. In Western countries, patients at risk of developing AKI are mainly those undergoing cardiovascular surgical procedures. In this category of patients, AKI depends on a multifactorial etiology, including low ejection fraction, use of contrast media, hemodynamic instability, cardiopulmonary bypass, and bleeding. Despite a growing body of literature, the treatment of renal failure remains mainly supportive (e.g. hemodynamic stability, fluid management, and avoidance of further damage); therefore, the management of patients at risk of AKI should aim at prevention of renal damage. Thus, the present narrative review analyzes the pathophysiology underlying AKI (specifically in high-risk patients), the preoperative risk factors that predispose to renal damage, early biomarkers related to AKI, and the strategies employed for perioperative renal protection. The most recent scientific evidence has been considered, and whenever conflicting data were encountered possible suggestions are provided. PMID:26998249

  10. From Pre-Existing Renal Failure to Perioperative Renal Protection: The Anesthesiologist’s Dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    Domi, Rudin; Huti, Gentian; Sula, Hektor; Baftiu, Nehat; Kaci, Myzafer; Bodeci, Artan; Pesha, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Context Pre-existing renal dysfunction presents specific features that anesthesiologists must deal with. Anesthesia and renal function are connected and can interfere with each other. Induced hypotension anesthesia and the toxic effects of anesthetic drugs can further deteriorate renal function. Evidence Acquisition Decreased renal function can prolong anesthetic drug effects by decreased elimination of these drugs. Anesthesia can deteriorate renal function and decreased renal function can interfere with drug elimination leading to their prolonged effect. The anesthesiologist must understand all the physiological aspects of the patient, renal protection, and the relationships between anesthetic drugs and renal function. This review article aims to summarize these aspects. Results Perioperative renal failure and renal protection is a crucial moment in clinical practice of every anesthesiologist. Conclusions Good knowledges for renal function remain a hallmark of daily practice of the anesthesiologist, considering renal function as an important determinant factor in anesthesia practice. PMID:27642570

  11. Metoclopramide and renal vascular resistance.

    PubMed

    Manara, A R; Bolsin, S; Monk, C R; Hartnell, G; Harris, R A

    1991-01-01

    We have studied the effect of i.v. metoclopramide on renal vascular resistance in nine healthy volunteers. Peak systolic and end-diastolic frequencies were measured using duplex Doppler ultrasound of a renal interlobar artery, before and after the administration of i.v. metoclopramide 10 mg, and the resistance index derived. There was no significant change in mean arterial pressure or resistance index following metoclopramide.

  12. Renal Ammonia Metabolism and Transport

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, I. David; Verlander, Jill W.

    2015-01-01

    Renal ammonia metabolism and transport mediates a central role in acid-base homeostasis. In contrast to most renal solutes, the majority of renal ammonia excretion derives from intrarenal production, not from glomerular filtration. Renal ammoniagenesis predominantly results from glutamine metabolism, which produces 2 NH4+ and 2 HCO3− for each glutamine metabolized. The proximal tubule is the primary site for ammoniagenesis, but there is evidence for ammoniagenesis by most renal epithelial cells. Ammonia produced in the kidney is either excreted into the urine or returned to the systemic circulation through the renal veins. Ammonia excreted in the urine promotes acid excretion; ammonia returned to the systemic circulation is metabolized in the liver in a HCO3−-consuming process, resulting in no net benefit to acid-base homeostasis. Highly regulated ammonia transport by renal epithelial cells determines the proportion of ammonia excreted in the urine versus returned to the systemic circulation. The traditional paradigm of ammonia transport involving passive NH3 diffusion, protonation in the lumen and NH4+ trapping due to an inability to cross plasma membranes is being replaced by the recognition of limited plasma membrane NH3 permeability in combination with the presence of specific NH3-transporting and NH4+-transporting proteins in specific renal epithelial cells. Ammonia production and transport are regulated by a variety of factors, including extracellular pH and K+, and by several hormones, such as mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and angiotensin II. This coordinated process of regulated ammonia production and transport is critical for the effective maintenance of acid-base homeostasis. PMID:23720285

  13. Renal response to environmental toxics

    PubMed Central

    Finn, William F.

    1977-01-01

    Several characteristics of normal renal function increase the risk to the kidney of damage by environmental toxins. Due to the magnitude of renal blood flow the total amount of noxious substance delivered may be disproportionately high. Furthermore, the capacity to concentrate substances within the kidney by processes of filtration, reabsorption and secretion has the potential to increase the toxicity of agents which would otherwise not lead to tissue injury. Unfortunately, there are few tests of renal function which are able to detect early functional abnormalities and which, at the same time, are suited for screening purposes by virtue of their simplicity, cost and safety. Furthermore, interpretation of the tests is complicated by adaptive changes in renal function which occur with aging and in response to other disease processes. Environmental agents produce a wide spectrum of renal dysfunction. Acute renal damage follows exposure to glycols, organic solvents, heavy metals, diagnostic and therapeutic agents and a variety of miscellaneous substances. Chronic renal disease may take the form of isolated tubular defects as seen with cadmium, interstitial nephritis due to the ingestion of lead, or vascular damage induced by external radiation. Some forms of glomerulonephritis may also be related to environmental toxins as are certain tumors of the urinary tract. In a somewhat different fashion, patients whose renal function is limited by the presence of pre-existing disease may manifest toxicity from substances ordinarily excreted in the urine. Particular problems exist with the patients on dialysis, as they are at considerable risk to alterations in the environment. PMID:598348

  14. Metoclopramide and renal vascular resistance.

    PubMed

    Manara, A R; Bolsin, S; Monk, C R; Hartnell, G; Harris, R A

    1991-01-01

    We have studied the effect of i.v. metoclopramide on renal vascular resistance in nine healthy volunteers. Peak systolic and end-diastolic frequencies were measured using duplex Doppler ultrasound of a renal interlobar artery, before and after the administration of i.v. metoclopramide 10 mg, and the resistance index derived. There was no significant change in mean arterial pressure or resistance index following metoclopramide. PMID:1997046

  15. Treatment of Autonomous Hyperparathyroidism in Post Renal Transplant Recipients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-23

    Chronic Allograft Nephropathy; Chronic Kidney Disease; Chronic Renal Failure; Disordered Mineral Metabolism; End Stage Renal Disease; Hyperparathyroidism; Hypophosphatemia; Kidney Disease; Kidney Transplantation; Post Renal Transplantation

  16. Preoperative evaluation of renal artery in patients with renal tumor

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Liangsong; Wu, Guangyu; Wang, Jianfeng; Huang, Jiwei; Kong, Wen; Chen, Yonghui; Xue, Wei; Huang, Yiran; Zhang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the feasibility of the noncontrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (NCE-MRA) to evaluate renal arteries before partial nephrectomy (PN). Retrospective analyzed 479 patients who underwent renal surgery between January 2013 and December 2015 with NCE-MRA or computed tomographic angiography (CTA) renal artery image reconstruction preoperative in our department. The renal artery reconstruction score (RARS) was based on the level of artery visualization in a 4-class criterion, and the R.E.N.A.L nephrometry score (R.E.N.A.L), arterial based complexity (ABC) were also analyzed. Of the 479 patients, the overall-lever RARS was 3.62, and the average in 2 groups was no significant difference (NCE-MRA vs CTA, P = 0.072). The performance of NCE-MRA in PN group was similar with CTA. Further comparison demonstrated that the efficiency of NCE-MRA in moderate- or low-degree tumor according to the R.E.N.A.L and ABC complexity less than 3S was equal to CTA. However, high degree (P < 0.001), 3S (P = 0.027), or 3H (P < 0.001) would affect the imaging of renal artery. Intragroup analysis showed that tumor complexity such as max tumor size (r = −o.351, P < 0.001), R.E.N.A.L (r = −0.439, P < 0.001), and ABC (r = −0.619, P < 0.001) were closely correlated with the NCE-MRA performance. The images of 2 sides of the kidney were compared in single person as well, which was meaningful for NCE-MRA patients only (NCE-MRA, P < 0.001; CTA, P = 0.182). The renal artery reconstruction performed by NCE-MRA is feasible and has a similar achievement in the PN potential recipients, with a lower side effect, and meets the requirements for making surgical decision. It has a broad application prospect in clinical practice; however, it still needs to further improve the ability in more complex tumors. PMID:27759632

  17. Renal transepithelial transport of nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Nelson, J A; Vidale, E; Enigbokan, M

    1988-01-01

    Previous work from this and other laboratories has suggested that the mammalian kidney has unique mechanisms for handling purine nucleosides. For example, in humans and in mice, adenosine undergoes net renal reabsorption whereas deoxyadenosine is secreted [Kuttesch and Nelson: Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 8, 221 (1982)]. The relationships between these renal transport systems and classical renal organic cation and anion, carbohydrate, and cell membrane nucleoside transport carriers are not established. To investigate possible relationships between such carriers, we have tested effects of selected classical transport inhibitors on the renal clearances of adenosine, deoxyadenosine, 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5'-dFUR), and 5-fluorouracil in mice. The secretion of deoxyadenosine and 5'-dFUR, but not the reabsorption of adenosine or 5-fluorouracil, was prevented by the classical nucleoside transport inhibitors, dipyridamole and nitrobenzylthioinosine. Cimetidine, an inhibitor of the organic cation secretory system, also inhibited the secretion of 5'-dFUR, although it did not inhibit deoxyadenosine secretion in earlier studies [Nelson et al.: Biochem. Pharmacol. 32, 2323 (1983)]. The specific inhibitor of glucose renal reabsorption, phloridzin, failed to inhibit the reabsorption of adenosine or the secretion of deoxyadenosine. Failure of the nucleoside transport inhibitors and phloridzin to prevent adenosine reabsorption suggests that adenosine reabsorption may occur via a unique process. On the other hand, inhibition of the net secretion of deoxyadenosine and 5'-dFUR by dipyridamole and nitrobenzylthioinosine implies a role for the carrier that is sensitive to these compounds in the renal secretion (active transport) of these nucleosides.

  18. Renal radiopharmaceuticals--an update

    SciTech Connect

    Chervu, L.R.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1982-07-01

    Noninvasive radionuclide procedures in the evaluation of renal disease have been accepted increasingly as effective and valuable alternatives to older clinical methods. The development of suitable radiopharmaceuticals labeled with high photon intensity radionuclides and with /sup 99m/Tc in particular has stimulated this modality during the last few years. Currently several nearly ideal agents are available for anatomical and functional studies of kidney imparting very low absorbed radiation doses. These include /sup 99m/Tc-GHA and /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA for renal morphology and differential function evaluation, /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA for GFR and /sup 123/I orthoiodohippurate for ERPF measurements. A suitable agent as a replacement for the latter labeled with /sup 99m/Tc is actively being sought. Computer-assisted processing of dynamic renal function studies enables the observer to obtain a wealth of information related to the renal extraction, uptake, parenchymal transit and pelvic transit parameters of the agent administered into the bloodstream. Each of these parameters either globally or differentially contributes to a detailed evaluation of renal disease states. Several of these procedures have been validated against classical techniques clinically but more detailed information is being sought with the recently introduced radiopharmaceuticals. With the detailed validation and increasing recognition of the clinical utility of several of the radionuclidic procedures at many centers, it is hoped that radionuclide assessment of renal disorders ultimately will be made available routinely at all medical facilities.

  19. Renal ischemic injury affects renal hemodynamics and excretory functions in Sprague Dawley rats: involvement of renal sympathetic tone.

    PubMed

    Salman, Ibrahim M; Sattar, Munavvar A; Abdullah, Nor A; Ameer, Omar Z; Yam, Mun F; Kaur, Gurjeet; Hye Khan, Md Abdul; Johns, Edward J

    2010-01-01

    The role of renal sympathetic nerves in the pathogenesis of ischemic acute renal failure (ARF) and the immediate changes in the renal excretory functions following renal ischemia were investigated. Two groups of male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were anesthetized (pentobarbitone sodium, 60 mg kg(-1) i.p.) and subjected to unilateral renal ischemia by clamping the left renal artery for 30 min followed by reperfusion. In group 1, the renal nerves were electrically stimulated and the responses in the renal blood flow (RBF) and renal vascular resistance (RVR) were recorded, while group 2 was used to study the early changes in the renal functions following renal ischemia. In post-ischemic animals, basal RBF and the renal vasoconstrictor reperfusion to renal nerve stimulation (RNS) were significantly lower (all p < 0.05 vs. control). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), basal RVR, urine flow rate (UFR), absolute and fractional excretions of sodium (U(Na)V and FE(Na)), and potassium (U(K)V and FE(K)) were higher in ARF rats (all p < 0.05 vs. control). Post-ischemic animals showed markedly lower glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (p < 0.05 vs. control). No appreciable differences were observed in urinary sodium to potassium ratio (U(Na)/U(K)) during the early reperfusion phase of renal ischemia (p > 0.05 vs. control). The data suggest an immediate involvement of renal sympathetic nerve action in the pathogenesis of ischemic ARF primarily through altered renal hemodynamics. Diuresis, natriuresis, and kaliuresis due to impaired renal tubular functions are typical responses to renal ischemia and of comparable magnitudes.

  20. 14 CFR 1250.103 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 1250.103 Section 1250.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN... Discrimination prohibited....

  1. 14 CFR 1250.103 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1250.103 Section 1250.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN... Discrimination prohibited....

  2. 14 CFR 1250.103 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1250.103 Section 1250.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN... Discrimination prohibited....

  3. 14 CFR 1250.103 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1250.103 Section 1250.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN... Discrimination prohibited....

  4. Renal artery injury during robot-assisted renal surgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Won; Yoon, Young Eun; Kim, Dae Keun; Park, Sung Yul; Moon, Hong Sang; Lee, Tchun Yong

    2010-07-01

    Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) is becoming the standard of care for incidentally diagnosed, small renal tumors. With its seven degrees of freedom and three-dimensional vision, the DaVinci robotic surgical system has been used to assist in LPNs. The main disadvantage of robot-assisted surgery, however, is the lack of tactile feedback. We present a case of renal artery injury during robot-assisted renal surgery. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RPN) was planned for 47-year-old man with a 3.5-cm right renal mass. After standard bowel mobilization, renal hilar dissection was performed. In the attempt to complete the dissection posteriorly, however, there was sudden profuse bleeding. The intraperitoneal pressure immediately increased to 20 mm Hg, and an additional suction device was inserted through the 5-mm liver retractor port. On inspection, there was an injury at the takeoff of the posterior segmental artery. A decision was made to convert to robot-assisted laparoscopic radical nephrectomy. The main renal artery and renal vein were controlled with Hem-o-Lok clips. The estimated blood loss was 2,000 mL. Four units of packed red blood cells were transfused intraoperatively. The post-transfusion hemoglobin level was 12.6 g/dL. There were no other perioperative complications. The surgeon should keep in mind that the robotic arms are very powerful and can easily injure major vessels because of lack of tactile feedback. A competent and experienced tableside surgeon is very important in robot-assisted surgery because the unsterile console surgeon cannot immediately react to intraoperative complications.

  5. Primary localized amyloidoma of the renal pelvis: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    LU, WEI; WANG, YANJUN; ZHANG, MENG; LI, YONGHONG; CAO, YUN; XIAO, YONGBO; CAI, ZHIMING; WU, SONG; ZHOU, FANGJIAN

    2016-01-01

    Primary localized amyloidomas of the renal pelvis are challenging to diagnose, due to non-specific imaging results and the unusual location. The present study reports a rare case of primary localized amyloidoma of the renal pelvis and aims to illustrate the challenges in pre-operatively discriminating between this disease and transitional cell carcinomas. The present study identified that the mass was situated in the left renal pelvis using ultrasonography. A nephroureterectomy was performed following careful preparation. Finally, histopathological studies revealed that the tumor consisted of massive diffuse deposits of amyloid and microscopic amorphous eosinophilic material, which stained positively for Congo red, demonstrating potassium permanganate digestion. Consequently, a diagnosis of amyloid light chain-type amyloidoma was determined. Systematic examinations were performed following the unexpected diagnosis, which eliminated the possibility of amyloid associated-type amyloidoma. In total, 4 months post-surgery, the patient remained tumor-free. PMID:26893698

  6. Pathophysiology and management of progressive renal disease.

    PubMed

    Brown, S A; Crowell, W A; Brown, C A; Barsanti, J A; Finco, D R

    1997-09-01

    Recently, the hypothesis that all renal diseases are inherently progressive and self-perpetuating has focused attention on adaptive changes in renal structure and function that occur whenever renal function is reduced. These glomerular adaptations to renal disease include increases in filtration rate, capillary pressure and size, and are referred to as glomerular hyperfiltration, glomerular hypertension and glomerular hypertrophy, respectively. Extrarenal changes, such as dietary phosphate excess, systemic hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, acidosis and hyperparathyroidism occur in animals with renal disease and may be contributors to progression of renal disease. Emphasis in the management of companion animals with renal disease has shifted to identifying, understanding and controlling those processes that play a role in the progression from early to end-stage renal failure. Advances made by veterinary nephrologists in the past 15 years permit resolution of old controversies, formulation of new hypotheses and discussion of unresolved issues about the nature of progressive renal disease in dogs and cats. PMID:9308397

  7. Renal manifestations of tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    O'Hagan, A R; Ellsworth, R; Secic, M; Rothner, A D; Brouhard, B H

    1996-10-01

    Patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) are at increased risk of renal disease, predominantly angiomyolipomas and renal cysts. We retrospectively reviewed clinical data of 71 patients diagnosed with TSC. Progression of renal lesions was noted. TSC patients with renal lesions were compared with TSC patients without renal disease. Fifteen of 38 patients had renal abnormalities by imaging at presentation. Six of 9 with initially normal kidneys subsequently developed new lesions. Although not of statistical significance, there was a trend toward increased retinal hamartomas, cardiac rhabdomyomas, and skin lesions in those patients who also had renal abnormalities. Renal disease should be considered and sought in all patients with TSC, both at initial presentation and subsequently, since renal disease is a very significant cause of morbidity and mortality.

  8. Limited taste discrimination in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Masek, Pavel; Scott, Kristin

    2010-08-17

    In the gustatory systems of mammals and flies, different populations of sensory cells recognize different taste modalities, such that there are cells that respond selectively to sugars and others to bitter compounds. This organization readily allows animals to distinguish compounds of different modalities but may limit the ability to distinguish compounds within one taste modality. Here, we developed a behavioral paradigm in Drosophila melanogaster to evaluate directly the tastes that a fly distinguishes. These studies reveal that flies do not discriminate among different sugars, or among different bitter compounds, based on chemical identity. Instead, flies show a limited ability to distinguish compounds within a modality based on intensity or palatability. Taste associative learning, similar to olfactory learning, requires the mushroom bodies, suggesting fundamental similarities in brain mechanisms underlying behavioral plasticity. Overall, these studies provide insight into the discriminative capacity of the Drosophila gustatory system and the modulation of taste behavior.

  9. Renal failure in patients with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Almueilo, Samir H

    2015-01-01

    Renal dysfunction is encountered in 20-25% of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) at the time of diagnosis. There is often a precipitating event. Several biochemical and clinical correlations with renal failure in MM have been reported. Renal failure in MM is associated with worse outcome of the disease. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 64 patients with MM admitted to our institution during the period January 1992 to December 2012. Abnormal renal function was observed in 24 (37.5%) patients and 17 (26.6%) of them had renal failure; 14 of the 17 (82.4%) of patients with renal failure had Stage III MM. Urine Bence- Jones protein was positive in ten (58.8%) patients with renal failure versus ten (21.3%) patients without renal failure (P = 0.004). Potential precipitating factors of renal failure were determined in nine patients. Renal function normalized in 11 patients with simple measures, while six patients required hemodialysis; one remained dialysis dependent till time of death. Early mortality occurred in five (29.4%) patients with renal failure as compared with two (4.3%) patients in the group without renal failure (P = 0.005). In conclusion, renal failure is associated with a higher tumor burden and Bence-Jones proteinuria in patients with MM. It is reversible in the majority of patients; however, early mortality tends to be higher in patients with persistent renal failure.

  10. Simultaneous Visual Discrimination in Asian Elephants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nissani, Moti; Hoefler-Nissani, Donna; Lay, U. Tin; Htun, U. Wan

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments explored the behavior of 20 Asian elephants ("Elephas aximus") in simultaneous visual discrimination tasks. In Experiment 1, 7 Burmese logging elephants acquired a white+/black- discrimination, reaching criterion in a mean of 2.6 sessions and 117 discrete trials, whereas 4 elephants acquired a black+/white- discrimination in 5.3…

  11. Third-Degree Price Discrimination Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Youngsun

    2006-01-01

    The author derives the probability that price discrimination improves social welfare, using a simple model of third-degree price discrimination assuming two independent linear demands. The probability that price discrimination raises social welfare increases as the preferences or incomes of consumer groups become more heterogeneous. He derives the…

  12. Discrimination in Recruitment: An Empirical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Jerry M.

    1978-01-01

    To investigate whether recruitment practices of companies with affirmative action programs discriminated against Blacks or resulted in reverse discrimination, qualifications and race of fictitious job applicants were manipulated on resumes sent to a sample of employers. Responses strongly indicate discrimination, with Black applicants favored…

  13. Perceived Age Discrimination and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Anastasia S. Vogt

    2007-01-01

    Although perceived discrimination (especially due to race-ethnicity) decreases mental health, the influence of perceived discrimination due to other reasons on mental health needs to be explored. This study examines the relationship between perceived age discrimination and mental health and determines whether psychosocial resources explain or…

  14. Auditory word discriminations in the pigeon.

    PubMed Central

    Pisacreta, R; Gough, D; Redwood, E; Goodfellow, L

    1986-01-01

    Four pigeons were trained on a multiple variable-interval 30-s extinction schedule with various pairs of spoken English words presented as the discriminative stimuli. The birds typically produced discrimination indices of 70% to 90% accuracy. Discrimination accuracy was improved by shortening the interval between auditory stimulus presentations, and by increasing the number of syllables in the words. PMID:3711775

  15. 15 CFR 8.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.4 Section... General Provisions; Prohibitions: Nondiscrimination Clause; Applicability to Programs § 8.4 Discrimination... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory acts prohibited. (1)...

  16. 10 CFR 1040.13 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.13 Section 1040.13 Energy..., as Amended; and Section 401 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 § 1040.13 Discrimination... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this subpart...

  17. 7 CFR 15b.17 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.17 Section 15b.17... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 15b.17 Discrimination prohibited. No... to discrimination under any program or activity receiving assistance from this Department....

  18. 28 CFR 42.104 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.104 Section... Civil Rights Act of 1964 1 § 42.104 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United... denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which...

  19. 14 CFR 1251.103 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1251.103 Section... OF HANDICAP General Provisions § 1251.103 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified... of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives...

  20. 5 CFR 900.404 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 900.404... § 900.404 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. A person in the United States shall not, on the ground... be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, a program to which this subpart applies. (b)...

  1. 24 CFR 232.625 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 232.625... Fire Safety Equipment Special Requirements § 232.625 Discrimination prohibited. Any contract or... provide that there shall be no discrimination against any employee or applicant for employment because...

  2. 10 CFR 1040.13 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.13 Section 1040.13 Energy..., as Amended; and Section 401 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 § 1040.13 Discrimination... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this subpart...

  3. 10 CFR 1040.71 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.71 Section 1040.71 Energy... § 1040.71 Discrimination prohibited. No handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities are... in, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity that receives or benefits...

  4. 22 CFR 142.15 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.15 Section 142... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 142.15 Discrimination... be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which the part applies....

  5. 34 CFR 100.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 100.3 Section 100.3... EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 100.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program...

  6. 28 CFR 42.503 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.503 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 General Provisions § 42.503 Discrimination... from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under...

  7. 34 CFR 100.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 100.3 Section 100.3... EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 100.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program...

  8. 15 CFR 8b.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.4 Section 8b.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Provisions § 8b.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped individual shall, on...

  9. 28 CFR 42.520 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.520 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Accessibility § 42.520 Discrimination prohibited... participation in, or otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving...

  10. 49 CFR 374.101 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 374.101 Section 374.101... REGULATIONS Discrimination in Operations of Interstate Motor Common Carriers of Passengers § 374.101 Discrimination prohibited. No motor common carrier of passengers subject to 49 U.S.C. subtitle IV, part B...

  11. 45 CFR 611.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 611.3 Section 611.3... CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 611.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this part applies....

  12. 22 CFR 141.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 141.3 Section 141.3... DEPARTMENT OF STATE-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 141.3 Discrimination... discrimination under any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited....

  13. 13 CFR 113.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 113.3... Provisions § 113.3 Discrimination prohibited. To the extent not covered or prohibited by part 112 of this... employment decisions shall be made in a manner which ensures that discrimination on the basis of...

  14. 45 CFR 1151.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1151.21 Section 1151.21... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited Accessibility § 1151.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall,...

  15. 34 CFR 104.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.21 Section 104.21... ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 104.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a... excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  16. 7 CFR 15b.12 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.12 Section 15b.12... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 15b.12 Discrimination prohibited. (a... discrimination in employment under any program or activity receiving assistance from this Department. (2)...

  17. 7 CFR 15b.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.4 Section 15b.4... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 15b.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  18. 22 CFR 142.15 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.15 Section 142... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 142.15 Discrimination... be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which the part applies....

  19. 45 CFR 605.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.11 Section 605.11... Employment Practices § 605.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program...

  20. 34 CFR 104.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.11 Section 104.11... ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 104.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program...

  1. 10 CFR 1040.71 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.71 Section 1040.71 Energy... § 1040.71 Discrimination prohibited. No handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities are... in, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity that receives or benefits...

  2. 15 CFR 8b.16 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.16 Section 8b.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Accessibility § 8b.16 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped individual shall, because a...

  3. 15 CFR 8.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.4 Section... General Provisions; Prohibitions: Nondiscrimination Clause; Applicability to Programs § 8.4 Discrimination... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory acts prohibited. (1)...

  4. 50 CFR 3.1 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 3.1 Section 3.1... PROVISIONS NONDISCRIMINATION-CONTRACTS, PERMITS, AND USE OF FACILITIES § 3.1 Discrimination prohibited. No..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to any form of discrimination or...

  5. 45 CFR 84.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.4 Section 84.4... § 84.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of... discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance. (b)...

  6. 10 CFR 1040.63 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.63 Section 1040.63 Energy... Provisions § 1040.63 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity that receives Federal financial assistance...

  7. 24 CFR 232.625 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 232.625... Fire Safety Equipment Special Requirements § 232.625 Discrimination prohibited. Any contract or... provide that there shall be no discrimination against any employee or applicant for employment because...

  8. 34 CFR 104.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.21 Section 104.21... ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 104.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a... excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  9. 45 CFR 1151.31 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1151.31 Section 1151.31... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited Employment § 1151.31 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No qualified handicapped person shall, on...

  10. 45 CFR 1170.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1170.21 Section 1170.21... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Employment Practices § 1170.21 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in...

  11. 34 CFR 104.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.21 Section 104.21... ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 104.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a... excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  12. 29 CFR 32.26 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 32.26 Section 32.26 Labor Office... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 32.26 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified... discrimination under any program or activity to which this part applies....

  13. 45 CFR 1170.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1170.21 Section 1170.21... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Employment Practices § 1170.21 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in...

  14. 29 CFR 34.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 34.3 Section 34.3 Labor Office... Discrimination prohibited. No individual in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color, religion, sex... discrimination under, or denied employment in the administration of or in connection with any JTPA-funded...

  15. 45 CFR 1151.31 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1151.31 Section 1151.31... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited Employment § 1151.31 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No qualified handicapped person shall, on...

  16. 28 CFR 42.520 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.520 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Accessibility § 42.520 Discrimination prohibited... participation in, or otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving...

  17. 7 CFR 15d.2 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15d.2 Section 15d.2... THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE § 15d.2 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No agency, officer... participation in, deny the benefits of, or subject to discrimination any person in the United States under...

  18. 45 CFR 1151.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1151.21 Section 1151.21... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited Accessibility § 1151.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall,...

  19. 5 CFR 900.704 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 900.704... Federally Assisted Programs of the Office of Personnel Management § 900.704 Discrimination prohibited. (a..., be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  20. 29 CFR 1630.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1630.4 Section 1630.4 Labor... EQUAL EMPLOYMENT PROVISIONS OF THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT § 1630.4 Discrimination prohibited..., condition, or privilege of employment. (2) The term discrimination includes, but is not limited to, the...

  1. 50 CFR 3.1 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 3.1 Section 3.1... PROVISIONS NONDISCRIMINATION-CONTRACTS, PERMITS, AND USE OF FACILITIES § 3.1 Discrimination prohibited. No..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to any form of discrimination or...

  2. 22 CFR 217.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.11 Section 217... Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which this part applies. (2)...

  3. 28 CFR 35.149 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 35.149 Section... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Program Accessibility § 35.149 Discrimination prohibited. Except as... subjected to discrimination by any public entity....

  4. 45 CFR 1151.31 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1151.31 Section 1151.31... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited Employment § 1151.31 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No qualified handicapped person shall, on...

  5. 14 CFR 1251.300 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1251.300 Section... OF HANDICAP Accessibility § 1251.300 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall... benefits of, be excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under...

  6. 29 CFR 34.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 34.3 Section 34.3 Labor Office... Discrimination prohibited. No individual in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color, religion, sex... discrimination under, or denied employment in the administration of or in connection with any JTPA-funded...

  7. 45 CFR 1151.31 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1151.31 Section 1151.31... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited Employment § 1151.31 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No qualified handicapped person shall, on...

  8. 14 CFR 1251.103 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1251.103 Section... OF HANDICAP General Provisions § 1251.103 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified... of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives...

  9. 10 CFR 1040.71 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.71 Section 1040.71 Energy... § 1040.71 Discrimination prohibited. No handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities are... in, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity that receives or benefits...

  10. 43 CFR 17.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 17.3 Section 17... National Origin § 17.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the..., or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this part applies....

  11. 5 CFR 900.404 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 900.404... § 900.404 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. A person in the United States shall not, on the ground... be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, a program to which this subpart applies. (b)...

  12. 22 CFR 142.15 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.15 Section 142... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 142.15 Discrimination... be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which the part applies....

  13. 15 CFR 8b.16 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.16 Section 8b.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Accessibility § 8b.16 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped individual shall, because a...

  14. 22 CFR 217.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.4 Section 217.4... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 217.4 Discrimination... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  15. 5 CFR 900.404 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 900.404... § 900.404 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. A person in the United States shall not, on the ground... be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, a program to which this subpart applies. (b)...

  16. 45 CFR 1170.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1170.21 Section 1170.21... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Employment Practices § 1170.21 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in...

  17. 29 CFR 32.26 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 32.26 Section 32.26 Labor Office... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 32.26 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified... discrimination under any program or activity to which this part applies....

  18. 22 CFR 209.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 209.4 Section 209.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NON-DISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS... § 209.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the grounds...

  19. 34 CFR 100.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 100.3 Section 100.3... EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 100.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program...

  20. 22 CFR 209.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 209.4 Section 209.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NON-DISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS... § 209.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the grounds...

  1. 22 CFR 141.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 141.3 Section 141.3... DEPARTMENT OF STATE-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 141.3 Discrimination... discrimination under any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited....

  2. 24 CFR 8.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.4... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT General Provisions § 8.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No... in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  3. 15 CFR 8b.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.4 Section 8b.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Provisions § 8b.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped individual shall, on...

  4. 28 CFR 35.149 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 35.149 Section... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Program Accessibility § 35.149 Discrimination prohibited. Except as... subjected to discrimination by any public entity....

  5. 24 CFR 8.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.4... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT General Provisions § 8.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No... in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  6. 34 CFR 104.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.21 Section 104.21... ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 104.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a... excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  7. 28 CFR 35.149 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 35.149 Section... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Program Accessibility § 35.149 Discrimination prohibited. Except as... subjected to discrimination by any public entity....

  8. 5 CFR 950.110 - Prohibited discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Prohibited discrimination. 950.110 Section 950.110 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... PRIVATE VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS General Provisions § 950.110 Prohibited discrimination. Discrimination...

  9. 45 CFR 605.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.4 Section 605.4... Provisions § 605.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance....

  10. 49 CFR 374.101 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 374.101 Section 374.101... REGULATIONS Discrimination in Operations of Interstate Motor Common Carriers of Passengers § 374.101 Discrimination prohibited. No motor common carrier of passengers subject to 49 U.S.C. subtitle IV, part B...

  11. 34 CFR 104.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.11 Section 104.11... ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 104.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program...

  12. 10 CFR 1040.13 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.13 Section 1040.13 Energy..., as Amended; and Section 401 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 § 1040.13 Discrimination... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this subpart...

  13. 34 CFR 104.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.4 Section 104.4... ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 104.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal...

  14. 5 CFR 900.704 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 900.704... Federally Assisted Programs of the Office of Personnel Management § 900.704 Discrimination prohibited. (a..., be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  15. 45 CFR 80.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 80.3 Section 80.3... TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 80.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to...

  16. 45 CFR 1624.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... activities conducted in response to the requirements of 45 CFR part 1620. ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1624.4 Section 1624.4... AGAINST DISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY § 1624.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No...

  17. 49 CFR 374.101 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 374.101 Section 374.101... REGULATIONS Discrimination in Operations of Interstate Motor Common Carriers of Passengers § 374.101 Discrimination prohibited. No motor common carrier of passengers subject to 49 U.S.C. subtitle IV, part B...

  18. 29 CFR 500.9 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 500.9 Section 500.9 Labor... SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION General Provisions § 500.9 Discrimination prohibited. (a) It is a... Secretary alleging such discrimination....

  19. 45 CFR 1624.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... activities conducted in response to the requirements of 45 CFR part 1620. ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1624.4 Section 1624.4... AGAINST DISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY § 1624.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No...

  20. 7 CFR 15b.17 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.17 Section 15b.17... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 15b.17 Discrimination prohibited. No... to discrimination under any program or activity receiving assistance from this Department....

  1. 22 CFR 209.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 209.4 Section 209.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NON-DISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS... § 209.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the grounds...

  2. 29 CFR 32.26 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 32.26 Section 32.26 Labor Office... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 32.26 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified... discrimination under any program or activity to which this part applies....

  3. 24 CFR 232.625 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 232.625... Fire Safety Equipment Special Requirements § 232.625 Discrimination prohibited. Any contract or... provide that there shall be no discrimination against any employee or applicant for employment because...

  4. 38 CFR 18.421 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Accessibility § 18.421 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's... from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  5. 29 CFR 32.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 32.4 Section 32.4 Labor Office... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 32.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No... denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  6. 28 CFR 35.149 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 35.149 Section... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Program Accessibility § 35.149 Discrimination prohibited. Except as... subjected to discrimination by any public entity....

  7. 29 CFR 500.9 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 500.9 Section 500.9 Labor... SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION General Provisions § 500.9 Discrimination prohibited. (a) It is a... Secretary alleging such discrimination....

  8. 45 CFR 605.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.4 Section 605.4... Provisions § 605.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance....

  9. 38 CFR 18.421 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Accessibility § 18.421 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's... from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  10. 7 CFR 15b.17 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.17 Section 15b.17... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 15b.17 Discrimination prohibited. No... to discrimination under any program or activity receiving assistance from this Department....

  11. 13 CFR 112.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 112.3... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 112.3 Discrimination... be otherwise subjected to discrimination by any business or other activity. (b)...

  12. 28 CFR 42.503 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.503 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 General Provisions § 42.503 Discrimination... from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under...

  13. 45 CFR 1203.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1203.4 Section 1203.4... OF 1964 § 1203.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. A person in the United States shall not, on... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, a program to which this part applies....

  14. 14 CFR 380.26 - Discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination. 380.26 Section 380.26... REGULATIONS PUBLIC CHARTERS Requirements Applicable to Charter Operators § 380.26 Discrimination. No charter... unjust discrimination or any undue or unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage in any respect whatsoever....

  15. 29 CFR 1630.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1630.4 Section 1630.4 Labor... EQUAL EMPLOYMENT PROVISIONS OF THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT § 1630.4 Discrimination prohibited..., condition, or privilege of employment. (2) The term discrimination includes, but is not limited to, the...

  16. 43 CFR 17.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 17.3 Section 17... National Origin § 17.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the..., or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this part applies....

  17. 14 CFR 1251.200 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1251.200 Section... OF HANDICAP Employment Practices § 1251.200 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under...

  18. 5 CFR 900.404 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 900.404... § 900.404 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. A person in the United States shall not, on the ground... be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, a program to which this subpart applies. (b)...

  19. 45 CFR 605.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.4 Section 605.4... Provisions § 605.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance....

  20. 15 CFR 8b.16 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.16 Section 8b.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Accessibility § 8b.16 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped individual shall, because a...

  1. 43 CFR 34.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 34.4 Section 34... DURING CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE ALASKA NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM § 34.4 Discrimination... part applies. (b) Specific actions in which discrimination is prohibited. No person shall directly...

  2. 13 CFR 113.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 113.3... Provisions § 113.3 Discrimination prohibited. To the extent not covered or prohibited by part 112 of this... employment decisions shall be made in a manner which ensures that discrimination on the basis of...

  3. 7 CFR 15b.17 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.17 Section 15b.17... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 15b.17 Discrimination prohibited. No... to discrimination under any program or activity receiving assistance from this Department....

  4. 7 CFR 15b.17 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.17 Section 15b.17... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 15b.17 Discrimination prohibited. No... to discrimination under any program or activity receiving assistance from this Department....

  5. 38 CFR 18.404 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Provisions § 18.404 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance....

  6. 29 CFR 32.26 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 32.26 Section 32.26 Labor Office... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 32.26 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified... discrimination under any program or activity to which this part applies....

  7. 45 CFR 84.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.4 Section 84.4... § 84.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of... discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance. (b)...

  8. 5 CFR 900.404 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 900.404... § 900.404 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. A person in the United States shall not, on the ground... be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, a program to which this subpart applies. (b)...

  9. 22 CFR 142.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.11 Section 142... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 142.11 Discrimination... discrimination in employment under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance. (2)...

  10. 14 CFR 1251.300 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1251.300 Section... OF HANDICAP Accessibility § 1251.300 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall... benefits of, be excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under...

  11. 45 CFR 611.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 611.3 Section 611.3... CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 611.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this part applies....

  12. 29 CFR 34.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 34.3 Section 34.3 Labor Office... Discrimination prohibited. No individual in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color, religion, sex... discrimination under, or denied employment in the administration of or in connection with any JTPA-funded...

  13. 14 CFR 372.22 - Discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination. 372.22 Section 372.22... REGULATIONS OVERSEAS MILITARY PERSONNEL CHARTERS Conditions and Limitations § 372.22 Discrimination. No... any unjust discrimination or any undue or unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage in any...

  14. 18 CFR 1307.5 - Employment discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... discrimination. 1307.5 Section 1307.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO HANDICAP § 1307.5 Employment discrimination. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program...

  15. 5 CFR 900.704 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 900.704... Federally Assisted Programs of the Office of Personnel Management § 900.704 Discrimination prohibited. (a..., be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  16. 10 CFR 1040.13 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.13 Section 1040.13 Energy..., as Amended; and Section 401 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 § 1040.13 Discrimination... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this subpart...

  17. 45 CFR 1170.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1170.21 Section 1170.21... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Employment Practices § 1170.21 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in...

  18. 49 CFR 374.101 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 374.101 Section 374.101... REGULATIONS Discrimination in Operations of Interstate Motor Common Carriers of Passengers § 374.101 Discrimination prohibited. No motor common carrier of passengers subject to 49 U.S.C. subtitle IV, part B...

  19. 38 CFR 18.411 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Practices § 18.411 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to...

  20. 45 CFR 605.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.11 Section 605.11... Employment Practices § 605.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program...

  1. 49 CFR 27.7 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 27.7 Section 27.7... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General § 27.7 Discrimination prohibited. (a... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  2. 24 CFR 8.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.4... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT General Provisions § 8.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No... in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  3. 34 CFR 104.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.11 Section 104.11... ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 104.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program...

  4. 38 CFR 18.421 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Accessibility § 18.421 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's... from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  5. 10 CFR 1040.63 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.63 Section 1040.63 Energy... Provisions § 1040.63 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity that receives Federal financial assistance...

  6. 7 CFR 15d.2 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15d.2 Section 15d.2... THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE § 15d.2 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No agency, officer... participation in, deny the benefits of, or subject to discrimination any person in the United States under...

  7. 14 CFR 372.22 - Discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination. 372.22 Section 372.22... REGULATIONS OVERSEAS MILITARY PERSONNEL CHARTERS Conditions and Limitations § 372.22 Discrimination. No... any unjust discrimination or any undue or unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage in any...

  8. 45 CFR 611.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 611.3 Section 611.3... CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 611.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this part applies....

  9. 34 CFR 104.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.4 Section 104.4... ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 104.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal...

  10. 10 CFR 1040.63 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.63 Section 1040.63 Energy... Provisions § 1040.63 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity that receives Federal financial assistance...

  11. 45 CFR 1203.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1203.4 Section 1203.4... OF 1964 § 1203.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. A person in the United States shall not, on... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, a program to which this part applies....

  12. 45 CFR 1203.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1203.4 Section 1203.4... OF 1964 § 1203.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. A person in the United States shall not, on... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, a program to which this part applies....

  13. 43 CFR 27.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 27.3 Section 27... ISSUED UNDER TITLE II OF PUBLIC LAW 93-153 § 27.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person shall... through contractual or other arrangements, subject an individual to discrimination on the grounds of...

  14. 50 CFR 3.1 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 3.1 Section 3.1... PROVISIONS NONDISCRIMINATION-CONTRACTS, PERMITS, AND USE OF FACILITIES § 3.1 Discrimination prohibited. No..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to any form of discrimination or...

  15. 18 CFR 1307.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrimination... NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO HANDICAP § 1307.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which this part applies....

  16. 29 CFR 1630.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1630.4 Section 1630.4 Labor... EQUAL EMPLOYMENT PROVISIONS OF THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT § 1630.4 Discrimination prohibited..., condition, or privilege of employment. (2) The term discrimination includes, but is not limited to, the...

  17. 43 CFR 17.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 17.3 Section 17... National Origin § 17.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the..., or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this part applies....

  18. 43 CFR 27.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 27.3 Section 27... ISSUED UNDER TITLE II OF PUBLIC LAW 93-153 § 27.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person shall... through contractual or other arrangements, subject an individual to discrimination on the grounds of...

  19. 29 CFR 501.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 501.4 Section 501.4 Labor... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT General Provisions § 501.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) A person may not... discrimination against any person under paragraph (a) of this section will be investigated by the WHD. Where...

  20. 38 CFR 18.411 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Practices § 18.411 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to...

  1. 34 CFR 104.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.4 Section 104.4... ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 104.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activitiy which receives Federal...

  2. 22 CFR 142.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.11 Section 142... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 142.11 Discrimination... discrimination in employment under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance. (2)...

  3. 22 CFR 209.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 209.4 Section 209.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NON-DISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS... § 209.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the grounds...

  4. 7 CFR 15d.2 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15d.2 Section 15d.2... THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE § 15d.2 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No agency, officer... participation in, deny the benefits of, or subject to discrimination any person in the United States under...

  5. 6 CFR 21.5 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 21.5 Section 21.5... FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY § 21.5 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, any program...

  6. 45 CFR 84.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.21 Section 84.21... Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities are... in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which this...

  7. 15 CFR 8.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.4 Section... General Provisions; Prohibitions: Nondiscrimination Clause; Applicability to Programs § 8.4 Discrimination... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory acts prohibited. (1)...

  8. 5 CFR 950.110 - Prohibited discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Prohibited discrimination. 950.110 Section 950.110 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... PRIVATE VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS General Provisions § 950.110 Prohibited discrimination. Discrimination...

  9. 29 CFR 501.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 501.4 Section 501.4 Labor... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT General Provisions § 501.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) A person may not... discrimination against any person under paragraph (a) of this section will be investigated by the WHD. Where...

  10. 10 CFR 1040.66 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.66 Section 1040.66 Energy... Practices § 1040.66 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination employment under any program or activity...

  11. 22 CFR 142.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.11 Section 142... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 142.11 Discrimination... discrimination in employment under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance. (2)...

  12. 50 CFR 3.1 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 3.1 Section 3.1... PROVISIONS NONDISCRIMINATION-CONTRACTS, PERMITS, AND USE OF FACILITIES § 3.1 Discrimination prohibited. No..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to any form of discrimination or...

  13. 45 CFR 1110.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1110.3 Section 1110.3... HUMANITIES GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS § 1110.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a... from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected, to discrimination...

  14. 13 CFR 113.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 113.3... Provisions § 113.3 Discrimination prohibited. To the extent not covered or prohibited by part 112 of this... employment decisions shall be made in a manner which ensures that discrimination on the basis of...

  15. 18 CFR 1307.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination... NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO HANDICAP § 1307.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which this part applies....

  16. 15 CFR 8b.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.4 Section 8b.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Provisions § 8b.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped individual shall, on...

  17. 24 CFR 8.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.4... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT General Provisions § 8.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No... in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  18. 24 CFR 8.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.4... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT General Provisions § 8.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No... in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  19. 22 CFR 217.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.4 Section 217.4... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 217.4 Discrimination... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  20. 45 CFR 605.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.21 Section 605.21... Accessibility § 605.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's... from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  1. 15 CFR 8.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.4 Section... General Provisions; Prohibitions: Nondiscrimination Clause; Applicability to Programs § 8.4 Discrimination... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory acts prohibited. (1)...

  2. 45 CFR 84.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.21 Section 84.21... Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities are... in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which this...

  3. 18 CFR 1307.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination... NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO HANDICAP § 1307.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which this part applies....

  4. 29 CFR 32.12 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 32.12 Section 32.12 Labor Office... § 32.12 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped individual shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to...

  5. 45 CFR 1170.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1170.21 Section 1170.21... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Employment Practices § 1170.21 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in...

  6. 38 CFR 18.411 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Practices § 18.411 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to...

  7. 14 CFR 372.22 - Discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination. 372.22 Section 372.22... REGULATIONS OVERSEAS MILITARY PERSONNEL CHARTERS Conditions and Limitations § 372.22 Discrimination. No... any unjust discrimination or any undue or unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage in any...

  8. 24 CFR 232.625 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 232.625... Fire Safety Equipment Special Requirements § 232.625 Discrimination prohibited. Any contract or... provide that there shall be no discrimination against any employee or applicant for employment because...

  9. 45 CFR 84.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.11 Section 84.11... § 84.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which...

  10. 7 CFR 15d.2 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15d.2 Section 15d.2... THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE § 15d.2 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No agency, officer... participation in, deny the benefits of, or subject to discrimination any person in the United States under...

  11. 10 CFR 1040.66 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.66 Section 1040.66 Energy... Practices § 1040.66 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination employment under any program or activity...

  12. 29 CFR 500.9 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 500.9 Section 500.9 Labor... SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION General Provisions § 500.9 Discrimination prohibited. (a) It is a... Secretary alleging such discrimination....

  13. 45 CFR 84.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.21 Section 84.21... Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities are... in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which this...

  14. 29 CFR 32.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 32.4 Section 32.4 Labor Office of... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 32.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No... denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  15. 45 CFR 84.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.4 Section 84.4... § 84.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of... discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance. (b)...

  16. 13 CFR 112.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 112.3... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 112.3 Discrimination... be otherwise subjected to discrimination by any business or other activity. (b)...

  17. 29 CFR 32.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 32.4 Section 32.4 Labor Office... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 32.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No... denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  18. 14 CFR 380.26 - Discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination. 380.26 Section 380.26... REGULATIONS PUBLIC CHARTERS Requirements Applicable to Charter Operators § 380.26 Discrimination. No charter... unjust discrimination or any undue or unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage in any respect whatsoever....

  19. 18 CFR 1307.5 - Employment discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... discrimination. 1307.5 Section 1307.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO HANDICAP § 1307.5 Employment discrimination. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program...

  20. 10 CFR 19.32 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 19.32 Section 19.32 Energy... § 19.32 Discrimination prohibited. No person shall on the grounds of sex be excluded from participation in, be denied a license, be denied the benefit of, or be subjected to discrimination under...

  1. 29 CFR 502.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 502.3 Section 502.3 Labor... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT (SUSPENDED 6-29-2009) General Provisions § 502.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a... Department regulation promulgated pursuant to sec. 218 of the INA. (b) Allegations of discrimination...

  2. 7 CFR 15b.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.4 Section 15b.4... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 15b.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  3. 34 CFR 100.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 100.3 Section 100.3... EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 100.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program...

  4. 15 CFR 8b.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.11 Section 8b.11 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Practices § 8b.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped individual shall,...

  5. 29 CFR 1630.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1630.4 Section 1630.4 Labor... EQUAL EMPLOYMENT PROVISIONS OF THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT § 1630.4 Discrimination prohibited..., condition, or privilege of employment. (2) The term discrimination includes, but is not limited to, the...

  6. 5 CFR 950.110 - Prohibited discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prohibited discrimination. 950.110 Section 950.110 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... PRIVATE VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS General Provisions § 950.110 Prohibited discrimination. Discrimination...

  7. 14 CFR 1251.300 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1251.300 Section... OF HANDICAP Accessibility § 1251.300 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall... benefits of, be excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under...

  8. 18 CFR 705.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination... Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the grounds of race, color, or... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited....

  9. 7 CFR 15b.12 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.12 Section 15b.12... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 15b.12 Discrimination prohibited. (a... discrimination in employment under any program or activity receiving assistance from this Department. (2)...

  10. 22 CFR 142.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.4 Section 142.4... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 142.4 Discrimination... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  11. 18 CFR 1307.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Discrimination... NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO HANDICAP § 1307.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which this part applies....

  12. 15 CFR 8b.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.4 Section 8b.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Provisions § 8b.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped individual shall, on...

  13. 24 CFR 232.625 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 232.625... Fire Safety Equipment Special Requirements § 232.625 Discrimination prohibited. Any contract or... provide that there shall be no discrimination against any employee or applicant for employment because...

  14. 45 CFR 605.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.21 Section 605.21... Accessibility § 605.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's... from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  15. 22 CFR 217.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.21 Section 217... Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities within the... excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  16. 13 CFR 113.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 113.3... Provisions § 113.3 Discrimination prohibited. To the extent not covered or prohibited by part 112 of this... employment decisions shall be made in a manner which ensures that discrimination on the basis of...

  17. 29 CFR 502.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 502.3 Section 502.3 Labor... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT (SUSPENDED 6-29-2009) General Provisions § 502.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a... Department regulation promulgated pursuant to sec. 218 of the INA. (b) Allegations of discrimination...

  18. 34 CFR 104.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.4 Section 104.4... ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 104.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activitiy which receives Federal...

  19. 43 CFR 27.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 27.3 Section 27... ISSUED UNDER TITLE II OF PUBLIC LAW 93-153 § 27.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person shall... through contractual or other arrangements, subject an individual to discrimination on the grounds of...

  20. 43 CFR 27.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 27.3 Section 27... ISSUED UNDER TITLE II OF PUBLIC LAW 93-153 § 27.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person shall... through contractual or other arrangements, subject an individual to discrimination on the grounds of...