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Sample records for discrimination context technical

  1. Context quantization by kernel Fisher discriminant.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mantao; Wu, Xiaolin; Fränti, Pasi

    2006-01-01

    Optimal context quantizers for minimum conditional entropy can be constructed by dynamic programming in the probability simplex space. The main difficulty, operationally, is the resulting complex quantizer mapping function in the context space, in which the conditional entropy coding is conducted. To overcome this difficulty, we propose new algorithms for designing context quantizers in the context space based on the multiclass Fisher discriminant and the kernel Fisher discriminant (KFD). In particular, the KFD can describe linearly nonseparable quantizer cells by projecting input context vectors onto a high-dimensional curve, in which these cells become better separable. The new algorithms outperform the previous linear Fisher discriminant method for context quantization. They approach the minimum empirical conditional entropy context quantizer designed in the probability simplex space, but with a practical implementation that employs a simple scalar quantizer mapping function rather than a large lookup table.

  2. Word Importance Discrimination using Context Information

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    Word importance discrimination using context information Danil Nemirovskya,b and Vladimir Dobryninb aINRIA Sophia Antipolis , France bSt. Petersburg...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) INRIA,Sophia Antipolis , France, 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING

  3. The effects of extrinsic context on nicotine discrimination.

    PubMed

    Duka, T; Seiss, E; Tasker, R

    2002-02-01

    There is evidence from memory studies that context acquired in parallel with the encoded material will facilitate retrieval. However, relatively little is known of how context affects drug discrimination behaviour in humans. The present study employs conventional drug discrimination procedures to investigate the effects of music, as an external cue, on nicotine drug discrimination. Subjects were trained to discriminate a low dose of nicotine (1 mg) from placebo while listening to two different types of music [elated (EL) and depressant (DE): thought to induce happy and sad mood respectively]. Half of the subjects received EL music with nicotine and DE with placebo and the other half vice versa. At the end of training, subjects who reached the criterion (80% of trials identified correctly) entered the generalization phase and were required to discriminate different doses of nicotine (0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg) by indicating how similar each sample was to the training dose. Generalization took place in the presence of either EL or DE music. Nicotine-appropriate responding during generalization was linearly related to dose, with subjects being able to distinguish 0.5mg of nicotine from placebo. Nicotine-appropriate responding at generalization was higher when the context (type of music) was the same as the one employed during discrimination training when nicotine was administered (i.e. a context-dependent generalization effect was present). In addition, it was shown that the context-dependent effect was due to the properties of the EL music. These data provide the first evidence that extrinsic context can facilitate nicotine discrimination in humans. In addition, the findings suggest that this facilitatory effect is not a general effect but is sensitive to specific attributes of the context.

  4. Family contexts: parental experiences of discrimination and child mental health.

    PubMed

    Tran, Alisia G T T

    2014-03-01

    Research on the mental health correlates of discrimination traditionally has been intra-individual, focusing exclusively on the individual directly experiencing discrimination. A small number of studies have begun to consider the links between parental experiences of discrimination and child mental health, but little is known about potential underlying mechanisms. The present study tested the independent mediating effects of parent mental health and household socioeconomic status on the associations between parental experiences of discrimination (past-year perceived discrimination and perceptions of being unaccepted culturally) and child mental health (internalizing and externalizing symptoms) using a bootstrapping analytic approach. Data were drawn from racial/ethnic minority (n = 383) and White (n = 574) samples surveyed in an urban Midwestern county. For all measures of discrimination and child mental health, findings supported an association between parental experiences of discrimination and child mental health. Whereas parent mental health served as a significant mediator in all analyses, socioeconomic status did not. Mediation findings held for both the White and racial/ethnic minority samples. Results suggest that parental experiences of discrimination and mental health may contribute to child mental health concerns, thus highlighting the role of family contexts in shaping child development.

  5. Effects of extended context discrimination training and context extinction on transfer of context dependency of conditioned flavor aversion.

    PubMed

    Iguchi, Yoshio; Fukumoto, Kazuya; Sawa, Kosuke; Ishii, Kiyoshi

    2014-03-01

    We trained rats in a context discrimination paradigm by pairing a sucrose solution with lithium chloride in one context (conditioning context) and simple exposure to the same fluid in a second (neutral) context to establish a context-dependent aversion to the conditioned fluid. We then investigated whether transfer of the context dependency to a test fluid (a sodium chloride solution) was affected by two post-discrimination training treatments, an extended context discrimination training, and non-reinforced exposure to the conditioning context (context extinction). We found that the context-dependent flavor aversion that had been specific to sucrose transferred to the test fluid after the extensive training (Experiment 1). Context extinction eliminated the transfer effect that had been observed immediately after the context discrimination training (Experiment 2). In addition, an aversion acquired by sucrose through a simple conditioning of sucrose-LiCl pairings did not generalize to the test fluid (Experiment 3). These results emphasize the importance of a Pavlovian excitatory association between the conditioning context and nausea as a primary source of transfer of the context dependency, rather than a generalization of aversion acquired by the conditioned fluid to the test fluid.

  6. Coping with chaos: how disordered contexts promote stereotyping and discrimination.

    PubMed

    Stapel, Diederik A; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2011-04-08

    Being the victim of discrimination can have serious negative health- and quality-of-life-related consequences. Yet, could being discriminated against depend on such seemingly trivial matters as garbage on the streets? In this study, we show, in two field experiments, that disordered contexts (such as litter or a broken-up sidewalk and an abandoned bicycle) indeed promote stereotyping and discrimination in real-world situations and, in three lab experiments, that it is a heightened need for structure that mediates these effects (number of subjects: between 40 and 70 per experiment). These findings considerably advance our knowledge of the impact of the physical environment on stereotyping and discrimination and have clear policy implications: Diagnose environmental disorder early and intervene immediately.

  7. Discrimination of phoneme length differences in word and sentence contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Norimune; Carrell, Thomas

    2005-09-01

    The ability of listeners to discriminate phoneme duration differences within word and sentence contexts was measured. This investigation was part of a series of studies examining the audibility and perceptual importance of speech modifications produced by stuttering intervention techniques. Just noticeable differences (jnd's) of phoneme lengths were measured via the parameter estimation by sequential testing (PEST) task, an adaptive tracking procedure. The target phonemes were digitally manipulated to vary from normal (130 m) to prolonged (210 m) duration in 2-m increments. In the first condition the phonemes were embedded in words. In the second condition the phonemes were embedded within words, which were further embedded in sentences. A four-interval forced-choice (4IAX) task was employed on each trial, and the PEST procedure determined the duration at which each listener correctly detected a difference between the normal duration and the test duration 71% of the time. The results revealed that listeners were able to reliably discriminate approximately 15-m differences in word context and 10-m differences in sentence context. An independent t-test showed a difference in discriminability between word and sentence contexts to be significant. These results indicate that duration differences were better perceived within a sentence context.

  8. Context-dependent discrimination and the evolution of mimicry.

    PubMed

    Holen, Øistein Haugsten; Johnstone, Rufus A

    2006-03-01

    Many mimetic organisms have evolved a close resemblance to their models, making it difficult to discriminate between them on the basis of appearance alone. However, if mimics and models differ slightly in their activity patterns, behavior, or use of microhabitats, the exact circumstances under which a signaler is encountered may provide additional clues to its identity. We employ an optimality model of mimetic discrimination in which signal receivers obtain information about the relative risk of encountering mimics and models by observing an external background cue and flexibly adjust their response thresholds. Although such flexibility on the part of signal receivers has been predicted by theory and is supported by empirical evidence in a range of biological settings, little is known about the effects it has on signalers. We show that the presence of external cues that partly reveal signaler identity may benefit models and harm mimics, harm both, or even benefit both, depending on ecological circumstances. Moreover, if mimetic traits are costly to express, or mimics are related to their neighbors, context-dependent discrimination can dramatically alter the outcome of mimetic evolution. We discuss context-dependent discrimination among signal receivers in relation to small-scale synchrony in model and mimic activity patterns.

  9. Sample discrimination of frequency differences with irrelevant context-revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, Donna L.; Odgaard, Eric C.; Jesteadt, Walt

    2002-05-01

    This experiment replicated earlier work to provide additional data for post hoc analyses of perceptual weights for conditions with large effects of context on performance. The non-adaptive, 2AFC task was sample discrimination of frequency differences (SD-F) in quiet and with added context stimuli. Listeners were to select the interval in which a pair of target tones was drawn from the higher of two Gaussian frequency distributions (means of 2000 and 2150 Hz). Pairs of context stimuli were added at frequency regions above and below the targets, at distances of 600, 1000 and 1400 Hz. Context stimuli were fixed-frequency tones, noise bands, or random-frequency tones. All stimuli were 100 ms with 5-ms ramps, presented simultaneously. Conditions were tested with and without Gaussian level jitter (standard deviation=3 dB). Mean levels of target and context stimuli were equated or systematically varied across conditions. The results confirm earlier work, with little effect of fixed-frequency tones or noise-band context at any distance from the targets. Random-frequency context tones produced large detrimental effects even at remote distances, due predominantly to effects of the lower-frequency context tone. Level variation had little effect. Different approaches to calculating perceptual weights influences data interpretation. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  10. Face context advantage explained by vernier and separation discrimination acuity.

    PubMed

    Vesker, Michael; Wilson, Hugh R

    2012-01-01

    Seeing facial features in the context of a full face is known to provide an advantage for perception. Using an interocular separation perception task we confirmed that seeing eyes within the context of a face improves discrimination in synthetic faces. We also show that this improvement of the face context can be explained using the presence of individual components of the face such as the nose mouth, or head-outline. We demonstrate that improvements due to the presence of the nose, and head-outline can be explained in terms of two-point separation measurements, obeying Weber's law as established in the literature. We also demonstrate that performance improvements due to the presence of the mouth can be explained in terms of Vernier acuity judgments between eye positions and the corners of the mouth. Overall, our study shows that the improvements in perception of facial features due to the face context effect can be traced to well understood basic visual measurements that may play a very general role in perceptual measurements of distance. Deficiencies in these measurements may also play a role in prosopagnosia. Additionally, we show interference of the eyebrows with the face-inversion effect for interocular discrimination.

  11. Operational Context Training in Individual Technical Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoehn, Arthur J.; And Others

    Four papers were presented at a conference dealing with the objectives and problems of operational context training (OCT) sponsored by HumRRO in June 1958. The first paper (by William McCleland) outlines the objectives of the conference and its general goals. The second paper (by Arthur J. Hoehn) describes the use of operational context training…

  12. Operational Context Training in Individual Technical Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoehn, Arthur J.; And Others

    Four papers were presented at a conference dealing with the objectives and problems of operational context training (OCT) sponsored by HumRRO in June 1958. The first paper (by William McCleland) outlines the objectives of the conference and its general goals. The second paper (by Arthur J. Hoehn) describes the use of operational context training…

  13. Hippocampal damage causes retrograde but not anterograde memory loss for context fear discrimination in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Justin Q; Sutherland, Robert J; McDonald, Robert J

    2017-09-01

    There is a substantial body of evidence that the hippocampus (HPC) plays and essential role in context discrimination in rodents. Studies reporting anterograde amnesia (AA) used repeated, alternating, distributed conditioning and extinction sessions to measure context fear discrimination. In addition, there is uncertainty about the extent of damage to the HPC. Here, we induced conditioned fear prior to discrimination tests and rats sustained extensive, quantified pre- or post-training HPC damage. Unlike previous work, we found that extensive HPC damage spares context discrimination, we observed no AA. There must be a non-HPC system that can acquire long-term memories that support context fear discrimination. Post-training HPC damage caused retrograde amnesia (RA) for context discrimination, even when rats are fear conditioned for multiple sessions. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the role of HPC in long-term memory. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A Primer on Accent Discrimination in the Canadian Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munro, Murray J.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews aspects of the Canadian human rights process as they pertain to language and accent, and identifies three types of accent discrimination arising in human rights cases: discrimination in employment due to inappropriate concern with accent; discrimination due to accent stereotyping, and harassment based on accent. (Author/VWL)

  15. Dynamic context discrimination : psychological evidence for the Sandia Cognitive Framework.

    SciTech Connect

    Speed, Ann Elizabeth

    2004-09-01

    Human behavior is a function of an iterative interaction between the stimulus environment and past experience. It is not simply a matter of the current stimulus environment activating the appropriate experience or rule from memory (e.g., if it is dark and I hear a strange noise outside, then I turn on the outside lights and investigate). Rather, it is a dynamic process that takes into account not only things one would generally do in a given situation, but things that have recently become known (e.g., there have recently been coyotes seen in the area and one is known to be rabid), as well as other immediate environmental characteristics (e.g., it is snowing outside, I know my dog is outside, I know the police are already outside, etc.). All of these factors combine to inform me of the most appropriate behavior for the situation. If it were the case that humans had a rule for every possible contingency, the amount of storage that would be required to enable us to fluidly deal with most situations we encounter would rapidly become biologically untenable. We can all deal with contingencies like the one above with fairly little effort, but if it isn't based on rules, what is it based on? The assertion of the Cognitive Systems program at Sandia for the past 5 years is that at the heart of this ability to effectively navigate the world is an ability to discriminate between different contexts (i.e., Dynamic Context Discrimination, or DCD). While this assertion in and of itself might not seem earthshaking, it is compelling that this ability and its components show up in a wide variety of paradigms across different subdisciplines in psychology. We begin by outlining, at a high functional level, the basic ideas of DCD. We then provide evidence from several different literatures and paradigms that support our assertion that DCD is a core aspect of cognitive functioning. Finally, we discuss DCD and the computational model that we have developed as an instantiation of DCD in

  16. Social context matters: Ethnicity, discrimination and stress reactivity.

    PubMed

    Busse, David; Yim, Ilona S; Campos, Belinda

    2017-09-01

    Exposure to chronic discrimination is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The study of biobehavioral pathways linking discrimination with health outcomes has mostly focused on the cardiovascular system, with fewer studies addressing the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In this study we tested associations between Latino ethnicity, experiences of discrimination, and cortisol responses to an acute laboratory stressor. One hundred fifty eight individuals (92 female, 66 male) between the ages of 18 and 29 years participated in the study. Salivary cortisol was measured once before and eight times after administration of a laboratory stressor (the Trier Social Stress Test). Past experiences of discrimination were measured with the Experiences of Discrimination Scale. Findings from conditional process modeling suggest that Latino ethnicity predicted a) heightened cortisol reactivity and b) more pronounced cortisol recovery through discrimination experiences (mediator), and that this effect was further moderated by sex with a significant indirect effect only among males. The direct path from Latino ethnicity to cortisol reactivity or cortisol recovery was, however, not significant. In sum, findings suggest that Latino ethnicity and discrimination interact to predict cortisol dysregulation, which implies that an appropriate model for understanding minority health discrepancies must incorporate interactive processes and cannot simply rely on the effects of ethnicity or discrimination alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The context of discrimination: workplace conditions, institutional environments, and sex and race discrimination charges.

    PubMed

    Hirsh, C Elizabeth; Kornrich, Sabino

    2008-03-01

    This article explores the organizational conditions under which discrimination charges occur. Drawing on structural and organizational theories of the workplace, the authors demonstrate how organizational conditions affect workers' and regulatory agents' understandings of unlawful discrimination. Using a national sample of work establishments, matched to discrimination-charge data obtained from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), the authors examine how characteristics of the workplace and institutional environment affect variation in the incidence of workers' charges of sex and race discrimination and in the subset of discrimination claims that are verified by EEOC investigators. The findings indicate that workplace conditions, including size, composition, and minority management, affect workers' charges as well as verified claims; the latter are also affected by institutional factors, such as affirmative action requirements, subsidiary status, and industrial sector. These results suggest that internal workplace conditions affect both workers' and regulatory agents' interpretations of potentially discriminatory experiences, while institutional conditions matter only for regulatory agents' interpretations of those events.

  18. Acute neuroinflammation impairs context discrimination memory and disrupts pattern separation processes in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Czerniawski, Jennifer; Guzowski, John F

    2014-09-10

    Although it is known that immune system activation can impair cognition, no study to date has linked cognitive deficits during acute neuroinflammation to dysregulation of task-relevant neuronal ensemble activity. Here, we assessed both neural circuit activity and context discrimination memory retrieval, in a within-subjects design, of male rats given systemic administration of saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Rats were exposed over several days to two similar contexts: one of which was paired with weak foot shock and the other was not. After reaching criteria for discriminative freezing, rats were given systemic LPS or saline injection and tested for retrieval of context discrimination 6 h later. Importantly, LPS administration produced an acute neuroinflammatory response in dorsal hippocampus at this time (as assessed by elevation of proinflammatory cytokine mRNA levels) and abolished retrieval of the previously acquired discrimination. The impact of neuroinflammation on hippocampal CA3 and CA1 neural circuit activity was assessed using the Arc/Homer1a cellular analysis of temporal activity by fluorescence in situ hybridization imaging method. Whereas the saline-treated subjects discriminated and had low overlap of hippocampal ensembles activated in the two contexts, LPS-treated subjects did not discriminate and had greater ensemble overlap (i.e., reduced orthogonalization). Additionally, retrieval of standard contextual fear conditioning, which does not require context discrimination, was not affected by pretesting LPS administration. Together, the behavioral and circuit analyses data provide compelling evidence that LPS administration impairs context discrimination memory by disrupting cellular pattern separation processes within the hippocampus, thus linking acute neuroinflammation to disruption of specific neural circuit functions and cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3412470-11$15.00/0.

  19. Acute Neuroinflammation Impairs Context Discrimination Memory and Disrupts Pattern Separation Processes in Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Czerniawski, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Although it is known that immune system activation can impair cognition, no study to date has linked cognitive deficits during acute neuroinflammation to dysregulation of task-relevant neuronal ensemble activity. Here, we assessed both neural circuit activity and context discrimination memory retrieval, in a within-subjects design, of male rats given systemic administration of saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Rats were exposed over several days to two similar contexts: one of which was paired with weak foot shock and the other was not. After reaching criteria for discriminative freezing, rats were given systemic LPS or saline injection and tested for retrieval of context discrimination 6 h later. Importantly, LPS administration produced an acute neuroinflammatory response in dorsal hippocampus at this time (as assessed by elevation of proinflammatory cytokine mRNA levels) and abolished retrieval of the previously acquired discrimination. The impact of neuroinflammation on hippocampal CA3 and CA1 neural circuit activity was assessed using the Arc/Homer1a cellular analysis of temporal activity by fluorescence in situ hybridization imaging method. Whereas the saline-treated subjects discriminated and had low overlap of hippocampal ensembles activated in the two contexts, LPS-treated subjects did not discriminate and had greater ensemble overlap (i.e., reduced orthogonalization). Additionally, retrieval of standard contextual fear conditioning, which does not require context discrimination, was not affected by pretesting LPS administration. Together, the behavioral and circuit analyses data provide compelling evidence that LPS administration impairs context discrimination memory by disrupting cellular pattern separation processes within the hippocampus, thus linking acute neuroinflammation to disruption of specific neural circuit functions and cognitive impairment. PMID:25209285

  20. Aerobic Fitness and Technical Efficiency at High Intensity Discriminate between Elite and Subelite Tennis Players.

    PubMed

    Baiget, E; Iglesias, X; Rodríguez, F A

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether selected physiological, performance and technical parameters derived from an on-court test are capable of discriminating between tennis players of national and international levels. 38 elite and subelite tennis players were divided into international level (INT, n=8) and national level players (NAT, n=30). They all performed a specific endurance field test, and selected physiological (maximum oxygen uptake [V˙O2max], and ventilatory thresholds [VT1 and VT2]), performance (test duration, final stage and hits per test) and technical (technical effectiveness [TE]) parameters were compared. INT showed greater V˙O2max, VO2 at VT2 (ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)), test duration (s), final stage (no.), hits per test (no.) and TE (% of successful hits), as compared with NAT (p<0.05). At high exercise intensity (stages 5 and 6), the INT achieved better TE than NAT (p=0.001-0.004), and the discriminant analyses showed that these technical parameters were the most discriminating factors. These results suggest that this specific endurance field test is capable of discriminating between tennis players at national and international levels, and that the better aerobic condition of the INT is associated with better technical efficiency at higher exercise intensities. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. The evolutionary context for a Self-Nonself discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Melvin

    2010-01-01

    This essay was written to illustrate how one might think about the immune system. The formulation of valid theories is the basic component of how-to-think because the reduction of large and complex data sets by the use of logic into a succinct model with predictability and explanatory power, is the only way that we have to arrive at “understanding.” Whether it is to achieve effective manipulation of the system or for pure pleasure, “understanding” is a universally agreed upon goal. It is in the nature of science that theories are there to be disproven. An experimentally disproven theory is a successful one. As they fail experimental test one by one, we end up with a default theory, that is, one that has yet to fail. Here using the self-nonself discrimination as an example, how-to-think as I see it, will be illustrated. PMID:20585970

  2. Relationships among Music Sight-Reading and Technical Proficiency, Spatial Visualization, and Aural Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Carol M.; Gromko, Joyce Eastlund

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of music sight-reading ability. The authors hypothesized that speed and accuracy of music sight-reading would be predicted by a combination of aural pattern discrimination, spatial-temporal reasoning, and technical proficiency. Participants (N = 70) were wind players in concert bands at a…

  3. School context protective factors against peer ethnic discrimination across the high school years.

    PubMed

    Bellmore, Amy; Nishina, Adrienne; You, Ji-In; Ma, Ting-Lan

    2012-03-01

    Ethnically diverse high school contexts present unique social opportunities for youth to form interethnic relationships, but they may also subject students to certain social challenges such as peer ethnic discrimination. With a sample of 1,072 high school students (55% girls; 54% Latino, 20% African American, 14% Asian, 12% White) attending 84 high schools, school context factors that protect students' exposure to peer ethnic discrimination across the high school years were investigated with a three-level hierarchical linear model. Each spring for four consecutive years (grades 9-12), self-reported peer ethnic discrimination, interracial climate at school, and perceived school ethnic composition were assessed. At the school level, objective high school ethnic composition data were collected. Peer ethnic discrimination was found to decline slightly across the high school years. Above and beyond this decline, more positive perceptions of the school interracial climate and both objective and perceived numerical ethnic majority status predicted lower levels of peer ethnic discrimination. Taken together, the results highlight the significance of both objective (e.g., ethnic composition) and subjective (e.g., interracial climate) aspects of the school ethnic context to students' high school social experiences.

  4. The Context of Workplace Sex Discrimination: Sex Composition, Workplace Culture and Relative Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stainback, Kevin; Ratliff, Thomas N.; Roscigno, Vincent J.

    2011-01-01

    Building on prior work surrounding negative work-related experiences, such as workplace bullying and sexual harassment, we examine the extent to which organizational context is meaningful for the subjective experience of sex discrimination. Data draw on the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce, which provides a key indicator of…

  5. The Context of Workplace Sex Discrimination: Sex Composition, Workplace Culture and Relative Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stainback, Kevin; Ratliff, Thomas N.; Roscigno, Vincent J.

    2011-01-01

    Building on prior work surrounding negative work-related experiences, such as workplace bullying and sexual harassment, we examine the extent to which organizational context is meaningful for the subjective experience of sex discrimination. Data draw on the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce, which provides a key indicator of…

  6. Discriminating work context factors in the working environment of Dutch nurse anesthetists.

    PubMed

    Meeusen, V; Brown-Mahoney, C; Van Dam, K; Van Zundert, A; Knape, J

    2008-01-01

    With an ever increasing number of patients and more demanding health care system it is important to keep nurse anesthetists as mentally and physically fit as possible. Especially with a shortage of nurse anesthetists it is important to know which work context factors are important for maintaining a healthy balance between the nurse anesthetist and his work environment. This study is the first to determine which work context factors of nurse anesthetists are most relevant for a healthy work environment. A questionnaire survey, containing work related items, was distributed among all nurse anesthetists working in Dutch hospitals. All together 882 questionnaires (response rate 44%) were completed and analyzed, including factor analysis for the discriminating work context factors. Four discriminating work context factors (career/rewards, relation with supervisor, task contents and social environment) were found to be relevant, explaining 48% of the variance in work context. All four work context factors are considered to be job resources, although not hospital related. Supervisors (head nurses) interpret these work context factors differently from nurse anesthetists, which can result in dissatisfaction of the latter group. Nurse anesthetists participate more in sub-functions and activities in larger peripheral and academic anesthesia departments. Smaller anesthesia departments require nurse anesthetists to be more flexible and perform many different functions within the anesthesia domain.

  7. Complimentary roles of the hippocampus and retrosplenial cortex in behavioral context discrimination.

    PubMed

    Smith, David M; Barredo, Jennifer; Mizumori, Sheri J Y

    2012-05-01

    Complex cognitive functions, such as learning and memory, arise from the interaction of multiple brain regions that comprise functional circuits and different components of these circuits make unique contributions to learning. The hippocampus and the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) are anatomically interconnected and both regions are involved in learning and memory. Previous studies indicate that the hippocampus exhibits unique firing patterns for different contexts and that RSC neurons selectively respond to cues that predict reinforcement or the need for a behavioral response, suggesting a hippocampal role in encoding contexts and an RSC role in encoding behaviorally significant cues. To test this, we simultaneously recorded hippocampal and RSC neuronal activity as rats learned to discriminate two behavioral contexts. The rats learned to approach the east arm of a plus maze for reward during the first half of each session and to approach the west arm during the second half. The "go east" and "go west" conditions constitute distinct behavioral contexts, which were cued by the reward location. Neurons in both regions developed highly context-specific responses as subjects learned to discriminate the contexts, but the response patterns differed in the two brain regions. Consistent with a context processing role, hippocampal neurons developed context-specific responses to a variety of task stimuli and events. In contrast, RSC neurons only developed context-specific responses to the reward location, which served as the context identifying cue. These results suggest that the hippocampus and RSC play distinct, but complimentary roles in mediating context appropriate memories and behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Lack of generalization of object discrimination between spatial contexts by a bat.

    PubMed

    Stich, Kai Petra; Winter, York

    2006-12-01

    Discrimination and generalization are important elements of cognition in the daily lives of animals. Nectar-feeding bats detect flowers by olfaction and probably vision, but also use echolocation and echo-perception of flowers in immediate target surroundings. The echo received from an interference-rich flower corolla is a function of a bat's own relative position in space. This raises the question how easily a free-flying bat will generalize an echo stimulus from a learning situation to a new spatial context where differences in relative flight approach trajectories may lead to an unfamiliar spectral composition of the self-generated echoes. We trained free-flying Glossophaga soricina in echoacoustic discrimination in a two-alternative forced-choice (2-AFC) paradigm at location A. We then tested at location B for spontaneous transfer of discrimination ability. Bats did not spontaneously transfer the discrimination ability acquired at A to location B. This lack of spontaneous generalization may have been caused by factors of the underlying learning mechanisms. 2-AFC tasks may not be representative of the natural foraging behaviour of flower-visiting bats. In contrast to insect-eating bats that constantly evaluate the environment to detect unpredictable prey, the spatial stability of flowers may allow flower visitors to rely on spatial memory to guide foraging. The 2-AFC task requires the disregard (learned irrelevance) of salient spatial location cues that are different at each new location. In Glossophaga, a conjunction between spatial context and 2-AFC discrimination learning may have inhibited the transfer of learned irrelevance of spatial location in the 2-AFC task to new spatial locations. Alternatively, the bats may have learnt the second discrimination task completely anew, and were faster only because of an acquired learning set. We suggest a dissociation between 2-AFC task acquisition and novel object discrimination learning to resolve the issue.

  9. The Influence of General Discrimination and Social Context on Young Urban Expecting Couples' Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Derrick M; Campbell, Christina; Washington, Keahnan; Albritton, Tashuna; Divney, Anna; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace

    2016-04-01

    Young expecting parents face a great deal of challenges as they transition into parenthood. This paper sought to identify racial and gender differences in the relationship between general discrimination, neighborhood problems, neighborhood cohesion, and social support on the depressive and stress symptoms among young expecting couples. Results indicated perceived general discrimination and less social support was associated with increased stress and depression. More neighborhood problems were related to increased depression and more neighborhood cohesion was related to less stress. Moderator analyses showed that the influence of general discrimination and stress was stronger for women than men. In addition, neighborhood cohesion was protective on stress for Blacks and Whites but not for Hispanics. These results indicate the need to address the broader social context for young expectant couples.

  10. The context of employment discrimination: interpreting the findings of a field experiment.

    PubMed

    Midtbøen, Arnfinn H

    2015-03-01

    Although field experiments have documented the contemporary relevance of discrimination in employment, theories developed to explain the dynamics of differential treatment cannot account for differences across organizational and institutional contexts. In this article, I address this shortcoming by presenting the main empirical findings from a multi-method research project, in which a field experiment of ethnic discrimination in the Norwegian labour market was complemented with forty-two in-depth interviews with employers who were observed in the first stage of the study. While the experimental data support earlier findings in documenting that ethnic discrimination indeed takes place, the qualitative material suggests that theorizing in the field experiment literature have been too concerned with individual and intra-psychic explanations. Discriminatory outcomes in employment processes seems to be more dependent on contextual factors such as the number of applications received, whether requirements are specified, and the degree to which recruitment procedures are formalized. I argue that different contexts of employment provide different opportunity structures for discrimination, a finding with important theoretical and methodological implications.

  11. Vowel formant discrimination II: Effects of stimulus uncertainty, consonantal context, and training.

    PubMed

    Kewley-Port, D

    2001-10-01

    This study is one in a series that has examined factors contributing to vowel perception in everyday listening. Four experimental variables have been manipulated to examine systematical differences between optimal laboratory testing conditions and those characterizing everyday listening. These include length of phonetic context, level of stimulus uncertainty, linguistic meaning, and amount of subject training. The present study investigated the effects of stimulus uncertainty from minimal to high uncertainty in two phonetic contexts, /V/ or /bVd/, when listeners had either little or extensive training. Thresholds for discriminating a small change in a formant for synthetic female vowels /I,E,ae,a,inverted v,o/ were obtained using adaptive tracking procedures. Experiment I optimized extensive training for five listeners by beginning under minimal uncertainty (only one formant tested per block) and then increasing uncertainty from 8-to-16-to-22 formants per block. Effects of higher uncertainty were less than expected; performance only decreased by about 30%. Thresholds for CVCs were 25% poorer than for isolated vowels. A previous study using similar stimuli [Kewley-Port and Zheng. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 106, 2945-2958 (1999)] determined that the ability to discriminate formants was degraded by longer phonetic context. A comparison of those results with the present ones indicates that longer phonetic context degrades formant frequency discrimination more than higher levels of stimulus uncertainty. In experiment 2, performance in the 22-formant condition was tracked over 1 h for 37 typical listeners without formal laboratory training. Performance for typical listeners was initially about 230% worse than for trained listeners. Individual listeners' performance ranged widely with some listeners occasionally achieving performance similar to that of the trained listeners in just one hour.

  12. Perceptual discrimination across contexts and contrasts in preschool-aged children

    PubMed Central

    BYUN, Tara McALLISTER

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates a proposed phonetically-based account of developmental phonological patterns that lack counterparts in adult typology. Adult listeners perceive some phonemic contrasts more accurately than others, and these differences in perceptual recoverability are posited to represent one influence on phonological typology. One hypothesis suggests that children and adults could differ in their patterns of relative perceptual sensitivity, and these differences could form the basis for some child-specific phonological patterns in production. However, there has been a lack of empirical evidence to support this claim. This study used a nonword discrimination task to investigate differences in perceptual recoverability across contrasts and contexts in typically-developing preschool children. Participants heard nonwords that were identical or differed by a single segment in initial or final position. Results revealed general agreement between child and adult listeners in the relative discriminability of different featural contrasts. For certain contrasts, discrimination accuracy was significantly greater in initial than final position, mirroring an asymmetry seen in adults. Overall, these results suggest that perceptual discrimination in preschool-aged children is broadly congruent with patterns of relative sensitivity observed in adult listeners. These findings suggest that factors other than perceptual recoverability should be explored to account for child-specific phonological patterns. PMID:26213418

  13. Descriptive analysis of context evaluation instrument for technical oral presentation skills evaluation: A case study in English technical communication course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Abdullah-Adnan; Asmawi, Adelina; Hamid, Mohd Rashid Ab; Mustafa, Zainol bin

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports a pilot study of Context Evaluation using a self-developed questionnaire distributed among engineering undergraduates at a university under study. The study aims to validate the self-developed questionnaires used in the Context evaluation, a component in the CIPP Model. The Context evaluation assesses background information for needs, assets, problems and opportunities relevant to beneficiaries of the study in a defined environment. Through the questionnaire, background information for the assessment of needs, assets and problems related to the engineering undergraduates' perceptions on the teaching and learning of technical oral presentation skills was collected and analysed. The questionnaire was developed using 5-points Likert scale to measure the constructs under study. They were distributed to 100 respondents with 79 returned. The respondents consisted of engineering undergraduates studied at various faculties at one technical university in Malaysia. The descriptive analysis of data for each item which makes up the construct for Context evaluation is found to be high. This implied that engineering undergraduates showed high interest in teaching and learning of technical oral presentation skills, thus their needs are met. Also, they agreed that assets and facilities are conducive to their learning. In conclusion, the context evaluation involving needs and assets factors are both considerably important; their needs are met and the assets and facilities do support their technical oral presentation skills learning experience.

  14. Immune to ageism? Men's perceptions of age-based discrimination in everyday contexts.

    PubMed

    Ojala, Hanna; Pietilä, Ilkka; Nikander, Pirjo

    2016-12-01

    Despite long-term, conceptually and theoretically refined discussions, the phenomenon of ageism still remains empirically under-developed. To better understand the diversity of ageism, its contextual variations and gender-specific dynamics in people's daily lives, this study focuses on how different interactional contexts shape men's perceptions of ageism. Using data from 67 thematic personal interviews with 23 middle and working class men aged 50-70, this study contributes to the sorely lacking, empirically based and nuanced understanding of how ageism is experienced, and adds to the research on the internalization of ageism which to date has primarily focused on older women's experiences. Key findings are as follows: 1) men are not totally immune to ageism, but rather, 2) the experiences and interpretations of ageism are structured by the interactional context in question, 3) acts and expressions interpreted as discriminative in one context become defused in others, and that 4) in family contexts positive ageism represents a naturalized order of things within intergenerational relations. The study contributes to the existing body of work on age negotiations and on the ways in which chronological age as a cultural resource functions in interaction. It also underlines that adopting a gender and context sensitive approach into ageism opens up promising avenues for further conceptual development.

  15. Distributed hippocampal patterns that discriminate reward context are associated with enhanced associative binding

    PubMed Central

    Wolosin, Sasha M.; Zeithamova, Dagmar; Preston, Alison R.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that reward-based motivation impacts medial temporal lobe (MTL) encoding processes, leading to enhanced memory for rewarded events. In particular, previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of motivated learning have shown that MTL activation is greater for highly rewarded events, with the degree of reward-related activation enhancement tracking the corresponding behavioral memory advantage. These studies, however, do not directly address leading theoretical perspectives that propose such reward-based enhancements in MTL encoding activation reflect enhanced discrimination of the motivational context of specific events. In this study, a high-value or low-value monetary cue preceded a pair of objects, indicating the future reward for successfully remembering the pair. Using representational similarity analysis and high-resolution fMRI, we show that MTL activation patterns are more similar for encoding trials preceded by the same versus different reward cues, indicating a distributed code in this region that distinguishes between motivational contexts. Moreover, we show that activation patterns in hippocampus and PHc that differentiate reward conditions during anticipatory cues and object pairs relate to successful associative memory. Additionally, the degree to which patterns differentiate reward contexts in dentate gyrus/CA2,3 and PHc is related to individual differences in reward modulation of memory. Collectively, these findings suggest that distributed activation patterns in the human hippocampus and PHc reflect the rewards associated with individual events. Furthermore, we show that these activation patterns—which discriminate between reward conditions—may influence memory through the incorporation of information about motivational contexts into stored memory representations. PMID:23834024

  16. Technical Feasibility of a Mobile Context-Aware (Social) Learning Schedule Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Jane Y. K.; Joy, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the technical feasibility of implementing their mobile context-aware learning schedule (mCALS) framework as a software application on a mobile device using current technologies, prior to its actual implementation. This process draws a set of compatible mobile and context-aware technologies at present and can be…

  17. Technical Feasibility of a Mobile Context-Aware (Social) Learning Schedule Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Jane Y. K.; Joy, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the technical feasibility of implementing their mobile context-aware learning schedule (mCALS) framework as a software application on a mobile device using current technologies, prior to its actual implementation. This process draws a set of compatible mobile and context-aware technologies at present and can be…

  18. Configurations of the interoceptive discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol and nicotine with two different exteroceptive contexts in rats: Extinction & recovery.

    PubMed

    Troisi, Joseph R; Craig, Elizabeth M

    2015-06-01

    Interoceptive states interact with exteroceptive contexts in modulating operant behavior, which is maintained by its consequences. Evaluating discriminative stimulus control by overlapping interoceptive and exteroceptive configurations (gestalts) and the contribution of each modality may be clinically important for understanding aspects of relapsing behavior (e.g., drug abuse). With rats, the current investigation used a completely counterbalanced one-manipulandum operant drug discrimination procedure that established discriminative stimulus control between nicotine (0.3mg/kg) in one exteroceptive context and EtOH (1.0g/kg) in a differing exteroceptive context. One combined interoceptive-exteroceptive condition occasioned sessions of food reinforcement (S(D)) and the other counterbalanced condition occasioned sessions of non-reinforcement (S(Δ)). Each stimulus modality contributed to discriminative control, but to lesser extents than the combined intero-exteroceptive compound configurations (Experiments 1 & 2). In Experiment 1, responding was extinguished in the interoceptive stimulus conditions alone in a neutral exteroceptive context, but then renewed by reconfiguring the drugs with the exteroceptive contexts, and reversed in the opposing exteroceptive contexts. In Experiment 2, responding was extinguished in the interoceptive and exteroceptive contexts separately. Reconfiguration of the full intero-exteroceptive compound configurations did not promote recovery. These results suggest that interoceptive and exteroceptive discriminative control can be methodologically configured in modulating operant behavior during acquisition, extinction, and recovery of behavior; however, configuring interoceptive and exteroceptive discriminative stimuli do not appear to function as unique cues that differ from each stimulus modality alone. Clinical implications are discussed.

  19. Contributions of acculturation, enculturation, discrimination, and personality traits to social anxiety among Chinese immigrants: A context-specific assessment.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ke; Friedlander, Myrna; Pieterse, Alex L

    2016-01-01

    Based on the diathesis-stress model of anxiety, this study examined the contributions of cultural processes, perceived racial discrimination, and personality traits to social anxiety among Chinese immigrants. Further guided by the theory of intergroup anxiety, this study also adopted a context-specific approach to distinguish between participants' experience of social anxiety when interacting with European Americans versus with other Chinese in the United States. This quantitative and ex post facto study used a convenience sample of 140 first-generation Chinese immigrants. Participants were recruited through e-mails from different university and community groups across the United States. The sample includes 55 men and 82 women (3 did not specify) with an average age of 36 years old. Results showed that more social anxiety was reported in the European American context than in the Chinese ethnic context. The full models accounted for almost half the variance in anxiety in each context. Although personality accounted for the most variance, the cultural variables and discrimination contributed 14% of the unique variance in the European American context. Notably, low acculturation, high neuroticism, and low extraversion were unique contributors to social anxiety with European Americans, whereas in the Chinese ethnic context only low extraversion was a unique contributor; more discrimination was uniquely significant in both contexts. The findings suggest a need to contextualize the research and clinical assessment of social anxiety, and have implications for culturally sensitive counseling with immigrants. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Discriminant Context Information Analysis for Post-Ranking Person Re-Identification.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Jorge; Martinel, Niki; Gardel, Alfredo; Bravo, Ignacio; Foresti, Gian Luca; Micheloni, Christian

    2017-01-16

    Existing approaches for person re-identification are mainly based on creating distinctive representations or on learning optimal metrics. The achieved results are then provided in form of a list of ranked matching persons. It often happens that the true match is not ranked first but it is in the first positions. This is mostly due to the visual ambiguities shared between the true match and other "similar" persons. At the current state, there is a lack of a study of such visual ambiguities which limit the re-identification performance within the first ranks. We believe that an analysis of the similar appearances of the first ranks can be helpful in detecting, hence removing, such visual ambiguities. We propose to achieve such a goal by introducing an unsupervised post-ranking framework. Once the initial ranking is available, content and context sets are extracted. Then, these are exploited to remove the visual ambiguities and to obtain the discriminant feature space which is finally exploited to compute the new ranking. An in-depth analysis of the performance achieved on three public benchmark datasets support our believes. For every dataset, the proposed method remarkably improves the first ranks results and outperforms state-of-the-art approaches.

  1. Context Matters: Links between Neighborhood Discrimination, Neighborhood Cohesion and African American Adolescents' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riina, Elizabeth M.; Martin, Anne; Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Racial discrimination has serious negative consequences for the adjustment of African American adolescents. Taking an ecological approach, this study examined the linkages between perceived racial discrimination within and outside of the neighborhood and urban adolescents' externalizing and internalizing behaviors, and tested whether neighborhood…

  2. Context Matters: Links between Neighborhood Discrimination, Neighborhood Cohesion and African American Adolescents' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riina, Elizabeth M.; Martin, Anne; Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Racial discrimination has serious negative consequences for the adjustment of African American adolescents. Taking an ecological approach, this study examined the linkages between perceived racial discrimination within and outside of the neighborhood and urban adolescents' externalizing and internalizing behaviors, and tested whether neighborhood…

  3. Discrimination, ethnic identity, and academic outcomes of Mexican immigrant children: the importance of school context.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christia Spears; Chu, Hui

    2012-01-01

    This study examined ethnic identity, perceptions of discrimination, and academic attitudes and performance of primarily first- and second-generation Mexican immigrant children living in a predominantly White community (N=204, 19 schools, mean age=9years). The study also examined schools' promotion of multiculturalism and teachers' attitudes about the value of diversity in predicting immigrant youth's attitudes and experiences. Results indicated that Latino immigrant children in this White community held positive and important ethnic identities and perceived low overall rates of discrimination. As expected, however, school and teacher characteristics were important in predicting children's perceptions of discrimination and ethnic identity, and moderated whether perceptions of discrimination and ethnic identity were related to attitudes about school and academic performance.

  4. RAPID GENERATION OF BALANCED TRIAL DISTRIBUTIONS FOR DISCRIMINATION LEARNING PROCEDURES: A TECHNICAL NOTE

    PubMed Central

    Gerard, Christophe J.; Mackay, Harry A.; Thompson, Brooks; McIlvane, William J.

    2014-01-01

    In simple and conditional discrimination procedures, a series of stimulus displays are presented, each of which is intended to occasion a response of some type. Regular readers of this journal are likely to be familiar with simultaneous and successive simple discrimination, matching-to-sample, and other conditional discrimination procedures used in the study of basic discriminative and relational learning processes (cf. Mackay, 1991; McIlvane, 2012). However, behavior analysis is not alone in employing such procedures as key elements of methodology. Other major users of multitrial procedures are neuroscientists, some with cognitive perspectives (e.g., in bioimaging applications), others with a behavioral orientation (e.g., in behavioral teratology), psychologists conducting research on cognitive functions (e.g., in memory and attention) and on behavioral processes (e.g., in discrimination learning), special educators, autism and early intervention specialists (e.g., in individualized and classroom procedures for minimally verbal students; applied behavior analysis), and speech/language pathologists (e.g., language intervention procedures; augmentative/alternative communication training). PMID:24249664

  5. Peer Contexts for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Students: Reducing Stigma, Prejudice, and Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Stacey S.; Romeo, Katherine E.

    2010-01-01

    Peer relationships are a vital part of adolescents' lives. For lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth, whether these relationships are supportive and positive, or filled with stigma, prejudice, and discrimination rests, to some degree, on their heterosexual peers' attitudes and beliefs about homosexuality. For while LGBT youth may…

  6. Discrimination, Ethnic Identity, and Academic Outcomes of Mexican Immigrant Children: The Importance of School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christia Spears; Chu, Hui

    2012-01-01

    This study examined ethnic identity, perceptions of discrimination, and academic attitudes and performance of primarily first- and second-generation Mexican immigrant children living in a predominantly White community (N = 204, 19 schools, mean age = 9 years). The study also examined schools' promotion of multiculturalism and teachers' attitudes…

  7. Discrimination, Ethnic Identity, and Academic Outcomes of Mexican Immigrant Children: The Importance of School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christia Spears; Chu, Hui

    2012-01-01

    This study examined ethnic identity, perceptions of discrimination, and academic attitudes and performance of primarily first- and second-generation Mexican immigrant children living in a predominantly White community (N = 204, 19 schools, mean age = 9 years). The study also examined schools' promotion of multiculturalism and teachers' attitudes…

  8. Peer Contexts for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Students: Reducing Stigma, Prejudice, and Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Stacey S.; Romeo, Katherine E.

    2010-01-01

    Peer relationships are a vital part of adolescents' lives. For lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth, whether these relationships are supportive and positive, or filled with stigma, prejudice, and discrimination rests, to some degree, on their heterosexual peers' attitudes and beliefs about homosexuality. For while LGBT youth may…

  9. [Stigma, discrimination and HIV/AIDS in the Brazilian context, 1998 and 2005].

    PubMed

    Garcia, Sandra; Koyama, Mitti Ayako Hara

    2008-06-01

    To identify discriminatory attitudes in two moments of the Brazilian HIV/AIDS epidemic, as well as the occurrence of possible changes. The Intention of Discrimination Index was obtained by scoring 1 for discriminatory situations or 0, when the opposite was the case. Intention of discrimination ranges were established by means of the clustering technique, and made compatible between the 1998 and 2005 surveys. Mean comparisons, chi-square test and ordered logit adjusted regression models were used to verify association between the index and socio-demographic variables. Between the 1998 and 2005 surveys, there was a statistically significant reduction in the proportion of people who answered "yes" to anti-HIV test's being mandatory in the following cases: admission for employment, before getting married, when joining the military service, drug users, foreigners entering the country, sex professionals, and for all the people. To have lower level of education, to be female, to live in the North/Northeast regions of Brazil, and to be aged over 45 years are factors associated with higher intention of discrimination level. The growth of intention of discrimination shows that information about ways of AIDS transmission and non-transmission still needs to be better planned and promoted, especially among populations that have lower level of education, live in the North/Northeast regions, are female and aged over 45 years.

  10. Interpersonal Valence Dimensions as Discriminators of Communication Contexts: An Empirical Assessment of Dyadic Linkages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, John P.; And Others

    The capability of 14 interpersonal dimensions to predict dyadic communication contexts was investigated in this study. Friend, acquaintance, co-worker, and family contexts were examined. The interpersonal valence construct, based on a coactive or mutual-causal paradigm, encompasses traditional source-valence components (credibility, power,…

  11. Speed Limits: Orientation and Semantic Context Interactions Constrain Natural Scene Discrimination Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieger, Jochem W.; Kochy, Nick; Schalk, Franziska; Gruschow, Marcus; Heinze, Hans-Jochen

    2008-01-01

    The visual system rapidly extracts information about objects from the cluttered natural environment. In 5 experiments, the authors quantified the influence of orientation and semantics on the classification speed of objects in natural scenes, particularly with regard to object-context interactions. Natural scene photographs were presented in an…

  12. Technical, perceptual and motor skills in novice-expert water polo players: an individual discriminant analysis for talent development.

    PubMed

    DʼErcole, Alessandro A; DʼErcole, Cristina; Gobbi, Massimo; Gobbi, Fabio

    2013-12-01

    The 4 tasks (A, B, C, and Y) have the characteristic of containing one more element than the task performed before it. In fact, task B introduces the slalom which is not present in task A. Task C introduces the ball control that are not present in tasks A and B, whereas task Y introduces the slalom and ball control in a visual dual task situation developed in horizontal swimming over a distance of 20 m at maximum speed. This exercise not included in task C. These tasks were performed by a group of pre-adolescent players and national under 18 water polo players. The novice players showed that tasks B and C are predictors of task Y. Such characteristics were not present in the expert players. The novice players also had difficulty in performing task Y because of the visual-attention overload, a difficulty that was not present in the expert players. To improve the 4 skills, the coach of the novice players developed a technical-didactic program, which was checked 6 months after the pretest. The posttest was not significantly different from the pretest while the individual discriminant analysis identified the improvements in some novice players, which on elaboration proved significant, enabling us to distinguish 2 subgroups, one with higher learning rates and the other with lower learning rates. In the practical applications, we describe the didactic tools (task analysis) and the different levels of development of technical skills in water polo. Improvements in these skills are explained through computational models like the HMOSAIC (Hierarchical, Modular, Selection and Identification for Control) while the individual discriminant analysis enables us to do a longitudinal analysis that is not possible with cross-sectional models.

  13. The spectrum of 'new racism' and discrimination in hospital contexts: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Kanitsaki, Olga

    2009-01-01

    In keeping with the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights, all people have the right to the highest attainable standard of health. Despite the universal right to health, people of minority racial and ethnic backgrounds experience commonplace and significant unjust inequalities in their health and health care. A key reason for this rests on what might be described as 'the illusion of non-racism in health care' -- an illusion that rests on the frequently articulated belief that 'racism is not an issue any more'. Although there has been increasing recognition in recent years that race and racism have a particular, consistent and complex independent negative effect on the health and health care of racial and ethnic minority groups, racism per se still tends to be under-recognised and poorly addressed in health and nursing care domains. In this paper, it is suggested that a key reason racism in health care has been Largely ignored is because of its 'changing face', making new and different forms of it difficult to recognise and manage. A key premise on which this paper rests -- and also its ultimate conclusion -- is that the problem of racism (to be distinguished from 'culturally insensitive' and 'culturally incongruent' care) needs to be unmasked and managed so that those most at risk of being discriminated against on racialised grounds can rest assured that when in need, they will receive the equitable, safe and quality care they are entitled to receive.

  14. The hippocampus is required for visually cued contextual response selection, but not for visual discrimination of contexts

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sehee; Lee, Jihyun; Lee, Inah

    2012-01-01

    The hippocampus is important for spatial navigation. Literature shows that allocentric visual contexts in the animal's background are critical for making conditional response selections during navigations. In a traditional maze task, however, it is difficult to identify exactly which subsets of visual contexts are critically used. In the current study, we tested in rats whether making conditional response selections required the hippocampus when using computer-generated visual contextual stimuli in the animal's background as in primate and human studies. We designed a new task, visual contextual response selection (VCRS) task, in which the rat ran along a linear track and encountered a touchscreen monitor at the end of the track. The rat was required to touch one of the adjacent rectangular box images depending on the visual contextual stimuli displayed in the two peripheral monitors positioned on both sides of the center touchscreen monitor. The rats with a GABA-A receptor agonist, muscimol (MUS), infused bilaterally in the dorsal hippocampi showed severe performance deficits in the VCRS task and the impairment was completely reversible with vehicle injections. The impairment in contextual response selection with hippocampal inactivations occurred regardless of whether the visual context was presented in the side monitors or in the center touchscreen monitor. However, when the same visual contextual stimuli were pitted against each other between the two side monitors and as the rats simply ran toward the visual context associated with reward on a T-shaped track, hippocampal inactivations with MUS showed minimal disruptions, if any, in performance. Our results suggest that the hippocampus is critically involved in conditional response selection using visual stimuli in the background, but it is not required for the perceptual discrimination of those stimuli. PMID:23060765

  15. Enhanced discrimination between threatening and safe contexts in high-anxious individuals

    PubMed Central

    Glotzbach-Schoon, Evelyn; Tadda, Regina; Andreatta, Marta; Tröger, Christian; Ewald, Heike; Grillon, Christian; Pauli, Paul; Mühlberger, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Trait anxiety, a stable personality trait associated with increased fear responses to threat, is regarded as a risk factor for the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Although the effect of trait anxiety has been examined with regard to explicit threat cues, little is known about the effect of trait anxiety on contextual threat learning. To assess this issue, extreme groups of low and high trait anxiety underwent a contextual fear conditioning protocol using virtual reality. Two virtual office rooms served as the conditioned contexts. One virtual office room (CXT+) was paired with unpredictable electrical stimuli. In the other virtual office room, no electrical stimuli were delivered (CXT−). High-anxious participants tended to show faster acquisition of startle potentiation in the CXT+ versus the CXT− than low-anxious participants. This enhanced contextual fear learning might function as a risk factor for anxiety disorders that are characterized by sustained anxiety. PMID:23384512

  16. Context Effects in a Temporal Discrimination Task: Further Tests of the Scalar Expectancy Theory and Learning-to-Time Models

    PubMed Central

    Arantes, Joana; Machado, Armando

    2008-01-01

    Pigeons were trained on two temporal bisection tasks, which alternated every two sessions. In the first task, they learned to choose a red key after a 1-s signal and a green key after a 4-s signal; in the second task, they learned to choose a blue key after a 4-s signal and a yellow key after a 16-s signal. Then the pigeons were exposed to a series of test trials in order to contrast two timing models, Learning-to-Time (LeT) and Scalar Expectancy Theory (SET). The models made substantially different predictions particularly for the test trials in which the sample duration ranged from 1 s to 16 s and the choice keys were Green and Blue, the keys associated with the same 4-s samples: LeT predicted that preference for Green should increase with sample duration, a context effect, but SET predicted that preference for Green should not vary with sample duration. The results were consistent with LeT. The present study adds to the literature the finding that the context effect occurs even when the two basic discriminations are never combined in the same session. PMID:18683611

  17. Context effects in a temporal discrimination task" further tests of the Scalar Expectancy Theory and Learning-to-Time models.

    PubMed

    Arantes, Joana; Machado, Armando

    2008-07-01

    Pigeons were trained on two temporal bisection tasks, which alternated every two sessions. In the first task, they learned to choose a red key after a 1-s signal and a green key after a 4-s signal; in the second task, they learned to choose a blue key after a 4-s signal and a yellow key after a 16-s signal. Then the pigeons were exposed to a series of test trials in order to contrast two timing models, Learning-to-Time (LeT) and Scalar Expectancy Theory (SET). The models made substantially different predictions particularly for the test trials in which the sample duration ranged from 1 s to 16 s and the choice keys were Green and Blue, the keys associated with the same 4-s samples: LeT predicted that preference for Green should increase with sample duration, a context effect, but SET predicted that preference for Green should not vary with sample duration. The results were consistent with LeT. The present study adds to the literature the finding that the context effect occurs even when the two basic discriminations are never combined in the same session.

  18. School and Neighborhood Contexts, Perceptions of Racial Discrimination, and Psychological Well-Being among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined contextual influences on the relationship between racial discrimination (individual, cultural, and collective/institutional) and psychological well-being. Two hundred and fifty two African American adolescents (46% male and 54% female, average age = 16) completed measures of racial discrimination, self-esteem, depressive…

  19. School and Neighborhood Contexts, Perceptions of Racial Discrimination, and Psychological Well-Being among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined contextual influences on the relationship between racial discrimination (individual, cultural, and collective/institutional) and psychological well-being. Two hundred and fifty two African American adolescents (46% male and 54% female, average age = 16) completed measures of racial discrimination, self-esteem, depressive…

  20. Pavlovian Extinction of the Discriminative Stimulus Effects of Nicotine and Ethanol in Rats Varies as a Function of Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troisi, Joseph R., II

    2011-01-01

    Operant extinction contingencies can undermine the discriminative stimulus effects of drugs. Here, nicotine (0.4 mg/kg) and ethanol (0.8 g/kg) first functioned as either an S[superscript D] or S[superscript Delta], in a counterbalanced one-lever go/no-go (across sessions) operant drug discrimination procedure. Pavlovian extinction in the training…

  1. Pavlovian Extinction of the Discriminative Stimulus Effects of Nicotine and Ethanol in Rats Varies as a Function of Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troisi, Joseph R., II

    2011-01-01

    Operant extinction contingencies can undermine the discriminative stimulus effects of drugs. Here, nicotine (0.4 mg/kg) and ethanol (0.8 g/kg) first functioned as either an S[superscript D] or S[superscript Delta], in a counterbalanced one-lever go/no-go (across sessions) operant drug discrimination procedure. Pavlovian extinction in the training…

  2. Development and Internal-Structure Analysis of a New Pitch Discrimination Test, Worksample 740 A. Technical Report 1990-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veccia, Ellen M.; Schroeder, David H.

    As a measure of musical aptitude, a new 90-item Pitch Discrimination Test was developed, and its internal structure was examined. Each of the three sections of the test measures an individual's aptitude for pitch discrimination in a different frequency range using square-wave tones generated by a personal computer. A total of 1,303 examinees,…

  3. Development and Internal-Structure Analysis of a New Pitch Discrimination Test, Worksample 740 A. Technical Report 1990-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veccia, Ellen M.; Schroeder, David H.

    As a measure of musical aptitude, a new 90-item Pitch Discrimination Test was developed, and its internal structure was examined. Each of the three sections of the test measures an individual's aptitude for pitch discrimination in a different frequency range using square-wave tones generated by a personal computer. A total of 1,303 examinees,…

  4. How to combat the negative impact of discrimination in a collectivist context? The safeguarding function of peer-oriented hope.

    PubMed

    Datu, Jesus Alfonso D; Jose Mateo, Nino

    2017-03-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the moderating role of locus-of-hope on the relations between everyday discrimination and well-being outcomes in a collectivist setting. There were 444 Filipino undergraduate students who participated in the research. Findings showed that discrimination was negatively linked to subjective well-being and flourishing while loci-of-hope (internal, external-spiritual, external-family, and external-peers) were positively associated with well-being indices. Further, external-peer locus-of-hope moderated the relations between everyday discrimination and well-being outcomes such that for those who had higher external-peer locus-of-hope, everyday discrimination may still be linked to greater well-being. The theoretical and practical implications are elucidated.

  5. Factors That Promote Motivation and Academic Engagement in a Career Technical Education Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loera, Gustavo; Nakamoto, Jonathan; Oh, Youn Joo; Rueda, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on social cognitive theory, this study examined the relationship between student and school-based factors (e.g., educational aspirations, quality of the program of study, and adults' impact on college enrollment) and students' academic engagement and satisfaction with student life in a career technical education (CTE) setting. This study…

  6. Tactics for Building Images of Audience in Organizational Contexts: An Ethnographic Study of Technical Communicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovde, Marjorie Rush

    2000-01-01

    Examines computer documentation writers' tactics for conceiving of their audiences. Describes and evaluates technical communicators' tactics for understanding audiences, constrained and supported by their organizations based on two ethnographic case studies and insights from activity theory. Discusses the advantages and limitations of each tactic,…

  7. Assessing Technical Writing in Institutional Contexts: Using Outcomes-Based Assessment for Programmatic Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Michael; Anson, Chris M.; Miller, Carolyn R.

    2003-01-01

    Notes that technical writing instruction often operates in isolation from other components of students' communication education. Argues for altering this isolation by moving writing instruction to a place of increased programmatic perspective, which may be attained through a means of assessment based on educational outcomes. Discusses two models…

  8. Factors That Promote Motivation and Academic Engagement in a Career Technical Education Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loera, Gustavo; Nakamoto, Jonathan; Oh, Youn Joo; Rueda, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on social cognitive theory, this study examined the relationship between student and school-based factors (e.g., educational aspirations, quality of the program of study, and adults' impact on college enrollment) and students' academic engagement and satisfaction with student life in a career technical education (CTE) setting. This study…

  9. Strategies and Success in Technical Vocabulary Learning: Students' Approaches in One Academic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessard-Clouston, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of lexis and vocabulary learning strategies (VLS) in academic studies, this article presents a descriptive case study of technical vocabulary learning in English over one academic term in an intact, required first year course in a graduate school of theology in Canada. After outlining background information and…

  10. Children's Auditory Discrimination Inventory; Technical Report 3. Disadvantaged Children and Their First School Experiences. ETS-Head Start Longitudinal Study. Technical Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipman, Virginia C.; Goldman, Karla S.

    The Children's Auditory Discrimination Inventory (CADI) was used in the longitudinal study to evaluate the child's ability to identify, between two pictures that have been given oral word equivalents, the picture that represents the orally presented stimulus word. The task, which takes 10 minutes, uses 38 cards with two pictures on each and 38…

  11. Final Scientific/Technical Report: Context-Aware Smart Home Energy Manager (CASHEM)

    SciTech Connect

    Foslien, Wendy K.; Curtner, Keith L.

    2013-01-15

    Because of growing energy demands and shortages, residential home owners are turning to energy conservation measures and smart home energy management devices to help them reduce energy costs and live more sustainably. In this context, the Honeywell team researched, developed, and tested the Context Aware Smart Home Energy Manager (CASHEM) as a trusted advisor for home energy management. The project focused on connecting multiple devices in a home through a uniform user interface. The design of the user interface was an important feature of the project because it provided a single place for the homeowner to control all devices and was also where they received coaching. CASHEM then used data collected from homes to identify the contexts that affect operation of home appliances. CASHEM's goal was to reduce energy consumption while keeping the user's key needs satisfied. Thus, CASHEM was intended to find the opportunities to minimize energy consumption in a way that fit the user's lifestyle.

  12. Systemic lipopolysaccharide administration impairs retrieval of context-object discrimination, but not spatial, memory: Evidence for selective disruption of specific hippocampus-dependent memory functions during acute neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Czerniawski, Jennifer; Miyashita, Teiko; Lewandowski, Gail; Guzowski, John F

    2015-02-01

    Neuroinflammation is implicated in impairments in neuronal function and cognition that arise with aging, trauma, and/or disease. Therefore, understanding the underlying basis of the effect of immune system activation on neural function could lead to therapies for treating cognitive decline. Although neuroinflammation is widely thought to preferentially impair hippocampus-dependent memory, data on the effects of cytokines on cognition are mixed. One possible explanation for these inconsistent results is that cytokines may disrupt specific neural processes underlying some forms of memory but not others. In an earlier study, we tested the effect of systemic administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on retrieval of hippocampus-dependent context memory and neural circuit function in CA3 and CA1 (Czerniawski and Guzowski, 2014). Paralleling impairment in context discrimination memory, we observed changes in neural circuit function consistent with disrupted pattern separation function. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that acute neuroinflammation selectively disrupts memory retrieval in tasks requiring hippocampal pattern separation processes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats given LPS systemically prior to testing exhibited intact performance in tasks that do not require hippocampal pattern separation processes: novel object recognition and spatial memory in the water maze. By contrast, memory retrieval in a task thought to require hippocampal pattern separation, context-object discrimination, was strongly impaired in LPS-treated rats in the absence of any gross effects on exploratory activity or motivation. These data show that LPS administration does not impair memory retrieval in all hippocampus-dependent tasks, and support the hypothesis that acute neuroinflammation impairs context discrimination memory via disruption of pattern separation processes in hippocampus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Systemic lipopolysaccharide administration impairs retrieval of context-object discrimination, but not spatial, memory: Evidence for selective disruption of specific hippocampus-dependent memory functions during acute neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Czerniawski, Jennifer; Miyashita, Teiko; Lewandowski, Gail; Guzowski, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is implicated in impairments in neuronal function and cognition that arise with aging, trauma, and/or disease. Therefore, understanding the underlying basis of the effect of immune system activation on neural function could lead to therapies for treating cognitive decline. Although neuroinflammation is widely thought to preferentially impair hippocampus-dependent memory, data on the effects of cytokines on cognition are mixed. One possible explanation for these inconsistent results is that cytokines may disrupt specific neural processes underlying some forms of memory but not others. In an earlier study, we tested the effect of systemic administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on retrieval of hippocampus-dependent context memory and neural circuit function in CA3 and CA1 (Czerniawski and Guzowski, 2014). Paralleling impairment in context discrimination memory, we observed changes in neural circuit function consistent with disrupted pattern separation function. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that acute neuroinflammation selectively disrupts memory retrieval in tasks requiring hippocampal pattern separation processes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats given LPS systemically prior to testing exhibited intact performance in tasks that do not require hippocampal pattern separation processes: novel object recognition and spatial memory in the water maze. By contrast, memory retrieval in a task thought to require hippocampal pattern separation, context-object discrimination, was strongly impaired in LPS-treated rats in the absence of any gross effects on exploratory activity or motivation. These data show that LPS administration does not impair memory retrieval in all hippocampus-dependent tasks, and support the hypothesis that acute neuroinflammation impairs context discrimination memory via disruption of pattern separation processes in hippocampus. PMID:25451612

  14. Production, review, and impact of technical quality control guidelines in a national context.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Michelle K; Malkoske, Kyle E; Brown, Erika; Diamond, Kevin; Frenière, Normand; Grant, John; Pomerleau-Dalcourt, Natalie; Schella, Jason; Schreiner, L John; Tantôt, Laurent; Villarreal-Barajas, J Eduardo; Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre

    2016-11-01

    A close partnership between the Canadian Partnership for Quality Radiotherapy (CPQR) and the Canadian Organization of Medical Physicist's (COMP) Quality Assurance and Radiation Safety Advisory Committee (QARSAC) has resulted in the development of a suite of Technical Quality Control (TQC) guidelines for radiation treatment equipment; they outline specific performance objectives and criteria that equipment should meet in order to assure an acceptable level of radiation treatment quality. The adopted framework for the development and maintenance of the TQCs ensures the guidelines incorporate input from the medical physics community during development, measures the workload required to perform the QC tests outlined in each TQC, and remain relevant (i.e., "living documents") through subsequent planned reviews and updates. The framework includes consolidation of existing guidelines and/or literature by expert reviewers, structured stages of public review, external field-testing, and ratification by COMP. This TQC development framework is a cross-country initiative that allows for rapid development of robust, community-driven living guideline documents that are owned by the community and reviewed to keep relevant in a rapidly evolving technical environment. Community engagement and uptake survey data shows 70% of Canadian centers are part of this process and that the data in the guideline documents reflect, and are influencing, the way Canadian radiation treatment centers run their technical quality control programs. For a medium-sized center comprising six linear accelerators and a comprehensive brachytherapy program, we evaluate the physics workload to 1.5 full-time equivalent physicists per year to complete all QC tests listed in this suite. PACS number(s): 87.55.Qr, 87.56.Fc, 87.56.-v. © 2016 The Authors.

  15. Production, review, and impact of technical quality control guidelines in a national context.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Michelle K; Malkoske, Kyle E; Brown, Erika; Diamond, Kevin; Frenière, Normand; Grant, John; Pomerleau-Dalcourt, Natalie; Schella, Jason; Schreiner, L John; Tantôt, Laurent; Villareal-Barajas, J Eduardo; Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre

    2016-11-08

    A close partnership between the Canadian Partnership for Quality Radiotherapy (CPQR) and the Canadian Organization of Medical Physicist's (COMP) Quality Assurance and Radiation Safety Advisory Committee (QARSAC) has resulted in the development of a suite of Technical Quality Control (TQC) guidelines for radiation treatment equipment; they outline specific performance objectives and criteria that equipment should meet in order to assure an acceptable level of radiation treatment quality. The adopted framework for the development and maintenance of the TQCs ensures the guidelines incorporate input from the medical physics com-munity during development, measures the workload required to perform the QC tests outlined in each TQC, and remain relevant (i.e., "living documents") through subsequent planned reviews and updates. The framework includes consolidation of existing guidelines and/or literature by expert reviewers, structured stages of public review, external field-testing, and ratification by COMP. This TQC develop-ment framework is a cross-country initiative that allows for rapid development of robust, community-driven living guideline documents that are owned by the com-munity and reviewed to keep relevant in a rapidly evolving technical environment. Community engagement and uptake survey data shows 70% of Canadian centers are part of this process and that the data in the guideline documents reflect, and are influencing, the way Canadian radiation treatment centers run their technical quality control programs. For a medium-sized center comprising six linear accelerators and a comprehensive brachytherapy program, we evaluate the physics workload to 1.5 full-time equivalent physicists per year to complete all QC tests listed in this suite.

  16. Technical regulation in low-rise construction in the context of heat supply energy efficient projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokofyeva, G. I.; Gusakova, N. V.

    2015-01-01

    The present article is devoted to the problem of energy saving and energy efficiency in construction industry and solving the issues of technical regulation and development of the sufficient regulatory basis. Economic calculations have been performed to study the influence of energy efficient heat sources and application of energy saving ventilation systems on the total operation costs. The efficiency of their use has been proved. The use of energy efficient heat sources and energy saving ventilation systems allowed significant reduction of utility expenses providing comfortable living conditions for the residents.

  17. Context-aware brain-computer interfaces: exploring the information space of user, technical system and environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zander, T. O.; Jatzev, S.

    2012-02-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems are usually applied in highly controlled environments such as research laboratories or clinical setups. However, many BCI-based applications are implemented in more complex environments. For example, patients might want to use a BCI system at home, and users without disabilities could benefit from BCI systems in special working environments. In these contexts, it might be more difficult to reliably infer information about brain activity, because many intervening factors add up and disturb the BCI feature space. One solution for this problem would be adding context awareness to the system. We propose to augment the available information space with additional channels carrying information about the user state, the environment and the technical system. In particular, passive BCI systems seem to be capable of adding highly relevant context information—otherwise covert aspects of user state. In this paper, we present a theoretical framework based on general human-machine system research for adding context awareness to a BCI system. Building on that, we present results from a study on a passive BCI, which allows access to the covert aspect of user state related to the perceived loss of control. This study is a proof of concept and demonstrates that context awareness could beneficially be implemented in and combined with a BCI system or a general human-machine system. The EEG data from this experiment are available for public download at www.phypa.org. Parts of this work have already been presented in non-journal publications. This will be indicated specifically by appropriate references in the text.

  18. Natural Mentors, Racial Pride, and Academic Engagement among Black Adolescents: Resilience in the Context of Perceived Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittrup, Audrey R.; Hussain, Saida B.; Albright, Jamie N.; Hurd, Noelle N.; Varner, Fatima A.; Mattis, Jacqueline S.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the potential of relational closeness in the natural mentoring relationships (NMRs) of Black students to counter and protect against the noxious effects of school-based discrimination on academic engagement. The study sample included 663 Black students between the ages of 12 and 19 (M = 14.96 years, SD = 1.81 years), all…

  19. Natural Mentors, Racial Pride, and Academic Engagement among Black Adolescents: Resilience in the Context of Perceived Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittrup, Audrey R.; Hussain, Saida B.; Albright, Jamie N.; Hurd, Noelle N.; Varner, Fatima A.; Mattis, Jacqueline S.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the potential of relational closeness in the natural mentoring relationships (NMRs) of Black students to counter and protect against the noxious effects of school-based discrimination on academic engagement. The study sample included 663 Black students between the ages of 12 and 19 (M = 14.96 years, SD = 1.81 years), all…

  20. Context-Dependent Modulation of Functional Connectivity: Secondary Somatosensory Cortex to Prefrontal Cortex Connections in Two-Stimulus-Interval Discrimination Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Stephanie S.; Romo, Ranulfo; Brody, Carlos D.

    2010-01-01

    In a complex world, a sensory cue may prompt different actions in different contexts. A laboratory example of context-dependent sensory processing is the two-stimulus-interval discrimination task. In each trial, a first stimulus (f1) must be stored in short-term memory and later compared with a second stimulus (f2), for the animal to come to a binary decision. Prefrontal cortex (PFC) neurons need to interpret the f1 information in one way (perhaps with a positive weight) and the f2 information in an opposite way (perhaps with a negative weight), although they come from the very same secondary somatosensory cortex (S2) neurons; therefore, a functional sign inversion is required. This task thus provides a clear example of context-dependent processing. Here we develop a biologically plausible model of a context-dependent signal transformation of the stimulus encoding from S2 to PFC. To ground our model in experimental neurophysiology, we use neurophysiological data recorded by R. Romo’s laboratory from both cortical area S2 and PFC in monkeys performing the task. Our main goal is to use experimentally observed context-dependent modulations of firing rates in cortical area S2 as the basis for a model that achieves a context-dependent inversion of the sign of S2 to PFC connections. This is done without requiring any changes in connectivity (Salinas, 2004b). We (1) characterize the experimentally observed context-dependent firing rate modulation in area S2, (2) construct a model that results in the sign transformation, and (3) characterize the robustness and consequent biological plausibility of the model. PMID:19494146

  1. Discriminant and criterion-related validity of a relative deprivation scale in a merger and acquisition context.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dongseop; Cho, Bongsoon; Seo, Jeongil; Lee, Khan-Pyo; Choi, Jang-Ho

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the discriminant and criterion-related validity of the Relative Deprivation Scale. The data were collected from 151 Korean employees who had recently experienced a merger and acquisition. The results of confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the two dimensions of relative deprivation (egoistic and fraternal relative deprivation) are clearly distinguishable from other conceptually related variables, such as negative affectivity, resistance to change, overall job dissatisfaction, and distributive justice. In addition, egoistic relative deprivation made a unique incremental contribution to explaining employee turnover intention beyond the contribution of conceptually related variables, while fraternal relative deprivation did not.

  2. [Real groups in the minimal group paradigm; does the group context work as corrective or catalysing agent for social discrimination?].

    PubMed

    Petersen, L E; Blank, H

    2001-01-01

    Studies applying the minimal group paradigm to analyze social discrimination processes have been analyzing for the most part the behavior of individuals. The present experiment extends the minimal group paradigm to the group level. The aim of the present study was to compare the decisions made by real groups (N = 3 persons) with those made by single persons. The analysis of the total points given to the in- or the outgroup as well as the strategy MIP + MDI on F revealed that groups are significantly more biased towards the ingroup than individuals. On the other hand, individuals use the strategy F on MIP + MDI significantly more than groups and thus show a greater amount of fairness. These conclusions are qualified by a new method of identifying dominant strategies which shows that the dominant strategy used by individuals and groups is fairness. A theoretical explanation of the results is offered based on social identity theory, the groupthink model and self-awareness theory.

  3. Aged dominant negative p38α MAPK mice are resistant to age-dependent decline in adult-neurogenesis and context discrimination fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Cortez, IbDanelo; Bulavin, Dmitry V; Wu, Ping; McGrath, Erica L; Cunningham, Kathryn A; Wakamiya, Maki; Papaconstantinou, John; Dineley, Kelly T

    2017-03-30

    A major aspect of mammalian aging is the decline in functional competence of many self-renewing cell types, including adult-born neuronal precursors. Since age-related senescence of self-renewal occurs simultaneously with chronic up-regulation of the p38MAPKalpha (p38α) signaling pathway, we used the dominant negative mouse model for attenuated p38α activity (DN-p38α(AF/+)) in which Thr180 and Tyr182 are mutated (T→A/Y→F) to prevent phosphorylation activation (DN-p38α(AF/+)) and kinase activity. As a result, aged DN-p38α(AF/+) mice are resistant to age-dependent decline in proliferation and regeneration of several peripheral tissue progenitors when compared to wild-type littermates. Aging is the major risk factor for non-inherited forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD); environmental and genetic risk factors that accelerate the senescence phenotype are thought to contribute to an individual's relative risk. In the present study, we evaluated aged DN-p38α(AF/+) and wildtype littermates in a series of behavioral paradigms to test if p38α mutant mice exhibit altered baseline abnormalities in neurological reflexes, locomotion, anxiety-like behavior, and age-dependent cognitive decline. While aged DN-p38α(AF/+) and wildtype littermates appear equal in all tested baseline neurological and behavioral parameters, DN-p38α(AF/+) exhibit superior context discrimination fear conditioning. Context discrimination is a cognitive task that is supported by proliferation and differentiation of adult-born neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Consistent with enhanced context discrimination in aged DN-p38α(AF/+), we discovered enhanced production of adult-born neurons in the dentate gyrus of DN-p38α(AF/+) mice compared to wildtype littermates. Our findings support the notion that p38α inhibition has therapeutic utility in aging diseases that affect cognition, such as AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sex differences in conditioned stimulus discrimination during context-dependent fear learning and its retrieval in humans: the role of biological sex, contraceptives and menstrual cycle phases.

    PubMed

    Lonsdorf, Tina B; Haaker, Jan; Schümann, Dirk; Sommer, Tobias; Bayer, Janine; Brassen, Stefanie; Bunzeck, Nico; Gamer, Matthias; Kalisch, Raffael

    2015-11-01

    Anxiety disorders are more prevalent in women than in men. Despite this sexual dimorphism, most experimental studies are conducted in male participants and studies focusing on sex differences are sparse. In addition, the role of hormonal contraceptives and menstrual cycle phase in fear conditioning and extinction processes remain largely unknown. We investigated sex differences in context-dependent fear acquisition and extinction (day 1) and their retrieval/expression (day 2). Skin conductance responses (SCRs), fear and unconditioned stimulus expectancy ratings were obtained. We included 377 individuals (261 women) in our study. Robust sex differences were observed in all dependent measures. Women generally displayed higher subjective ratings but smaller SCRs than men and showed reduced excitatory/inhibitory conditioned stimulus (CS+/CS-) discrimination in all dependent measures. Furthermore, women using hormonal contraceptives showed reduced SCR CS discrimination on day 2 than men and free-cycling women, while menstrual cycle phase had no effect. Possible limitations include the simultaneous testing of up to 4 participants in cubicles, which might have introduced a social component, and not assessing postexperimental contingency awareness. The response pattern in women shows striking similarity to previously reported sex differences in patients with anxiety. Our results suggest that pronounced deficits in associative discrimination learning and subjective expression of safety information (CS- responses) might underlie higher prevalence and higher symptom rates seen in women with anxiety disorders. The data call for consideration of biological sex and hormonal contraceptive use in future studies and may suggest that targeting inhibitory learning during therapy might aid precision medicine.

  5. Sex differences in conditioned stimulus discrimination during context-dependent fear learning and its retrieval in humans: the role of biological sex, contraceptives and menstrual cycle phases

    PubMed Central

    Lonsdorf, Tina B.; Haaker, Jan; Schümann, Dirk; Sommer, Tobias; Bayer, Janine; Brassen, Stefanie; Bunzeck, Nico; Gamer, Matthias; Kalisch, Raffael

    2015-01-01

    Background Anxiety disorders are more prevalent in women than in men. Despite this sexual dimorphism, most experimental studies are conducted in male participants, and studies focusing on sex differences are sparse. In addition, the role of hormonal contraceptives and menstrual cycle phase in fear conditioning and extinction processes remain largely unknown. Methods We investigated sex differences in context-dependent fear acquisition and extinction (day 1) and their retrieval/expression (day 2). Skin conductance responses (SCRs), fear and unconditioned stimulus expectancy ratings were obtained. Results We included 377 individuals (261 women) in our study. Robust sex differences were observed in all dependent measures. Women generally displayed higher subjective ratings but smaller SCRs than men and showed reduced excitatory/inhibitory conditioned stimulus (CS+/CS−) discrimination in all dependent measures. Furthermore, women using hormonal contraceptives showed reduced SCR CS discrimination on day 2 than men and free-cycling women, while menstrual cycle phase had no effect. Limitations Possible limitations include the simultaneous testing of up to 4 participants in cubicles, which might have introduced a social component, and not assessing postexperimental contingency awareness. Conclusion The response pattern in women shows striking similarity to previously reported sex differences in patients with anxiety. Our results suggest that pronounced deficits in associative discrimination learning and subjective expression of safety information (CS− responses) might underlie higher prevalence and higher symptom rates seen in women with anxiety disorders. The data call for consideration of biological sex and hormonal contraceptive use in future studies and may suggest that targeting inhibitory learning during therapy might aid precision medicine. PMID:26107163

  6. In silico discrimination of single nucleotide polymorphisms and pathological mutations in human gene promoter regions by means of local DNA sequence context and regularity.

    PubMed

    Khan, Imtiaz A; Mort, Matthew; Buckland, Paul R; O'Donovan, Michael C; Cooper, David N; Chuzhanova, Nadia A

    2006-01-01

    DNA sequence features were sought that could be used for the in silico ascertainment of the likely functional consequences of single nucleotide changes in human gene promoter regions. To identify relevant features of the local DNA sequence context, we transformed into consensus tables the nucleotide composition of sequences flanking 101 promoter SNPs of type C<-->T or A<-->G, defined empirically as being either 'functional' or 'non-functional' on the basis of a standardised reporter gene assay. The similarity of a given sequence to these consensus tables was then measured by means of the Shapiro-Senapathy score. A decision rule with the potential to discriminate between empirically ascertained functional and non-functional SNPs was proposed that potentiated discrimination between functional and non-functional SNPs with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 20%. Two further datasets (viz. disease-associated SNPs of types A<-->G and C<-->T (N = 75) and pathological promoter mutations (transitions, N = 114)) were retrieved from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD; http://www.hgmd.org/) and analyzed using consensus tables derived from the functional and non-functional promoter SNPs; approximately 70% were correctly recognized as being of probable functional significance. Complexity analysis was also used to quantify the regularity of the local DNA sequence environment. Functional SNPs/mutations of type C<-->T were found to occur in DNA regions characterized by lower average sequence complexity as measured with respect to symmetric elements; complexity values increased gradually from functional SNPs and pathological mutations to functional disease-associated SNPs and non-functional SNPs. This may reflect the internal axial symmetry that frequently characterizes transcription factor binding sites.

  7. Facing Multiple Audiences in Engineering and R&D Writing: The Social Contexts of a Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Vincent J.

    1994-01-01

    Provides analysis of the various kinds of audiences for whom technical materials are written. Describes the functions of the "watchdog" audience, who oversees the written transaction between the author and primary audience. Provides data from an ethnographic case study of engineering authors in a technical setting. (HB)

  8. Preventing HIV among Latino and African American Gay and Bisexual Men in a Context of HIV-Related Stigma, Discrimination, and Homophobia: Perspectives of Providers

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Ronald A.; Etzel, Mark A.; Hinojos, Ernesto; Henry, Charles L.; Perez, Mario

    2005-01-01

    HIV-related stigma, discrimination, and homophobia impede community based efforts to combat HIV disease among Latino and African American gay and bisexual men. This commentary highlights ways to address these social biases in communities of color in Los Angeles from the perspectives of staff from HIV prevention programs. Information was collected from HIV prevention program staff participating in a two-day symposium. The outcomes from the symposium offer strategies for developing and implementing HIV prevention services for Latino and African American gay and bisexual men, which include: 1) addressing social biases present in a community that can hinder, and even prohibit, utilization of effective HIV prevention programs; 2) recasting HIV prevention messages in a broader social or health context; 3) developing culturally appropriate HIV prevention messages; 4) exploring new modalities and venues for delivering HIV prevention messages that are appropriate for gay and bisexual men of color and the communities in which they live; and 5) broadening the target of HIV prevention services to include service providers, local institutions and agencies, and the community at-large. These strategies underscore the need to consider the social and contextual factors of a community when designing and implementing HIV prevention programs. PMID:16283834

  9. S 38093, a histamine H3 antagonist/inverse agonist, promotes hippocampal neurogenesis and improves context discrimination task in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Guilloux, Jean-Philippe; Samuels, Benjamin A.; Mendez-David, Indira; Hu, Alice; Levinstein, Marjorie; Faye, Charlène; Mekiri, Maryam; Mocaer, Elisabeth; Gardier, Alain M.; Hen, René; Sors, Aurore; David, Denis J.

    2017-01-01

    Strategies designed to increase adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) may have therapeutic potential for reversing memory impairments. H3 receptor antagonists/inverse agonists also may be useful for treating cognitive deficits. However, it remains unclear whether these ligands have effects on AHN. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a 28-day treatment with S 38093, a novel brain-penetrant antagonist/inverse agonist of H3 receptors, on AHN (proliferation, maturation and survival) in 3-month-old and in aged 16-month-old mice. In addition, the effects of S 38093 treatment on 7-month-old APPSWE Tg2576 transgenic mice, a model of Alzheimer’s disease, were also assessed. In all tested models, chronic treatment with S 38093 stimulated all steps of AHN. In aged animals, S 38093 induced a reversal of age-dependent effects on hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) BDNF-IX, BDNF-IV and BDNF-I transcripts and increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Finally, the effects of chronic administration of S 38093 were assessed on a neurogenesis-dependent “context discrimination (CS) test” in aged mice. While ageing altered mouse CS, chronic S 38093 treatment significantly improved CS. Taken together, these results provide evidence that chronic S 38093 treatment increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis and may provide an innovative strategy to improve age-associated cognitive deficits. PMID:28218311

  10. Discrimination of Deletion and Duplication Subtypes of the Deleted in Azoospermia Gene Family in the Context of Frequent Interloci Gene Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Vaszkó, Tibor; Papp, János; Krausz, Csilla; Casamonti, Elena; Géczi, Lajos; Olah, Edith

    2016-01-01

    Due to its palindromic setup, AZFc (Azoospermia Factor c) region of chromosome Y is one of the most unstable regions of the human genome. It contains eight gene families expressed mainly in the testes. Several types of rearrangement resulting in changes in the cumulative copy number of the gene families were reported to be associated with diseases such as male infertility and testicular germ cell tumors. The best studied AZFc rearrangement is gr/gr deletion. Its carriers show widespread phenotypic variation from azoospermia to normospermia. This phenomenon was initially attributed to different gr/gr subtypes that would eliminate distinct members of the affected gene families. However, studies conducted to confirm this hypothesis have brought controversial results, perhaps, in part, due to the shortcomings of the utilized subtyping methodology. This proof-of-concept paper is meant to introduce here a novel method aimed at subtyping AZFc rearrangements. It is able to differentiate the partial deletion and partial duplication subtypes of the Deleted in Azoospermia (DAZ) gene family. The keystone of the method is the determination of the copy number of the gene family member-specific variant(s) in a series of sequence family variant (SFV) positions. Most importantly, we present a novel approach for the correct interpretation of the variant copy number data to determine the copy number of the individual DAZ family members in the context of frequent interloci gene conversion.Besides DAZ1/DAZ2 and DAZ3/DAZ4 deletions, not yet described rearrangements such as DAZ2/DAZ4 deletion and three duplication subtypes were also found by the utilization of the novel approach. A striking feature is the extremely high concordance among the individual data pointing to a certain type of rearrangement. In addition to being able to identify DAZ deletion subtypes more reliably than the methods used previously, this approach is the first that can discriminate DAZ duplication subtypes as well

  11. [Removal of an intratracheobronchial foreign body opaque to X-rays in a child within a context of inadequate medical technical equipment].

    PubMed

    Horo, K; Kouassi, A B; Tea, B Z; Assa, L; Icthy, V M; Folquet, A; Godé, V C; Ahui, B J M; Cardenat, M; Achi, V; N'dhatz-Sanogo, M; Anon, J C; N'gouan, J M; N'gom, A; Koffi, N; Aka-Danguy, E

    2009-04-01

    Intratracheobronchial foreign bodies are common accidents in children. In developed countries, the removal of these intratracheobronchial foreign bodies is performed with flexible or rigid fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Resorting to surgery is rare. In the inadequate medical context described, suitable medical technical equipment doesn't exist. Removal alternatives are necessary in order to avoid sanitary evacuation which is not always within patients' means. In this study, the authors describe the removal of an intratracheobronchial foreign body opaque to X-rays with foreign body forceps. The forceps, passed through the orotracheal intubation probe, were guided by an image intensification system in a traumatology operating theatre.

  12. The concept of increasing energy efficiency of low-rise construction in the context of technical regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minaev, N.; Filushina, K.; Jarova, E.

    2015-01-01

    Intensive development of low-rise construction and modern trends directed at enhancing energy efficient construction considering regulatory requirements determine the necessity to develop the concept based on variable control models managing the processes of low-rise construction. However effective process management cannot be performed without correlation of sectoral planning documents of federal and regional level also considering the technical regulations requirements. Development of concept to increase energy efficiency of low-rise construction on the basis of governmental housing policy should be built within integrated and system approach. This approach should take into account the factors and objectives of social and economic regional development and its peculiar features, as well as complex urban planning, transport and engineering conditions of low rise housing development. The program and goal-oriented approach used in the present study enables to provide integrity and interrelation with the technical requirements of energy efficiency.

  13. Classroom Contexts and Literacy Development: How Writing Systems Shape the Teaching and Learning of Composition. Technical Report No. 476.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaels, Sarah; Bruce, Bertram

    This report argues for and illustrates an approach to the study of writing in school settings that integrates ethnographic analysis of classroom interaction with linguistic analysis of written texts and teacher/student conversational exchanges. The report explores the relationships among classroom contexts, computer-based innovations, writing…

  14. Introduction to multivariate discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kégl, Balázs

    2013-07-01

    Multivariate discrimination or classification is one of the best-studied problem in machine learning, with a plethora of well-tested and well-performing algorithms. There are also several good general textbooks [1-9] on the subject written to an average engineering, computer science, or statistics graduate student; most of them are also accessible for an average physics student with some background on computer science and statistics. Hence, instead of writing a generic introduction, we concentrate here on relating the subject to a practitioner experimental physicist. After a short introduction on the basic setup (Section 1) we delve into the practical issues of complexity regularization, model selection, and hyperparameter optimization (Section 2), since it is this step that makes high-complexity non-parametric fitting so different from low-dimensional parametric fitting. To emphasize that this issue is not restricted to classification, we illustrate the concept on a low-dimensional but non-parametric regression example (Section 2.1). Section 3 describes the common algorithmic-statistical formal framework that unifies the main families of multivariate classification algorithms. We explain here the large-margin principle that partly explains why these algorithms work. Section 4 is devoted to the description of the three main (families of) classification algorithms, neural networks, the support vector machine, and AdaBoost. We do not go into the algorithmic details; the goal is to give an overview on the form of the functions these methods learn and on the objective functions they optimize. Besides their technical description, we also make an attempt to put these algorithm into a socio-historical context. We then briefly describe some rather heterogeneous applications to illustrate the pattern recognition pipeline and to show how widespread the use of these methods is (Section 5). We conclude the chapter with three essentially open research problems that are either

  15. Testing a Model of Women's Personal Sense of Justice, Control, Well-Being, and Distress in the Context of Sexist Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Ann R.; Bolton Holz, Kenna

    2010-01-01

    Popular media convey notions that the United States is a postfeminist culture, where sexism is a thing of the past and gender equality prevails. Empirical data suggest otherwise. Further, links between group-based discrimination and psychological distress have been well documented (e.g., in bisexual and gay Latino men, African Americans, Asian…

  16. Testing a Model of Women's Personal Sense of Justice, Control, Well-Being, and Distress in the Context of Sexist Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Ann R.; Bolton Holz, Kenna

    2010-01-01

    Popular media convey notions that the United States is a postfeminist culture, where sexism is a thing of the past and gender equality prevails. Empirical data suggest otherwise. Further, links between group-based discrimination and psychological distress have been well documented (e.g., in bisexual and gay Latino men, African Americans, Asian…

  17. Analysis of the Difficulty and Discrimination Indices of Multiple-Choice Questions According to Cognitive Levels in an Open and Distance Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koçdar, Serpil; Karadag, Nejdet; Sahin, Murat Dogan

    2016-01-01

    This is a descriptive study which intends to determine whether the difficulty and discrimination indices of the multiple-choice questions show differences according to cognitive levels of the Bloom's Taxonomy, which are used in the exams of the courses in a business administration bachelor's degree program offered through open and distance…

  18. [Working in mental health services in the context of Brazilian psychiatric reform: a technical, political and ethical challenge].

    PubMed

    Sampaio, José Jackson Coelho; Guimarães, José Maria Ximenes; Carneiro, Cleide; Garcia Filho, Carlos

    2011-12-01

    This paper deals with mental health taken within the context of Brazilian Psychiatric Reform and profiling the transformations in the organization of work processes. This has occurred as a result of the advances with respect to the implementation of the services that replaced the classic psychiatric model and the reconfiguration of the scope of intervention and practices. From this standpoint, the paper seeks to pinpoint the contradictions and problems related to this process and its impact on the organization of work processes on the management of services and on worker health. Lastly, strategies are prepared for the purpose of tackling the problem, chief among which are the following: the redefinition of spaces, practices, and the relationships among the different actors, namely managers, workers, and users; the adoption of co-management mechanisms; and clinical-institutional supervision.

  19. Discrimination and Hate Crimes in the Context of Neighborhood Poverty and Stressors Among HIV-Positive African-American Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    PubMed

    Dale, Sannisha K; Bogart, Laura M; Galvan, Frank H; Wagner, Glenn J; Pantalone, David W; Klein, David J

    2016-06-01

    In a sample of HIV-positive African-American men who have sex with men (MSM), we examined neighborhood factors that may contextualize perceived discrimination from three intersecting stigmatized characteristics: race, HIV status, and sexual orientation. HIV-positive African-American MSM (N = 162, mean age = 44, SD = 8) provided information on neighborhood-related stressors and discrimination experiences related to being Black, HIV-positive, or perceived as gay. Residential ZIP codes and US Census data were used to determine neighborhood poverty rates. Regressions, controlling for socio-demographics, indicated that (1) higher neighborhood poverty was significantly related to more frequent experiences with hate crimes (Gay-related: b = 1.15, SE = .43, p < .008); and (2) higher neighborhood-related stressors were significantly related to more frequent discrimination (Black-related: b = .91, SE = .28, p = .001; gay-related: b = .71, SE = .29, p = .01; and HIV-related: b = .65, SE = .28, p = .02) and hate crimes (Gay-related: b = .48, SE = .13, p = .001; and Black-related: b = .28, SE = .14, p = .04). For HIV-positive African-American MSM, higher neighborhood poverty and related stressors are associated with experiencing more discrimination and hate crimes. Interventions for this group should promote individual- and neighborhood-level socioeconomic empowerment and stigma reduction.

  20. Technical note: PaGELL v.1.5: A flexible parametric program for the Bayesian analysis of longevity data within the context of animal breeding.

    PubMed

    Casellas, J; Brito, L C

    2017-10-01

    This technical note presents the program PaGELL v.1.5 (Parametric Genetic Evaluation of Lifespan in Livestock), a flexible software program to analyze (right-censored) longevity data in livestock populations, with a special emphasis on the genetic evaluation of the breeding stock. This software relies on a parametric generalization of the proportional hazard model; more specifically, the baseline hazard function follows a Weibull process and flexibility is gained by including an additional time-dependent effect with the number of change points defined by the user. The program can accommodate 3 different sources of variation (i.e., systematic, permanent environmental, and additive genetic effects) and both fixed and time-dependent patterns (only for systematic and permanent environmental effects). Analyses are performed within a Bayesian context by sampling from the joint posterior distribution of the model, and model fit can be easily determined by the calculation of the deviance information criterion. Although this software has already been used on field data sets, its performance has been double-checked on simulated data set, and results are presented in this technical note. PaGELL v.1.5 was written in Fortran 95 language and, after compiling with the GNU Fortran Compiler v.4.7 and later, it has been tested in Windows, Linux, and MacOS operating systems (both 32- and 64-bit platforms). This program is available at http://www.casellas.info/files/pageII.zip. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hispanic Perceptions of Communication Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korzenny, Felipe; Schiff, Elizabeth N.

    A study examined Hispanic perceptions of discriminatory behavior by Anglos, exploring four dimensions of perceived discrimination: the contexts/situations where Hispanics discern discrimination, the attributes perceived by Hispanics as eliciting discriminatory behavior, the characteristics of those Anglos perceived to be most likely to…

  2. User Situational Context: An Essential Challenge to Context Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowafi, Yaser Abdallah

    2009-01-01

    Existing research on context and context awareness has broadly focused on the technical aspects of context acquisition and interpretation of users' surroundings, also called physical or sensor-based context. Such an approach has lacked from reconciling the perception of real-world context exhibited by humans, also known as user context, and…

  3. User Situational Context: An Essential Challenge to Context Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowafi, Yaser Abdallah

    2009-01-01

    Existing research on context and context awareness has broadly focused on the technical aspects of context acquisition and interpretation of users' surroundings, also called physical or sensor-based context. Such an approach has lacked from reconciling the perception of real-world context exhibited by humans, also known as user context, and…

  4. Agency, Socio-Cultural Context, and the Role of the Technical Communicator during IT Adoption: A Case Study in Innovation Diffusion across Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coggio, Grace Leinbach

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the diffusion of an innovative information technology system across multiple cultures between 2000 and 2006. Developed and implemented by technical communicators in the technical communication department of a global medical device company, the Advanced Single-Source Authoring and Publication System (ASAPS) brought…

  5. Agency, Socio-Cultural Context, and the Role of the Technical Communicator during IT Adoption: A Case Study in Innovation Diffusion across Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coggio, Grace Leinbach

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the diffusion of an innovative information technology system across multiple cultures between 2000 and 2006. Developed and implemented by technical communicators in the technical communication department of a global medical device company, the Advanced Single-Source Authoring and Publication System (ASAPS) brought…

  6. Relation between minimum-error discrimination and optimum unambiguous discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu Daowen; Li Lvjun

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, we investigate the relationship between the minimum-error probability Q{sub E} of ambiguous discrimination and the optimal inconclusive probability Q{sub U} of unambiguous discrimination. It is known that for discriminating two states, the inequality Q{sub U{>=}}2Q{sub E} has been proved in the literature. The main technical results are as follows: (1) We show that, for discriminating more than two states, Q{sub U{>=}}2Q{sub E} may not hold again, but the infimum of Q{sub U}/Q{sub E} is 1, and there is no supremum of Q{sub U}/Q{sub E}, which implies that the failure probabilities of the two schemes for discriminating some states may be narrowly or widely gapped. (2) We derive two concrete formulas of the minimum-error probability Q{sub E} and the optimal inconclusive probability Q{sub U}, respectively, for ambiguous discrimination and unambiguous discrimination among arbitrary m simultaneously diagonalizable mixed quantum states with given prior probabilities. In addition, we show that Q{sub E} and Q{sub U} satisfy the relationship that Q{sub U{>=}}(m/m-1)Q{sub E}.

  7. An Interactive Activation Model of the Effect of Context in Perception, Part I. Technical Report, April, 1979 through March, 1980. Report No. 8002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, James L.; Rumelhart, David E.

    This report is the first in a two-part series introducing an interactive activation model of context effects in perception. A model for the perception of letters in words and other contexts is described and applied to a number of experiments. It is proposed that the model accounts for (1) the perceptual advantage for letters in words compared to…

  8. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 69: Writing for the Aerospace Industry. Chapter 3; The Practice of Technical and Scientific Communication: Writing in Professional Contexts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    The large and complex aerospace industry, which employed approximately 850,000 people in 1994 (Aerospace Facts, 1994-95, p. 11), plays a vital role in the nation's economy. Although only a small percentage of those employed in aerospace are technical communicators, they perform a wide variety of communication duties in government and the private sector.

  9. Problems of Technical Standards Teaching in the Context of the Globalization and Euro-Integration in Higher Education System of Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornuta, Olena; Pryhorovska, Tetiana

    2015-01-01

    Globalization and Ukraine association with EU imply including Ukrainian universities into the world scientific space. The aim of this article is to analyze the problem of drawing standards teaching, based on the experience of Ivano-Frankivsk National Technical University of Oil and Gas (Ukraine) and to summarize the experience of post Soviet…

  10. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 69: Writing for the Aerospace Industry. Chapter 3; The Practice of Technical and Scientific Communication: Writing in Professional Contexts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    The large and complex aerospace industry, which employed approximately 850,000 people in 1994 (Aerospace Facts, 1994-95, p. 11), plays a vital role in the nation's economy. Although only a small percentage of those employed in aerospace are technical communicators, they perform a wide variety of communication duties in government and the private sector.

  11. Problems of Technical Standards Teaching in the Context of the Globalization and Euro-Integration in Higher Education System of Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornuta, Olena; Pryhorovska, Tetiana

    2015-01-01

    Globalization and Ukraine association with EU imply including Ukrainian universities into the world scientific space. The aim of this article is to analyze the problem of drawing standards teaching, based on the experience of Ivano-Frankivsk National Technical University of Oil and Gas (Ukraine) and to summarize the experience of post Soviet…

  12. Context Dependency of Conditioned Aversions to Familiar and Novel Fluids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii, Kiyoshi; Iguchi, Yoshio; Sawa, Kosuke

    2006-01-01

    Using a context discrimination procedure and rats as the subjects, the formation of context-dependent aversions to novel and familiar fluids was investigated. Experiment 1 revealed that context dependency could be established to a novel fluid (saccharin) after three cycles of context discrimination training and that the acquired context dependency…

  13. Context Dependency of Conditioned Aversions to Familiar and Novel Fluids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii, Kiyoshi; Iguchi, Yoshio; Sawa, Kosuke

    2006-01-01

    Using a context discrimination procedure and rats as the subjects, the formation of context-dependent aversions to novel and familiar fluids was investigated. Experiment 1 revealed that context dependency could be established to a novel fluid (saccharin) after three cycles of context discrimination training and that the acquired context dependency…

  14. Scientific and Technical English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaclavik, Jaroslav

    Technical English differs from everyday English because of the specialized contexts in which it is used and because of the specialized interests of scientists and engineers. This text provides exercises in technical and scientific exposition in the following fields: mathematics, physics, temperature effects, mechanics, dynamics, conservation of…

  15. Scientific and Technical English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaclavik, Jaroslav

    Technical English differs from everyday English because of the specialized contexts in which it is used and because of the specialized interests of scientists and engineers. This text provides exercises in technical and scientific exposition in the following fields: mathematics, physics, temperature effects, mechanics, dynamics, conservation of…

  16. Age Discrimination in Campus Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haslam, C. L.

    1975-01-01

    This analysis of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA) traces the issues that have emerged in litigation and summarizes the developing law, showing the implications in the university context and suggesting rules of thumb for accommodating the Act with the valid educational demands of the affected institutions. (JT)

  17. Convergent and Discriminant Validation of Measures of Collectivism.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    CONVERGENT AND DISCRIMINANT VALIDATION OF MEASURES OF COLLECTIVISM SHarry C. TriandisKwok Leung Marcelo Villareal Technical Report No. ONR-30 July, 1984...MEASURES OF COLLECTIVISM Harry C. friandis Kwok Leung Marcelo Villareal Technical Report No. ONR-30 July, 1984 6TI CONVERGENT AND DISCRIMINANT...VALIDATION OF MEASURES OF COLLECTIVISM Harry C. Triandis Kwok Leung Marcelo Villareal Technical Report No. ONR-30 July, 1984 Accession For NTIS cT .&I oii 2]2

  18. The Palenque Optical Disc Prototype: Design of Multimedia Experiences for Education and Entertainment in a Nontraditional Learning Context. Technical Report No. 44.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kathleen S.

    This report describes Palenque, an interactive, multimedia, optical disc research prototype developed for home use by 8- to 14-year-old children and their families. The report begins by providing an overview of the project, which is followed by a discussion of the target audience and context for use of the videodisc. A discussion of learning…

  19. Artwork as Technics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    "Artwork as technics" opens discussion on activating aesthetics in educational contexts by arguing that we require some fundamental revision in understanding relations between aesthetics and technology in contexts where education is primarily encountered instrumentally and technologically. The paper addresses this through the writing of…

  20. Artwork as Technics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    "Artwork as technics" opens discussion on activating aesthetics in educational contexts by arguing that we require some fundamental revision in understanding relations between aesthetics and technology in contexts where education is primarily encountered instrumentally and technologically. The paper addresses this through the writing of…

  1. Discriminating harmonicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidd, Gerald; Mason, Christine R.; Brughera, Andrew; Chiu, Chung-Yiu Peter

    2003-08-01

    Simultaneous tones that are harmonically related tend to be grouped perceptually to form a unitary auditory image. A partial that is mistuned stands out from the other tones, and harmonic complexes with different fundamental frequencies can readily be perceived as separate auditory objects. These phenomena are evidence for the strong role of harmonicity in perceptual grouping and segregation of sounds. This study measured the discriminability of harmonicity directly. In a two interval, two alternative forced-choice (2I2AFC) paradigm, the listener chose which of two sounds, signal or foil, was composed of tones that more closely matched an exact harmonic relationship. In one experiment, the signal was varied from perfectly harmonic to highly inharmonic by adding frequency perturbation to each component. The foil always had 100% perturbation. Group mean performance decreased from greater than 90% correct for 0% signal perturbation to near chance for 80% signal perturbation. In the second experiment, adding a masker presented simultaneously with the signals and foils disrupted harmonicity. Both monaural and dichotic conditions were tested. Signal level was varied relative to masker level to obtain psychometric functions from which slopes and midpoints were estimated. Dichotic presentation of these audible stimuli improved performance by 3-10 dB, due primarily to a release from ``informational masking'' by the perceptual segregation of the signal from the masker.

  2. Current Developments in Auditory Speech Discrimination Tests for the Profoundly Deaf at NTID.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, John C.; O'Shea, Noreen P.

    1980-01-01

    Two newly developed and three existing auditory speech discrimination tests were given to a group of 35 National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID) students representing the five NTID functional profiles (categories) of hearing discrimination ability. (Author/PHR)

  3. Social identity change in response to discrimination.

    PubMed

    Perozzo, Cristina; de la Sablonnière, Roxane; Auger, Emilie; Caron-Diotte, Mathieu

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the conditions under which discrimination can lead to social identity changes among members of a minority group. Both positive and negative relations between perceptions of discrimination and social identity have previously been reported. To explain the conflicting results and understand the complex reality of members of stigmatized groups, we argue that group-based emotions (e.g., group-based dissatisfaction) and ambiguity of discrimination cues (i.e., overt vs. ambiguous) need to be considered. We hypothesized that perceptions of discrimination would play a moderating role between group-based dissatisfaction and social identity change in a context of ambiguous, but not of overt, discrimination. The sample was comprised of 151 Arab Muslims living in the province of Quebec. Participants read fictitious newspaper articles portraying either overt (n = 76) or ambiguous (n = 75) discrimination towards in-group members. Results revealed that for participants in the overt discrimination condition, only group-based dissatisfaction was positively associated with social identity change. In contrast, for the participants in the ambiguous discrimination condition, those who perceived little discrimination and felt low group-based dissatisfaction reported a decrease in social identity. However, those who perceived low group discrimination and felt high group-based dissatisfaction reported a positive social identity change. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Function Allocation in Complex Socio-Technical Systems: Procedure usage in nuclear power and the Context Analysis Method for Identifying Design Solutions (CAMIDS) Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Kara Anne

    This research aims to prove that strict adherence to procedures and rigid compliance to process in the US Nuclear Industry may not prevent incidents or increase safety. According to the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, the nuclear power industry has seen a recent rise in events, and this research claims that a contributing factor to this rise is organizational, cultural, and based on peoples overreliance on procedures and policy. Understanding the proper balance of function allocation, automation and human decision-making is imperative to creating a nuclear power plant that is safe, efficient, and reliable. This research claims that new generations of operators are less engaged and thinking because they have been instructed to follow procedures to a fault. According to operators, they were once to know the plant and its interrelations, but organizationally more importance is now put on following procedure and policy. Literature reviews were performed, experts were questioned, and a model for context analysis was developed. The Context Analysis Method for Identifying Design Solutions (CAMIDS) Model was created, verified and validated through both peer review and application in real world scenarios in active nuclear power plant simulators. These experiments supported the claim that strict adherence and rigid compliance to procedures may not increase safety by studying the industry's propensity for following incorrect procedures, and when it directly affects the outcome of safety or security of the plant. The findings of this research indicate that the younger generations of operators rely highly on procedures, and the organizational pressures of required compliance to procedures may lead to incidents within the plant because operators feel pressured into following the rules and policy above performing the correct actions in a timely manner. The findings support computer based procedures, efficient alarm systems, and skill of the craft matrices. The solution to

  5. Discrimination in a General Algebraic Setting

    PubMed Central

    Fine, Benjamin; Lipschutz, Seymour; Spellman, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Discriminating groups were introduced by G. Baumslag, A. Myasnikov, and V. Remeslennikov as an outgrowth of their theory of algebraic geometry over groups. Algebraic geometry over groups became the main method of attack on the solution of the celebrated Tarski conjectures. In this paper we explore the notion of discrimination in a general universal algebra context. As an application we provide a different proof of a theorem of Malcev on axiomatic classes of Ω-algebras. PMID:26171421

  6. Discrimination in a General Algebraic Setting.

    PubMed

    Fine, Benjamin; Gaglione, Anthony; Lipschutz, Seymour; Spellman, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Discriminating groups were introduced by G. Baumslag, A. Myasnikov, and V. Remeslennikov as an outgrowth of their theory of algebraic geometry over groups. Algebraic geometry over groups became the main method of attack on the solution of the celebrated Tarski conjectures. In this paper we explore the notion of discrimination in a general universal algebra context. As an application we provide a different proof of a theorem of Malcev on axiomatic classes of Ω-algebras.

  7. Discrimination and racial disparities in health: evidence and needed research

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Selina A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a review and critique of empirical research on perceived discrimination and health. The patterns of racial disparities in health suggest that there are multiple ways by which racism can affect health. Perceived discrimination is one such pathway and the paper reviews the published research on discrimination and health that appeared in PubMed between 2005 and 2007. This recent research continues to document an inverse association between discrimination and health. This pattern is now evident in a wider range of contexts and for a broader array of outcomes. Advancing our understanding of the relationship between perceived discrimination and health will require more attention to situating discrimination within the context of other health-relevant aspects of racism, measuring it comprehensively and accurately, assessing its stressful dimensions, and identifying the mechanisms that link discrimination to health. PMID:19030981

  8. Teaching Context in Information Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Matt

    2006-01-01

    This article investigates teaching the application of technical ideas by non-technical means, especially by using puzzles to engage students. After discussing the need to teach students to evaluate contexts in which decisions about computer security must be made, we suggest questions and scenarios drawn from political science, history, as well as…

  9. Teaching Context in Information Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Matt

    2006-01-01

    This article investigates teaching the application of technical ideas by non-technical means, especially by using puzzles to engage students. After discussing the need to teach students to evaluate contexts in which decisions about computer security must be made, we suggest questions and scenarios drawn from political science, history, as well as…

  10. Technical writing versus technical writing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillingham, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Two terms, two job categories, 'technical writer' and 'technical author' are discussed in terms of industrial and business requirements and standards. A distinction between 'technical writing' and technical 'writing' is made. The term 'technical editor' is also considered. Problems inherent in the design of programs to prepare and train students for these jobs are discussed. A closer alliance between industry and academia is suggested as a means of preparing students with competent technical communication skills (especially writing and editing skills) and good technical skills.

  11. Contextual control of discriminated operant behavior.

    PubMed

    Bouton, Mark E; Todd, Travis P; León, Samuel P

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that changing the context after instrumental (operant) conditioning can weaken the strength of the operant response. That result contrasts with the results of studies of Pavlovian conditioning, in which a context switch often does not affect the response elicited by a conditioned stimulus. To begin to make the methods more similar, Experiments 1-3 tested the effects of a context switch in rats on a discriminated operant response (R; lever pressing or chain pulling) that had been reinforced only in the presence of a 30-s discriminative stimulus (S; tone or light). As in Pavlovian conditioning, responses and reinforcers became confined to presentations of the S during training. However, in Experiment 1, after training in Context A, a switch to Context B caused a decrement in responding during S. In Experiment 2, a switch to Context B likewise decreased responding in S when Context B was equally familiar, equally associated with reinforcement, or equally associated with the training of a discriminated operant (a different R reinforced in a different S). However, there was no decrement if Context B had been associated with the same response that was trained in Context A (Experiments 2 and 3). The effectiveness of S transferred across contexts, whereas the strength of the response did not. Experiment 4 found that a continuously reinforced response was also disrupted by context change when the same response manipulandum was used in both training and testing. Overall, the results suggest that the context can have a robust general role in the control of operant behavior. Mechanisms of contextual control are discussed.

  12. Contextual Control of Discriminated Operant Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Bouton, Mark E.; Todd, Travis P.; León, Samuel P.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggests that changing the context after instrumental (operant) conditioning can weaken the strength of the operant response. That result contrasts with the results of studies of Pavlovian conditioning, where a context switch often does not affect the response elicited by a conditioned stimulus. To begin to make the methods more similar, Experiments 1–3 tested the effects of a context switch in rats on a discriminated operant response (R, lever pressing or chain pulling) that had been reinforced only in the presence of a 30-s discriminative stimulus (S, tone or light). As in Pavlovian conditioning, responses and reinforcers became confined to presentations of the S during training. However, in Experiment 1, after training in Context A, a switch to Context B caused a decrement in responding during S. In Experiment 2, a switch to Context B likewise decreased responding in S when Context B was equally familiar, equally associated with reinforcement, or equally associated with the training of a discriminated operant (a different R reinforced in a different S). However, there was no decrement if Context B had been associated with the same response that was trained in Context A (Experiments 2 and 3). The effectiveness of S transferred across contexts, whereas the strength of the response did not. Experiment 4 found that a continuously reinforced response was also disrupted by context change when the same response manipulandum was used in both training and testing. Overall, the results suggest that the context can have a robust general role in the control of operant behavior. Mechanisms of contextual control are discussed. PMID:24000907

  13. Technical Documentation and Legal Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caher, John M.

    1995-01-01

    States that litigation over the interpretation and sufficiency of technical documentation is increasingly common as a number of suits have been filed in state and federal courts. Describes the case of "Martin versus Hacker," a recent case in which New York's highest court analyzed a technical writer's prose in the context of a lawsuit…

  14. Technical Documentation and Legal Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caher, John M.

    1995-01-01

    States that litigation over the interpretation and sufficiency of technical documentation is increasingly common as a number of suits have been filed in state and federal courts. Describes the case of "Martin versus Hacker," a recent case in which New York's highest court analyzed a technical writer's prose in the context of a lawsuit…

  15. COMPASS Accelerator Design Technical Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Nanni, Emilio; Dolgashev, Valery; Tantawi, Sami; Neilson, Jeff

    2016-03-14

    This report is a survey of technical options for generating a MeV-class accelerator for space based science applications. The survey was performed focusing on the primary technical requirements of the accelerator in the context of a satellite environment with its unique challenges of limited electrical power (PE), thermal isolation, dimensions, payload requirement and electrical isolation.

  16. Technical Change in an Industrial Relations Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarbrough, Harry; Moran, Peter

    1986-01-01

    The authors discuss the introduction of new technology into the workplace focusing on two issues: (1) impact of new technology on conduct of industrial relations and (2) influence of industrial relations on effectiveness of new technology. (CH)

  17. Contextual Control of Fluid Consumption: The Effects of Context Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, M.; Skinner, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    Rats were trained on a conditional discrimination task in which saccharin was paired with LiCl in one context but paired with saline in another context. Rats drank less saccharin in the danger context than in the safe context, and consumption in the home cage was intermediate to consumption in the two training contexts. Rats also avoided the…

  18. Contextual Control of Fluid Consumption: The Effects of Context Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, M.; Skinner, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    Rats were trained on a conditional discrimination task in which saccharin was paired with LiCl in one context but paired with saline in another context. Rats drank less saccharin in the danger context than in the safe context, and consumption in the home cage was intermediate to consumption in the two training contexts. Rats also avoided the…

  19. Color measurement and discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandell, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with new results which show that for test lights with slow temporal modulations, and thus little effect on the luminance system, the vector-difference hypothesis represents an adequate characterization of discrimination data. It is pointed out that for certain experimental conditions color measurements can be successfully extended to include a difference measure which predicts the discriminability of pairs of lights. When discrimination depends principally on opponent-channel responses, discrimination thresholds can be predicted from the detection contour alone. Attention is given to discriminations with a 6-Hz Gabor function, the categorization of stimulus regions, and the nature of the visual mechanisms.

  20. Discrimination of gravitational stimuli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, F. C.

    1972-01-01

    The construction and installation of an animal centrifuge and its electronic support system was completed. Experimental procedures for obtaining data on the relationship between the discriminability of g differences and location along the continuum of effective weight were initiated. Data were obtained under two successive discriminations showing discrimination among g levels. In addition, there was some indication that the discriminability of differences between g levels associated with reinforcement was the same at two locations along the g continuum, although there were differences in measures of absolute discrimination at these locations.

  1. "Technical" Writing vs. Technical "Writing."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillingham, J. W.

    Technical writers must have a working knowledge of technology in order to rearrange material others provide, but they do not have the expertise needed to originate materials; that is the job of the technical author. Another job function is that of technical editor--a person who can write, can perform the policy making tasks of an editor, and who…

  2. Learning by Analogy: Discriminating between Potential Analogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richland, Lindsey E.; McDonough, Ian M.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to successfully discriminate between multiple potentially relevant source analogs when solving new problems is crucial to proficiency in a mathematics domain. Experimental findings in two different mathematical contexts demonstrate that providing cues to support comparative reasoning during an initial instructional analogy, relative to…

  3. Further Examination of Discriminated Functional Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Yanerys; Hausman, Nicole L.; Kahng, SungWoo; Becraft, Jessica L.

    2010-01-01

    One child with developmental disabilities was taught to mand for attention by saying "excuse me." Treatment effects were extended to multiple training contexts by teaching the participant to attend to naturally occurring discriminative stimuli through differential reinforcement of communication during periods of the experimenter's nonbusy…

  4. Psychoacoustic Assessment of Speech Communication Systems. The Diagnostic Discrimination Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grether, Craig Blaine

    The present report traces the rationale, development and experimental evaluation of the Diagnostic Discrimination Test (DDT). The DDT is a three-choice test of consonant discriminability of the perceptual/acoustic dimensions of consonant phonemes within specific vowel contexts. The DDT was created and developed in an attempt to provide a…

  5. Acquisition of Social Referencing via Discrimination Training in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelaez, Martha; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Gewirtz, Jacob L.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment investigated social referencing as a form of discriminative learning in which maternal facial expressions signaled the consequences of the infant's behavior in an ambiguous context. Eleven 4- and 5-month-old infants and their mothers participated in a discrimination-training procedure using an ABAB design. Different consequences…

  6. Psychoacoustic Assessment of Speech Communication Systems. The Diagnostic Discrimination Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grether, Craig Blaine

    The present report traces the rationale, development and experimental evaluation of the Diagnostic Discrimination Test (DDT). The DDT is a three-choice test of consonant discriminability of the perceptual/acoustic dimensions of consonant phonemes within specific vowel contexts. The DDT was created and developed in an attempt to provide a…

  7. Acquisition of Social Referencing via Discrimination Training in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelaez, Martha; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Gewirtz, Jacob L.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment investigated social referencing as a form of discriminative learning in which maternal facial expressions signaled the consequences of the infant's behavior in an ambiguous context. Eleven 4- and 5-month-old infants and their mothers participated in a discrimination-training procedure using an ABAB design. Different consequences…

  8. TECHNICAL EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FRIGIOLA, NICHOLAS F.

    THE CONSENSUS OF OUR NATION'S LEADERS AFFIRMS THAT THE COUNTRY'S GREATEST TECHNICAL EDUCATION VOID IS IN THE AREA BETWEEN THE 12TH GRADE AND THE BACCALAUREATE DEGREE. THE IMPACT OF ACCELERATED PROGRESS IN TECHNOLOGICAL ACHIEVEMENTS MAKES TECHNICAL EDUCATION MANDATORY IF THE MANPOWER SHORTAGE IS NOT TO BECOME A NATIONAL EMERGENCY. BECAUSE NEARLY 80…

  9. Discrimination against Black Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aloud, Ashwaq; Alsulayyim, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is a structured way of abusing people based on racial differences, hence barring them from accessing wealth, political participation and engagement in many spheres of human life. Racism and discrimination are inherently rooted in institutions in the society, the problem has spread across many social segments of the society including…

  10. Microscale acceleration history discriminators

    DOEpatents

    Polosky, Marc A.; Plummer, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of micromechanical acceleration history discriminators is claimed. These discriminators allow the precise differentiation of a wide range of acceleration-time histories, thereby allowing adaptive events to be triggered in response to the severity (or lack thereof) of an external environment. Such devices have applications in airbag activation, and other safety and surety applications.

  11. Flash-Type Discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the significant progress made in the flash-type discrimination algorithm development. The contents include: 1) Highlights of Progress for GLM-R3 Flash-Type discrimination Algorithm Development; 2) Maximum Group Area (MGA) Data; 3) Retrieval Errors from Simulations; and 4) Preliminary Global-scale Retrieval.

  12. The "Taste" for Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiswick, Barry R.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses, in terms of consumers, employers, and employees, how a "taste for discrimination," that is, someone's preference for or against association with some group in the labor market, can influence behavior and hence who gets hired. Argues that people with the strongest tastes for discrimination pay the heaviest cost. (RDN)

  13. TGDA: Nonparametric Discriminant Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Norval F.; Bruno, Albert V.

    1976-01-01

    A computer program for two-group nonparametric discriminant analysis is presented. Based on Bayes' Theorem for probability revision, the statistical rationale for this program uses the calculation of maximum likelihood estimates of group membership. The program compares the Bayesian procedure to the standard Linear Discriminant Function.…

  14. PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NOAR, GERTRUDE

    THE SCHOOL WAS CONFRONTED WITH THE NECESSITY OF TEACHING ABOUT PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION AS FACTS OF LIFE, AS CONDITIONS WHICH PREVENT THE FULL DEVELOPMENT OF EVERY PERSON, AS PROBLEMS THAT SHOULD BE SOLVED, IF DEMOCRACY WAS TO FUNCTION. ONE OF THE APPROACHES TO A UNIT THAT STUDIED PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION CONSISTED OF THE DISCUSSION OF A…

  15. Qubit state discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Deconinck, Matthieu E.

    2010-06-15

    We show how one can solve the problem of discriminating between qubit states. We use the quantum state discrimination duality theorem and the Bloch sphere representation of qubits, which allows for an easy geometric and analytical representation of the optimal guessing strategies.

  16. TGDA: Nonparametric Discriminant Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Norval F.; Bruno, Albert V.

    1976-01-01

    A computer program for two-group nonparametric discriminant analysis is presented. Based on Bayes' Theorem for probability revision, the statistical rationale for this program uses the calculation of maximum likelihood estimates of group membership. The program compares the Bayesian procedure to the standard Linear Discriminant Function.…

  17. Discrimination in measures of knowledge monitoring accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Was, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge monitoring predicts academic outcomes in many contexts. However, measures of knowledge monitoring accuracy are often incomplete. In the current study, a measure of students’ ability to discriminate known from unknown information as a component of knowledge monitoring was considered. Undergraduate students’ knowledge monitoring accuracy was assessed and used to predict final exam scores in a specific course. It was found that gamma, a measure commonly used as the measure of knowledge monitoring accuracy, accounted for a small, but significant amount of variance in academic performance whereas the discrimination and bias indexes combined to account for a greater amount of variance in academic performance. PMID:25339979

  18. Semantic Web Technologies to Reconcile Privacy and Context Awareness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    A.K., Abowd , G.D.: Toward a Better Understanding of Context and Context-Awareness, GVU Technical Report GIT-GVU-99-22. College of Computing...Georgia Institute of Technology, (1999) 8. Dey, A., Salber, D., Futakawa, M., Abowd , G.: An Architecture to Support Context Aware Computing, Technical

  19. Discrimination Power Control for Adaptive Target Tracking Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    Discriminat ion power cont ro l fo r adaptive target tracking applications A. Benaskeur F. Rhéaume DRDC Valcartier Defence R&D Canada – Valcartier...Technical Report DRDC Valcartier TR 2008-016 July 2008 Discrimination power control for adaptive target tracking applications A. Benaskeur F...nationale, 2008 Abstract This report addresses the problem of discrimination power in target tracking applications . More specifically, a closed-loop

  20. Associations of racial discrimination and parental discrimination coping messages with African American adolescent racial identity.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Bridget L; Macon, Tamarie A; Mustafaa, Faheemah N; Bogan, Erin D; Cole-Lewis, Yasmin; Chavous, Tabbye M

    2015-06-01

    Research links racial identity to important developmental outcomes among African American adolescents, but less is known about the contextual experiences that shape youths' racial identity. In a sample of 491 African American adolescents (48% female), associations of youth-reported experiences of racial discrimination and parental messages about preparation for racial bias with adolescents' later racial identity were examined. Cluster analysis resulted in four profiles of adolescents varying in reported frequency of racial discrimination from teachers and peers at school and frequency of parental racial discrimination coping messages during adolescents' 8th grade year. Boys were disproportionately over-represented in the cluster of youth experiencing more frequent discrimination but receiving fewer parental discrimination coping messages, relative to the overall sample. Also examined were clusters of adolescents' 11th grade racial identity attitudes about the importance of race (centrality), personal group affect (private regard), and perceptions of societal beliefs about African Americans (public regard). Girls and boys did not differ in their representation in racial identity clusters, but 8th grade discrimination/parent messages clusters were associated with 11th grade racial identity cluster membership, and these associations varied across gender groups. Boys experiencing more frequent discrimination but fewer parental coping messages were over-represented in the racial identity cluster characterized by low centrality, low private regard, and average public regard. The findings suggest that adolescents who experience racial discrimination but receive fewer parental supports for negotiating and coping with discrimination may be at heightened risk for internalizing stigmatizing experiences. Also, the findings suggest the need to consider the context of gender in adolescents' racial discrimination and parental racial socialization.

  1. Perceptual learning: 12-month-olds' discrimination of monkey faces.

    PubMed

    Fair, Joseph; Flom, Ross; Jones, Jacob; Martin, Justin

    2012-11-01

    Six-month-olds reliably discriminate different monkey and human faces whereas 9-month-olds only discriminate different human faces. It is often falsely assumed that perceptual narrowing reflects a permanent change in perceptual abilities. In 3 experiments, ninety-six 12-month-olds' discrimination of unfamiliar monkey faces was examined. Following 20 s of familiarization, and two 5-s visual-paired comparison test trials, 12-month-olds failed to show discrimination. However, following 40 s of familiarization and two 10-s test trials, 12-month-olds showed reliable discrimination of novel monkey faces. A final experiment was performed demonstrating 12-month-olds' discrimination of the monkey face was due to the increased familiarization rather than increased time of visual comparison. Results are discussed in the context of perceptual narrowing, in particular the flexible nature of perceptual narrowing.

  2. Tectonic discrimination diagrams revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeesch, Pieter

    2006-06-01

    The decision boundaries of most tectonic discrimination diagrams are drawn by eye. Discriminant analysis is a statistically more rigorous way to determine the tectonic affinity of oceanic basalts based on their bulk-rock chemistry. This method was applied to a database of 756 oceanic basalts of known tectonic affinity (ocean island, mid-ocean ridge, or island arc). For each of these training data, up to 45 major, minor, and trace elements were measured. Discriminant analysis assumes multivariate normality. If the same covariance structure is shared by all the classes (i.e., tectonic affinities), the decision boundaries are linear, hence the term linear discriminant analysis (LDA). In contrast with this, quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA) allows the classes to have different covariance structures. To solve the statistical problems associated with the constant-sum constraint of geochemical data, the training data must be transformed to log-ratio space before performing a discriminant analysis. The results can be mapped back to the compositional data space using the inverse log-ratio transformation. An exhaustive exploration of 14,190 possible ternary discrimination diagrams yields the Ti-Si-Sr system as the best linear discrimination diagram and the Na-Nb-Sr system as the best quadratic discrimination diagram. The best linear and quadratic discrimination diagrams using only immobile elements are Ti-V-Sc and Ti-V-Sm, respectively. As little as 5% of the training data are misclassified by these discrimination diagrams. Testing them on a second database of 182 samples that were not part of the training data yields a more reliable estimate of future performance. Although QDA misclassifies fewer training data than LDA, the opposite is generally true for the test data. Therefore LDA is a cruder but more robust classifier than QDA. Another advantage of LDA is that it provides a powerful way to reduce the dimensionality of the multivariate geochemical data in a similar

  3. New developments in the law for obesity discrimination protection.

    PubMed

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Puhl, Rebecca M

    2013-03-01

    Obese individuals are frequent targets of weight-based discrimination, particularly in the employment setting. Victims of weight discrimination have sought legal restitution like others who have suffered from different forms of discrimination. However, in the vast majority of the United States, body weight is not a protected class and weight-based employment discrimination does not provide a basis for a legal claim. Some have attempted to seek legal recourse under the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 or the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (collectively, the ADA), which protect against discrimination based on mental or physical disabilities in a variety of settings. Until recently, claims of weight discrimination under the ADA have also been largely unsuccessful. However, Congress recently passed the ADA Amendments Act, expanding the definition of what constitutes a disability and incorporating a broad view of ADA's coverage. This short communication provides an update of the law as it relates to employment based discrimination of obese people. The authors propose a legislative direction for future legal recourse. The authors conducted legal research into the ADA Amendments Act, and synthesized this work relating to discrimination against weight in the employment context. In light of the ADA Amendments Act, courts and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission have provided protection for severely obese people from discrimination based on actual or perceived disability in the employment context. The authors discuss this positive legal development and additionally propose a targeted solution to address weight discrimination in the employment setting. National polling suggests there is considerable public support for such a measure. The authors thus recommend the implementation of a "Weight Discrimination in Employment Act" modeled after the Age Discrimination in Employment Act to adequately address this pervasive and damaging injustice toward individuals who are

  4. Mass discrimination during weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment concerned with the ability of astronauts to discriminate between the mass of objects when both the objects and the astronauts are in weightless states is described. The main object of the experiment is to compare the threshold for weight-discrimination on Earth with that for mass-discrimination in orbit. Tests will be conducted premission and postmission and early and late during the mission while the crew is experiencing weightlessness. A comparison of early and late tests inflight and postflight will reveal the rate of adaptation to zero-gravity and 1-g. The mass discrimination box holds 24 balls which the astronaut will compare to one another in a random routine.

  5. Quantity discrimination in salamanders.

    PubMed

    Krusche, Paul; Uller, Claudia; Dicke, Ursula

    2010-06-01

    We investigated discrimination of large quantities in salamanders of the genus Plethodon. Animals were challenged with two different quantities (8 vs 12 or 8 vs 16) in a two-alternative choice task. Stimuli were live crickets, videos of live crickets or images animated by a computer program. Salamanders reliably chose the larger of two quantities when the ratio between the sets was 1:2 and stimuli were live crickets or videos thereof. Magnitude discrimination was not successful when the ratio was 2:3, or when the ratio was 1:2 when stimuli were computer animated. Analysis of the salamanders' success and failure as well as analysis of stimulus features points towards movement as a dominant feature for quantity discrimination. The results are generally consistent with large quantity discrimination investigated in many other animals (e.g. primates, fish), current models of quantity representation (analogue magnitudes) and data on sensory aspects of amphibian prey-catching behaviour (neuronal motion processing).

  6. Angular velocity discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments designed to investigate the ability of naive observers to discriminate rotational velocities of two simultaneously viewed objects are described. Rotations are constrained to occur about the x and y axes, resulting in linear two-dimensional image trajectories. The results indicate that observers can discriminate angular velocities with a competence near that for linear velocities. However, perceived angular rate is influenced by structural aspects of the stimuli.

  7. Angular velocity discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments designed to investigate the ability of naive observers to discriminate rotational velocities of two simultaneously viewed objects are described. Rotations are constrained to occur about the x and y axes, resulting in linear two-dimensional image trajectories. The results indicate that observers can discriminate angular velocities with a competence near that for linear velocities. However, perceived angular rate is influenced by structural aspects of the stimuli.

  8. Waves, Rays and Discriminants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-31

    parts which together form a basis for discrimination. Verv preliminary applications of the method are successful and encouraging, but the full potential...seismic moment tensor into it;, deviatoric and iLolropic parts provides a quantitative, unaml iguous method for discriminating t-etween MrthqtMkM...Hafner, New York. CAPTION 27 Figure 1. The real and imaginary parts of M in dyne-cm/10 Triangles are redrawn from (M; Figure 6). Squares are

  9. Further examination of discriminated functional communication.

    PubMed

    Leon, Yanerys; Hausman, Nicole L; Kahng, SungWoo; Becraft, Jessica L

    2010-01-01

    One child with developmental disabilities was taught to mand for attention by saying "excuse me." Treatment effects were extended to multiple training contexts by teaching the participant to attend to naturally occurring discriminative stimuli through differential reinforcement of communication during periods of the experimenter's nonbusy activities (e.g., reading a magazine). Results are discussed in terms of future research on the generalization and maintenance of functional communication in the natural environment.

  10. International Comparison of Age Discrimination Laws.

    PubMed

    Lahey, Joanna N

    2010-11-01

    European age discrimination legislation is discussed in the context of the US Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) and related state laws. US law was originally introduced to protect productive older workers from age stereotypes, but more recently preventing age discrimination has become important as a means of keeping costs down on entitlement programs as the population ages. Changes in enforcement, penalties, exemptions, length of time to file, and burden of proof have changed the effects of the laws over time. The ADEA has had both positive effects on currently employed older workers and negative effects on the hiring of older workers. Enforcement and publicity are offered as possible explanations for the strength of these positive and negative effects. Age discrimination legislation in Europe, indicated in the Framework Directive 2000/78, is driven by economic and political considerations. European legislation calls for less enforcement and more exemptions than the corresponding US cases which could lead to smaller effects on employment. However, pensions, disability, unemployment, and social security potentially have a stronger effect on social norms for retirement age than does anti-discrimination legislation.

  11. International Comparison of Age Discrimination Laws

    PubMed Central

    Lahey, Joanna N.

    2014-01-01

    European age discrimination legislation is discussed in the context of the US Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) and related state laws. US law was originally introduced to protect productive older workers from age stereotypes, but more recently preventing age discrimination has become important as a means of keeping costs down on entitlement programs as the population ages. Changes in enforcement, penalties, exemptions, length of time to file, and burden of proof have changed the effects of the laws over time. The ADEA has had both positive effects on currently employed older workers and negative effects on the hiring of older workers. Enforcement and publicity are offered as possible explanations for the strength of these positive and negative effects. Age discrimination legislation in Europe, indicated in the Framework Directive 2000/78, is driven by economic and political considerations. European legislation calls for less enforcement and more exemptions than the corresponding US cases which could lead to smaller effects on employment. However, pensions, disability, unemployment, and social security potentially have a stronger effect on social norms for retirement age than does anti-discrimination legislation. PMID:25197154

  12. Learning discriminant face descriptor.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zhen; Pietikäinen, Matti; Li, Stan Z

    2014-02-01

    Local feature descriptor is an important module for face recognition and those like Gabor and local binary patterns (LBP) have proven effective face descriptors. Traditionally, the form of such local descriptors is predefined in a handcrafted way. In this paper, we propose a method to learn a discriminant face descriptor (DFD) in a data-driven way. The idea is to learn the most discriminant local features that minimize the difference of the features between images of the same person and maximize that between images from different people. In particular, we propose to enhance the discriminative ability of face representation in three aspects. First, the discriminant image filters are learned. Second, the optimal neighborhood sampling strategy is soft determined. Third, the dominant patterns are statistically constructed. Discriminative learning is incorporated to extract effective and robust features. We further apply the proposed method to the heterogeneous (cross-modality) face recognition problem and learn DFD in a coupled way (coupled DFD or C-DFD) to reduce the gap between features of heterogeneous face images to improve the performance of this challenging problem. Extensive experiments on FERET, CAS-PEAL-R1, LFW, and HFB face databases validate the effectiveness of the proposed DFD learning on both homogeneous and heterogeneous face recognition problems. The DFD improves POEM and LQP by about 4.5 percent on LFW database and the C-DFD enhances the heterogeneous face recognition performance of LBP by over 25 percent.

  13. Defense Technical Information Center thesaurus

    SciTech Connect

    Dickert, J.H.

    1996-10-01

    This DTIC Thesaurus provides a basic multidisciplinary subject term vocabulary used by DTIC to index and retrieve scientific and technical information from its various data bases and to aid DTIC`s users in their information storage and retrieval operations. It includes an alphabetical posting term display, a hierarchy display, and a Keywork Out of Context (KWOC) display.

  14. Vowel formant discrimination: towards more ordinary listening conditions.

    PubMed

    Kewley-Port, D; Zheng, Y

    1999-11-01

    Thresholds for formant frequency discrimination have been established using optimal listening conditions. In normal conversation, the ability to discriminate formant frequency is probably substantially degraded. The purpose of the present study was to change the listening procedures in several substantial ways from optimal towards more ordinary listening conditions, including a higher level of stimulus uncertainty, increased levels of phonetic context, and with the addition of a sentence identification task. Four vowels synthesized from a female talker were presented in isolation, or in the phonetic context of /bVd/ syllables, three-word phrases, or nine-word sentences. In the first experiment, formant resolution was estimated under medium stimulus uncertainty for three levels of phonetic context. Some undesirable training effects were obtained and led to the design of a new protocol for the second experiment to reduce this problem and to manipulate both length of phonetic context and level of difficulty in the simultaneous sentence identification task. Similar results were obtained in both experiments. The effect of phonetic context on formant discrimination is reduced as context lengthens such that no difference was found between vowels embedded in the phrase or sentence contexts. The addition of a challenging sentence identification task to the discrimination task did not degrade performance further and a stable pattern for formant discrimination in sentences emerged. This norm for the resolution of vowel formants under these more ordinary listening conditions was shown to be nearly a constant at 0.28 barks. Analysis of vowel spaces from 16 American English talkers determined that the closest vowels, on average, were 0.56 barks apart, that is, a factor of 2 larger than the norm obtained in these vowel formant discrimination tasks.

  15. Chlordane (Technical)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlordane ( Technical ) ; CASRN 12789 - 03 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  16. Technical Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Carol A.

    This manuscript provides information and problems for teaching mathematics to vocational education students. Problems reflect applications of mathematical concepts to specific technical areas. The materials are organized into six chapters. Chapter 1 covers basic arithmetic, including fractions, decimals, ratio and proportions, percentages, and…

  17. Technical Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Carol A.

    This manuscript provides information and problems for teaching mathematics to vocational education students. Problems reflect applications of mathematical concepts to specific technical areas. The materials are organized into six chapters. Chapter 1 covers basic arithmetic, including fractions, decimals, ratio and proportions, percentages, and…

  18. Canister Storage Building (CSB) Technical Safety Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    KRAHN, D.E.

    2000-05-10

    The purpose of this section is to explain the meaning of logical connectors with specific examples. Logical connectors are used in Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs) to discriminate between, and yet connect, discrete Conditions, Required Actions, Completion Times, Surveillances, and Frequencies. The only logical connectors that appear in TSRs are AND and OR. The physical arrangement of these connectors constitutes logical conventions with specific meanings.

  19. Bias, discrimination, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Puhl, R; Brownell, K D

    2001-12-01

    This article reviews information on discriminatory attitudes and behaviors against obese individuals, integrates this to show whether systematic discrimination occurs and why, and discusses needed work in the field. Clear and consistent stigmatization, and in some cases discrimination, can be documented in three important areas of living: employment, education, and health care. Among the findings are that 28% of teachers in one study said that becoming obese is the worst thing that can happen to a person; 24% of nurses said that they are "repulsed" by obese persons; and, controlling for income and grades, parents provide less college support for their overweight than for their thin children. There are also suggestions but not yet documentation of discrimination occurring in adoption proceedings, jury selection, housing, and other areas. Given the vast numbers of people potentially affected, it is important to consider the research-related, educational, and social policy implications of these findings.

  20. Discriminant learning analysis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jing; Zhang, Peng; Riedel, Norbert

    2008-12-01

    Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) as a dimension reduction method is widely used in classification such as face recognition. However, it suffers from the small sample size (SSS) problem when data dimensionality is greater than the sample size, as in images where features are high dimensional and correlated. In this paper, we propose to address the SSS problem in the framework of statistical learning theory. We compute linear discriminants by regularized least squares regression, where the singularity problem is resolved. The resulting discriminants are complete in that they include both regular and irregular information. We show that our proposal and its nonlinear extension belong to the same framework where powerful classifiers such as support vector machines are formulated. In addition, our approach allows us to establish an error bound for LDA. Finally, our experiments validate our theoretical analysis results.

  1. DIFFERENTIAL PULSE HEIGHT DISCRIMINATOR

    DOEpatents

    Test, L.D.

    1958-11-11

    Pulse-height discriminators are described, specifically a differential pulse-height discriminator which is adapted to respond to pulses of a band of amplitudes, but to reject pulses of amplitudes greater or less than tbe preselected band. In general, the discriminator includes a vacuum tube having a plurality of grids adapted to cut off plate current in the tube upon the application of sufficient negative voltage. One grid is held below cutoff, while a positive pulse proportional to the amplltude of each pulse is applled to this grid. Another grid has a negative pulse proportional to the amplitude of each pulse simultaneously applied to it. With this arrangement the tube will only pass pulses which are of sufficlent amplitude to counter the cutoff bias but not of sufficlent amplitude to cutoff the tube.

  2. Drugs, discrimination and disability.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Frances

    2009-12-01

    Whether addiction to prohibited drugs should be classified as a disability for the purposes of disability discrimination is a controversial question in Australia. The leading Australian case of Marsden v Human Rights Equal Opportunity Commission & Coffs Harbour & District Ex-Servicemen & Women's Memorial Club Ltd (HREOC, No H98/51, 30 August 1999); [2000] FCA 1619 concerned a disability discrimination complaint brought by Mr Marsden as a result of his treatment by the club. The case was brought as a public interest test case by the New South Wales Legal Aid Commission. Mr Marsden was on a methadone program at the time. The reasoning of the decision at the Federal Court opened the way for a finding that dependence on illegal drugs constituted a disability under disability discrimination legislation. The media reaction to the court's decision led to State and federal governments proposing legislation limiting legal protection from discrimination for people addicted to illegal drugs on the basis of their drug use. While the proposed federal legislation lapsed after objections from a coalition of medical, legal and other advocacy groups, the New South Wales legislation still provides that, in employment matters, it is not unlawful to discriminate against a person on the ground of disability if the disability relates to the person's addiction to a prohibited drug and the person is actually addicted to a prohibited drug at the time of the discrimination. The article details the sequence of events in the Marsden case, reflects on the role of public interest litigation in achieving social justice outcomes and suggests that Australia's recent ratification of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities on 17 July 2008 should encourage legislators to review legislation which may have a discriminatory effect on people suffering from addictions.

  3. Optical fiber phase discriminator.

    PubMed

    Danielson, B L

    1978-11-15

    Phase discriminators are devices widely used at rf and microwave frequencies to convert phase, or frequency, changes to amplitude changes. They find widespread use in generating audio feedback signals for frequency stabilization of oscillators and in angle demodulation applications. This paper demonstrates that similar devices, with similar functions, can be constructed in the visible region using optical fibers as delay-line elements. The operating principles of an optical-fiber delay-line phase discriminator are discussed. The sensitivity is shown to be proportional to the fiber propagation-delay time. A device working at 0.6328 microm is described and compared with predictions.

  4. Mechanisms of contextual control when contexts are informative to solve the task.

    PubMed

    León, Samuel P; Matías Gámez, A; Rosas, Juan M

    2012-03-01

    An experiment was conducted using a human instrumental learning task with the goal of evaluating the mechanisms underlying the deleterious effect of context-switching on responding to an unambiguous stimulus when contexts are informative to solve the task. Participants were trained in a context-based reversal discrimination in which two discriminative stimuli (X and Y) interchange their meaning across contexts A and B. In context A, discriminative stimulus Z consistently announced that the relationship between a specific instrumental response (RI) and a specific outcome (O1) was in effect. Performance in the presence of stimulus Z was equally deteriorated when the test was conducted outside the training context, regardless of whether the test context was familiar (context B) or new (context C). This result is consistent with the idea that participants code all the information presented in an informative context as context-specific with the context playing a role akin to an occasion setter.

  5. The effects of acute nicotine on contextual safety discrimination.

    PubMed

    Kutlu, Munir G; Oliver, Chicora; Gould, Thomas J

    2014-11-01

    Anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), may be related to an inability to distinguish safe versus threatening environments and to extinguish fear memories. Given the high rate of cigarette smoking in patients with PTSD, as well as the recent finding that an acute dose of nicotine impairs extinction of contextual fear memory, we conducted a series of experiments to investigate the effect of acute nicotine in an animal model of contextual safety discrimination. Following saline or nicotine (at 0.0275, 0.045, 0.09 and 0.18 mg/kg) administration, C57BL/6J mice were trained in a contextual discrimination paradigm, in which the subjects received presentations of conditioned stimuli (CS) that co-terminated with a foot-shock in one context (context A (CXA)) and only CS presentations without foot-shock in a different context (context B (CXB)). Therefore, CXA was designated as the 'dangerous context', whereas CXB was designated as the 'safe context'. Our results suggested that saline-treated animals showed a strong discrimination between dangerous and safe contexts, while acute nicotine dose-dependently impaired contextual safety discrimination (Experiment 1). Furthermore, our results demonstrate that nicotine-induced impairment of contextual safety discrimination learning was not a result of increased generalized freezing (Experiment 2) or contingent on the common CS presentations in both contexts (Experiment 3). Finally, our results show that increasing the temporal gap between CXA and CXB during training abolished the impairing effects of nicotine (Experiment 4). The findings of this study may help link nicotine exposure to the safety learning deficits seen in anxiety disorder and PTSD patients.

  6. Discrimination and Depression among Urban Hispanics with Poorly Controlled Diabetes.

    PubMed

    March, Dana; Williams, Jasmine; Wells, Shayla; Eimicke, Joseph P; Teresi, Jeanne A; Almonte, Casandra; Link, Bruce G; Findley, Sally E; Palmas, Walter; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Luchsinger, José A

    2015-01-01

    We had three objectives for our study: 1) to describe the prevalence and burden of experiences of discrimination among Hispanics with poorly controlled diabetes; 2) to evaluate associations among discrimination experiences and their burden with comorbid depression among Hispanics with poorly controlled diabetes; and 3) to evaluate whether discrimination encountered in the health care context itself was associated with comorbid depression for Hispanic adults with diabetes. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of a randomized controlled trial (RCT). We collected data in the context of an RCT in a clinical setting in New York City. Our sample comprised 221 urban-dwelling Hispanics, largely of Caribbean origin. The main outcome measure was major depression, measured by the Euro-D (score > 3). Of 221 participants, 58.8% reported at least one experience of everyday discrimination, and 42.5% reported at least one major experience of discrimination. Depression was associated significantly with counts of experiences of major discrimination (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.09 - 1.94, P = .01), aggregate counts of everyday and major discrimination (OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.02 - 1.26, P = .02), and the experience of discrimination in getting care for physical health (OR = 6.30, 95% CI= 1.10-36.03). Discrimination may pose a barrier to getting health care and may be associated with depression among Hispanics with diabetes. Clinicians treating Caribbean-born Hispanics should be aware that disadvantage and discrimination likely complicate a presentation of diabetes.

  7. Mechanisms of renewal after the extinction of discriminated operant behavior.

    PubMed

    Todd, Travis P; Vurbic, Drina; Bouton, Mark E

    2014-07-01

    Three experiments demonstrated, and examined the mechanisms that underlie, the renewal of extinguished discriminated operant behavior. In Experiment 1, rats were trained to perform 1 response (lever press or chain pull) in the presence of one discriminative stimulus (S; light or tone) in Context A, and to perform the other response in the presence of the other S in Context B. Next, each of the original S/response combinations was extinguished in the alternate context. When the S/response combinations were tested back in the context in which they had been trained, responding in the presence of S returned (an ABA renewal effect was observed). This renewal could not be due to differential context-reinforcer associations, suggesting instead that the extinction context inhibits either the response and/or the effectiveness of the S. Consistent with the latter mechanism, in Experiment 2, ABA renewal was still observed when both the extinction and renewal contexts inhibited the same response. However, in Experiment 3, previous extinction of the response in the renewing context (occasioned by a different S) reduced AAB renewal more than did extinction of the different response. Taken together, the results suggest at least 2 mechanisms of renewal after instrumental extinction. First, extinction performance is at least partly controlled by a direct inhibitory association that is formed between the context and the response. Second, in the discriminated operant procedure, extinction performance can sometimes be partly controlled by a reduction in the effectiveness of the S in the extinction context. Renewal of discriminated operant behavior can be produced by a release from either of these forms of inhibition.

  8. Analytic boosted boson discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian; Neill, Duff

    2016-05-20

    Observables which discriminate boosted topologies from massive QCD jets are of great importance for the success of the jet substructure program at the Large Hadron Collider. Such observables, while both widely and successfully used, have been studied almost exclusively with Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper we present the first all-orders factorization theorem for a two-prong discriminant based on a jet shape variable, D2, valid for both signal and background jets. Our factorization theorem simultaneously describes the production of both collinear and soft subjets, and we introduce a novel zero-bin procedure to correctly describe the transition region between these limits. By proving an all orders factorization theorem, we enable a systematically improvable description, and allow for precision comparisons between data, Monte Carlo, and first principles QCD calculations for jet substructure observables. Using our factorization theorem, we present numerical results for the discrimination of a boosted Z boson from massive QCD background jets. We compare our results with Monte Carlo predictions which allows for a detailed understanding of the extent to which these generators accurately describe the formation of two-prong QCD jets, and informs their usage in substructure analyses. In conclusion, our calculation also provides considerable insight into the discrimination power and calculability of jet substructure observables in general.

  9. Color measurement and discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandell, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Theories of color measurement attempt to provide a quantative means for predicting whether two lights will be discriminable to an average observer. All color measurement theories can be characterized as follows: suppose lights a and b evoke responses from three color channels characterized as vectors, v(a) and v(b); the vector difference v(a) - v(b) corresponds to a set of channel responses that would be generated by some real light, call it *. According to theory a and b will be discriminable when * is detectable. A detailed development and test of the classic color measurement approach are reported. In the absence of a luminance component in the test stimuli, a and b, the theory holds well. In the presence of a luminance component, the theory is clearly false. When a luminance component is present discrimination judgements depend largely on whether the lights being discriminated fall in separate, categorical regions of color space. The results suggest that sensory estimation of surface color uses different methods, and the choice of method depends upon properties of the image. When there is significant luminance variation a categorical method is used, while in the absence of significant luminance variation judgments are continuous and consistant with the measurement approach.

  10. Analytic boosted boson discrimination

    DOE PAGES

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian; Neill, Duff

    2016-05-20

    Observables which discriminate boosted topologies from massive QCD jets are of great importance for the success of the jet substructure program at the Large Hadron Collider. Such observables, while both widely and successfully used, have been studied almost exclusively with Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper we present the first all-orders factorization theorem for a two-prong discriminant based on a jet shape variable, D2, valid for both signal and background jets. Our factorization theorem simultaneously describes the production of both collinear and soft subjets, and we introduce a novel zero-bin procedure to correctly describe the transition region between these limits.more » By proving an all orders factorization theorem, we enable a systematically improvable description, and allow for precision comparisons between data, Monte Carlo, and first principles QCD calculations for jet substructure observables. Using our factorization theorem, we present numerical results for the discrimination of a boosted Z boson from massive QCD background jets. We compare our results with Monte Carlo predictions which allows for a detailed understanding of the extent to which these generators accurately describe the formation of two-prong QCD jets, and informs their usage in substructure analyses. In conclusion, our calculation also provides considerable insight into the discrimination power and calculability of jet substructure observables in general.« less

  11. Discrimination Learning in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochocki, Thomas E.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Examined the learning performance of 192 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children on either a two or four choice simultaneous color discrimination task. Compared the use of verbal reinforcement and/or punishment, under conditions of either complete or incomplete instructions. (Author/SDH)

  12. Airborne particulate discriminator

    DOEpatents

    Creek, Kathryn Louise; Castro, Alonso; Gray, Perry Clayton

    2009-08-11

    A method and apparatus for rapid and accurate detection and discrimination of biological, radiological, and chemical particles in air. A suspect aerosol of the target particulates is treated with a taggant aerosol of ultrafine particulates. Coagulation of the taggant and target particles causes a change in fluorescent properties of the cloud, providing an indication of the presence of the target.

  13. Aptitude Tests and Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coupland, D. E.

    1970-01-01

    Explains why in the United States the feeling is increasing that much of the aptitude testing now being done discriminates against minority group members seeking employment. Skeptical of eliminating the discriminatory aspects of testing, the article raises the question of eliminating testing itself. (DM)

  14. A Lesson in Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chotiner, Barbara; Hameroff-Cohen, Wendy

    1994-01-01

    Public high school students with deafness vividly learned about the realities of discrimination when they were informed of "new rules for deaf students," which required that they wear "deaf badges" in school, follow a strict dress code, and so on. After the "new rules" hoax was revealed, students' feelings and reactions to the situation were…

  15. RISE TIME DELAY DISCRIMINATOR

    DOEpatents

    Johnstone, C.W.

    1959-09-29

    A pulse-height discriminator for generating an output pulse when the accepted input pulse is approximately at its maximum value is described. A gating tube and a negative bias generator responsive to the derivative of the input pulse and means for impressing the output of the bias generator to at least one control electrode of the gating tube are included.

  16. Education and Gender Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumi, V. S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the status of women education in present education system and some measures to overcome the lags existing. Discrimination against girls and women in the developing world is a devastating reality. It results in millions of individual tragedies, which add up to lost potential for entire countries. Gender bias in education is an…

  17. The Circle of Discrimination:

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Herman D.

    1976-01-01

    Extends previous studies dealing with the socioeconomic subordination of Blacks. Thesis is that within the circle of discrimination there are cycles, within of which is a germinated seed that forms a subsequent cycle, and the process goes on and on; the pattern becomes self-generative. (Author/AM)

  18. Optical linear discriminant functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casasent, David; Song, Jian-Zhong

    1989-01-01

    The use of computer generated holograms to implement feature extraction operations has been achieved. The optical realization and use of multiple linear discriminant functions on a high-dimensionality feature space for large class pattern recognition is described and initial experimental results are provided.

  19. Discrimination and its Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Clarence

    1983-01-01

    Reviews challenges facing Black professionals committed to further promoting civil rights. Focuses on the Federal government role, particularly regarding racial discrimination in employment. Warns against the acceptance of orthodoxies, and calls for new action and the exercising of intellectual freedom. (KH)

  20. Age Discrimination in Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York University Law Review, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Economic, psychological, and social effects of age discrimination in employment are examined. This note analyzes constitutional challenges to hiring-age ceiling and mandatory retirement policies, as well as the constitutional criteria against which those ceilings and policies should be measured. Federal statutory prohibitions and their judicial…

  1. Discrimination in Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abzug, Bella

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, expressly focuses on discrimination in employment, asserting that this has had the most direct effect on minorities and women in the country; while legal protections have grown stronger, they have not been used effectively. (Author/JM)

  2. Discrimination. Opposing Viewpoints Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mary E., Ed.

    Books in the Opposing Viewpoints series challenge readers to question their own opinions and assumptions. By reading carefully balanced views, readers confront new ideas on the topic of interest. The Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibited job discrimination based on age, race, religion, gender, or national origin, provided the groundwork for…

  3. Reversing Discrimination: A Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pati, Gopal; Reilly, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    Examines the debate over affirmative action and reverse discrimination, and discusses how and why the present dilemma has developed. Suggests that organizations can best address the problem through an honest, in-depth analysis of their organizational structure and management practices. (JG)

  4. Technical parameters for specifying imagery requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coan, Paul P.; Dunnette, Sheri J.

    1994-01-01

    Providing visual information acquired from remote events to various operators, researchers, and practitioners has become progressively more important as the application of special skills in alien or hazardous situations increases. To provide an understanding of the technical parameters required to specify imagery, we have identified, defined, and discussed seven salient characteristics of images: spatial resolution, linearity, luminance resolution, spectral discrimination, temporal discrimination, edge definition, and signal-to-noise ratio. We then describe a generalizing imaging system and identified how various parts of the system affect the image data. To emphasize the different applications of imagery, we have constrasted the common television system with the significant parameters of a televisual imaging system for technical applications. Finally, we have established a method by which the required visual information can be specified by describing certain technical parameters which are directly related to the information content of the imagery. This method requires the user to complete a form listing all pertinent data requirements for the imagery.

  5. Technical parameters for specifying imagery requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coan, Paul P.; Dunnette, Sheri J.

    1994-01-01

    Providing visual information acquired from remote events to various operators, researchers, and practitioners has become progressively more important as the application of special skills in alien or hazardous situations increases. To provide an understanding of the technical parameters required to specify imagery, we have identified, defined, and discussed seven salient characteristics of images: spatial resolution, linearity, luminance resolution, spectral discrimination, temporal discrimination, edge definition, and signal-to-noise ratio. We then describe a generalizing imaging system and identified how various parts of the system affect the image data. To emphasize the different applications of imagery, we have constrasted the common television system with the significant parameters of a televisual imaging system for technical applications. Finally, we have established a method by which the required visual information can be specified by describing certain technical parameters which are directly related to the information content of the imagery. This method requires the user to complete a form listing all pertinent data requirements for the imagery.

  6. Discriminant Function Job Analysis in Three Army Technical MOS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    Flightline Maintenance Duties. B. Perform Airframe and Fuselage Assemblies Maintenance Duties. C. Perform Power Plant and Related Systems Maintenance...USA TRAINING SUPPDRT CEI’J1H UEVLL SYb T E’t4S 1Mb + DEVICFS DiNE-CIORATF. I AF-IRL !ECHWIOLOI.Y DFC (H) I PUI)UE UNIV DEN’I OF PS>YLDiULODILAL

  7. Balancing Considerations of Equity, Content Quality, and Technical Excellence in Designing, Validating and Implementing Performance Assessments in the Context of Mathematics Instructional Reform: The Experience of the QUASAR Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Edward A.; Lane, Suzanne

    Issues of educational equity and quality are explored in the context of the Quantitative Understanding: Amplifying Student Achievement and Reasoning (QUASAR) project, a national educational reform project aimed at fostering and studying the development and implementation of enhanced mathematics instructional programs for students attending middle…

  8. Infant discrimination of humanoid robots

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Goh; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, extremely humanlike robots called “androids” have been developed, some of which are already being used in the field of entertainment. In the context of psychological studies, androids are expected to be used in the future as fully controllable human stimuli to investigate human nature. In this study, we used an android to examine infant discrimination ability between human beings and non-human agents. Participants (N = 42 infants) were assigned to three groups based on their age, i.e., 6- to 8-month-olds, 9- to 11-month-olds, and 12- to 14-month-olds, and took part in a preferential looking paradigm. Of three types of agents involved in the paradigm—a human, an android modeled on the human, and a mechanical-looking robot made from the android—two at a time were presented side-by-side as they performed a grasping action. Infants’ looking behavior was measured using an eye tracking system, and the amount of time spent focusing on each of three areas of interest (face, goal, and body) was analyzed. Results showed that all age groups predominantly looked at the robot and at the face area, and that infants aged over 9 months watched the goal area for longer than the body area. There was no difference in looking times and areas focused on between the human and the android. These findings suggest that 6- to 14-month-olds are unable to discriminate between the human and the android, although they can distinguish the mechanical robot from the human. PMID:26441772

  9. Infant discrimination of humanoid robots.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Goh; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, extremely humanlike robots called "androids" have been developed, some of which are already being used in the field of entertainment. In the context of psychological studies, androids are expected to be used in the future as fully controllable human stimuli to investigate human nature. In this study, we used an android to examine infant discrimination ability between human beings and non-human agents. Participants (N = 42 infants) were assigned to three groups based on their age, i.e., 6- to 8-month-olds, 9- to 11-month-olds, and 12- to 14-month-olds, and took part in a preferential looking paradigm. Of three types of agents involved in the paradigm-a human, an android modeled on the human, and a mechanical-looking robot made from the android-two at a time were presented side-by-side as they performed a grasping action. Infants' looking behavior was measured using an eye tracking system, and the amount of time spent focusing on each of three areas of interest (face, goal, and body) was analyzed. Results showed that all age groups predominantly looked at the robot and at the face area, and that infants aged over 9 months watched the goal area for longer than the body area. There was no difference in looking times and areas focused on between the human and the android. These findings suggest that 6- to 14-month-olds are unable to discriminate between the human and the android, although they can distinguish the mechanical robot from the human.

  10. Kin discrimination between sympatric Bacillus subtilis isolates.

    PubMed

    Stefanic, Polonca; Kraigher, Barbara; Lyons, Nicholas Anthony; Kolter, Roberto; Mandic-Mulec, Ines

    2015-11-10

    Kin discrimination, broadly defined as differential treatment of conspecifics according to their relatedness, could help biological systems direct cooperative behavior toward their relatives. Here we investigated the ability of the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis to discriminate kin from nonkin in the context of swarming, a cooperative multicellular behavior. We tested a collection of sympatric conspecifics from soil in pairwise combinations and found that despite their history of coexistence, the vast majority formed distinct boundaries when the swarms met. Some swarms did merge, and most interestingly, this behavior was only seen in the most highly related strain pairs. Overall the swarm interaction phenotype strongly correlated with phylogenetic relatedness, indicative of kin discrimination. Using a subset of strains, we examined cocolonization patterns on plant roots. Pairs of kin strains were able to cocolonize roots and formed a mixed-strain biofilm. In contrast, inoculating roots with pairs of nonkin strains resulted in biofilms consisting primarily of one strain, suggestive of an antagonistic interaction among nonkin strains. This study firmly establishes kin discrimination in a bacterial multicellular setting and suggests its potential effect on ecological interactions.

  11. Kin discrimination between sympatric Bacillus subtilis isolates

    PubMed Central

    Stefanic, Polonca; Kraigher, Barbara; Lyons, Nicholas Anthony; Kolter, Roberto; Mandic-Mulec, Ines

    2015-01-01

    Kin discrimination, broadly defined as differential treatment of conspecifics according to their relatedness, could help biological systems direct cooperative behavior toward their relatives. Here we investigated the ability of the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis to discriminate kin from nonkin in the context of swarming, a cooperative multicellular behavior. We tested a collection of sympatric conspecifics from soil in pairwise combinations and found that despite their history of coexistence, the vast majority formed distinct boundaries when the swarms met. Some swarms did merge, and most interestingly, this behavior was only seen in the most highly related strain pairs. Overall the swarm interaction phenotype strongly correlated with phylogenetic relatedness, indicative of kin discrimination. Using a subset of strains, we examined cocolonization patterns on plant roots. Pairs of kin strains were able to cocolonize roots and formed a mixed-strain biofilm. In contrast, inoculating roots with pairs of nonkin strains resulted in biofilms consisting primarily of one strain, suggestive of an antagonistic interaction among nonkin strains. This study firmly establishes kin discrimination in a bacterial multicellular setting and suggests its potential effect on ecological interactions. PMID:26438858

  12. Generative Contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyles, Dan Allen

    Educational research has identified how science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) practice and education have underperforming metrics in racial and gender diversity, despite decades of intervention. These disparities are part of the construction of a culture of science that is alienating to these populations. Recent studies in a social science framework described as "Generative Justice" have suggested that the context of social and scientific practice might be modified to bring about more just and equitable relations among the disenfranchised by circulating the value they and their non-human allies create back to them in unalienated forms. What is not known are the underlying principles of social and material space that makes a system more or less generative. I employ an autoethnographic method at four sites: a high school science class; a farm committed to "Black and Brown liberation"; a summer program geared towards youth environmental mapping; and a summer workshop for Harlem middle school students. My findings suggest that by identifying instances where material affinity, participatory voice, and creative solidarity are mutually reinforcing, it is possible to create educational contexts that generate unalienated value, and circulate it back to the producers themselves. This cycle of generation may help explain how to create systems of justice that strengthen and grow themselves through successive iterations. The problem of lack of diversity in STEM may be addressed not merely by recruiting the best and the brightest from underrepresented populations, but by changing the context of STEM education to provide tools for its own systematic restructuring.

  13. The Case for Positive Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses both three basic strategies, preferences, allocational priorities, and incentives--and four principles of positive discrimination--compensation and rectification, appropriate meritocratic criteria, the development of the discriminated, and fairness. (JM)

  14. Stimulus Structure, Discrimination, and Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runquist, Willard N.

    1975-01-01

    The general purpose of this experiment was to determine whether differences in stimulus discrimination, as determined by the MIR (missing-item recognition) test, are correlated with interference in recall, as demanded by the discriminative coding hypothesis. (Author/RK)

  15. The Struggle against Sex Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Jane

    1982-01-01

    Provides overview of laws, policies, and regulations available to women to secure their job rights when faced with sex discrimination. Equal pay, sexual harassment, pregnancy discrimination, and affirmative action are discussed, noting procedures involved in filing a complaint. (EJS)

  16. Genetic discrimination in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Miller, P S

    1998-01-01

    Author argues that the Americans with Disabilities Act prohibits discrimination against workers based on their genetic makeup. He also examines state legislation and recently proposed federal legislation prohibiting genetic discrimination.

  17. Context vector approach to image retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Clara Z.; Means, Robert W.

    1998-04-01

    HNC developed a unique context vector approach to image retrieval in Image Contrast Addressable Retrieval System. The basis for this approach is the context vector approach to image representation. A context vector is a high dimensional vector of real numbers, derived from a set of features that are useful in discriminating between images in a particular domain. The image features are trained based upon the constrained 2D self-organizing learning law. The image context vector encodes both intra-image features and inter-image relationship. The similarity in the directions of the context vectors of a pair of images indicates their similarity of content. The context vector approach to image representation simplifies the image and retrieval indexing problem because simple Euclidean distance measurements between sets of context vectors are used as a measure of similarity.

  18. Stress within a Bicultural Context for Adolescents of Mexican Descent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Andrea J.; Roberts, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    Folkman and Lazarus's theory of stress and coping was used to develop a measure assessing the perceived stress within a bicultural context. Middle school students of Mexican descent (N=881) reported their perceived stress from intergenerational acculturation gaps, within-group discrimination, out-group discrimination, and monolingual stress.…

  19. Contextual Effects in Fine Spatial Discriminations

    PubMed Central

    Olzak, Lynn A.; Laurinen, Pentti I.

    2006-01-01

    The context in which a pattern is viewed can greatly affect its apparent contrast, a phenomenon commonly attributed to pooled contrast gain control processes. A low-contrast surround may slightly enhance apparent contrast, whereas increasing the contrast of the surround leads to a monotonic decline in contrast appearance. We ask here how the presence of a patterned surround affects the ability to perform fine, suprathreshold orientation, contrast, and spatial frequency discriminations as a function of surround contrast and phase. Our results revealed an unexpected dip in performance when center and surround were in-phase and similar in contrast. These results suggest that additional processes, perhaps those involved in scene segregation, play a role in contextual effects on discrimination. PMID:16277291

  20. Price Discrimination: A Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguiló, Paula; Sard, Maria; Tugores, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a classroom experiment aimed at familiarizing students with different types of price discrimination (first-, second-, and third-degree price discrimination). During the experiment, the students were asked to decide what tariffs to set as monopolists for each of the price discrimination scenarios under…

  1. Price Discrimination: A Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguiló, Paula; Sard, Maria; Tugores, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a classroom experiment aimed at familiarizing students with different types of price discrimination (first-, second-, and third-degree price discrimination). During the experiment, the students were asked to decide what tariffs to set as monopolists for each of the price discrimination scenarios under…

  2. Transgender Discrimination and the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Richard

    2010-01-01

    An emerging area of law is developing regarding sex/gender identity discrimination, also referred to as transgender discrimination, as distinguished from discrimination based on sexual orientation. A transgendered individual is defined as "a person who has a gender-identity disorder which is a persistent discomfort about one?s assigned sex or…

  3. Price Discrimination: Lessons for Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynes, E. Scott

    1990-01-01

    Explains price and product discrimination, showing how intelligent consumers can achieve increased purchasing power of their income and discusses how consumer educators can explain this discrimination. Evaluates the pros and cons of price/product discrimination from the social viewpoint. (Author/JOW)

  4. Price Discrimination: Lessons for Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynes, E. Scott

    1990-01-01

    Explains price and product discrimination, showing how intelligent consumers can achieve increased purchasing power of their income and discusses how consumer educators can explain this discrimination. Evaluates the pros and cons of price/product discrimination from the social viewpoint. (Author/JOW)

  5. FET Frequency Discriminator.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    conversion . characteristic of the frequency discriminator is significant and :ending upon the specific system - may be the limiting factor in the accu of...the results obtained did not .-" allow for the accurate determinat ion of the change in impedance, addit ional 14 -~ 12V - - Figure 7. Impedance plot...44*. -. 7 ’I -- -..- ,. -, 4., /-.,’ .3 8 V ............... ... .. .$, L- 12v - Figure 9. Impedance plot tor five diodes inl parallel. A circuit was

  6. [Comment on] Statistical discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinn, Douglas

    In the December 8, 1981, issue of Eos, a news item reported the conclusion of a National Research Council study that sexual discrimination against women with Ph.D.'s exists in the field of geophysics. Basically, the item reported that even when allowances are made for motherhood the percentage of female Ph.D.'s holding high university and corporate positions is significantly lower than the percentage of male Ph.D.'s holding the same types of positions. The sexual discrimination conclusion, based only on these statistics, assumes that there are no basic psychological differences between men and women that might cause different populations in the employment group studied. Therefore, the reasoning goes, after taking into account possible effects from differences related to anatomy, such as women stopping their careers in order to bear and raise children, the statistical distributions of positions held by male and female Ph.D.'s ought to be very similar to one another. Any significant differences between the distributions must be caused primarily by sexual discrimination.

  7. Discrimination in lexical decision

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Laurie Beth; Ramscar, Michael; Hendrix, Peter; Baayen, R. Harald

    2017-01-01

    In this study we present a novel set of discrimination-based indicators of language processing derived from Naive Discriminative Learning (ndl) theory. We compare the effectiveness of these new measures with classical lexical-distributional measures—in particular, frequency counts and form similarity measures—to predict lexical decision latencies when a complete morphological segmentation of masked primes is or is not possible. Data derive from a re-analysis of a large subset of decision latencies from the English Lexicon Project, as well as from the results of two new masked priming studies. Results demonstrate the superiority of discrimination-based predictors over lexical-distributional predictors alone, across both the simple and primed lexical decision tasks. Comparable priming after masked corner and cornea type primes, across two experiments, fails to support early obligatory segmentation into morphemes as predicted by the morpho-orthographic account of reading. Results fit well with ndl theory, which, in conformity with Word and Paradigm theory, rejects the morpheme as a relevant unit of analysis. Furthermore, results indicate that readers with greater spelling proficiency and larger vocabularies make better use of orthographic priors and handle lexical competition more efficiently. PMID:28235015

  8. Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD)

    SciTech Connect

    Gasperikova, Erika; Smith, J. Torquil; Morrison, H. Frank; Becker, Alex

    2007-01-01

    The Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD) is an optimally designed active electromagnetic system that not only detects but also characterizes UXO. The system incorporates three orthogonal transmitters and eight pairs of differenced receivers. it has two modes of operation: (1) search mode, in which BUD moves along a profile and exclusively detects targets in its vicinity, providing target depth and horizontal location, and (2) discrimination mode, in which BUD, stationary above a target, from a single position, determines three discriminating polarizability responses together with the object location and orientation. The performance of the system is governed by a target size-depth curve. Maximum detection depth is 1.5 m. While UXO objects have a single major polarizability coincident with the long axis of the object and two equal transverse polarizabilities, scrap metal has three different principal polarizabilities. The results clearly show that there are very clear distinctions between symmetric intact UXO and irregular scrap metal, and that BUD can resolve the intrinsic polarizabilities of the target. The field survey at the Yuma Proving Ground in Arizona showed excellent results within the predicted size-depth range.

  9. Symmetry impedes symmetry discrimination.

    PubMed

    Tjan, Bosco S; Liu, Zili

    2005-12-16

    Objects in the world, natural and artificial alike, are often bilaterally symmetric. The visual system is likely to take advantage of this regularity to encode shapes for efficient object recognition. The nature of encoding a symmetric shape, and of encoding any departure from it, is therefore an important matter in visual perception. We addressed this issue of shape encoding empirically, noting that a particular encoding scheme necessarily leads to a specific profile of sensitivity in perceptual discriminations. We studied symmetry discrimination using human faces and random dots. Each face stimulus was a frontal view of a three-dimensional (3-D) face model. The 3-D face model was a linearly weighted average (a morph) between the model of an original face and that of the corresponding mirror face. Using this morphing technique to vary the degree of asymmetry, we found that, for faces and analogously generated random-dot patterns alike, symmetry discrimination was worst when the stimuli were nearly symmetric, in apparent opposition to almost all studies in the literature. We analyzed the previous work and reconciled the old and new results using a generic model with a simple nonlinearity. By defining asymmetry as the minimal difference between the left and right halves of an object, we found that the visual system was disproportionately more sensitive to larger departures from symmetry than to smaller ones. We further demonstrated that our empirical and modeling results were consistent with Weber-Fechner's and Stevens's laws.

  10. Workplace discrimination and cancer.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Maureen A; Fabian, Ellen; Hurley, Jessica E; McMahon, Brian T; West, Steven L

    2007-01-01

    Data from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Integrated Mission System database were analyzed with specific reference to allegations of workplace discrimination filed by individuals with cancer under ADA Title One. These 6,832 allegations, filed between July 27, 1992 and September 30, 2003, were compared to 167,798 allegations from a general disability population on the following dimensions: type of workplace discrimination; demographic characteristics of the charging parties (CPs); the industry designation, location, and size of employers; and the outcome or resolution of EEOC investigations. Results showed allegations derived from CPs with cancer were more likely than those in the general disability population to include issues involving discharge, terms and conditions of employment, lay-off, wages, and demotion. Compared to the general disability group, CPs with cancer were more likely to be female, older, and White. Allegations derived from CPs with cancer were also more likely to be filed against smaller employers (15-100 workers) or those in service industries. Finally, the resolution of allegations by CPs with cancer were more likely to be meritorious than those filed from the general disability population; that is, actual discrimination is more likely to have occurred.

  11. Terminal context in context-sensitive grammars.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Book, R. V.

    1972-01-01

    Investigation of the conditions whereunder context-sensitive grammars generate context-free languages. The obtained results indicate that, if every noncontext-free rewriting rule of a context-sensitive grammar has as left context a string of terminal symbols and the left context is at least as long as the right context, then the language generated is context-free. Likewise, if every noncontext-free rewriting rule of a context-sensitive grammar has strings of terminal symbols as left and right contexts, then the language generated is also context-free.

  12. The effects of acute nicotine on contextual safety discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Kutlu, Munir G; Oliver, Chicora; Gould, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), may be related to an inability to distinguish safe versus threatening environments and to extinguish fear memories. Given the high rate of cigarette smoking in patients with PTSD, as well as the recent finding that an acute dose of nicotine impairs extinction of contextual fear memory, we conducted a series of experiments to investigate the effect of acute nicotine in an animal model of contextual safety discrimination. Following saline or nicotine (at 0.0275, 0.045, 0.09 and 0.18 mg/kg) administration, C57BL/6J mice were trained in a contextual discrimination paradigm, in which the subjects received presentations of conditioned stimuli (CS) that co-terminated with a foot-shock in one context (context A (CXA)) and only CS presentations without foot-shock in a different context (context B (CXB)). Therefore, CXA was designated as the ‘dangerous context’, whereas CXB was designated as the ‘safe context’. Our results suggested that saline-treated animals showed a strong discrimination between dangerous and safe contexts, while acute nicotine dose-dependently impaired contextual safety discrimination (Experiment 1). Furthermore, our results demonstrate that nicotine-induced impairment of contextual safety discrimination learning was not a result of increased generalized freezing (Experiment 2) or contingent on the common CS presentations in both contexts (Experiment 3). Finally, our results show that increasing the temporal gap between CXA and CXB during training abolished the impairing effects of nicotine (Experiment 4). The findings of this study may help link nicotine exposure to the safety learning deficits seen in anxiety disorder and PTSD patients. PMID:25271215

  13. Perceptual learning in maze discriminations.

    PubMed

    Trobalon, J B; Sansa, J; Chamizo, V D; Mackintosh, N J

    1991-11-01

    In Experiment 1, rats were trained on a discrimination between rubber- and sandpaper-covered arms of a maze after one group had been pre-exposed to these intra-maze cues. Pre-exposure facilitated subsequent discrimination learning, unless the discrimination was made easier by adding further discriminative stimuli, when it now significantly retarded learning. In Experiment 2, rats were trained on an extra-maze spatial discrimination, again after one group, but not another, had been pre-exposed to the extra-maze landmarks. Here too, pre-exposure facilitated subsequent discrimination learning, unless the discrimination was made substantially easier by arranging that the two arms between which rats had to choose were always separated by 135 degrees. The results of both experiments can be explained by supposing that perceptual learning depends on the presence of features common to S+ and S-.

  14. Marketing information: The technical report as product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoher, F. F.; Pinelli, T. E.

    1981-01-01

    Technical reports constitute a product, the primary means for communicating the results of research to the user. The Langley scientific and technical information (STI) review and evaluation project undertook a review of the technical report as an effective product for information communication. Style manuals describing theory and practice in technical report preparation; publication manuals covering such factors as design, layout, and type style; and copies of technical reports were obtained from industrial, academic, governmental, and research organizations. Based on an analysis of this material, criteria will be established for the report components, for the relationship of the components within the report context, and for the overall report organization. The criteria will be used as bench marks and compared with the publication standards currently used to prepare NASA technical reports.

  15. Temporal Context, Preference, and Resistance to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podlesnik, Christopher A.; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina; Thrailkill, Eric A.; Shahan, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    According to behavioral momentum theory, preference and relative resistance to change in concurrent chains schedules are correlated and reflect the relative conditioned value of discriminative stimuli. In the present study, we explore the generality of this relation by manipulating the temporal context within a concurrent-chains procedure through…

  16. Perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms among immigrant-origin adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Claudius, Milena

    2013-07-01

    Although discrimination has been found to contribute to psychological distress among immigrant populations, there are few studies that have examined the relationship between racial and ethnic discrimination in the school setting among foreign-born immigrant and U.S.-born immigrant-origin adolescents. This study examined the relationship between perceived discrimination by adults and peers in the school setting and depressive symptoms in a sample (N = 95) of racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents (13 to 19 years of age) attending an urban high school. We examined the relation between perceived discrimination and depressive symptomology across gender and nativity status (foreign born vs. U.S. born), and the potential moderating role of ethnic identity and social support. Consistent with previous research, girls reported higher levels of depressive symptomology than boys, although the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms was significant for both boys and girls. Perceived discrimination by adults and by peers at school was positively related to depressive symptoms for U.S.-born adolescents. For U.S.-born adolescents, ethnic identity mitigated the negative effects of perceived adult discrimination on depressive symptoms. However, ethnic identity did not moderate the relationship between perceived peer discrimination and depressive symptoms. Social support did not moderate the relationship between adult and peer discrimination and depressive symptoms for either foreign-born or U.S.-born adolescents. The findings support previous research concerning the immigrant paradox and highlight the importance of context in the relationship between perceived discrimination and mental health. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed.

  17. Context Aware Middleware Architectures: Survey and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Eckert, Martina; Martinez, José-Fernán; Rubio, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    Context aware applications, which can adapt their behaviors to changing environments, are attracting more and more attention. To simplify the complexity of developing applications, context aware middleware, which introduces context awareness into the traditional middleware, is highlighted to provide a homogeneous interface involving generic context management solutions. This paper provides a survey of state-of-the-art context aware middleware architectures proposed during the period from 2009 through 2015. First, a preliminary background, such as the principles of context, context awareness, context modelling, and context reasoning, is provided for a comprehensive understanding of context aware middleware. On this basis, an overview of eleven carefully selected middleware architectures is presented and their main features explained. Then, thorough comparisons and analysis of the presented middleware architectures are performed based on technical parameters including architectural style, context abstraction, context reasoning, scalability, fault tolerance, interoperability, service discovery, storage, security & privacy, context awareness level, and cloud-based big data analytics. The analysis shows that there is actually no context aware middleware architecture that complies with all requirements. Finally, challenges are pointed out as open issues for future work. PMID:26307988

  18. Context Aware Middleware Architectures: Survey and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Eckert, Martina; Martinez, José-Fernán; Rubio, Gregorio

    2015-08-20

    Context aware applications, which can adapt their behaviors to changing environments, are attracting more and more attention. To simplify the complexity of developing applications, context aware middleware, which introduces context awareness into the traditional middleware, is highlighted to provide a homogeneous interface involving generic context management solutions. This paper provides a survey of state-of-the-art context aware middleware architectures proposed during the period from 2009 through 2015. First, a preliminary background, such as the principles of context, context awareness, context modelling, and context reasoning, is provided for a comprehensive understanding of context aware middleware. On this basis, an overview of eleven carefully selected middleware architectures is presented and their main features explained. Then, thorough comparisons and analysis of the presented middleware architectures are performed based on technical parameters including architectural style, context abstraction, context reasoning, scalability, fault tolerance, interoperability, service discovery, storage, security & privacy, context awareness level, and cloud-based big data analytics. The analysis shows that there is actually no context aware middleware architecture that complies with all requirements. Finally, challenges are pointed out as open issues for future work.

  19. The HFEA in context.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    While the regulatory role of the HFEA, its independence and its shortcomings are debated in the context of a fiscal economic crisis, the larger sociological importance of the Authority may be overlooked. Harder to calculate than its annual budget and more elusive than its technical remit as a licensing body, the cultural value of the HFEA as a historical and symbolic entity that was born out of a pioneering debate unique to the UK must be included in a discussion of its future role. Against its perceived shortcomings as an expensive and outdated quango is the importance of the Authority as a public instrument for enhancing the future of translational bioscience. From this point of view, the HFEA is crucial not only to ensuring the successful realization of a domestic bioscience agenda but also to protecting the international reputation of UK Plc as a best-practice model of publicly supported bioinnovation.

  20. Improved sleep-wake and behavior discrimination using MEMS accelerometers.

    PubMed

    Sunderam, Sridhar; Chernyy, Nick; Peixoto, Nathalia; Mason, Jonathan P; Weinstein, Steven L; Schiff, Steven J; Gluckman, Bruce J

    2007-07-30

    State of vigilance is determined by behavioral observations and electrophysiological activity. Here, we improve automatic state of vigilance discrimination by combining head acceleration with EEG measures. We incorporated biaxial dc-sensitive microelectromechanical system (MEMS) accelerometers into head-mounted preamplifiers in rodents. Epochs (15s) of behavioral video and EEG data formed training sets for the following states: Slow Wave Sleep, Rapid Eye Movement Sleep, Quiet Wakefulness, Feeding or Grooming, and Exploration. Multivariate linear discriminant analysis of EEG features with and without accelerometer features was used to classify behavioral state. A broad selection of EEG feature sets based on recent literature on state discrimination in rodents was tested. In all cases, inclusion of head acceleration significantly improved the discriminative capability. Our approach offers a novel methodology for determining the behavioral context of EEG in real time, and has potential application in automatic sleep-wake staging and in neural prosthetic applications for movement disorders and epileptic seizures.

  1. Bullying and discrimination experiences among Korean-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jin Y; D'Antonio, Emily; Son, Haein; Kim, Seung-A; Kim, Seong-A; Park, Yeddi

    2011-10-01

    The bullying experiences of Korean-American adolescents (N = 295) were explored in relation to discrimination and mental health outcomes. Bullying experiences were assessed by the Bully Survey (Swearer, 2005), discrimination by the Perceived Ethnic and Racial Discrimination Scale (Way, 1997) and depression by the Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression Scale (CES-D). Those who reported being bullied (31.5%) as well as those who reported both being bullied and bullying others (15.9%) experienced a higher level of depression, which was elevated beyond the clinically significant level of CES-D. The results of a LISREL model suggest that the experiences of bullying among Korean/Asian-American adolescents and their related mental health issues need to be addressed in a comprehensive context of their discrimination experiences, acculturation, family and school environments.

  2. Improved Sleep-Wake and Behavior Discrimination Using MEMS Accelerometers

    PubMed Central

    Sunderam, Sridhar; Chernyy, Nick; Peixoto, Nathalia; Mason, Jonathan P.; Weinstein, Steven L.; Schiff, Steven J.; Gluckman, Bruce J.

    2007-01-01

    State of vigilance is determined by behavioral observations and electrophysiological activity. Here, we improve automatic state of vigilance discrimination by combining head acceleration with EEG measures. We incorporated biaxial DC-sensitive microelectromechanical system (MEMS) accelerometers into head-mounted preamplifiers in rodents. Epochs (15 s) of behavioral video and EEG data formed training sets for the following states: Slow Wave Sleep, Rapid Eye Movement Sleep, Quiet Wakefulness, Feeding or Grooming, and Exploration. Multivariate linear discriminant analysis of EEG features with and without accelerometer features was used to classify behavioral state. A broad selection of EEG feature sets based on recent literature on state discrimination in rodents was tested. In all cases, inclusion of head acceleration significantly improved the discriminative capability. Our approach offers a novel methodology for determining the behavioral context of EEG in real time, and has potential application in automatic sleep-wake staging and in neural prosthetic applications for movement disorders and epileptic seizures. PMID:17481736

  3. Acquisition of social referencing via discrimination training in infants.

    PubMed

    Pelaez, Martha; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Gewirtz, Jacob L

    2012-01-01

    This experiment investigated social referencing as a form of discriminative learning in which maternal facial expressions signaled the consequences of the infant's behavior in an ambiguous context. Eleven 4- and 5-month-old infants and their mothers participated in a discrimination-training procedure using an ABAB design. Different consequences followed infants' reaching toward an unfamiliar object depending on the particular maternal facial expression. During the training phases, a joyful facial expression signaled positive reinforcement for the infant reaching for an ambiguous object, whereas a fearful expression signaled aversive stimulation for the same response. Baseline and extinction conditions were implemented as controls. Mothers' expressions acquired control over infants' approach behavior for all participants. All participants ceased to show discriminated responding during the extinction phase. The results suggest that 4- and 5-month-old infants can learn social referencing via discrimination training.

  4. Technical Writing for Software Engineers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    be the chief characteristic, as in records of scientific research. In technical writing, factuality is considered the primary concern; writers select...information to meet the needs of the audience. 1.4 Disciplinary Context Knowledge of a discipline and discourse communities are primary issues in...identifying their primary reader(s) and determining what other readers might use the document. They need to analyze the readers’ purpose for reading and to

  5. Resilience against Discrimination: Ethnic Identity and Other-Group Orientation as Protective Factors for Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Richard M.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the resilience of 84 Korean American college students in the context of perceived ethnic discrimination. Two cultural resources, multidimensional ethnic identity and other-group orientation, were hypothesized as protective factors that moderate the negative effects of discrimination. Only 1 aspect of ethnic identity was…

  6. Discrimination Concerns and Expectations as Explanations for Gendered Socialization in African American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varner, Fatima; Mandara, Jelani

    2013-01-01

    Discrimination concerns and parental expectations were examined as mediators of the relations between gender and parenting practices among 796 African American mothers of 11- to 14-year-olds from the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study. Mothers of sons had more concerns about racial discrimination impacting their adolescents' future,…

  7. Discrimination Concerns and Expectations as Explanations for Gendered Socialization in African American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varner, Fatima; Mandara, Jelani

    2013-01-01

    Discrimination concerns and parental expectations were examined as mediators of the relations between gender and parenting practices among 796 African American mothers of 11- to 14-year-olds from the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study. Mothers of sons had more concerns about racial discrimination impacting their adolescents' future,…

  8. Discrimination, Human Capital, and Black-White Employment. Evidence from Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulman, Steven

    1987-01-01

    Recent labor market weakness suggests that sustained employment discrimination in the context of restrictions on wage bias explains black-white employment gaps. The hypothesis is assessed using a cross-sectional model employing 1980 census summary data. Results indicate that forms of discrimination have undergone a compositional shift. (Author/CH)

  9. Extinction and Renewal of Pavlovian Modulation in Human Sequential Feature Positive Discrimination Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeyens, Frank; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Beckers, Tom; Hermans, Dirk; Kerkhof, Ineke; De Ceulaer, Annick

    2005-01-01

    Using a conditioned suppression task, we investigated extinction and renewal of Pavlovian modulation in human sequential Feature Positive (FP) discrimination learning. In Experiment 1, in context a participants were first trained on two FP discriminations, X[right arrow]A+/A- and Y[right arrow]B+/B-. Extinction treatment was administered in the…

  10. Extinction and Renewal of Pavlovian Modulation in Human Sequential Feature Positive Discrimination Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeyens, Frank; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Beckers, Tom; Hermans, Dirk; Kerkhof, Ineke; De Ceulaer, Annick

    2005-01-01

    Using a conditioned suppression task, we investigated extinction and renewal of Pavlovian modulation in human sequential Feature Positive (FP) discrimination learning. In Experiment 1, in context a participants were first trained on two FP discriminations, X[right arrow]A+/A- and Y[right arrow]B+/B-. Extinction treatment was administered in the…

  11. A Study of Musical Loudness Discrimination of Three- to Five-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Darhyl S.; Ramsey, Jonny H.

    An investigation was made of the effects of age and sex on preschool children's discrimination of intensity in musical contexts. Subjects included 92 children ranging in age from 37 to 70 months. A total of 47 females and 45 males participated in the study. To determine preschoolers' loudness discrimination abilities, a new test was designed: The…

  12. The Antecedents and Consequences of Racial/Ethnic Discrimination during Adolescence: Does the Source of Discrimination Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Aprile D.; Graham, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the precursors and consequences of discrimination for 876 Latino, African American, and Asian American adolescents (M[subscript age] = 16.9 years, SD = 0.43). The race/ethnic characteristics of schools and neighborhoods influenced adolescents' perceptions of the race/ethnic climates of these contexts. In turn,…

  13. The Antecedents and Consequences of Racial/Ethnic Discrimination during Adolescence: Does the Source of Discrimination Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Aprile D.; Graham, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the precursors and consequences of discrimination for 876 Latino, African American, and Asian American adolescents (M[subscript age] = 16.9 years, SD = 0.43). The race/ethnic characteristics of schools and neighborhoods influenced adolescents' perceptions of the race/ethnic climates of these contexts. In turn,…

  14. Future directions in research on institutional and interpersonal discrimination and children's health.

    PubMed

    Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Rosenfeld, Lindsay E; Hardy, Erin; McArdle, Nancy; Osypuk, Theresa L

    2013-10-01

    Research evidence indicates that 2 forms of racial discrimination-perceived interpersonal discrimination and racial/ethnic residential segregation (a form of institutional discrimination)-may influence children's health and disparities. Although research on these 2 forms of discrimination and health has primarily focused on adults, smaller bodies of work have documented that perceived interpersonal discrimination and segregation have a negative effect on infants' health, and that perceived interpersonal discrimination may negatively affect children's mental health. Three directions for research are (1) incorporating a life-course perspective into studies of discrimination and children's health, (2) linking residential segregation with geography-of-opportunity conceptual frameworks and measures, and (3) considering residential segregation along with segregation in other contexts that influence children's health (e.g., schools).

  15. Octopuses (Octopus bimaculoides) and cuttlefishes (Sepia pharaonis, S. officinalis) can conditionally discriminate.

    PubMed

    Hvorecny, Lauren M; Grudowski, Jessica L; Blakeslee, Carrie J; Simmons, Tiffany L; Roy, Paula R; Brooks, Jennifer A; Hanner, Rachel M; Beigel, Marie E; Karson, Miranda A; Nichols, Rachel H; Holm, Johanna B; Boal, Jean Geary

    2007-10-01

    In complex navigation using landmarks, an animal must discriminate between potential cues and show context (condition) sensitivity. Such conditional discrimination is considered a form of complex learning and has been associated primarily with vertebrates. We tested the hypothesis that octopuses and cuttlefish are capable of conditional discrimination. Subjects were trained in two maze configurations (the conditions) in which they were required to select one of two particular escape routes within each maze (the discrimination). Conditional discrimination could be demonstrated by selecting the correct escape route in each maze. Six of ten mud-flat octopuses (Octopus bimaculoides), 6 of 13 pharaoh cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis), and one of four common cuttlefish (S. officinalis) demonstrated conditional discrimination by successfully solving both mazes. These experiments demonstrate that cephalopods are capable of conditional discrimination and extend the limits of invertebrate complex learning.

  16. Discriminative sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Keith

    2008-10-01

    The typical human vision system is able to discriminate between a million or so different colours, yet is able to do this with a chromatic sensor array that is fundamentally based on three different receptors, sensitive to light in the blue, green and red portions of the visible spectrum. Some biological organisms have extended capabilities, providing vision in the ultra-violet, whilst others, such as some species of mantis shrimp reportedly have sixteen different types of photo-receptors. In general the biological imaging sensor takes a minimalist approach to sensing its environment, whereas current optical engineering approaches follow a 'brute' force solution where the challenge of hyperspectral imaging is addressed by various schemes for spatial and spectral dispersion of radiation across existing detector arrays. This results in a problem for others to solve in the processing and communication of the generated hypercube of data. This paper explores the parallels between some of those biological systems and the various design concepts being developed for discriminative imaging, drawing on activity supported by the UK Electro-Magnetic Remote Sensing Defence Technology Centre (EMRS DTC).

  17. Ambiguity and context processing in human predictive learning.

    PubMed

    Callejas-Aguilera, José E; Rosas, Juan M

    2010-10-01

    Two experiments explored the role of ambiguity on context processing by using relative stimulus validity designs in human predictive learning. Two groups of participants were trained with 2 stimulus compounds (XY and XZ). In Group TD (true discrimination), compound XY was always followed by the outcome, whereas compound XZ was never followed by it. In Group PD (pseudodiscrimination) the presentation of each compound was followed by the outcome in half of the trials. Experiment 1 found that pseudodiscrimination facilitated context dependency of reliable predictors regardless of whether they were trained in the same context in which pseudodiscrimination took place or in an alternative context in which true discrimination was conducted. Experiment 2 found context dependency of reliable predictors trained and tested in PD contexts, suggesting that the ambiguity in the meaning of the cues produced by pseudodiscrimination training is at least partially responsible for the context switch effects found in ambiguous situations in human predictive learning.

  18. Discrimination and Chinese fertility in Canada.

    PubMed

    Tang, Z; Trovato, F

    1998-01-01

    The study examines Chinese fertility in Canada in the context of minority-status and fertility. Chinese-Canadians are compared with British-Canadians, who are considered in this analysis as the majority group. The study is unique in three ways. First, we argue that discrimination brings a minority group not only psychological insecurity but also social-economic insecurity, which can be measured by Chinese husbands' economic status relative to the British. Second, we analyze the relationship between discrimination against the Chinese at the social class level and Chinese fertility behavior at the individual level, which has been ignored by most previous studies. Third, we describe "insecurities" effects to explain the fertility behavior of the Chinese across social classes, including the lower classes to which many researchers believe the minority status hypothesis is not applicable. We conclude that discrimination variations over social classes combined with normative influence are a major factor in causing class fertility differentials between the Chinese and the British in Canada.

  19. Fixational saccades during grating detection and discrimination.

    PubMed

    Spotorno, Sara; Masson, Guillaume S; Montagnini, Anna

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the patterns of fixational saccades in human observers performing two classical perceptual tasks: grating detection and discrimination. First, participants were asked to detect a vertical or tilted grating with one of three spatial frequencies and one of four luminance contrast levels. In the second experiment, participants had to discriminate the spatial frequency of two supra-threshold gratings. The gratings were always embedded in additive, high- or low-contrast pink noise. We observed that the patterns of fixational saccades were highly idiosyncratic among participants. Moreover, during the grating detection task, the amplitude and the number of saccades were inversely correlated with stimulus visibility. We did not find a systematic relationship between saccade parameters and grating frequency, apart from a slight decrease of saccade amplitude during grating discrimination with higher spatial frequencies. No consistent changes in the number and amplitude of fixational saccades with performance accuracy were reported. Surprisingly, during grating detection, saccade number and amplitude were similar in grating-with-noise and noise-only displays. Grating orientation did not affect substantially saccade direction in either task. The results challenge the idea that, when analyzing low-level spatial properties of visual stimuli, fixational saccades can be adapted in order to extract task-relevant information optimally. Rather, saccadic patterns seem to be overall modulated by task context, stimulus visibility and individual variability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Discrimination against Muslim American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Aroian, Karen J

    2012-06-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This descriptive qualitative study complements the few existing studies on Muslim American adolescents by obtaining in-depth description of the discrimination they encounter. The sample was 14 Muslim American adolescents who participated in one of two gender-specific focus groups about their discrimination experiences. Findings identified school settings as rife with discrimination toward Muslims, portrayed Muslim girls as at risk for harassment by strangers in public places, and illustrated how Muslim youth cope with discrimination. The study findings sensitize school nurses to the nature of the problem and provide direction for intervention.

  1. Interpreting past religious discrimination today.

    PubMed

    Schumm, Walter R

    2003-10-01

    Much of modern western law now presupposes opposition to discrimination based on race, religion, sex, national origin, and other factors. However, ancient religious Scriptures may have sanctioned certain types of discrimination. Whether those who are inclined to accept literal interpretations of their Scriptures will condone certain forms of discrimination could be evaluated to contrast the effects of modernization versus religious indoctrination on various kinds of prejudice.

  2. [Seeing more : Technical innovations in regional anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Wiesmann, T; Steinfeldt, T; Volk, T; Schwemmer, U; Kessler, P; Wulf, H

    2014-11-01

    Visualization and verification are key factors since the implementation of ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia. This article reviews and discusses newer technical innovations in regional anesthesia with regard to optimization of needle guidance, improvements in needle visibility, technical improvements in ultrasound techniques and innovative technologies in regional anesthesia. Clinically available applications are presented as well as experimental tools and techniques with a potential for clinical implementation in the future. Mechanical needle guides are used to improve alignment of needle axis and ultrasound beam axis. Compound imaging technology improves needle visibility in steep needle insertion angles and is already implemented in daily clinical practice. Sonoelastography improves tissue discrimination and detection of small amounts of fluids. Benefits of 3D and 4D ultrasound in regional anesthesia are discussed as well as experimental tools for tissue discrimination, such as optical reflection spectrophotometry.

  3. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Discriminative components of data.

    PubMed

    Peltonen, Jaakko; Kaski, Samuel

    2005-01-01

    A simple probabilistic model is introduced to generalize classical linear discriminant analysis (LDA) in finding components that are informative of or relevant for data classes. The components maximize the predictability of the class distribution which is asymptotically equivalent to 1) maximizing mutual information with the classes, and 2) finding principal components in the so-called learning or Fisher metrics. The Fisher metric measures only distances that are relevant to the classes, that is, distances that cause changes in the class distribution. The components have applications in data exploration, visualization, and dimensionality reduction. In empirical experiments, the method outperformed, in addition to more classical methods, a Renyi entropy-based alternative while having essentially equivalent computational cost.

  5. Wepman Test of Auditory Discrimination: What Does it Discriminate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Helen Warren

    1979-01-01

    This study investigated auditory discrimination as a function of ethnic group membership within the same socioeconimic status (SES). Subjects were 126 six-year-old students attending schools in a lower SES community. Contrary to previous findings, there were no differences between the groups on the Wepman Test of Auditory Discrimination. (Author)

  6. The perceptual magnet effect reflects phonetic context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Sarah; Barrett Jones, Sarah

    2004-05-01

    Two experiments demonstrate that the perceptual magnet effect is context sensitive. In experiment 1a, 24 participants rated goodness of synthetic /u/ in isolation (ooh) and in two consonantal contexts, /lu/, /ju/ (Lou, you), with nine versions per word, varying in F2 frequency. Their most (prototypical) and least (nonprototypical) preferred choices reflected expected differences between words, and individual differences within words. Experiment 1b demonstrated standard perceptual magnet effects for prototype and nonprototype /u/ in the three words. Unlike previous work, each participant discriminated his/her own prototype and nonprototype from experiment 1a, rather than the group mean. Experiment 2a replicated 1a with 40 new participants. Experiment 2b compared discrimination around participants' prototypical F2 frequency for /u/ in one word (original) with discrimination around that same frequency in another word (transferred). Different original/transferred sets were heard by four groups (ten participants each): /u/ and /lu/; /lu/ and /u/; /ju/ and /u/; /ju/ and /lu/. Discrimination (d') near the prototype was poorer for original than transferred contexts [for the four comparisons, t(9) ranged between 2.43-3.49, p<0.025-0.005]. Thus, the perceptual magnet effect is syllable specific: the vowel prototype for one word need not generalize to another. Implications for perceptual coherence and phonological representation are discussed.

  7. Unravelling fears of genetic discrimination: an exploratory study of Dutch HCM families in an era of genetic non-discrimination acts.

    PubMed

    Geelen, Els; Horstman, Klasien; Marcelis, Carlo L M; Doevendans, Pieter A; Van Hoyweghen, Ine

    2012-10-01

    Since the 1990s, many countries in Europe and the United States have enacted genetic non-discrimination legislation to prevent people from deferring genetic tests for fear that insurers or employers would discriminate against them based on that information. Although evidence for genetic discrimination exists, little is known about the origins and backgrounds of fears of discrimination and how it affects decisions for uptake of genetic testing. The aim of this article is to gain a better understanding of these fears and its possible impact on the uptake of testing by studying the case of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). In a qualitative study, we followed six Dutch extended families involved in genetic testing for HCM for three-and-a-half years. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 57 members of these families. Based on the narratives of the families, we suggest that fears of discrimination have to be situated in the broader social and life-course context of family and kin. We describe the processes in which families developed meaningful interpretations of genetic discrimination and how these interpretations affected family members' decisions to undergo genetic testing. Our findings show that fears of genetic discrimination do not so much stem from the opportunity of genetic testing but much more from earlier experiences of discrimination of diseased family members. These results help identify the possible limitations of genetic non-discrimination regulations and provide direction to clinicians supporting their clients as they confront issues of genetic testing and genetic discrimination.

  8. Children's Racial Categorization in Context

    PubMed Central

    Pauker, Kristin; Williams, Amanda; Steele, Jennifer R.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to discriminate visually based on race emerges early in infancy: 3-month-olds can perceptually differentiate faces by race and 6-month-olds can perceptually categorize faces by race. Between ages 6 and 8 years, children can sort others into racial groups. But to what extent are these abilities influenced by context? In this article, we review studies on children's racial categorization and discuss how our conclusions are affected by how we ask the questions (i.e., our methods and stimuli), where we ask them (i.e., the diversity of the child's surrounding environment), and whom we ask (i.e., the diversity of the children we study). Taken together, we suggest that despite a developmental readiness to categorize others by race, the use of race as a psychologically salient basis for categorization is far from inevitable and is shaped largely by the experimental setting and the greater cultural context. PMID:27110279

  9. Reader-Centered Technical Writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Technical writing is an essential part of professional communication and in recent years it has shifted from a genre-based approach. Formerly, technical writing primarily focused on generating templates of documents and sometimes it was creating or reproducing traditional forms with minor modifications and updates. Now, technical writing looks at the situations surrounding the need to write. This involves deep thinking about the goals and objectives of the project on hand. Furthermore, one observes that it is very important for any participatory process to have the full support of management. This support needs to be well understood and believed by employees. Professional writing may be very persuasive in some cases. When presented in the appropriate context, technical writing can persuade a company to improve work conditions ensuring employee safety and timely production. However, one must recognize that lot of professional writing still continues to make use of reports and instruction manuals. Normally, technical and professional writing addresses four aspects. Objective: The need for generating a given professionally written technical document and the goals the document is expected to achieve and accomplish. Clientele: The clientele who will utilize the technical document. This may include the people in the organization. This may also include "unintended readers." Customers: The population that may be affected by the content of the technical document generated. This includes the stakeholders who will be influenced. Environment: The background in which the document is created. Also, the nature of the situation that warranted the generation of the document. Swiss Psychologist Jean Piaget's view of Learning focuses on three aspects. The author likes to extend Jean Piaget's ideas to students, who are asked to prepare and submit Reader-Centered Technical Writing reports and exercises. Assimilation: Writers may benefit specifically, by assimilating a new object into

  10. Perceived weight discrimination and obesity.

    PubMed

    Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index≥30; BMI) by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female) completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.58-4.08) and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.06-4.97) than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education) and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race) were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity.

  11. Racial/Ethnic Workplace Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Chavez, Laura J.; Ornelas, India J.; Lyles, Courtney R.; Williams, Emily C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Experiences of discrimination are associated with tobacco and alcohol use, and work is a common setting where individuals experience racial/ethnic discrimination. Few studies have evaluated the association between workplace discrimination and these behaviors, and none have described associations across race/ethnicity. Purpose To examine the association between workplace discrimination and tobacco and alcohol use in a large, multistate sample of U.S. adult respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey Reactions to Race Module (2004–2010). Methods Multivariable logistic regression analyses evaluated cross-sectional associations between self-reported workplace discrimination and tobacco (current and daily smoking) and alcohol use (any and heavy use, and binge drinking) among all participants and stratified by race/ethnicity, adjusting for relevant covariates. Data were analyzed in 2013. Results Among respondents, 70,080 completed the workplace discrimination measure. Discrimination was more common among black non-Hispanic (21%), Hispanic (12%), and other race respondents (11%) than white non-Hispanics (4%) (p<0.001). In the total sample, discrimination was associated with current smoking (risk ratio [RR]=1.32, 95% CI=1.19, 1.47), daily smoking (RR=1.41, 95% CI=1.24, 1.61), and heavy drinking (RR=1.11, 95% CI=1.01, 1.22), but not binge or any drinking. Among Hispanics, workplace discrimination was associated with increased heavy and binge drinking, but not any alcohol use or smoking. Workplace discrimination among black non-Hispanics and white Non-Hispanics was associated with increased current and daily smoking, but not alcohol outcomes. Conclusions Workplace discrimination is common, associated with smoking and alcohol use, and merits further policy attention given the impact of these behaviors on morbidity and mortality. PMID:25441232

  12. Perceptions of Discrimination during Downsizing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkey, Linda Kathryn

    1993-01-01

    Demonstrates that perceptions of ethnic discrimination during layoffs are moderately correlated with perceptions of selection fairness and information access during the layoff process. Shows that, in the company studied, both minority and majority ethnic group members felt equally discriminated against. (SR)

  13. Standardized Discriminant Coefficients: A Rejoinder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Ralph O.; Cozad, James B.

    1993-01-01

    Although comments of D.J. Nordlund and R. Nagel are welcomed, their arguments are not sufficient to accept the recommendation of using total variance estimates to standardize canonical discriminant function coefficients. If standardized coefficients are used to help interpret a discriminant analysis, pooled within-group variance estimates should…

  14. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  15. Gender Discrimination in Jessica's Career.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Ellen Piel

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on the sexual harassment and other gender-related difficulties faced by a Chinese-American woman. Profiles her encounters with gender discrimination and how it hindered career advancement and led to professional isolation. Relates how this case study can be used to sensitize workers to gender discrimination. (RJM)

  16. Addressing Discrimination in School Matters!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    Every student has the right to an education free from discrimination that provides high-quality, equitable opportunities to learn. Unfortunately, sometimes individuals or systems may act in ways that violate this right. Discrimination occurs when people are treated unequally or less favorably than others because of some real or perceived…

  17. Vibrotactile Discrimination of Musical Timbre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Frank A.; Ammirante, Paolo; Fels, Deborah I.

    2012-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the ability to discriminate between musical timbres based on vibrotactile stimulation alone. Participants made same/different judgments on pairs of complex waveforms presented sequentially to the back through voice coils embedded in a conforming chair. Discrimination between cello, piano, and trombone tones matched…

  18. Memory Retrieval as Temporal Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gordon D. A.; Vousden, Janet I.; McCormack, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Temporal distinctiveness models of memory retrieval claim that memories are organised partly in terms of their positions along a temporal dimension, and suggest that memory retrieval involves temporal discrimination. According to such models the retrievability of memories should be related to the discriminability of their temporal distances at the…

  19. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  20. Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark C.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews developments in 2000 in the law of disability discrimination as it relates to higher education, which falls into five categories: (1) definition of a qualified individual; (2) accommodations, access, undue burden, and fundamental alteration of programs; (3) intentional discrimination, harassment, and retaliation; (4) Eleventh Amendment…

  1. Employment Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustoles, Thomas P.; Griffin, Oren R.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews court decisions related to employment discrimination in higher education. The most significant development was a series of cases affirming that Eleventh Amendment immunity from private money damage claims brought pursuant to various federal employment discrimination statutes applied to state colleges and universities. (SLD)

  2. THE HIGH COST OF DISCRIMINATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROPER, ELMO

    ON THE BASIS OF EMPLOYEE SURVEYS AND IN-PLANT RESEARCH, THE TOTAL COST OF DISCRIMINATION TO AMERICAN BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY IN ACTUAL DOLLARS IS ESTIMATED AT ROUGHLY $30 BILLION ANNUALLY. DISCRIMINATION IN INDUSTRY BEGINS AT THE HIRING GATE WHERE MINORITY GROUPS ARE REFUSED EMPLOYMENT BECAUSE OF RACE, COLOR, RELIGION, NATIONALITY, POLITICAL…

  3. Gender Discrimination in Jessica's Career.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Ellen Piel

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on the sexual harassment and other gender-related difficulties faced by a Chinese-American woman. Profiles her encounters with gender discrimination and how it hindered career advancement and led to professional isolation. Relates how this case study can be used to sensitize workers to gender discrimination. (RJM)

  4. Parameter Sensitivity for Discriminant Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Richard L.; Bryant, John L.

    1986-01-01

    The shape of the response surface associated with a discriminant analysis provides insight into the value of the derived optimal discriminant variates. A procedure for the determination of "indifference regions," presented in this article, allows the assessment of the degree of flatness of the response surface for any analysis.…

  5. Invidious Discrimination: Second Generation Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Robert J.; Dee, Paul

    1976-01-01

    Discusses school law issues dealing with various forms of invidious discrimination. Considers discrimination based on forms of involuntary association (ethnicity, economic status, primary language, and maturity) and forms of voluntary association (sexual proclivity, marital status, pregnancy and parenthood, self-expression and appearance, religion…

  6. Vibrotactile Discrimination of Musical Timbre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Frank A.; Ammirante, Paolo; Fels, Deborah I.

    2012-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the ability to discriminate between musical timbres based on vibrotactile stimulation alone. Participants made same/different judgments on pairs of complex waveforms presented sequentially to the back through voice coils embedded in a conforming chair. Discrimination between cello, piano, and trombone tones matched…

  7. THE HIGH COST OF DISCRIMINATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROPER, ELMO

    ON THE BASIS OF EMPLOYEE SURVEYS AND IN-PLANT RESEARCH, THE TOTAL COST OF DISCRIMINATION TO AMERICAN BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY IN ACTUAL DOLLARS IS ESTIMATED AT ROUGHLY $30 BILLION ANNUALLY. DISCRIMINATION IN INDUSTRY BEGINS AT THE HIRING GATE WHERE MINORITY GROUPS ARE REFUSED EMPLOYMENT BECAUSE OF RACE, COLOR, RELIGION, NATIONALITY, POLITICAL…

  8. Employment Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustoles, Thomas P.; Griffin, Oren R.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews court decisions related to employment discrimination in higher education. The most significant development was a series of cases affirming that Eleventh Amendment immunity from private money damage claims brought pursuant to various federal employment discrimination statutes applied to state colleges and universities. (SLD)

  9. Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark C.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews developments in 2000 in the law of disability discrimination as it relates to higher education, which falls into five categories: (1) definition of a qualified individual; (2) accommodations, access, undue burden, and fundamental alteration of programs; (3) intentional discrimination, harassment, and retaliation; (4) Eleventh Amendment…

  10. Variable Selection in Discriminant Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huberty, Carl J.; Mourad, Salah A.

    Methods for ordering and selecting variables for discriminant analysis in multiple group comparison or group prediction studies include: univariate Fs, stepwise analysis, learning discriminant function (LDF) variable correlations, communalities, LDF standardized coefficients, and weighted standardized coefficients. Five indices based on distance,…

  11. Price Discrimination in Academic Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Patrick; Merz, Thomas E.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of price discrimination (charging different prices to different customers for same product) for 89 academic journals in 6 disciplines reveals: incidence of price discrimination rose between 1974 and 1984, increase in mean institutional (library) subscription price exceeded increase in mean individual subscription price. Journal list…

  12. Variable Selection in Discriminant Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huberty, Carl J.; Mourad, Salah A.

    Methods for ordering and selecting variables for discriminant analysis in multiple group comparison or group prediction studies include: univariate Fs, stepwise analysis, learning discriminant function (LDF) variable correlations, communalities, LDF standardized coefficients, and weighted standardized coefficients. Five indices based on distance,…

  13. Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms Among Latina/o Adolescents of Immigrant Parents.

    PubMed

    Lopez, William D; LeBrón, Alana M W; Graham, Louis F; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is associated with negative mental health outcomes for Latina/o adolescents. While Latino/a adolescents experience discrimination from a number of sources and across contexts, little research considers how the source of discrimination and the context in which it occurs affect mental health outcomes among Latina/o children of immigrants. We examined the association between source-specific discrimination, racial or ethnic background of the source, and school ethnic context with depressive symptoms for Latina/o adolescents of immigrant parents. Using multilevel linear regression with time-varying covariates, we regressed depressive symptoms on source-specific discrimination, racial or ethnic background of the source of discrimination, and school percent Latina/o. Discrimination from teachers (β = 0.06, p < .05), students (β = 0.05, p < .05), Cubans (β = 0.19, p < .001), and Latinas/os (β = 0.19, p < .001) were positively associated with depressive symptoms. These associations were not moderated by school percent Latina/o. The findings indicate a need to reduce discrimination to improve Latina/o adolescents' mental health.

  14. Perceived discrimination and self-rated health in Europe: evidence from the European Social Survey (2010).

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Galvez, Javier; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that perceived discrimination has an impact on our physical and mental health. A relevant part of literature has highlighted the influence of discrimination based on race or ethnicity on mental and physical health outcomes. However, the influence of other types of discrimination on health has been understudied. This study is aimed to explore how different types of discrimination are related to our subjective state of health, and so to compare the intensity of these relationships in the European context. We have performed a multilevel ordered analysis on the fifth wave of the European Social Survey (ESS 2010). This dataset has 52,458 units at individual level that are grouped in 26 European countries. In this study, the dependent variable is self-rated health (SRH) that is analyzed in relationship to ten explanatory variables of perceived discrimination: color or race, nationality, religion, language, ethnic group, age, gender, sexuality, disability and others. The model identifies statistically significant differences in the effect that diverse types of perceived discrimination can generate on the self-rated health of Europeans. Specifically, this study identifies three well-defined types of perceived discrimination that can be related to poor health outcomes: (1) age discrimination; (2) disability discrimination; and (3) sexuality discrimination. In this sense, the effect on self-rated health of perceived discrimination related to aging and disabilities seems to be more relevant than other types of discrimination in the European context with a longer tradition in literature (e.g. ethnic and/or race-based). The present study shows that the relationship between perceived discrimination and health inequities in Europe are not random, but systematically distributed depending on factors such as age, sexuality and disabilities. Therefore the future orientation of EU social policies should aim to reduce the impact of these social determinants on health

  15. Unambiguous discrimination of nonorthogonal quantum states in cavity QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Assis, R. J.; Sales, J. S.; de Almeida, N. G.

    2017-09-01

    We propose an oversimplified scheme to unambiguously discriminate nonorthogonal quantum field states inside high-Q cavities. Our scheme, which is based on positive operator-valued measures (POVM) technique, uses a single three-level atom interacting resonantly with a single mode of a cavity-field and selective atomic state detectors. While the single three-level atom takes the role of the ancilla, the single cavity mode field represents the system we want to obtain information. The efficiency of our proposal is analyzed considering the nowadays achievements in the context of cavity QED. We also analyze the effect of a thermal environment to discrimination of nonorthogonal states.

  16. Graphical methods for the sensitivity analysis in discriminant analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Youngil; Anderson-Cook, Christine M.; Dae-Heung, Jang

    2015-09-30

    Similar to regression, many measures to detect influential data points in discriminant analysis have been developed. Many follow similar principles as the diagnostic measures used in linear regression in the context of discriminant analysis. Here we focus on the impact on the predicted classification posterior probability when a data point is omitted. The new method is intuitive and easily interpretative compared to existing methods. We also propose a graphical display to show the individual movement of the posterior probability of other data points when a specific data point is omitted. This enables the summaries to capture the overall pattern of the change.

  17. Graphical methods for the sensitivity analysis in discriminant analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Youngil; Anderson-Cook, Christine M.; Dae-Heung, Jang

    2015-09-30

    Similar to regression, many measures to detect influential data points in discriminant analysis have been developed. Many follow similar principles as the diagnostic measures used in linear regression in the context of discriminant analysis. Here we focus on the impact on the predicted classification posterior probability when a data point is omitted. The new method is intuitive and easily interpretative compared to existing methods. We also propose a graphical display to show the individual movement of the posterior probability of other data points when a specific data point is omitted. This enables the summaries to capture the overall pattern ofmore » the change.« less

  18. Explaining negative kin discrimination in a cooperative mammal society

    PubMed Central

    Cant, Michael A.; Sanderson, Jennifer L.; Gilchrist, Jason S.; Bell, Matthew B. V.; Hodge, Sarah J.; Johnstone, Rufus A.

    2017-01-01

    Kin selection theory predicts that, where kin discrimination is possible, animals should typically act more favorably toward closer genetic relatives and direct aggression toward less closely related individuals. Contrary to this prediction, we present data from an 18-y study of wild banded mongooses, Mungos mungo, showing that females that are more closely related to dominant individuals are specifically targeted for forcible eviction from the group, often suffering severe injury, and sometimes death, as a result. This pattern cannot be explained by inbreeding avoidance or as a response to more intense local competition among kin. Instead, we use game theory to show that such negative kin discrimination can be explained by selection for unrelated targets to invest more effort in resisting eviction. Consistent with our model, negative kin discrimination is restricted to eviction attempts of older females capable of resistance; dominants exhibit no kin discrimination when attempting to evict younger females, nor do they discriminate between more closely or less closely related young when carrying out infanticidal attacks on vulnerable infants who cannot defend themselves. We suggest that in contexts where recipients of selfish acts are capable of resistance, the usual prediction of positive kin discrimination can be reversed. Kin selection theory, as an explanation for social behavior, can benefit from much greater exploration of sequential social interactions. PMID:28439031

  19. Explaining negative kin discrimination in a cooperative mammal society.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Faye J; Cant, Michael A; Marshall, Harry H; Vitikainen, Emma I K; Sanderson, Jennifer L; Nichols, Hazel J; Gilchrist, Jason S; Bell, Matthew B V; Young, Andrew J; Hodge, Sarah J; Johnstone, Rufus A

    2017-05-16

    Kin selection theory predicts that, where kin discrimination is possible, animals should typically act more favorably toward closer genetic relatives and direct aggression toward less closely related individuals. Contrary to this prediction, we present data from an 18-y study of wild banded mongooses, Mungos mungo, showing that females that are more closely related to dominant individuals are specifically targeted for forcible eviction from the group, often suffering severe injury, and sometimes death, as a result. This pattern cannot be explained by inbreeding avoidance or as a response to more intense local competition among kin. Instead, we use game theory to show that such negative kin discrimination can be explained by selection for unrelated targets to invest more effort in resisting eviction. Consistent with our model, negative kin discrimination is restricted to eviction attempts of older females capable of resistance; dominants exhibit no kin discrimination when attempting to evict younger females, nor do they discriminate between more closely or less closely related young when carrying out infanticidal attacks on vulnerable infants who cannot defend themselves. We suggest that in contexts where recipients of selfish acts are capable of resistance, the usual prediction of positive kin discrimination can be reversed. Kin selection theory, as an explanation for social behavior, can benefit from much greater exploration of sequential social interactions.

  20. Vibrotactile discrimination of musical timbre.

    PubMed

    Russo, Frank A; Ammirante, Paolo; Fels, Deborah I

    2012-08-01

    Five experiments investigated the ability to discriminate between musical timbres based on vibrotactile stimulation alone. Participants made same/different judgments on pairs of complex waveforms presented sequentially to the back through voice coils embedded in a conforming chair. Discrimination between cello, piano, and trombone tones matched for F0, duration, and magnitude was above chance with white noise masking the sound output of the voice coils (Experiment 1), with additional masking to control for bone-conducted sound (Experiment 2), and among a group of deaf individuals (Experiment 4a). Hearing (Experiment 3) and deaf individuals (Experiment 4b) also successfully discriminated between dull and bright timbres varying only with regard to spectral centroid. We propose that, as with auditory discrimination of musical timbre, vibrotactile discrimination may involve the cortical integration of filtered output from frequency-tuned mechanoreceptors functioning as critical bands.

  1. Studies in genetic discrimination. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    We have screened 1006 respondents in a study of genetic discrimination. Analysis of these responses has produced evidence of the range of institutions engaged in genetic discrimination and demonstrates the impact of this discrimination on the respondents to the study. We have found that both ignorance and policy underlie genetic discrimination and that anti-discrimination laws are being violated.

  2. Can humans discriminate between dogs on the base of the acoustic parameters of barks?

    PubMed

    Molnár, Csaba; Pongrácz, Péter; Dóka, Antal; Miklósi, Adám

    2006-07-01

    In this study we tested the often suggested claim that people are able to recognize their dogs by their barks. Earlier studies in other species indicated that reliable discrimination between individuals cannot be made by listening to chaotically noisy vocalizations. As barking is typically such a chaotic noisy vocalization, we have hypothesized that reliable discrimination between individuals is not possible by listening to barks. In this study, playback experiments were conducted to explore (1) how accurately humans discriminate between dogs by hearing only their barks, (2) the impact of the eliciting context of calls on these discrimination performances, and (3) how much such discrimination depends on acoustic parameters (tonality and frequency of barks, and the intervals between the individual barks). Our findings were consistent with the previous studies: human performances did not pass the empirical threshold of reliable discrimination in most cases. But a significant effect of tonality was found: discrimination between individuals was more successful when listeners were listening to low harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR) barks. The contexts in which barks were recorded affected significantly the listeners' performances: if the dog barked at a stranger, listeners were able to discriminate the vocalizations better than if they were listening to sounds recorded when the dog was separated from its owner. It is rendered probable that the bark might be a more efficient communication system between humans and dogs for communicating the motivational state of an animal than for discrimination among strange individuals.

  3. Relations of pitch matching, pitch discrimination, and otoacoustic emission suppression in individuals not formally trained as musicians.

    PubMed

    Moore, Robert E; Estis, Julie M; Zhang, Fawen; Watts, Christopher; Marble, Elizabeth

    2007-06-01

    Research has yielded a relationship between pitch matching and pitch discrimination. Good pitch matchers tend to be good pitch discriminators and are often judged to be vocally talented. Otoacoustic emission suppression measures the function of the efferent auditory system which may affect accuracy for pitch matching and pitch discrimination. Formally trained musicians show pitch matching and pitch discrimination superior to those of nonmusicians and have greater efferent otoacoustic emission suppression than nonmusicians. This study investigated the relationship among pitch matching, pitch discrimination, and otoacoustic emission suppression in individuals with no formal musical training and who showed varied pitch matching and pitch discrimination. Analysis suggested a significant relationship between pitch matching and pitch discrimination but not between otoacoustic emission suppression and pitch matching and pitch discrimination. Findings are presented in the context of previous research indicating a significant relationship between otoacoustic emission suppression and musical talent in trained musicians.

  4. AFOSR Technical Report Summaries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    The Air Force of Scientific Research Technical Report Summaries are published quarterly of each calendar year. They consist of a brief summary of...each AFOSR technical report received in the Technical Information Division and submitted to the Defense Technical Information Center for that quarter. (sdw)

  5. Future Directions in Research on Institutional and Interpersonal Discrimination and Children’s Health

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Lindsay E.; Hardy, Erin; McArdle, Nancy; Osypuk, Theresa L.

    2013-01-01

    Research evidence indicates that 2 forms of racial discrimination—perceived interpersonal discrimination and racial/ethnic residential segregation (a form of institutional discrimination)—may influence children’s health and disparities. Although research on these 2 forms of discrimination and health has primarily focused on adults, smaller bodies of work have documented that perceived interpersonal discrimination and segregation have a negative effect on infants’ health, and that perceived interpersonal discrimination may negatively affect children’s mental health. Three directions for research are (1) incorporating a life-course perspective into studies of discrimination and children’s health, (2) linking residential segregation with geography-of-opportunity conceptual frameworks and measures, and (3) considering residential segregation along with segregation in other contexts that influence children’s health (e.g., schools). PMID:23409880

  6. Coping with stigma and discrimination: evidence from mental health service users in England.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, A; Corker, E; Cotney, J; Hamilton, S; Pinfold, V; Rose, D; Rüsch, N; Henderson, C; Thornicroft, G; Evans-Lacko, S

    2017-05-02

    Mental health stigma and discrimination are significant problems. Common coping orientations include: concealing mental health problems, challenging others and educating others. We describe the use of common stigma coping orientations and explain variations within a sample of English mental health service users. Cross-sectional survey data were collected as part of the Viewpoint survey of mental health service users' experiences of discrimination (n = 3005). Linear regression analyses were carried out to identify factors associated with the three stigma coping orientations. The most common coping orientation was to conceal mental health problems (73%), which was strongly associated with anticipated discrimination. Only 51% ever challenged others because of discriminating behaviour, this being related to experienced discrimination, but also to higher confidence to tackle stigma. Although stigma coping orientations vary by context, individuals often choose to conceal problems, which is associated with greater anticipated and experienced discrimination and less confidence to challenge stigma. The direction of this association requires further investigation.

  7. Dynamic cortical lateralization during olfactory discrimination learning

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Yaniv; Putrino, David; Wilson, Donald A

    2015-01-01

    Key points Odour discrimination and memory involve changes in the primary olfactory (piriform) cortex. The results obtained in the present study suggest that there is an asymmetry in piriform cortical change, with learning-related changes in cortical oscillations emerging with different time courses over the course of multiday training in the left and right piriform cortices in rats. There is an initial decrease in coherence between the left and right piriform cortices during the early stages of the odour discrimination task, which recovers as the animals approach criterion performance. This decreased coherence is expressed when the animals are performing the task relative to when they are in their home cage. The results suggest a transient cortical asymmetry during learning and raise new questions about the functions and mechanisms of cerebral lateralization. Abstract Bilateral cortical circuits are not necessarily symmetrical. Asymmetry, or cerebral lateralization, allows functional specialization of bilateral brain regions and has been described in humans for such diverse functions as perception, memory and emotion. There is also evidence for asymmetry in the human olfactory system, although evidence in non-human animal models is lacking. In the present study, we took advantage of the known changes in olfactory cortical local field potentials that occur over the course of odour discrimination training to test for functional asymmetry in piriform cortical activity during learning. Both right and left piriform cortex local field potential activities were recorded. The results obtained demonstrate a robust interhemispheric asymmetry in anterior piriform cortex activity that emerges during specific stages of odour discrimination learning, with a transient bias toward the left hemisphere. This asymmetry is not apparent during error trials. Furthermore, functional connectivity (coherence) between the bilateral anterior piriform cortices is learning- and context

  8. Gender Discrimination and Sexual Harassment in Medical Education: Perspectives Gained by a 14-School Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nora, Lois Margaret; McLaughlin, Margaret A.; Fosson, Sue E.; Stratton, Terry D.; Murphy-Spencer, Amy; Fincher, Ruth-Marie E.; German, Deborah C.; Seiden, David; Witzke, Donald B.

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed medical students about their exposures to and perceptions of gender discrimination and sexual harassment (GD/SH) in selected academic and nonacademic contexts. Findings included that more women than men reported all types of GD/SH across all contexts, and that GD/SH is prevalent in undergraduate medical education, particularly within core…

  9. Lesbians still face job discrimination.

    PubMed

    Ryniker, Margaret R

    2008-01-01

    This article examines continued discrimination against lesbians in the workplace. A number of cases from various jurisdictions in the United States are highlighted. The paper studies two common forms of discrimination: denial of employment benefits to same sex partners, and sexual harassment. On the first front, the case law suggests that health insurance coverage for one's partner is becoming the norm. On the question of sexual harassment in the workplace, the case law did not provide protection for lesbians. Finally, U.S. employment policies related to sexual orientation are contrasted with those in Israel, which provides much greater protection from discrimination.

  10. Manual discrimination of force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, Xiao-Dong; Tan, HONG-Z.; Durlach, Nathaniel I.

    1991-01-01

    Optimal design of human-machine interfaces for teleoperators and virtual-environment systems which involve the tactual and kinesthetic modalities requires knowledge of the human's resolving power in these modalities. The resolution of the interface should be appropriately matched to that of the human operator. We report some preliminary results on the ability of the human hand to distinguish small differences in force under a variety of conditions. Experiments were conducted on force discrimination with the thumb pushing an interface that exerts a constant force over the pushing distance and the index finger pressing against a fixed support. The dependence of the sensitivity index d' on force increment can be fit by a straight line through the origin and the just-noticeable difference (JND) in force can thus be described by the inverse of the slope of this line. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) was measured by varying the a priori probabilities of the two alternatives, reference force and reference force plus an increment, in one-interval, two-alternative, forced-choice experiments. When plotted on normal deviate coordinates, the ROC's were roughly straight lines of unit slope, thus supporting the assumption of equal-variance normal distributions and the use of the conventional d' measure. The JND was roughly 6-8 percent for reference force ranging from 2.5 to 10 newtons, pushing distance from 5 to 30 mm, and initial finger-span from 45 to 125 mm. Also, the JND remained the same when the subjects were instructed to change the average speed of pushing from 23 to 153 mm/sec. The pushing was terminated by reaching either a wall or a well, and the JND's were essentially the same in both cases.

  11. The animal farm philosophy of genetic discrimination.

    PubMed

    Wolbring, Gregor

    2004-01-01

    The paper by Dr. Gregor Wolbring addresses the issue of genetic discrimination from disabled people's rights perspective asking a) what the interpretation of genetic discrimination and the scope of Anti Genetic discrimination laws and law proposals is and b) whether the scope and interpretation of genetic discrimination and Anti Genetic discrimination laws and law proposal lead to more protection for-or increased discrimination against- disabled people"

  12. Vehicle Systems Analysis Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    The mission of the Vehicle Systems Analysis Technical Team (VSATT) is to evaluate the performance and interactions of proposed advanced automotive powertrain components and subsystems, in a vehicle systems context, to inform ongoing research and development activities and maximize the potential for fuel efficiency improvements and emission reduction.

  13. Technical Degrees and Higher Vocational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hordern, Jim

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the proposals for the introduction of "technical degrees" in English higher education institutions advanced by the Labour Party's Liam Byrne in a document entitled "Robbins Rebooted" which was published in August 2014 by the Social Market Foundation. The context and rationale for the proposed technical…

  14. Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Adolescents' Well-Being: The Role of Cross-Ethnic Friendships and Friends' Experiences of Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Benner, Aprile D; Wang, Yijie

    2017-03-01

    There is an extensive body of work documenting the negative socioemotional and academic consequences of perceiving racial/ethnic discrimination during adolescence, but little is known about how the larger peer context conditions such effects. Using peer network data from 252 eighth graders (85% Latino, 11% African American, 5% other race/ethnicity), the present study examined the moderating role of cross-ethnic friendships and close friends' experiences of discrimination in the link between adolescents' perceptions of discrimination and well-being. Cross-ethnic friendships and friends' experiences of discrimination generally served a protective role, buffering the negative effects of discrimination on both socioemotional well-being and school outcomes. Overall, results highlight the importance of considering racial/ethnic-related aspects of adolescents' friendships when studying interpersonal processes closely tied to race/ethnicity. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  15. Discriminative Fear Learners are Resilient to Temporal Distortions during Threat Anticipation.

    PubMed

    Lake, Jessica I; Meck, Warren H; LaBar, Kevin S

    Discriminative fear conditioning requires learning to dissociate between safety cues and cues that predict negative outcomes yet little is known about what processes contribute to discriminative fear learning. According to attentional models of time perception, processes that distract from timing result in temporal underestimation. If discriminative fear learning only requires learning what cues predict what outcomes, and threatening stimuli distract attention from timing, then better discriminative fear learning should predict greater temporal distortion on threat trials. Alternatively, if discriminative fear learning also reflects a more accurate perceptual experience of time in threatening contexts, discriminative fear learning scores would predict less temporal distortion on threat trials, as time is perceived more veridically. Healthy young adults completed discriminative fear conditioning in which they learned to associate one stimulus (CS+) with aversive electrical stimulation and another stimulus (CS-) with non-aversive tactile stimulation and then an ordinal comparison timing task during which CSs were presented as task-irrelevant distractors Consistent with predictions, we found an overall temporal underestimation bias on CS+ relative to CS- trials. Differential skin conductance responses to the CS+ versus the CS- during conditioning served as a physiological index of discriminative fear conditioning and this measure predicted the magnitude of the underestimation bias, such that individuals exhibiting greater discriminative fear conditioning showed less underestimation on CS+ versus CS- trials. These results are discussed with respect to the nature of discriminative fear learning and the relationship between temporal distortions and maladaptive threat processing in anxiety.

  16. Ethnic identity, racial discrimination and attenuated psychotic symptoms in an urban population of emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Anglin, Deidre M; Lui, Florence; Espinosa, Adriana; Tikhonov, Aleksandr; Ellman, Lauren

    2016-01-28

    Studies suggest strong ethnic identity generally protects against negative mental health outcomes associated with racial discrimination. In light of evidence suggesting racial discrimination may enhance psychosis risk in racial and ethnic minority (REM) populations, the present study explored the relationship between ethnic identity and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms (APPS) and whether ethnic identity moderates the association between racial discrimination and these symptoms. A sample of 644 non-help-seeking REM emerging adults was administered self-report inventories for psychosis risk, experiences of discrimination and ethnic identity. Latent class analysis was applied to determine the nature and number of ethnic identity types in this population. The direct association between ethnic identity and APPS and the interaction between ethnic identity and racial discrimination on APPS were determined in linear regression analyses. Results indicated three ethnic identity classes (very low, moderate to high and very high). Ethnic identity was not directly related to APPS; however, it was related to APPS under racially discriminating conditions. Specifically, participants who experienced discrimination in the moderate to high or very high ethnic identity classes reported fewer symptoms than participants who experienced discrimination in the very low ethnic identity class. Strong ethnic group affiliation and connection may serve a protective function for psychosis risk in racially discriminating environments and contexts among REM young adults. The possible social benefits of strong ethnic identification among REM youth who face racial discrimination should be explored further in clinical high-risk studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Discriminative Fear Learners are Resilient to Temporal Distortions during Threat Anticipation

    PubMed Central

    Lake, Jessica I.; Meck, Warren H.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2016-01-01

    Discriminative fear conditioning requires learning to dissociate between safety cues and cues that predict negative outcomes yet little is known about what processes contribute to discriminative fear learning. According to attentional models of time perception, processes that distract from timing result in temporal underestimation. If discriminative fear learning only requires learning what cues predict what outcomes, and threatening stimuli distract attention from timing, then better discriminative fear learning should predict greater temporal distortion on threat trials. Alternatively, if discriminative fear learning also reflects a more accurate perceptual experience of time in threatening contexts, discriminative fear learning scores would predict less temporal distortion on threat trials, as time is perceived more veridically. Healthy young adults completed discriminative fear conditioning in which they learned to associate one stimulus (CS+) with aversive electrical stimulation and another stimulus (CS-) with non-aversive tactile stimulation and then an ordinal comparison timing task during which CSs were presented as task-irrelevant distractors Consistent with predictions, we found an overall temporal underestimation bias on CS+ relative to CS- trials. Differential skin conductance responses to the CS+ versus the CS- during conditioning served as a physiological index of discriminative fear conditioning and this measure predicted the magnitude of the underestimation bias, such that individuals exhibiting greater discriminative fear conditioning showed less underestimation on CS+ versus CS- trials. These results are discussed with respect to the nature of discriminative fear learning and the relationship between temporal distortions and maladaptive threat processing in anxiety. PMID:27347480

  18. Causes of stigma and discrimination associated with tuberculosis in Nepal: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Baral, Sushil C; Karki, Deepak K; Newell, James N

    2007-08-16

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of death. The condition is highly stigmatised, with considerable discrimination towards sufferers. Although there have been several studies assessing the extent of such discrimination, there is little published research explicitly investigating the causes of the stigma and discrimination associated with TB. The objectives of our research were therefore to take the first steps towards determining the causes of discrimination associated with TB. Data collection was performed in Kathmandu, Nepal. Thirty four in-depth interviews were performed with TB patients, family members of patients, and members of the community. Causes of self-discrimination identified included fear of transmitting TB, and avoiding gossip and potential discrimination. Causes of discrimination by members of the general public included: fear of a perceived risk of infection; perceived links between TB and other causes of discrimination, particularly poverty and low caste; perceived links between TB and disreputable behaviour; and perceptions that TB was a divine punishment. Furthermore, some patients felt they were discriminated against by health workers A comprehensive package of interventions, tailored to the local context, will be needed to address the multiple causes of discrimination identified: basic population-wide health education is unlikely to be effective.

  19. Ending Sex Discrimination in Academia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broad, William J.

    1980-01-01

    The controversy surrounding the sex discrimination suit, brought seven years ago by a University of Minnesota chemist, is discussed as it relates to the current court decision in which the plaintiff was awarded $100,000.00. (Author/SA)

  20. Equity in Career and Technical Education. Myths and Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wonacott, Michael E.

    The career and technical education (CTE) system before Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 has been characterized as traditionally dominated by gender segregation and discrimination. The most damaging consequence of such gender bias is to limit females' access to the benefits of CTE--the living wage that provides females the same economic…

  1. Unambiguous discrimination among oracle operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chefles, Anthony; Kitagawa, Akira; Takeoka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masahide; Twamley, Jason

    2007-08-01

    We address the problem of unambiguous discrimination among oracle operators. The general theory of unambiguous discrimination among unitary operators is extended with this application in mind. We prove that entanglement with an ancilla cannot assist any discrimination strategy for commuting unitary operators. We also obtain a simple, practical test for the unambiguous distinguishability of an arbitrary set of unitary operators on a given system. Using this result, we prove that the unambiguous distinguishability criterion is the same for both standard and minimal oracle operators. We then show that, except in certain trivial cases, unambiguous discrimination among all standard oracle operators corresponding to integer functions with fixed domain and range is impossible. However, we find that it is possible to unambiguously discriminate among the Grover oracle operators corresponding to an arbitrarily large unsorted database. The unambiguous distinguishability of standard oracle operators corresponding to totally indistinguishable functions, which possess a strong form of classical indistinguishability, is analysed. We prove that these operators are not unambiguously distinguishable for any finite set of totally indistinguishable functions on a Boolean domain and with arbitrary fixed range. Sets of such functions on a larger domain can have unambiguously distinguishable standard oracle operators, and we provide a complete analysis of the simplest case, that of four functions. We also examine the possibility of unambiguous oracle operator discrimination with multiple parallel calls and investigate an intriguing unitary superoperator transformation between standard and entanglement-assisted minimal oracle operators.

  2. Discriminative Stimulus Effects of Psychostimulants.

    PubMed

    Berquist, Michael D; Fantegrossi, William E

    2017-03-25

    Numerous drugs elicit locomotor stimulant effects at appropriate doses; however, we typically reserve the term psychostimulant to refer to drugs with affinity for monoamine reuptake transporters. This chapter comprises select experiments that have characterized the discriminative stimulus effects of psychostimulants using drug discrimination procedures. The substitution profiles of psychostimulants in laboratory rodents are generally consistent with those observed in human and nonhuman primate drug discrimination experiments. Notably, two major classes of psychostimulants can be distinguished as those that function as passive monoamine reuptake inhibitors (such as cocaine) and those that function as substrates for monoamine transporters and stimulate monoamine release (such as the amphetamines). Nevertheless, the discriminative stimulus effects of both classes of psychostimulant are quite similar, and drugs from different classes will substitute for one another. Most importantly, for both the cocaine-like and amphetamine-like psychostimulants, dopaminergic mechanisms most saliently determine discriminative stimulus effects, but these effects can be modulated by alterations in noradrenergic and serotonergic neurotransmission as well. Thusly, the drug discrimination assay is useful for characterizing the interoceptive effects of psychostimulants and determining the mechanisms that contribute to their subjective effects in humans.

  3. Quantity discrimination in female mosquitofish.

    PubMed

    Agrillo, Christian; Dadda, Marco; Bisazza, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    The ability in animals to count and represent different numbers of objects has received a great deal of attention in the past few decades. Cumulative evidence from comparative studies on number discriminations report obvious analogies among human babies, non-human primates and birds and are consistent with the hypothesis of two distinct and widespread mechanisms, one for counting small numbers (<4) precisely, and one for quantifying large numbers approximately. We investigated the ability to discriminate among different numerosities, in a distantly related species, the mosquitofish, by using the spontaneous choice of a gravid female to join large groups of females as protection from a sexually harassing male. In one experiment, we found that females were able to discriminate between two shoals with a 1:2 numerosity ratio (2 vs. 4, 4 vs. 8 and 8 vs. 16 fish) but failed to discriminate a 2:3 ratio (8 vs. 12 fish). In the second experiment, we studied the ability to discriminate between shoals that differed by one element; females were able to select the larger shoal when the paired numbers were 2 vs. 3 or 3 vs. 4 but not 4 vs. 5 or 5 vs. 6. Our study indicates that numerical abilities in fish are comparable with those of other non-verbal creatures studied; results are in agreement with the hypothesis of the existence of two distinct systems for quantity discrimination in vertebrates.

  4. Horses discriminate between facial expressions of conspecifics

    PubMed Central

    Wathan, J.; Proops, L.; Grounds, K.; McComb, K.

    2016-01-01

    In humans, facial expressions are rich sources of social information and have an important role in regulating social interactions. However, the extent to which this is true in non-human animals, and particularly in non-primates, remains largely unknown. Therefore we tested whether domestic horses (Equus caballus) could discriminate between facial expressions of their conspecifics captured in different contexts, and whether viewing these expressions elicited functionally relevant reactions. Horses were more likely to approach photographic stimuli displaying facial expressions associated with positive attention and relaxation, and to avoid stimuli displaying an expression associated with aggression. Moreover, differing patterns of heart rate changes were observed in response to viewing the positive anticipation and agonistic facial expressions. These results indicate that horses spontaneously discriminate between photographs of unknown conspecifics portraying different facial expressions, showing appropriate behavioural and physiological responses. Thus horses, an animal far-removed from the primate lineage, also have the ability to use facial expressions as a means of gaining social information and potentially regulating social interactions. PMID:27995958

  5. Crop/weed discrimination in simulated images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, G.; Gée, C.; Truchetet, F.

    2007-02-01

    In the context of site-specific weed management by vision systems, an efficient image processing for a crop/weed discrimination is required in order to quantify the Weed Infestation Rate (WIR) in an image. This paper presents a modeling of crop field in presence of different Weed Infestation Rates and a set of simulated agronomic images is used to test and validate the effectiveness of a crop/weed discrimination algorithm. For instance, an algorithm has been implemented to firstly detect the crop rows in the field by the use of a Hough Transform and secondly to detect plant areas by a region based-segmentation on binary images. This image processing has been tested on virtual cereal fields of a large field of view with perspective effects. The vegetation in the virtual field is modeled by a sowing pattern for crop plants and the weed spatial distribution is modeled by either a Poisson process or a Neyman-Scott cluster process. For each simulated image, a comparison between the initial and the detected weed infestation rate allows us to assess the accuracy of the algorithm. This comparison demonstrates an accuracy of better than 80% is possible, despite that intrarow weeds can not be detected from this spatial method.

  6. SEVIRI Cloud mask by Cumulative Discriminant Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasi, M. G.; Serio, C.; Masiello, G.; Venafra, S.; Liuzzi, G.

    2015-09-01

    In the context of cloud detection for satellite observations we want to use the method of Cumulative Discriminant Analysis (CDA) as a tool to distinguish between clear and cloudy sky applied to Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) data. The methodology is based on the choice of several statistics related to the cloud properties, whose correlation has been analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Results have been compared with the SEVIRI reference cloud mask provided by the European Centre for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellite (EUMETSAT), in order to find suitable thresholds able to discriminate between clear or cloudy conditions. We trained the statistics on a selected region, the Basilicata area, located in the south of Italy, in different periods of the year 2012, in order to take into account the seasonal variability. Moreover we separated land and sea surface and distinguished between day-time or night-time. The validation of thresholds, obtained through SEVIRI observations analysis, shows a good agreement with the reference cloud mask.

  7. Dimensionality Problem in Discrete Discriminant Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Ana Sousa

    2011-09-01

    A high dimensional problem is very often in Discrete Discriminant Analysis (DDA) due to the fact that the number of parameters estimated in DDA models is very frequently too large. Then, the main problem is sparseness, in which some of the multinomial cells may have no data in the training sets (for one or several classes). Furthermore, there aren't truly reliable methods for selecting the most discrete discriminative features and often we deal with small sample sizes with classes not well separated. This dimensional DDA problem is often known as the "curse of dimensionality". In this context, a combining models approach seems to be promising since it is known that different DDA models perform differently on different subjects. This approach currently appears in an increasing number of papers aiming to obtain more robust and stable models. Thus, in discrete problems we propose new forms of modeling the conditional probability functions based on linear combinations of reference models (e.g. the Full Multinomial Model (FMM) and the First-order Independence Model (FOIM)). Recently, since class separability is another fundamental problem in discrete supervised problems we have focused in exploring measures for analyzing class separability. We investigate the performance of the present approaches on real and simulated data.

  8. Perceived Context of Reception among Recent Hispanic Immigrants: Conceptualization, Instrument Development, and Preliminary Validation

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Villamar, Juan A.; Soto, Daniel W.; Pattarroyo, Monica; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Szapocznik, José

    2013-01-01

    Context of reception has been discussed widely in the sociological and anthropological literature, but no measures of this construct exist. We designed a measure of perceived context of reception and provide initial support for the factorial validity, internal consistency reliability, and incremental and discriminant validity of scores generated by this measure. A sample of 302 recent-immigrant Hispanic parent-adolescent dyads from Miami and Los Angeles completed the new perceived context of reception measure, as well as measures of perceived discrimination; Hispanic/American cultural practices, values, and identifications; and depressive symptoms. In Phase 1, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses extracted a factor for negative perceived context of reception. A subscale corresponding to this factor was used in Phase 2; for parents and adolescents, negative perceived context of reception and perceived discrimination were differentially associated with acculturation-related variables – suggesting discriminant validity between perceived discrimination and negative perceived context of reception. For adolescents at both sites and for parents in Los Angeles only, the negative perceived context of reception dimensions were significantly associated with depressive symptoms six months later, over and above the contribution made by perceived discrimination – suggesting incremental validity. Results are discussed in terms of perceived context of reception as a new and emerging construct. PMID:24099485

  9. Perceived context of reception among recent Hispanic immigrants: conceptualization, instrument development, and preliminary validation.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Seth J; Unger, Jennifer B; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Villamar, Juan A; Soto, Daniel W; Pattarroyo, Monica; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Szapocznik, José

    2014-01-01

    Context of reception has been discussed widely in the sociological and anthropological literature, but no measures of this construct exist. We designed a measure of perceived context of reception and provide initial support for the factorial validity, internal consistency reliability, and incremental and discriminant validity of scores generated by this measure. A sample of 302 recent-immigrant Hispanic parent-adolescent dyads from Miami and Los Angeles completed the new perceived context of reception measure, as well as measures of perceived discrimination; Hispanic/American cultural practices, values, and identifications; and depressive symptoms. In Phase 1, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses extracted a factor for negative perceived context of reception. A subscale corresponding to this factor was used in Phase 2; for parents and adolescents, negative perceived context of reception and perceived discrimination were differentially associated with acculturation-related variables-suggesting discriminant validity between perceived discrimination and negative perceived context of reception. For adolescents at both sites and for parents in Los Angeles only, the negative perceived context of reception dimensions were significantly associated with depressive symptoms 6 months later, over and above the contribution made by perceived discrimination--suggesting incremental validity. Results are discussed in terms of perceived context of reception as a new and emerging construct.

  10. Infant Discrimination of Faces in Naturalistic Events: Actions Are More Salient Than Faces

    PubMed Central

    Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Newell, Lisa C.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the fact that faces are typically seen in the context of dynamic events, there is little research on infants’ perception of moving faces. L. E. Bahrick, L. J. Gogate, and I. Ruiz (2002) demonstrated that 5-month-old infants discriminate and remember repetitive actions but not the faces of the women performing the actions. The present research tested an attentional salience explanation for these findings: that dynamic faces are discriminable to infants, but more salient actions compete for attention. Results demonstrated that 5-month-old infants discriminated faces in the context of actions when they had longer familiarization time (Experiment 1) and following habituation to a single person performing 3 different activities (Experiment 2). Further, 7-month-old infants who have had more experience with social events also discriminated faces in the context of actions. Overall, however, discrimination of actions was more robust and occurred earlier in processing time than discrimination of dynamic faces. These findings support an attentional salience hypothesis and indicate that faces are not special in the context of actions in early infancy. PMID:18605829

  11. [Discrimination and homophobia associated to the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic].

    PubMed

    Orozco-Núñez, Emanuel; Alcalde-Rabanal, Jacqueline Elizabeth; Ruiz-Larios, José Arturo; Sucilla-Pérez, Héctor; García-Cerde, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    To describe a political mapping on discrimination and homophobia associated to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the context of public institutions in Mexico. The political mapping was conducted in six Mexican states. Stakeholders who were involved in HIV actions from public and private sectors were included. Semistructured interviews were applied to explore homophobia and discrimination associated with HIV. Information was systematized using the Policy Maker software, which is a good support for analyzing health policies. Discriminatory and homophobic practices in the public domain occurred, damaging people´s integrity via insults, derision and hate crimes. Most stakeholders expressed a supportive position to prevent discrimination and homophobia and some of them had great influence on policy-making decisions. It was found that state policy frameworks are less specific in addressing these issues. Homophobia and discrimination associated to HIV are still considered problematic in Mexico. Homophobia is a very sensitive issue that requires further attention. Also, an actual execution of governmental authority requires greater enforcement of laws against discrimination and homophobia.

  12. Perceived Discrimination and Ethnic Identity Among Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Campesino, Maureen; Saenz, Delia S.; Choi, Myunghan; Krouse, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To examine ethnic identity and sociodemographic factors in minority patients' perceptions of healthcare discrimination in breast cancer care. Design Mixed methods. Setting Participants' homes in the metropolitan areas of Phoenix and Tucson, AZ. Sample 39 women treated for breast cancer in the past six years: 15 monolingual Spanish-speaking Latinas, 15 English-speaking Latinas, and 9 African Americans. Methods Two questionnaires were administered. Individual interviews with participants were conducted by nurse researchers. Quantitative, qualitative, and matrix analytic methods were used. Main Research Variables Ethnic identity and perceptions of discrimination. Findings Eighteen women (46%) believed race and spoken language affected the quality of health care. Perceived disrespect from providers was attributed to participant's skin color, income level, citizenship status, and ability to speak English. Discrimination was more likely to be described in a primary care context, rather than cancer care. Ethnic identity and early-stage breast cancer diagnosis were the only study variables significantly associated with perceived healthcare discrimination. Conclusions This article describes the first investigation examining ethnic identity and perceived discrimination in cancer care delivery. Replication of this study with larger samples is needed to better understand the role of ethnic identity and cancer stage in perceptions of cancer care delivery. Implications for Nursing Identification of ethnic-specific factors that influence patient's perspectives and healthcare needs will facilitate development of more effective strategies for the delivery of cross-cultural patient-centered cancer care. PMID:22374505

  13. LLNL's Regional Seismic Discrimination Research

    SciTech Connect

    Hanley, W; Mayeda, K; Myers, S; Pasyanos, M; Rodgers, A; Sicherman, A; Walter, W

    1999-07-23

    As part of the Department of Energy's research and development effort to improve the monitoring capability of the planned Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty international monitoring system, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) is testing and calibrating regional seismic discrimination algorithms in the Middle East, North Africa and Western Former Soviet Union. The calibration process consists of a number of steps: (1) populating the database with independently identified regional events; (2) developing regional boundaries and pre-identifying severe regional phase blockage zones; (3) measuring and calibrating coda based magnitude scales; (4a) measuring regional amplitudes and making magnitude and distance amplitude corrections (MDAC); (4b) applying the DOE modified kriging methodology to MDAC results using the regionalized background model; (5) determining the thresholds of detectability of regional phases as a function of phase type and frequency; (6) evaluating regional phase discriminant performance both singly and in combination; (7) combining steps 1-6 to create a calibrated discrimination surface for each stations; (8) assessing progress and iterating. We have now developed this calibration procedure to the point where it is fairly straightforward to apply earthquake-explosion discrimination in regions with ample empirical data. Several of the steps outlined above are discussed in greater detail in other DOE papers in this volume or in recent publications. Here we emphasize the results of the above process: station correction surfaces and their improvement to discrimination results compared with simpler calibration methods. Some of the outstanding discrimination research issues involve cases in which there is little or no empirical data. For example in many cases there is no regional nuclear explosion data at IMS stations or nearby surrogates. We have taken two approaches to this problem, first finding and using mining explosion data when available, and

  14. Teaching audience analysis to the technical student

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debs, M. B.; Brillhart, L. V.

    1981-01-01

    Teaching audience analysis, as practiced in a technical writing course for engineering students, is discussed. Audience analysis is described as the task of defining the audience for a particular piece of writing and determining those characteristics of the audience which constrain the writer and effect reception of the message. A mature technical writing style that shows the tension produced when a text is written to be read and understood is considered in terms of audience analysis. Techniques include: (1) conveying to students the concept that a reader with certain expectations exist, (2) team teaching to preserve the context of a given technical discipline, and (3) assigning a technical report that addresses a variety of readers, thus establishing the complexity of audience oriented writing.

  15. Object recognition testing: methodological considerations on exploration and discrimination measures.

    PubMed

    Akkerman, Sven; Blokland, Arjan; Reneerkens, Olga; van Goethem, Nick P; Bollen, Eva; Gijselaers, Hieronymus J M; Lieben, Cindy K J; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Prickaerts, Jos

    2012-07-01

    The object recognition task (ORT) is a popular one-trial learning test for animals. In the current study, we investigated several methodological issues concerning the task. Data was pooled from 28 ORT studies, containing 731 male Wistar rats. We investigated the relationship between 3 common absolute- and relative discrimination measures, as well as their relation to exploratory activity. In this context, the effects of pre-experimental habituation, object familiarity, trial duration, retention interval and the amnesic drugs MK-801 and scopolamine were investigated. Our analyses showed that the ORT is very sensitive, capable of detecting subtle differences in memory (discrimination) and exploratory performance. As a consequence, it is susceptible to potential biases due to (injection) stress and side effects of drugs. Our data indicated that a minimum amount of exploration is required in the sample and test trial for stable significant discrimination performance. However, there was no relationship between the level of exploration in the sample trial and discrimination performance. In addition, the level of exploration in the test trial was positively related to the absolute discrimination measure, whereas this was not the case for relative discrimination measures, which correct for exploratory differences, making them more resistant to exploration biases. Animals appeared to remember object information over multiple test sessions. Therefore, when animals have encountered both objects in prior test sessions, the object preference observed in the test trial of 1h retention intervals is probably due to a relative difference in familiarity between the objects in the test trial, rather than true novelty per se. Taken together, our findings suggest to take into consideration pre-experimental exposure (familiarization) to objects, habituation to treatment procedures, and the use of relative discrimination measures when using the ORT.

  16. Discrimination Report: ESTCP UXO Discrimination Study, ESTCPProject #MM-0437

    SciTech Connect

    Gasperikova, Erika; Smith, J. Torquil; Morrison, H. Frank; Becker, Alex

    2007-12-21

    The FY06 Defense Appropriation contains funding for the 'Development of Advanced, Sophisticated, Discrimination Technologies for UXO Cleanup' in the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program. In 2003, the Defense Science Board observed: 'The problem is that instruments that can detect the buried UXOs also detect numerous scrap metal objects and other artifacts, which leads to an enormous amount of expensive digging. Typically 100 holes may be dug before a real UXO is unearthed! The Task Force assessment is that much of this wasteful digging can be eliminated by the use of more advanced technology instruments that exploit modern digital processing and advanced multi-mode sensors to achieve an improved level of discrimination of scrap from UXOs.' Significant progress has been made in discrimination technology. To date, testing of these approaches has been primarily limited to test sites with only limited application at live sites. Acceptance of discrimination technologies requires demonstration of system capabilities at real UXO sites under real world conditions. Any attempt to declare detected anomalies to be harmless and requiring no further investigation require demonstration to regulators of not only individual technologies, but of an entire decision making process. This discrimination study was be the first phase in what is expected to be a continuing effort that will span several years.

  17. Technical report writing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidoli, Carol A.

    1992-01-01

    This manual covers the fundamentals of organizing, writing, and reviewing NASA technical reports. It was written to improve the writing skills of LeRC technical authors and the overall quality of their reports.

  18. Technical Assistance Plan (TAP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A Technical Assistance Plan (TAP) enables community groups to retain the services of an independent technical advisor and to provide resources for a community group to help inform other community members about site decisions.

  19. BASINS Technical Notes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has developed several technical notes that provide in depth information on a specific function in BASINS. Technical notes can be used to answer questions users may have, or to provide additional information on the application of features in BASINS.

  20. 2013 Technical Roundtable

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On December 9, 2013, EPA reconvened the study’s Technical Roundtable. Subject-matter experts discussed the outcomes of the 2013 Technical Workshops, stakeholder engagement, and plans for draft assessment report.

  1. A Role for Technical Education in a Career Education Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Aaron J.

    Mounting concern over the seemingly high drop-out rate among the nation's teenagers, coupled with the inability of many high school students to select satisfying careers upon graduation, have prompted a restructuring of the curriculum around the developmental needs of students. A comprehensive educational program having seven basic operational…

  2. Ethnic Discrimination against Mapuche Students in Urban High Schools in the Araucanía Region, Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becerra, Sandra; Merino, María Eugenia; Mellor, David

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic or racial discrimination towards children and adolescents at schools is of concern in many contexts around the world because it is associated with diverse psychosocial, behavioural, emotional, and identity problems. The purpose of this study was to identify the types of ethnic discrimination experienced by indigenous Mapuche adolescents in…

  3. Social support as a buffer between discrimination and cigarette use in juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Hershberger, Alexandra; Zapolski, Tamika; Aalsma, Matthew C

    2016-08-01

    Cigarette use is a prominent problem in juvenile offenders, leading to negative health outcomes and substance use. One interesting precipitator of cigarette use in this population is discrimination. Social support could potentially buffer the positive relationship between cigarette use and discrimination in juvenile offenders, which could be dependent on the context in which the discrimination is experienced, such as peer, institutional (e.g., stores, restaurants), or educational contexts. The present study explored the relationship between three types of discrimination, social support, and smoking outcomes among 112 detained and probated juvenile offenders (mean age=16.24, SD=2.11, 29.2% female, 54.9% Caucasian, 40.4% detention, 53.8% smokers). Results indicated that the relationship between institutional discrimination (OR=-0.10, p=0.005) and peer discrimination (OR=-0.11, p=0.01) were significantly moderated by social support, with a higher likelihood of being a smoker, compared to a non-smoker at higher levels of peer and institutional discrimination. Further, based on a moderated regression analysis, results indicated that youth who experienced greater educational discrimination and lower levels of social support, they were at higher risk of nicotine addiction (b=-0.09, p=0.03). Overall, results indicate that varying avenues of social support, such as parent, peer, and teacher support, can mitigate negative effects of discrimination on juvenile offenders, particularly cigarette use. Addressing discrimination in smoking treatment and prevention in juvenile offenders may be of great utility. Future studies should examine the potential mechanisms underlying the discrimination and cigarette use connection in juvenile offenders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Social Support as a Buffer Between Discrimination and Cigarette Use in Juvenile Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Hershberger, Alexandra; Zapolski, Tamika; Aalsma, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette use is a prominent problem in juvenile offenders, leading to negative health outcomes and substance use. One interesting precipitator of cigarette use in this population is discrimination. Social support could potentially buffer the positive relationship between cigarette use and discrimination in juvenile offenders, which could be dependent on the context in which the discrimination is experienced, such as peer, institutional (e.g., stores, restaurants), or educational contexts. The present study explored the relationship between three types of discrimination, social support, and smoking outcomes among 112 detained and probated juvenile offenders (mean age = 16.24, SD = 2.11, 29.2% female, 54.9% Caucasian, 40.4% detention, 53.8% smokers). Results indicated that the relationship between institutional discrimination (OR = −0.10, p = 0.005) and peer discrimination (OR = −0.11, p = 0.01) were significantly moderated by social support, with a higher likelihood of being a smoker, compared to a non-smoker at higher levels of peer and institutional discrimination. Further, based on a moderated regression analysis, results indicated that youth who experienced greater educational discrimination and lower levels of social support, they were at higher risk of nicotine addiction (b = −0.09, p = 0.03). Overall, results indicate that varying avenues of social support, such as parent, peer, and teacher support, can mitigate negative effects of discrimination on juvenile offenders, particularly cigarette use. Addressing discrimination in smoking treatment and prevention in juvenile offenders may be of great utility. Future studies should examine the potential mechanisms underlying the discrimination and cigarette use connection in juvenile offenders. PMID:27010849

  5. 14 CFR 399.36 - Unreasonable discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Unreasonable discrimination. 399.36 Section... Unreasonable discrimination. (a) As used in this section: (1) Unreasonable discrimination means unjust discrimination or unreasonable preference or prejudice; and (2) Rate means rate, fare, or charge. (b) Except in...

  6. 45 CFR 1624.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1624.4 Section 1624.4... AGAINST DISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY § 1624.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No qualified... the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination by any legal services program, directly...

  7. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination complaint...

  8. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination complaint...

  9. 45 CFR 1624.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1624.4 Section 1624.4... AGAINST DISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY § 1624.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No qualified... the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination by any legal services program, directly...

  10. 45 CFR 1624.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1624.4 Section 1624.4... AGAINST DISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY § 1624.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No qualified... the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination by any legal services program, directly...

  11. 14 CFR 399.36 - Unreasonable discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Unreasonable discrimination. 399.36 Section... Unreasonable discrimination. (a) As used in this section: (1) Unreasonable discrimination means unjust discrimination or unreasonable preference or prejudice; and (2) Rate means rate, fare, or charge. (b) Except in...

  12. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination complaint...

  13. 45 CFR 1624.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1624.4 Section 1624.4... AGAINST DISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY § 1624.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No qualified... the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination by any legal services program, directly...

  14. 14 CFR 399.36 - Unreasonable discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Unreasonable discrimination. 399.36 Section... Unreasonable discrimination. (a) As used in this section: (1) Unreasonable discrimination means unjust discrimination or unreasonable preference or prejudice; and (2) Rate means rate, fare, or charge. (b) Except in...

  15. 14 CFR 399.36 - Unreasonable discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Unreasonable discrimination. 399.36 Section... Unreasonable discrimination. (a) As used in this section: (1) Unreasonable discrimination means unjust discrimination or unreasonable preference or prejudice; and (2) Rate means rate, fare, or charge. (b) Except in...

  16. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination complaint...

  17. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination...

  18. 45 CFR 1624.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1624.4 Section 1624.4... AGAINST DISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY § 1624.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No qualified... the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination by any legal services program,...

  19. 14 CFR 399.36 - Unreasonable discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unreasonable discrimination. 399.36 Section... Unreasonable discrimination. (a) As used in this section: (1) Unreasonable discrimination means unjust discrimination or unreasonable preference or prejudice; and (2) Rate means rate, fare, or charge. (b) Except...

  20. Sensory Discrimination as Related to General Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acton, G. Scott; Schroeder, David H.

    2001-01-01

    Attempted to replicate the pitch discrimination findings of previous research and expand them to the modality of color discrimination in a sample of 899 teenagers and adults by correlating 2 sensory discrimination measures with the general factor from a battery of 13 cognitive ability tests. Results suggest that sensory discrimination is…

  1. Discrimination. Prejudice in Action. Multicultural Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillam, Scott

    This book for young readers explains what discrimination is and explores different types of discrimination and how they have developed over the years. Laws that make it more difficult to discriminate against others are described, and the struggle for human rights is outlined. Discrimination means acting unfavorably toward someone based on the…

  2. Discrimination. Prejudice in Action. Multicultural Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillam, Scott

    This book for young readers explains what discrimination is and explores different types of discrimination and how they have developed over the years. Laws that make it more difficult to discriminate against others are described, and the struggle for human rights is outlined. Discrimination means acting unfavorably toward someone based on the…

  3. Discriminative learning quadratic discriminant function for handwriting recognition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cheng-Lin; Sako, Hiroshi; Fujisawa, Hiromichi

    2004-03-01

    In character string recognition integrating segmentation and classification, high classification accuracy and resistance to noncharacters are desired to the underlying classifier. In a previous evaluation study, the modified quadratic discriminant function (MQDF) proposed by Kimura et al. was shown to be superior in noncharacter resistance but inferior in classification accuracy to neural networks. This paper proposes a discriminative learning algorithm to optimize the parameters of MQDF with aim to improve the classification accuracy while preserving the superior noncharacter resistance. We refer to the resulting classifier as discriminative learning QDF (DLQDF). The parameters of DLQDF adhere to the structure of MQDF under the Gaussian density assumption and are optimized under the minimum classification error (MCE) criterion. The promise of DLQDF is justified in handwritten digit recognition and numeral string recognition, where the performance of DLQDF is comparable to or superior to that of neural classifiers. The results are also competitive to the best ones reported in the literature.

  4. Educational Context: Preparing Accounting Students to Identify Ethical Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billiot, Mary Jo; Daniel, David; Glandon, Sid; Glandon, TerryAnn

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effect of different contexts in an educational process on measures of ethical sensitivity and levels of moral reasoning of accounting majors in the first Intermediate Accounting course. The educational process compared a context that centers on ethical issues with one that focuses on technical accounting issues. At the end of the…

  5. Editing Technical Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Donald C., Jr.

    Intended for students in upper-division technical communication courses and professionals in business and government who want to learn how to edit technical writing, this book describes what technical editors do and how they do it. Throughout the book are exercises that students can use as self-tests; answer keys are provided for checking work.…

  6. AFOSR Technical Report Summaries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    The Air Force Office of Scientific Research Technical Report Summaries are published quarterly as of March, June, September, and December of each...calendar year. They consist of a brief summary of each AFOSR technical report received in the Technical Information Division and submitted to the Defense

  7. User discrimination in automotive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makrushin, Andrey; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Leich, Marcus

    2011-03-01

    The recently developed dual-view touch screens, which are announced to be installed in cars in a near future, give rise to completely new challenges in human-machine interaction. The automotive system should be able to identify if the driver or the passenger is currently interacting with the touch screen to provide a correct response to the touch. The optical devices, due to availability, acceptance by the users and multifunctional usage, approved to be the most appropriate sensing technology for driver/passenger discrimination. In this work the prototypic optical user discrimination system is implemented in the car simulator and evaluated in the laboratory environment with entirely controlled illumination. Three tests were done for this research. One of them examined if the near-infrared illumination should be switched on around the clock, the second one if there is a difference in discrimination performance between day, twilight and night conditions, and the third one examined how the intensive directional lighting influences the performance of the implemented user discrimination algorithm. Despite the high error rates, the evaluation results show that very simple computer vision algorithms are able to solve complicated user discrimination task. The average error rate of 10.42% (daytime with near-infrared illumination) is a very promising result for optical systems.

  8. Shape and size discrimination compared.

    PubMed

    Nachmias, Jacob

    2011-02-23

    Observers presented with pairs of figures differing in area (SIZE) or aspect ratio (SHAPE) spontaneously make use of both height and width differences. whether or not they are forced to do so by between-interval jittering or even instructed to do so. SHAPE discrimination is considerably better than SIZE discrimination. The superiority of SHAPE discrimination is probably due to partial correlation between the encoding noise of height and width of a figure. Discrimination of height differences is seemingly increased (decreased) by negatively (positively) correlated width differences, relative to leaving width unchanged. This is true whether the different types of trials are presented in separate blocks or intermixed. Perhaps SIZE and SHAPE comparisons are always made and their decision variables are optimally combined. The difference between SIZE and SHAPE discrimination is reduced, if not reversed, when figures are presented simultaneously rather than successively. This interaction between type of task and mode of presentation, may be due to the increased amount of correlation between test and standard figures of the encoding noise common to the two dimensions of each figure.

  9. Loss of nondrug reinforcement in one context produces alcohol seeking in another context.

    PubMed

    Pyszczynski, Adam D; Shahan, Timothy A

    2013-09-01

    In the resurgence preparation, extinguished alcohol-maintained responding increases when food reinforcement introduced into the same context during extinction is also subsequently removed. However, drug and nondrug reinforcers may often be obtained in separate specific contexts. Accordingly, we aimed to determine whether extinguished behavior previously maintained by alcohol would increase upon elimination of nondrug reinforcement within a multiple schedule arranging distinct discriminative stimulus contexts of food and alcohol availability. In Experiment 1, rats earned food or alcohol in alternating stimulus contexts within a multiple schedule. First, alcohol-maintained responding was extinguished and then food deliveries in the alternating component were also discontinued. Extinguished alcohol-maintained responding increased upon discontinuation of food deliveries. However, periods of alcohol availability alternated with periods of extinction during a portion of training; thus, elimination of food reinforcers during the resurgence test may have inadvertently served as a cue for alcohol availability. In Experiment 2, the training phase that complicated interpretation of the results of Experiment 1 was eliminated. Alcohol-maintained responding again increased when food-maintained responding was placed on extinction in the other component. The present results indicate that loss of nondrug reinforcement in one discriminative context can increase extinguished alcohol seeking in another context and that multiple schedules of reinforcement might be useful for examining such effects.

  10. Refugee Immigrants' Experiences of Racism and Racial Discrimination at Australian TAFE Institutes: A Transformative Psychosocial Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onsando, Gerald; Billett, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses experiences of racism and racial discrimination of seven refugee immigrants attending different courses at two Technical and Further Education (TAFE) institutes in South East Queensland, Australia. In doing so, the paper draws from two studies that focused on resettlement of refugee immigrants in Australia. A transformative…

  11. Techniques for Eliminating Sex Discrimination from Vocational Education: An Instructor's Guide for Culinary Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Georgia S.; Upton, Linda Kulow

    This instructor's guide addresses issues of sex bias as they occur in the shop area of the Culinary Arts Program. The first part gives general background by discussing sex discrimination and schools and course enrollments by sex and the Culinary Arts shop at the Minuteman Regional Vocational Technical School, Massachusetts. A second, and much…

  12. Decision Processes in Discrimination: Fundamental Misrepresentations of Signal Detection Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishnan, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    In the first part of this article, I describe a new approach to studying decision making in discrimination tasks that does not depend on the technical assumptions of signal detection theory (e.g., normality of the encoding distributions). Applying these new distribution-free tests to data from three experiments, I show that base rate and payoff manipulations had substantial effects on the participants' encoding distributions but no effect on their decision rules, which were uniformly unbiased in equal and unequal base rate conditions and in symmetric and asymmetric payoff conditions. In the second part of the article, I show that this seemingly paradoxical result is readily explained by the sequential sampling models of discrimination. I then propose a new, "model-free" test for response bias that seems to more properly identify both the nature and direction of the biases induced by the classical bias manipulations.

  13. Decision Processes in Discrimination: Fundamental Misrepresentations of Signal Detection Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishnan, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    In the first part of this article, I describe a new approach to studying decision making in discrimination tasks that does not depend on the technical assumptions of signal detection theory (e.g., normality of the encoding distributions). Applying these new distribution-free tests to data from three experiments, I show that base rate and payoff manipulations had substantial effects on the participants' encoding distributions but no effect on their decision rules, which were uniformly unbiased in equal and unequal base rate conditions and in symmetric and asymmetric payoff conditions. In the second part of the article, I show that this seemingly paradoxical result is readily explained by the sequential sampling models of discrimination. I then propose a new, "model-free" test for response bias that seems to more properly identify both the nature and direction of the biases induced by the classical bias manipulations.

  14. Perceived racial discrimination and negative-mood-related drinking among African American college students.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Ross E; Armeli, Stephen; Scott, Denise M; Covault, Jonathan; Tennen, Howard

    2015-03-01

    Research consistently shows a positive association between racial discrimination and problematic alcohol use among African Americans, but little is known about the micro-processes linking this pernicious form of stress to drinking. One possibility is that the cumulative effects of discrimination increase individuals' likelihood of negative-mood-related drinking. In the current study, we examined whether individual differences in lifetime perceived racial discrimination among African American college students moderate relations between daily negative moods and evening alcohol consumption in both social and nonsocial contexts. Data came from an online daily diary study of 441 African Americans (58% female) enrolled at a historically black college/university. Lifetime discrimination was measured at baseline. For 30 days, students reported the number of drinks they consumed the night before both socially and nonsocially, as well as their daytime level of negative mood. In support of the hypotheses, only men who reported higher (vs. lower) lifetime discrimination showed a positive association between daily negative mood and that evening's level of nonsocial drinking. Contrary to expectation, women who reported higher (vs. lower) discrimination showed a negative association between daily negative mood and nonsocial drinking. Neither daily negative mood nor lifetime discrimination predicted level of social drinking. These findings provide further evidence that the cumulative impact of racial discrimination may produce a vulnerability to negative-mood-related drinking--but only for African American men. Importantly, these effects emerged only for nonsocial drinking, which may further explain the robust association between discrimination and problematic alcohol use.

  15. ESTCP UXO Discrimination Study. MTADS Demonstration at Camp Sibert Magnetometer / EM61 MkII / GEM-3 Arrays, Gadsden, AL, April 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-21

    Design .......................................................................................................... 18 3.1 Performance Objectives...Discrimination Study Demonstration Plan, the objectives of the study are twofold. First, the study is designed to test and validate UXO detection and...implemented in cleanup operations. 2 1.2.2 Technical objectives of the Discrimination Study The study is designed to test and evaluate the

  16. Study of enhancing a hadronic search for supersymmetry with quark/gluon discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penafiel, Louis

    2017-01-01

    We present studies of applying quark/gluon discrimination in the context of searches for supersymmetry in all hadronic final states with data from the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment. We compare the sensitivity of an established search with a search that utilizes the additional information from quark/gluon discrimination. Results are shown for several simplified model signal topologies. With support from the Chancellor's Research Fellowship of University of California, Riverside.

  17. Discrimination of auditory motion patterns: the mismatch negativity study.

    PubMed

    Shestopalova, L B; Petropavlovskaia, E A; Vaitulevich, S Ph; Vasilenko, Yu A; Nikitin, N I; Altman, J A

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the present study is to test whether mismatch negativity (MMN) response can be elicited by changes in auditory motion dynamics. The discrimination of auditory motion patterns was investigated using psychophysical and electrophysiological methods in the same group of subjects. Auditory event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded for stationary midline noises and moving noises shifting to the left/right from the head midline. Two patterns of auditory motion were used with gradual (Motion) and stepwise (Step) movements which started and ended at the same loci. Auditory motion was produced by linear and abrupt changes of interaural time differences (ITD) in binaurally presented stimuli. In Experiment 1, ERPs were recorded for stationary midline standards and for Motion and Step deviants. It was found that Step deviants result in larger MMN amplitudes than Motion deviants with the same distance travelled, which implies that information contained in the stimulus midportion could be involved in the processing of the auditory motion. The threshold ITD values for the detection of Step and Motion stimuli displacement obtained during psychoacoustic tests were greater than the minimal ITD changes which elicited significant MMN. Experiment 2 demonstrated that Step deviants elicited significant MMNs in the context of Motion standards, although these stimuli could not be discriminated behaviourally. MMNs elicited by Step deviants in different acoustic contexts are discussed from the viewpoint of different brain processes underlying the discrimination of the abrupt ITD change. These results suggest that the early cortical mechanism of auditory motion processing reflected by MMN could not be considered as a spatial discriminator of the onset/offset stimulus positions, that is, a simple onset-offset detector. Combining psychoacoustic data with MMN results we may conclude that motion discrimination in auditory system might be better at the preattentive level. Copyright

  18. Does fundamental-frequency discrimination measure virtual pitch discrimination?

    PubMed

    Micheyl, Christophe; Divis, Kristin; Wrobleski, David M; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2010-10-01

    Studies of pitch perception often involve measuring difference limens for complex tones (DLCs) that differ in fundamental frequency (F0). These measures are thought to reflect F0 discrimination and to provide an indirect measure of subjective pitch strength. However, in many situations discrimination may be based on cues other than the pitch or the F0, such as differences in the frequencies of individual components or timbre (brightness). Here, DLCs were measured for harmonic and inharmonic tones under various conditions, including a randomized or fixed lowest harmonic number, with and without feedback. The inharmonic tones were produced by shifting the frequencies of all harmonics upwards by 6.25%, 12.5%, or 25% of F0. It was hypothesized that, if DLCs reflect residue-pitch discrimination, these frequency-shifted tones, which produced a weaker and more ambiguous pitch than would yield larger DLCs than the harmonic tones. However, if DLCs reflect comparisons of component pitches, or timbre, they should not be systematically influenced by frequency shifting. The results showed larger DLCs and more scattered pitch matches for inharmonic than for harmonic complexes, confirming that the inharmonic tones produced a less consistent pitch than the harmonic tones, and consistent with the idea that DLCs reflect F0 pitch discrimination.

  19. Proving Discrimination Under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aron, Terry W.

    1975-01-01

    This note reviews the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA), emphasizing prohibited employment practices, litigation procedures, and remedial measures for violations of the act. Problems typically faced in ADEA litigation are also explored with focus on the employee's burden of proof. (LBH)

  20. Stigma: ignorance, prejudice or discrimination?

    PubMed

    Thornicroft, Graham; Rose, Diana; Kassam, Aliya; Sartorius, Norman

    2007-03-01

    The term stigma refers to problems of knowledge (ignorance), attitudes (prejudice) and behaviour (discrimination). Most research in this area has been based on attitude surveys, media representations of mental illness and violence, has only focused upon schizophrenia, has excluded direct participation by service users, and has included few intervention studies. However, there is evidence that interventions to improve public knowledge about mental illness can be effective. The main challenge in future is to identify which interventions will produce behaviour change to reduce discrimination against people with mental illness.

  1. Task-dependent color discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poirson, Allen B.; Wandell, Brian A.

    1990-01-01

    When color video displays are used in time-critical applications (e.g., head-up displays, video control panels), the observer must discriminate among briefly presented targets seen within a complex spatial scene. Color-discrimination threshold are compared by using two tasks. In one task the observer makes color matches between two halves of a continuously displayed bipartite field. In a second task the observer detects a color target in a set of briefly presented objects. The data from both tasks are well summarized by ellipsoidal isosensitivity contours. The fitted ellipsoids differ both in their size, which indicates an absolute sensitivity difference, and orientation, which indicates a relative sensitivity difference.

  2. Model discrimination using data collaboration.

    PubMed

    Feeley, Ryan; Frenklach, Michael; Onsum, Matt; Russi, Trent; Arkin, Adam; Packard, Andrew

    2006-06-01

    This paper introduces a practical data-driven method to discriminate among large-scale kinetic reaction models. The approach centers around a computable measure of model/data mismatch. We introduce two provably convergent algorithms that were developed to accommodate large ranges of uncertainty in the model parameters. The algorithms are demonstrated on a simple toy example and a methane combustion model with more than 100 uncertain parameters. They are subsequently used to discriminate between two models for a contemporarily studied biological signaling network.

  3. Task-dependent color discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poirson, Allen B.; Wandell, Brian A.

    1990-01-01

    When color video displays are used in time-critical applications (e.g., head-up displays, video control panels), the observer must discriminate among briefly presented targets seen within a complex spatial scene. Color-discrimination threshold are compared by using two tasks. In one task the observer makes color matches between two halves of a continuously displayed bipartite field. In a second task the observer detects a color target in a set of briefly presented objects. The data from both tasks are well summarized by ellipsoidal isosensitivity contours. The fitted ellipsoids differ both in their size, which indicates an absolute sensitivity difference, and orientation, which indicates a relative sensitivity difference.

  4. Dyadic Effects of Stigma and Discrimination on Distress in Chinese HIV Discordant Couples.

    PubMed

    Yu, Nancy Xiaonan; Chan, Cecilia L W; Zhang, Jianxin

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigated the dyadic effects of stigma and discrimination on distress in Chinese couples affected by HIV. Chinese people living with HIV (PLHIV) and their seronegative spouses (N = 119 couples) participated in this study. The PLHIV completed measures on stigma beliefs about being better off dead and dignity-related distress. The spouses completed measures on perceived discrimination and exclusion and caregiver distress. The results showed that there was no significant correlation between the PLHIV's stigma beliefs and the spouses' perceived discrimination and exclusion. The couples showed significant associations in their dignity-related distress and caregiver distress. Analyses using the actor-partner interdependence model showed that PLHIV's stigma beliefs and the spouses' perceived discrimination and exclusion both had significant actor and partner effects on distress within the dyad. Psychosocial interventions aiming for distress reduction in the context of HIV should tackle stigma and discrimination and target the couples rather than solely the patient or spouse.

  5. Protective and Promotive Effects of Latino Early Adolescents' Cultural Assets Against Multiple Types of Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, Alyson M; Stein, Gabriela L; Supple, Andrew J; Gonzalez, Laura M; Kiang, Lisa

    2017-08-21

    Given adversity associated with discrimination, it is important to identify culturally relevant factors that may protect against its harmful effects. Using latent variable interactions, this study examined the moderating effects of cultural assets on the association between multiple types of discrimination and adolescents' adjustment. Participants included 174 seventh- and eighth-grade Latino adolescents (51% girls); majority were of Mexican origin. Peer discrimination was associated with higher internalizing symptoms, whereas cultural assets predicted higher academic motivation above and beyond racial-ethnic discrimination, demonstrating a promotive effect. Adolescents' Latino cultural assets also protected against higher levels of externalizing symptoms in the context of high peer discrimination and foreigner objectification. The discussion focuses on the conceptual and applied implications of these findings. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2017 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  6. Socioeconomic Status Discrimination is Associated with Poor Sleep in African-Americans, but not Whites

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyke, Miriam E.; Vaccarino, Viola; Quyyumi, Arshed A.; Lewis, Tené T.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Research on self-reported experiences of discrimination and health has grown in recent decades, but has largely focused on racial discrimination or overall mistreatment. Less is known about reports of discrimination on the basis of socioeconomic status (SES), despite the fact that SES is one of the most powerful social determinants of health. Objective We sought to examine the cross-sectional association between self-reported SES discrimination and subjective sleep quality, an emerging risk factor for disease. We further examined whether associations differed by race or SES. Methods We used logistic and linear regression to analyze data from a population-based cohort of 425 African-American and White middle-aged adults (67.5% female) in the Southeastern United States. SES discrimination was assessed with a modified Experiences of Discrimination Scale and poor subjective sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Results In logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, and education, reports of SES discrimination were associated with poor sleep quality among African-Americans (OR=2.39, 95% CI =1.35, 4.24), but not Whites (OR=1.03, 95% CI= 0.57, 1.87), and the race × SES discrimination interaction was significant at p=0.04. After additional adjustments for reports of racial and gender discrimination, other psychosocial stressors, body mass index and depressive symptoms, SES discrimination remained a significant predictor of poor sleep among African-Americans, but not Whites. In contrast to findings by race, SES discrimination and sleep associations did not significantly differ by SES. Conclusion Findings suggest that reports of SES discrimination may be an important risk factor for subjective sleep quality among African-Americans and support the need to consider the health impact of SES-related stressors in the context of race. PMID:26896878

  7. Socioeconomic status discrimination is associated with poor sleep in African-Americans, but not Whites.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, Miriam E; Vaccarino, Viola; Quyyumi, Arshed A; Lewis, Tené T

    2016-03-01

    Research on self-reported experiences of discrimination and health has grown in recent decades, but has largely focused on racial discrimination or overall mistreatment. Less is known about reports of discrimination on the basis of socioeconomic status (SES), despite the fact that SES is one of the most powerful social determinants of health. We sought to examine the cross-sectional association between self-reported SES discrimination and subjective sleep quality, an emerging risk factor for disease. We further examined whether associations differed by race or SES. We used logistic and linear regression to analyze data from a population-based cohort of 425 African-American and White middle-aged adults (67.5% female) in the Southeastern United States. SES discrimination was assessed with a modified Experiences of Discrimination Scale and poor subjective sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. In logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, and education, reports of SES discrimination were associated with poor sleep quality among African-Americans (OR = 2.39 95%, CI = 1.35, 4.24), but not Whites (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 0.57, 1.87), and the race × SES discrimination interaction was significant at p = 0.04. After additional adjustments for reports of racial and gender discrimination, other psychosocial stressors, body mass index and depressive symptoms, SES discrimination remained a significant predictor of poor sleep among African-Americans, but not Whites. In contrast to findings by race, SES discrimination and sleep associations did not significantly differ by SES. Findings suggest that reports of SES discrimination may be an important risk factor for subjective sleep quality among African-Americans and support the need to consider the health impact of SES-related stressors in the context of race. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Phenotypic responses to social defeat are associated with differences in cued and contextual fear discrimination.

    PubMed

    Dulka, Brooke N; Lynch, Joseph F; Latsko, Maeson S; Mulvany, Jessica L; Jasnow, Aaron M

    2015-09-01

    Conflict among individuals is one of the most common forms of stressors experienced across a variety of species, including humans. Social defeat models in mice produce two phenotypic behavioral responses characterized by prolonged social avoidance (susceptibility) or continued social interaction (resistance). The resistant phenotype has been proposed as a model of resilience to chronic stress-induced depression in humans. Previously, we have found that mice that are resistant to social defeat stress display significant impairments in extinction learning and retention, suggesting that continued social interaction following the experience of social defeat may be associated with maladaptive fear responses. Here, we examined how individual differences in response to social defeat may be related to differences in cued and context fear discrimination. Following defeat, resistant mice showed increased fear to a neutral cued stimulus (CS-) compared to control and susceptible mice, but were still able to significantly discriminate between the CS+ and CS-. Likewise, both phenotypes were generally able to discriminate between the training context and neutral context at all retention intervals tested (1, 5, 14 days). However, susceptible mice displayed significantly better discrimination compared to resistant and non-defeated control mice when assessing the discrimination ratio. Thus, at a time when most animals begin exhibiting generalization to contextual cues, susceptible mice retain the ability to discriminate between fearful and neutral contexts. These data suggest that the differences observed in context and cued discrimination between susceptible and resistant mice may be related to differences in their coping strategies in response to social defeat. In particular, resistance or resilience to social defeat as traditionally characterized may be associated with altered inhibitory learning. Understanding why individual differences arise in response to stress, including

  9. [Technical assist devices : Perspectives and new developments].

    PubMed

    Wallmüller, C; Stratil, P; Schober, A

    2016-11-01

    The development of technical assist devices in the context of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) reaches back to the early roots of modern resuscitation research. This article covers the subjects of extracorporeal CPR (ECPR), including extracorporeal life support (ECLS), emergency ECLS (EECLS) and mechanical resuscitation devices. Specifically, the potential use of active compression-decompression CPR (ACD-CPR), impedance threshold devices (ITD) and capnography as additional measures during resuscitation are described in detail. Furthermore, the article presents a compact preview of the potential future developments of technical aids in the field of life support and postresuscitation care.

  10. Confronting as autonomy promotion: Speaking up against discrimination and psychological well-being in racial minorities.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Diana T; Himmelstein, Mary S; Young, Danielle M; Albuja, Analia F; Garcia, Julie A

    2016-09-01

    Few studies have considered confrontation in the context of coping with discriminatory experiences. These studies test for the first time whether confronting racial discrimination is associated with greater psychological well-being and physical health through the promotion of autonomy. In two separate samples of racial minorities who had experienced racial discrimination, confrontation was associated with greater psychological well-being, and this relationship was mediated by autonomy promotion. These findings did not extend to physical health symptoms. These studies provide preliminary evidence that confrontation may aid in the process of regaining autonomy after experiencing discrimination and therefore promote well-being. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Attributions to discrimination and depression among Latino/as: the mediating role of competence.

    PubMed

    Torres, Lucas

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the role of attributions to discrimination and competence in predicting depression among a sample of 93 Latino/a adults. The major findings showed that attributions to discrimination were related to decreases in both general competence and intercultural competence, which were in turn associated with increases in depressive symptoms. This pattern of results suggests that general and intercultural competence partially mediated the relationship between attributions to discrimination and depression. The findings are discussed within the context of the cultural adaptation process and factors that ameliorate Latino/a mental health. In addition, theoretical and practical implications are outlined along with areas of future research.

  12. Measuring the effect of ethnic and non-ethnic discrimination on Europeans' self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Galvez, Javier

    2016-04-01

    The study of perceived discrimination based on race and ethnic traits belongs to a long-held tradition in this field, but recent studies have found that non-ethnic discrimination based on factors such as gender, disability or age is also a crucial predictor of health outcomes. Using data from the European Social Survey (2010), and applying Boolean Factor Analysis and Ordered Logistic Regression models, this study is aimed to compare how ethnic and non-ethnic types of discrimination might affect self-rated health in the European context. We found that non-ethnic types of discrimination produce stronger differences on health outcomes. This result indicates that the probabilities of presenting a poor state of health are significantly higher when individuals feel they are being discriminated against for social or demographic conditions (gender, age, sexuality or disability) rather than for ethnic reasons (nationality, race, ethnicity, language or religiosity). This study offers a clear comparison of health inequalities based on ethnic and non-ethnic types of discrimination in the European context, overcoming analytical based on binary indicators and simple measures of discrimination.

  13. [Age discrimination. Point of view of the professionals].

    PubMed

    Ribera Casado, Jose Manuel; Bustillos, Antonio; Guerra Vaquero, Ana Ilenia; Huici Casal, Carmen; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    It is generally believed that legislation is an essential resource in the prevention of discriminatory behaviour against older people. This study first examines the Spanish legislation for potential age discrimination and then uses the C-EVE-D questionnaire to ask professionals in social work and health care settings the extent to what certain ageist behaviours described in the questionnaire are observed in practice. The field study was carried out with professionals in geriatrics and gerontology, who are members of Spanish Society for Geriatrics and Gerontology (SEGG). The EVE discrimination questionnaire consists of 28 items which investigate the existence of age discrimination in medical and social care contexts. A total of 174 people (63% women; mean age: 45.6 years) took part in the study, with a mean professional experience of 17.2 years. Doctors made up 59% of the sample, psychologists 19%, with the rest coming from other professions. The first 20 discrimination items of the EVE-D questionnaire were significantly positively reported by more than 60% of the sample. Although Spanish legislation, from the constitution down to the rules that govern social and health care settings, clearly prohibits any kind of discrimination with regard to age, our results show that Spanish professionals most closely involved in the care of older people perceive both direct and indirect age discrimination. Furthermore, evidence was found of prejudice in the treatment of older people as a phenomenon in day-to-day health and social services care, both when analysing medical cases and, to a greater extent, cases of a more general nature and/or relating to co-existence. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Preferential Remedies for Employment Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry T.; Zaretsky, Barry L.

    1975-01-01

    An overview of the problem of preferential remedies to achieve equal employment opportunities for women and minority groups. Contends that "color blindness" will not end discrimination but that some form of "color conscious" affirmative action program must be employed. Temporary preferential treatment is justified, according to…

  15. Spatial layout affects speed discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verghese, P.; Stone, L. S.

    1997-01-01

    We address a surprising result in a previous study of speed discrimination with multiple moving gratings: discrimination thresholds decreased when the number of stimuli was increased, but remained unchanged when the area of a single stimulus was increased [Verghese & Stone (1995). Vision Research, 35, 2811-2823]. In this study, we manipulated the spatial- and phase relationship between multiple grating patches to determine their effect on speed discrimination thresholds. In a fusion experiment, we merged multiple stimulus patches, in stages, into a single patch. Thresholds increased as the patches were brought closer and their phase relationship was adjusted to be consistent with a single patch. Thresholds increased further still as these patches were fused into a single patch. In a fission experiment, we divided a single large patch into multiple patches by superimposing a cross with luminance equal to that of the background. Thresholds decreased as the large patch was divided into quadrants and decreased further as the quadrants were maximally separated. However, when the cross luminance was darker than the background, it was perceived as an occluder and thresholds, on average, were unchanged from that for the single large patch. A control experiment shows that the observed trend in discrimination thresholds is not due to the differences in perceived speed of the stimuli. These results suggest that the parsing of the visual image into entities affects the combination of speed information across space, and that each discrete entity effectively provides a single independent estimate of speed.

  16. Preferential Remedies for Employment Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry T.; Zaretsky, Barry L.

    1975-01-01

    An overview of the problem of preferential remedies to achieve equal employment opportunities for women and minority groups. Contends that "color blindness" will not end discrimination but that some form of "color conscious" affirmative action program must be employed. Temporary preferential treatment is justified, according to…

  17. Experiencing discrimination increases risk taking.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Jeremy P; Koslov, Katrina; Nock, Matthew K; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2013-02-01

    Prior research has revealed racial disparities in health outcomes and health-compromising behaviors, such as smoking and drug abuse. It has been suggested that discrimination contributes to such disparities, but the mechanisms through which this might occur are not well understood. In the research reported here, we examined whether the experience of discrimination affects acute physiological stress responses and increases risk-taking behavior. Black and White participants each received rejecting feedback from partners who were either of their own race (in-group rejection) or of a different race (out-group rejection, which could be interpreted as discrimination). Physiological (cardiovascular and neuroendocrine) changes, cognition (memory and attentional bias), affect, and risk-taking behavior were assessed. Significant participant race × partner race interactions were observed. Cross-race rejection, compared with same-race rejection, was associated with lower levels of cortisol, increased cardiac output, decreased vascular resistance, greater anger, increased attentional bias, and more risk-taking behavior. These data suggest that perceived discrimination is associated with distinct profiles of physiological reactivity, affect, cognitive processing, and risk taking, implicating direct and indirect pathways to health disparities.

  18. Macaque Monkeys Discriminate Pitch Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosch, Michael; Selezneva, Elena; Bucks, Cornelia; Scheich, Henning

    2004-01-01

    This study demonstrates that non-human primates can categorize the direction of the pitch change of tones in a sequence. Two "Macaca fascicularis" were trained in a positive-reinforcement behavioral paradigm in which they listened to sequences of a variable number of different acoustic items. The training of discriminating pitch direction was…

  19. Spatial layout affects speed discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verghese, P.; Stone, L. S.

    1997-01-01

    We address a surprising result in a previous study of speed discrimination with multiple moving gratings: discrimination thresholds decreased when the number of stimuli was increased, but remained unchanged when the area of a single stimulus was increased [Verghese & Stone (1995). Vision Research, 35, 2811-2823]. In this study, we manipulated the spatial- and phase relationship between multiple grating patches to determine their effect on speed discrimination thresholds. In a fusion experiment, we merged multiple stimulus patches, in stages, into a single patch. Thresholds increased as the patches were brought closer and their phase relationship was adjusted to be consistent with a single patch. Thresholds increased further still as these patches were fused into a single patch. In a fission experiment, we divided a single large patch into multiple patches by superimposing a cross with luminance equal to that of the background. Thresholds decreased as the large patch was divided into quadrants and decreased further as the quadrants were maximally separated. However, when the cross luminance was darker than the background, it was perceived as an occluder and thresholds, on average, were unchanged from that for the single large patch. A control experiment shows that the observed trend in discrimination thresholds is not due to the differences in perceived speed of the stimuli. These results suggest that the parsing of the visual image into entities affects the combination of speed information across space, and that each discrete entity effectively provides a single independent estimate of speed.

  20. Haptic Visual Discrimination and Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarron, Lawrence; Horn, Paul W.

    1979-01-01

    The Haptic Visual Discrimination Test of tactual-visual information processing was administered to 39 first-graders, along with standard intelligence, academic potential, and spatial integration tests. Results revealed consistently significant associations between the importance of parieto-occipital areas for organizing sensory data as well as for…

  1. Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark C.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews court cases in 1999 related to disability discrimination in higher education focusing on the Americans with Disabilities Act and section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. The "Garrett" case regarding Eleventh Amendment immunity is the case most likely to be significant in the development of the law of disability…

  2. Sex Discrimination in Employment Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Univ. Extension.

    The conference on sex discrimination in employment practices was held at the University of California at Los Angeles in cooperation with the Women's Bureau of the Department of Labor. Speeches included: (1) "New Legislation--New Action" by Rosalind K. Loring and William Foster, (2) "Compliance Policies and Procedures for Business and Industry" by…

  3. Macaque Monkeys Discriminate Pitch Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosch, Michael; Selezneva, Elena; Bucks, Cornelia; Scheich, Henning

    2004-01-01

    This study demonstrates that non-human primates can categorize the direction of the pitch change of tones in a sequence. Two "Macaca fascicularis" were trained in a positive-reinforcement behavioral paradigm in which they listened to sequences of a variable number of different acoustic items. The training of discriminating pitch direction was…

  4. Discriminant Analysis for Content Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John H., Jr.

    A series of experiments was performed to investigate the effectiveness and utility of automatically classifying documents through the use of multiple discriminant functions. Classification is accomplished by computing the distance from the mean vector of each category to the vector of observed frequencies of a document and assigning the document…

  5. Tenure, Discrimination, and the Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leap, Terry L.

    As more women and people of color hold academic jobs, the incidence of illegal employment discrimination in reappointment, tenure, and promotion decisions also increases. This book addresses how individual faculty members can defend themselves against unfair practices and how universities and colleges can protect themselves from being named in…

  6. Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark C.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews court cases in 1999 related to disability discrimination in higher education focusing on the Americans with Disabilities Act and section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. The "Garrett" case regarding Eleventh Amendment immunity is the case most likely to be significant in the development of the law of disability…

  7. A Talk on Sex Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Irving C.

    The topic of this speech covers the 1972 amendments to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the subsequent court cases dealing with sex discrimination. The cases discussed cover maternity leaves for tenured as well as untenured teachers and other public employees. The issues basic to these cases involve mandatory maternity leaves at…

  8. Discriminants of Editorial Decision Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, W. Keith; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Explores editorial decision processes and outcomes using manuscripts reviewed for "Rural Sociology" from 1978-81. Examines 10 characteristics of successful and unsuccessful manuscripts and finds 5 characteristics constituting a discriminant function model: number of review rounds, author membership in Rural Sociological Society, referee…

  9. Women, Work and Age Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGooyer, Janice

    Millions of older women who work face combined age and sex discrimination. Fifty percent more women aged 45-54 (3.5 million) will enter the job market in the next two decades and face the same problems. Illegal discriminatory practices encountered by older women when job hunting include exclusion from a job opportunity because of a male selecting…

  10. Visualization of Term Discrimination Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jin; Wolfram, Dietmar

    2001-01-01

    Discusses information visualization techniques and introduces a visual term discrimination value analysis method using a document density space within a distance-angle-based visual information retrieval environment. Explains that applications of these methods facilitate more effective assignment of term weights to index terms within documents and…

  11. Legitimating Racial Discrimination: Emotions, Not Beliefs, Best Predict Discrimination in a Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Talaska, Cara A; Fiske, Susan T; Chaiken, Shelly

    2008-09-01

    Investigations of racial bias have emphasized stereotypes and other beliefs as central explanatory mechanisms and as legitimating discrimination. In recent theory and research, emotional prejudices have emerged as another, more direct predictor of discrimination. A new comprehensive meta-analysis of 57 racial attitude-discrimination studies finds a moderate relationship between overall attitudes and discrimination. Emotional prejudices are twices as closely related to racial discrimination as stereotypes and beliefs are. Moreover, emotional prejudices are closely related to both observed and self-reported discrimination, whereas stereotypes and beliefs are related only to self-reported discrimination. Implications for justifying discrimination are discussed.

  12. Legitimating Racial Discrimination: Emotions, Not Beliefs, Best Predict Discrimination in a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Talaska, Cara A.; Chaiken, Shelly

    2013-01-01

    Investigations of racial bias have emphasized stereotypes and other beliefs as central explanatory mechanisms and as legitimating discrimination. In recent theory and research, emotional prejudices have emerged as another, more direct predictor of discrimination. A new comprehensive meta-analysis of 57 racial attitude-discrimination studies finds a moderate relationship between overall attitudes and discrimination. Emotional prejudices are twices as closely related to racial discrimination as stereotypes and beliefs are. Moreover, emotional prejudices are closely related to both observed and self-reported discrimination, whereas stereotypes and beliefs are related only to self-reported discrimination. Implications for justifying discrimination are discussed. PMID:24052687

  13. Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Adolescents' Well-Being: The Role of Cross-Ethnic Friendships and Friends' Experiences of Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Aprile D.; Wang, Yijie

    2017-01-01

    There is an extensive body of work documenting the negative socioemotional and academic consequences of perceiving racial/ethnic discrimination during adolescence, but little is known about how the larger peer context conditions such effects. Using peer network data from 252 eighth graders (85% Latino, 11% African American, 5% other…

  14. SDQ: discriminative validity and diagnostic potential

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Thaysa B. F.; Osório, Flávia L.; Loureiro, Sonia R.

    2015-01-01

    The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was designed to screen for behavioral problems in youths based on cutoff points that favor the instrument's diagnostic sensitivity. The present study aimed to analyze the discriminative validity of the SDQ to identify behavioral difficulties and prosocial resources in school-age children compared with the diagnostic data collected by the corresponding sections of the Development and Well-being Assessment (DAWBA). In addition, new cutoff points that value specificity were defined for the SDQ scales, exploring its diagnostic potential. This study was conducted in Brazil and assessed a community convenience sample that consisted of 120 children aged 6–12 years who were not under psychological/psychiatric treatment. The mothers of the participants also completed a sociodemographic questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to clinically characterize the sample. A ROC curve was used to assess the discriminant validity of the SDQ, and new cutoff points were established to maximize the instrument's specificity. The new cutoff points enabled a significant increase in specificity without a significant loss of sensitivity, which favors approaches based on measures of screening and diagnosis yet does not damage the instrument's screening capacity. The following increases were observed: 100% for the depressive disorder scale (cutoff point = 7), 95.1% for the generalized anxiety disorder scale (cutoff point = 7), 46.6% for the conduct disorder scale (cutoff point = 6), 19.2% for the hyperactive disorder scale (cutoff point = 8), and 27.6% for the antisocial personality disorder scale (cutoff point = 6). A cutoff point of 8 was applied to the prosocial behavior scale, which exhibited a 62.1% increase in specificity. The use of more specific cutoff points generated more accurate results and favored SDQ's use, particularly in contexts of care that require more precise and faster procedures for identification of problems

  15. Datacomputer Project Technical Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-02-28

    34IM " "■ mmmam DATACOMPUTER PROJECT TECHNICAL REPORT Computer Corporation of America AD/A-002 083 Prepared for: Army Research Office...021 Computer Corporation of America 575 Technology Square Cambridge, Massachusetts Ü2139 0 DATACOMPUTER PROJECT TECHNICAL REPORT August 1...applications and user programs. The present document is the final technical report under Contract No. DAHC04-71-C-0Q11. The project is continuing

  16. Teaching age and discrimination: a life course perspective.

    PubMed

    Collier, Elizabeth; Foster, Celeste

    2014-08-01

    Age discrimination in health and social care is a universal issue with significant potential ramifications for practice, and one which should be explicitly addressed in health and social care pre-registration education. However, developing teaching and learning strategies to effectively address this subject is complex given that implicit/indirect discrimination based upon tacit beliefs and assumptions, is problematic and difficult to tackle. This paper discusses the importance of teaching age and discrimination to student nurses in the context of the development of a novel approach to this aspect of education from a life course perspective. This discussion is based personal and professional reflections of the authors on the delivery of the teaching session over a number of years with approximately 500 student mental health nurses to date. The emerging themes of this are reported here and their implications for education and practice discussed. Exploring age and discrimination in relation to children and young people and older people in particular has enabled student nurses to explore the concept as one which requires critical reflection. This promotes awareness of usually unexamined personal attitudes in relation to age in order to enhance the potential for good experiences of health services for all people in need of them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ratio-dependent quantity discrimination in quorum sensing ants.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Adam L

    2014-11-01

    To optimise behaviour, organisms require information on the quantity of various components of their environment, and the ability of animals to discriminate quantity has been a subject of considerable recent interest. This body of research hints at generalised mechanisms of quantity discrimination in vertebrates, but data on invertebrates are still relatively scarce. In this study, I present data on the quantification abilities of an invertebrate in a novel context: quorum sensing. Quorum sensing generates a behavioural response in group-living animals once a threshold number of individuals, a 'quorum', is detected performing some key action. This process forms the basis for consensus decision-making in many species and allows group-living organisms to decide among mutually exclusive alternatives without compromising group integrity. To determine when a quorum is achieved, individuals must assess the number of group members performing the key action. Social insects employ quorum decisions to decide among potential nest sites when searching for a new home. In the Japanese ant, Myrmecina nipponica, quorum thresholds increase with colony size, providing an opportunity to assess the accuracy of quantity discrimination at different stimulus magnitudes. In this study, I demonstrate that the variation in individual quorum thresholds around the mean increases with increasing colony size. This indicates that the quantity discrimination ability of ants decreases with stimulus magnitude, and thus exhibits ratio dependence in the manner of Weber's Law. This may have implications for the accuracy of consensus decision-making and other collective actions in a range of group-living organisms.

  18. Adrenergic modulation of olfactory bulb circuitry affects odor discrimination.

    PubMed

    Doucette, Wilder; Milder, Julie; Restrepo, Diego

    2007-08-01

    A rodent's survival depends upon its ability to perceive odor cues necessary to guide mate selection, sexual behavior, foraging, territorial formation, and predator avoidance. Arguably, the need to discriminate odor cues in a complex olfactory environment requires a highly adaptable olfactory system. Indeed, it has been proposed that context-dependent modulation of the initial sensory relay could alter olfactory perception. Interestingly, 40% of the adrenergic innervation from the locus coeruleus, fibers that are activated by contextual cues, innervates the first relay station in the olfactory system (the main olfactory bulb). Here we utilize restricted pharmacological inhibition of olfactory bulb noradrenergic receptors in awake-behaving animals. We show that combined blockade of alpha and beta adrenergic receptors does not impair two-odor discrimination behavior per se but does impair the ability to discriminate perceptually similar odors. Thus, contextual cues conveyed by noradrenergic fibers alter processing before the second synapse in the olfactory cortex, resulting in tuning of the ability to discriminate between similar odors.

  19. Constructions of equality and discrimination in professional men's talk.

    PubMed

    Riley, Sarah C E

    2002-09-01

    The contradiction between support for egalitarian employment practices and the maintenance of occupational androcentrism was examined by discursively analysing constructions of equality and discrimination from 46 interviews with professional men. Accounts of equality were produced through the interpretative repertories of 'interchangeability', 'individual ability' and 'pragmatism'. This enables, first, an understanding of discrimination as 'non-individualism', a term used to describe the treatment of social group memberships as salient, and second, defined interventions based on a structural analysis of equality as discrimination. These repertoires minimized the gendered nature of men and women's experiences and negated the use of context in favour of an abstract principle of individualism. Participants warranted their accounts through feminist arguments, two-sided argument formulations, and the construction of a dichotomy between individualist-equality and structuralist-discrimination-supporting the material practice of 'affirmative non-action', the active support of non-action. Relating the findings to equal opportunity policy, occupational cultural analyses and the discursive production of 'new sexism', the article identifies the absence of an account that conceptualizes both individual and structural facets of equality.

  20. Motion words selectively modulate direction discrimination sensitivity for threshold motion

    PubMed Central

    Pavan, Andrea; Skujevskis, Māris; Baggio, Giosuè

    2013-01-01

    Can speech selectively modulate the sensitivity of a sensory system so that, in the presence of a suitable linguistic context, the discrimination of certain perceptual features becomes more or less likely? In this study, participants heard upward or downward motion words followed by a single visual field of random dots moving upwards or downwards. The time interval between the onsets of the auditory and the visual stimuli was varied parametrically. Motion direction could be either discriminable (suprathreshold motion) or non-discriminable (threshold motion). Participants had to judge whether the dots were moving upward or downward. Results show a double dissociation between discrimination sensitivity (d′) and reaction times depending on whether vertical motion was above or at threshold. With suprathreshold motion, responses were faster for congruent directions of words and dots, but sensitivity was equal across conditions. With threshold motion, sensitivity was higher for congruent directions of words and dots, but responses were equally fast across conditions. The observed differences in sensitivity and response times were largest when the dots appeared 450 ms after word onset, that is, consistently with electrophysiology, at the time the up/down semantics of the word had become available. These data suggest that word meanings can alter the balance between signal and noise within the visual system and affect the perception of low-level sensory features. PMID:23596407

  1. Advanced Radiometry for High Discrimination Explosive Fireball Discrimination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    focal plane array at 30 Hz observed in the near infrared spectrum and a Canon XL-1 3 chip video camera provided audio-visual documentation of the test...John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2007. 6. Smith, B. (1996). How an FTIR works. Fundamentals of fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (First ed., pp. 15-22...explosive (HE) fireball emission phenomenological model in the mid-wave infrared (MWIR) spectrum to perform discrimination. This consists of five

  2. Postscript: Distinguishing between Temporal Context and Short-Term Store

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Marc W.; Kahana, Michael J.; Sederberg, Per B.

    2008-01-01

    Space does not allow us to make detailed rebuttals to Davelaar, Usher, Haarmann, and Goshen-Gottstein's criticisms of the temporal context model's (TCM-A's) ability to account for dissociations between immediate and delayed recall nor to explain how TCM could account for list discrimination experiments. We agree that future work is needed to reach…

  3. Discrimination of foreign language speech contrasts by English monolinguals and French/English bilinguals.

    PubMed

    McKelvie-Sebileau, Pippa; Davis, Chris

    2014-05-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether late French/English bilinguals are able to utilize knowledge of bilabial stop contrasts that exist in each of their separate languages to discriminate bilabial stop contrasts from a new language (Thai). Secondary aims were to determine associations between bilabial stop consonant production in the L1 and the L2, between language learning factors and production and discrimination, and to compare English bilinguals' and monolinguals' discrimination. Three Thai bilabial stop consonant pairs differentiated by Voice Onset Time (VOT) (combinations of [b], [p], and [p(h)]) were presented to 28 French-English bilinguals, 25 English-French bilinguals, and 43 English monolinguals in an AX discrimination task. It was hypothesized that L2 experience would facilitate discrimination of contrasts that were phonemic in the L2 but not in the L1 for bilinguals. Only limited support for this hypothesis was found. However, results indicate that high production proficiency bilinguals had higher discrimination of the phonemic L2 contrasts (non-phonemic in L1). Discrimination patterns indicate lasting L1 influence, with similarity between unknown foreign language contrasts and L1 contrasts influencing discrimination rates. Production results show evidence for L2 influence in the L1. Results are discussed in the context of current speech perception models.

  4. Qualitative analysis of mental health service users' reported experiences of discrimination.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, S; Pinfold, V; Cotney, J; Couperthwaite, L; Matthews, J; Barret, K; Warren, S; Corker, E; Rose, D; Thornicroft, G; Henderson, C

    2016-08-01

    To better understand mental health service users' experiences of stigma and discrimination in different settings. An annual telephone survey of people with a mental health diagnosis conducted to evaluate the Time to Change antistigma campaign in England. Of 985 people who participated in 2013, 84 took part in a qualitative interview which was audio recorded. Of these, 50 interviews were transcribed and thematically analysed to explore accounts of discrimination. We analysed common types of behaviour; motivations ascribed to the discriminators; expectations of what fair treatment would have been; and the impact of discrimination on participants. Discrimination was most common in five contexts: welfare benefits, mental health care, physical health care, family and friends. Participants often found it hard to assess whether a behaviour was discriminatory or not. Lack of support, whether by public services or by friends and family, was often experienced as discrimination, reflecting an expectation that positive behaviours and reasonable adjustments should be offered in response to mental health needs. The impact of discrimination across different settings was often perceived by participants as aggravating their mental health, and there is thus a need to treat discrimination as a health issue, not just a social justice issue. © 2016 The Authors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Beyond the barriers: racial discrimination and use of complementary and alternative medicine among Black Americans.

    PubMed

    Shippee, Tetyana Pylypiv; Schafer, Markus H; Ferraro, Kenneth F

    2012-04-01

    This article examines whether self-reported racial discrimination is associated with greater use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and assesses whether the effects of reported racial discrimination are specific to the setting in which the unfair treatment occurred (i.e., medical or nonmedical settings). Data were drawn from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) of Black adults aged 25 and older at baseline (N=201). Analyses account for multiple forms of discrimination: major lifetime discriminatory events and everyday discrimination (more commonplace negative occurrences). Using logistic and negative binomial regression, results reveal that racial discrimination was associated with a higher likelihood of using any type of CAM as well as using more modalities of CAM. Also, both discrimination in health care and discrimination in nonmedical contexts predicted greater use of CAM. The findings underscore the tenet that health care choices, while influenced by health status and availability of health care resources, are also shaped by perceived barriers. The experience of racial discrimination among Black people is associated with greater use of alternative means of health care, as a way to cope with the barriers they experience in institutional settings in the United States. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Racial Discrimination in the British Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firth, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Contains results of a study of racial discrimination in the British job market for accountants and financial executives. Results show that considerable discrimination remains several years after the adoption of the Race Relations Act of 1968. (CT)

  7. 14 CFR 1250.103 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1250.103 Section 1250.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN... Discrimination prohibited. ...

  8. 14 CFR 1250.103 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1250.103 Section 1250.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN... Discrimination prohibited. ...

  9. 14 CFR 1250.103 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 1250.103 Section 1250.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN... Discrimination prohibited. ...

  10. Newborns' Discrimination of Chromatic from Achromatic Stimuli.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Russell J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Two experiments assessed the extent of newborns' ability to discriminate color. Results imply that newborns have some, albeit limited, capacity to discriminate chromatic from achromatic stimuli, and hence, are at least dichromats. (Author/DR)

  11. 14 CFR 1250.103 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1250.103 Section 1250.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN... Discrimination prohibited....

  12. Context and the human microbiome.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Daniel; Birmingham, Amanda; Knight, Rob

    2015-11-04

    Human microbiome reference datasets provide epidemiological context for researchers, enabling them to uncover new insights into their own data through meta-analyses. In addition, large and comprehensive reference sets offer a means to develop or test hypotheses and can pave the way for addressing practical study design considerations such as sample size decisions. We discuss the importance of reference sets in human microbiome research, limitations of existing resources, technical challenges to employing reference sets, examples of their usage, and contributions of the American Gut Project to the development of a comprehensive reference set. Through engaging the general public, the American Gut Project aims to address many of the issues present in existing reference resources, characterizing health and disease, lifestyle, and dietary choices of the participants while extending its efforts globally through international collaborations.

  13. Multiple discriminations experienced by people living with HIV in France: results from the ANRS-Vespa2 study.

    PubMed

    Marsicano, Elise; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Lert, France; Aubrière, Cindy; Spire, Bruno; Hamelin, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Since the advent of AIDS, discrimination has remained at the core of the experience of people living with HIV (PLHIV). PLHIV who belong to minority groups are exposed to discrimination not only on the grounds of their HIV infection but also because of rejecting attitudes towards drug users, homosexuals and black people. This article aimed to measure the frequency of discrimination and assess its correlates among PLHIV in France. We used data from a national representative survey, the ANRS-Vespa2 study, conducted in France in 2011 among 3022 male and female HIV-positive patients followed at hospitals. Respondents answered a face-to-face questionnaire documenting their health status and living conditions. Discrimination was documented during the previous two years on the grounds of HIV infection, gender, country of birth, skin colour, sexual orientation, place of residence, and substance abuse in a variety of contexts. For each context, we performed logistic regressions on discrimination, controlling for socio-epidemiological group, age, education level and employment status. Discrimination is frequently experienced by PLHIV in France (26%), particularly when applying for a job (24%), interacting with family (11%) or seeking health services (8%). Women from sub-Saharan Africa reported the highest levels of discrimination, whereas heterosexual non-African men reported the lowest. Men who have sex with men experienced levels of discrimination that fell between those of these two groups. The major perceived reason for discrimination was HIV status (13%). Nationality, skin colour and sexual orientation were cited by 5% each, whereas gender was cited by 1% of respondents. Our analyses show that discrimination is a frequent and cross-cutting experience with differences across the various contexts and among the diverse subpopulations. The intertwining of HIV-related stigma with sexism, racism and homophobia needs to be addressed to understand why discrimination against

  14. The relationship between perceived discrimination and Generalized Anxiety Disorder among African Americans, Afro Caribbeans, and non-Hispanic Whites.

    PubMed

    Soto, José A; Dawson-Andoh, Nana A; BeLue, Rhonda

    2011-03-01

    The present study examined the relationship between frequency of race based and non-race based discrimination experiences and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) in a sample of 3570 African Americans, 1438 Afro Caribbeans, and 891 non-Hispanic Whites from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Because GAD and the experience of racial discrimination are both associated with symptoms of worry and tension, we expected race based discrimination to predict GAD prevalence for African Americans, but not other groups. We did not expect non-race based discrimination to predict GAD. Results showed that while more frequent experiences of non-race based discrimination predicted GAD for all groups, experiencing race based discrimination was associated with significantly higher odds of endorsing lifetime GAD for African Americans only. Results are interpreted in light of the different contexts that these three ethnic groups represent relative to their history within the United States as well as their present day circumstances.

  15. Context and Pavlovian conditioning.

    PubMed

    Landeira-Fernandez, J

    1996-02-01

    Procedurally, learning has to occur in a context. Several lines of evidence suggest that contextual stimuli actively affect learning and expression of the conditional response. The experimental context can become associated with the unconditional stimulus (US), especially when the US is presented in a context in the absence of a discrete conditional stimulus (CS). Moreover, context can modulate CS-US associations. Finally, it appears that context can become associated with the CS when it is presented before the CS-US training. The purpose of the present paper is to review some of the relevant literature that considers the context as an important feature of Pavlovian conditioning and to discuss some of the main learning theories that incorporate the context into their theoretical framework. The paper starts by mentioning historical positions that considered context an important variable in conditioning and then describes how the approach to contextual conditioning changed with the modern study of Pavlovian conditioning. Various forms of measurement of context conditioning are presented and the associative strength attached to context in several experimental paradigms is examined. The possible functions that context may acquire during conditioning are pointed out and related to major learning theories. Moreover, the effect of certain neurological manipulations on context conditioning is presented and these results are discussed in terms of possible functions that the context might acquire during Pavlovian conditioning. It is concluded that contextual stimuli acquire different functions during normal conditioning. A procedure in which animals are exposed to an aversive US immediately after they are placed in the experimental context is suggested as a useful control for the study of context conditioning.

  16. Limited taste discrimination in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Masek, Pavel; Scott, Kristin

    2010-08-17

    In the gustatory systems of mammals and flies, different populations of sensory cells recognize different taste modalities, such that there are cells that respond selectively to sugars and others to bitter compounds. This organization readily allows animals to distinguish compounds of different modalities but may limit the ability to distinguish compounds within one taste modality. Here, we developed a behavioral paradigm in Drosophila melanogaster to evaluate directly the tastes that a fly distinguishes. These studies reveal that flies do not discriminate among different sugars, or among different bitter compounds, based on chemical identity. Instead, flies show a limited ability to distinguish compounds within a modality based on intensity or palatability. Taste associative learning, similar to olfactory learning, requires the mushroom bodies, suggesting fundamental similarities in brain mechanisms underlying behavioral plasticity. Overall, these studies provide insight into the discriminative capacity of the Drosophila gustatory system and the modulation of taste behavior.

  17. Kernel Optimization in Discriminant Analysis

    PubMed Central

    You, Di; Hamsici, Onur C.; Martinez, Aleix M.

    2011-01-01

    Kernel mapping is one of the most used approaches to intrinsically derive nonlinear classifiers. The idea is to use a kernel function which maps the original nonlinearly separable problem to a space of intrinsically larger dimensionality where the classes are linearly separable. A major problem in the design of kernel methods is to find the kernel parameters that make the problem linear in the mapped representation. This paper derives the first criterion that specifically aims to find a kernel representation where the Bayes classifier becomes linear. We illustrate how this result can be successfully applied in several kernel discriminant analysis algorithms. Experimental results using a large number of databases and classifiers demonstrate the utility of the proposed approach. The paper also shows (theoretically and experimentally) that a kernel version of Subclass Discriminant Analysis yields the highest recognition rates. PMID:20820072

  18. School diversity and racial discrimination among African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Seaton, Eleanor K; Douglass, Sara

    2014-04-01

    The study presented here examined school context as a moderator in the relation between daily perceptions of racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. The sample included 75 Black adolescents who completed daily surveys for 14 days. The results indicated that approximately 97% of adolescents reported experiencing at least one discriminatory experience over the 2-week period. During the daily diary period, the 2-week average was 26 discriminatory experiences with a daily average of 2.5 discriminatory events. The results indicated perceptions of racial discrimination were linked to increased depressive symptoms on the following day. This relation was apparent for Black youth attending predominantly Black and White high schools, but not for Black youth attending schools with no clear racial majority.

  19. Treatment discrimination among assistant coaches of women's teams.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, George B; Sagas, Michael

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine organizational treatment discrimination (i.e., when members of a group receive fewer rewards, opportunities, or resources than they legitimately deserve based on job-related criteria) in the context of women's athletics. Data were collected from 170 assistant coaches of women's teams (i.e., women's basketball, softball, track, volleyball, soccer, and tennis). Results indicate that women's perceived work experiences and outcomes were comparable, and sometimes better, than those of men. We present competing explanations for this finding. First, it is possible that these women were not subjected to treatment discrimination. Alternatively, it is possible that this demonstrates the existence of the "paradox of the contented working woman." Additional analyses indicate that work experiences explained a large portion of the variance in organizational commitment and turnover intentions, thereby demonstrating their importance in the workplace.

  20. Implicit Age Cues in Resumes: Subtle Effects on Hiring Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Derous, Eva; Decoster, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    Anonymous resume screening, as assumed, does not dissuade age discriminatory effects. Building on job market signaling theory, this study investigated whether older applicants may benefit from concealing explicitly mentioned age signals on their resumes (date of birth) or whether more implicit/subtle age cues on resumes (older-sounding names/old-fashioned extracurricular activities) may lower older applicants' hirability ratings. An experimental study among 610 HR professionals using a mixed factorial design showed hiring discrimination of older applicants based on implicit age cues in resumes. This effect was more pronounced for older raters. Concealing one's date of birth led to overall lower ratings. Study findings add to the limited knowledge on the effects of implicit age cues on hiring discrimination in resume screening and the usefulness of anonymous resume screening in the context of age. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  1. Implicit Age Cues in Resumes: Subtle Effects on Hiring Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Derous, Eva; Decoster, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    Anonymous resume screening, as assumed, does not dissuade age discriminatory effects. Building on job market signaling theory, this study investigated whether older applicants may benefit from concealing explicitly mentioned age signals on their resumes (date of birth) or whether more implicit/subtle age cues on resumes (older-sounding names/old-fashioned extracurricular activities) may lower older applicants’ hirability ratings. An experimental study among 610 HR professionals using a mixed factorial design showed hiring discrimination of older applicants based on implicit age cues in resumes. This effect was more pronounced for older raters. Concealing one’s date of birth led to overall lower ratings. Study findings add to the limited knowledge on the effects of implicit age cues on hiring discrimination in resume screening and the usefulness of anonymous resume screening in the context of age. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:28848463

  2. Sex Discrimination and Women's Labor Market Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David; McLennan, Michele

    1995-01-01

    Using self-reported sex discrimination data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women, a study found that working women who report discrimination are more likely to change employers or interrupt their labor force participation. However, women who report discrimination do not accrue less experience or have lower wage growth. (SK)

  3. 29 CFR 32.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 32.4 Section 32.4 Labor Office... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 32.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No... denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  4. 29 CFR 32.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 32.4 Section 32.4 Labor Office... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 32.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No... denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  5. 29 CFR 32.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 32.4 Section 32.4 Labor Office of... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 32.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No... denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  6. 45 CFR 84.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.21 Section 84.21... Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities are... in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which this part...

  7. 38 CFR 18.411 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Practices § 18.411 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which...

  8. 28 CFR 42.203 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.203 Section...) of the Justice System Improvement Act of 1979 § 42.203 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No person in... participation in, be denied the benefits of, be subjected to discrimination under, or denied employment in...

  9. 24 CFR 232.625 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 232.625... Fire Safety Equipment Special Requirements § 232.625 Discrimination prohibited. Any contract or... provide that there shall be no discrimination against any employee or applicant for employment because of...

  10. 45 CFR 1203.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1203.4 Section 1203.4... OF 1964 § 1203.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. A person in the United States shall not, on... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, a program to which this part applies. (b...

  11. 43 CFR 17.203 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 17.203 Section... Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination...

  12. 45 CFR 1203.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1203.4 Section 1203.4... OF 1964 § 1203.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. A person in the United States shall not, on... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, a program to which this part applies. (b...

  13. 28 CFR 42.503 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.503 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 General Provisions § 42.503 Discrimination... from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any...

  14. 28 CFR 35.149 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 35.149 Section... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Program Accessibility § 35.149 Discrimination prohibited. Except as... subjected to discrimination by any public entity. ...

  15. 22 CFR 142.15 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.15 Section 142... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 142.15 Discrimination... be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which the part applies. ...

  16. 15 CFR 8b.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.11 Section 8b.11 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Practices § 8b.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped individual shall, on...

  17. 15 CFR 8.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.4 Section... General Provisions; Prohibitions: Nondiscrimination Clause; Applicability to Programs § 8.4 Discrimination... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory acts prohibited. (1) A...

  18. 13 CFR 112.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 112.3... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 112.3 Discrimination... be otherwise subjected to discrimination by any business or other activity. (b) Specific...

  19. 5 CFR 900.704 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 900.704... Federally Assisted Programs of the Office of Personnel Management § 900.704 Discrimination prohibited. (a..., be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  20. 22 CFR 209.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 209.4 Section 209.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NON-DISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS... § 209.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the grounds of...

  1. 49 CFR 21.5 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 21.5 Section 21.5... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 21.5 Discrimination... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited: (1...

  2. 10 CFR 1040.63 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.63 Section 1040.63 Energy... Provisions § 1040.63 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity that receives Federal financial assistance from...

  3. 22 CFR 209.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 209.4 Section 209.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NON-DISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS... § 209.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the grounds of...

  4. 49 CFR 27.7 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 27.7 Section 27.7... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General § 27.7 Discrimination prohibited. (a... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  5. 45 CFR 84.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.11 Section 84.11... § 84.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which this...

  6. 49 CFR 374.101 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 374.101 Section 374.101... REGULATIONS Discrimination in Operations of Interstate Motor Common Carriers of Passengers § 374.101 Discrimination prohibited. No motor common carrier of passengers subject to 49 U.S.C. subtitle IV, part B shall...

  7. 45 CFR 1170.31 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1170.31 Section 1170.31... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Accessibility § 1170.31 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped... denied the benefits of, be excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination...

  8. 18 CFR 1307.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination... NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO HANDICAP § 1307.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which this part applies. (b...

  9. 15 CFR 8b.16 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.16 Section 8b.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Accessibility § 8b.16 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped individual shall, because a recipient...

  10. 10 CFR 1040.66 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.66 Section 1040.66 Energy... Practices § 1040.66 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination employment under any program or activity to...

  11. 49 CFR 27.7 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 27.7 Section 27.7... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General § 27.7 Discrimination prohibited. (a... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  12. 22 CFR 217.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.11 Section 217... Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which this part applies. (2) A...

  13. 24 CFR 1.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1.4... DEVELOPMENT-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination...

  14. 28 CFR 42.104 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.104 Section... Civil Rights Act of 1964 1 § 42.104 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United... denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this...

  15. 45 CFR 1170.31 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1170.31 Section 1170.31... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Accessibility § 1170.31 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped... denied the benefits of, be excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination...

  16. 14 CFR 372.22 - Discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination. 372.22 Section 372.22... REGULATIONS OVERSEAS MILITARY PERSONNEL CHARTERS Conditions and Limitations § 372.22 Discrimination. No... any unjust discrimination or any undue or unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage in any respect...

  17. 29 CFR 32.26 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 32.26 Section 32.26 Labor Office... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 32.26 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified... discrimination under any program or activity to which this part applies. ...

  18. 45 CFR 84.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.11 Section 84.11... § 84.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which this...

  19. 38 CFR 18.411 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Practices § 18.411 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which...

  20. 7 CFR 15b.17 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.17 Section 15b.17... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 15b.17 Discrimination prohibited. No... to discrimination under any program or activity receiving assistance from this Department. ...

  1. 22 CFR 142.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.4 Section 142.4... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 142.4 Discrimination... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  2. 22 CFR 217.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.4 Section 217.4... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 217.4 Discrimination... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  3. 29 CFR 32.26 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 32.26 Section 32.26 Labor Office... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 32.26 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified... discrimination under any program or activity to which this part applies. ...

  4. 5 CFR 950.110 - Prohibited discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Prohibited discrimination. 950.110 Section 950.110 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... PRIVATE VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS General Provisions § 950.110 Prohibited discrimination. Discrimination for...

  5. 15 CFR 8b.16 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.16 Section 8b.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Accessibility § 8b.16 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped individual shall, because a recipient...

  6. 24 CFR 6.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 6.4... COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT ACT OF 1974 General Provisions § 6.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) Section 109... benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity funded in whole or in part...

  7. 49 CFR 27.7 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 27.7 Section 27.7... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General § 27.7 Discrimination prohibited. (a... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  8. 49 CFR 21.5 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 21.5 Section 21.5... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 21.5 Discrimination... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited: (1...

  9. 34 CFR 100.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 100.3 Section 100.3... EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 100.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to...

  10. 28 CFR 42.520 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.520 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Accessibility § 42.520 Discrimination prohibited... participation in, or otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal...

  11. 34 CFR 104.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.4 Section 104.4... ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 104.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial...

  12. 45 CFR 1151.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1151.21 Section 1151.21... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited Accessibility § 1151.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because...

  13. 29 CFR 34.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 34.3 Section 34.3 Labor Office... Discrimination prohibited. No individual in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color, religion, sex... discrimination under, or denied employment in the administration of or in connection with any JTPA-funded program...

  14. 14 CFR 380.26 - Discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination. 380.26 Section 380.26... REGULATIONS PUBLIC CHARTERS Requirements Applicable to Charter Operators § 380.26 Discrimination. No charter... unjust discrimination or any undue or unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage in any respect whatsoever. ...

  15. 34 CFR 104.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.21 Section 104.21... ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 104.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a... excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  16. 45 CFR 84.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.4 Section 84.4... § 84.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of... discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance. (b) Discriminatory...

  17. 28 CFR 42.503 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.503 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 General Provisions § 42.503 Discrimination... from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any...

  18. 34 CFR 104.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.11 Section 104.11... ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 104.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or...

  19. 38 CFR 18.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 General § 18.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which...

  20. 28 CFR 35.149 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 35.149 Section... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Program Accessibility § 35.149 Discrimination prohibited. Except as... subjected to discrimination by any public entity. ...