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Sample records for discrimination preceding failed

  1. Evidence for egg discrimination preceding failed rejection attempts in a small cuckoo host.

    PubMed

    Antonov, Anton; Stokke, Bård G; Moksnes, Arne; Røskaft, Eivin

    2009-04-23

    Given the high costs of avian obligate brood parasitism, host individuals are selected to reject parasitic eggs they recognize as foreign. We show that rejection may not necessarily follow egg discrimination when selective removal of the parasitic egg is difficult. We studied egg rejection behaviour in a small host of the common cuckoo Cuculus canorus, the eastern olivaceous warbler Hippolais pallida, by experimental parasitism with model and real non-mimetic cuckoo eggs and video recordings of host behaviour. Hosts pecked 87 per cent (20 out of 23) of the model eggs but eventually accepted 43.5 per cent (10 out of 23) of them. A similar pattern was found for real cuckoo eggs, which were all pecked, but as many as 47 per cent (7 out of 15) of them were accepted. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a cuckoo host discriminating against real parasitic eggs but often accepting them. Our results also show that in host species experiencing difficulties in performing puncture ejection, non-mimetic cuckoo eggs may avoid rejection by means of their unusually high structural strength.

  2. When discrimination fails (or at least falters).

    PubMed

    Urcuioli, Peter J

    2006-10-01

    Pigeons learned 2 concurrent simultaneous discriminations in which the pecking of left keys versus right keys was reinforced depending on a color that appeared on one of the keys. When the reinforced choice was to peck directly at the color, accuracy was very high initially, but dropped noticeably with continued training. Partial reinforcement of these choices exacerbated the dropoff, sometimes causing accuracies to fall close to zero. By contrast, when the reinforced choice was to peck the alternate-key stimulus, accuracy was very low, initially, but remained high and stable following acquisition. Lowering the reinforcement probability, even to zero, for the latter choices had little effect on their accuracy but yielded increased accuracy on color-choice trials. These results resemble the ambiguous-cue effect and suggest the process of value transfer.

  3. Post-training depletions of basolateral amygdala serotonin fail to disrupt discrimination, retention, or reversal learning.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Jesus G; Stolyarova, Alexandra; Kaur, Amandeep; Hart, Evan E; Bugarin, Amador; Izquierdo, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    In goal-directed pursuits, the basolateral amygdala (BLA) is critical in learning about changes in the value of rewards. BLA-lesioned rats show enhanced reversal learning, a task employed to measure the flexibility of response to changes in reward. Similarly, there is a trend for enhanced discrimination learning, suggesting that BLA may modulate formation of stimulus-reward associations. There is a parallel literature on the importance of serotonin (5HT) in new stimulus-reward and reversal learning. Recent postulations implicate 5HT in learning from punishment. Whereas, dopaminergic involvement is critical in behavioral activation and reinforcement, 5HT may be most critical for aversive processing and behavioral inhibition, complementary cognitive processes. Given these findings, a 5HT-mediated mechanism in BLA may mediate the facilitated learning observed previously. The present study investigated the effects of selective 5HT lesions in BLA using 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) vs. infusions of saline (Sham) on discrimination, retention, and deterministic reversal learning. Rats were required to reach an 85% correct pairwise discrimination and single reversal criterion prior to surgery. Postoperatively, rats were then tested on the (1) retention of the pretreatment discrimination pair, (2) discrimination of a novel pair, and (3) reversal learning performance. We found statistically comparable preoperative learning rates between groups, intact postoperative retention, and unaltered novel discrimination and reversal learning in 5,7-DHT rats. These findings suggest that 5HT in BLA is not required for formation and flexible adjustment of new stimulus-reward associations when the strategy to efficiently solve the task has already been learned. Given the complementary role of orbitofrontal cortex in reward learning and its interconnectivity with BLA, these findings add to the list of dissociable mechanisms for BLA and orbitofrontal cortex in reward learning.

  4. Cross-spectral and temporal factors in the precedence effect: discrimination suppression of the lag sound in free-field.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Grantham, D W

    1997-11-01

    In an anechoic chamber, subjects were required to discriminate a 20 degrees azimuthal change in a lag sound's position in the presence of a lead sound coming from a different direction. Delay between lead and lag sounds was adaptively varied in several conditions to track discrimination suppression thresholds. In experiment 1, lead and lag stimuli were 5-ms, 1-octave, A-weighted noise bursts (65 dB), with lead and lag parametrically set to center frequencies of 0.5, 2.0, or 3.0 kHz. Discrimination suppression thresholds were higher when lead and lag center frequencies coincided (mean: 11.3 ms) than when they did not coincide (mean: 2.9 ms). These results support the "spectral overlap hypothesis" of Blauert and Divenyi [Acustica 66, 267-274 (1988)], but not the "localization strength hypothesis" later proposed by Divenyi [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 91, 1078-1084 (1992)]. Spectral overlap and localization strength appear to be two relatively independent factors governing discrimination suppression. It is proposed here that localization strength is weighted more when stimuli are presented via headphones and the only cue to lateral position is the interaural temporal difference, while spectral overlap is weighted more for free-field presented stimuli. In experiment 2, lead and lag stimuli were 8-ms, 1.5-kHz A-weighted tone bursts (65 dB), with lead and lag rise times parametrically set to 0, 2, or 4 ms. In this case the amount of discrimination suppression increased as lead rise time became more abrupt or as lag rise time became more gradual. These results support the localization strength hypothesis: The greater the localization strength of the lead stimulus (independently assessed by measuring its minimum audible angle in isolation), the greater suppression it exerted on discriminability of the lag sound's position. It appears that for stimuli presented in the free-field, spectral overlap is the primary factor affecting discrimination suppression, but when overlap is held

  5. Endometrial Stromal Cells of Women with Recurrent Miscarriage Fail to Discriminate between High- and Low-Quality Human Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Weimar, Charlotte H. E.; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Brosens, Jan J.; Gellersen, Birgit; de Vreeden-Elbertse, Johanna M. T.; Heijnen, Cobi J.; Macklon, Nick S.

    2012-01-01

    Background The aetiology of recurrent miscarriage (RM) remains largely unexplained. Women with RM have a shorter time to pregnancy interval than normally fertile women, which may be due to more frequent implantation of non-viable embryos. We hypothesized that human endometrial stromal cells (H-EnSCs) of women with RM discriminate less effectively between high-and low-quality human embryos and migrate more readily towards trophoblast spheroids than H-EnSCs of normally fertile women. Methodology/Principal Findings Monolayers of decidualized H-EnSCs were generated from endometrial biopsies of 6 women with RM and 6 fertile controls. Cell-free migration zones were created and the effect of the presence of a high-quality (day 5 blastocyst, n = 13), a low-quality (day 5 blastocyst with three pronuclei or underdeveloped embryo, n = 12) or AC-1M88 trophoblast cell line spheroid on H-ESC migratory activity was analyzed after 18 hours. In the absence of a spheroid or embryo, migration of H-EnSCs from fertile or RM women was similar. In the presence of a low-quality embryo in the zone, the migration of H-EnSCs of control women was inhibited compared to the basal migration in the absence of an embryo (P<0.05) and compared to the migration in the presence of high-quality embryo (p<0.01). Interestingly, the migratory response H-EnSCs of women with RM did not differ between high- and low-quality embryos. Furthermore, in the presence of a spheroid their migration was enhanced compared to the H-EnSCs of controls (p<0.001). Conclusions H-EnSCs of fertile women discriminate between high- and low-quality embryos whereas H-EnSCs of women with RM fail to do so. H-EnSCs of RM women have a higher migratory response to trophoblast spheroids. Future studies will focus on the mechanisms by which low-quality embryos inhibit the migration of H-EnSCs and how this is deregulated in women with RM. PMID:22848492

  6. Salvinorin A fails to substitute for the discriminative stimulus effects of LSD or ketamine in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Killinger, Bryan A; Peet, Mary M; Baker, Lisa E

    2010-09-01

    Salvia divinorum is a small perennial shrub that has gained recent popularity among the drug-using subculture as a legal alternative to hallucinogens. Salvinorin A, the main active compound found in the S.divinorum plant, is an atypical hallucinogen with pharmacological selectivity at kappa opioid (KOP) receptor sites and is a unique non-nitrogenous neoclerodane diterpene which is structurally distinct from other opioid compounds. The novel structure of salvinorin A and its specific binding affinity to KOP receptors provide a unique opportunity to investigate neurochemical mechanisms of hallucination and hallucinogenic compounds. The current investigation assessed the substitution of salvinorin A in 16 male Sprague-Dawley rats trained to discriminate either the prototypical serotonergic hallucinogen, LSD (0.08mg/kg, S.C., n=8) or the dissociative anesthetic and glutamatergic hallucinogen, ketamine (8.0mg/kg, I.P., n=8) from vehicle under a FR 20 schedule of food-reinforced responding. Results indicated that neither LSD nor ketamine discrimination generalized to salvinorin A. These findings are consistent with the growing body of evidence that salvinorin A is pharmacologically distinct from other traditional hallucinogenic compounds.

  7. The discriminant capabilities of stability measures, trunk kinematics, and step kinematics in classifying successful and failed compensatory stepping responses by young adults.

    PubMed

    Crenshaw, Jeremy R; Rosenblatt, Noah J; Hurt, Christopher P; Grabiner, Mark D

    2012-01-03

    This study evaluated the discriminant capability of stability measures, trunk kinematics, and step kinematics to classify successful and failed compensatory stepping responses. In addition, the shared variance between stability measures, step kinematics, and trunk kinematics is reported. The stability measures included the anteroposterior distance (d) between the body center of mass and the stepping limb toe, the margin of stability (MOS), as well as time-to-boundary considering velocity (TTB(v)), velocity and acceleration (TTB(a)), and MOS (TTB(MOS)). Kinematic measures included trunk flexion angle and angular velocity, step length, and the time after disturbance onset of recovery step completion. Fourteen young adults stood on a treadmill that delivered surface accelerations necessitating multiple forward compensatory steps. Thirteen subjects fell from an initial disturbance, but recovered from a second, identical disturbance. Trunk flexion velocity at completion of the first recovery step and trunk flexion angle at completion of the second step had the greatest overall classification of all measures (92.3%). TTB(v) and TTB(a) at completion of both steps had the greatest classification accuracy of all stability measures (80.8%). The length of the first recovery step (r ≤ 0.70) and trunk flexion angle at completion of the second recovery step (r ≤ -0.54) had the largest correlations with stability measures. Although TTB(v) and TTB(a) demonstrated somewhat smaller discriminant capabilities than trunk kinematics, the small correlations between these stability measures and trunk kinematics (|r| ≤ 0.52) suggest that they reflect two important, yet different, aspects of a compensatory stepping response.

  8. PRECEDE for Wellness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonaguro, John A.

    1981-01-01

    The PRECEDE model was developed for health educators in an effort to improve programs and to influence health behaviors. The model consists of several diagnostic phases: (1) epidemiological; (2) social; (3) behavioral; (4) educational; (5) administrative; and (6) evaluation. (JN)

  9. Metabolomic change precedes apple superficial scald symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rudell, David R; Mattheis, James P; Hertog, Maarten L A T M

    2009-09-23

    Untargeted metabolic profiling was employed to characterize metabolomic changes associated with 'Granny Smith' apple superficial scald development following 1-MCP or DPA treatment. Partial least-squares discriminant analyses were used to link metabolites with scald, postharvest treatments, and storage duration. Models revealed metabolomic differentiation between untreated controls and fruit treated with DPA or 1-MCP within 1 week following storage initiation. Metabolic divergence between controls and DPA-treated fruit after 4 weeks of storage preceded scald symptom development by 2 months. alpha-Farnesene oxidation products with known associations to scald, including conjugated trienols, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol, were associated with presymptomatic as well as scalded control fruit. Likewise, a large group of putative triterpenoids with mass spectral features similar to those of ursolic acid and beta-sitosterol were associated with control fruit and scald. Results demonstrate that extensive metabolomic changes associated with scald precede actual symptom development.

  10. How Does a Failing School Stop Failing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren-Gross, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The author's school had just been labeled a failing school by No Child Left Behind when its new principal arrived in the fall of 2007. In this demoralizing climate, teachers can get frustrated and choose to give up, or they can rise to the challenge, create a plan for improvement, and plunge into uncharted waters. This article discusses how the…

  11. 47 CFR 213.5 - Precedence designators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Precedence designators. 213.5 Section 213.5 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.5 Precedence designators. (a) The following...

  12. 47 CFR 213.5 - Precedence designators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Precedence designators. 213.5 Section 213.5 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.5 Precedence designators. (a) The following...

  13. 47 CFR 213.5 - Precedence designators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Precedence designators. 213.5 Section 213.5 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.5 Precedence designators. (a) The following...

  14. 47 CFR 213.5 - Precedence designators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Precedence designators. 213.5 Section 213.5 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.5 Precedence designators. (a) The following...

  15. 47 CFR 213.5 - Precedence designators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Precedence designators. 213.5 Section 213.5 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.5 Precedence designators. (a) The following...

  16. Precedence relationship representations of mechanical assembly sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homendemello, L. S.; Sanderson, A. C.

    1989-01-01

    Two types of precedence relationship representations for mechanical assembly sequences are presented: precedence relationships between the establishment of one connection between two parts and the establishment of another connection, and precedence relationships between the establishment of one connection and states of the assembly process. Precedence relationship representations have the advantage of being very compact. The problem with these representations was how to guarantee their correctness and completeness. Two theorems are presented each of which leads to the generation of one type of precedence relationship representation guaranteeing its correctness and completeness for a class of assemblies.

  17. Motility precedes egress of malaria parasites from oocysts

    PubMed Central

    Klug, Dennis; Frischknecht, Friedrich

    2017-01-01

    Malaria is transmitted when an infected Anopheles mosquito deposits Plasmodium sporozoites in the skin during a bite. Sporozoites are formed within oocysts at the mosquito midgut wall and are released into the hemolymph, from where they invade the salivary glands and are subsequently transmitted to the vertebrate host. We found that a thrombospondin-repeat containing sporozoite-specific protein named thrombospondin-releated protein 1 (TRP1) is important for oocyst egress and salivary gland invasion, and hence for the transmission of malaria. We imaged the release of sporozoites from oocysts in situ, which was preceded by active motility. Parasites lacking TRP1 failed to migrate within oocysts and did not egress, suggesting that TRP1 is a vital component of the events that precede intra-oocyst motility and subsequently sporozoite egress and salivary gland invasion. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19157.001 PMID:28115054

  18. Disadvantageous associations: Reversible spatial cueing effects in a discrimination task

    PubMed Central

    Nico, Daniele; Daprati, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Current theories describe learning in terms of cognitive or associative mechanisms. To assess whether cognitive mechanisms interact with automaticity of associative processes we devised a shape-discrimination task in which participants received both explicit instructions and implicit information. Instructions further allowed for the inference that a first event would precede the target. Albeit irrelevant to respond, this event acted as response prime and implicit spatial cue (i.e. it predicted target location). To modulate cognitive involvement, in three experiments we manipulated modality and salience of the spatial cue. Results always showed evidence for a priming effect, confirming that the first stimulus was never ignored. More importantly, although participants failed to consciously recognize the association, responses to spatially cued trials became either slower or faster depending on salience of the first event. These findings provide an empirical demonstration that cognitive and associative learning mechanisms functionally co-exist and interact to regulate behaviour. PMID:26534830

  19. Who Really Failed? Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiuri, Katherine M.; Leon, Raul A.

    2012-01-01

    Scott Jaschik's (2010) article "Who Really Failed?" details the experience of Dominique Homberger, a tenured faculty member at Louisiana State University (LSU) who was removed from teaching her introductory biology course citing student complaints in regards to "the extreme nature" of the grading policy. This removal has…

  20. Listeria monocytogenes meningitis preceded by acute cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Luthe, Sarah Kyuragi; Sato, Ryota; Maeda, Tetsuro; Takahashi, Kuniko

    2017-03-20

    Listeria monocytogenes is a well-known cause of meningitis in immunocompromised patients. This organism has a growing significance for community-acquired meningitis, which should have ampicillin added to the usual regimen. We describe a case of L. monocytogenes meningitis preceded by cholangitis. This case suggests gastrointestinal symptoms preceding meningitis may be a clue of listeriosis. It is important for physicians to consider L. monocytogenes as a cause of bacterial meningitis in patients with altered mental status preceded by gastrointestinal symptoms, especially in the immunocompromised population.

  1. The Role of Speech Rhythm in Language Discrimination: Further Tests with a Non-Human Primate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tincoff, Ruth; Hauser, Marc; Tsao, Fritz; Spaepen, Geertrui; Ramus, Franck; Mehler, Jacques

    2005-01-01

    Human newborns discriminate languages from different rhythmic classes, fail to discriminate languages from the same rhythmic class, and fail to discriminate languages when the utterances are played backwards. Recent evidence showing that cotton-top tamarins discriminate Dutch from Japanese, but not when utterances are played backwards, is…

  2. Occasion setting in Pavlovian ambiguous target discriminations.

    PubMed

    Bueno, José Lino Oliveira; Holland, Peter C

    2008-11-01

    Rats were trained in a Pavlovian serial ambiguous target discrimination, in which a target cue was reinforced if it was preceded by one stimulus (P-->T+) but was not reinforced if it was preceded by another stimulus (N-->T-). Test performance indicated that stimulus control by these features was weaker than that acquired by features trained within separate serial feature positive (P-->T+, T-) and serial feature negative (N-->W-, W+) discriminations. The form of conditioned responding and the patterns of transfer observed suggested that the serial ambiguous target discrimination was solved by occasion setting. The data are discussed in terms of the use of retrospective coding strategies when solving Pavlovian serial conditional discriminations, and the acquisition of special properties by both feature and target stimuli.

  3. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura preceding systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Simeon-Aznar, C P; Cuenca-Luque, R; Fonollosa-Pla, V; Bosch-Gil, J A

    1992-01-01

    The case of a patient admitted with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura nine years after developing systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is reported. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura associated with SLE has been described on other occasions, but in most patients the diagnosis of SLE precedes that of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. The unusual sequence and the chronological separation of the two diseases is emphasised. PMID:1575591

  4. Chronotropic incompetence precedes silent pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, Karunasai; Silverman, Lawrence M; Becker, Daniel M

    2014-01-01

    A patient with recurrent pulmonary emboli collected heart rate data during exercise, which provided important premorbid clues to changes in cardiopulmonary exercise tolerance coincident with accrual of thrombus in the central circulation. On both occasions, chronotropic incompetence (CI) preceded the pulmonary emboli events. When patients with programmed exercise goals notice CI, they should seek professional guidance.

  5. On the Rhetoric and Precedents of Racism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Victor

    1999-01-01

    Considers contribution of rhetorical training of the Aztecs prior to the European conquest as well as other early philosophers from the Americas. Encourages breaking precedent in order to battle racism by looking to rhetorical training developed in the Americas and Puerto Rico in addition to the European thinkers. (SC)

  6. Sleep Disturbance Preceding Completed Suicide in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Tina R.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Brent, David A.

    2008-01-01

    We examined sleep difficulties preceding death in a sample of adolescent suicide completers as compared with a matched sample of community control adolescents. Sleep disturbances were assessed in 140 adolescent suicide victims with a psychological autopsy protocol and in 131 controls with a similar semistructured psychiatric interview. Rates of…

  7. More Than the Rules of Precedence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Yawei

    2005-01-01

    In a fundamental computer-programming course, such as CSE101, questions about how to evaluate an arithmetic expression are frequently used to check if our students know the rules of precedence. The author uses two of our final examination questions to show that more knowledge of computer science is needed to answer them correctly. Furthermore,…

  8. Generation of precedence relations for mechanical assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Hui; Sanderson, A. C.

    1989-01-01

    Planning of assembly sequences is essential to the manufacturing system design process. Several methodologies have been proposed to represent all the feasible assembly sequences. In this thesis, three algorithms are presented to generate three sets of precedence relations based on all the infeasible assembly tasks, all the infeasible assembly states, and all the feasible assembly sequences, respectively. The equivalence of the resulting sets of precedence relations to the AND/OR graph is established. A new property, the real time property, of a representation of assembly sequences is defined and discussed. A representation of assembly sequences is said to have the real time property, if it is possible to generate the next assembly task by testing locally in the representation, and it will guarantee that the generated assembly task will not lead the assembly sequence to a dead end situation, in which no feasible assembly task can be performed any more. It is shown that the correctness and completeness of one representation can not guarantee the real time property of the representation. It is proven that the directed graph representation and the set of precedence relations based on all the infeasible assembly states have the real time property, while the AND/OR graph representation and the set of precedence relations based on all the infeasible assembly tasks do not have the real time property. Finally in the thesis, the PLEIDEAS system, a PLanning Environment for Integrated DEsign of Assembly Systems, is described and illustrated by an example.

  9. 32 CFR 700.501 - Precedence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OFFICIAL RECORDS UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS The Commandant of the Marine Corps § 700.501 Precedence. The Commandant of the Marine Corps, while so serving, has the grade of general. In the performance of duties within the Department of the Navy, the Commandant of the Marine Corps...

  10. When Fundoplication Fails

    PubMed Central

    Smith, C Daniel; McClusky, David A.; Rajad, Murad Abu; Lederman, Andrew B.; Hunter, John G.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The largest series in the literature dealing with redo fundoplication was presented and published in 1999 and included 100 patients. Herein we update this initial series of 100, with 207 additional patients who have undergone redo fundoplication (n = 307). Summary Background Data: Increasing numbers of patients are failing esophagogastric fundoplication and requiring redo procedures. Data regarding the nature of these failures have been scant. Methods: Data on all patients undergoing foregut surgery are collected prospectively. Between 1991 and 2004, 307 patients underwent redo fundoplication for the management of anatomic complications or recurrent GERD. Statistical analysis was performed with multiple χ2 and Mann-Whitney U analyses, as well as ANOVA. Results: Between 1991 and 2004, 1892 patients underwent primary fundoplication for GERD (1734) or paraesophageal hernia (158). Of these, 54 required redo fundoplication (2.8%). The majority of failures (73%) were managed within 2 years of the initial operation (P = 0.0001). The mechanism of failure was transdiaphragmatic wrap herniation in 33 of 54 (61%). In the 231 patients who underwent fundoplication elsewhere, 109 had transdiaphragmatic herniation (47%, P = NS). In this group of 285 patients, 22 (8%) required another redo (P = NS). The majority of the procedures were initiated laparoscopically (240/307, 78%), with 20 converted (8%). Overall mortality was 0.3%. Conclusions: Failure of fundoplication is unusual in experienced hands. Most are managed within 2 years of the initial operation. Wrap herniation has now become the most common mechanism of failure requiring redo. Redo fundoplication was successful in 93% of patients, and most could be safely handled laparoscopically. PMID:15912035

  11. Investigations of the precedence effect in budgerigars: Effects of stimulus type, intensity, duration, and location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dent, Micheal L.; Dooling, Robert J.

    2003-04-01

    Auditory experiments on the localization of sounds in the presence of reflections, or echoes, that arrive later and from different directions are important to understanding hearing in natural environments. The perceived location of the auditory image can change with the time delay between the presentations of a leading and lagging sound. These changes in perceived location, encompassing the precedence effect, have been examined behaviorally or physiologically in humans and a number of animals. Here, these results are extended to include budgerigars. Behavioral methods were used to measure the discrimination performance between a stimulus presented at + and -90° azimuth with a delay (left-), from the same two stimuli presented with the opposite delay (right-left). At short delays, where humans experience summing localization, budgerigars have difficulty discriminating between the two presentation types. With increasing delays, where humans experience localization dominance, budgerigars show improved discrimination performance. At even longer delays, where echo thresholds are found in humans, discrimination performance worsens again. The shapes of the discrimination functions are affected by the intensity, locations, and durations of the stimuli, and are subject to a buildup effect. These results show that budgerigars exhibit the phases of the precedence effect similar to humans and other animals.

  12. Patterns of seismic activity preceding large earthquakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Bruce E.; Carlson, J. M.; Langer, J. S.

    1992-01-01

    A mechanical model of seismic faults is employed to investigate the seismic activities that occur prior to major events. The block-and-spring model dynamically generates a statistical distribution of smaller slipping events that precede large events, and the results satisfy the Gutenberg-Richter law. The scaling behavior during a loading cycle suggests small but systematic variations in space and time with maximum activity acceleration near the future epicenter. Activity patterns inferred from data on seismicity in California demonstrate a regional aspect; increased activity in certain areas are found to precede major earthquake events. One example is given regarding the Loma Prieta earthquake of 1989 which is located near a fault section associated with increased activity levels.

  13. Numerosity Discrimination in Infants: Evidence for Two Systems of Representations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Fei

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments compared 6-month-olds' numerosity discrimination performance on both large numbers and small numbers with both total filled area and total contour length controlled. Results showed that infants succeeded in discriminating 4 from 8 elements, but failed to discriminate 2 from 4 elements, providing evidence for the existence of two…

  14. Cutaneous presentation preceding acute monocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xianhua; Li, Fuqiu; Li, Xue; Zhu, Wenjing; Mou, Yan; Huang, Yang; Zhao, Huanyu; Gao, Wei; Xia, Jianxin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Cutaneous presentation preceding acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is rare, and the prognosis is poor. Patient concerns: We report 4 cases of AML cutis, where skin infiltration precedes any blood or bone marrow evidence of leukemia. We also reviewed 13 cases reported in English and Chinese literature. The 4 cases all presented typical cutaneous lesions without any systemic evidence of leukemia. Histopathological examination found that dense monomorphous cell infiltration involved the dermis. Some cells surrounded blood vessels and skin appendages in a concentric manner or showed single-row arrangement in the collagen fiber bundles. Uninvolved papillary dermis was found to separate normal epidermis from dermal infiltration. Minor cells had a large kidney-shaped or oval nucleus with nucleoli and slightly eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical analysis was positive for CD4, CD56, while CD123 was negative in all cases. Diagnoses: AML-M5. Interventions: 2 patients received chemotherapy ,but others rejected treatment. Outcomes: Most patients died within 1 year after the onset of skin lesions. Lessons: These findings suggest that skin infiltration of AML may precede any systemic evidence, and typical cutaneous lesions in elderly individuals may be indicative for AML. PMID:28272239

  15. Can Failing Schools Be Fixed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Ronald C.

    2003-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) requires states and school districts to act aggressively to turn around failing schools. NCLB lists 31 different interventions of varying degrees of severity that are available to state and local policymakers when faced with schools whose students fail to make sufficient academic progress and sets forth…

  16. Discrimination in lexical decision

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Laurie Beth; Ramscar, Michael; Hendrix, Peter; Baayen, R. Harald

    2017-01-01

    In this study we present a novel set of discrimination-based indicators of language processing derived from Naive Discriminative Learning (ndl) theory. We compare the effectiveness of these new measures with classical lexical-distributional measures—in particular, frequency counts and form similarity measures—to predict lexical decision latencies when a complete morphological segmentation of masked primes is or is not possible. Data derive from a re-analysis of a large subset of decision latencies from the English Lexicon Project, as well as from the results of two new masked priming studies. Results demonstrate the superiority of discrimination-based predictors over lexical-distributional predictors alone, across both the simple and primed lexical decision tasks. Comparable priming after masked corner and cornea type primes, across two experiments, fails to support early obligatory segmentation into morphemes as predicted by the morpho-orthographic account of reading. Results fit well with ndl theory, which, in conformity with Word and Paradigm theory, rejects the morpheme as a relevant unit of analysis. Furthermore, results indicate that readers with greater spelling proficiency and larger vocabularies make better use of orthographic priors and handle lexical competition more efficiently. PMID:28235015

  17. Metabolomic Change Precedes Apple Superficial Scald Symptoms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolic profiling of 621 metabolites was employed to characterize metabolomic changes associated with ‘Granny Smith’ apple superficial scald development following 1-MCP or DPA treatment. Partial least squares-discriminant analyses were used to link metabolites with scald, postharvest treatments, ...

  18. Symptoms of schizotypy precede cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, Jason; Nakamura, Brad; Earleywine, Mitchell; LaBrie, Joseph

    2005-03-30

    The current investigation uses a large non-clinical sample of undergraduate college students (N=189) to investigate schizotypal traits among cannabis and non-cannabis users, as well as the temporal order of the onset of these traits and cannabis use. Findings suggest that regular cannabis users are significantly more prone to cognitive and perceptual distortions as well as disorganization, but not interpersonal deficits, than non-regular users and those who have never used. Additionally, the onset of schizotypal symptoms generally precedes the onset of cannabis use. The findings do not support a causal link between cannabis use and schizotypal traits.

  19. Pregnancy and employment leave: legal precedents and future policy.

    PubMed

    Gardin, S K; Richwald, G A

    1986-01-01

    An estimated 85% of female workers in the US become pregnant during their working lives; 62% of married US women were employed for some period during the 12 months preceding childbirth. Historically, US legislation has assumed a protectionist policy with regard to restricting prenatal and postpartum employment, yet this stance has not been backed up by protection of income, benefits, reinstatement, or seniority. The passage in 1964 of Title VII of the Federal Civil Rights Act banning discrimination on the basis of sex triggered a long string of legal battles fought on the premise that pregnancy is a disability. As a result of Congressional efforts, an amendment to Title VII--the Pregnancy Discrimination Act--was passed in 1978. This law requires that women disabled due to pregnancy or childbirth be provided with the same benefits as those provided other disabled employees. However, the law does not require an employer who does not provide disability benefits, paid sick leave, or medical benefits to other employees to provide them to pregnant women. A weakness of existing legislation is its failure to address the difficulties inherent in accommodating childbearing women in the labor force. Accommodation under the current employment system results in productivity disruption and financial losses for both employer and employee. In all other major industrial countries, maternity benefits such as paid leave before and after childbirth, reinstatement rights, and nursing breaks on the job are guaranteed through national legislation. Such benefits emanate from acknowledgment of women's essential participation in the labor force as well as their unique ability to give birth. Under a more flexible employment system, equal protection would not result in the denial of maternity leave to female employees, but rather the provision parental leave to male and female employees.

  20. [Psychosocial stress preceding drug-related deaths].

    PubMed

    Kraus, L; Müller-Kalthoff, T

    2002-10-01

    This article analyses drug-related deaths in the German Federal States of Bavaria (Munich, Nuremberg and Augsburg counties) during 1999 and Baden-Wurttemberg (Stuttgart and Mannheim counties) during 1999 and in the first half of 2000. The persons who had been in contact with drug care services were studied for psychosocial stress preceding drug-related deaths. Epidemiological data from different sources (police, relatives, counselling centres, detoxification clinics, therapy and substitution treatment) were collated to estimate factors of psychosocial stress preceding drug deaths. The results in both Laender indicate high prevalence rates of a history of at least one non-fatal overdose (approx. 50%) or a suicide attempt (approx. 35%). More than 40% of the deceased had been suffering from at least one additional mental disorder, in most cases from depression. At least one critical life event (in most cases, a relapse) or a period of abstinence (i.e., due to imprisonment, therapy or detoxification) during the past three months before death was reported for more than half of the addicts. The results were discussed in the light of data on opiate users and the general population. Improved specialist training of therapeutic and medical workers as well as of any other co-operating professionals is considered a necessary prerequisite for an early detection of risk factors.

  1. [Wide QRS tachycardia preceded by pacemaker spikes].

    PubMed

    Romero, M; Aranda, A; Gómez, F J; Jurado, A

    2014-04-01

    The differential diagnosis and therapeutic management of wide QRS tachycardia preceded by pacemaker spike is presented. The pacemaker-mediated tachycardia, tachycardia fibrillo-flutter in patients with pacemakers, and runaway pacemakers, have a similar surface electrocardiogram, but respond to different therapeutic measures. The tachycardia response to the application of a magnet over the pacemaker could help in the differential diagnosis, and in some cases will be therapeutic, as in the case of a tachycardia-mediated pacemaker. Although these conditions are diagnosed and treated in hospitals with catheterization laboratories using the application programmer over the pacemaker, patients presenting in primary care clinic and emergency forced us to make a diagnosis and treat the haemodynamically unstable patient prior to referral.

  2. Cerebral Hypoperfusion Precedes Nausea During Centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serrador, Jorge M.; Schlegel, Todd T.; Black, F. Owen; Wood, Scott J.

    2004-01-01

    Nausea and motion sickness are important operational concerns for aviators and astronauts. Understanding underlying mechanisms associated with motion sickness may lead to new treatments. The goal of this work was to determine if cerebral blood flow changes precede the development of nausea in motion sick susceptible subjects. Cerebral flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (transcranial Doppler), blood pressure (Finapres) and end-tidal CO2 were measured while subjects were rotated on a centrifuge (250 degrees/sec). Following 5 min of rotation, subjects were translated 0.504 m off-center, creating a +lGx centripetal acceleration in the nasal-occipital plane. Ten subjects completed the protocol without symptoms while 5 developed nausea (4 while 6ff-center and 1 while rotating on-center). Prior to nausea, subjects had significant increases in blood pressure (+13plus or minus 3 mmHg, P less than 0.05) and cerebrovascular resistance (+46 plus or minus 17%, P less than 0.05) and decreases in cerebral flow velocity both in the second (-13 plus or minus 4%) and last minute (-22 plus or minus 5%) before symptoms (P less than 0.05). In comparison, controls demonstrated no change in blood pressure or cerebrovascular resistance in the last minute of off-center rotation and only a 7 plus or minus 2% decrease in cerebral flow velocity. All subjects had significant hypocapnia (-3.8 plus or minus 0.4 mmHg, P less than 0.05), however this hypocapnia could not fully explain the cerebral hypoperfusion associated with the development of nausea. These data indicate that reductions in cerebral blood flow precede the development of nausea. Further work is necessary to determine what role cerebral hypoperfusion plays in motion sickness and whether cerebral hypoperfusion can be used to predict the development of nausea in susceptible individuals.

  3. Cochlear contributions to the precedence effect.

    PubMed

    Verhulst, Sarah; Bianchi, Federica; Dau, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    Normal-hearing individuals have sharply tuned auditory filters, and consequently their basilar-membrane (BM) impulse responses (IRs) have durations of several ms at frequencies in the range from 0 to 5 kHz. When presenting clicks that are several ms apart, the BM IRs to the individual clicks will overlap in time, giving rise to complex interactions that have not been fully understood in the human cochlea. The perceptual consequences of these BM IR interactions are of interest as lead-lag click pairs are often used to study localization and the precedence effect. The present study aimed at characterizing perceptual consequences of BM IR interactions in individual listeners based on click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs) and auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). Lag suppression, denoting the level difference between the CEOAE or wave-V response amplitude evoked by the first and the second clicks, was observed for inter-click intervals (ICIs) between 1 and 4 ms. Behavioral correlates of lag suppression were obtained for the same individuals by investigating the percept of the lead-lag click pairs presented either monaurally or binaurally. The click pairs were shown to give rise to fusion (i.e., the inability to hear out the second click in a lead-lag click pair), regardless of monaural or binaural presentation. In both cases, the ICI range where the percept was a fused image correlated well with the ICI range for which monaural lag suppression occurred in the CEOAE and ABR (i.e., for ICIs below 4.3 ms). Furthermore, the lag suppression observed in the wave-V amplitudes to binaural stimulation did not show additional contributions to the lag suppression obtained monaurally, suggesting that peripheral lag suppression up to the level of the brainstem is dominant in the perception of the precedence effect.

  4. Making processing fail-safe

    SciTech Connect

    Freiburghouse, R.

    1982-05-01

    The author describes the Stratus/32 multiprocessor, a fault-tolerant system for commercial applications which supports on-line transaction processing, batch processing, word processing and interactive program development. It uses a combination of hardware and software that provides continuous processing of user programs during computer failure without checkpoint/restart programming at the user or system level. Central to the system's fail-safe operation are processing modules, each of which has redundant logic and communication paths, logic and CPU boards and main and disk memory. Twin components operate in parallel with each other; when one fails, its partner carries on.

  5. What precedes development of rheumatoid arthritis?

    PubMed Central

    Klareskog, L; Alfredsson, L; Rantapaa-Dahlqvis..., S; Berglin, E; Stolt, P; Padyukov, L

    2004-01-01

    Studies on aetiology of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) need to investigate the potential environmental triggers that are active before onset of disease, the genetic context in which these triggers act, and whether the presence of such triggers in an arthritis prone genetic context will give rise to the immune reactions associated with/preceding RA. Such knowledge would help not only to address much better the issue of causality of these potential triggers and the immune reactions, but also to carry out various interventions aimed at influencing the disease provoking immune events before development of clinical signs of disease. This short report summarises recent data demonstrating (a) the presence of anticitrullin antibodies or rheumatoid factors in between a third and half of patients with RA before development of clinical signs; (b) long term smoking is associated with a high risk of future development of seropositive but not seronegative RA; and (c) a strong gene–environment interaction between smoking and SE genes in the development of seropositive RA. We conclude that, in a certain genetic context, smoking is a potential trigger of RA, and a combination of the two factors is associated with the occurrence of immune reactions long before the onset of RA. PMID:15479868

  6. White Dwarf Convection Preceding Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zingale, Michael; Almgren, A. S.; Bell, J. B.; Malone, C. M.; Nonaka, A.; Woosley, S. E.

    2010-01-01

    In the single degenerate scenario for Type Ia supernovae, a Chandrasekhar mass white dwarf `simmers' for centuries preceding the ultimate explosion. During this period, reactions near the center drive convection throughout most of the interior of the white dwarf. The details of this convective flow determine how the first flames in the white dwarf ignite. Simulating this phase is difficult because the flows are highly subsonic. Using the low Mach number hydrodynamics code, MAESTRO, we present 3-d, full star models of the final hours of this convective phase, up to the point of ignition of a Type Ia supernova. We discuss the details of the convective velocity field and the locations of the initial hot spots. Finally, we show some preliminary results with rotation. Support for this work came from the DOE/Office of Nuclear Physics, grant No. DE-FG02-06ER41448 (Stony Brook), the SciDAC Program of the DOE Office of Mathematics, Information, and Computational Sciences under the DOE under contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 (LBNL), and the DOE SciDAC program, under grant No. DE-FC02-06ER41438 (UCSC). We made use of the jaguar machine via a DOE INCITE allocation at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computational Facility.

  7. Segmented Coil Fails In Steps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stedman, Ronald S.

    1990-01-01

    Electromagnetic coil degrades in steps when faults occur, continues to operate at reduced level instead of failing catastrophically. Made in segments connected in series and separated by electrically insulating barriers. Fault does not damage adjacent components or create hazard. Used to control valves in such critical applications as cooling systems of power generators and chemical process equipment, where flammable liquids or gases handled. Also adapts to electrical control of motors.

  8. Discriminating harmonicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidd, Gerald; Mason, Christine R.; Brughera, Andrew; Chiu, Chung-Yiu Peter

    2003-08-01

    Simultaneous tones that are harmonically related tend to be grouped perceptually to form a unitary auditory image. A partial that is mistuned stands out from the other tones, and harmonic complexes with different fundamental frequencies can readily be perceived as separate auditory objects. These phenomena are evidence for the strong role of harmonicity in perceptual grouping and segregation of sounds. This study measured the discriminability of harmonicity directly. In a two interval, two alternative forced-choice (2I2AFC) paradigm, the listener chose which of two sounds, signal or foil, was composed of tones that more closely matched an exact harmonic relationship. In one experiment, the signal was varied from perfectly harmonic to highly inharmonic by adding frequency perturbation to each component. The foil always had 100% perturbation. Group mean performance decreased from greater than 90% correct for 0% signal perturbation to near chance for 80% signal perturbation. In the second experiment, adding a masker presented simultaneously with the signals and foils disrupted harmonicity. Both monaural and dichotic conditions were tested. Signal level was varied relative to masker level to obtain psychometric functions from which slopes and midpoints were estimated. Dichotic presentation of these audible stimuli improved performance by 3-10 dB, due primarily to a release from ``informational masking'' by the perceptual segregation of the signal from the masker.

  9. Metacognition of attention during tactile discrimination.

    PubMed

    Whitmarsh, Stephen; Oostenveld, Robert; Almeida, Rita; Lundqvist, Daniel

    2017-02-15

    The ability to monitor the success of cognitive processing is referred to as metacognition. Studies of metacognition typically probe post-decision judgments of confidence, showing that we can report on the success of wide range of cognitive processes. Much less is known about our ability to monitor and report on the degree of top-down attention, an ability of paramount importance in tasks requiring sustained attention. However, it has been repeatedly shown that the degree and locus of top-down attention modulates alpha (8-14Hz) power in sensory cortices. In this study we investigated whether self-reported ratings of attention are reflected by sensory alpha power, independent from confidence and task difficulty. Subjects performed a stair-cased tactile discrimination task requiring sustained somatosensory attention. Each discrimination response was followed by a rating of their attention at the moment of stimulation, or their confidence in the discrimination response. MEG was used to estimate trial-by-trial alpha power preceding stimulation. Staircasing of task-difficulty successfully equalized performance between conditions. Both attention and confidence ratings reflected subsequent discrimination performance. Task difficulty specifically influenced confidence ratings. As expected, specifically attention ratings, but not confidence ratings, correlated negatively with contralateral somatosensory alpha power preceding tactile stimuli. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the degree of attention can be subjectively experienced and reported accurately, independent from task difficulty and knowledge about task performance.

  10. 10 CFR 501.10 - Order of precedence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Order of precedence. 501.10 Section 501.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS General Provisions § 501.10 Order of precedence. If there is any conflict or inconsistency between the provisions of...

  11. 10 CFR 501.10 - Order of precedence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Order of precedence. 501.10 Section 501.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS General Provisions § 501.10 Order of precedence. If there is any conflict or inconsistency between the provisions of...

  12. 10 CFR 501.10 - Order of precedence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Order of precedence. 501.10 Section 501.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS General Provisions § 501.10 Order of precedence. If there is any conflict or inconsistency between the provisions of...

  13. 10 CFR 501.10 - Order of precedence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Order of precedence. 501.10 Section 501.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS General Provisions § 501.10 Order of precedence. If there is any conflict or inconsistency between the provisions of...

  14. 10 CFR 501.10 - Order of precedence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Order of precedence. 501.10 Section 501.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS General Provisions § 501.10 Order of precedence. If there is any conflict or inconsistency between the provisions of...

  15. Discrimination of structure: I. Implications for connectionist theories of discrimination learning.

    PubMed

    George, D N; Ward-Robinson, J; Pearce, J M

    2001-07-01

    In each of 4 experiments animals were given a structural discrimination task that involved visual patterns composed of identical features, but the spatial relations among the features were different for reinforced and nonreinforced trials. In Experiment 1 the stimuli were pairs of colored circles, and pigeons were required to discriminate between patterns that were the mirror image of each other. A related task was given to rats in Experiment 2. Subjects solved these discriminations. For Experiment 3, some pigeons were given a discrimination similar to that used in Experiment 1, which they solved, whereas others received a comparable task but with 3 colored circles present on every trial, which they failed to solve. The findings from Experiment 3 were replicated in Experiment 4 using different patterns. The results are difficult to explain by certain connectionist theories of discrimination learning, unless they are modified to take account of the way in which compound stimuli are structured.

  16. Fired worker fails to meet ADA's 'regarded as' test.

    PubMed

    1998-08-07

    [Name removed], a waiter at a Long Island [name removed], claimed that he was fired based on the misconception that because he was gay, he was HIV-positive. [Name removed] sued under the Federal Rehabilitation Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act, because there is not a law in NY that protects people from discrimination based on sexual orientation. The court rejected his claim by saying that he failed to provide a factual basis for his allegations. The employers stated that they fired [name removed] for using profanity toward a coworker, while on the job.

  17. Stable individual differences in number discrimination in infancy.

    PubMed

    Libertus, Melissa E; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that as a group 6-month-old infants successfully discriminate numerical changes when the values differ by at least a 1:2 ratio but fail at a 2:3 ratio (e.g. 8 vs. 16 but not 8 vs. 12). However, no studies have yet examined individual differences in number discrimination in infancy. Using a novel numerical change detection paradigm, we present more direct evidence that infants' numerical perception is ratio-dependent even within the range of discriminable ratios and thus adheres to Weber's Law. Furthermore, we show that infants' numerical discrimination at 6 months reliably predicts their numerical discrimination abilities but not visual short-term memory at 9 months. Thus, individual differences in numerical discrimination acuity may be stable within the first year of life and provide important avenues for future longitudinal research exploring the relationship between infant numerical discrimination and later developing math achievement.

  18. Failed State: A New (Old) Definition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-21

    term failed state is very ambiguous. Noam Chomsky controversially defines failed state in such a manner that the United States is a failed state. His...28. 2 Noam Chomsky , Failed States: The Abuse of Power and the Assault on Democracy (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2006), 2. 4 state are...Center for Systemic Peace. “Polity IV Project.” http://www.systemicpeace.org/ polity/polity4.htm (accessed March 18, 2010). Chomsky , Noam

  19. Numerosity discrimination in infants: evidence for two systems of representations.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei

    2003-08-01

    Two experiments investigated numerosity discrimination in 6-month-old infants, comparing their performance on both large numbers (4 vs. 8 elements) and small numbers (2 vs. 4 elements) with both total filled area and total contour length controlled for. These studies provide the first direct comparison between discrimination of small and large numbers in infants with the same methodology, the same type of stimuli, and the same continuous variable controls. Results showed that infants succeeded in discriminating 4 from 8 elements but failed to discriminate 2 from 4 elements, providing evidence for the existence of two systems of number representations in infancy.

  20. Pathophysiology of the failing heart.

    PubMed

    McElroy, P A; Shroff, S G; Weber, K T

    1989-02-01

    Cardiac (or myocardial) failure of acute onset or of chronic duration is the result of a structural and/or biochemical remodeling of the myocardium. This, in turn, compromises the contractile performance of the myocardium. The hypertrophic growth of myocytes and the architectural transformation of ventricular chamber size and shape--while initially useful compensatory responses--do not prevent the inevitable appearance of pump failure where oxygen delivery to the metabolizing tissues becomes inadequate. Indeed, the severity of cardiac failure can be judged from the level of oxygen consumption that elicits this state of impaired oxygen supply and demand. A better understanding of the mechanical behavior of the ventricular chamber, including its elastic and resistive properties, together with recent advances in our ability to measure instantaneous ventricular pressure and volume, may prove useful in identifying pathologic features of hypertrophy and dilatation in individual patients. In grading the severity of failure and comparing groups of patients, a normalization of the mechanical parameters by differences in chamber size, shape, and mass is necessary. Symptomatic cardiac failure, based invariably on inadequate oxygen delivery and/or pulmonary congestion, is more commonly the result of ventricular systolic dysfunction. Abnormalities in diastolic function, including ventricular relaxation and filling, while less common and often associated with preserved systolic pump function, do occur. Finally, it must be recognized that the failing ventricle carries an additional hydraulic load that arises from the arterial circulation to which it is coupled.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Perceptual learning: 12-month-olds' discrimination of monkey faces.

    PubMed

    Fair, Joseph; Flom, Ross; Jones, Jacob; Martin, Justin

    2012-11-01

    Six-month-olds reliably discriminate different monkey and human faces whereas 9-month-olds only discriminate different human faces. It is often falsely assumed that perceptual narrowing reflects a permanent change in perceptual abilities. In 3 experiments, ninety-six 12-month-olds' discrimination of unfamiliar monkey faces was examined. Following 20 s of familiarization, and two 5-s visual-paired comparison test trials, 12-month-olds failed to show discrimination. However, following 40 s of familiarization and two 10-s test trials, 12-month-olds showed reliable discrimination of novel monkey faces. A final experiment was performed demonstrating 12-month-olds' discrimination of the monkey face was due to the increased familiarization rather than increased time of visual comparison. Results are discussed in the context of perceptual narrowing, in particular the flexible nature of perceptual narrowing.

  2. Color measurement and discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandell, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with new results which show that for test lights with slow temporal modulations, and thus little effect on the luminance system, the vector-difference hypothesis represents an adequate characterization of discrimination data. It is pointed out that for certain experimental conditions color measurements can be successfully extended to include a difference measure which predicts the discriminability of pairs of lights. When discrimination depends principally on opponent-channel responses, discrimination thresholds can be predicted from the detection contour alone. Attention is given to discriminations with a 6-Hz Gabor function, the categorization of stimulus regions, and the nature of the visual mechanisms.

  3. [Does trunk varicosity precede insufficiency of the perforating veins?].

    PubMed

    Bernink, B P

    1983-01-01

    The author discusses the theoretical question of precedence of trunk, or perforator, incompetency. Whatever the case, the treatment is always the same. Drawing attention to the laws published in 1970 determining the opening and closing of small vessels, the author mainly discusses the so-called "balloon effect": of which the "physiological valvule" is a derivation, concluding that trunk varicosity precedes perforating vein incompetence. When the deep system is intact, the author prefers to use the term "blow down", reserving the term "blow out" for secondary varices, the deep system being damaged.

  4. Preceding trauma in childhood hematogenous bone and joint infections.

    PubMed

    Pääkkönen, Markus; Kallio, Markku J T; Lankinen, Petteri; Peltola, Heikki; Kallio, Pentti E

    2014-03-01

    Preceding trauma may play a role in the etiology and pathogenesis of hematogenous bone and joint infections. Among 345 children with an acute hematogenous bone and/or joint infection, 20% reported trauma during a 2-week period leading to infection. Blunt impact, bruises, or excoriations were commonly reported. The rate was similar to that in the general pediatric population obtained from the literature. In the study group, patients with and without trauma were similar in age, serum C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, length of hospitalization, and late sequelae. Preceding minor trauma did not prove to be significant as an etiological or as a prognostic factor.

  5. Stable Individual Differences in Number Discrimination in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libertus, Melissa E.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that as a group 6-month-old infants successfully discriminate numerical changes when the values differ by at least a 1:2 ratio but fail at a 2:3 ratio (e.g. 8 vs. 16 but not 8 vs. 12). However, no studies have yet examined individual differences in number discrimination in infancy. Using a novel numerical change…

  6. Alfalfa suppression of weeds is affected by preceding crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic producers are seeking alternative tactics for weed control so that they can reduce their need for tillage. In this study, we examined the impact of the preceding crop on alfalfa suppression of weeds. Alfalfa was most competitive with weeds following soybean. When following spring wheat, v...

  7. Cross-frequency interactions in the precedence effect.

    PubMed

    Shinn-Cunningham, B G; Zurek, P M; Durlach, N I; Clifton, R K

    1995-07-01

    This paper concerns the extent to which the precedence effect is observed when leading and lagging sounds occupy different spectral regions. Subjects, listening under headphones, were asked to match the intracranial lateral position of an acoustic pointer to that of a test stimulus composed of two binaural noise bursts with asynchronous onsets, parametrically varied frequency content, and different interaural delays. The precedence effect was measured by the degree to which the interaural delay of the matching pointer was independent of the interaural delay of the lagging noise burst in the test stimulus. The results, like those of Blauert and Divenyi [Acustica 66, 267-274 (1988)], show an asymmetric frequency effect in which the lateralization influence of a lagging high-frequency burst is almost completely suppressed by a leading low-frequency burst, whereas a lagging low-frequency burst is weighted equally with a leading high-frequency burst. This asymmetry is shown to be the result of an inherent low-frequency dominance that is seen even with simultaneous bursts. When this dominance is removed (by attenuating the low-frequency burst) the precedence effect operates with roughly equal strength both upward and downward in frequency. Within the scope of the current study (with lateralization achieved through the use of interaural time differences alone, stimuli from only two frequency bands, and only three subjects performing in all experiments), these results suggest that the precedence effect arises from a fairly central processing stage in which information is combined across frequency.

  8. Independence Pending: Teacher Behaviors Preceding Learner Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roesler, Rebecca A.

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to identify the teacher behaviors that preceded learners' active participation in solving musical and technical problems and describe learners' roles in the problem-solving process. I applied an original model of problem solving to describe the behaviors of teachers and students in 161 rehearsal frames…

  9. Metrical expectations from preceding prosody influence perception of lexical stress

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Meredith; Salverda, Anne Pier; Dilley, Laura C.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Two visual-world experiments tested the hypothesis that expectations based on preceding prosody influence the perception of suprasegmental cues to lexical stress. The results demonstrate that listeners’ consideration of competing alternatives with different stress patterns (e.g., ‘jury/gi’raffe) can be influenced by the fundamental frequency and syllable timing patterns across material preceding a target word. When preceding stressed syllables distal to the target word shared pitch and timing characteristics with the first syllable of the target word, pictures of alternatives with primary lexical stress on the first syllable (e.g., jury) initially attracted more looks than alternatives with unstressed initial syllables (e.g., giraffe). This effect was modulated when preceding unstressed syllables had pitch and timing characteristics similar to the initial syllable of the target word, with more looks to alternatives with unstressed initial syllables (e.g., giraffe) than to those with stressed initial syllables (e.g., jury). These findings suggest that expectations about the acoustic realization of upcoming speech include information about metrical organization and lexical stress, and that these expectations constrain the initial interpretation of suprasegmental stress cues. These distal prosody effects implicate on-line probabilistic inferences about the sources of acoustic-phonetic variation during spoken-word recognition. PMID:25621583

  10. A Precedent for Test Validation. ERIC/TM Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence; Farris, Michael P.

    In December 1991, the South Carolina Supreme Court ordered the State Board of Education to stop using the Education Entrance Examination (EEE) for licensing parents who want to teach their children at home. In ruling that the test's validation process did not meet a standard of reasonableness, the Court established a significant precedent for test…

  11. Impact of preceding crop on alfalfa competitiveness with weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic producers would like to include no-till practices in their farming systems. We are seeking to develop a continuous no-till system for organic farming, based on a complex rotation that includes a 3-year sequence of alfalfa. In this study, we evaluated impact of preceding crop on weed infest...

  12. 48 CFR 3452.215-33 - Order of precedence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Order of precedence. 3452.215-33 Section 3452.215-33 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and...

  13. 5 CFR 178.204 - Order of payment precedence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., money due an employee at the time of the employee's death shall be paid to the person or persons surviving at the date of death, in the following order of precedence, and the payment bars recovery by... employee in a writing received in the employing agency prior to the employee's death; (b) Second, if...

  14. Is journalism failing on climate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    How can we build a reliable and affordable energy supply based on renewables? How rapidly do we need to cut greenhouse gas emissions to keep climate change within manageable bounds? What does it take to maintain a stable common currency of different nations? These are just a few examples of questions that are critical for our future and that require an understanding of complex systems—the energy system, the climate system, the financial system. Finding sound answers to these questions requires sophisticated scientific analysis and expert knowledge; a lay person's intuition will clearly not suffice. Yet, decisions in a democracy are (and should be!) taken by politicians and the voting public who are not usually scientific experts. Hence the well-being of our societies—and even more so the living conditions of future generations, which are defined by the decisions we take today—depends on the wider public being well informed about the state of scientific knowledge and discourse. The media are the most important means by which lay people obtain their information about science. Good science journalism is therefore a decisive factor for the long-term success of modern society. Good science journalism clearly must be critical journalism, and it requires journalists who know what is what, who can put things into a perspective, and who are able to make well-informed judgements. After all, the role of science journalism is not simply to act as a 'translator' who conveys the findings of scientists in a language understandable to lay people. Rather, good science journalism will provide the public with a realistic impression of what is well established in science and what are current 'hot topics', uncertainties and controversies. It will also discuss the methods and social context of the scientific endeavour. There is ample evidence that in the area of climate science, journalism too often is failing to deliver this realistic picture to its audience, despite many good

  15. A two-stage linear discriminant analysis via QR-decomposition.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jieping; Li, Qi

    2005-06-01

    Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) is a well-known method for feature extraction and dimension reduction. It has been used widely in many applications involving high-dimensional data, such as image and text classification. An intrinsic limitation of classical LDA is the so-called singularity problems; that is, it fails when all scatter matrices are singular. Many LDA extensions were proposed in the past to overcome the singularity problems. Among these extensions, PCA+LDA, a two-stage method, received relatively more attention. In PCA+LDA, the LDA stage is preceded by an intermediate dimension reduction stage using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Most previous LDA extensions are computationally expensive, and not scalable, due to the use of Singular Value Decomposition or Generalized Singular Value Decomposition. In this paper, we propose a two-stage LDA method, namely LDA/QR, which aims to overcome the singularity problems of classical LDA, while achieving efficiency and scalability simultaneously. The key difference between LDA/QR and PCA+LDA lies in the first stage, where LDA/QR applies QR decomposition to a small matrix involving the class centroids, while PCA+LDA applies PCA to the total scatter matrix involving all training data points. We further justify the proposed algorithm by showing the relationship among LDA/QR and previous LDA methods. Extensive experiments on face images and text documents are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  16. Failed State 2030: Nigeria - A Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    entomology , transportation, hydrology, and other farm-related data and information to improve crop yields and profits. Any increased wealth in the... forensic tools required to properly attribute attacks, discriminate between belligerents and noncombatants, and em- power leaders to anticipate

  17. Case report of unusual leukoencephalopathy preceding primary CNS lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Brecher, K.; Hochberg, F.; Louis, D.; de la Monte, S.; Riskind, P.

    1998-01-01

    A previously healthy 35 year old woman presented with bilateral uveitus associated with multiple, evolving, non-enhancing white matter lesions consistent with a progressive leukoencephalopathy such as multiple sclerosis. Thirty months after her initial presentation, she was diagnosed with primary CNS lymphoma and died 14 months later. The unusual clinical course preceding the diagnosis suggests that a demyelinating disease may have preceded, and possibly heralded, the development of primary CNS lymphoma. Cases of "sentinel lesions" heralding the diagnosis of primary CNS lymphoma have been reported, and this case further corroborates such instances and raises further issues regarding possible neoplastic transformation occurring in inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis.

 PMID:9854972

  18. Auditory startle reflex inhibited by preceding self-action.

    PubMed

    Kawachi, Yousuke; Matsue, Yoshihiko; Shibata, Michiaki; Imaizumi, Osamu; Gyoba, Jiro

    2014-01-01

    A startle reflex to a startle pulse is inhibited when preceded by a prestimulus. We introduced a key-press action (self-action) or an 85 dB noise burst as a prestimulus, followed by a 115 dB noise burst as a startle pulse. We manipulated temporal offsets between the prestimulus and the startle pulse from 30-1,500 ms to examine whether self-action modulates the startle reflex and the temporal properties of the modulatory effect. We assessed eyeblink reflexes by electromyography. Both prestimuli decreased reflexes compared to pulse-alone trials. Moreover, the temporal windows of inhibition were different between the types of prestimuli. A faster maximal inhibition and narrower temporal window in self-action trials suggest that preceding self-action inhibits the startle reflex and allows prediction of the coming pulse in different ways from auditory prestimuli.

  19. Auditory localization and precedence effect: an exploratory study in infants and toddlers with visual impairment and normal vision.

    PubMed

    Hüg, Mercedes X; Arias, Claudia; Tommasini, Fabián C; Ramos, Oscar A

    2014-09-01

    The precedence effect is a spatial hearing phenomenon implicated in sound localization on reverberant environments. It occurs when a pair of sounds, with a brief delay between them, is presented from different directions; listeners give greater perceptual weight to localization cues coming from the first-arriving sound, called lead, and suppress localization cues from the later-arriving reflection, called lag. Developmental studies with sighted infants show that the first responses to precedence effect stimuli are observed at 4-5 months of life. In this exploratory study, we use the minimum audible angle (MAA) paradigm in conjunction with the observer-based psychophysical procedure to test the ability of infants and toddlers, with visual impairment and normal vision, to discriminate changes in the azimuthal position of sounds configured under precedence effect conditions. The results indicated that similar and, in some conditions, higher performances were obtained by blind toddlers when compared to sighted children of similar age, and revealed that the observer-based psychophysical procedure is a valuable method to measure auditory localization acuity in infants and toddlers with visual impairment. The video records showed auditory orienting behaviors specific of the blind children group.

  20. TGDA: Nonparametric Discriminant Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Norval F.; Bruno, Albert V.

    1976-01-01

    A computer program for two-group nonparametric discriminant analysis is presented. Based on Bayes' Theorem for probability revision, the statistical rationale for this program uses the calculation of maximum likelihood estimates of group membership. The program compares the Bayesian procedure to the standard Linear Discriminant Function.…

  1. Flash-Type Discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the significant progress made in the flash-type discrimination algorithm development. The contents include: 1) Highlights of Progress for GLM-R3 Flash-Type discrimination Algorithm Development; 2) Maximum Group Area (MGA) Data; 3) Retrieval Errors from Simulations; and 4) Preliminary Global-scale Retrieval.

  2. The "Taste" for Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiswick, Barry R.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses, in terms of consumers, employers, and employees, how a "taste for discrimination," that is, someone's preference for or against association with some group in the labor market, can influence behavior and hence who gets hired. Argues that people with the strongest tastes for discrimination pay the heaviest cost. (RDN)

  3. Discrimination against Black Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aloud, Ashwaq; Alsulayyim, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is a structured way of abusing people based on racial differences, hence barring them from accessing wealth, political participation and engagement in many spheres of human life. Racism and discrimination are inherently rooted in institutions in the society, the problem has spread across many social segments of the society including…

  4. Microscale acceleration history discriminators

    DOEpatents

    Polosky, Marc A.; Plummer, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of micromechanical acceleration history discriminators is claimed. These discriminators allow the precise differentiation of a wide range of acceleration-time histories, thereby allowing adaptive events to be triggered in response to the severity (or lack thereof) of an external environment. Such devices have applications in airbag activation, and other safety and surety applications.

  5. A serach for 'failed clusters' of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, W. H.; Tananbaum, H.; Remillard, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a search for a new type of object - large clouds of hot gas with no visible galaxies - which we call failed clusters of galaxies. We calculate the expected X-ray luminosity, temperature, and angular diameter of such objects as a function of total cloud mass and convert the results to expected X-ray fluxes from failed clusters at different redshifts. Using the Einstein Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) database, we establish a strategy to search for candidate failed clusters. From this initial screening of 1435 IPC fields, 17 candidates are selected for more detailed analysis, which indicates that 10 of these are very probably extended X-ray sources. Optical follow-up on the 10 prime candidates finds eight clusters of galaxies (including six reproted for the first time in this paper), one stellar identification, and one without an obvious optical counterpart (the candidate with the weakest evidence for X-ray extent). Investigation of several candidates with less evidence for X-ray extent yields two additional new clusters of galaxies. A conservative comparison of our results with the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey demonstrates that failed clusters are a relatively unimportant contributor to the mass density of the universe. Our inability to find failed clusters is consistent with the hierarchical clustering scenario for the formation of galaxies and clusters.

  6. Baseline activity predicts working memory load of preceding task condition.

    PubMed

    Pyka, Martin; Hahn, Tim; Heider, Dominik; Krug, Axel; Sommer, Jens; Kircher, Tilo; Jansen, Andreas

    2013-11-01

    The conceptual notion of the so-called resting state of the brain has been recently challenged by studies indicating a continuing effect of cognitive processes on subsequent rest. In particular, activity in posterior parietal and medial prefrontal areas has been found to be modulated by preceding experimental conditions. In this study, we investigated which brain areas show working memory dependent patterns in subsequent baseline periods and how specific they are for the preceding experimental condition. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, 94 subjects performed a letter-version of the n-back task with the conditions 0-back and 2-back followed by a low-level baseline in which subjects had to passively observe the letters appearing. In a univariate analysis, 2-back served as control condition while 0-back, baseline after 0-back and baseline after 2-back were modeled as regressors to test for activity changes between both baseline conditions. Additionally, we tested, using Gaussian process classifiers, the recognition of task condition from functional images acquired during baseline. Besides the expected activity changes in the precuneus and medial prefrontal cortex, we found differential activity in the thalamus, putamen, and postcentral gyrus that were affected by the preceding task. The multivariate analysis revealed that images of the subsequent baseline block contain task related patterns that yield a recognition rate of 70%. The results suggest that the influence of a cognitive task on subsequent baseline is strong and specific for some areas but not restricted to areas of the so-called default mode network.

  7. Vitiligo disease triggers: psychological stressors preceding the onset of disease.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Jonathan I; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2015-05-01

    Vitiligo is the loss of skin pigmentation caused by autoimmune destruction of melanocytes. Little is known about the impact of psychological stressors preceding vitiligo onset on symptoms associated with vitiligo and the extent of disease. We performed a questionnaire-based study of 1541 adults with vitiligo to evaluate the impact of psychological stressors in this patient population. Psychological stressors should be considered as potential disease triggers in vitiligo patients, and screening of vitiligo patients for psychological stressors and associated symptoms should be included in routine assessment.

  8. Obstacles and foliage discrimination using lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Daniel D.

    2016-05-01

    A central challenge to autonomous off-road navigation is discriminating between obstacles that are safe to drive over and those that pose a hazard to navigation and so must be circumnavigated. Foliage, which can often be safely driven over, presents two important perception problems. First, foliage can appear as a large impenetrable obstacle, and so must be discriminated from other objects. Second, real obstacles are much harder to detect when adjacent to or occluded by foliage and many detection methods fail to detect them due to additional clutter and partial occlusions from foliage. This paper addresses both the discrimination of foliage, and the detection of obstacles in and near foliage using Lidar. Our approach uses neighboring pixels in a depth image to construct features at each pixel that provide local surface properites. A generative model for obstacles is used to accumulate probabilistic evidence for obstacles and foliage in the vicinity of a moving platform. Detection of obstacles is then based on evidence within overlapping cells of a map without the need to segment segment obstacles and foliage. High accuracy obstacle and foliage discrimination is obtained and compared with the use of a point scatter measure.

  9. Quantity discrimination in salamanders.

    PubMed

    Krusche, Paul; Uller, Claudia; Dicke, Ursula

    2010-06-01

    We investigated discrimination of large quantities in salamanders of the genus Plethodon. Animals were challenged with two different quantities (8 vs 12 or 8 vs 16) in a two-alternative choice task. Stimuli were live crickets, videos of live crickets or images animated by a computer program. Salamanders reliably chose the larger of two quantities when the ratio between the sets was 1:2 and stimuli were live crickets or videos thereof. Magnitude discrimination was not successful when the ratio was 2:3, or when the ratio was 1:2 when stimuli were computer animated. Analysis of the salamanders' success and failure as well as analysis of stimulus features points towards movement as a dominant feature for quantity discrimination. The results are generally consistent with large quantity discrimination investigated in many other animals (e.g. primates, fish), current models of quantity representation (analogue magnitudes) and data on sensory aspects of amphibian prey-catching behaviour (neuronal motion processing).

  10. Mass discrimination during weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment concerned with the ability of astronauts to discriminate between the mass of objects when both the objects and the astronauts are in weightless states is described. The main object of the experiment is to compare the threshold for weight-discrimination on Earth with that for mass-discrimination in orbit. Tests will be conducted premission and postmission and early and late during the mission while the crew is experiencing weightlessness. A comparison of early and late tests inflight and postflight will reveal the rate of adaptation to zero-gravity and 1-g. The mass discrimination box holds 24 balls which the astronaut will compare to one another in a random routine.

  11. Diffuse neutrino flux from failed supernovae.

    PubMed

    Lunardini, Cecilia

    2009-06-12

    I study the diffuse flux of electron antineutrinos from stellar collapses with direct black hole formation (failed supernovae). This flux is more energetic than that from successful supernovae, and therefore it might contribute substantially to the total diffuse flux above realistic detection thresholds. The total flux might be considerably higher than previously thought, and approach the sensitivity of Super-Kamiokande. For more conservative values of the parameters, the flux from failed supernovae dominates for antineutrino energies above 30-45 MeV, with potential to give an observable spectral distortion at megaton detectors.

  12. Visual control of an action discrimination in pigeons

    PubMed Central

    Qadri, Muhammad A. J.; Asen, Yael; Cook, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing and categorizing behavior is essential for all animals. The visual and cognitive mechanisms underlying such action discriminations are not well understood, especially in nonhuman animals. To identify the visual bases of action discriminations, four pigeons were tested in a go/no-go procedure to examine the contribution of different visual features in a discrimination of walking and running actions by different digital animal models. Two different tests with point-light displays derived from studies of human biological motion failed to support transfer of the learned action discrimination from fully figured models. Tests with silhouettes, contours, and the selective deletion or occlusion of different parts of the models indicated that information about the global motions of the entire model was critical to the discrimination. This outcome, along with earlier results, suggests that the pigeons' discrimination of these locomotive actions involved a generalized categorization of the sequence of configural poses. Because the motor systems for locomotion and flying in pigeons share little in common with quadruped motions, the pigeons' discrimination of these behaviors creates problems for motor theories of action recognition based on mirror neurons or related notions of embodied cognition. It suggests instead that more general motion and shape mechanisms are sufficient for making such discriminations, at least in birds. PMID:24879863

  13. Angular velocity discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments designed to investigate the ability of naive observers to discriminate rotational velocities of two simultaneously viewed objects are described. Rotations are constrained to occur about the x and y axes, resulting in linear two-dimensional image trajectories. The results indicate that observers can discriminate angular velocities with a competence near that for linear velocities. However, perceived angular rate is influenced by structural aspects of the stimuli.

  14. Examining the Discriminative and Strengthening Effects of Reinforcers in Concurrent Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutros, Nathalie; Elliffe, Douglas; Davison, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Reinforcers may increase operant responding via a response-strengthening mechanism whereby the probability of the preceding response increases, or via some discriminative process whereby the response more likely to provide subsequent reinforcement becomes, itself, more likely. We tested these two accounts. Six pigeons responded for food…

  15. Arterial stiffening precedes systolic hypertension in diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Weisbrod, Robert M; Shiang, Tina; Al Sayah, Leona; Fry, Jessica L; Bajpai, Saumendra; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A; Lob, Heinrich E; Santhanam, Lakshmi; Mitchell, Gary; Cohen, Richard A; Seta, Francesca

    2013-12-01

    Stiffening of conduit arteries is a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity. Aortic wall stiffening increases pulsatile hemodynamic forces that are detrimental to the microcirculation in highly perfused organs, such as the heart, brain, and kidney. Arterial stiffness is associated with hypertension but presumed to be due to an adaptive response to increased hemodynamic load. In contrast, a recent clinical study found that stiffness precedes and may contribute to the development of hypertension although the mechanisms underlying hypertension are unknown. Here, we report that in a diet-induced model of obesity, arterial stiffness, measured in vivo, develops within 1 month of the initiation of the diet and precedes the development of hypertension by 5 months. Diet-induced obese mice recapitulate the metabolic syndrome and are characterized by inflammation in visceral fat and aorta. Normalization of the metabolic state by weight loss resulted in return of arterial stiffness and blood pressure to normal. Our findings support the hypothesis that arterial stiffness is a cause rather than a consequence of hypertension.

  16. Human behavior preceding dog bites to the face.

    PubMed

    Rezac, P; Rezac, K; Slama, P

    2015-12-01

    Facial injuries caused by dog bites pose a serious problem. The aims of this study were to determine human behavior immediately preceding a dog bite to the face and to assess the effects of victim age and gender and dog sex and size on the location of the bite to the face and the need for medical treatment. Complete data on 132 incidents of bites to the face were analysed. A human bending over a dog, putting the face close to the dog's face, and gazing between victim and dog closely preceded a dog bite to the face in 76%, 19% and 5% of cases, respectively. More than half of the bites were directed towards the central area of the victim's face (nose, lips). More than two thirds of the victims were children, none of the victims was an adult dog owner and only adult dogs bit the face. Victim's age and gender and dog's sex and size did not affect the location of the bite on the face. People who were bitten by large dogs sought medical treatment more often than people who were bitten by small dogs (P <0.01). Risk factors such as bending over the dog, putting the face close to the dog's face and gazing between human and dog should be avoided, and children should be carefully and constantly supervised when in the presence of dogs.

  17. Hydroclimatic conditions preceding the March 2014 Oso landslide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henn, Brian; Cao, Qian; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Mass, Clifford; Bower, J. Brent; St. Laurent, Michael; Mao, Yixin; Perica, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    The 22 March 2014 Oso landslide was one of the deadliest in U.S. history, resulting in 43 fatalities and the destruction of more than 40 structures. We examine synoptic conditions, precipitation records and soil moisture reconstructions in the days, months, and years preceding the landslide. Atmospheric reanalysis shows a period of enhanced moisture transport to the Pacific Northwest beginning on 11 February 2014. The 21- to 42-day periods prior to the landslide had anomalously high precipitation; we estimate that 300-400 mm of precipitation fell at Oso in the 21 days prior to the landslide. Relative only to historical periods ending on 22 March, the return periods of these precipitation accumulations are large (25-88 years). However, relative to the largest accumulations from any time of the year (annual maxima), return periods are more modest (2-6 years). In addition to the 21-42 days prior to the landslide, there is a secondary maximum in the precipitation return periods for the 4 years preceding the landslide. Reconstructed soil moisture was anomalously high prior to the landslide, with a return period that exceeded 40 years about a week before the event.

  18. Cellular contraction precedes membrane depolarization in Vorticella convallaria

    PubMed

    Shiono; Naitoh

    1997-01-01

    Application of a mechanical stimulus to the cell body of the peritrich ciliate Vorticella convallaria evoked an all-or-nothing membrane depolarization, the large pulse. This was always accompanied by an all-or-nothing cellular contraction, and simultaneous recordings of the two events revealed that the large pulse was always preceded by the cellular contraction. A smaller graded membrane depolarization (the medium pulse) was sometimes produced in response to a weaker mechanical stimulus. The medium pulse was accompanied by a small, graded, localized contraction of the cell body and was occasionally followed by a large pulse. When a large pulse occurred during a medium pulse, it reached the same peak level as that of a large pulse evoked without a preceding medium pulse. When a medium pulse occurred during a medium pulse, summation of the two pulses was observed. Sustained contraction causes V. convallaria to become rounded, and in this state a mechanical stimulus stronger than that used to evoke the large pulse evoked a graded depolarizing mechanoreceptor potential in the cell. We conclude that both the large and medium pulses are caused by an inward receptor current that is activated mechanically following contraction of the cell body. A localized contraction evokes a small mechanoreceptor current, causing a medium pulse. An all-or-nothing contraction evokes a saturated, all-or-nothing mechanoreceptor current, causing a large pulse.

  19. Continental warming preceding the Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum.

    PubMed

    Secord, Ross; Gingerich, Philip D; Lohmann, Kyger C; Macleod, Kenneth G

    2010-10-21

    Marine and continental records show an abrupt negative shift in carbon isotope values at ∼55.8 Myr ago. This carbon isotope excursion (CIE) is consistent with the release of a massive amount of isotopically light carbon into the atmosphere and was associated with a dramatic rise in global temperatures termed the Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM). Greenhouse gases released during the CIE, probably including methane, have often been considered the main cause of PETM warming. However, some evidence from the marine record suggests that warming directly preceded the CIE, raising the possibility that the CIE and PETM may have been linked to earlier warming with different origins. Yet pre-CIE warming is still uncertain. Disentangling the sequence of events before and during the CIE and PETM is important for understanding the causes of, and Earth system responses to, abrupt climate change. Here we show that continental warming of about 5 °C preceded the CIE in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming. Our evidence, based on oxygen isotopes in mammal teeth (which reflect temperature-sensitive fractionation processes) and other proxies, reveals a marked temperature increase directly below the CIE, and again in the CIE. Pre-CIE warming is also supported by a negative amplification of δ(13)C values in soil carbonates below the CIE. Our results suggest that at least two sources of warming-the earlier of which is unlikely to have been methane-contributed to the PETM.

  20. Preceding Inhibition Silences Layer 6 Neurons in Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yi; Liu, Bao-hua; Wu, Guangying K.; Kim, Young; Xiao, Zhongju; Tao, Huizhong W.; Zhang, Li I.

    2010-01-01

    Summary A canonical feedforward circuit is proposed to underlie sensory cortical responses with balanced excitation and inhibition in layer 4 (L4). However, in another input layer, L6, sensory responses and the underlying synaptic circuits remain largely unclear. Here, cell-attached recordings in rat primary auditory cortex revealed that for the majority of L6 excitatory neurons, tonal stimuli did not drive spike responses, but suppressed spontaneous firings. Whole-cell recordings further revealed that the silencing resulted from tone-evoked strong inhibition arriving earlier than excitation. This pattern of inputs can be attributed to a parallel feedforward circuit with both excitatory and inhibitory inputs disynaptically relayed. In contrast, in the other neurons directly driven by thalamic input, stimuli evoked excitation preceding relatively weak inhibition, resulting in robust spike responses. Thus, the dichotomy of L6 response properties arises from two distinct patterns of excitatory-inhibitory interplay. The parallel circuit module generating preceding inhibition may provide a gating mechanism for conditional corticothalamic feedback. PMID:20223205

  1. Perturbation of old knowledge precedes integration of new knowledge.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiaoping; Perfetti, Charles A

    2017-03-14

    The importance of memory consolidation in integrating new knowledge has received much recent attention in the field of word learning. Less examined is the change in existing word knowledge as a result of learning, which we hypothesize to occur prior to the opportunity for consolidation. To test this, we had participants learn new meanings for known words and novel words. Then they performed a one-back task on a list of words that included the trained words followed by words that probed either their new or original meanings while EEGs were recorded. A probe word related to the new meaning of the preceding trained word did not show an N400 reduction compared to an unrelated word, suggesting that the new meaning had not been fully integrated, consistent with one account of complementary learning systems. However, when the probe word was related to the original meaning of the preceding trained word a perturbation effect was observed, indicated by a larger negativity at the central midline cluster (Cz) within 500-700 ms when the trained word had a new meaning than when presented as an exposure control. The perturbation effect suggests that even before a new meaning has become integrated with a word form, the attempt to learn a new meaning temporarily makes the original meaning of a word less accessible.

  2. Fail-safe bidirectional valve driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujimoto, H.

    1974-01-01

    Cross-coupled diodes are added to commonly used bidirectional valve driver circuit to protect circuit and power supply. Circuit may be used in systems requiring fail-safe bidirectional valve operation, particularly in chemical- and petroleum-processing control systems and computer-controlled hydraulic or pneumatic systems.

  3. The Art of Saving a Failing School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Les

    2012-01-01

    While the debate continues over whether to close failing schools or attempt fixing them, the author asserts that the solution most often lies in assigning strong leaders to them who will take definite and immediate action. Reviewing his own success turning around schools, he says creating a sense of urgency, unloading poor performing staff, and…

  4. Examination of a Failed Professional Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Rachel L.; Penny, G. Richard

    2015-01-01

    Schools are using various forms of professional learning communities (PLCs) in order to increase student achievement and improve educational practices through enhanced communication and collaboration among teachers. This study examined a PLC that had too narrow a focus and failed therefore to affect student achievement. A critical shortcoming of…

  5. Magnetic Discrimination Learning in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugh, Cordula V.; Walker, Michael M.

    Although conditioning techniques are the most powerful way to study behavioural responses by animals to external stimuli, the magnetic sense has proved surprisingly resistant to conditioning approaches. This study demonstrated learned discrimination of magnetic field intensity stimuli by a new species, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In a unitary conditioned discrimination technique, four juvenile rainbow trout were trained to strike a target at the end of a response bar in anticipation of food. In successive experiments, the trout failed to discriminate the presence and absence of a vibration stimulus, but subsequently learned to discriminate the presence and absence of a magnetic field intensity anomaly (peak intensity of 75 μTesla). The authors conclude that the necessary conditions for training animals to magnetic intensity are the use of spatially distinctive stimuli and of a conditioned response that requires movement.

  6. Failure of the precedence effect with a noise-band vocoder

    PubMed Central

    Seeber, Bernhard U.; Hafter, Ervin R.

    2011-01-01

    The precedence effect (PE) describes the ability to localize a direct, leading sound correctly when its delayed copy (lag) is present, though not separately audible. The relative contribution of binaural cues in the temporal fine structure (TFS) of lead–lag signals was compared to that of interaural level differences (ILDs) and interaural time differences (ITDs) carried in the envelope. In a localization dominance paradigm participants indicated the spatial location of lead–lag stimuli processed with a binaural noise-band vocoder whose noise carriers introduced random TFS. The PE appeared for noise bursts of 10 ms duration, indicating dominance of envelope information. However, for three test words the PE often failed even at short lead–lag delays, producing two images, one toward the lead and one toward the lag. When interaural correlation in the carrier was increased, the images appeared more centered, but often remained split. Although previous studies suggest dominance of TFS cues, no image is lateralized in accord with the ITD in the TFS. An interpretation in the context of auditory scene analysis is proposed: By replacing the TFS with that of noise the auditory system loses the ability to fuse lead and lag into one object, and thus to show the PE. PMID:21428515

  7. 26 CFR 25.2504-2 - Determination of gifts for preceding calendar periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Determination of gifts for preceding calendar... § 25.2504-2 Determination of gifts for preceding calendar periods. (a) Gifts made before August 6, 1997... a preceding calendar period, as defined in § 25.2502-1(c)(2), the gift was made prior to August...

  8. 26 CFR 25.2504-2 - Determination of gifts for preceding calendar periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of gifts for preceding calendar... § 25.2504-2 Determination of gifts for preceding calendar periods. (a) Gifts made before August 6, 1997... a preceding calendar period, as defined in § 25.2502-1(c)(2), the gift was made prior to August...

  9. 26 CFR 25.2504-2 - Determination of gifts for preceding calendar periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of gifts for preceding calendar... § 25.2504-2 Determination of gifts for preceding calendar periods. (a) Gifts made before August 6, 1997... a preceding calendar period, as defined in § 25.2502-1(c)(2), the gift was made prior to August...

  10. 26 CFR 25.2504-2 - Determination of gifts for preceding calendar periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Determination of gifts for preceding calendar... § 25.2504-2 Determination of gifts for preceding calendar periods. (a) Gifts made before August 6, 1997... a preceding calendar period, as defined in § 25.2502-1(c)(2), the gift was made prior to August...

  11. 26 CFR 25.2504-2 - Determination of gifts for preceding calendar periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of gifts for preceding calendar... § 25.2504-2 Determination of gifts for preceding calendar periods. (a) Gifts made before August 6, 1997... a preceding calendar period, as defined in § 25.2502-1(c)(2), the gift was made prior to August...

  12. 17 CFR 240.11a1-1(T) - Transactions yielding priority, parity, and precedence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., parity, and precedence. 240.11a1-1(T) Section 240.11a1-1(T) Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... (rule 11a-1) § 240.11a1-1(T) Transactions yielding priority, parity, and precedence. (a) A transaction... priority, parity, and precedence in execution to orders for the account of persons who are not members...

  13. 17 CFR 240.11a1-1(T) - Transactions yielding priority, parity, and precedence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., parity, and precedence. 240.11a1-1(T) Section 240.11a1-1(T) Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... (rule 11a-1) § 240.11a1-1(T) Transactions yielding priority, parity, and precedence. (a) A transaction... priority, parity, and precedence in execution to orders for the account of persons who are not members...

  14. 17 CFR 240.11a1-1(T) - Transactions yielding priority, parity, and precedence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., parity, and precedence. 240.11a1-1(T) Section 240.11a1-1(T) Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... (rule 11a-1) § 240.11a1-1(T) Transactions yielding priority, parity, and precedence. (a) A transaction... priority, parity, and precedence in execution to orders for the account of persons who are not members...

  15. 17 CFR 240.11a1-1(T) - Transactions yielding priority, parity, and precedence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., parity, and precedence. 240.11a1-1(T) Section 240.11a1-1(T) Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... (rule 11a-1) § 240.11a1-1(T) Transactions yielding priority, parity, and precedence. (a) A transaction... priority, parity, and precedence in execution to orders for the account of persons who are not members...

  16. 17 CFR 240.11a1-1(T) - Transactions yielding priority, parity, and precedence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., parity, and precedence. 240.11a1-1(T) Section 240.11a1-1(T) Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... (rule 11a-1) § 240.11a1-1(T) Transactions yielding priority, parity, and precedence. (a) A transaction... priority, parity, and precedence in execution to orders for the account of persons who are not members...

  17. Revisiting Precede-Proceed: A Leading Model for Ecological and Ethical Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Precede-Proceed model has provided moral and practical guidance for the fields of health education and health promotion since Lawrence Green first developed Precede in 1974 and Green and Kreuter added Proceed in 1991. Precede-Proceed today remains the most comprehensive and one of the most used approaches to promoting health.…

  18. Changes in autonomic activity preceding onset of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osaka, M.; Saitoh, H.; Sasabe, N.; Atarashi, H.; Katoh, T.; Hayakawa, H.; Cohen, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    Background: The triggering role of the autonomic nervous system in the initiation of ventricular tachycardia has not been established. To investigate the relationship between changes in autonomic activity and the occurrence of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) we examined heart rate variability (HRV) during the 2-hour period preceding spontaneous episodes of NSVT. Twenty-four subjects were identified retrospectively as having had one episode of NSVT during 24-hour Holter ECC recording. Methods: We measured the mean interval between normal heats (meanRR), the standard deviation of the intervals between beats (SD), the percentage of counts of sequential intervals between normal beats with a change of >50 ms (%RR50), the logarithms of low- and high-frequency spectral components (lnLF, lnHF) of HRV for sequential 10-minute segments preceding NSVT. The correlation dimension (CDim) of HRV was calculated similarly for sequential 20-minute segments. We assessed the significance of the time-course change of each marker over the 120-minute period prior to NSVT onset. Results: MeanRR (P < 0.05), lnLF (P < 0.0001), lnHF (P < 0.0001), the natural logarithm of the ratio of LF to HF (ln[LF/HF]; P < 0.05), and CDim (P < 0.05) showed significant time-course changes during that period, while SD and %RR50 did not. MeanRR, lnLF, lnHF, and CDim all decreased prior to the onset of NSVT, whereas ln(LF/HF) increased. We divided the subjects into two groups: one consisting of 12 patients with coronary artery disease; and the second group of 12 patients without known coronary artery disease. Both groups showed significant changes (P < 0.05) of CDim, lnLF, and lnHF preceding the episodes of NSVT. Conclusions: Changes in the pattern of HRV prior to the onset of episodes of NSVT suggest that changes in autonomic activity may commonly play a role in the triggering of spontaneous episodes of NSVT in susceptible patients. The measured changes suggest a reduction in parasympathetic

  19. The physics of charge separation preceding lightning strokes in thunderclouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyrala, Ali

    1987-01-01

    The physics of charge separation preceding lightning strokes in thunderclouds is presented by three types of arguments: An explanation is given for the aggregation of electrical charges of like sign overcoming Coulomb repulsion by attraction due to exchange interaction. The latter is well known in quantum mechanics from the theories of the nuclear bond and the covalent bond. A classical electrostatic model of charge balls of segregated positive and negative charges in the thundercloud is presented. These charge balls can only be maintained in temporarily stable locations by a containing vortex. Because they will be of different sizes and masses, they will stabilize at different altitudes when drag forces are included with the given electrostatic force. The question of how the charges become concentrated again after lightning discharges is approached by means of the collisional Boltzmann transport equation to explain quasi-periodic recharging. It is shown that solutions cannot be separable in both position and time if they are to represent aggregation.

  20. Tumor diagnosis preceding Parkinson's disease: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    D'Amelio, Marco; Ragonese, Paolo; Morgante, Letterio; Epifanio, Antonio; Callari, Graziella; Salemi, Giuseppe; Savettieri, Giovanni

    2004-07-01

    Lower cancer risk in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients compared to the general population has been reported. However, most of the studies were based on death certificates. We designed a case-control study to estimate the association of tumor preceding PD onset and PD. PD patients were matched by age and gender to PD-free individuals, randomly selected from the municipalities of residence of cases. Occurrence of tumors preceding PD onset was assessed through a structured questionnaire. Neoplasms were categorized as benign, malignant, or of uncertain classification, and endocrine-related or not. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated using conditional logistic regression and adjusted for tumor categories and risk factors. We included 222 PD patients. Frequency of cancer was 6.8% for cases, 12.6% for controls. PD patients had a decreased risk for neoplasms (adjusted OR, 0.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2-0.7). Risk was reduced only for women (adjusted OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.7). PD patients had a decreased risk both for malignant (adjusted OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.1-2.5) and nonmalignant neoplasms (adjusted OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.7). Still, risk was decreased for endocrine-related tumors (adjusted OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.9) and non-endocrine-related tumors (adjusted OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.1-0.9). Our study confirms the inverse association between PD and neoplasms reported in previous epidemiologic studies.

  1. Discriminant learning analysis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jing; Zhang, Peng; Riedel, Norbert

    2008-12-01

    Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) as a dimension reduction method is widely used in classification such as face recognition. However, it suffers from the small sample size (SSS) problem when data dimensionality is greater than the sample size, as in images where features are high dimensional and correlated. In this paper, we propose to address the SSS problem in the framework of statistical learning theory. We compute linear discriminants by regularized least squares regression, where the singularity problem is resolved. The resulting discriminants are complete in that they include both regular and irregular information. We show that our proposal and its nonlinear extension belong to the same framework where powerful classifiers such as support vector machines are formulated. In addition, our approach allows us to establish an error bound for LDA. Finally, our experiments validate our theoretical analysis results.

  2. Bias, discrimination, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Puhl, R; Brownell, K D

    2001-12-01

    This article reviews information on discriminatory attitudes and behaviors against obese individuals, integrates this to show whether systematic discrimination occurs and why, and discusses needed work in the field. Clear and consistent stigmatization, and in some cases discrimination, can be documented in three important areas of living: employment, education, and health care. Among the findings are that 28% of teachers in one study said that becoming obese is the worst thing that can happen to a person; 24% of nurses said that they are "repulsed" by obese persons; and, controlling for income and grades, parents provide less college support for their overweight than for their thin children. There are also suggestions but not yet documentation of discrimination occurring in adoption proceedings, jury selection, housing, and other areas. Given the vast numbers of people potentially affected, it is important to consider the research-related, educational, and social policy implications of these findings.

  3. Analysis of failed nuclear plant components

    SciTech Connect

    Diercks, D.R.

    1992-07-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has conducted analyses of failed components from nuclear power generating stations since 1974. The considerations involved in working with and analyzing radioactive components are reviewed here, and the decontamination of these components is discussed. Analyses of four failed components from nuclear plants are then described to illustrate the kinds of failures seen in service. The failures discussed are (a) intergranular stress corrosion cracking of core spray injection piping in a boiling water reactor, (b) failure of canopy seal welds in adapter tube assemblies in the control rod drive head of a pressure water reactor, (c) thermal fatigue of a recirculation pump shaft in a boiling water reactor, and (d) failure of pump seal wear rings by nickel leaching in a boiling water reactor.

  4. Failed back surgery syndrome: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Baber, Zafeer; Erdek, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) can be equally challenging to surgeons, pain specialists, and primary care providers alike. The onset of FBSS occurs when surgery fails to treat the patient’s lumbar spinal pain. Minimizing the likelihood of FBSS is dependent on determining a clear etiology of the patient’s pain, recognizing those who are at high risk, and exhausting conservative measures before deciding to go into a revision surgery. The workup of FBSS includes a thorough history and physical examination, diagnostic imaging, and procedures. After determining the cause of FBSS, a multidisciplinary approach is preferred. This includes pharmacologic management of pain, physical therapy, and behavioral modification and may include therapeutic procedures such as injections, radiofrequency ablation, lysis of adhesions, spinal cord stimulation, and even reoperations. PMID:27853391

  5. Neurolysis for failed tarsal tunnel surgery.

    PubMed

    Yalcinkaya, Merter; Ozer, Utku Erdem; Yalcin, M Burak; Bagatur, A Erdem

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the causes of failure after tarsal tunnel release and the operative findings in the secondary interventions and the outcomes. The data from 8 patients who had undergone revision surgery for failed tarsal tunnel release at least 12 months earlier were evaluated retrospectively. Only the patients with idiopathic tarsal tunnel syndrome were included, and all had unilateral symptoms. Neurophysiologic tests confirmed the clinical diagnosis of failed tarsal tunnel release in all patients. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed varicose veins within the tarsal tunnel in 1 patient (12.5%) and tenosynovitis in another (12.5%). Open tarsal tunnel release was performed in all patients, and the tibialis posterior nerve, medial and lateral plantar nerves (including the first branch of the lateral plantar nerve), and medial calcaneal nerve were released in their respective tunnels, and the septum between the tunnels was resected. The outcomes were assessed according to subjective patient satisfaction as excellent, good, fair, or poor. During revision surgery, insufficient release of the tarsal tunnel, especially distally, was observed in all the patients, and fibrosis of the tibialis posterior nerve was present in 1 (12.5%). The outcomes according to subjective patient satisfaction were excellent in 5 (62.5%), good in 2 (25%), and fair in 1 (12.5%). The fair outcome was obtained in the patient with fibrosis of the nerve. Insufficient release of the tarsal tunnel was the main cause of failed tarsal tunnel release. Releasing the 4 distinct tunnels and permitting immediate mobilization provided satisfactory results in patients with failed tarsal tunnel release.

  6. Pass-Fail: How Is It Working?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Clinton I.; And Others

    This study investigates the pass/fail (P/F) grading system. A sample of 154 Indiana University students was interviewed. Half of the group, 77 students, had not taken any P/F courses. Of the remaining 77 students, 42% had taken only one P/F course and most of the rest from two to five courses. Results of the student interview questionnaire…

  7. Stellar Death by Weak or Failed Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Scott Michael

    Core collapse supernovae (SNe) - the violent deaths of massive stars - are among the most luminous events in the Universe and play an important role in galaxy evolution and the production and distribution of the heavy elements necessary for planet formation and life. Despite decades of effort it is still unclear how these SNe explode. While SNe have been identified with close to the maximum theoretically possible energies, the lower bounds on SN energies and luminosities are less well-constrained. There is also no requirement that the core collapse always results in a successful SN explosion. In fact, there are multiple lines of evidence that suggest that 10 - 30% of core collapses might result in failed SNe, forming a black hole without a dramatic external explosion. The primary focus of this dissertation is to explore the lower bounds of the possible explosion energies and luminosities of core-collapse SNe. I discuss three observational strategies to help understand how massive stars die. Due to the development of advanced facilities for the detection of neutrinos and gravitational waves, the next Galactic SN will offer an unprecedented opportunity to study the SN explosion mechanism. To aid preparations for this event, I model the distance, extinction, and magnitude probability distributions for a Galactic SN, its shock breakout radiation, and progenitor. I also analyze the archetypes of two types of SN "impostors" and show that they may be genuine SNe, but with energies lower than previously observed. I present results from an ambitious survey that has been monitoring a million massive stars for 7 years to search for failed SNe. I follow-up the first identified failed SN candidate and find that the massive stellar progenitor appears to have vanished leaving behind a faint, fading IR source that may be due to fallback accretion onto a newly formed black hole. Finally, I set new constraints on the fraction of core collapses that result in failed SNe.

  8. Optical fiber phase discriminator.

    PubMed

    Danielson, B L

    1978-11-15

    Phase discriminators are devices widely used at rf and microwave frequencies to convert phase, or frequency, changes to amplitude changes. They find widespread use in generating audio feedback signals for frequency stabilization of oscillators and in angle demodulation applications. This paper demonstrates that similar devices, with similar functions, can be constructed in the visible region using optical fibers as delay-line elements. The operating principles of an optical-fiber delay-line phase discriminator are discussed. The sensitivity is shown to be proportional to the fiber propagation-delay time. A device working at 0.6328 microm is described and compared with predictions.

  9. Language discrimination without language: Experiments on tamarin monkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tincoff, Ruth; Hauser, Marc; Spaepen, Geertrui; Tsao, Fritz; Mehler, Jacques

    2002-05-01

    Human newborns can discriminate spoken languages differing on prosodic characteristics such as the timing of rhythmic units [T. Nazzi et al., JEP:HPP 24, 756-766 (1998)]. Cotton-top tamarins have also demonstrated a similar ability to discriminate a morae- (Japanese) vs a stress-timed (Dutch) language [F. Ramus et al., Science 288, 349-351 (2000)]. The finding that tamarins succeed in this task when either natural or synthesized utterances are played in a forward direction, but fail on backward utterances which disrupt the rhythmic cues, suggests that sensitivity to language rhythm may rely on general processes of the primate auditory system. However, the rhythm hypothesis also predicts that tamarins would fail to discriminate languages from the same rhythm class, such as English and Dutch. To assess the robustness of this ability, tamarins were tested on a different-rhythm-class distinction, Polish vs Japanese, and a new same-rhythm-class distinction, English vs Dutch. The stimuli were natural forward utterances produced by multiple speakers. As predicted by the rhythm hypothesis, tamarins discriminated between Polish and Japanese, but not English and Dutch. These findings strengthen the claim that discriminating the rhythmic cues of language does not require mechanisms specialized for human speech. [Work supported by NSF.

  10. Education and Gender Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumi, V. S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the status of women education in present education system and some measures to overcome the lags existing. Discrimination against girls and women in the developing world is a devastating reality. It results in millions of individual tragedies, which add up to lost potential for entire countries. Gender bias in education is an…

  11. Analytic boosted boson discrimination

    DOE PAGES

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian; Neill, Duff

    2016-05-20

    Observables which discriminate boosted topologies from massive QCD jets are of great importance for the success of the jet substructure program at the Large Hadron Collider. Such observables, while both widely and successfully used, have been studied almost exclusively with Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper we present the first all-orders factorization theorem for a two-prong discriminant based on a jet shape variable, D2, valid for both signal and background jets. Our factorization theorem simultaneously describes the production of both collinear and soft subjets, and we introduce a novel zero-bin procedure to correctly describe the transition region between these limits.more » By proving an all orders factorization theorem, we enable a systematically improvable description, and allow for precision comparisons between data, Monte Carlo, and first principles QCD calculations for jet substructure observables. Using our factorization theorem, we present numerical results for the discrimination of a boosted Z boson from massive QCD background jets. We compare our results with Monte Carlo predictions which allows for a detailed understanding of the extent to which these generators accurately describe the formation of two-prong QCD jets, and informs their usage in substructure analyses. In conclusion, our calculation also provides considerable insight into the discrimination power and calculability of jet substructure observables in general.« less

  12. Analytic boosted boson discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian; Neill, Duff

    2016-05-20

    Observables which discriminate boosted topologies from massive QCD jets are of great importance for the success of the jet substructure program at the Large Hadron Collider. Such observables, while both widely and successfully used, have been studied almost exclusively with Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper we present the first all-orders factorization theorem for a two-prong discriminant based on a jet shape variable, D2, valid for both signal and background jets. Our factorization theorem simultaneously describes the production of both collinear and soft subjets, and we introduce a novel zero-bin procedure to correctly describe the transition region between these limits. By proving an all orders factorization theorem, we enable a systematically improvable description, and allow for precision comparisons between data, Monte Carlo, and first principles QCD calculations for jet substructure observables. Using our factorization theorem, we present numerical results for the discrimination of a boosted Z boson from massive QCD background jets. We compare our results with Monte Carlo predictions which allows for a detailed understanding of the extent to which these generators accurately describe the formation of two-prong QCD jets, and informs their usage in substructure analyses. In conclusion, our calculation also provides considerable insight into the discrimination power and calculability of jet substructure observables in general.

  13. Airborne particulate discriminator

    DOEpatents

    Creek, Kathryn Louise; Castro, Alonso; Gray, Perry Clayton

    2009-08-11

    A method and apparatus for rapid and accurate detection and discrimination of biological, radiological, and chemical particles in air. A suspect aerosol of the target particulates is treated with a taggant aerosol of ultrafine particulates. Coagulation of the taggant and target particles causes a change in fluorescent properties of the cloud, providing an indication of the presence of the target.

  14. Discrimination Learning in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochocki, Thomas E.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Examined the learning performance of 192 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children on either a two or four choice simultaneous color discrimination task. Compared the use of verbal reinforcement and/or punishment, under conditions of either complete or incomplete instructions. (Author/SDH)

  15. RISE TIME DELAY DISCRIMINATOR

    DOEpatents

    Johnstone, C.W.

    1959-09-29

    A pulse-height discriminator for generating an output pulse when the accepted input pulse is approximately at its maximum value is described. A gating tube and a negative bias generator responsive to the derivative of the input pulse and means for impressing the output of the bias generator to at least one control electrode of the gating tube are included.

  16. Aptitude Tests and Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coupland, D. E.

    1970-01-01

    Explains why in the United States the feeling is increasing that much of the aptitude testing now being done discriminates against minority group members seeking employment. Skeptical of eliminating the discriminatory aspects of testing, the article raises the question of eliminating testing itself. (DM)

  17. Sex Discrimination in Coaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessem, Lawrence

    1980-01-01

    Even in situations in which the underpayment of girls' coaches is due to the sex of the students coached rather than to the sex of the coaches, the coaches and the girls coached are victims of unlawful discrimination. Available from Harvard Women's Law Journal, Harvard Law School, Cambridge, MA 02138. (Author/IRT)

  18. Color measurement and discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandell, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Theories of color measurement attempt to provide a quantative means for predicting whether two lights will be discriminable to an average observer. All color measurement theories can be characterized as follows: suppose lights a and b evoke responses from three color channels characterized as vectors, v(a) and v(b); the vector difference v(a) - v(b) corresponds to a set of channel responses that would be generated by some real light, call it *. According to theory a and b will be discriminable when * is detectable. A detailed development and test of the classic color measurement approach are reported. In the absence of a luminance component in the test stimuli, a and b, the theory holds well. In the presence of a luminance component, the theory is clearly false. When a luminance component is present discrimination judgements depend largely on whether the lights being discriminated fall in separate, categorical regions of color space. The results suggest that sensory estimation of surface color uses different methods, and the choice of method depends upon properties of the image. When there is significant luminance variation a categorical method is used, while in the absence of significant luminance variation judgments are continuous and consistant with the measurement approach.

  19. Discrimination. Opposing Viewpoints Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mary E., Ed.

    Books in the Opposing Viewpoints series challenge readers to question their own opinions and assumptions. By reading carefully balanced views, readers confront new ideas on the topic of interest. The Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibited job discrimination based on age, race, religion, gender, or national origin, provided the groundwork for…

  20. Computer Programming: Fail Fast to Learn Sooner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, Miguel A.; de Sá-Soares, Filipe

    Computer programming is not only to know about the languages or the processes, it is essentially to know how to do it. This involves a constructivist approach in learning. For a newbie in computer programming it is hard to understand the difference between know-about disciplines and the know-how-to-do-it ones. This leads to failure because when they understand they aren't able to solve a programming problem it is usually too late to catch all the time meanwhile lost. Our solution is to get them to fail soon enough. This way they still have time to recover from an eventually bad start.

  1. A monoclonal gammopathy precedes multiple myeloma in most patients

    PubMed Central

    Abadie, Jude; Verma, Pramvir; Howard, Robin S.; Kuehl, W. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Preexisting plasma cell disorders, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, or smoldering myeloma are present in at least one-third of multiple myeloma patients. However, the proportion of patients with a preexisting plasma cell disorder has never been determined by laboratory testing on prediagnostic sera. We cross-referenced our autologous stem cell transplantation database with the Department of Defense Serum Repository. Serum protein electrophoresis, immunofixation electrophoresis, and serum free light-chain analysis were performed on all sera collected 2 or more years before diagnosis to detect a monoclonal gammopathy (M-Ig). In 30 of 90 patients, 110 prediagnostic samples were available from 2.2 to 15.3 years before diagnosis. An M-Ig was detected initially in 27 of 30 patients (90%, 95% confidence interval, 74%-97%); by serum protein electrophoresis and/or immunofixation electrophoresis in 21 patients (77.8%), and only by serum free light-chain analysis in 6 patients (22.2%). Four patients had only one positive sample within 4 years before diagnosis, with all preceding sera negative. All 4 patients with light-chain/nonsecretory myeloma evolved from a light-chain M-Ig. A preexisting M-Ig is present in most multiple myeloma patients before diagnosis. Some patients progress rapidly through a premalignant phase. Light-chain detected M-Ig is a new entity that requires further study. PMID:19234139

  2. Semantic categorization precedes affective evaluation of visual scenes.

    PubMed

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hyönä, Jukka; Calvo, Manuel G

    2010-05-01

    We compared the primacy of affective versus semantic categorization by using forced-choice saccadic and manual response tasks. Participants viewed paired emotional and neutral scenes involving humans or animals flashed rapidly in extrafoveal vision. Participants were instructed to categorize the targets by saccading toward the location occupied by a predefined target scene. The affective task involved saccading toward an unpleasant or pleasant scene, and the semantic task involved saccading toward a scene containing an animal. Both affective and semantic target scenes could be reliably categorized in less than 220 ms, but semantic categorization was always faster than affective categorization. This finding was replicated with singly, foveally presented scenes and manual responses. In comparison with foveal presentation, extrafoveal presentation slowed down the categorization of affective targets more than that of semantic targets. Exposure threshold for accurate categorization was lower for semantic information than for affective information. Superordinate-, basic-, and subordinate-level semantic categorizations were faster than affective evaluation. We conclude that affective analysis of scenes cannot bypass object recognition. Rather, semantic categorization precedes and is required for affective evaluation.

  3. PRECEDENTS FOR AUTHORIZATION OF CONTENTS USING DOSE RATE MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Nathan, S.; Loftin, B.

    2012-06-05

    For the transportation of Radioactive Material (RAM) packages, the requirements for the maximum allowed dose rate at the package surface and in its vicinity are given in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Section 71.47. The regulations are based on the acceptable dose rates to which the public, workers, and the environment may be exposed. As such, the regulations specify dose rates, rather than quantity of radioactive isotopes and require monitoring to confirm the requirements are met. 10CFR71.47 requires that each package of radioactive materials offered for transportation must be designed and prepared for shipment so that under conditions normally incident to transportation the radiation level does not exceed 2 mSv/h (200 mrem/h) at any point on the external Surface of the package, and the transport index does not exceed 10. Before shipment, the dose rate of the package is determined by measurement, ensuring that it conforms to the regulatory limits, regardless of any analyses. This is the requirement for all certified packagings. This paper discusses the requirements for establishing the dose rates when shipping RAM packages and the precedents for meeting these requirements by measurement.

  4. Coronal X-ray activity preceding solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, D. F.

    1985-01-01

    The characteristics of coronal emplacements preceding solar flares were investigated based on a comprehensive survey of Skylab soft X-ray images. A search interval of 30 min before flare was used in the X-ray observations. X-ray images with preflare enhancements were compared with high resolution H-alpha images and photospheric magnetograms and preflare enhancements were found in a statistically significant number of the observed preflare intervals. The enhancement events consisted of loops, kernels, and sinuous features with one to three separate preflare structures appearing in each interval. Typical gas pressures in the preflare X-ray features were estimated on the order of a few dyne per sq cm and densities were 4-10 x 10 to the -9th per cu cm for assumed average temperatures. H-alpha brightenings in the form of knots and patches were found in conjunction with the X-ray preflare features in nearly all of the intervals. It is concluded that H-alpha emission is characteristic of preflare emission processes. The observational data are interpreted within the framework of existing loop preheating models, and the results are discussed in detail.

  5. High rates of evolution preceded the origin of birds.

    PubMed

    Puttick, Mark N; Thomas, Gavin H; Benton, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    The origin of birds (Aves) is one of the great evolutionary transitions. Fossils show that many unique morphological features of modern birds, such as feathers, reduction in body size, and the semilunate carpal, long preceded the origin of clade Aves, but some may be unique to Aves, such as relative elongation of the forelimb. We study the evolution of body size and forelimb length across the phylogeny of coelurosaurian theropods and Mesozoic Aves. Using recently developed phylogenetic comparative methods, we find an increase in rates of body size and body size dependent forelimb evolution leading to small body size relative to forelimb length in Paraves, the wider clade comprising Aves and Deinonychosauria. The high evolutionary rates arose primarily from a reduction in body size, as there were no increased rates of forelimb evolution. In line with a recent study, we find evidence that Aves appear to have a unique relationship between body size and forelimb dimensions. Traits associated with Aves evolved before their origin, at high rates, and support the notion that numerous lineages of paravians were experimenting with different modes of flight through the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous.

  6. Early Axonopathy Preceding Neurofibrillary Tangles in Mutant Tau Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Leroy, Karelle; Bretteville, Alexis; Schindowski, Katharina; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Authelet, Michèle; De Decker, Robert; Yilmaz, Zehra; Buée, Luc; Brion, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases characterized by brain and spinal cord involvement often show widespread accumulations of tau aggregates. We have generated a transgenic mouse line (Tg30tau) expressing in the forebrain and the spinal cord a human tau protein bearing two pathogenic mutations (P301S and G272V). These mice developed age-dependent brain and hippocampal atrophy, central and peripheral axonopathy, progressive motor impairment with neurogenic muscle atrophy, and neurofibrillary tangles and had decreased survival. Axonal spheroids and axonal atrophy developed early before neurofibrillary tangles. Neurofibrillary inclusions developed in neurons at 3 months and were of two types, suggestive of a selective vulnerability of neurons to form different types of fibrillary aggregates. A first type of tau-positive neurofibrillary tangles, more abundant in the forebrain, were composed of ribbon-like 19-nm-wide filaments and twisted paired helical filaments. A second type of tau and neurofilament-positive neurofibrillary tangles, more abundant in the spinal cord and the brainstem, were composed of 10-nm-wide neurofilaments and straight 19-nm filaments. Unbiased stereological analysis indicated that total number of pyramidal neurons and density of neurons in the lumbar spinal cord were not reduced up to 12 months in Tg30tau mice. This Tg30tau model thus provides evidence that axonopathy precedes tangle formation and that both lesions can be dissociated from overt neuronal loss in selected brain areas but not from neuronal dysfunction. PMID:17690183

  7. HIGH RATES OF EVOLUTION PRECEDED THE ORIGIN OF BIRDS

    PubMed Central

    Puttick, Mark N; Thomas, Gavin H; Benton, Michael J; Polly, P David

    2014-01-01

    The origin of birds (Aves) is one of the great evolutionary transitions. Fossils show that many unique morphological features of modern birds, such as feathers, reduction in body size, and the semilunate carpal, long preceded the origin of clade Aves, but some may be unique to Aves, such as relative elongation of the forelimb. We study the evolution of body size and forelimb length across the phylogeny of coelurosaurian theropods and Mesozoic Aves. Using recently developed phylogenetic comparative methods, we find an increase in rates of body size and body size dependent forelimb evolution leading to small body size relative to forelimb length in Paraves, the wider clade comprising Aves and Deinonychosauria. The high evolutionary rates arose primarily from a reduction in body size, as there were no increased rates of forelimb evolution. In line with a recent study, we find evidence that Aves appear to have a unique relationship between body size and forelimb dimensions. Traits associated with Aves evolved before their origin, at high rates, and support the notion that numerous lineages of paravians were experimenting with different modes of flight through the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. PMID:24471891

  8. Mancozeb-induced behavioral deficits precede structural neural degeneration.

    PubMed

    Harrison Brody, A; Chou, Eunice; Gray, Janet M; Pokyrwka, Nancy J; Raley-Susman, Kathleen M

    2013-01-01

    Manganese-containing fungicides like Mancozeb have been associated with neurodegenerative conditions like Parkinson's disease. We examined the behavioral damage and differential neuronal vulnerability resulting from Mancozeb exposure using Caenorhabditis elegans, an important mid-trophic level soil organism that is also a powerful model for studying mechanisms of environmental pollutant-induced neurodegenerative disease. The dopamine-mediated swim to crawl locomotory transition behavior is exquisitely vulnerable to Mancozeb, with functional impairment preceding markers of neuronal structural damage. The damage is partially rescued in mutants lacking the divalent metal transporter, SMF-1, demonstrating that some, but not all, of the damage is mediated by manganese. Increasing concentrations of Mancozeb recruit additional behavioral dysfunction, notably serotonin-mediated egg-laying behavior, but without evident serotonergic neuronal structural damage. Thus, measurements of behavioral dysfunction are a sensitive early marker of fungicide toxicity that could be exploited to examine further mechanisms of neuron damage and possible therapeutic interventions. These results also provide important insight into the consequences of fungicide use on the ecological behavior of nematodes.

  9. Activation of ras oncogenes preceding the onset of neoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Barbacid, M. ); Sukumar, S. )

    1990-06-01

    The identification of ras oncogenes in human and animal cancers including precancerous lesions indicates that these genes participate in the early stages of neoplastic development. Yet, these observations do not define the timing of ras oncogene activation in the multistep process of carcinogenesis. To ascertain the timing of ras oncogene activation, an animal model system was devised that involves the induction of mammary carcinomas in rats exposed at birth to the carcinogen nitrosomethylurea. High-resolution restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified ras sequences revealed the presence of both H-ras and K-ras oncogenes in normal mammary glands 2 weeks after carcinogen treatment and at least 2 months before the onset of neoplasia. These ras oncogenes can remain latent within the mammary gland until exposure to estrogens, demonstrating that activation of ras oncogenes can precede the onset of neoplasia and suggesting that normal physiological proliferative processes such as estrogen-induced mammary gland development may lead to neoplasia if the targeted cells harbor latent ras oncogenes.

  10. Ultralow-Frequency Magnetic Fields Preceding Large Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser-Smith, Antony C.

    2008-06-01

    The Great Alaska Earthquake (M 9.2) of 27 March 1964 was the largest earthquake ever to strike the United States in modern times and one of the largest ever recorded anywhere. Later that year, Moore [1964], in a surprisingly rarely cited paper, reported the occurrence of strong ultralow-frequency (ULF; <=10 hertz) magnetic field disturbances at Kodiak, Alaska, in the 1.2 hours before the earthquake. That report has since been followed by others [Fraser-Smith et al., 1990; Kopytenko et al., 1993; Hayakawa et al., 1996; see also Molchanov et al., 1992] similarly describing the occurrence of large-amplitude ULF magnetic field fluctuations before other large earthquakes (``large'' describes earthquakes with magnitudes M ~ 7 or greater). These reports involving four separate, large earthquakes were made by four different groups and the results were published in well-known, refereed scientific journals, so there is no doubt that there is evidence for the existence of comparatively large ULF magnetic field fluctuations preceding large earthquakes.

  11. Bell's palsy: symptoms preceding and accompanying the facial paresis.

    PubMed

    De Seta, Daniele; Mancini, Patrizia; Minni, Antonio; Prosperini, Luca; De Seta, Elio; Attanasio, Giuseppe; Covelli, Edoardo; De Carlo, Andrea; Filipo, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This individual prospective cohort study aims to report and analyze the symptoms preceding and accompanying the facial paresis in Bell's palsy (BP). Two hundred sixty-nine patients affected by BP with a maximum delay of 48 hours from the onset were enrolled in the study. The evolution of the facial paresis expressed as House-Brackmann grade in the first 10 days and its correlation with symptoms were analyzed. At the onset, 136 patients presented postauricular pain, 114 were affected by dry eye, and 94 reported dysgeusia. Dry mouth was present in 54 patients (19.7%), facial pain, hyperlacrimation, aural fullness, and hyperacusis represented a smaller percentage of the reported symptoms. After 10 days, 39.9% of the group had a severe paresis while 10.2% reached a complete recovery. Dry mouth at the onset was correlated with severe grade of palsy and was prognostic for poor recovery in the early period. These outcomes lead to the deduction that the nervus intermedius plays an important role in the presentation of the BP and it might be responsible for most of the accompanying symptomatology of the paresis. Our findings could be of important interest to early address a BP patient to further examinations and subsequent therapy.

  12. Bell's Palsy: Symptoms Preceding and Accompanying the Facial Paresis

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Patrizia; Minni, Antonio; Prosperini, Luca; De Seta, Elio; Attanasio, Giuseppe; Covelli, Edoardo; De Carlo, Andrea; Filipo, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This individual prospective cohort study aims to report and analyze the symptoms preceding and accompanying the facial paresis in Bell's palsy (BP). Two hundred sixty-nine patients affected by BP with a maximum delay of 48 hours from the onset were enrolled in the study. The evolution of the facial paresis expressed as House-Brackmann grade in the first 10 days and its correlation with symptoms were analyzed. At the onset, 136 patients presented postauricular pain, 114 were affected by dry eye, and 94 reported dysgeusia. Dry mouth was present in 54 patients (19.7%), facial pain, hyperlacrimation, aural fullness, and hyperacusis represented a smaller percentage of the reported symptoms. After 10 days, 39.9% of the group had a severe paresis while 10.2% reached a complete recovery. Dry mouth at the onset was correlated with severe grade of palsy and was prognostic for poor recovery in the early period. These outcomes lead to the deduction that the nervus intermedius plays an important role in the presentation of the BP and it might be responsible for most of the accompanying symptomatology of the paresis. Our findings could be of important interest to early address a BP patient to further examinations and subsequent therapy. PMID:25544960

  13. The Struggle against Sex Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Jane

    1982-01-01

    Provides overview of laws, policies, and regulations available to women to secure their job rights when faced with sex discrimination. Equal pay, sexual harassment, pregnancy discrimination, and affirmative action are discussed, noting procedures involved in filing a complaint. (EJS)

  14. The Case for Positive Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses both three basic strategies, preferences, allocational priorities, and incentives--and four principles of positive discrimination--compensation and rectification, appropriate meritocratic criteria, the development of the discriminated, and fairness. (JM)

  15. Genetic discrimination in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Miller, P S

    1998-01-01

    Author argues that the Americans with Disabilities Act prohibits discrimination against workers based on their genetic makeup. He also examines state legislation and recently proposed federal legislation prohibiting genetic discrimination.

  16. Stimulus Structure, Discrimination, and Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runquist, Willard N.

    1975-01-01

    The general purpose of this experiment was to determine whether differences in stimulus discrimination, as determined by the MIR (missing-item recognition) test, are correlated with interference in recall, as demanded by the discriminative coding hypothesis. (Author/RK)

  17. Mitochondrial protein hyperacetylation in the failing heart

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Julie L.; Martin, Ola J.; Lai, Ling; Richards, Alicia L.; Vega, Rick B.; Leone, Teresa C.; Pagliarini, David J.; Muoio, Deborah M.; Bedi, Kenneth C.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial fuel and energy metabolic derangements contribute to the pathogenesis of heart failure. Recent evidence implicates posttranslational mechanisms in the energy metabolic disturbances that contribute to the pathogenesis of heart failure. We hypothesized that accumulation of metabolite intermediates of fuel oxidation pathways drives posttranslational modifications of mitochondrial proteins during the development of heart failure. Myocardial acetylproteomics demonstrated extensive mitochondrial protein lysine hyperacetylation in the early stages of heart failure in well-defined mouse models and the in end-stage failing human heart. To determine the functional impact of increased mitochondrial protein acetylation, we focused on succinate dehydrogenase A (SDHA), a critical component of both the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and respiratory complex II. An acetyl-mimetic mutation targeting an SDHA lysine residue shown to be hyperacetylated in the failing human heart reduced catalytic function and reduced complex II–driven respiration. These results identify alterations in mitochondrial acetyl-CoA homeostasis as a potential driver of the development of energy metabolic derangements that contribute to heart failure. PMID:26998524

  18. The evaluation of the failed shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Wiater, Brett P; Moravek, James E; Wiater, J Michael

    2014-05-01

    As the incidence of shoulder arthroplasty continues to rise, the orthopedic shoulder surgeon will be increasingly faced with the difficult problem of evaluating a failed shoulder arthroplasty. The patient is usually dissatisfied with the outcome of the previous arthroplasty as a result of pain, but may complain of poor function due to limited range of motion or instability. A thorough and systematic approach is necessary so that the most appropriate treatment pathway can be initiated. A comprehensive history and physical examination are the first steps in the evaluation. Diagnostic studies are numerous and include laboratory values, plain radiography, computed tomography, ultrasound imaging, joint aspiration, nuclear scans, and electromyography. Common causes of early pain after shoulder arthroplasty include technical issues related to the surgery, such as malposition or improper sizing of the prosthesis, periprosthetic infection, neurologic injury, and complex regional pain syndrome. Pain presenting after a symptom-free interval may be related to chronic periprosthetic infection, component wear and loosening, glenoid erosion, rotator cuff degeneration, and fracture. Poor range of motion may result from inadequate postoperative rehabilitation, implant-related factors, and heterotopic ossification. Instability is generally caused by rotator cuff deficiency and implant-related factors. Unfortunately, determining the cause of a failed shoulder arthroplasty can be difficult, and in many situations, the source of pain and disability is multifactorial.

  19. What do we do after an implant fails? A review of treatment alternatives for failed implants.

    PubMed

    Machtei, Eli E

    2013-01-01

    The problem of failed implants cannot be overlooked. The purpose of this paper is to explore treatment alternatives for failed implants and their strengths and shortcomings. A comprehensive literature search was performed using PubMed and a manual search. Only five studies were identified that explored treatment in sites where implants had failed. In all five studies, the treatment alternative tested was the placement of a new implant in the failed site. The overall survival rate for such implants ranged from 71% to 92.3%. Four other alternatives are also discussed in light of data derived from other studies on the survival of various treatment strategies. These include: a continuation of the original plan using the remaining implants, modification of treatment to a tooth-supported fixed partial denture (FPD) or to a hybrid tooth-implant? supported FPD, or modification to a removable prosthesis. The selection of an appropriate alternative for failed implants is complex and involves biologic, mechanical, and psychologic considerations along with financial aspects. This should be a team decision with the patient's opinion included.

  20. Transgender Discrimination and the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Richard

    2010-01-01

    An emerging area of law is developing regarding sex/gender identity discrimination, also referred to as transgender discrimination, as distinguished from discrimination based on sexual orientation. A transgendered individual is defined as "a person who has a gender-identity disorder which is a persistent discomfort about one?s assigned sex or…

  1. Price Discrimination: A Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguiló, Paula; Sard, Maria; Tugores, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a classroom experiment aimed at familiarizing students with different types of price discrimination (first-, second-, and third-degree price discrimination). During the experiment, the students were asked to decide what tariffs to set as monopolists for each of the price discrimination scenarios under…

  2. Price Discrimination: Lessons for Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynes, E. Scott

    1990-01-01

    Explains price and product discrimination, showing how intelligent consumers can achieve increased purchasing power of their income and discusses how consumer educators can explain this discrimination. Evaluates the pros and cons of price/product discrimination from the social viewpoint. (Author/JOW)

  3. FET Frequency Discriminator.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    conversion . characteristic of the frequency discriminator is significant and :ending upon the specific system - may be the limiting factor in the accu of...the results obtained did not .-" allow for the accurate determinat ion of the change in impedance, addit ional 14 -~ 12V - - Figure 7. Impedance plot...44*. -. 7 ’I -- -..- ,. -, 4., /-.,’ .3 8 V ............... ... .. .$, L- 12v - Figure 9. Impedance plot tor five diodes inl parallel. A circuit was

  4. Symmetry impedes symmetry discrimination.

    PubMed

    Tjan, Bosco S; Liu, Zili

    2005-12-16

    Objects in the world, natural and artificial alike, are often bilaterally symmetric. The visual system is likely to take advantage of this regularity to encode shapes for efficient object recognition. The nature of encoding a symmetric shape, and of encoding any departure from it, is therefore an important matter in visual perception. We addressed this issue of shape encoding empirically, noting that a particular encoding scheme necessarily leads to a specific profile of sensitivity in perceptual discriminations. We studied symmetry discrimination using human faces and random dots. Each face stimulus was a frontal view of a three-dimensional (3-D) face model. The 3-D face model was a linearly weighted average (a morph) between the model of an original face and that of the corresponding mirror face. Using this morphing technique to vary the degree of asymmetry, we found that, for faces and analogously generated random-dot patterns alike, symmetry discrimination was worst when the stimuli were nearly symmetric, in apparent opposition to almost all studies in the literature. We analyzed the previous work and reconciled the old and new results using a generic model with a simple nonlinearity. By defining asymmetry as the minimal difference between the left and right halves of an object, we found that the visual system was disproportionately more sensitive to larger departures from symmetry than to smaller ones. We further demonstrated that our empirical and modeling results were consistent with Weber-Fechner's and Stevens's laws.

  5. Workplace discrimination and cancer.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Maureen A; Fabian, Ellen; Hurley, Jessica E; McMahon, Brian T; West, Steven L

    2007-01-01

    Data from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Integrated Mission System database were analyzed with specific reference to allegations of workplace discrimination filed by individuals with cancer under ADA Title One. These 6,832 allegations, filed between July 27, 1992 and September 30, 2003, were compared to 167,798 allegations from a general disability population on the following dimensions: type of workplace discrimination; demographic characteristics of the charging parties (CPs); the industry designation, location, and size of employers; and the outcome or resolution of EEOC investigations. Results showed allegations derived from CPs with cancer were more likely than those in the general disability population to include issues involving discharge, terms and conditions of employment, lay-off, wages, and demotion. Compared to the general disability group, CPs with cancer were more likely to be female, older, and White. Allegations derived from CPs with cancer were also more likely to be filed against smaller employers (15-100 workers) or those in service industries. Finally, the resolution of allegations by CPs with cancer were more likely to be meritorious than those filed from the general disability population; that is, actual discrimination is more likely to have occurred.

  6. [Comment on] Statistical discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinn, Douglas

    In the December 8, 1981, issue of Eos, a news item reported the conclusion of a National Research Council study that sexual discrimination against women with Ph.D.'s exists in the field of geophysics. Basically, the item reported that even when allowances are made for motherhood the percentage of female Ph.D.'s holding high university and corporate positions is significantly lower than the percentage of male Ph.D.'s holding the same types of positions. The sexual discrimination conclusion, based only on these statistics, assumes that there are no basic psychological differences between men and women that might cause different populations in the employment group studied. Therefore, the reasoning goes, after taking into account possible effects from differences related to anatomy, such as women stopping their careers in order to bear and raise children, the statistical distributions of positions held by male and female Ph.D.'s ought to be very similar to one another. Any significant differences between the distributions must be caused primarily by sexual discrimination.

  7. Host species exploitation and discrimination by animal parasites.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Mark R; Morrill, André; Schellinck, Jennifer

    2017-05-05

    Parasite species often show differential fitness on different host species. We developed an equation-based model to explore conditions favouring host species exploitation and discrimination. In our model, diploid infective stages randomly encountered hosts of two species; the parasite's relative fitness in exploiting each host species, and its ability to discriminate between them, was determined by the parasite's genotype at two independent diallelic loci. Relative host species frequency determined allele frequencies at the exploitation locus, whereas differential fitness and combined host density determined frequency of discrimination alleles. The model predicts instances where populations contain mixes of discriminatory and non-discriminatory infective stages. Also, non-discriminatory parasites should evolve when differential fitness is low to moderate and when combined host densities are low, but not so low as to cause parasite extinction. A corollary is that parasite discrimination (and host-specificity) increases with higher combined host densities. Instances in nature where parasites fail to discriminate when differential fitness is extreme could be explained by one host species evolving resistance, following from earlier selection for parasite non-discrimination. Similar results overall were obtained for haploid extensions of the model. Our model emulates multi-host associations and has implications for understanding broadening of host species ranges by parasites.This article is part of the themed issue 'Opening the black box: re-examining the ecology and evolution of parasite transmission'.

  8. Olfactory discrimination of structurally similar alcohols by cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Sakura, M; Okada, R; Mizunami, M

    2002-11-01

    The capability of the cockroach Periplaneta americana to discriminate odors of structurally similar aliphatic alcohols was studied by using an operant conditioning paradigm. Cockroaches were trained to discriminate three odors: one odor associated with sucrose solution (reward) and two odors associated with NaCl solution (non-reward). After training, their odor preferences were tested by counting the number of visits to each odor source. We tested the capability of cockroaches to discriminate (1) three normal aliphatic alcohols with different numbers of carbon (1-pentanol, 1-hexanol and 1-octanol), (2) three C6 aliphatic alcohols (1-hexanol, 2-hexanol and trans-2-hexen-1-ol), (3) binary mixtures of two of these three alcohols and their components, and (4) 1-hexanol solution of three different concentrations (1, 10 and 100 micro g micro l(-1)). Cockroaches exhibited higher preferences for the odors associated with reward in these tests, and we therefore conclude that cockroaches can discriminate these odors. However, discrimination of 1-hexanol and trans-2-hexen-1-ol and their binary mixture was imperfect, in that some statistical tests suggested significant level of discrimination but other tests did not. In addition, the cockroaches learned to associate a 1-hexanol solution of the highest or lowest concentration with sucrose reward but failed to learn to associate 1-hexanol of an intermediate concentration with reward.

  9. Host species exploitation and discrimination by animal parasites

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Mark R.; Morrill, André; Schellinck, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Parasite species often show differential fitness on different host species. We developed an equation-based model to explore conditions favouring host species exploitation and discrimination. In our model, diploid infective stages randomly encountered hosts of two species; the parasite's relative fitness in exploiting each host species, and its ability to discriminate between them, was determined by the parasite's genotype at two independent diallelic loci. Relative host species frequency determined allele frequencies at the exploitation locus, whereas differential fitness and combined host density determined frequency of discrimination alleles. The model predicts instances where populations contain mixes of discriminatory and non-discriminatory infective stages. Also, non-discriminatory parasites should evolve when differential fitness is low to moderate and when combined host densities are low, but not so low as to cause parasite extinction. A corollary is that parasite discrimination (and host-specificity) increases with higher combined host densities. Instances in nature where parasites fail to discriminate when differential fitness is extreme could be explained by one host species evolving resistance, following from earlier selection for parasite non-discrimination. Similar results overall were obtained for haploid extensions of the model. Our model emulates multi-host associations and has implications for understanding broadening of host species ranges by parasites. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Opening the black box: re-examining the ecology and evolution of parasite transmission’. PMID:28289258

  10. A Solution to ``Too Big to Fail''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-10-01

    Its a tricky business to reconcile simulations of our galaxys formation with our current observations of the Milky Way and its satellites. In a recent study, scientists have addressed one discrepancy between simulations and observations: the so-called to big to fail problem.From Missing Satellites to Too Big to FailThe favored model of the universe is the lambda-cold-dark-matter (CDM) cosmological model. This model does a great job of correctly predicting the large-scale structure of the universe, but there are still a few problems with it on smaller scales.Hubble image of UGC 5497, a dwarf galaxy associated with Messier 81. In the missing satellite problem, simulations of galaxy formation predict that there should be more such satellite galaxies than we observe. [ESA/NASA]The first is the missing satellites problem: CDM cosmology predicts that galaxies like the Milky Way should have significantly more satellite galaxies than we observe. A proposed solution to this problem is the argument that there may exist many more satellites than weve observed, but these dwarf galaxies have had their stars stripped from them during tidal interactions which prevents us from being able to see them.This solution creates a new problem, though: the too big to fail problem. This problem states that many of the satellites predicted by CDM cosmology are simply so massive that theres no way they couldnt have visible stars. Another way of looking at it: the observed satellites of the Milky Way are not massive enough to be consistent with predictions from CDM.Artists illustration of a supernova, a type of stellar feedback that can modify the dark-matter distribution of a satellite galaxy. [NASA/CXC/M. Weiss]Density Profiles and Tidal StirringLed by Mihai Tomozeiu (University of Zurich), a team of scientists has published a study in which they propose a solution to the too big to fail problem. By running detailed cosmological zoom simulations of our galaxys formation, Tomozeiu and

  11. Perceived control increases the reward positivity and stimulus preceding negativity.

    PubMed

    Mühlberger, Christina; Angus, Douglas Jozef; Jonas, Eva; Harmon-Jones, Cindy; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2017-02-01

    The reward positivity (RewP) and the stimulus preceding negativity (SPN), two ERPs associated with reward delivery and reward anticipation, are modulated by motivational intensity. Motivational intensity is the effort organisms would make to exert behaviors, and it varies with the difficulty of exerting that behavior. If a task is perceived as impossible, which means that one does not have control over own outcomes, motivational intensity is low. In the current study, we tested the prediction that perceiving control over one's outcomes increases both the RewP to feedback and the SPN prior to feedback compared to perceiving no control. We also examined whether P300 and LPP amplitudes to reward and nonreward images were similarly modulated. Twenty-five female participants completed a gambling task in which correct choices were followed by pictures of attractive men and incorrect choices were followed by pictures of rocks. To manipulate perceived control, participants were told that, in one block of trials, they could learn a mouse-click rule in order to see only pictures of men (high perceived control condition), while in the other block, the pictures would appear randomly (low perceived control condition). However, in both conditions, feedback appeared randomly. Although the RewP was elicited in both blocks, the RewP and SPN were higher in the high perceived control condition (i.e., when participants thought that they could influence their outcomes). Perceived control did not modulate the P300 and LPP to pictures. The results suggest that approach motivation and its intensity modulate the processing of performance feedback.

  12. Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing of Manned Spacecraft: Historical Precedent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemke, Paul R.; Tuma, Margaret L.; Askins, Bruce R.

    2008-01-01

    For the first time in nearly 30 years, NASA is developing a new manned space flight launch system. The Ares I will carry crew and cargo to not only the International Space Station, but onward for the future exploration of the Moon and Mars. The Ares I control system and structural designs use complex computer models for their development. An Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Test (IVGVT) will validate the efficacy of these computer models. The IVGVT will reduce the technical risk of unexpected conditions that could place the vehicle or crew in jeopardy. The Ares Project Office's Flight and Integrated Test Office commissioned a study to determine how historical programs, such as Saturn and Space Shuttle, validated the structural dynamics of an integrated flight vehicle. The study methodology was to examine the historical record and seek out members of the engineering community who recall the development of historic manned launch vehicles. These records and interviews provided insight into the best practices and lessons learned from these historic development programs. The information that was gathered allowed the creation of timelines of the historic development programs. The timelines trace the programs from the development of test articles through test preparation, test operations, and test data reduction efforts. These timelines also demonstrate how the historical tests fit within their overall vehicle development programs. Finally, the study was able to quantify approximate staffing levels during historic development programs. Using this study, the Flight and Integrated Test Office was able to evaluate the Ares I Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Test schedule and workforce budgets in light of the historical precedents to determine if the test had schedule or cost risks associated with it.

  13. Podocyte hypertrophy precedes apoptosis under experimental diabetic conditions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Ha; Moon, Sung Jin; Paeng, Jisun; Kang, Hye-Young; Nam, Bo Young; Kim, Seonghun; Kim, Chan Ho; Lee, Mi Jung; Oh, Hyung Jung; Park, Jung Tak; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2015-08-01

    Podocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis are two hallmarks of diabetic glomeruli, but the sequence in which these processes occur remains a matter of debate. Here we investigated the effects of inhibiting hypertrophy on apoptosis, and vice versa, in both podocytes and glomeruli, under diabetic conditions. Hypertrophy and apoptosis were inhibited using an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor (PKI 166) and a pan-caspase inhibitor (zAsp-DCB), respectively. We observed significant increases in the protein expression of p27, p21, phospho-eukaryotic elongation factor 4E-binding protein 1, and phospho-p70 S6 ribosomal protein kinase, in both cultured podocytes exposed to high-glucose (HG) medium, and streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) rat glomeruli. These increases were significantly inhibited by PKI 166, but not by zAsp-DCB. In addition, the amount of protein per cell, the relative cell size, and the glomerular volume were all significantly increased under diabetic conditions, and these changes were also blocked by treatment with PKI 166, but not zAsp-DCB. Increased protein expression of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, together with increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratios, were also observed in HG-stimulated podocytes and DM glomeruli. Treatment with either zAsp-DCB or PKI 166 resulted in a significant attenuation of these effects. Both PKI 166 and zAsp-DCB also inhibited the increase in number of apoptotic cells, as assessed by Hoechst 33342 staining and TUNEL assay. Under diabetic conditions, inhibition of podocyte hypertrophy results in attenuated apoptosis, whereas blocking apoptosis has no effect on podocyte hypertrophy, suggesting that podocyte hypertrophy precedes apoptosis.

  14. Impaired cortical mitochondrial function following TBI precedes behavioral changes

    PubMed Central

    Watson, William D.; Buonora, John E.; Yarnell, Angela M.; Lucky, Jessica J.; D’Acchille, Michaela I.; McMullen, David C.; Boston, Andrew G.; Kuczmarski, Andrew V.; Kean, William S.; Verma, Ajay; Grunberg, Neil E.; Cole, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) pathophysiology can be attributed to either the immediate, primary physical injury, or the delayed, secondary injury which begins minutes to hours after the initial injury and can persist for several months or longer. Because these secondary cascades are delayed and last for a significant time period post-TBI, they are primary research targets for new therapeutics. To investigate changes in mitochondrial function after a brain injury, both the cortical impact site and ipsilateral hippocampus of adult male rats 7 and 17 days after a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury were examined. State 3, state 4, and uncoupler-stimulated rates of oxygen consumption, respiratory control ratios (RCRs) were measured and membrane potential quantified, and all were significantly decreased in 7 day post-TBI cortical mitochondria. By contrast, hippocampal mitochondria at 7 days showed only non-significant decreases in rates of oxygen consumption and membrane potential. NADH oxidase activities measured in disrupted mitochondria were normal in both injured cortex and hippocampus at 7 days post-CCI. Respiratory and phosphorylation capacities at 17 days post-CCI were comparable to naïve animals for both cortical and hippocampus mitochondria. However, unlike oxidative phosphorylation, membrane potential of mitochondria in the cortical lining of the impact site did not recover at 17 days, suggesting that while diminished cortical membrane potential at 17 days does not adversely affect mitochondrial capacity to synthesize ATP, it may negatively impact other membrane potential-sensitive mitochondrial functions. Memory status, as assessed by a passive avoidance paradigm, was not significantly impaired until 17 days after injury. These results indicate pronounced disturbances in cortical mitochondrial function 7 days after CCI which precede the behavioral impairment observed at 17 days. PMID:24550822

  15. 48 CFR 411.101 - Order of precedence for requirements documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AGRICULTURE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 411.101 Order of precedence for requirements documents. (a) Office of Management and Budget...

  16. When continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) fails

    PubMed Central

    Virk, Jagdeep S.

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is increasingly prevalent, particularly in the context of the obesity epidemic, and is associated with a significant social, health and economic impact. The gold standard of treatment for moderate to severe OSA is continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). However compliance rates can be low. Methodology to improve patient tolerance to CPAP alongside with alternative, non-surgical and surgical, management strategies are discussed. All patients that fail CPAP therapy would benefit from formal upper airway evaluation by the otolaryngologist to identify any obvious causes and consider site-specific surgical therapies. Patient selection is integral to ensuring successful outcomes. A multidisciplinary team is needed to manage these patients. PMID:27867577

  17. Terrestrial-passage theory: failing a test.

    PubMed

    Reed, Charles F; Krupinski, Elizabeth A

    2009-01-01

    Terrestrial-passage theory proposes that the 'moon' and 'sky' illusions occur because observers learn to expect an elevation-dependent transformation of visual angle. The transformation accompanies daily movement through ordinary environments of fixed-altitude objects. Celestial objects display the same visual angle at all elevations, and hence are necessarily non-conforming with the ordinary transformation. On hypothesis, observers should target angular sizes to appear greater at elevation than at horizon. However, in a sample of forty-eight observers there was no significant difference between the perceived angular size of a constellation of stars at horizon and that predicted for a specific elevation. Occurrence of the illusion was not restricted to those observers who expected angular expansion. These findings fail to support the terrestrial-passage theory of the illusion.

  18. Fail-over file transfer process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semancik, Susan K. (Inventor); Conger, Annette M. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention provides a fail-over file transfer process to handle data file transfer when the transfer is unsuccessful in order to avoid unnecessary network congestion and enhance reliability in an automated data file transfer system. If a file cannot be delivered after attempting to send the file to a receiver up to a preset number of times, and the receiver has indicated the availability of other backup receiving locations, then the file delivery is automatically attempted to one of the backup receiving locations up to the preset number of times. Failure of the file transfer to one of the backup receiving locations results in a failure notification being sent to the receiver, and the receiver may retrieve the file from the location indicated in the failure notification when ready.

  19. Revision of Failed Artroscopic Bankart Repairs

    PubMed Central

    Muiño, José María Silberberg; Gimenez, Martín Alejandro; Salvucci, Mauro Gabriel Maroa; Ferro, Diego; Rullan, Ramón Muiña

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To present our functional outcomes from patients treated arthroscopically for a failed Bankart repair, using suture anchors and capsulolabral tissue only. Methods: Series of 22 patients presented with a recurrence of instability after a previous stabilization surgery (3 Latarjet, Bankart 19). We treated them by a an all-arthroscopic procedure, avoiding bone grafts, when glenoid track was found to be enough to proceed. The failure was associated with trauma in 11 patients, a non-anatomic repair in 6 patients, capsular laxity in 4 patients and a non-union of the coracoid graft in 1 patient. Revision surgery included: Bankart repair with anchors in 17 cases, a posterior-inferior capsulo-labral plication in one case, and 5 remplissages. In 4 cases subscapularis augmentation was used because of poor capsular quality. Screw removal was necessary when treating the non-union case. Patients were followed-up by a minimum of 23 months (range 23-26), and evaluated by the UCLA Test, SS test and Rowe score. Results: Thirteen patients had an excellent result, 6 good, 2 satisfactory and one bad result, according to UCLA score. The mean Rowe score was 90.4, at final follow up. The Simple Shoulder Test went from an 8 preoperative to an 11 postoperative, mean scores. 19 of 22 patients returned to the same level of activity prior to the injury. Complications: recurrence in 2 cases, subluxation in 2 and one shoulder stiffness that required an arthrolysis. Conclusion: An arthroscopic revision surgery, after a failed Bankart repair, presents satisfactory results in selected patients. Arthroscopic vision allows a correct diagnosis of injuries as possible causes of failure and subsequent treatment.

  20. Perceptual learning in maze discriminations.

    PubMed

    Trobalon, J B; Sansa, J; Chamizo, V D; Mackintosh, N J

    1991-11-01

    In Experiment 1, rats were trained on a discrimination between rubber- and sandpaper-covered arms of a maze after one group had been pre-exposed to these intra-maze cues. Pre-exposure facilitated subsequent discrimination learning, unless the discrimination was made easier by adding further discriminative stimuli, when it now significantly retarded learning. In Experiment 2, rats were trained on an extra-maze spatial discrimination, again after one group, but not another, had been pre-exposed to the extra-maze landmarks. Here too, pre-exposure facilitated subsequent discrimination learning, unless the discrimination was made substantially easier by arranging that the two arms between which rats had to choose were always separated by 135 degrees. The results of both experiments can be explained by supposing that perceptual learning depends on the presence of features common to S+ and S-.

  1. Proteomic analysis of membrane microdomains derived from both failing and non-failing human hearts.

    PubMed

    Banfi, Cristina; Brioschi, Maura; Wait, Robin; Begum, Shajna; Gianazza, Elisabetta; Fratto, Pasquale; Polvani, Gianluca; Vitali, Ettore; Parolari, Alessandro; Mussoni, Luciana; Tremoli, Elena

    2006-03-01

    Eukaryotic cells plasma membranes are organized into microdomains of specialized function such as lipid rafts and caveolae, with a specific lipid composition highly enriched in cholesterol and glycosphingolipids. In addition to their role in regulating signal transduction, multiple functions have been proposed, such as anchorage of receptors, trafficking of cholesterol, and regulation of permeability. However, an extensive understanding of their protein composition in human heart, both in failing and non-failing conditions, is not yet available. Membrane microdomains were isolated from left ventricular tissue of both failing (n = 15) and non-failing (n = 15) human hearts. Protein composition and differential protein expression was explored by comparing series of 2-D maps and subsequent identification by LC-MS/MS analysis. Data indicated that heart membrane microdomains are enriched in chaperones, cytoskeletal-associated proteins, enzymes and protein involved in signal transduction pathway. In addition, differential protein expression profile revealed that 30 proteins were specifically up- or down-regulated in human heart failure membrane microdomains. This study resulted in the identification of human heart membrane microdomain protein composition, which was not previously available. Moreover, it allowed the identification of multiple proteins whose expression is altered in heart failure, thus opening new perspectives to determine which role they may play in this disease.

  2. Rising catch variability preceded historical fisheries collapses in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Litzow, Michael A; Mueter, Franz J; Urban, J Daniel

    2013-09-01

    Statistical indicators such as rising variance and rising skewness in key system parameters may provide early warning of "regime shifts" in communities and populations. However, the utility of these indicators has rarely been tested in the large, complex ecosystems that are of most interest to managers. Crustacean fisheries in the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea experienced a series of collapses beginning in the 1970s, and we used spatially resolved catch data from these fisheries to test the predictions that increasing variability and skewness would precede stock collapse. Our data set consisted of catch data from 14 fisheries (12 collapsing and two non-collapsing), spanning 278 cumulative years. Our sampling unit for analysis was the Alaska Department of Fish and Game statistical reporting area (mean n for individual fisheries = 42 areas, range 7-81). We found that spatial variability in catches increased prior to stock collapse: a random-effects model estimating trend in variability across all 12 collapsing fisheries showed strong evidence of increasing variability prior to collapse. Individual trends in variability were statistically significant for only four of the 12 collapsing fisheries, suggesting that rising variability might be most effective as an indicator when information from multiple populations is available. Analyzing data across multiple fisheries allowed us to detect increasing variability 1-4 years prior to collapse, and trends in variability were significantly different for collapsing and non-collapsing fisheries. In spite of theoretical expectations, we found no evidence of pre-collapse increases in catch skewness. Further, while models generally predict that rising variability should be a transient phenomenon around collapse points, increased variability was a persistent feature of collapsed fisheries in our study. We conclude that this result is more consistent with fishing effects as the cause of increased catch variability, rather than the

  3. A Precedent-setting Case of Dynamic Triggering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomberg, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    On October 28, 2012 the M7.7 Haida Gwaii, British Columbia earthquake broke the southern end of the Queen Charlotte plate-boundary fault system. Less than 3 months later on January 5, 2013 the M7.5 Craig, Alaska earthquake broke the same fault system ~385 km to the northwest. In its public statements about the Craig earthquake, the US Geological Survey noted its likely causal connection with the Haida Gwaii earthquake three months earlier. This inference was based on the improbability of two large earthquakes with recurrence intervals of hundreds of years or more on the same fault system occurring within the same 3-month interval by chance (the Poisson probability is ~.0004% assuming a 100 yr recurrence interval). What physical processes plausibly connect these two events? Although of the correct sign to encourage failure, static stress changes were more than an order of magnitude smaller than triggering thresholds documented elsewhere, and the duration between the events was too small for accrual of significant visco-elastic stress changes. The M7.7 Haida Gwaii earthquake was noteworthy in many aspects, but most remarkable was that the seismic waves it radiated probably dynamically triggered the M7.5 Craig earthquake thereby setting two new important precedents. First, the magnitude of the triggered earthquake exceeds all previously documented cases of dynamic triggering of frictional, shear failure earthquakes. Second, the extraordinarily large amplitude (peak velocities in excess of 1 cm/s) and long duration (several 100 sec) triggering waves likely resulted from trapping of energy within a sedimentary trough, rather than from focusing due to source effects as in most previous examples of clear dynamic triggering. Unlike source characteristics that vary unpredictably from event to event, the permanence of structural features that act as wave-guides suggests enhanced triggering probabilities in this and likely the numerous other settings. In these settings

  4. Discriminative Stimulus Effects of N,N-Diisopropyltryptamine

    PubMed Central

    Carbonaro, Theresa M.; Forster, Michael J.; Gatch, Michael B.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Serotonergic hallucinogens such as (+)-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and dimethyltryptamine (DMT) produce distinctive visual effects, whereas the synthetic hallucinogen N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (DiPT) is known for its production of auditory distortions. Objective: This study compares the discriminative stimulus effects of DiPT to those of visual hallucinogens. Methods Adult male rats were trained to discriminate DiPT (5 mg/kg, 15 min) from saline under a FR10 schedule. A dose-effect and time course of DiPT’s discriminative stimulus effects were established. DMT, (−)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM), LSD, (±)-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and (+)-methamphetamine were tested for cross-substitution in DiPT-trained animals. Results Rats learned to discriminate DiPT from saline in an average of 60 training sessions (30 drug and 30 saline). DiPT (0.5 – 5 mg/kg) produced dose-dependent increases in drug-appropriate responding (DAR) to 99% (ED50 = 2.47 mg/kg). Onset of the discriminative stimulus effects was within 5 minutes and the effects dissipated within 4 hours. Full substitution for the discriminative stimulus effects of DiPT occurred with LSD, DOM and MDMA. DMT only partially substituted for DiPT (65% DAR), whereas (+)-methamphetamine failed to substitute for DiPT (29% DAR). Conclusions The discriminative stimulus effects of DiPT were similar those of a number of synthetic hallucinogens, only partially similar to those of DMT, but not similar to (+)-methamphetamine. The putative DiPT-induced auditory distortions do not lead to discriminative stimulus effects distinguishable from other hallucinogens. PMID:23070023

  5. Elliott's ethics of expertise proposal and application: a dangerous precedent.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Edward J

    2007-06-01

    In a recent paper in Science and Engineering Ethics (SEE) Elliott proposed an ethics of expertise, providing its theoretical foundation along with its application in a case study devoted to the topic of hormesis. The application is based on a commentary in the journal Nature, and it includes assertions of ethical breaches. Elliott concludes that the authors of the commentary failed to promote the informed consent of decision makers by not providing representative information about alternative frequency estimates of hormesis in the literature, thereby hindering the capacity of the scientific community to promote informed consent relating to chemical regulation. This paper argues that Elliott should have incorporated due process into his system of evaluation. His argument is also seriously deficient technically, in that it misinterprets the toxicological issues, misrepresents the scientific literature with respect to the frequency of hormesis, and incorrectly assesses the extent to which the Nature paper revealed opposing/alternative views on hormesis. Given the seriousness of assertions of noncompliance to ethical norms, there must be procedures to protect those whose ethics were called into question, to fairly evaluate the technical justification for an assertion, and to enable corrections in the event of errors. If a journal is willing to publish assertions that individuals acted in an ethically questionable way, it should be guided by a documented code of ethics and meet a standard of responsibility far greater than normal peer-review processes for papers that do not entail such ethical judgments.

  6. Calcium handling precedes cardiac differentiation to initiate the first heartbeat

    PubMed Central

    Tyser, Richard CV; Miranda, Antonio MA; Chen, Chiann-mun; Davidson, Sean M

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian heartbeat is thought to begin just prior to the linear heart tube stage of development. How the initial contractions are established and the downstream consequences of the earliest contractile function on cardiac differentiation and morphogenesis have not been described. Using high-resolution live imaging of mouse embryos, we observed randomly distributed spontaneous asynchronous Ca2+-oscillations (SACOs) in the forming cardiac crescent (stage E7.75) prior to overt beating. Nascent contraction initiated at around E8.0 and was associated with sarcomeric assembly and rapid Ca2+ transients, underpinned by sequential expression of the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger (NCX1) and L-type Ca2+ channel (LTCC). Pharmacological inhibition of NCX1 and LTCC revealed rapid development of Ca2+ handling in the early heart and an essential early role for NCX1 in establishing SACOs through to the initiation of beating. NCX1 blockade impacted on CaMKII signalling to down-regulate cardiac gene expression, leading to impaired differentiation and failed crescent maturation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17113.001 PMID:27725084

  7. An acoustic startle-based method of assessing frequency discrimination in mice.

    PubMed

    Clause, Amanda; Nguyen, Tuan; Kandler, Karl

    2011-08-30

    The acoustic startle response (ASR) is a reflexive contraction of skeletal muscles in response to a loud, abrupt acoustic stimulus. ASR magnitude is reduced if the startle stimulus is preceded by a weaker acoustic or non-acoustic stimulus, a phenomenon known as prepulse inhibition (PPI). PPI has been used to test various aspects of sensory discrimination in both animals and humans. Here we show that PPI of the ASR is an advantageous method of assessing frequency discrimination. We describe the apparatus and its performance testing frequency discrimination in young CD1 mice. Compared to classical conditioning paradigms, PPI of the ASR is less time consuming, produces robust results, and can be used without training even in young animals. This approach can be used to investigate the neuronal mechanisms underlying frequency discrimination, its maturation during development, and its relationship to tonotopic organization.

  8. 7 CFR 983.52 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Each lot of substandard pistachios may be reworked to meet aflatoxin or quality requirements. The... reporting. If a lot fails to meet the aflatoxin and/or the quality requirements of this part, a failed lot.... This form must be completed and submitted to the committee each time a lot fails either aflatoxin...

  9. 7 CFR 983.52 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Each lot of substandard pistachios may be reworked to meet aflatoxin or quality requirements. The... reporting. If a lot fails to meet the aflatoxin and/or the quality requirements of this part, a failed lot.... This form must be completed and submitted to the committee each time a lot fails either aflatoxin...

  10. 7 CFR 983.52 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... Each lot of substandard pistachios may be reworked to meet aflatoxin or quality requirements. The... reporting. If a lot fails to meet the aflatoxin and/or the quality requirements of this part, a failed lot.... This form must be completed and submitted to the committee each time a lot fails either aflatoxin...

  11. 7 CFR 983.52 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Failed lots/rework procedure. 983.52 Section 983.52..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Regulations § 983.52 Failed lots/rework procedure. (a) Substandard pistachios... committee may establish, with the Secretary's approval, appropriate rework procedures. (b) Failed...

  12. 30 CFR 77.312 - Fail safe monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fail safe monitoring systems. 77.312 Section 77... Thermal Dryers § 77.312 Fail safe monitoring systems. Thermal dryer systems and controls shall be protected by a fail safe monitoring system which will safely shut down the system and any related...

  13. 30 CFR 77.312 - Fail safe monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fail safe monitoring systems. 77.312 Section 77... Thermal Dryers § 77.312 Fail safe monitoring systems. Thermal dryer systems and controls shall be protected by a fail safe monitoring system which will safely shut down the system and any related...

  14. 30 CFR 77.312 - Fail safe monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fail safe monitoring systems. 77.312 Section 77... Thermal Dryers § 77.312 Fail safe monitoring systems. Thermal dryer systems and controls shall be protected by a fail safe monitoring system which will safely shut down the system and any related...

  15. 30 CFR 77.312 - Fail safe monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fail safe monitoring systems. 77.312 Section 77... Thermal Dryers § 77.312 Fail safe monitoring systems. Thermal dryer systems and controls shall be protected by a fail safe monitoring system which will safely shut down the system and any related...

  16. 30 CFR 77.312 - Fail safe monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fail safe monitoring systems. 77.312 Section 77... Thermal Dryers § 77.312 Fail safe monitoring systems. Thermal dryer systems and controls shall be protected by a fail safe monitoring system which will safely shut down the system and any related...

  17. 26 CFR 25.2504-1 - Taxable gifts for preceding calendar periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Taxable gifts for preceding calendar periods. 25... § 25.2504-1 Taxable gifts for preceding calendar periods. (a) In order to determine the correct gift tax liability for any calendar period it is necessary to ascertain the correct amount, if any, of...

  18. 26 CFR 25.2504-1 - Taxable gifts for preceding calendar periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Taxable gifts for preceding calendar periods... § 25.2504-1 Taxable gifts for preceding calendar periods. (a) In order to determine the correct gift tax liability for any calendar period it is necessary to ascertain the correct amount, if any, of...

  19. 26 CFR 25.2504-1 - Taxable gifts for preceding calendar periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Taxable gifts for preceding calendar periods... § 25.2504-1 Taxable gifts for preceding calendar periods. (a) In order to determine the correct gift tax liability for any calendar period it is necessary to ascertain the correct amount, if any, of...

  20. 26 CFR 25.2504-1 - Taxable gifts for preceding calendar periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxable gifts for preceding calendar periods... § 25.2504-1 Taxable gifts for preceding calendar periods. (a) In order to determine the correct gift tax liability for any calendar period it is necessary to ascertain the correct amount, if any, of...

  1. 26 CFR 25.2504-1 - Taxable gifts for preceding calendar periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Taxable gifts for preceding calendar periods. 25... § 25.2504-1 Taxable gifts for preceding calendar periods. (a) In order to determine the correct gift tax liability for any calendar period it is necessary to ascertain the correct amount, if any, of...

  2. Perspective-Free Pragmatics: Broken Precedents and the Recovery-from-Preemption Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronmuller, Edmundo; Barr, Dale J.

    2007-01-01

    When speakers refer to the same referent multiple times in a conversation, they tend to follow established patterns of usage, known as "conversational precedents." Research has found that listeners expect speakers to follow precedents, and that this expectation guides their search for referents (Barr, D. J., & Keysar, B. (2002). "Anchoring…

  3. Sounds activate visual cortex and improve visual discrimination.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wenfeng; Störmer, Viola S; Martinez, Antigona; McDonald, John J; Hillyard, Steven A

    2014-07-16

    A recent study in humans (McDonald et al., 2013) found that peripheral, task-irrelevant sounds activated contralateral visual cortex automatically as revealed by an auditory-evoked contralateral occipital positivity (ACOP) recorded from the scalp. The present study investigated the functional significance of this cross-modal activation of visual cortex, in particular whether the sound-evoked ACOP is predictive of improved perceptual processing of a subsequent visual target. A trial-by-trial analysis showed that the ACOP amplitude was markedly larger preceding correct than incorrect pattern discriminations of visual targets that were colocalized with the preceding sound. Dipole modeling of the scalp topography of the ACOP localized its neural generators to the ventrolateral extrastriate visual cortex. These results provide direct evidence that the cross-modal activation of contralateral visual cortex by a spatially nonpredictive but salient sound facilitates the discriminative processing of a subsequent visual target event at the location of the sound. Recordings of event-related potentials to the targets support the hypothesis that the ACOP is a neural consequence of the automatic orienting of visual attention to the location of the sound.

  4. Sounds Activate Visual Cortex and Improve Visual Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Störmer, Viola S.; Martinez, Antigona; McDonald, John J.; Hillyard, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    A recent study in humans (McDonald et al., 2013) found that peripheral, task-irrelevant sounds activated contralateral visual cortex automatically as revealed by an auditory-evoked contralateral occipital positivity (ACOP) recorded from the scalp. The present study investigated the functional significance of this cross-modal activation of visual cortex, in particular whether the sound-evoked ACOP is predictive of improved perceptual processing of a subsequent visual target. A trial-by-trial analysis showed that the ACOP amplitude was markedly larger preceding correct than incorrect pattern discriminations of visual targets that were colocalized with the preceding sound. Dipole modeling of the scalp topography of the ACOP localized its neural generators to the ventrolateral extrastriate visual cortex. These results provide direct evidence that the cross-modal activation of contralateral visual cortex by a spatially nonpredictive but salient sound facilitates the discriminative processing of a subsequent visual target event at the location of the sound. Recordings of event-related potentials to the targets support the hypothesis that the ACOP is a neural consequence of the automatic orienting of visual attention to the location of the sound. PMID:25031419

  5. Rescuing failed oral implants via Wnt activation

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xing; Li, Jingtao; Chen, Tao; Mouraret, Sylvain; Dhamdhere, Girija; Brunski, John B.; Zou, Shujuan; Helms, Jill A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim Implant osseointegration is not always guaranteed and once fibrous encapsulation occurs clinicians have few options other than implant removal. Our goal was to test whether a WNT protein therapeutic could rescue such failed implants. Material and Methods Titanium implants were placed in over-sized murine oral osteotomies. A lack of primary stability was verified by mechanical testing. Interfacial strains were estimated by finite element modelling and histology coupled with histomorphometry confirmed the lack of peri-implant bone. After fibrous encapsulation was established peri-implant injections of a liposomal formulation of WNT3A protein (L-WNT3A) or liposomal PBS (L-PBS) were then initiated. Quantitative assays were employed to analyse the effects of L-WNT3A treatment. Results Implants in gap-type interfaces exhibited high interfacial strains and no primary stability. After verification of implant failure, L-WNT3A or L-PBS injections were initiated. L-WNT3A induced a rapid, significant increase in Wnt responsiveness in the peri-implant environment, cell proliferation and osteogenic protein expression. The amount of peri-implant bone and bone in contact with the implant were significantly higher in L-WNT3A cases. Conclusions These data demonstrate L-WNT3A can induce peri-implant bone formation even in cases where fibrous encapsulation predominates. PMID:26718012

  6. Cognitive emotion regulation fails the stress test

    PubMed Central

    Raio, Candace M.; Orederu, Temidayo A.; Palazzolo, Laura; Shurick, Ashley A.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive emotion regulation has been widely shown in the laboratory to be an effective way to alter the nature of emotional responses. Despite its success in experimental contexts, however, we often fail to use these strategies in everyday life where stress is pervasive. The successful execution of cognitive regulation relies on intact executive functioning and engagement of the prefrontal cortex, both of which are rapidly impaired by the deleterious effects of stress. Because it is specifically under stressful conditions that we may benefit most from such deliberate forms of emotion regulation, we tested the efficacy of cognitive regulation after stress exposure. Participants first underwent fear-conditioning, where they learned that one stimulus (CS+) predicted an aversive outcome but another predicted a neutral outcome (CS−). Cognitive regulation training directly followed where participants were taught to regulate fear responses to the aversive stimulus. The next day, participants underwent an acute stress induction or a control task before repeating the fear-conditioning task using these newly acquired regulation skills. Skin conductance served as an index of fear arousal, and salivary α-amylase and cortisol concentrations were assayed as neuroendocrine markers of stress response. Although groups showed no differences in fear arousal during initial fear learning, nonstressed participants demonstrated robust fear reduction following regulation training, whereas stressed participants showed no such reduction. Our results suggest that stress markedly impairs the cognitive regulation of emotion and highlights critical limitations of this technique to control affective responses under stress. PMID:23980142

  7. Capital disadvantage: America's failing capital investment system.

    PubMed

    Porter, M E

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. system of allocating investment capital is failing, putting American companies at a serious disadvantage and threatening the long-term growth of the nation's economy. The problem, says Michael Porter, goes beyond the usual formulation of the issue: accusations of "short-termism" by U.S. managers, ineffective corporate governance by directors, or a high cost of capital. The problem involves the external capital allocation system by which capital is provided to companies, as well as the system by which companies allocate capital internally. America's system is marked by fluid capital and a financial focus. Other countries--notably Japan and Germany--have systems with dedicated capital and a focus on corporate position. In global competition, where investment increasingly determines a company's capacity to upgrade and innovate, the U.S. system does not measure up. These conclusions come out of a two-year research project sponsored by the Harvard Business School and the Council on Competitiveness. Porter recommends five far-reaching reforms to make the U.S. system superior to Japan's and Germany's: 1. Improve the present macroeconomic environment. 2. Expand true ownership throughout the system so that directors, managers, employees, and even customers and suppliers hold positions as owners. 3. Align the goals of capital providers, corporations, directors, managers, employees, customers, suppliers, and society. 4. Improve the information used in decision making. 5. Foster more productive modes of interaction and influence among capital providers, corporations, and business units.

  8. Discrimination against Muslim American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Aroian, Karen J

    2012-06-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This descriptive qualitative study complements the few existing studies on Muslim American adolescents by obtaining in-depth description of the discrimination they encounter. The sample was 14 Muslim American adolescents who participated in one of two gender-specific focus groups about their discrimination experiences. Findings identified school settings as rife with discrimination toward Muslims, portrayed Muslim girls as at risk for harassment by strangers in public places, and illustrated how Muslim youth cope with discrimination. The study findings sensitize school nurses to the nature of the problem and provide direction for intervention.

  9. Interpreting past religious discrimination today.

    PubMed

    Schumm, Walter R

    2003-10-01

    Much of modern western law now presupposes opposition to discrimination based on race, religion, sex, national origin, and other factors. However, ancient religious Scriptures may have sanctioned certain types of discrimination. Whether those who are inclined to accept literal interpretations of their Scriptures will condone certain forms of discrimination could be evaluated to contrast the effects of modernization versus religious indoctrination on various kinds of prejudice.

  10. Discriminative Elastic-Net Regularized Linear Regression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zheng; Lai, Zhihui; Xu, Yong; Shao, Ling; Wu, Jian; Xie, Guo-Sen

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we aim at learning compact and discriminative linear regression models. Linear regression has been widely used in different problems. However, most of the existing linear regression methods exploit the conventional zero-one matrix as the regression targets, which greatly narrows the flexibility of the regression model. Another major limitation of these methods is that the learned projection matrix fails to precisely project the image features to the target space due to their weak discriminative capability. To this end, we present an elastic-net regularized linear regression (ENLR) framework, and develop two robust linear regression models which possess the following special characteristics. First, our methods exploit two particular strategies to enlarge the margins of different classes by relaxing the strict binary targets into a more feasible variable matrix. Second, a robust elastic-net regularization of singular values is introduced to enhance the compactness and effectiveness of the learned projection matrix. Third, the resulting optimization problem of ENLR has a closed-form solution in each iteration, which can be solved efficiently. Finally, rather than directly exploiting the projection matrix for recognition, our methods employ the transformed features as the new discriminate representations to make final image classification. Compared with the traditional linear regression model and some of its variants, our method is much more accurate in image classification. Extensive experiments conducted on publicly available data sets well demonstrate that the proposed framework can outperform the state-of-the-art methods. The MATLAB codes of our methods can be available at http://www.yongxu.org/lunwen.html.

  11. On the regularity of preparatory activity preceding movements with the dominant and non-dominant hand: a readiness potential study.

    PubMed

    Dirnberger, Georg; Duregger, Cornelia; Lindinger, Gerald; Lang, Wilfried

    2011-08-01

    The readiness potential (RP), a slow negative electroencephalographic pre-movement potential, was reported to commence earlier for movements with the non-dominant left hand than with the dominant right hand. Latencies in these reports were always calculated from averaged RPs, whereas onset times of individual trials remained inaccessible. The aim was to use a new statistical approach to examine whether a few left hand trials with very early pre-movement activity disproportionally affect the onset of the average. We recorded RPs in 28 right-handed subjects while they made self-paced repetitive unilateral movements with their dominant and non-dominant hand. Skewness, a measure of distribution asymmetry, was analysed in sets of single-trial RPs to discriminate between a symmetric distribution and an asymmetric distribution containing outlier trials with early onset. Results show that for right hand movements skewness has values around zero across electrodes and pre-movement intervals, whereas for left hand movements skewness has initially negative values which increase to neutral values closer to movement onset. This indicates a symmetric (e.g., Gaussian) distribution of onset times across trials for simple right hand movements, whereas cortical activation preceding movements with the non-dominant hand is characterised by outlier trials with early onset of negativity. These findings may explain differences in the averaged brain activation preceding dominant versus non-dominant hand movements described in previous electrophysiological/neuroimaging studies. The findings also constrain mental chronometry, a technique that makes conclusions upon the time and temporal order of brain processes by measuring and comparing onset times of averaged electroencephalographic potentials evoked by these processes.

  12. Age-related impairments in discriminating perceptually similar objects parallel those observed in humans.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah A; Turner, Sean M; Santacroce, Lindsay A; Carty, Katelyn N; Shafiq, Leila; Bizon, Jennifer L; Maurer, Andrew P; Burke, Sara N

    2017-03-25

    The ability to accurately remember distinct episodes is supported by high-level sensory discrimination. Performance on mnemonic similarity tasks, which test high-level discrimination, declines with advancing age in humans and these deficits have been linked to altered activity in hippocampal CA3 and dentate gyrus. Lesion studies in animal models, however, point to the perirhinal cortex as a brain region critical for sensory discriminations that serve memory. Reconciliation of the contributions of different regions within the cortical-hippocampal circuit requires the development of a discrimination paradigm comparable to the human mnemonic similarity task that can be used in rodents. In the present experiments, young and aged rats were cross-characterized on a spatial water maze task and two variants of an object discrimination task: one in which rats incrementally learned which object of a pair was rewarded and different pairs varied in their similarity (Experiment 1), and a second in which rats were tested on their ability to discriminate a learned target object from multiple lure objects with an increasing degree of feature overlap (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, aged rats required more training than young to correctly discriminate between similar objects. Comparably, in Experiment 2, aged rats were impaired in discriminating a target object from lures when the pair shared more features. Discrimination deficits across experiments were correlated within individual aged rats, though, for the cohort tested, aged rats were not impaired overall in spatial learning and memory. This could suggest discrimination deficits emerging with age precede declines in spatial or episodic memory, an observation that has been made in humans. Findings of robust impairments in object discrimination abilities in the aged rats parallel results from human studies, supporting use of the developed tasks for mechanistic investigation of cortical-hippocampal circuit dysfunction in aging and

  13. Myocardial regeneration of the failing heart.

    PubMed

    Akhmedov, Alexander T; Marín-García, José

    2013-11-01

    Human heart failure (HF) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently, heart transplantation and implantation of mechanical devices represent the only available treatments for advanced HF. Two alternative strategies have emerged to treat patients with HF. One approach relies on transplantation of exogenous stem cells (SCs) of non-cardiac or cardiac origin to induce cardiac regeneration and improve ventricular function. Another complementary strategy relies on stimulation of the endogenous regenerative capacity of uninjured cardiac progenitor cells to rebuild cardiac muscle and restore ventricular function. Various SC types and delivery strategies have been examined in the experimental and clinical settings; however, neither the ideal cell type nor the cell delivery method for cardiac cell therapy has yet emerged. Although the use of bone marrow (BM)-derived cells, most frequently exploited in clinical trials, appears to be safe, the results are controversial. Two recent randomized trials have failed to document any beneficial effects of intracardiac delivery of autologous BM mononuclear cells on cardiac function of patients with HF. The remarkable discovery that various populations of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) are present in the adult human heart and that it possesses limited regeneration capacity has opened a new era in cardiac repair. Importantly, unlike BM-derived SCs, autologous CPCs from myocardial biopsies cultured and subsequently delivered by coronary injection to patients have given positive results. Although these data are promising, a better understanding of how to control proliferation and differentiation of CPCs, to enhance their recruitment and survival, is required before CPCs become clinically applicable therapeutics.

  14. Revision of failed humeral head resurfacing arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Streubel, Philipp N.; Simone, Juan P.; Cofield, Robert H.; Sperling, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess the outcomes of a consecutive series of patients who underwent revision surgery after humeral head resurfacing (HHR). Our joint registry was queried for all patients who underwent revision arthroplasty for failed HHR at our institution from 2005 to 2010. Eleven consecutive patients (average age 54 years; range 38-69 years) that underwent revision of 11 resurfacing arthroplasties were identified. The primary indication for resurfacing had been osteoarthritis in six, glenoid dysplasia in two, a chondral lesion in two, and postinstability arthropathy in one patient. The indication for revision was pain in 10 and infection in one patient. Seven patients had undergone an average of 1.9 surgeries prior to resurfacing (range 1-3). Materials and Methods: All patients were revised to stemmed arthroplasties, including one hemiarthroplasty, two reverse, and eight anatomic total shoulder arthroplasties at a mean 33 months after primary resurfacing (range 10-131 months). A deltopectoral approach was used in seven patients; four patients required an anteromedial approach due to severe scarring. Subscapularis attenuation was found in four cases, two of which required reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Bone grafting was required in one glenoid and three humeri. Results: At a mean follow-up of 3.5 years (range 1.6-6.9 years), modified Neer score was rated as satisfactory in five patients and unsatisfactory in six. Abduction and external rotation improved from 73° to 88° (P = 0.32) and from 23° to 32° (P = 0.28) respectively. Reoperation was required in two patients, including one hematoma and one revision for instability. Conclusion: Outcomes of revision of HHR arthroplasty in this cohort did not improve upon those reported for revision of stemmed humeral implants. A comparative study would be required to allow for definitive conclusions to be made. PMID:26980986

  15. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted.

  16. Introduction to multivariate discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kégl, Balázs

    2013-07-01

    Multivariate discrimination or classification is one of the best-studied problem in machine learning, with a plethora of well-tested and well-performing algorithms. There are also several good general textbooks [1-9] on the subject written to an average engineering, computer science, or statistics graduate student; most of them are also accessible for an average physics student with some background on computer science and statistics. Hence, instead of writing a generic introduction, we concentrate here on relating the subject to a practitioner experimental physicist. After a short introduction on the basic setup (Section 1) we delve into the practical issues of complexity regularization, model selection, and hyperparameter optimization (Section 2), since it is this step that makes high-complexity non-parametric fitting so different from low-dimensional parametric fitting. To emphasize that this issue is not restricted to classification, we illustrate the concept on a low-dimensional but non-parametric regression example (Section 2.1). Section 3 describes the common algorithmic-statistical formal framework that unifies the main families of multivariate classification algorithms. We explain here the large-margin principle that partly explains why these algorithms work. Section 4 is devoted to the description of the three main (families of) classification algorithms, neural networks, the support vector machine, and AdaBoost. We do not go into the algorithmic details; the goal is to give an overview on the form of the functions these methods learn and on the objective functions they optimize. Besides their technical description, we also make an attempt to put these algorithm into a socio-historical context. We then briefly describe some rather heterogeneous applications to illustrate the pattern recognition pipeline and to show how widespread the use of these methods is (Section 5). We conclude the chapter with three essentially open research problems that are either

  17. TESTOSTERONE AS A DISCRIMINATIVE STIMULUS IN MALE RATS

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Ruth I.; Vertelkina, Nina V.; Antzoulatos, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    Testosterone and other anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are reinforcing in animals, as determined by conditioned place preference or self-administration. Most drugs of abuse produce subjective effects on mood and perception that initiate and maintain drug taking. Whether AAS have similar effects is not known. Food-restricted male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=9) were tested for their ability to discriminate an injection of testosterone from the β-cyclodextrin vehicle using a standard two-lever operant paradigm. In drug discrimination, animals use the subjective effects of drug or vehicle to select the appropriate lever to obtain food pellets under an FR10 schedule of reinforcement. All rats demonstrated vigorous responding for food (1415.1±76.1 responses/20 min) with 94.9% of responses on the active lever. For the first 30 days, rats received 1 mg/kg testosterone sc 30 min before testing. On Day 14, one rat achieved the discrimination criteria of 9/10 consecutive days with >90% responses on the active lever and ≤5 responses on the inactive lever before the first reinforcement. Subsequently, rats were tested with testosterone at different doses (2, 7.5, 15 mg/kg at 30 min before testing) and times (2 mg/kg at 30 or 60 min before testing), each for 20 days. One additional rat demonstrated successful discrimination at Day 54 with 2 mg/kg testosterone 60 min before testing. The remaining 7 rats failed to discriminate testosterone within 110 days. When analyzed according to less-stringent standards, 4 additional rats met criteria for testosterone discrimination. However, continued performance was not stable. Thus, testosterone was unable to consistently support drug discrimination. We conclude that testosterone does not produce rapid interoceptive effects. (NIH DA12843 to RIW) PMID:21893083

  18. Racial/Ethnic Workplace Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Chavez, Laura J.; Ornelas, India J.; Lyles, Courtney R.; Williams, Emily C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Experiences of discrimination are associated with tobacco and alcohol use, and work is a common setting where individuals experience racial/ethnic discrimination. Few studies have evaluated the association between workplace discrimination and these behaviors, and none have described associations across race/ethnicity. Purpose To examine the association between workplace discrimination and tobacco and alcohol use in a large, multistate sample of U.S. adult respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey Reactions to Race Module (2004–2010). Methods Multivariable logistic regression analyses evaluated cross-sectional associations between self-reported workplace discrimination and tobacco (current and daily smoking) and alcohol use (any and heavy use, and binge drinking) among all participants and stratified by race/ethnicity, adjusting for relevant covariates. Data were analyzed in 2013. Results Among respondents, 70,080 completed the workplace discrimination measure. Discrimination was more common among black non-Hispanic (21%), Hispanic (12%), and other race respondents (11%) than white non-Hispanics (4%) (p<0.001). In the total sample, discrimination was associated with current smoking (risk ratio [RR]=1.32, 95% CI=1.19, 1.47), daily smoking (RR=1.41, 95% CI=1.24, 1.61), and heavy drinking (RR=1.11, 95% CI=1.01, 1.22), but not binge or any drinking. Among Hispanics, workplace discrimination was associated with increased heavy and binge drinking, but not any alcohol use or smoking. Workplace discrimination among black non-Hispanics and white Non-Hispanics was associated with increased current and daily smoking, but not alcohol outcomes. Conclusions Workplace discrimination is common, associated with smoking and alcohol use, and merits further policy attention given the impact of these behaviors on morbidity and mortality. PMID:25441232

  19. Perceived weight discrimination and obesity.

    PubMed

    Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index≥30; BMI) by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female) completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.58-4.08) and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.06-4.97) than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education) and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race) were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity.

  20. Vibrotactile Discrimination of Musical Timbre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Frank A.; Ammirante, Paolo; Fels, Deborah I.

    2012-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the ability to discriminate between musical timbres based on vibrotactile stimulation alone. Participants made same/different judgments on pairs of complex waveforms presented sequentially to the back through voice coils embedded in a conforming chair. Discrimination between cello, piano, and trombone tones matched…

  1. Variable Selection in Discriminant Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huberty, Carl J.; Mourad, Salah A.

    Methods for ordering and selecting variables for discriminant analysis in multiple group comparison or group prediction studies include: univariate Fs, stepwise analysis, learning discriminant function (LDF) variable correlations, communalities, LDF standardized coefficients, and weighted standardized coefficients. Five indices based on distance,…

  2. THE HIGH COST OF DISCRIMINATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROPER, ELMO

    ON THE BASIS OF EMPLOYEE SURVEYS AND IN-PLANT RESEARCH, THE TOTAL COST OF DISCRIMINATION TO AMERICAN BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY IN ACTUAL DOLLARS IS ESTIMATED AT ROUGHLY $30 BILLION ANNUALLY. DISCRIMINATION IN INDUSTRY BEGINS AT THE HIRING GATE WHERE MINORITY GROUPS ARE REFUSED EMPLOYMENT BECAUSE OF RACE, COLOR, RELIGION, NATIONALITY, POLITICAL…

  3. Memory Retrieval as Temporal Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gordon D. A.; Vousden, Janet I.; McCormack, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Temporal distinctiveness models of memory retrieval claim that memories are organised partly in terms of their positions along a temporal dimension, and suggest that memory retrieval involves temporal discrimination. According to such models the retrievability of memories should be related to the discriminability of their temporal distances at the…

  4. Addressing Discrimination in School Matters!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    Every student has the right to an education free from discrimination that provides high-quality, equitable opportunities to learn. Unfortunately, sometimes individuals or systems may act in ways that violate this right. Discrimination occurs when people are treated unequally or less favorably than others because of some real or perceived…

  5. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  6. Invidious Discrimination: Second Generation Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Robert J.; Dee, Paul

    1976-01-01

    Discusses school law issues dealing with various forms of invidious discrimination. Considers discrimination based on forms of involuntary association (ethnicity, economic status, primary language, and maturity) and forms of voluntary association (sexual proclivity, marital status, pregnancy and parenthood, self-expression and appearance, religion…

  7. Gender Discrimination in Jessica's Career.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Ellen Piel

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on the sexual harassment and other gender-related difficulties faced by a Chinese-American woman. Profiles her encounters with gender discrimination and how it hindered career advancement and led to professional isolation. Relates how this case study can be used to sensitize workers to gender discrimination. (RJM)

  8. Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark C.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews developments in 2000 in the law of disability discrimination as it relates to higher education, which falls into five categories: (1) definition of a qualified individual; (2) accommodations, access, undue burden, and fundamental alteration of programs; (3) intentional discrimination, harassment, and retaliation; (4) Eleventh Amendment…

  9. Employment Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustoles, Thomas P.; Griffin, Oren R.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews court decisions related to employment discrimination in higher education. The most significant development was a series of cases affirming that Eleventh Amendment immunity from private money damage claims brought pursuant to various federal employment discrimination statutes applied to state colleges and universities. (SLD)

  10. Perceptions of Discrimination during Downsizing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkey, Linda Kathryn

    1993-01-01

    Demonstrates that perceptions of ethnic discrimination during layoffs are moderately correlated with perceptions of selection fairness and information access during the layoff process. Shows that, in the company studied, both minority and majority ethnic group members felt equally discriminated against. (SR)

  11. Price Discrimination in Academic Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Patrick; Merz, Thomas E.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of price discrimination (charging different prices to different customers for same product) for 89 academic journals in 6 disciplines reveals: incidence of price discrimination rose between 1974 and 1984, increase in mean institutional (library) subscription price exceeded increase in mean individual subscription price. Journal list…

  12. Vibrotactile discrimination of musical timbre.

    PubMed

    Russo, Frank A; Ammirante, Paolo; Fels, Deborah I

    2012-08-01

    Five experiments investigated the ability to discriminate between musical timbres based on vibrotactile stimulation alone. Participants made same/different judgments on pairs of complex waveforms presented sequentially to the back through voice coils embedded in a conforming chair. Discrimination between cello, piano, and trombone tones matched for F0, duration, and magnitude was above chance with white noise masking the sound output of the voice coils (Experiment 1), with additional masking to control for bone-conducted sound (Experiment 2), and among a group of deaf individuals (Experiment 4a). Hearing (Experiment 3) and deaf individuals (Experiment 4b) also successfully discriminated between dull and bright timbres varying only with regard to spectral centroid. We propose that, as with auditory discrimination of musical timbre, vibrotactile discrimination may involve the cortical integration of filtered output from frequency-tuned mechanoreceptors functioning as critical bands.

  13. Studies in genetic discrimination. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    We have screened 1006 respondents in a study of genetic discrimination. Analysis of these responses has produced evidence of the range of institutions engaged in genetic discrimination and demonstrates the impact of this discrimination on the respondents to the study. We have found that both ignorance and policy underlie genetic discrimination and that anti-discrimination laws are being violated.

  14. Relation between minimum-error discrimination and optimum unambiguous discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu Daowen; Li Lvjun

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, we investigate the relationship between the minimum-error probability Q{sub E} of ambiguous discrimination and the optimal inconclusive probability Q{sub U} of unambiguous discrimination. It is known that for discriminating two states, the inequality Q{sub U{>=}}2Q{sub E} has been proved in the literature. The main technical results are as follows: (1) We show that, for discriminating more than two states, Q{sub U{>=}}2Q{sub E} may not hold again, but the infimum of Q{sub U}/Q{sub E} is 1, and there is no supremum of Q{sub U}/Q{sub E}, which implies that the failure probabilities of the two schemes for discriminating some states may be narrowly or widely gapped. (2) We derive two concrete formulas of the minimum-error probability Q{sub E} and the optimal inconclusive probability Q{sub U}, respectively, for ambiguous discrimination and unambiguous discrimination among arbitrary m simultaneously diagonalizable mixed quantum states with given prior probabilities. In addition, we show that Q{sub E} and Q{sub U} satisfy the relationship that Q{sub U{>=}}(m/m-1)Q{sub E}.

  15. Predicting Attrition in Admissions Using a Discriminant Model. SAIR Conference Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Michael

    A mathematical model designed to identify admitted college applicants who pay a tuition deposit but fail to attend the college was tested. A two-group discriminant model was built using 486 Trinity University students who paid deposits and enrolled as freshmen during the 1983-1984 academic year, and 72 persons who paid tuition deposits but did not…

  16. Interior's Climate Science Centers: Focus or Fail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udall, B.

    2012-12-01

    After a whirlwind two years of impressive and critical infrastructure building, the Department of Interior's Climate Science Centers are now in a position to either succeed or fail. The CSCs have a number of difficult structural problems including too many constituencies relative to the available resources, an uneasy relationship among many of the constituencies including the DOI agencies themselves, a need to do science in a new, difficult and non-traditional way, and a short timeframe to produce useful products. The CSCs have built a broad and impressive network of scientists and stakeholders. These entities include science providers of the universities and the USGS, and decision makers from the states, tribes, DOI land managers and other federal agencies and NGOs. Rather than try to support all of these constituencies the CSCs would be better served by refocusing on a core mission of supporting DOI climate related decision making. The CSCs were designed to service the climate science needs of DOI agencies, many of which lost their scientific capabilities in the 1990s due to a well-intentioned but ultimately harmful re-organization at DOI involving the now defunct National Biological Survey. Many of these agencies would like to have their own scientists, have an uneasy relationship with the nominal DOI science provider, the USGS, and don't communicate effectively among themselves. The CSCs must not succumb to pursuing science in either the traditional mode of the USGS or in the traditional mode of the universities, or worse, both of them. These scientific partners will need to be flexible, learn how to collaborate and should expect to see fewer resources. Useful CSC processes and outputs should start with the recommendations of the 2009 NRC Report Informing Decisions in a Changing Climate: (1) begin with users' needs; (2) give priority to process over products; (3) link information producers and users; (4) build connections across disciplines and organizations

  17. The influence of behavior preceding a reinforced response on behavior change in the classroom.

    PubMed

    Kazdin, A E

    1977-01-01

    The influence of behavior that immediately precedes a reinforced target response on the effectiveness of a reinforcement contingency was examined in two experiments with mentally retarded children in a special-education classroom. Two reinforcement schedules were examined in each experiment. For each schedule, a prespecified period of attentive behavior served as the target response. The schedules differed in whether inattentive or attentive behavior was required immediately to precede the target response. These schedules were examined with one child in a simultaneous treatment design using praise as the reinforcer (Experiment I), and with two children in separate reversal designs using tokens as the reinforcer (Experiment II). While attentive behavior increased under each schedule, the increase was greater when attentive rather than inattentive behavior preceded the reinforced response. The results indicated that the effect of a contingency may be determined not only by the specific response reinforced but also by the behavior that immediately precedes that response.

  18. Historical Uses of Meteoritic Metals as Precedent for Modern In-Situ Asteroid Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krispin, D.; Mardon, A. A.; Fawcett, B. G.

    2016-08-01

    The strain on earth's resources of metal and the metallic density of meteorites mean that in situ asteroid mining is advisable. This has precedent: Use of meteoritic metal dates back to ancient times.

  19. Precedency control and other semantic integrity issues in a workbench database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dampney, C. N. G.

    1983-01-01

    Most database systems model the current state of a system of real world discrete and simple entities together with their relationships. By examining instead a database system that is a workbench and models more complicated entities, a fresh perspective is gained. Specifically, semantic integrity is analysed. Four aspects distinct from physical integrity are identified, namely - access, failure, concurrency and precedency. Access control is shown to be the consequence of semantic interdependency between data and its matching semantic routines. Failure, concurrency precedency controls are concerned with preventing processes interfering with each other. Precedency is a new concept in the database context. It expresses a constraint between processes that act on the database. As processes create, update and delete entities they in general obey a partial ordering imposed by the semantics of their actions. Precedency control ensures that data remains consistent with respect to this partial order.

  20. An improved car-following model with two preceding cars' average speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shao-Wei; Shi, Zhong-Ke

    2015-01-01

    To better describe cooperative car-following behaviors under intelligent transportation circumstances and increase roadway traffic mobility, the data of three successive following cars at a signalized intersection of Jinan in China were obtained and employed to explore the linkage between two preceding cars' average speed and car-following behaviors. The results indicate that two preceding cars' average velocity has significant effects on the following car's motion. Then an improved car-following model considering two preceding cars' average velocity was proposed and calibrated based on full velocity difference model and some numerical simulations were carried out to study how two preceding cars' average speed affected the starting process and the traffic flow evolution process with an initial small disturbance, the results indicate that the improved car-following model can qualitatively describe the impacts of two preceding cars' average velocity on traffic flow and that taking two preceding cars' average velocity into account in designing the control strategy for the cooperative adaptive cruise control system can improve the stability of traffic flow, suppress the appearance of traffic jams and increase the capacity of signalized intersections.

  1. Precedence-effect thresholds for a population of untrained listeners as a function of stimulus intensity and interclick interval.

    PubMed

    Saberi, Kourosh; Antonio, Joseph V

    2003-07-01

    Data are reported from 127 untrained individuals under lag- and single-click conditions in a precedence-effect task. In experiment I, each subject completed ten runs in a two-interval forced-choice design under a lag-click condition and three runs under a single-click condition. The cue to be discriminated was an interaural time difference (ITD). Stimuli were 125-micros rectangular pulses and the interclick interval (ICI) was 2 ms. Subjects were randomly assigned to three groups of approximately 30. Each group was tested at one stimulus intensity (43, 58, or 73 dB). Mean threshold within each group was greater than 500 micros for lag-click ITD conditions, although substantial intersubject variability and a clear effect of stimulus intensity on lag-click ITD thresholds were observed, with lower thresholds for higher intensities. In experiment II, the ICI was varied from 0.3 to 10 ms, and thresholds were obtained from groups of approximately 20 untrained subjects. Data were also collected from three highly experienced observers as a function of ICI. The best naive subject produced mean thresholds near, but not as low as those obtained from experienced subjects. Analysis of adaptive-track patterns revealed abrupt irregularities in threshold tracking, consistent with either losing the cue or listening to the wrong cue in an ambiguous stimulus.

  2. Real-Time Wavelength Discrimination for Improved Neutron Discrimination in CLYC

    SciTech Connect

    Hornback, Donald Eric; Hu, Michael Z.; Bell, Zane W.

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the effects of optical filters on the pulse shape discrimination properties of Cs2LiYCl6:Ce (CLYC) scintillator crystals. By viewing the scintillation light through various optical filters, we attempted to better distinguish between neutron and gamma ray events in the crystal. We applied commercial interference and colored glass filters in addition to fabricating quantum dot (QD) filters by suspending QDs in plastic films and glass. QD filters ultimately failed because of instability of the QDs with respect to oxidation when exposed to ambient air, and the tendency of the QDs to aggregate in the plastic. Of the commercial filters, the best results were obtained with a bandpass interference filter covering the spectral region containing core-valence luminescence (CVL) light. However, the PSD response of filtered CLYC light was always poorer than the response exhibited by unfiltered light because filters always reduced the amount of light available for signal processing.

  3. Lesbians still face job discrimination.

    PubMed

    Ryniker, Margaret R

    2008-01-01

    This article examines continued discrimination against lesbians in the workplace. A number of cases from various jurisdictions in the United States are highlighted. The paper studies two common forms of discrimination: denial of employment benefits to same sex partners, and sexual harassment. On the first front, the case law suggests that health insurance coverage for one's partner is becoming the norm. On the question of sexual harassment in the workplace, the case law did not provide protection for lesbians. Finally, U.S. employment policies related to sexual orientation are contrasted with those in Israel, which provides much greater protection from discrimination.

  4. The animal farm philosophy of genetic discrimination.

    PubMed

    Wolbring, Gregor

    2004-01-01

    The paper by Dr. Gregor Wolbring addresses the issue of genetic discrimination from disabled people's rights perspective asking a) what the interpretation of genetic discrimination and the scope of Anti Genetic discrimination laws and law proposals is and b) whether the scope and interpretation of genetic discrimination and Anti Genetic discrimination laws and law proposal lead to more protection for-or increased discrimination against- disabled people"

  5. Manual discrimination of force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, Xiao-Dong; Tan, HONG-Z.; Durlach, Nathaniel I.

    1991-01-01

    Optimal design of human-machine interfaces for teleoperators and virtual-environment systems which involve the tactual and kinesthetic modalities requires knowledge of the human's resolving power in these modalities. The resolution of the interface should be appropriately matched to that of the human operator. We report some preliminary results on the ability of the human hand to distinguish small differences in force under a variety of conditions. Experiments were conducted on force discrimination with the thumb pushing an interface that exerts a constant force over the pushing distance and the index finger pressing against a fixed support. The dependence of the sensitivity index d' on force increment can be fit by a straight line through the origin and the just-noticeable difference (JND) in force can thus be described by the inverse of the slope of this line. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) was measured by varying the a priori probabilities of the two alternatives, reference force and reference force plus an increment, in one-interval, two-alternative, forced-choice experiments. When plotted on normal deviate coordinates, the ROC's were roughly straight lines of unit slope, thus supporting the assumption of equal-variance normal distributions and the use of the conventional d' measure. The JND was roughly 6-8 percent for reference force ranging from 2.5 to 10 newtons, pushing distance from 5 to 30 mm, and initial finger-span from 45 to 125 mm. Also, the JND remained the same when the subjects were instructed to change the average speed of pushing from 23 to 153 mm/sec. The pushing was terminated by reaching either a wall or a well, and the JND's were essentially the same in both cases.

  6. A precedence effect model to simulate localization dominance using an adaptive, stimulus parameter-based inhibition process.

    PubMed

    Braasch, Jonas

    2013-07-01

    A number of precedence-effect models have been developed to simulate the robust localization performance of humans in reverberant conditions. Although they are able to reduce reverberant information for many conditions, they tend to fail for ongoing stimuli with truncated on/offsets, a condition human listeners master when localizing a sound source in the presence of a reflection, according to a study by Dizon and Colburn [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 119, 2947-2964 (2006)]. This paper presents a solution for this condition by using an autocorrelation mechanism to estimate the delay and amplitude ratio between the leading and lagging signals. An inverse filter is then used to eliminate the lag signal, before it is localized with a standard localization algorithm. The current algorithm can operate on top of a basic model of the auditory periphery (gammatone filter bank, half-wave rectification) to simulate psychoacoustic data by Braasch et al. [Acoust. Sci. Tech. 24, 293-303 (2003)] and Dizon and Colburn. The model performs robustly with these on/offset truncated and interaural level difference based stimuli and is able to demonstrate the Haas effect.

  7. Blind insight: metacognitive discrimination despite chance task performance.

    PubMed

    Scott, Ryan B; Dienes, Zoltan; Barrett, Adam B; Bor, Daniel; Seth, Anil K

    2014-12-01

    Blindsight and other examples of unconscious knowledge and perception demonstrate dissociations between judgment accuracy and metacognition: Studies reveal that participants' judgment accuracy can be above chance while their confidence ratings fail to discriminate right from wrong answers. Here, we demonstrated the opposite dissociation: a reliable relationship between confidence and judgment accuracy (demonstrating metacognition) despite judgment accuracy being no better than chance. We evaluated the judgments of 450 participants who completed an AGL task. For each trial, participants decided whether a stimulus conformed to a given set of rules and rated their confidence in that judgment. We identified participants who performed at chance on the discrimination task, utilizing a subset of their responses, and then assessed the accuracy and the confidence-accuracy relationship of their remaining responses. Analyses revealed above-chance metacognition among participants who did not exhibit decision accuracy. This important new phenomenon, which we term blind insight, poses critical challenges to prevailing models of metacognition grounded in signal detection theory.

  8. 7 CFR 983.152 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Failed lots/rework procedure. 983.152 Section 983.152..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Rules and Regulations § 983.152 Failed lots/rework procedure. (a) Inshell rework procedure for aflatoxin. If inshell rework is selected as a remedy to meet the aflatoxin regulations of...

  9. 7 CFR 996.50 - Reconditioning failing quality peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. 996.50 Section... QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality and Handling Standards § 996.50 Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. (a) Lots of peanuts which have not...

  10. 7 CFR 996.50 - Reconditioning failing quality peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. 996.50 Section... QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality and Handling Standards § 996.50 Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. (a) Lots of peanuts which have not...

  11. 75 FR 76321 - Source of Income From Qualified Fails Charges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ78 Source of Income From Qualified Fails Charges AGENCY... Internal Revenue Code. These regulations set forth the source of income attributable to qualified fails... Subjects in 26 CFR Part 1 Income taxes, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. Proposed Amendment to...

  12. 75 FR 76262 - Source of Income From Qualified Fails Charges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ85 Source of Income From Qualified Fails Charges AGENCY... temporary regulations which set forth the source of income attributable to qualified fails charges. The.... source income of foreign persons that is not effectively connected with the conduct of a trade...

  13. 77 FR 9846 - Source of Income From Qualified Fails Charges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ78 Source of Income From Qualified Fails Charges AGENCY.... SUMMARY: This document contains final regulations that prescribe the source of income received on a... income from a qualified fails charge is generally determined by reference to the residence of...

  14. 7 CFR 996.50 - Reconditioning failing quality peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. 996.50 Section... QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality and Handling Standards § 996.50 Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. (a) Lots of peanuts which have not...

  15. 7 CFR 996.50 - Reconditioning failing quality peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. 996.50 Section... QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality and Handling Standards § 996.50 Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. (a) Lots of peanuts which have not...

  16. 7 CFR 996.50 - Reconditioning failing quality peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. 996.50 Section... QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality and Handling Standards § 996.50 Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. (a) Lots of peanuts which have not...

  17. Erika's Stories: Literacy Solutions for a Failing Middle School Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma'ayan, Hadar Dubowsky

    2010-01-01

    Erika was a failing student at a large urban public middle school. She was poor, Hispanic, bilingual, and had repeated fourth grade. She scored low on her standardized tests and was failing several subject areas. In class, Erika was a student who sat silently with her head on her desk, and rarely turned in any of her assignments. She was a…

  18. The evolutionary context for a Self-Nonself discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Melvin

    2010-01-01

    This essay was written to illustrate how one might think about the immune system. The formulation of valid theories is the basic component of how-to-think because the reduction of large and complex data sets by the use of logic into a succinct model with predictability and explanatory power, is the only way that we have to arrive at “understanding.” Whether it is to achieve effective manipulation of the system or for pure pleasure, “understanding” is a universally agreed upon goal. It is in the nature of science that theories are there to be disproven. An experimentally disproven theory is a successful one. As they fail experimental test one by one, we end up with a default theory, that is, one that has yet to fail. Here using the self-nonself discrimination as an example, how-to-think as I see it, will be illustrated. PMID:20585970

  19. Morbidity associated with failed vaginal birth after cesarean section.

    PubMed

    Oboro, Victor; Adewunmi, Adeniyi; Ande, Anibaba; Olagbuji, Biodun; Ezeanochie, Michael; Oyeniran, Ayodeji

    2010-09-01

    We investigated morbidity and factors associated with failed vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC). In a retrospective cohort study maternal and neonatal outcomes of women who underwent VBAC in three Nigerian University Teaching Hospitals were reviewed. Univariate, followed by multivariate analyses, were conducted. VBAC was successful in 683 of 1,013 women (67.4%), whereas 330 (32.6%) had failed VBAC. Failed VBAC was associated with higher incidence of chorioamnionitis, postpartum hemorrhage, blood transfusion, uterine rupture, hysterectomy, and composite major neonatal morbidities. Younger age, lack of previous vaginal delivery, induction of labor and fetal weight >4,000 g were risk factors for failed VBAC. A majority of women who try VBAC achieve a vaginal delivery. Failed VBAC is associated with increased maternal and neonatal morbidity and is somewhat predictable.

  20. Simulating fail-stop in asynchronous distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabel, Laura; Marzullo, Keith

    1994-01-01

    The fail-stop failure model appears frequently in the distributed systems literature. However, in an asynchronous distributed system, the fail-stop model cannot be implemented. In particular, it is impossible to reliably detect crash failures in an asynchronous system. In this paper, we show that it is possible to specify and implement a failure model that is indistinguishable from the fail-stop model from the point of view of any process within an asynchronous system. We give necessary conditions for a failure model to be indistinguishable from the fail-stop model, and derive lower bounds on the amount of process replication needed to implement such a failure model. We present a simple one-round protocol for implementing one such failure model, which we call simulated fail-stop.

  1. Discriminative Stimulus Effects of Psychostimulants.

    PubMed

    Berquist, Michael D; Fantegrossi, William E

    2017-03-25

    Numerous drugs elicit locomotor stimulant effects at appropriate doses; however, we typically reserve the term psychostimulant to refer to drugs with affinity for monoamine reuptake transporters. This chapter comprises select experiments that have characterized the discriminative stimulus effects of psychostimulants using drug discrimination procedures. The substitution profiles of psychostimulants in laboratory rodents are generally consistent with those observed in human and nonhuman primate drug discrimination experiments. Notably, two major classes of psychostimulants can be distinguished as those that function as passive monoamine reuptake inhibitors (such as cocaine) and those that function as substrates for monoamine transporters and stimulate monoamine release (such as the amphetamines). Nevertheless, the discriminative stimulus effects of both classes of psychostimulant are quite similar, and drugs from different classes will substitute for one another. Most importantly, for both the cocaine-like and amphetamine-like psychostimulants, dopaminergic mechanisms most saliently determine discriminative stimulus effects, but these effects can be modulated by alterations in noradrenergic and serotonergic neurotransmission as well. Thusly, the drug discrimination assay is useful for characterizing the interoceptive effects of psychostimulants and determining the mechanisms that contribute to their subjective effects in humans.

  2. Reversibility and Discrimination in Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jeffrey P.

    1974-01-01

    Five-year-old children who failed pretests of conservation of Number, Length, Mass, and Liquid Amount, but who possessed counting ability and knowledge of the terms "same" and "different" underwent Training and Conservation Posttests. (Author/CS)

  3. The time course of shape discrimination in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Ales, Justin M; Appelbaum, L Gregory; Cottereau, Benoit R; Norcia, Anthony M

    2013-02-15

    The lateral occipital cortex (LOC) activates selectively to images of intact objects versus scrambled controls, is selective for the figure-ground relationship of a scene, and exhibits at least some degree of invariance for size and position. Because of these attributes, it is considered to be a crucial part of the object recognition pathway. Here we show that human LOC is critically involved in perceptual decisions about object shape. High-density EEG was recorded while subjects performed a threshold-level shape discrimination task on texture-defined figures segmented by either phase or orientation cues. The appearance or disappearance of a figure region from a uniform background generated robust visual evoked potentials throughout retinotopic cortex as determined by inverse modeling of the scalp voltage distribution. Contrasting responses from trials containing shape changes that were correctly detected (hits) with trials in which no change occurred (correct rejects) revealed stimulus-locked, target-selective activity in the occipital visual areas LOC and V4 preceding the subject's response. Activity that was locked to the subjects' reaction time was present in the LOC. Response-locked activity in the LOC was determined to be related to shape discrimination for several reasons: shape-selective responses were silenced when subjects viewed identical stimuli but their attention was directed away from the shapes to a demanding letter discrimination task; shape-selectivity was present across four different stimulus configurations used to define the figure; LOC responses correlated with participants' reaction times. These results indicate that decision-related activity is present in the LOC when subjects are engaged in threshold-level shape discriminations.

  4. Comparison of two inductive learning methods: A case study in failed fuel identification

    SciTech Connect

    Reifman, J.; Lee, J.C.

    1992-05-01

    Two inductive learning methods, the ID3 and Rg algorithms, are studied as a means for systematically and automatically constructing the knowledge base of expert systems. Both inductive learning methods are general-purpose and use information entropy as a discriminatory measure in order to group objects of a common class. ID3 constructs a knowledge base by building decision trees that discriminate objects of a data set as a function of their class. Rg constructs a knowledge base by grouping objects of the same class into patterns or clusters. The two inductive methods are applied to the construction of a knowledge base for failed fuel identification in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II. Through analysis of the knowledge bases generated, the ID3 and Rg algorithms are compared for their knowledge representation, data overfitting, feature space partition, feature selection, and search procedure.

  5. Comparison of two inductive learning methods: A case study in failed fuel identification

    SciTech Connect

    Reifman, J. ); Lee, J.C. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    Two inductive learning methods, the ID3 and Rg algorithms, are studied as a means for systematically and automatically constructing the knowledge base of expert systems. Both inductive learning methods are general-purpose and use information entropy as a discriminatory measure in order to group objects of a common class. ID3 constructs a knowledge base by building decision trees that discriminate objects of a data set as a function of their class. Rg constructs a knowledge base by grouping objects of the same class into patterns or clusters. The two inductive methods are applied to the construction of a knowledge base for failed fuel identification in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II. Through analysis of the knowledge bases generated, the ID3 and Rg algorithms are compared for their knowledge representation, data overfitting, feature space partition, feature selection, and search procedure.

  6. Kickoff to Conflict: A Sequence Analysis of Intra-State Conflict-Preceding Event Structures

    PubMed Central

    D'Orazio, Vito; Yonamine, James E.

    2015-01-01

    While many studies have suggested or assumed that the periods preceding the onset of intra-state conflict are similar across time and space, few have empirically tested this proposition. Using the Integrated Crisis Early Warning System's domestic event data in Asia from 1998–2010, we subject this proposition to empirical analysis. We code the similarity of government-rebel interactions in sequences preceding the onset of intra-state conflict to those preceding further periods of peace using three different metrics: Euclidean, Levenshtein, and mutual information. These scores are then used as predictors in a bivariate logistic regression to forecast whether we are likely to observe conflict in neither, one, or both of the states. We find that our model accurately classifies cases where both sequences precede peace, but struggles to distinguish between cases in which one sequence escalates to conflict and where both sequences escalate to conflict. These findings empirically suggest that generalizable patterns exist between event sequences that precede peace. PMID:25951105

  7. The effect of preceding biopsy on complete endoscopic resection in rectal carcinoid tumor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Pyo; Sung, In-Kyung; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Lee, Sun-Young; Park, Hyung Seok; Shim, Chan Sup

    2014-04-01

    Biopsy of rectal carcinoid tumor is commonly taken before endoscopic resection. However the preceding biopsy can inhibit complete resection by causing blurred tumor border and fibrosis of the tissue. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of preceding biopsy on complete endoscopic resection in rectal carcinoid tumor. It was also determined if rectal carcinoid tumors can be macroscopically distinguished by endoscopy. We reviewed retrospectively the records of patients with rectal carcinoid tumor who had undergone an endoscopic treatment at our hospital, during a 7-yr period. The resection margin was clear in 57 of 98 cases. The preceding biopsy was taken in 57 cases and the biopsy was significantly associated with the risk of incomplete tumor resection (OR, 3.696; 95% CI, 1.528-8.938, P = 0.004). In 95.9% of the cases, it was possible to suspect a carcinoid tumor by macroscopic appearance during initial endoscopy. The preceding biopsy may disturb complete resection of rectal carcinoid tumor. In most cases, the carcinoid tumor could be suspected by macroscopic appearance. Therefore the preceding biopsy is not essential, and it may be avoided for the complete resection.

  8. No Evidence of Conpopulation Sperm Precedence between Allopatric Populations of House Mice

    PubMed Central

    Firman, Renée C.; Simmons, Leigh W.

    2014-01-01

    Investigations into the evolution of reproductive barriers have traditionally focused on closely related species, and the prevalence of conspecific sperm precedence. The effectiveness of conspecific sperm precedence at limiting gene exchange between species suggests that gametic isolation is an important component of reproductive isolation. However, there is a paucity of tests for evidence of sperm precedence during the earlier stages of divergence, for example among isolated populations. Here, we sourced individuals from two allopatric populations of house mice (Mus domesticus) and performed competitive in vitro fertilisation assays to test for conpopulation sperm precedence specifically at the gametic level. We found that ova population origin did not influence the outcome of the sperm competitions, and thus provide no evidence of conpopulation or heteropopulation sperm precedence. Instead, we found that males from a population that had evolved under a high level of postcopulatory sexual selection consistently outcompeted males from a population that had evolved under a relatively lower level of postcopulatory sexual selection. We standardised the number of motile sperm of each competitor across the replicate assays. Our data therefore show that competitive fertilizing success was directly attributable to differences in sperm fertilizing competence. PMID:25295521

  9. An improved car-following model with multiple preceding cars' velocity fluctuation feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lantian; Zhao, Xiangmo; Yu, Shaowei; Li, Xiuhai; Shi, Zhongke

    2017-04-01

    In order to explore and evaluate the effects of velocity variation trend of multiple preceding cars used in the Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) strategy on the dynamic characteristic, fuel economy and emission of the corresponding traffic flow, we conduct a study as follows: firstly, with the real-time car-following (CF) data, the close relationship between multiple preceding cars' velocity fluctuation feedback and the host car's behaviors is explored, the evaluation results clearly show that multiple preceding cars' velocity fluctuation with different time window-width are highly correlated to the host car's acceleration/deceleration. Then, a microscopic traffic flow model is proposed to evaluate the effects of multiple preceding cars' velocity fluctuation feedback in the CACC strategy on the traffic flow evolution process. Finally, numerical simulations on fuel economy and exhaust emission of the traffic flow are also implemented by utilizing VT-micro model. Simulation results prove that considering multiple preceding cars' velocity fluctuation feedback in the control strategy of the CACC system can improve roadway traffic mobility, fuel economy and exhaust emission performance.

  10. Discrimination Report: ESTCP UXO Discrimination Study, ESTCPProject #MM-0437

    SciTech Connect

    Gasperikova, Erika; Smith, J. Torquil; Morrison, H. Frank; Becker, Alex

    2007-12-21

    The FY06 Defense Appropriation contains funding for the 'Development of Advanced, Sophisticated, Discrimination Technologies for UXO Cleanup' in the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program. In 2003, the Defense Science Board observed: 'The problem is that instruments that can detect the buried UXOs also detect numerous scrap metal objects and other artifacts, which leads to an enormous amount of expensive digging. Typically 100 holes may be dug before a real UXO is unearthed! The Task Force assessment is that much of this wasteful digging can be eliminated by the use of more advanced technology instruments that exploit modern digital processing and advanced multi-mode sensors to achieve an improved level of discrimination of scrap from UXOs.' Significant progress has been made in discrimination technology. To date, testing of these approaches has been primarily limited to test sites with only limited application at live sites. Acceptance of discrimination technologies requires demonstration of system capabilities at real UXO sites under real world conditions. Any attempt to declare detected anomalies to be harmless and requiring no further investigation require demonstration to regulators of not only individual technologies, but of an entire decision making process. This discrimination study was be the first phase in what is expected to be a continuing effort that will span several years.

  11. Crossmodal temporal discrimination: assessing the predictions of a general pacemaker-counter model.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Rolf; Nitschke, Judith; Rammsayer, Thomas

    2006-10-01

    In this study, an extended pacemaker-counter model was applied to crossmodal temporal discrimination. In three experiments, subjects discriminated between the durations of a constant standard stimulus and a variable comparison stimulus. In congruent trials, both stimuli were presented in the same sensory modality (i.e., both visual or both auditory), whereas in incongruent trials, each stimulus was presented in a different modality. The model accounts for the finding that temporal discrimination depends on the presentation order of the sensory modalities. Nevertheless, the model fails to explain why temporal discrimination was much better with congruent than with incongruent trials. The discussion considers possibilities to accommodate the model to this and other shortcomings.

  12. Earthquake recurrence models fail when earthquakes fail to reset the stress field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tormann, Thessa; Wiemer, Stefan; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2012-01-01

    Parkfield's regularly occurring M6 mainshocks, about every 25 years, have over two decades stoked seismologists' hopes to successfully predict an earthquake of significant size. However, with the longest known inter-event time of 38 years, the latest M6 in the series (28 Sep 2004) did not conform to any of the applied forecast models, questioning once more the predictability of earthquakes in general. Our study investigates the spatial pattern of b-values along the Parkfield segment through the seismic cycle and documents a stably stressed structure. The forecasted rate of M6 earthquakes based on Parkfield's microseismicity b-values corresponds well to observed rates. We interpret the observed b-value stability in terms of the evolution of the stress field in that area: the M6 Parkfield earthquakes do not fully unload the stress on the fault, explaining why time recurrent models fail. We present the 1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake as counter example, which did release a significant portion of the stress along its fault segment and yields a substantial change in b-values.

  13. 45 CFR 1624.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1624.4 Section 1624.4... AGAINST DISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY § 1624.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No qualified... the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination by any legal services program,...

  14. 14 CFR 399.36 - Unreasonable discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Unreasonable discrimination. 399.36 Section... Unreasonable discrimination. (a) As used in this section: (1) Unreasonable discrimination means unjust discrimination or unreasonable preference or prejudice; and (2) Rate means rate, fare, or charge. (b) Except...

  15. 14 CFR 399.36 - Unreasonable discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Unreasonable discrimination. 399.36 Section... Unreasonable discrimination. (a) As used in this section: (1) Unreasonable discrimination means unjust discrimination or unreasonable preference or prejudice; and (2) Rate means rate, fare, or charge. (b) Except...

  16. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination...

  17. 14 CFR 399.36 - Unreasonable discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Unreasonable discrimination. 399.36 Section... Unreasonable discrimination. (a) As used in this section: (1) Unreasonable discrimination means unjust discrimination or unreasonable preference or prejudice; and (2) Rate means rate, fare, or charge. (b) Except...

  18. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination...

  19. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination...

  20. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination...

  1. 14 CFR 399.36 - Unreasonable discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Unreasonable discrimination. 399.36 Section... Unreasonable discrimination. (a) As used in this section: (1) Unreasonable discrimination means unjust discrimination or unreasonable preference or prejudice; and (2) Rate means rate, fare, or charge. (b) Except...

  2. Discrimination. Prejudice in Action. Multicultural Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillam, Scott

    This book for young readers explains what discrimination is and explores different types of discrimination and how they have developed over the years. Laws that make it more difficult to discriminate against others are described, and the struggle for human rights is outlined. Discrimination means acting unfavorably toward someone based on the…

  3. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination...

  4. 45 CFR 1624.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1624.4 Section 1624.4... AGAINST DISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY § 1624.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No qualified... the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination by any legal services program,...

  5. Sensory Discrimination as Related to General Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acton, G. Scott; Schroeder, David H.

    2001-01-01

    Attempted to replicate the pitch discrimination findings of previous research and expand them to the modality of color discrimination in a sample of 899 teenagers and adults by correlating 2 sensory discrimination measures with the general factor from a battery of 13 cognitive ability tests. Results suggest that sensory discrimination is…

  6. Effect of preceding medications on resuscitation outcome of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Shih-Wen; Chu, Chien-Ming; Su, Chih-Feng; Tseng, Li-Ming; Wang, Tzong-Luen

    2017-01-01

    As evidence regarding the impact of preceding medications on resuscitation outcomes has been inconsistent, this study aimed to analyze the association between preceding medications and resuscitation outcomes in patients experiencing out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). This retrospective study included patients with OHCA presenting to a tertiary care hospital by emergency medical service (EMS) between January 2006 and June 2011. Using the Utstein template, data were collected from EMS and hospital medical records for prehospital care, in-hospital care, and medications which were taken continuously for at least 2 weeks preceding OHCA. Primary outcome was the proportion of patients with a survived event. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the predictors of survived events. Among the 1381 included patients with OHCA, 552 (40.0%) patients achieved sustained return of spontaneous circulation and 463 (33.5%) patients survived after resuscitation, 96 (7.0%) patients survived until discharge, and 20 (1.4%) patients had a favorable neurological outcome at discharge. The multivariable analyses revealed that use of statins preceding OHCA was independently associated with a greater probability of a survived events (OR=2.09, 95% CI 1.08 to 4.03, p=0.028).Use of digoxin was adversely associated with survived events (OR=0.39, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.90, p=0.028) in patients with OHCA. The continuous use of statins preceding OHCA was positively associated with survived events, while use of digoxin was adversely related. It deserves more attention on medications preceding OHCA because of their potential effect on resuscitation outcomes. PMID:27965361

  7. User discrimination in automotive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makrushin, Andrey; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Leich, Marcus

    2011-03-01

    The recently developed dual-view touch screens, which are announced to be installed in cars in a near future, give rise to completely new challenges in human-machine interaction. The automotive system should be able to identify if the driver or the passenger is currently interacting with the touch screen to provide a correct response to the touch. The optical devices, due to availability, acceptance by the users and multifunctional usage, approved to be the most appropriate sensing technology for driver/passenger discrimination. In this work the prototypic optical user discrimination system is implemented in the car simulator and evaluated in the laboratory environment with entirely controlled illumination. Three tests were done for this research. One of them examined if the near-infrared illumination should be switched on around the clock, the second one if there is a difference in discrimination performance between day, twilight and night conditions, and the third one examined how the intensive directional lighting influences the performance of the implemented user discrimination algorithm. Despite the high error rates, the evaluation results show that very simple computer vision algorithms are able to solve complicated user discrimination task. The average error rate of 10.42% (daytime with near-infrared illumination) is a very promising result for optical systems.

  8. Shape and size discrimination compared.

    PubMed

    Nachmias, Jacob

    2011-02-23

    Observers presented with pairs of figures differing in area (SIZE) or aspect ratio (SHAPE) spontaneously make use of both height and width differences. whether or not they are forced to do so by between-interval jittering or even instructed to do so. SHAPE discrimination is considerably better than SIZE discrimination. The superiority of SHAPE discrimination is probably due to partial correlation between the encoding noise of height and width of a figure. Discrimination of height differences is seemingly increased (decreased) by negatively (positively) correlated width differences, relative to leaving width unchanged. This is true whether the different types of trials are presented in separate blocks or intermixed. Perhaps SIZE and SHAPE comparisons are always made and their decision variables are optimally combined. The difference between SIZE and SHAPE discrimination is reduced, if not reversed, when figures are presented simultaneously rather than successively. This interaction between type of task and mode of presentation, may be due to the increased amount of correlation between test and standard figures of the encoding noise common to the two dimensions of each figure.

  9. Prestimulus oscillations in the alpha band of the EEG are modulated by the difficulty of feature discrimination and predict activation of a sensory discrimination process.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Daniel M; Fedota, John R; Buzzell, George A; Parasuraman, Raja; McDonald, Craig G

    2014-08-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that the occipital-temporal N1 component of the ERP is sensitive to the difficulty of visual discrimination, in a manner that cannot be explained by simple differences in low-level visual features, arousal, or time on task. These observations provide evidence that the occipital-temporal N1 component is modulated by the application of top-down control. However, the timing of this control process remains unclear. Previous work has demonstrated proactive, top-down modulation of cortical excitability for cued spatial attention or feature selection tasks. Here, the possibility that a similar top-down process facilitates performance of a difficult stimulus discrimination task is explored. Participants performed an oddball task at two levels of discrimination difficulty, with difficulty manipulated by modulating the similarity between target and nontarget stimuli. Discrimination processes and cortical excitability were assessed via the amplitude of the occipital-temporal N1 component and prestimulus alpha oscillation of the EEG, respectively. For correct discriminations, prestimulus alpha power was reduced, and the occipital-temporal N1 was enhanced in the hard relative to the easy condition. Furthermore, within the hard condition, prestimulus alpha power was reduced, and the occipital-temporal N1 was enhanced for correct relative to incorrect discriminations. The generation of ERPs contingent on relative prestimulus alpha power additionally suggests that diminished alpha power preceding stimulus onset is related to enhancement of the occipital-temporal N1. As in spatial attention, proactive control appears to enhance cortical excitability and facilitate discrimination performance in tasks requiring nonspatial, feature-based attention, even in the absence of competing stimulus features.

  10. A novel car following model considering average speed of preceding vehicles group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Dihua; Kang, Yirong; Yang, Shuhong

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a new car following model is presented by considering the average speed effect of preceding vehicles group in cyber-physical systems (CPS) environment. The effect of this new consideration upon the stability of traffic flow is examined through linear stability analysis. A modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation was derived via nonlinear analysis to describe the propagating behavior of traffic density wave near the critical point. Good agreement between the simulation and the analytical results shows that average speed of preceding vehicles group leads to the stabilization of traffic systems, and thus can efficiently suppress the emergence of traffic jamming.

  11. Relationship Type and Sexual Precedence: Their Associations With Characteristics of Sexual Assault Perpetrators and Incidents

    PubMed Central

    Wegner, Rhiana; Pierce, Jennifer; Abbey, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    Although most sexual assaults are committed by men who know their victims, few researchers have considered how characteristics of perpetrators and incidents differ depending on the victim–perpetrator relationship. This study addresses this gap with a community sample of 204 men who reported committing a sexually aggressive act in an audio computer-assisted self-interview. 2 (Relationship Type: Committed vs. Casual) × 2 (Sexual Precedence: Yes vs. No) ANOVAs revealed significant main effects of relationship type and sexual precedence associated with individual difference and incident characteristics. These findings demonstrate the importance of developing theories and prevention programs tailored for different relationship contexts. PMID:25288595

  12. Progress through precedent: Going where no helicopter simulator has gone before

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    Helicopter simulators have been approved by means of special exemption; there are no FAA standards for simulators used in training or airmen Certification checking. The fixed-wing industry provides a precedent which can be used for expediting implementation of helicopter simulators. The analysis in this paper is founded on the experience with that precedent and is driven by a clear definition of helicopter user needs for (1) improved training at lower cost, (2) more comprehensive emergency training at lower risk, (3) increased fidelity of transition and instrument training compared with low-cost aircraft alternatives, and (4) certification credit for improved simulator training.

  13. In Situ Optimal Reshading of Arrays with Failed Elements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-13

    unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES NUWC2015 14. ABSTRACT An algorithm is presented which computes optimal weights for arbitrary linear arrays. The...application of this algorithm to in situ optimal reshading of arrays with failed elements is discussed. It is shown that optimal reshading can often...which computes optimal weights for arbitrary linear arrays. The application of this algorithm to in situ optimal reshading of arrays with failed

  14. US Intervention in Failed States: Bad Assumptions=Poor Outcomes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIVERSITY NATIONAL WAR COLLEGE STRATEGIC LOGIC ESSAY US INTERVENTION IN FAILED STATES: BAD ASSUMPTIONS = POOR ...2002 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2002 to 00-00-2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE US Intervention in Failed States: Bad Assumptions= Poor ...country remains in the grip of poverty , natural disasters, and stagnation. Rwanda Rwanda, another small African country, is populated principally

  15. Laser explantation of a failing endosseous dental implant.

    PubMed

    Smith, L P; Rose, T

    2010-06-01

    Explantation of failed dental implants has traditionally been performed by mechanical bone removal techniques. The advent of intraoral laser surgery has seen increasing numbers of applications in oral implantology. The technique demonstrates safe and efficient explantation of a failed dental implant using Er,Cr:YSGG laser. Laser assisted explantation of dental implants is a minimally invasive technique providing an alternative to conventional mechanical explantation techniques.

  16. When word identification fails: ERP correlates of recognition without identification and of word identification failure.

    PubMed

    Ryals, Anthony J; Yadon, Carly A; Nomi, Jason S; Cleary, Anne M

    2011-10-01

    Recognition without identification (RWI) refers to people's ability to discriminate studied from unstudied items when the items themselves fail to be identified, as when people fail to identify words from fragments. We sought to identify the ERP correlates of word fragment RWI in an effort to better understand its underlying mechanisms; in so doing, we also examined the ERP correlates of word identification failure vs. success. We found the ERP correlate of the RWI effect to be the N300; greater negativity was shown for unidentified fragments of studied words than for unidentified fragments of unstudied words between 300-325 ms post test fragment onset. We further separated the ERPs according to whether subjects showed the behavioral RWI effect or not; the N300 effect emerged only among those subjects who showed the behavioral effect, suggesting that the N300 is related to the behavioral effect itself. With regard to the ERP correlates of word identification failure vs. success, we found very early indicators of later word identification success vs. failure (starting at 125 ms) that were independent of priming. These early effects may be preconscious markers of downstream word identification success vs. failure. We also found a later persistent negativity associated with successfully identified words that we propose to be associated with executive function and possibly the successful suppression of irrelevant words that might initially come to mind when attempting to complete a unique word fragment; word fragment identification failure may sometimes be due to a failure to suppress irrelevant or incorrect words.

  17. Investigation of occupational asthma: Do clinicians fail to identify relevant occupational exposures?

    PubMed Central

    de Olim, Carlo; Bégin, Denis; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Cartier, André; Gérin, Michel; Lemière, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Specific inhalation challenges (SIC) enable the identification of the agent responsible of occupational asthma (OA). A clinician may fail to identify a specific agent in the workplace, which may potentially lead to a misdiagnosis. The expert assessment method performed by an occupational hygienist has been used to evaluate occupational exposures in epidemiological studies. OBJECTIVE: The broad aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of an expert assessment performed by an occupational hygienist to the diagnosis of OA. The specific aim was to compare work-place exposures identified by an occupational hygienist and by chest physicians in subjects with positive SICs and subjects with asthma, but with a negative SIC. METHODS: SICs were performed in 120 cases: 67 were positive and 53 were negative. A clinician assessed occupational exposures to sensitizers during a routine clinical evaluation preceding the performance of the SIC. An expert assessment of occupational exposures was performed by an occupational hygienist blind to the result of the SIC. RESULTS: The occupational hygienist identified the causal agent in 96.7% of the 61 cases of positive SIC. In 33 (62.3%) cases of negative SICs, the occupational hygienist identified ≥1 sensitizing agent(s) that had not been identified by the clinician. CONCLUSION: The hygienist identified the causal agent in almost all subjects with OA. In contrast, the clinician failed to identify potential exposures to sensitizers in >60% of the negative SIC subjects, which may have resulted in some subjects being misdiagnosed as not having OA. PMID:26422401

  18. Model discrimination using data collaboration.

    PubMed

    Feeley, Ryan; Frenklach, Michael; Onsum, Matt; Russi, Trent; Arkin, Adam; Packard, Andrew

    2006-06-01

    This paper introduces a practical data-driven method to discriminate among large-scale kinetic reaction models. The approach centers around a computable measure of model/data mismatch. We introduce two provably convergent algorithms that were developed to accommodate large ranges of uncertainty in the model parameters. The algorithms are demonstrated on a simple toy example and a methane combustion model with more than 100 uncertain parameters. They are subsequently used to discriminate between two models for a contemporarily studied biological signaling network.

  19. Stigma: ignorance, prejudice or discrimination?

    PubMed

    Thornicroft, Graham; Rose, Diana; Kassam, Aliya; Sartorius, Norman

    2007-03-01

    The term stigma refers to problems of knowledge (ignorance), attitudes (prejudice) and behaviour (discrimination). Most research in this area has been based on attitude surveys, media representations of mental illness and violence, has only focused upon schizophrenia, has excluded direct participation by service users, and has included few intervention studies. However, there is evidence that interventions to improve public knowledge about mental illness can be effective. The main challenge in future is to identify which interventions will produce behaviour change to reduce discrimination against people with mental illness.

  20. Task-dependent color discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poirson, Allen B.; Wandell, Brian A.

    1990-01-01

    When color video displays are used in time-critical applications (e.g., head-up displays, video control panels), the observer must discriminate among briefly presented targets seen within a complex spatial scene. Color-discrimination threshold are compared by using two tasks. In one task the observer makes color matches between two halves of a continuously displayed bipartite field. In a second task the observer detects a color target in a set of briefly presented objects. The data from both tasks are well summarized by ellipsoidal isosensitivity contours. The fitted ellipsoids differ both in their size, which indicates an absolute sensitivity difference, and orientation, which indicates a relative sensitivity difference.

  1. Characterization of the role of adult neurogenesis in touch-screen discrimination learning.

    PubMed

    Swan, Alicia A; Clutton, Jonathan Edward; Chary, Priyanka Kesavan; Cook, Sarah G; Liu, Grace G; Drew, Michael R

    2014-12-01

    Recent theories posit that adult neurogenesis supports dentate gyrus pattern separation and hence is necessary for some types of discrimination learning. Using an inducible transgenic mouse model, we investigated the contribution of adult-born neurons to spatial and nonspatial touch-screen discriminations of varying levels of difficulty. Arresting neurogenesis caused a modest but statistically significant impairment in a position discrimination task. However, the effect was present only on trials after a learned discrimination was reversed, suggesting that neurogenesis supports cognitive flexibility rather than spatial discrimination per se. The deficit was present 4-10 weeks after the arrest of neurogenesis but not immediately after, consistent with previous evidence that the behavioral effects of arresting neurogenesis arise because of the depletion of adult-born neurons at least 1 month old. The arrest of neurogenesis failed to affect a nonspatial brightness discrimination task that was equal in difficulty to the spatial task. The data suggest that adult neurogenesis is not strictly necessary for spatial or perceptual discrimination learning and instead implicate adult neurogenesis in factors related to reversal learning, such as cognitive flexibility or proactive interference.

  2. Olfactory discrimination ability of human subjects for enantiomers with an isopropenyl group at the chiral center.

    PubMed

    Laska, Matthias

    2004-02-01

    The ability of 20 human subjects to distinguish between nine enantiomeric odor pairs sharing an isopropenyl group at the chiral center was tested in a forced-choice triangular test procedure. I found (i). that as a group, the subjects were only able to significantly discriminate the optical isomers of limonene, carvone, dihydrocarvone, dihydrocarveol and dihydrocarvyl acetate, whereas they failed to distinguish between the (+)- and (-)-forms of perillaalcohol, perillaaldehyde, isopulegol and limonene oxide; (ii). marked interindividual differences in discrimination performance, ranging from subjects who were able to significantly discriminate between eight of the nine odor pairs to subjects who failed to do so with six of the nine tasks; and (iii). that with none of the nine odor pairs the antipodes were reported to differ significantly in subjective intensity when presented at equal concentrations. Additional tests of the chemesthetic potency and threshold measurements of the optical isomers of dihydrocarvone, dihydrocarveol, and dihydrocarvyl acetate suggest that the discriminability of these three enantiomeric odor pairs is indeed due to differences in odor quality. Analysis of structure-activity relationships suggest that the combined presence of (i). an isopropenyl group at the chiral center; (ii). a methyl group at the para-position; and/or (iii). an oxygen-containing group at the meta-position allows for the discrimination of enantiomeric odor pairs.

  3. Discriminative stimulus properties of amphetamine in a conditioned taste aversion paradigm.

    PubMed

    Herrera, F M; Velazquez Martinez, D N

    1997-10-01

    It has been proposed that the conditioned taste aversion paradigm may be used to achieve rapid training of subjects in drug discrimination studies. We report here that amphetamine (1.0 mg/kg) may acquire discriminative control over the preference of rats for a distinctive flavour when its administration precedes access to a saccharin solution (0.15% w/v), versus the occasions when the injection of saline precedes no toxicosis after access to the same flavour. Other doses of amphetamine (0.18-1.0 mg/kg) or apomorphine (0.1-1.0 mg/kg) produced a dose-dependent generalization to the stimulus cue of amphetamine (1.0 mg/kg), and haloperidol (0.01-0.1 mg/kg) was able to prevent the stimulus control exerted by amphetamine. No stimulus control was seen in a control group where no distinctive outcomes followed the administration of either amphetamine or saline before the subjects had access to the saccharin-flavoured solution. In the experimental group only, changes in the preference for saccharin were observed, with no changes in the total amount of water and saccharin ingested. Taken together, the present results suggest the usefulness of the conditioned taste aversion procedure to train subjects in drug discrimination.

  4. Comparison of Pavlovian serial conditional discrimination in rats and hamsters in the same experimental situation.

    PubMed

    Bueno, J L; Figueiredo, T H; Mello, F M

    2001-12-01

    The present study compares behavioral changes between two distinct rodent groups, hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) and Wistar rats, when submitted in the same homogeneous experimental situations to a serial conditional discrimination procedure which involves water deprivation and the processing of temporal variables. Both hamsters and rats acquired serial positive conditional discrimination as indicated by higher frequencies of magazine-oriented behavior during the tone followed by reinforcement (T+) and preceded by the feature stimulus light (L) and during the empty interval, than during the tone alone not followed by reinforcement (T-). Rats' frequencies of magazine-oriented behavior were high during T+ and T-, initially during training, and decreased during T- as the training progressed. However, the hamsters' frequencies of magazine-oriented behavior started very low and increased only during T+ as the training progressed. Comparison of the frequencies of magazine-oriented behavior during the empty interval in relation to the frequencies during the preceding L period showed that rats' frequencies remained very high and hamsters' frequencies increased during training. These results suggest that rats and hamsters have different behavioral strategies for the acquisition of a conditional discrimination. The results of the comparisons made in these experiments support the view of the importance of an ecological psychology approach to the understanding of complex learning in animals.

  5. Metabolic and Signaling Alterations in Dystrophin-Deficient Hearts Precede Overt Cardiomyopathy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cytoskeletal protein dystrophin has been implicated in hereditary and acquired forms of cardiomyopathy. However, much remains to be learned about the role of dystrophin in the heart. We hypothesized that the dystrophin-deficient heart displays early alterations in energy metabolism that precede ...

  6. Reduced Activation of Left Orbitofrontal Cortex Precedes Blocked Vocalization: A Magnetoencephalographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowman, Paul F.; Crain, Stephen; Harrison, Elisabeth; Johnson, Blake W.

    2012-01-01

    While stuttering is known to be characterized by anomalous brain activations during speech, very little data is available describing brain activations during stuttering. To our knowledge there are no reports describing brain activations that precede blocking. In this case report we present magnetoencephalographic data from a person who stutters…

  7. Application of the PRECEDE Model to Understanding Mental Health Promoting Behaviors in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mo, Phoenix K. H.; Mak, Winnie W. S.

    2008-01-01

    The burdens related to mental illness have been increasingly recognized in many countries. Nevertheless, research in positive mental health behaviors remains scarce. This study utilizes the Predisposing, Reinforcing, and Enabling Causes in Education Diagnosis and Evaluation (PRECEDE) model to identify factors associated with mental health…

  8. Parafoveal Processing of Word n + 2 during Reading: Do the Preceding Words Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angele, Bernhard; Rayner, Keith

    2011-01-01

    We used the boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975) to test two hypotheses that might explain why no conclusive evidence has been found for the existence of n + 2 preprocessing effects. In Experiment 1, we tested whether parafoveal processing of the second word to the right of fixation (n + 2) takes place only when the preceding word (n + 1) is very…

  9. Self-Efficacy, Goal Orientations and Learning Strategies as Mediators between Preceding and Subsequent Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diseth, Age

    2011-01-01

    High school grade point average (HSGPA), self-efficacy, goal orientations, learning strategies, and examination grade were measured in a sample of Norwegian undergraduate psychology students in order to investigate motives and strategies as mediators between preceding and subsequent academic achievement. Correlation analysis showed strong…

  10. 20 CFR 410.681 - Change of ruling or legal precedent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change of ruling or legal precedent. 410.681 Section 410.681 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT..., Administrative Review, Finality of Decisions, and Representation of Parties § 410.681 Change of ruling or...

  11. Effects of Age and Hearing Loss on Gap Detection and the Precedence Effect: Broadband Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Richard A.; Lister, Jennifer J.

    2004-01-01

    Older listeners with normal-hearing sensitivity and impaired-hearing sensitivity often demonstrate poorer-than-normal performance on tasks of speech understanding in noise and reverberation. Deficits in temporal resolution and in the precedence effect may underlie this difficulty. Temporal resolution is often studied by means of a gap-detection…

  12. Female Genital Cutting: Applying the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model To Understand the Incentives for the Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabbagh, Leila

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the practice of female circumcision and the significance of considering social, cultural, economic, and educational opportunities available to females in developing countries when creating intervention programs to help end this practice. The PRECEDE-PROCEED model is a tool that can assess various elements present in a girls' life that…

  13. Applying PRECEDE-PROCEED to Develop an Intuitive Eating Nondieting Approach to Weight Management Pilot Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Renee E.; Horacek, Tanya

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe the use of a consolidated version of the PRECEDE-PROCEED participatory program planning model to collaboratively design an intuitive eating program with Fort Drum military spouses tailored to their readiness to reject the dieting mentality and make healthful lifestyle modifications. Design: A consolidated version of…

  14. Age Differences in Understanding Precedent-Setting Decisions and Authorities' Responses to Violations of Deontic Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaczynski, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    To examine age trends in precedent-setting decisions and the effects of these decisions on perceptions of authorities, preadolescents and adolescents were presented with deontic rule infractions that occurred in the absence or presence of mitigating circumstances. In Study 1, in the absence of mitigating circumstances, adolescents recommended…

  15. 26 CFR 1.672(d)-1 - Power subject to condition precedent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the exercise of the power is subject to a precedent giving of notice or takes effect only after the... creates a trust for the benefit of his son and retains a power to revoke which takes effect only after the... not cause him to be treated as an owner with respect to ordinary income during the first 10 years...

  16. [Evaluation of severity of harm to health caused by trauma aggravating a preceding disease].

    PubMed

    Kapustin, A V

    2003-01-01

    A severity of damage made to the health condition by an injury aggravating a preceding pathology is under discussion. It was demonstrated that such criteria as the time period of temporary disablement as well as the permanent disablement ensure, with respect for clinical data, an objective assessment of a severity done to the health in the discussed cases.

  17. Reconciling findings of emotion-induced memory enhancement and impairment of preceding items

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Marisa; Mather, Mara

    2009-01-01

    A large body of work reveals that people remember emotionally arousing information better than neutral information. However, previous research reveals contradictory effects of emotional events on memory for neutral events that precede or follow them: in some studies emotionally arousing items impair memory for immediately preceding or following items and in others arousing items enhance memory for preceding items. By demonstrating both emotion-induced enhancement and impairment, Experiments 1 and 2 clarified the conditions under which these effects are likely to occur. The results suggest that emotion-induced enhancement is most likely to occur for neutral items that: (1) precede (and so are poised to predict the onset of) emotionally arousing items, (2) have high attentional weights at encoding, and (3) are tested after a delay period of a week rather than within the same experiment session. In contrast, emotion-induced impairment is most likely to occur for neutral items near the onset of emotional arousal that are overshadowed by highly activated competing items during encoding. PMID:20001121

  18. Using the PRECEDE Model for Causal Analysis of Bulimic Tendencies among Elite Women Swimmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, RoseAnn; Taub, Diane E.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a study of weight control techniques and bulimic tendencies among elite female participants in an Olympic Swimming Selection Meet. Results showed concern with thinness, body dissatisfaction, and unhealthy eating, dieting, and weight loss patterns among participants. Discusses the explanatory power of the PRECEDE model. (SM)

  19. 48 CFR 52.214-29 - Order of Precedence-Sealed Bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Order of Precedence-Sealed Bidding. 52.214-29 Section 52.214-29 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION...: Order of Precedence—Sealed Bidding (JAN 1986) Any inconsistency in this solicitation or contract...

  20. 48 CFR 52.214-29 - Order of Precedence-Sealed Bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Order of Precedence-Sealed Bidding. 52.214-29 Section 52.214-29 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION...: Order of Precedence—Sealed Bidding (JAN 1986) Any inconsistency in this solicitation or contract...

  1. 48 CFR 52.214-29 - Order of Precedence-Sealed Bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Order of Precedence-Sealed Bidding. 52.214-29 Section 52.214-29 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION...: Order of Precedence—Sealed Bidding (JAN 1986) Any inconsistency in this solicitation or contract...

  2. Ancient Uses of Meteoritic Metals as Precedent for Modern In-Situ Asteroid Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardon, Austin A.; Fawcett, Brett; Krispin, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Given the strain on earth's supply of metal and the meteoritic content of meteorites, a prudent course would be to pursue in-situ asteroid mining of meteors for metal. There is a precedent for this going back to ancient Egypt; humans have always used the meteoritic content of meteorites to fashion everything from weapons to cosmetics.

  3. Postwar Era Precedents and the Ambivalent Quest for International Students at the University of Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzian, Sevan G.; Osborne, Leigh Ann

    2006-01-01

    The number of international students studying at U.S. institutions of higher education in the 2003-2004 academic year dropped for the first time in more than three decades. New visa restrictions and international tensions in the wake of September 11, 2001, have been cited as central factors. This article identifies historical precedents from the…

  4. Effect of Personnel Change on Supreme Court Use of Precedent in Freedom of Expression Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Thomas A.; Warrick, Kathleen

    To test the findings of a 1981 study, which concluded that the Supreme Court of Chief Justice Warren Burger has attempted to reverse the liberal policies of the court presided over by Earl Warren by adopting a policy of ignoring precedent, a second study duplicated the earlier study's general research design, except that it focused on freedom of…

  5. Strategy Precedes Operational Effectiveness: Aligning High Graduation Rankings with Competitive Graduation Grade Point Averages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apprey, Maurice; Bassett, Kimberley C.; Preston-Grimes, Patrice; Lewis, Dion W.; Wood, Beverly

    2014-01-01

    Two pivotal and interconnected claims are addressed in this article. First, strategy precedes program effectiveness. Second, graduation rates and rankings are insufficient in any account of academic progress for African American students. In this article, graduation is regarded as the floor and not the ceiling, as it were. The ideal situation in…

  6. Benzodiazepine-like discriminative stimulus effects of toluene vapor

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Keith L.; Nicholson, Katherine L.

    2013-01-01

    In vitro studies show that the abused inhalant toluene affects a number of ligand-gated ion channels. The two most consistently implicated of these are γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors which are positively modulated by toluene and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors which are negatively modulated by toluene. Behavioral studies also suggest an interaction of toluene with GABAA and/or NMDA receptors but it is unclear if these receptors underlie the abuse-related intoxicating effects of toluene. Seventeen B6SJLF1/J mice were trained using a two-choice operant drug discrimination procedure to discriminate 10 min of exposure to 2000 ppm toluene vapor from 10 min of exposure to air. The discrimination was acquired in a mean of 65 training sessions. The stimulus effects of 2000 ppm toluene vapor were exposure concentration-dependent but rapidly diminished following the cessation of vapor exposure. The stimulus effects of toluene generalized to the chlorinated hydrocarbon vapor perchloroethylene but not 1,1,2-trichloroethane nor the volatile anesthetic isoflurane. The competitive NMDA antagonist CGS-17955, the uncompetitive antagonist dizocilpine and the glycine-site antagonist L701,324 all failed to substitute for toluene. The classical nonselective benzodiazepines midazolam and chlordiazepoxide produced toluene-like stimulus effects but the alpha 1 subunit preferring positive GABAA modulator zaleplon failed to substitute for toluene. The barbiturates pentobarbital and methohexital and the GABAA-positive modulator neurosteroid allopregnanolone did not substitute for toluene. These data suggest that the stimulus effects of toluene may be at least partially mediated by benzodiazepine-like positive allosteric modulation of GABAA receptors containing alpha 2, 3 or 5 subunits. PMID:24436974

  7. Discriminant Analysis for Content Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John H., Jr.

    A series of experiments was performed to investigate the effectiveness and utility of automatically classifying documents through the use of multiple discriminant functions. Classification is accomplished by computing the distance from the mean vector of each category to the vector of observed frequencies of a document and assigning the document…

  8. Macaque Monkeys Discriminate Pitch Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosch, Michael; Selezneva, Elena; Bucks, Cornelia; Scheich, Henning

    2004-01-01

    This study demonstrates that non-human primates can categorize the direction of the pitch change of tones in a sequence. Two "Macaca fascicularis" were trained in a positive-reinforcement behavioral paradigm in which they listened to sequences of a variable number of different acoustic items. The training of discriminating pitch direction was…

  9. Experiencing discrimination increases risk taking.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Jeremy P; Koslov, Katrina; Nock, Matthew K; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2013-02-01

    Prior research has revealed racial disparities in health outcomes and health-compromising behaviors, such as smoking and drug abuse. It has been suggested that discrimination contributes to such disparities, but the mechanisms through which this might occur are not well understood. In the research reported here, we examined whether the experience of discrimination affects acute physiological stress responses and increases risk-taking behavior. Black and White participants each received rejecting feedback from partners who were either of their own race (in-group rejection) or of a different race (out-group rejection, which could be interpreted as discrimination). Physiological (cardiovascular and neuroendocrine) changes, cognition (memory and attentional bias), affect, and risk-taking behavior were assessed. Significant participant race × partner race interactions were observed. Cross-race rejection, compared with same-race rejection, was associated with lower levels of cortisol, increased cardiac output, decreased vascular resistance, greater anger, increased attentional bias, and more risk-taking behavior. These data suggest that perceived discrimination is associated with distinct profiles of physiological reactivity, affect, cognitive processing, and risk taking, implicating direct and indirect pathways to health disparities.

  10. Spatial layout affects speed discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verghese, P.; Stone, L. S.

    1997-01-01

    We address a surprising result in a previous study of speed discrimination with multiple moving gratings: discrimination thresholds decreased when the number of stimuli was increased, but remained unchanged when the area of a single stimulus was increased [Verghese & Stone (1995). Vision Research, 35, 2811-2823]. In this study, we manipulated the spatial- and phase relationship between multiple grating patches to determine their effect on speed discrimination thresholds. In a fusion experiment, we merged multiple stimulus patches, in stages, into a single patch. Thresholds increased as the patches were brought closer and their phase relationship was adjusted to be consistent with a single patch. Thresholds increased further still as these patches were fused into a single patch. In a fission experiment, we divided a single large patch into multiple patches by superimposing a cross with luminance equal to that of the background. Thresholds decreased as the large patch was divided into quadrants and decreased further as the quadrants were maximally separated. However, when the cross luminance was darker than the background, it was perceived as an occluder and thresholds, on average, were unchanged from that for the single large patch. A control experiment shows that the observed trend in discrimination thresholds is not due to the differences in perceived speed of the stimuli. These results suggest that the parsing of the visual image into entities affects the combination of speed information across space, and that each discrete entity effectively provides a single independent estimate of speed.

  11. Haptic Visual Discrimination and Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarron, Lawrence; Horn, Paul W.

    1979-01-01

    The Haptic Visual Discrimination Test of tactual-visual information processing was administered to 39 first-graders, along with standard intelligence, academic potential, and spatial integration tests. Results revealed consistently significant associations between the importance of parieto-occipital areas for organizing sensory data as well as for…

  12. Discrimination of petroleum fluorescence spectra.

    PubMed

    Stelmaszewski, Adam

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents studies of the total spectra (fluorescence-excitation matrix) of petroleum with regard to the utilization of fluorescence for determining petroleum pollutants. Thorough testing of one group, comprising almost forty lubricating oils in the form of their hexane solutions, points out their discrimination.

  13. Preferential Remedies for Employment Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry T.; Zaretsky, Barry L.

    1975-01-01

    An overview of the problem of preferential remedies to achieve equal employment opportunities for women and minority groups. Contends that "color blindness" will not end discrimination but that some form of "color conscious" affirmative action program must be employed. Temporary preferential treatment is justified, according to…

  14. Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark C.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews court cases in 1999 related to disability discrimination in higher education focusing on the Americans with Disabilities Act and section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. The "Garrett" case regarding Eleventh Amendment immunity is the case most likely to be significant in the development of the law of disability…

  15. Visualization of Term Discrimination Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jin; Wolfram, Dietmar

    2001-01-01

    Discusses information visualization techniques and introduces a visual term discrimination value analysis method using a document density space within a distance-angle-based visual information retrieval environment. Explains that applications of these methods facilitate more effective assignment of term weights to index terms within documents and…

  16. Height changes in the epicentral region preceding the January 17, 1994 Northridge earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castle, Robert O.; Packard, Robert F.; Dinitz, Laura B.

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of the results of repeated levelings through the epicentral region of the Mw 6.7, 1994 Northridge earthquake has disclosed the occurrence of differential uplift in this area that preceded the earthquake. Although the distribution of the relevant vertical-control data is somewhat sparse, in both space and time, those data that we have recovered indicate that this uplift exceeded 0.10 m and peaked 20-25 km west of the 1994 epicenter. While our data also indicate that this deformational event must have occurred during the period 1978-1989, evidence based on the character and magnitude of misclosures developed from 1987 and 1989 surveys argue that the deformation occurred largely during the period 1987-1989. The preseismic vertical-displacement field that preceded the Northridge earthquake is similar in form and, less certainly, magnitude to that which preceded the Mw 6.7, 1971 San Fernando earthquake; other possible, but less significant southern California analogues include the deformational events that preceded the Mw 5.3, 1973 Point Mugu and Mw 5.9, 1987 Whittier Narrows earthquakes. The small but growing number of recognized aseismic deformational episodes that preceded small to moderate magnitude earthquakes in southern California suggests that the deployment of the dense array of continuously recording GPS receivers planned for southern California can be expected to detect and more accurately describe such events than was heretofore possible. Moreover, if the relation between the duration of these deformational anomalies and the magnitudes of any ensuing earthquakes can be much more clearly established, the near perfect temporal control on position afforded by GPS suggests that we may be on the threshold of a realistic earthquake warning system.

  17. Failed supernovae explain the compact remnant mass function

    SciTech Connect

    Kochanek, C. S.

    2014-04-10

    One explanation for the absence of higher mass red supergiants (16.5 M {sub ☉} ≲ M ≲ 25 M {sub ☉}) as the progenitors of Type IIP supernovae (SNe) is that they die in failed SNe creating black holes. Simulations show that such failed SNe still eject their hydrogen envelopes in a weak transient, leaving a black hole with the mass of the star's helium core (5-8 M {sub ☉}). Here we show that this naturally explains the typical masses of observed black holes and the gap between neutron star and black hole masses without any fine-tuning of stellar mass loss, binary mass transfer, or the SN mechanism, beyond having it fail in a mass range where many progenitor models have density structures that make the explosions more likely to fail. There is no difficulty including this ∼20% population of failed SNe in any accounting of SN types over the progenitor mass function. And, other than patience, there is no observational barrier to either detecting these black hole formation events or limiting their rates to be well below this prediction.

  18. Thermal analysis of the failed equipment storage vault system

    SciTech Connect

    Jerrell, J.; Lee, S.Y.; Shadday, A.

    1995-07-01

    A storage facility for failed glass melters is required for radioactive operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). It is currently proposed that the failed melters be stored in the Failed Equipment Storage Vaults (FESV`s) in S area. The FESV`s are underground reinforced concrete structures constructed in pairs, with adjacent vaults sharing a common wall. A failed melter is to be placed in a steel Melter Storage Box (MSB), sealed, and lowered into the vault. A concrete lid is then placed over the top of the FESV. Two melters will be placed within the FESV/MSB system, separated by the common wall. There is no forced ventilation within the vault so that the melter is passively cooled. Temperature profiles in the Failed Equipment Storage Vault Structures have been generated using the FLOW3D software to model heat conduction and convection within the FESV/MSB system. Due to complexities in modeling radiation with FLOW3D, P/THERMAL software has been used to model radiation using the conduction/convection temperature results from FLOW3D. The final conjugate model includes heat transfer by conduction, convection, and radiation to predict steady-state temperatures. Also, the FLOW3D software has been validated as required by the technical task request.

  19. Legitimating Racial Discrimination: Emotions, Not Beliefs, Best Predict Discrimination in a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Talaska, Cara A.; Chaiken, Shelly

    2013-01-01

    Investigations of racial bias have emphasized stereotypes and other beliefs as central explanatory mechanisms and as legitimating discrimination. In recent theory and research, emotional prejudices have emerged as another, more direct predictor of discrimination. A new comprehensive meta-analysis of 57 racial attitude-discrimination studies finds a moderate relationship between overall attitudes and discrimination. Emotional prejudices are twices as closely related to racial discrimination as stereotypes and beliefs are. Moreover, emotional prejudices are closely related to both observed and self-reported discrimination, whereas stereotypes and beliefs are related only to self-reported discrimination. Implications for justifying discrimination are discussed. PMID:24052687

  20. Legitimating Racial Discrimination: Emotions, Not Beliefs, Best Predict Discrimination in a Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Talaska, Cara A; Fiske, Susan T; Chaiken, Shelly

    2008-09-01

    Investigations of racial bias have emphasized stereotypes and other beliefs as central explanatory mechanisms and as legitimating discrimination. In recent theory and research, emotional prejudices have emerged as another, more direct predictor of discrimination. A new comprehensive meta-analysis of 57 racial attitude-discrimination studies finds a moderate relationship between overall attitudes and discrimination. Emotional prejudices are twices as closely related to racial discrimination as stereotypes and beliefs are. Moreover, emotional prejudices are closely related to both observed and self-reported discrimination, whereas stereotypes and beliefs are related only to self-reported discrimination. Implications for justifying discrimination are discussed.

  1. Discrimination learning with light stimuli in restrained American lobster.

    PubMed

    Tomina, Yusuke; Takahata, Masakazu

    2012-04-01

    Operant discrimination learning has been extensively utilized in the study on the perceptual ability of animals and their higher order brain functions. We tested in this study whether American lobster Homarus americanus, which was previously found to possess ability of operant learning with claw gripping, could be trained to discriminate light stimuli of different intensities. For the current purpose, we newly developed a PC-controlled operant chamber that allowed the animal under a body-fixed condition to perform operant reward learning with claw gripping. Lobsters were first reinforced when they gripped the sensor bar upon presentation of a light cue. Then they were trained to grip the bar only when the light stimulus of a specific intensity was presented to obtain food reward while the stimuli of three different intensities including the reinforced one were presented in a random order. Finally, they were re-trained to grip the bar only when the light stimulus of another intensity that was not rewarded in the preceding training to obtain food while other intensities including the one that was rewarded previously were not rewarded any more. In these training procedures, the operant behavior occurred more frequently in response to the rewarded cue than to the non-rewarded one. The action latency for the reinforced stimuli showed a significant decrease in the course of training. These data demonstrate that lobsters can be trained with the light cues of different intensity as discriminative stimuli under a restrained condition that would allow application of electrophysiological techniques to the behaving subjects.

  2. Effects of the Nanoparticle-Based Vaccine, SEL-068, on Nicotine Discrimination in Squirrel Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Rajeev I; Bergman, Jack

    2015-01-01

    A key feature of addiction to nicotine likely resides in its ability to produce subjective effects that, in turn, may be reflected in its discriminative-stimulus properties. Vaccination against such effects of nicotine offers an intriguing therapeutic approach for smoking cessation, but a reliably effective and immunologically safe vaccine remains to be identified. Here we report on the ability of SEL-068, a nanoparticle-based vaccine that targets nicotine, to modify the discriminative-stimulus effects of nicotine in a primate species. Results indicate that squirrel monkeys vaccinated with SEL-068 failed to acquire 0.1 mg/kg nicotine discrimination but readily learned to discriminate 0.001 mg/kg of the nicotinic full agonist (+)-epibatidine ((+)-EPI). After (+)-EPI training, doses of nicotine ⩾0.32 mg/kg, which produced behaviorally adverse actions, still failed to substitute for the (+)-EPI training stimulus in immunized monkeys, whereas (+)-EPI and the partial agonist varenicline engendered, respectively, complete and partial substitution in all monkeys with potency comparable to their potency in non-immunized subjects. In other subjects, nicotine was trained as a discriminative-stimulus and then replaced by (+)-EPI. Subsequent vaccination with SEL-068 led to a threefold and long-lasting (>30 weeks) decrease in the potency of nicotine but not (+)-EPI or varenicline. Collectively, our results show that SEL-068 can block the development of nicotine discrimination and attenuate nicotine's effects in nicotine-experienced monkeys without altering the discriminative-stimulus properties of other nicotinic drugs. The difference in the vaccine's effects in naive and nicotine-experienced subjects provides important insight into the conditions under which immunotherapy may be effective in combating nicotine addiction. PMID:25742871

  3. Hatred in the Hallways: Violence and Discrimination against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Students in U.S. Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Health Education, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Local, state, and federal governments fail to protect homosexual, bisexual, and transgender students from human rights violations (harassment, violence, and deprivation of the right to education). State authorities must: end discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity; compel school officials to protect all students from…

  4. Failed MTR Fuel Element Detect in a Sipping Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Zeituni, C.A.; Terremoto, L.A.A.; da Silva, J.E.R.

    2004-10-06

    This work describes sipping tests performed on Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements of the IEA-R1 research reactor, in order to find out which one failed in the core during a routine operation. Radioactive iodine isotopes {sup 131}I and {sup 133}I, employed as failure monitors, were detected in samples corresponding to the failed fuel element. The specific activity of each sample, as well as the average leaking rate, were measured for {sup 137}Cs. The nuclear fuels U{sub 3}O{sub 8} - Al dispersion and U - Al alloy were compared concerning their measured average leaking rates of {sup 137}Cs.

  5. Global precedence, spatial frequency channels, and the statistics of natural images.

    PubMed

    Hughes, H C; Nozawa, G; Kitterle, F

    1996-01-01

    A great deal of evidence suggests that early in processing, retinal images are filtered by parallel, spatial frequency selective channels. We attempt to incorporate this view of early vision with the principle of global precedence, which holds that Gestalt-like processes sensitive to global image configurations tend to dominate local feature processing in human pattern perception. Global precedence is inferred from the pattern of reaction times observed when visual patterns contain multiple cues at different levels of spatial scale. Specifically, it is frequently observed that global processing times are largely unaffected by conflicting local cues, but local processing times are substantially lengthened by conflicting global cues. The asymmetry of these effects suggests the dominant role of global configurations. Since global spatial information is effectively represented by low spatial frequencies, global precedence potentially implies a low frequency dominance. The thesis is that low spatial frequencies tend to be available before information carried by higher frequency bands, producing a coarse-to-fine temporal order in visual spatial perception. It is suggested that a variety of factors contribute to the "prior entry" of low frequency information, including the high contrast gain of the magnocellular pathway, the amplitude spectra typical of natural images, and inhibitory interactions between the parallel frequency-tuned channels. Evidence suggesting a close relationship between global precedence and spatial frequency channels is provided by observations that the essential features of the global precedence effect are obtained using patterns consisting of low and high frequency sinusoids. The hypothesis that these asymmetric interference effects are due to interactions between parallel spatial channels is supported by an analysis of reaction times (RTs), which shows that RTs to redundant low and high frequency cues produce less facilitation than predictions

  6. 14 CFR 1250.103 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 1250.103 Section 1250.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN... Discrimination prohibited....

  7. 14 CFR 1250.103 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1250.103 Section 1250.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN... Discrimination prohibited....

  8. 14 CFR 1250.103 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1250.103 Section 1250.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN... Discrimination prohibited....

  9. Racial Discrimination in the British Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firth, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Contains results of a study of racial discrimination in the British job market for accountants and financial executives. Results show that considerable discrimination remains several years after the adoption of the Race Relations Act of 1968. (CT)

  10. 14 CFR 1250.103 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1250.103 Section 1250.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN... Discrimination prohibited....

  11. Discriminating between Graduates and Failure in the USAF Medical Laboratory Specialist School: An Explorative Approach.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    graduation or failure. In the second, a Baysian adjustment of the probability was made to the a priori probabilities of group membership [Cooley and Lohnes...priori odds of graduating or failing is known, a Baysian adjustment can be made to the classification equations so that this knowledge can be taken into...linear discriminant function and the Baysian taxonomic procedure. J. of Exp. Ed., 43 (2): 56-62. Porter, L. W., Steers, R. M. 1973. Organizational, work

  12. Kernel Optimization in Discriminant Analysis

    PubMed Central

    You, Di; Hamsici, Onur C.; Martinez, Aleix M.

    2011-01-01

    Kernel mapping is one of the most used approaches to intrinsically derive nonlinear classifiers. The idea is to use a kernel function which maps the original nonlinearly separable problem to a space of intrinsically larger dimensionality where the classes are linearly separable. A major problem in the design of kernel methods is to find the kernel parameters that make the problem linear in the mapped representation. This paper derives the first criterion that specifically aims to find a kernel representation where the Bayes classifier becomes linear. We illustrate how this result can be successfully applied in several kernel discriminant analysis algorithms. Experimental results using a large number of databases and classifiers demonstrate the utility of the proposed approach. The paper also shows (theoretically and experimentally) that a kernel version of Subclass Discriminant Analysis yields the highest recognition rates. PMID:20820072

  13. 29 CFR 34.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 34.3 Section 34.3 Labor Office... Discrimination prohibited. No individual in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color, religion, sex... discrimination under, or denied employment in the administration of or in connection with any JTPA-funded...

  14. 6 CFR 21.5 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 21.5 Section 21.5... FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY § 21.5 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, any program...

  15. 45 CFR 1170.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1170.21 Section 1170.21... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Employment Practices § 1170.21 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in...

  16. 7 CFR 15b.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.4 Section 15b.4... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 15b.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  17. 29 CFR 500.9 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 500.9 Section 500.9 Labor... SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION General Provisions § 500.9 Discrimination prohibited. (a) It is a... Secretary alleging such discrimination....

  18. 29 CFR 500.9 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 500.9 Section 500.9 Labor... SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION General Provisions § 500.9 Discrimination prohibited. (a) It is a... Secretary alleging such discrimination....

  19. 29 CFR 501.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 501.4 Section 501.4 Labor... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT General Provisions § 501.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) A person may not... discrimination against any person under paragraph (a) of this section will be investigated by the WHD. Where...

  20. 7 CFR 15d.2 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15d.2 Section 15d.2... THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE § 15d.2 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No agency, officer... participation in, deny the benefits of, or subject to discrimination any person in the United States under...

  1. 45 CFR 84.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.4 Section 84.4... § 84.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of... discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance. (b)...

  2. 7 CFR 15d.2 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15d.2 Section 15d.2... THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE § 15d.2 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No agency, officer... participation in, deny the benefits of, or subject to discrimination any person in the United States under...

  3. 45 CFR 84.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.11 Section 84.11... § 84.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which...

  4. 22 CFR 217.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.21 Section 217... Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities within the... excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  5. 14 CFR 1251.300 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1251.300 Section... OF HANDICAP Accessibility § 1251.300 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall... benefits of, be excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under...

  6. 34 CFR 104.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.4 Section 104.4... ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 104.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal...

  7. 24 CFR 8.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.4... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT General Provisions § 8.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No... in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  8. 6 CFR 21.5 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 21.5 Section 21.5... FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY § 21.5 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, any program...

  9. 24 CFR 6.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 6.4... COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT ACT OF 1974 General Provisions § 6.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) Section 109... benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity funded in whole or in...

  10. 38 CFR 18.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 General § 18.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to...

  11. 45 CFR 84.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.21 Section 84.21... Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities are... in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which this...

  12. 22 CFR 209.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 209.4 Section 209.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NON-DISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS... § 209.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the grounds...

  13. 38 CFR 18.421 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Accessibility § 18.421 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's... from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  14. 38 CFR 18.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 General § 18.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to...

  15. 45 CFR 605.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.21 Section 605.21... Accessibility § 605.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's... from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  16. 45 CFR 1110.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1110.3 Section 1110.3... HUMANITIES GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS § 1110.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a... from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected, to discrimination...

  17. 22 CFR 209.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 209.4 Section 209.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NON-DISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS... § 209.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the grounds...

  18. 45 CFR 1110.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1110.3 Section 1110.3... HUMANITIES GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS § 1110.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a... from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected, to discrimination...

  19. 43 CFR 27.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 27.3 Section 27... ISSUED UNDER TITLE II OF PUBLIC LAW 93-153 § 27.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person shall... through contractual or other arrangements, subject an individual to discrimination on the grounds of...

  20. 7 CFR 15.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15.3 Section 15.3... Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color, or... discrimination under any program or activity of the applicant or recipient to which these regulations...

  1. 45 CFR 605.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.21 Section 605.21... Accessibility § 605.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's... from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  2. 14 CFR 380.26 - Discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination. 380.26 Section 380.26... REGULATIONS PUBLIC CHARTERS Requirements Applicable to Charter Operators § 380.26 Discrimination. No charter... unjust discrimination or any undue or unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage in any respect whatsoever....

  3. 22 CFR 142.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.4 Section 142.4... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 142.4 Discrimination... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  4. 49 CFR 21.5 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 21.5 Section 21.5... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 21.5 Discrimination... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited:...

  5. 49 CFR 374.101 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 374.101 Section 374.101... REGULATIONS Discrimination in Operations of Interstate Motor Common Carriers of Passengers § 374.101 Discrimination prohibited. No motor common carrier of passengers subject to 49 U.S.C. subtitle IV, part B...

  6. 28 CFR 42.503 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.503 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 General Provisions § 42.503 Discrimination... from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under...

  7. 18 CFR 1307.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination... NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO HANDICAP § 1307.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which this part applies....

  8. 38 CFR 18.421 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Accessibility § 18.421 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's... from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  9. 45 CFR 84.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.4 Section 84.4... § 84.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of... discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance. (b)...

  10. 45 CFR 80.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 80.3 Section 80.3... TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 80.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to...

  11. 22 CFR 217.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.11 Section 217... Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which this part applies. (2)...

  12. 15 CFR 8.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.4 Section... General Provisions; Prohibitions: Nondiscrimination Clause; Applicability to Programs § 8.4 Discrimination... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory acts prohibited. (1)...

  13. 28 CFR 42.520 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.520 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Accessibility § 42.520 Discrimination prohibited... participation in, or otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving...

  14. 34 CFR 104.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.21 Section 104.21... ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 104.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a... excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  15. 6 CFR 21.5 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 21.5 Section 21.5... FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY § 21.5 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, any program...

  16. 7 CFR 15b.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.4 Section 15b.4... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 15b.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  17. 49 CFR 27.7 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 27.7 Section 27.7... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General § 27.7 Discrimination prohibited. (a... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  18. 50 CFR 3.1 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 3.1 Section 3.1... PROVISIONS NONDISCRIMINATION-CONTRACTS, PERMITS, AND USE OF FACILITIES § 3.1 Discrimination prohibited. No..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to any form of discrimination or...

  19. 38 CFR 18.411 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Practices § 18.411 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to...

  20. 28 CFR 42.203 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.203 Section...) of the Justice System Improvement Act of 1979 § 42.203 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No person in... participation in, be denied the benefits of, be subjected to discrimination under, or denied employment...

  1. 45 CFR 605.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.11 Section 605.11... Employment Practices § 605.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program...

  2. 22 CFR 209.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 209.4 Section 209.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NON-DISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS... § 209.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the grounds...

  3. 45 CFR 605.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.21 Section 605.21... Accessibility § 605.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's... from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  4. 22 CFR 217.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.21 Section 217... Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities within the... excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  5. 15 CFR 8.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.4 Section... General Provisions; Prohibitions: Nondiscrimination Clause; Applicability to Programs § 8.4 Discrimination... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory acts prohibited. (1)...

  6. 34 CFR 104.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.4 Section 104.4... ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 104.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal...

  7. 29 CFR 502.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 502.3 Section 502.3 Labor... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT (SUSPENDED 6-29-2009) General Provisions § 502.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a... Department regulation promulgated pursuant to sec. 218 of the INA. (b) Allegations of discrimination...

  8. 10 CFR 1040.63 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.63 Section 1040.63 Energy... Provisions § 1040.63 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity that receives Federal financial assistance...

  9. 49 CFR 27.7 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 27.7 Section 27.7... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General § 27.7 Discrimination prohibited. (a... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  10. 50 CFR 3.1 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 3.1 Section 3.1... PROVISIONS NONDISCRIMINATION-CONTRACTS, PERMITS, AND USE OF FACILITIES § 3.1 Discrimination prohibited. No..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to any form of discrimination or...

  11. 15 CFR 8b.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.11 Section 8b.11 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Practices § 8b.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped individual shall,...

  12. 49 CFR 374.101 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 374.101 Section 374.101... REGULATIONS Discrimination in Operations of Interstate Motor Common Carriers of Passengers § 374.101 Discrimination prohibited. No motor common carrier of passengers subject to 49 U.S.C. subtitle IV, part B...

  13. 49 CFR 27.7 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 27.7 Section 27.7... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General § 27.7 Discrimination prohibited. (a... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  14. 24 CFR 6.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 6.4... COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT ACT OF 1974 General Provisions § 6.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) Section 109... benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity funded in whole or in...

  15. 38 CFR 18.404 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Provisions § 18.404 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance....

  16. 34 CFR 104.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.4 Section 104.4... ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 104.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activitiy which receives Federal...

  17. 10 CFR 1040.71 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.71 Section 1040.71 Energy... § 1040.71 Discrimination prohibited. No handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities are... in, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity that receives or benefits...

  18. 14 CFR 271.9 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 271.9 Section... TRANSPORTATION § 271.9 Discrimination prohibited. (a) All air carriers receiving subsidy under this part shall comply with the following: (1) The Age Discrimination Act of 1975; (2) The Civil Rights Act of 1964...

  19. 14 CFR 271.9 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 271.9 Section... TRANSPORTATION § 271.9 Discrimination prohibited. (a) All air carriers receiving subsidy under this part shall comply with the following: (1) The Age Discrimination Act of 1975; (2) The Civil Rights Act of 1964...

  20. 49 CFR 27.7 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 27.7 Section 27.7... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General § 27.7 Discrimination prohibited. (a... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  1. 45 CFR 1110.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1110.3 Section 1110.3... HUMANITIES GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS § 1110.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a... from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected, to discrimination...

  2. 38 CFR 18.411 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Practices § 18.411 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to...

  3. 34 CFR 104.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.11 Section 104.11... ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 104.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program...

  4. 15 CFR 8.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.4 Section... General Provisions; Prohibitions: Nondiscrimination Clause; Applicability to Programs § 8.4 Discrimination... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory acts prohibited. (1)...

  5. 10 CFR 19.32 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 19.32 Section 19.32 Energy... § 19.32 Discrimination prohibited. No person shall on the grounds of sex be excluded from participation in, be denied a license, be denied the benefit of, or be subjected to discrimination under...

  6. 22 CFR 142.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.4 Section 142.4... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 142.4 Discrimination... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  7. 29 CFR 32.26 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 32.26 Section 32.26 Labor Office... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 32.26 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified... discrimination under any program or activity to which this part applies....

  8. 10 CFR 19.32 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 19.32 Section 19.32 Energy... § 19.32 Discrimination prohibited. No person shall on the grounds of sex be excluded from participation in, be denied a license, be denied the benefit of, or be subjected to discrimination under...

  9. 14 CFR 372.22 - Discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination. 372.22 Section 372.22... REGULATIONS OVERSEAS MILITARY PERSONNEL CHARTERS Conditions and Limitations § 372.22 Discrimination. No... any unjust discrimination or any undue or unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage in any...

  10. 38 CFR 18.404 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Provisions § 18.404 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance....

  11. 29 CFR 32.26 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 32.26 Section 32.26 Labor Office... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 32.26 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified... discrimination under any program or activity to which this part applies....

  12. 14 CFR 372.22 - Discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination. 372.22 Section 372.22... REGULATIONS OVERSEAS MILITARY PERSONNEL CHARTERS Conditions and Limitations § 372.22 Discrimination. No... any unjust discrimination or any undue or unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage in any...

  13. 7 CFR 15b.12 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.12 Section 15b.12... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 15b.12 Discrimination prohibited. (a... discrimination in employment under any program or activity receiving assistance from this Department. (2)...

  14. 45 CFR 1110.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1110.3 Section 1110.3... HUMANITIES GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS § 1110.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a... from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected, to discrimination...

  15. 43 CFR 27.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 27.3 Section 27... ISSUED UNDER TITLE II OF PUBLIC LAW 93-153 § 27.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person shall... through contractual or other arrangements, subject an individual to discrimination on the grounds of...

  16. 22 CFR 217.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.4 Section 217.4... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 217.4 Discrimination... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  17. 28 CFR 42.104 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.104 Section... Civil Rights Act of 1964 1 § 42.104 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United... denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which...

  18. 45 CFR 605.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.4 Section 605.4... Provisions § 605.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance....

  19. 10 CFR 1040.63 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.63 Section 1040.63 Energy... Provisions § 1040.63 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity that receives Federal financial assistance...

  20. 13 CFR 112.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 112.3... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 112.3 Discrimination... be otherwise subjected to discrimination by any business or other activity. (b)...

  1. 45 CFR 84.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.21 Section 84.21... Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities are... in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which this...

  2. 10 CFR 1040.13 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.13 Section 1040.13 Energy..., as Amended; and Section 401 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 § 1040.13 Discrimination... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this subpart...

  3. 38 CFR 18.404 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Provisions § 18.404 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance....

  4. 38 CFR 18.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 General § 18.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to...

  5. 45 CFR 1151.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1151.21 Section 1151.21... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited Accessibility § 1151.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall,...

  6. 5 CFR 950.110 - Prohibited discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prohibited discrimination. 950.110 Section 950.110 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... PRIVATE VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS General Provisions § 950.110 Prohibited discrimination. Discrimination...

  7. 13 CFR 112.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 112.3... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 112.3 Discrimination... be otherwise subjected to discrimination by any business or other activity. (b)...

  8. 45 CFR 84.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.21 Section 84.21... Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities are... in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which this...

  9. 10 CFR 19.32 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 19.32 Section 19.32 Energy... § 19.32 Discrimination prohibited. No person shall on the grounds of sex be excluded from participation in, be denied a license, be denied the benefit of, or be subjected to discrimination under...

  10. 14 CFR 1251.200 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1251.200 Section... OF HANDICAP Employment Practices § 1251.200 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under...

  11. 28 CFR 42.520 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.520 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Accessibility § 42.520 Discrimination prohibited... participation in, or otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving...

  12. 45 CFR 605.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.11 Section 605.11... Employment Practices § 605.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program...

  13. 15 CFR 8b.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.4 Section 8b.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Provisions § 8b.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped individual shall, on...

  14. 45 CFR 1151.31 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1151.31 Section 1151.31... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited Employment § 1151.31 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No qualified handicapped person shall, on...

  15. 29 CFR 32.26 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 32.26 Section 32.26 Labor Office... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 32.26 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified... discrimination under any program or activity to which this part applies....

  16. 22 CFR 142.15 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.15 Section 142... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 142.15 Discrimination... be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which the part applies....

  17. 28 CFR 42.104 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.104 Section... Civil Rights Act of 1964 1 § 42.104 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United... denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which...

  18. 28 CFR 42.520 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.520 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Accessibility § 42.520 Discrimination prohibited... participation in, or otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving...

  19. 45 CFR 84.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.21 Section 84.21... Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities are... in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which this...

  20. 22 CFR 142.15 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.15 Section 142... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 142.15 Discrimination... be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which the part applies....

  1. 50 CFR 3.1 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 3.1 Section 3.1... PROVISIONS NONDISCRIMINATION-CONTRACTS, PERMITS, AND USE OF FACILITIES § 3.1 Discrimination prohibited. No..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to any form of discrimination or...

  2. 34 CFR 104.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.4 Section 104.4... ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 104.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activitiy which receives Federal...

  3. 7 CFR 15b.12 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.12 Section 15b.12... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 15b.12 Discrimination prohibited. (a... discrimination in employment under any program or activity receiving assistance from this Department. (2)...

  4. 7 CFR 15b.12 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.12 Section 15b.12... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 15b.12 Discrimination prohibited. (a... discrimination in employment under any program or activity receiving assistance from this Department. (2)...

  5. 38 CFR 18.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 General § 18.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to...

  6. 45 CFR 80.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 80.3 Section 80.3... TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 80.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to...

  7. 45 CFR 605.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.4 Section 605.4... Provisions § 605.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance....

  8. 10 CFR 19.32 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 19.32 Section 19.32 Energy... § 19.32 Discrimination prohibited. No person shall on the grounds of sex be excluded from participation in, be denied a license, be denied the benefit of, or be subjected to discrimination under...

  9. 29 CFR 34.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 34.3 Section 34.3 Labor Office... Discrimination prohibited. No individual in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color, religion, sex... discrimination under, or denied employment in the administration of or in connection with any JTPA-funded...

  10. 45 CFR 605.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.4 Section 605.4... Provisions § 605.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance....

  11. 28 CFR 42.203 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.203 Section...) of the Justice System Improvement Act of 1979 § 42.203 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No person in... participation in, be denied the benefits of, be subjected to discrimination under, or denied employment...

  12. 49 CFR 21.5 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 21.5 Section 21.5... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 21.5 Discrimination... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited:...

  13. 22 CFR 217.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.4 Section 217.4... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 217.4 Discrimination... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  14. 10 CFR 1040.13 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.13 Section 1040.13 Energy..., as Amended; and Section 401 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 § 1040.13 Discrimination... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this subpart...

  15. 28 CFR 42.503 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.503 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 General Provisions § 42.503 Discrimination... from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under...

  16. 10 CFR 1040.66 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.66 Section 1040.66 Energy... Practices § 1040.66 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination employment under any program or activity...

  17. 10 CFR 1040.71 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.71 Section 1040.71 Energy... § 1040.71 Discrimination prohibited. No handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities are... in, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity that receives or benefits...

  18. 10 CFR 1040.63 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.63 Section 1040.63 Energy... Provisions § 1040.63 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity that receives Federal financial assistance...

  19. 7 CFR 15b.12 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.12 Section 15b.12... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 15b.12 Discrimination prohibited. (a... discrimination in employment under any program or activity receiving assistance from this Department. (2)...

  20. 45 CFR 1151.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1151.21 Section 1151.21... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited Accessibility § 1151.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall,...

  1. 28 CFR 42.203 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.203 Section...) of the Justice System Improvement Act of 1979 § 42.203 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No person in... participation in, be denied the benefits of, be subjected to discrimination under, or denied employment...

  2. 38 CFR 18.411 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Practices § 18.411 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to...

  3. 22 CFR 217.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.4 Section 217.4... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 217.4 Discrimination... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program...

  4. 5 CFR 900.704 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 900.704... Federally Assisted Programs of the Office of Personnel Management § 900.704 Discrimination prohibited. (a..., be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  5. 24 CFR 232.625 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 232.625... Fire Safety Equipment Special Requirements § 232.625 Discrimination prohibited. Any contract or... provide that there shall be no discrimination against any employee or applicant for employment because...

  6. 10 CFR 1040.71 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.71 Section 1040.71 Energy... § 1040.71 Discrimination prohibited. No handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities are... in, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity that receives or benefits...

  7. 43 CFR 17.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 17.3 Section 17... National Origin § 17.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the..., or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this part applies....

  8. 7 CFR 15b.17 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.17 Section 15b.17... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 15b.17 Discrimination prohibited. No... to discrimination under any program or activity receiving assistance from this Department....

  9. 34 CFR 104.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.21 Section 104.21... ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 104.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a... excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  10. 18 CFR 705.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Discrimination... Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the grounds of race, color, or... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited....

  11. 34 CFR 104.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.11 Section 104.11... ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 104.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program...

  12. 14 CFR 380.26 - Discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination. 380.26 Section 380.26... REGULATIONS PUBLIC CHARTERS Requirements Applicable to Charter Operators § 380.26 Discrimination. No charter... unjust discrimination or any undue or unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage in any respect whatsoever....

  13. 29 CFR 32.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 32.4 Section 32.4 Labor Office... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 32.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No... denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  14. 28 CFR 42.104 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.104 Section... Civil Rights Act of 1964 1 § 42.104 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United... denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which...

  15. 50 CFR 3.1 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 3.1 Section 3.1... PROVISIONS NONDISCRIMINATION-CONTRACTS, PERMITS, AND USE OF FACILITIES § 3.1 Discrimination prohibited. No..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to any form of discrimination or...

  16. 5 CFR 900.704 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 900.704... Federally Assisted Programs of the Office of Personnel Management § 900.704 Discrimination prohibited. (a..., be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  17. 24 CFR 232.625 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 232.625... Fire Safety Equipment Special Requirements § 232.625 Discrimination prohibited. Any contract or... provide that there shall be no discrimination against any employee or applicant for employment because...

  18. 10 CFR 1040.71 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.71 Section 1040.71 Energy... § 1040.71 Discrimination prohibited. No handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities are... in, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity that receives or benefits...

  19. 6 CFR 21.5 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 21.5 Section 21.5... FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY § 21.5 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, any program...

  20. 18 CFR 705.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination... Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the grounds of race, color, or... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited....