Science.gov

Sample records for discurso notas sobre

  1. Nota sobre "Neblina" (Notes on "Neblina")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bruyne, Jacques

    1974-01-01

    Suggests that the Royal Spanish Academy change the definition of "neblina" in the next edition of the "Dictionary of the Spanish Language" to "niebla ligera" or "light fog," and cites literary usage in support. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  2. Nota sobre "Neblina" (Notes on "Neblina")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bruyne, Jacques

    1974-01-01

    Suggests that the Royal Spanish Academy change the definition of "neblina" in the next edition of the "Dictionary of the Spanish Language" to "niebla ligera" or "light fog," and cites literary usage in support. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  3. Analytical characterization of NOTA-modified somatropins.

    PubMed

    Bracke, Nathalie; Wynendaele, Evelien; D'Hondt, Matthias; Haselberg, Rob; Somsen, Govert W; Pauwels, Ewald; Van de Wiele, Christoph; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2014-08-05

    Chemical modification of biomolecules like the introduction of metal-chelators into proteins can lead to heterogeneous product formation. The nature and extend of the modification is important in interpreting the biological properties of the bioconjugate, given their possible influence on the pharmacokinetics as well as on the binding affinity to the target. The present study describes the synthesis and analytical characterization of somatropin modified on its lysine's ɛ-amino groups with the acylating chelator S-2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (p-SCN-Bn-NOTA). Direct separation and identification techniques (i.e. RP-MS and CE-MS) and peptide mapping after trypsin and chymotrypsin digestion demonstrated that the use of higher amounts of p-SCN-Bn-NOTA during synthesis leads to a complex product composition with higher order substitution degrees (i.e. multiple NOTA-moieties per somatropin molecule), as well as the presence of different position isomers. From the nine lysine (Lys) residues in somatropin, Lys-70 was experimentally found to be the modification hotspot under our synthesis conditions (pH=9.0). This was supported by the in silico calculated lowest pKa value of 8.3 for Lys-70. Based on the crystal structure of somatropin in complex with the extracellular parts of the growth hormone receptor, the Lys-70 residue is positioned outside the binding pockets and will therefore not directly interfere with receptor binding. Gallium chelation by NOTA-somatropin resulted in a 100% complexation. The synthesis of NOTA-somatropin using p-SCN-Bn-NOTA and somatropin under our operational conditions is therefore a suitable synthesis procedure for the production of a target-specific radiopharmaceutical for further investigation toward treatment and visualization of growth hormone-specific cancers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Dissociation kinetics of Mn2+ complexes of NOTA and DOTA.

    PubMed

    Drahoš, Bohuslav; Kubíček, Vojtěch; Bonnet, Célia S; Hermann, Petr; Lukeš, Ivan; Tóth, Éva

    2011-03-07

    The kinetics of transmetallation of [Mn(nota)](-) and [Mn(dota)](2-) was investigated in the presence of Zn(2+) (5-50-fold excess) at variable pH (3.5-5.6) by (1)H relaxometry. The dissociation is much faster for [Mn(nota)](-) than for [Mn(dota)](2-) under both experimental and physiologically relevant conditions (t(½) = 74 h and 1037 h for [Mn(nota)](-) and [Mn(dota)](2-), respectively, at pH 7.4, c(Zn(2+)) = 10(-5) M, 25 °C). The dissociation of the complexes proceeds mainly via spontaneous ([Mn(nota)](-)k(0) = (2.6 ± 0.5) × 10(-6) s(-1); [Mn(dota)](2-)k(0) = (1.8 ± 0.6) × 10(-7) s(-1)) and proton-assisted pathways ([Mn(nota)](-)k(1) = (7.8 ± 0.1) × 10(-1) M(-1) s(-1); [Mn(dota)](2-)k(1) = (4.0 ± 0.6) × 10(-2) M(-1) s(-1), k(2) = (1.6 ± 0.1) × 10(3) M(-2) s(-1)). The observed suppression of the reaction rates with increasing Zn(2+) concentration is explained by the formation of a dinuclear Mn(2+)-L-Zn(2+) complex which is about 20-times more stable for [Mn(dota)](2-) than for [Mn(nota)](-) (K(MnLZn) = 68 and 3.6, respectively), and which dissociates very slowly (k(3)∼10(-5) M(-1) s(-1)). These data provide the first experimental proof that not all Mn(2+) complexes are kinetically labile. The absence of coordinated water makes both [Mn(nota)](-) and [Mn(dota)](2-) complexes inefficient for MRI applications. Nevertheless, the higher kinetic inertness of [Mn(dota)](2-) indicates a promising direction in designing ligands for Mn(2+) complexation.

  5. In Vitro Functional Quality Characterization of NOTA-Modified Somatropins.

    PubMed

    Bracke, Nathalie; Yao, Han; Wynendaele, Evelien; Verbeke, Frederick; Xu, Xiaolong; Gevaert, Bert; Maes, Alex; Van de Wiele, Christophe; Sathekge, Mike; De Saeger, Sarah; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2017-03-07

    Chemical modifications on protein biopharmaceuticals introduce extra variability in addition to their inherent complexity, hence require more comprehensive analytical and functional characterization during their discovery, development, and manufacturing. Somatropin (i.e., recombinant human growth hormone, rhGH) modified with the chelating agent S-2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (p-SCN-Bn-NOTA) allows the incorporation of radiometals for research and possible theranostic purposes. We previously demonstrated that this conjugation leads to multiple substitution degrees and positional isomers within the product. In vitro techniques at the molecular and cellular levels were now applied to assess their functional quality: (i) size exclusion chromatography (SEC) demonstrated functional complexation with human growth hormone binding protein (hGHBp) to the different NOTA-modified somatropins as well as to gallium chelated NOTA-functionalities (Ga-10:1 NOTA-somatropin); (ii) native mass spectrometry (MS) offered in-depth information, a substitution degree up to four NOTAs was still functional; (iii) circular dichroism (CD) analysis confirmed the complexation of unmodified and NOTA-modified somatropin to hGHBp; and (iv) a hGHR bioassay demonstrated initiation of the signal transduction cascade, after binding of all investigated products to the receptor presented on cells with a similar potency (pEC50 values between 9.53 and 9.78) and efficacy (Emax values between 130 and 160%). We conclude that the NOTA-modified somatropins do not possess a significantly different in vitro functionality profile compared to unmodified somatropin. Techniques such as SEC, MS, and CD, traditionally used in the physicochemical characterization of proteins have a demonstrated potential use in the functionality evaluation not only in drug discovery and development but also in quality control settings.

  6. Optimized labeling of NOTA-conjugated octreotide with F-18.

    PubMed

    Laverman, Peter; D'Souza, Christopher A; Eek, Annemarie; McBride, William J; Sharkey, Robert M; Oyen, Wim J G; Goldenberg, David M; Boerman, Otto C

    2012-04-01

    We recently reported a facile method based on the chelation of [(18)F]aluminum fluoride (Al(18)F) by NOTA (1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid). Here, we present a further optimization of the (18)F labeling of NOTA-octreotide (IMP466). Octreotide was conjugated with the NOTA chelate and was labeled with (18)F in a two-step, one-pot method. The labeling procedure was optimized with regard to the labeling buffer, ionic strength, peptide concentration, and temperature. Radiochemical yield, specific activity, in vitro stability, and receptor affinity were determined. Biodistribution of (18)F-IMP466 was studied in AR42J tumor-bearing mice. In addition, microPET/CT images were acquired. IMP466 was labeled with Al(18)F in a single step with 97% yield in the presence of 80% (v/v) acetonitrile or ethanol. The labeled product was purified by HPLC to remove unlabeled peptide and unbound Al(18)F. The radiolabeling, including purification, was performed for 45 min. Specific activities of 48,000 GBq/mmol could be obtained. (18)F-IMP466 showed a high tumor uptake and excellent tumor-to-blood ratios at 2 h post-injection. In addition, the low bone uptake indicated that the Al(18)F-NOTA complex was stable in vivo. PET/CT scans revealed excellent tumor delineation and specific accumulation in the tumor. Uptake in receptor-negative organs was low. NOTA-octreotide could be labeled with (18)F in quantitative yields using a rapid two-step, one-pot, method. The compound was stable in vivo and showed rapid accretion in SSTR(2)-receptor-expressing AR42J tumors in nude mice. This method can be used to label other NOTA-conjugated compounds such as RGD peptides, GRPR-binding peptides, and Affibody molecules with (18)F.

  7. (68)Ga small peptide imaging: comparison of NOTA and PCTA.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Cara L; Yapp, Donald T T; Mandel, Derek; Gill, Rajanvir K; Boros, Eszter; Wong, May Q; Jurek, Paul; Kiefer, Garry E

    2012-11-21

    In this study, a bifunctional version of the chelate PCTA was compared to the analogous NOTA derivative for peptide conjugation, (68)Ga radiolabeling, and small peptide imaging. Both p-SCN-Bn-PCTA and p-SCN-Bn-NOTA were conjugated to cyclo-RGDyK. The resulting conjugates, PCTA-RGD and NOTA-RGD, retained their affinity for the peptide target, the α(v)β(3) receptor. Both PCTA-RGD and NOTA-RGD could be radiolabeled with (68)Ga in >95% radiochemical yield (RCY) at room temperature within 5 min. For PCTA-RGD, higher effective specific activities, up to 55 MBq/nmol, could be achieved in 95% RCY with gentle heating at 40 °C. The (68)Ga-radiolabeled conjugates were >90% stable in serum and in the presence of excess apo-transferrin over 4 h; (68)Ga-PCTA-RGD did have slightly lower stability than (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD, 93 ± 2% compared to 98 ± 1%, at the 4 h time point. Finally, the tumor and nontarget organ uptake and clearance of (68)Ga-radiolabeled PCTA-RGD and NOTA-RGD was compared in mice bearing HT-29 colorectal tumor xenografts. Activity cleared quickly from the blood and muscle tissue with >90% and >70% of the initial activity cleared within the first 40 min, respectively. The majority of activity was observed in the kidney, liver, and tumor tissue. The observed tumor uptake was specific with up to 75% of the tumor uptake blocked when the mice were preinjected with 160 nmol (100 μg) of unlabeled peptide. Uptake observed in the blocked tumors was not significantly different than the background activity observed in muscle tissue. The only significant difference between the two (68)Ga-radiolabeled bioconjugates in vivo was the kidney uptake. (68)Ga-radiolabeled PCTA-RGD had significantly lower (p < 0.05) kidney uptake (1.1 ± 0.5%) at 2 h postinjection compared to (68)Ga-radiolabeled NOTA-RGD (2.7 ± 1.3%). Overall, (68)Ga-radiolabeled PCTA-RGD and NOTA-RGD performed similarly, but the lower kidney uptake for (68)Ga-radiolabeled PCTA-RGD may be advantageous in some

  8. Memories of Astronomy Education in Brazil: Clippings from the Discourses of Interviewed Researchers on the Subject. (Spanish Title: Memorias de la Educación en Astronomía en Brasil: Recortes de los Discursos de Investigadores Entrevistados Acerca del Tema ) Memórias da Educação em Astronomia no Brasil: Recortes a Partir das Falas de Pesquisadores Entrevistados sobre o Tema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo; Nardi, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a historical retrospective concerning data from a research in Astronomy Education in Brazil, after 1973. It was organized on the basis of the speech analysis of national researchers considered references in this field by their peers. Furthermore, it was elaborated on the basis of other studies from the areas of Science Education, Physics and Astronomy. This historical overview was developed in order to facilitate understanding of the contexts in which the interviewed researchers have developed professionally. Moreover, we attempted to recover the memory of the growing field of research in Astronomy Education in the country. We believe that the history presented can help those trying to understand the past in an attempt to resolve current and future demands. Se presenta en este artículo una retrospectiva histórica referente a datos provenientes de la investigación en enseñanza de la astronomía en el Brasil, después de 1973, organizada sobre la base del análisis de los discursos de los investigadores nacionales considerados referencias en este campo, y también en la lectura de las publicaciones en las áreas de Enseñanza de las Ciencias, Física y Astronomía. Este repaso histórico se desarrolló con el fin de facilitar la comprensión de los contextos en los que los investigadores entrevistados se han desarrollado profesionalmente. Por otra parte, se intentó recuperar la memoria del creciente campo de la investigación en Educación en Astronomía en el país. Creemos que el relato presentado puede contribuir a quien trata de comprender el pasado, en un intento de resolver las demandas actuales y futuras. Relata-se neste artigo uma retrospectiva histórica referente a dados provenientes de pesquisa em Educação em Astronomia no país, pós 1973, organizada com base na análise das falas de pesquisadores considerados referências nacionais nesse campo, como também na leitura de publicações das áreas de ensino de Ciências, F

  9. Density Functional Theory Study on the Complexation of NOTA as a Bifunctional Chelator with Radiometal Ions.

    PubMed

    Adeowo, F Y; Honarparvar, B; Skelton, A A

    2017-08-17

    1,4,7-Triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA) is a key bifunctional chelator utilized for the complexation of metal ions in radiopharmaceutical applications; the ability of these chelators depends on the strength of their binding with ions. The focus of the present work is to evaluate the complexation of Cu(2+), Ga(3+), Sc(3+), and In(3+) radiometal ions with NOTA using density functional theory (B3LYP functional) and 6-311+G(2d,2p)/DGDZVP basis sets. The significant role of ion-water interactions in the chelation interaction energies in solution reflects the competition between ion-water and NOTA-ion interaction in the chelation process. There is reasonable agreement between experimental and theoretical binding constants, geometries, and (1)H NMR chemical shifts. Chelation interaction energies, Gibbs free energies, and entropies in solution show that the NOTA-Ga(3+) and NOTA-Cu(2+) are the most and least stable complexes, respectively. The natural atomic charges and second order perturbation analysis reveal charge transfer between NOTA and radiometal ions. The theoretical (1)H NMR chemical shifts of NOTA are in good agreement with experiment; these values are influenced by the presence of the ions, which have a deshielding effect on the protons of NOTA. Global scalar properties such as EHOMO/ELUMO, ΔELUMO-HOMO, and chemical hardness/softness confirm that the NOTA-Cu(2+) complex, which has a singly occupied molecular orbital, has the lowest ΔELUMO-HOMO value, the least chemical hardness, and the highest chemical softness. The significant variation of the hardness and ΔELUMO-HOMO values of the complexes can be attributed to the different positions of the metal ions on the periodic table. This study affirms that, among the radiometal ions, Ga(3+) can be used to effectively radiolabel NOTA chelator for radiopharmaceutical usage as it binds most stably with NOTA.

  10. The Assessment of Quantitative Problem-Solving Skills with "None of the Above"--Items (NOTA Items).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dochy, Filip; Moerkerke, George; De Corte, Erik; Segers, Mien

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the discussion of whether "none of the above" (NOTA) questions should be used on tests. Discusses a study in which a protocol analysis was conducted on written statements of examinees while answering NOTA items. Explains that a multiple-choice test was given to university students finding that NOTA options seem to be more attractive.…

  11. Brain metastasis in carcinoma breast demonstrated on (68)Ga NOTA-bisphosphonate PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Passah, Averilicia; Tripathi, Madhavi; Kumar, Rajeev; Das, Chandan J; Goyal, Ankur; Bal, Chandrasekhar S

    2014-07-01

    Ga NOTA-bisphosphonate is a new bone-seeking PET radiotracer undergoing clinical evaluation. We report a case of a carcinoma breast who underwent Ga NOTA-bisphosphonate PET/CT for detection of skeletal metastasis. In addition to skeletal metastasis, a focal area of abnormal radiotracer uptake was noted in the brain, which was confirmed as brain metastasis on MRI.

  12. Al[18F]NOTA-T140 Peptide for Noninvasive Visualization of CXCR4 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xuefeng; Niu, Gang; Wang, Zhe; Yang, Xiangyu; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Jacobson, Orit; Shen, Baozhong; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Chemokine receptor CXCR4 plays an important role in tumor aggressiveness, invasiveness, and metastasis formation. Quantification of CXCR4 expression by tumors may have an impact on prediction and evaluation of tumor response to therapies. In this study, we developed a robust and straightforward F-18 labeling route of T140, a CXCR4 peptide-based antagonist. Procedures T140 derivative was conjugated to 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-triacetic acid (NOTA) and labeled with Al[18F]. Al[18F]NOTA-T140 was evaluated in vitro in cell-based assay and stability in mouse serum and in vivo using CXCR4 positive and negative tumor xenograft models. Results Labeling of Al[18F]NOTA-T140 was completed within 30 min with a radiochemical yield of 58±5.3 % at the end of synthesis, based on fluoride-18 activity. Al[18F]NOTA-T140 accumulated in CHO-CXCR4 positive but not negative tumors. Al[18F]NOTA-T140 uptake in the tumors correlated with CXCR4 protein expression. Moreover, Al[18F]NOTA-T140 had high accumulation in CXCR4-positive metastatic tumors. Conclusions The simplicity of Al[18F]NOTA-T140 labeling along with its properties to specifically image CXCR4 expression by tumors warrant further clinical application for the diagnosis of CXCR4 clinically. PMID:26126597

  13. Al[18F]NOTA-T140 Peptide for Noninvasive Visualization of CXCR4 Expression.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xuefeng; Niu, Gang; Wang, Zhe; Yang, Xiangyu; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Jacobson, Orit; Shen, Baozhong; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2016-02-01

    Chemokine receptor CXCR4 plays an important role in tumor aggressiveness, invasiveness, and metastasis formation. Quantification of CXCR4 expression by tumors may have an impact on prediction and evaluation of tumor response to therapies. In this study, we developed a robust and straightforward F-18 labeling route of T140, a CXCR4 peptide-based antagonist. T140 derivative was conjugated to 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-triacetic acid (NOTA) and labeled with Al[(18)F]. Al[(18)F]NOTA-T140 was evaluated in vitro in cell-based assay and stability in mouse serum and in vivo using CXCR4 positive and negative tumor xenograft models. Labeling of Al[(18)F]NOTA-T140 was completed within 30 min with a radiochemical yield of 58 ± 5.3 % at the end of synthesis, based on fluoride-18 activity. Al[(18)F]NOTA-T140 accumulated in CHO-CXCR4 positive but not negative tumors. Al[(18)F]NOTA-T140 uptake in the tumors correlated with CXCR4 protein expression. Moreover, Al[(18)F]NOTA-T140 had high accumulation in CXCR4-positive metastatic tumors. The simplicity of Al[(18)F]NOTA-T140 labeling along with its properties to specifically image CXCR4 expression by tumors warrant further clinical application for the diagnosis of CXCR4 clinically.

  14. Total solid-phase synthesis of NOTA-functionalized peptides for PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Guérin, Brigitte; Ait-Mohand, Samia; Tremblay, Marie-Claude; Dumulon-Perreault, Véronique; Fournier, Patrick; Bénard, François

    2010-01-15

    A convenient approach to functionalize peptides either at the N-terminal or on a lysine side chain with 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N',N''-triacetic acid (NOTA) chelating unit has been developed on solid support. The chelate was assembled in a two-step process starting with bromo-acetylated peptides. Deprotection and cleavage of the resin-bound NOTA peptides were performed with use of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in the presence of thioanisole and water to give free NOTA peptides.

  15. Maleimido-functionalized NOTA derivatives as bifunctional chelators for site-specific radiolabeling.

    PubMed

    Förster, Christian; Schubert, Maik; Pietzsch, Hans-Jürgen; Steinbach, Jörg

    2011-06-22

    Two basic and simple synthetic routes for mono- and bis-maleimide bearing 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N',N''-triacetic acid (NOTA) chelators as new bifunctional chelators are described. The syntheses are characterized by their simplicity and short reaction times, as well as practical purification methods and acceptable to very good chemical yields. The usefulness of these two synthetic pathways is demonstrated by the preparation of a set of mono- and bis-maleimide functionalized NOTA derivatives. In conclusion, these two methods can easily be expanded to the syntheses of further tailored maleimide-NOTA chelators for diverse applications.

  16. (68)Ga-labeled NOTA-RGD-BBN peptide for dual integrin and GRPR-targeted tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaofei; Niu, Gang; Wang, Fan; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2009-09-01

    Radiolabeled Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) and bombesin (BBN) peptide analogs have been extensively investigated for the imaging of tumor integrin alpha(v)beta(3) and gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) expression, respectively. Recently, we designed and synthesized a RGD-BBN heterodimeric peptide from c(RGDyK) and BBN(7-14) through a glutamate linker. The goal of this study was to investigate the dual receptor-targeting property and tumor diagnostic value of RGD-BBN heterodimeric peptide labeled with generator-eluted (68)Ga (t(1/2) 68 min, beta(+) 89% and EC 11%), (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD-BBN. RGD-BBN heterodimer was conjugated with 1,4,7-triazacyclononanetriacetic acid (NOTA) and labeled with (68)Ga. The dual receptor binding affinity was investigated by a radioligand competition binding assay. The in vitro and in vivo dual receptor targeting of (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD-BBN was evaluated and compared with that of (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD and (68)Ga-NOTA-BBN. NOTA-RGD-BBN had integrin alpha(v)beta(3) and GRPR binding affinities comparable to those of the monomeric RGD and BBN, respectively. The dual receptor targeting property of (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD-BBN was validated by blocking studies in a PC-3 tumor model. (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD-BBN showed higher tumor uptake than (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD and (68)Ga-NOTA-BBN. (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD-BBN can also image tumors with either integrin or GRPR expression. (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD-BBN exhibited dual receptor targeting properties both in vitro and in vivo. The favorable characterizations of (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD-BBN such as convenient synthesis, high specific activity, and high tumor uptake, warrant its further investigation for clinical cancer imaging.

  17. PET imaging of prostate tumors with 18F-Al-NOTA-MATBBN.

    PubMed

    Pan, Donghui; Yan, Yongjun; Yang, Ronghua; Xu, Yu Ping; Chen, Fei; Wang, Lizhen; Luo, Shineng; Yang, Min

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression of the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) in prostate cancer provides a promising target for detection the disease. MATBBN is a new bombesin analog originating from the GRPR antagonists with a hydrophilic linker. In this study NOTA-conjugated MATBBN was labeled by the Al(18)F method and the potential of (18)F-Al-NOTA-MATBBN for prostate tumor PET imaging was also evaluated. NOTA-MATBBN was radiolabeled with (18) F using Al(18)F complexes. Partition coefficient, in vitro stability and GRPR binding affinity were also determined. PET studies were performed with (18)F-Al-NOTA-MATBBN in PC-3 tumor-bearing mice. (18)F-Al-NOTA-MATBBN can be produced within 30 min with a decay-corrected yield of 62.5 ± 2.1% and a radiochemical purity of >98%. The logP octanol-water value for the Al(18)F-labeled BBN analog was -2.40 ± 0.07 and the radiotracer was stable in phosphate-buffered saline and human serum for 2 h. The IC50 values of displacement for the (18)F-Al-NOTA-MATBBN with MATBBN was 126.9 ± 2.75 nm. The PC-3 tumors were clearly visible with high contrast after injection of the labeled peptide. At 60 min post-injection, the tumor uptakes for (18)F-Al-NOTA-MATBBN and (18)F-FDG were 4.59 ± 0.43 and 1.98 ± 0.35% injected dose/g, and tumor to muscle uptake radios for two tracers were 6.77 ± 1.10 and 1.78 ± 0.32, respectively. Dynamic PET revealed that (18) F-Al-NOTA-MATBBN was excreted mainly through the kidneys. GRPR-binding specificity was also demonstrated by reduced tumor uptake of (18)F-Al-NOTA-MATBBN after coinjection with excess unlabeled MATBBN peptide at 1 h post-injection. NOTA- MATBBN could be labeled rapidly with (18)F using one step method. (18)F-Al-NOTA-MATBBN may be a promising PET imaging agent for prostate cancer. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Notas sobre los Sonidos Consonantes en Espanol (Notes on Consonant Sounds in Spanish)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezquerra, Raimundo

    1974-01-01

    This paper examines the Spanish phonetic system, as set forth by Navarro Tomas in his "Manual de Pronunciacion Espanola," and discusses the influences exerted by certain sounds over others. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  19. Nota sobre el "Se" como Sujeto Indefinido (A Note on "Se" as an Indefinite Subject)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lujan, Marta

    1975-01-01

    Contradicts Pablo Jordan's theory that certain "se" constructions in Spanish are neither passive nor reflexive. It is claimed that syntactic evidence reveals two types of impersonal structures, the impersonal active and the passive reflexive. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  20. Notas sobre dos autores mejicoamericanos de California (Notes on Two Mexican-American Authors in California).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moesser, Alba

    This paper discusses the work of two Mexican American authors, Jose A. Villerreal and Richard Vazquez, using "Pocho" by Villarreal and "Chicano" by Vazquez as the focus for discussion. Both authors describe the world of Mexican Americans and their social conditions, and both underscore the need for conserving their native…

  1. Evaluation of a maleimido derivative of NOTA for site-specific labeling of affibody molecules.

    PubMed

    Tolmachev, Vladimir; Altai, Mohamed; Sandström, Mattias; Perols, Anna; Karlström, Amelie Eriksson; Boschetti, Frederic; Orlova, Anna

    2011-05-18

    Radionuclide molecular imaging has the potential to improve cancer treatment by selection of patients for targeted therapy. Affibody molecules are a class of small (7 kDa) high-affinity targeting proteins with appreciable potential as molecular imaging probes. The NOTA chelator forms stable complexes with a number of radionuclides suitable for SPECT or PET imaging. A maleimidoethylmonoamide NOTA (MMA-NOTA) has been prepared for site-specific labeling of Affibody molecules having a unique C-terminal cysteine. Coupling of the MMA-NOTA to the anti-HER2 Affibody molecule Z(HER2:2395) resulted in a conjugate with an affinity (dissociation constant) to HER2 of 72 pM. Labeling of [MMA-NOTA-Cys(61)]-Z(HER2:2395) with (111)In gave a yield of >95% after 20 min at 60 °C. In vitro cell tests demonstrated specific binding of [(111)In-MMA-NOTA-Cys(61)]-Z(HER2:2395) to HER2-expressing cell lines. In mice bearing prostate cancer DU-145 xenografts, the tumor uptake of [(111)In-MMA-NOTA-Cys(61)]-Z(HER2:2395) was 8.2 ± 0.9% IA/g and the tumor-to-blood ratio was 31 ± 1 (4 h postinjection). DU-145 xenografts were clearly visualized by a gamma camera. Direct in vivo comparison of [(111)In-MMA-NOTA-Cys(61)]-Z(HER2:2395) and [(111)In-MMA-DOTA-Cys(61)]-Z(HER2:2395) demonstrated that both conjugates provided equal radioactivity uptake in tumors, but the tumor-to-organ ratios were better for [(111)In-MMA-NOTA-Cys(61)]-Z(HER2:2395) due to more efficient clearance from normal tissues. In conclusion, coupling of MMA-NOTA to a cysteine-containing Affibody molecule resulted in a site-specifically labeled conjugate, which retains high affinity, can be efficiently labeled, and allows for high-contrast imaging.

  2. Feasibility and kinetic characteristics of (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD PET for in vivo atherosclerosis imaging.

    PubMed

    Paeng, Jin Chul; Lee, Yun-Sang; Lee, Jae Sung; Jeong, Jae Min; Kim, Ki-Bong; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Dong Soo

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the feasibility and kinetic characteristics of the (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD, a recently developed RGD peptide agent, were investigated for atherosclerosis imaging in comparison with (18)FDG. ApoE(-/-) mice were fed a high-fat diet for more than 20 weeks. To evaluate the feasibility, tissue uptakes of (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD and (18)FDG in the major organs were measured and compared between ApoE(-/-) and control mice. Animal PET imaging was also performed and relative uptake values in the thoracic aorta were compared between ApoE(-/-) and control mice. In humans, the kinetic characteristics and feasibility of (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD PET were assessed in 4 patients with known coronary artery disease. In the tissue uptake study, the thoracic aorta showed higher uptake in ApoE(-/-) than in control mice with both (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD and (18)FDG (P < 0.001). On PET scans, the relative uptake values of the thoracic aorta were significantly higher in ApoE(-/-) with both (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD (P = 0.024) and (18)FDG (P = 0.038). In human PET, the appropriateness of reversible binding model and Logan plotting was clearly demonstrated. The aorta-to-jugular ratios were measured up to 1.25 and showed a tendency to correlate with the serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level (r = 0.899, P = 0.102). (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD has potential as an in vivo atherosclerosis imaging agent. However, the lower imaging contrast and sensitivity of (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD PET compared with (18)FDG PET may be a limitation for clinical application.

  3. Comparison of three dimeric 18F-AlF-NOTA-RGD tracers.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jinxia; Lang, Lixin; Hu, Shuo; Guo, Ning; Zhu, Lei; Sun, Zhongchan; Ma, Ying; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Niu, Gang; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2014-04-01

    RGD peptide-based radiotracers are well established as integrin αvβ3 imaging probes to evaluate tumor angiogenesis or tissue remodeling after ischemia or infarction. In order to optimize the labeling process and pharmacokinetics of the imaging probes, we synthesized three dimeric RGD peptides with or without PEGylation and performed in vivo screening. Radiolabeling was achieved through the reaction of F-18 aluminum-fluoride complex with the cyclic chelator, 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA). Three imaging probes were synthesized as (18)F-AlF-NOTA-E[c(RGDfK)]2, (18)F-AlF-NOTA-PEG4-E[c(RGDfK)]2, and (18)F-AlF-NOTA-E[PEG4-c(RGDfk)]2. The receptor binding affinity was determined by competitive cell binding assay, and the stability was evaluated by mouse serum incubation. Tumor uptake and whole body distribution of the three tracers were compared through direct tissue sampling and PET quantification of U87MG tumor-bearing mice. All three compounds remained intact after 120 min incubation with mouse serum. They all had a rapid and relatively high tracer uptake in U87MG tumors with good target-to-background ratios. Compared with the other two tracers, (18)F-AlF-NOTA-E[PEG4-c(RGDfk)]2 had the highest tumor uptake and the lowest accumulation in the liver. The integrin receptor specificity was confirmed by co-injection of unlabeled dimeric RGD peptide. The rapid one-step radiolabeling strategy by the complexation of (18)F-aluminum fluoride with NOTA-peptide conjugates was successfully applied to synthesize three dimeric RGD peptides. Among the three probes developed, (18)F-AlF-NOTA-E[PEG4-c(RGDfk)]2 with relatively low liver uptake and high tumor accumulation appears to be a promising candidate for further translational research.

  4. Preparation of Ga-68-NOTA as a renal PET agent and feasibility tests in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Youn; Jeong, Jae Min; Kim, Young Ju; Jeong, Hyuk-Jin; Lee, Yun-Sang; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key

    2014-02-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) may provide more accurate quantification of kidney function such as glomerular filtration rate (GFR) than gamma imaging. The purpose of these experiments was to prepare and evaluate Ga-68 complexes as potential PET agents for measurement of GFR. We labeled EDTA, DTPA, DOTA, and NOTA with Ga-68 obtained from a Ge-68/Ga-68-generator and measured the binding to serum and red blood cells. Biodistribution study was performed in male BALB/c mice after intravenous injection together with Cr-51-EDTA as the standard for glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measurement. Animal-PET study was performed using BALB/c mice. All the tested chelating agents except DTPA showed quantitative labeling yields (>99%). Among them, Ga-68-NOTA showed consistently low binding to both human and mouse RBC and serum protein. Biodistribution study showed no significant difference between Ga-68-NOTA and Cr-51-EDTA groups by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (p>0.05). Furthermore, the GFR values obtained by Ga-68-NOTA and Cr-51-EDTA were almost same (0.26±0.04 and 0.25±0.04mL/min, respectively). Animal-PET study showed almost the same GFR (0.25mL/min) with the values obtained by biodistribution study. We proved that an easy-to-prepare agent Ga-68-NOTA is ideal for renal PET as well as for GFR measurement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Tumor targeting efficacy of a novel PET radiotracer (1)8F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 in mice].

    PubMed

    Wu, Hubing; Wang, Quanshi; Han, Yanjiang; Zhou, Wenlan; Li, Hongsheng; Tian, Ying; Wang, Qiaoyu

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the tumor targeting efficacy of (18)F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2, a novel radiotracer of Arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides. (18)F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 was synthesized in one-step by conjugating NOTA-PRGD2 with (18)F-AlF at 100 degrees celsius;. The tumor targeting efficacy and in vivo biodistribution profile of (18)F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2, following intravenous injection via the tail vein, were evaluated in a nude mouse model bearing subcutaneous U87MG glioblastoma xenograft by radioactivity biodistribution assessment, PET/CT and microPET/CT. NOTA-PRGD2 was (18)F-fluorinated successfully in one-step with a yield of 17%-25% within 15-20 min. Radioactivity biodistribution study confirmed the tumor-targeting ability of (18)F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 in the tumor-bearing mice. At 1 and 2 h following injection, (18)F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 uptake in the tumor reached 4.14∓1.44 and 2.80∓1.18 % ID/g (t=1.910, P=0.070) with tumor/brain ratios of 2.95∓0.61 and 5.21∓2.62, respectively (t=-1.686, P=0.167). Both PET/CT and microPET/CT were capable of showing the radioactivity biodistribution of (18)F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 in the mouse model and clearly displayed the tumor, but microPET/CT showed a much better image quality. (18)F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 prepared by one-step radiosynthesis can selectively target to the tumor, demonstrating its potential as a good radiotracer for tumor imaging.

  6. NotaMark industrial laser marking system: a new security marking technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, Vincent G.

    2004-06-01

    Up until now, the only variable alphanumeric data which could be added to banknotes was the number, applied by means of impact typographical numbering boxes. As an additional process or an alternative to this mechanical method, a non-contact laser marking process can be used offering high quality and greater levels of flexibility. For this purpose KBA-GIORI propose an exclusive laser marking solution called NotaMark. The laser marking process NotaMark is the ideal solution for applying variable data and personalizing banknotes (or any other security documents) with a very high resolution, for extremely large production volumes. A completely integrated solution has been developed comprised of laser light sources, marking head units, and covers and extraction systems. NotaMark allows the marking of variable data by removing locally and selectively, specific printed materials leaving the substrate itself untouched. A wide range of materials has already been tested extensively. NotaMark is a new security feature which is easy to identify and difficult to counterfeit, and which complies with the standard mechanical and chemical resistance tests in the security printing industry as well as with other major soiling tests. The laser marking process opens up a whole new range of design possibilities and can be used to create a primary security feature such as numbering, or to enhance the value of existing features.

  7. Kinetics of Ga(NOTA) formation from weak Ga-citrate complexes.

    PubMed

    Morfin, Jean-François; Tóth, Éva

    2011-10-17

    Gallium complexes are gaining increasing importance in biomedical imaging thanks to the practical advantages of the (68)Ga isotope in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) applications. (68)Ga has a short half-time (t(1/2) = 68 min); thus the (68)Ga complexes have to be prepared in a limited time frame. The acceleration of the formation reaction of gallium complexes with macrocyclic ligands for application in PET imaging represents a significant coordination chemistry challenge. Here we report a detailed kinetic study of the formation reaction of the highly stable Ga(NOTA) from the weak citrate complex (H(3)NOTA = 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7- triacetic acid). The transmetalation has been studied using (71)Ga NMR over a large pH range (pH = 2.01-6.00). The formation of Ga(NOTA) is a two-step process. First, a monoprotonated intermediate containing coordinated citrate, GaHNOTA(citrate)*, forms in a rapid equilibrium step. The rate-determining step of the reaction is the deprotonation and slow rearrangement of the intermediate accompanied by the citrate release. The observed reaction rate shows an unusual pH dependency with a minimum at pH 5.17. In contrast to the typical formation reactions of poly(amino carboxylate) complexes, the Ga(NOTA) formation from the weak citrate complex becomes considerably faster with increasing proton concentration below pH 5.17. We explain this unexpected tendency by the role of protons in the decomposition of the GaHNOTA(citrate)* intermediate which proceeds via the protonation of the coordinated citrate ion and its subsequent decoordination to yield the final product Ga(NOTA). The stability constant of this intermediate, log K(GaHNOTA(citrate)*) = 15.6, is remarkably high compared to the corresponding values reported for the formation of macrocyclic lanthanide(III)-poly(amino carboxylates). These kinetic data do not only give mechanistic insight into the formation reaction of Ga(NOTA), but might also contribute to establish optimal

  8. Stability Analysis of Glutamic Acid Linked Peptides Coupled to NOTA through Different Chemical Linkages

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Glutamic acid is a commonly used linker to form dimeric peptides with enhanced binding affinity than their corresponding monomeric counterparts. We have previously labeled NOTA-Bn-NCS-PEG3-E[c(RGDyK)]2 (NOTA-PRGD2) [1] with [18F]AlF and 68Ga for imaging tumor angiogenesis. The p-SCN-Bn-NOTA was attached to E[c(RGDyK)]2 [2] through a mini-PEG with a thiourea linkage, and the product [1] was stable at radiolabeling condition of 100 °C and pH 4.0 acetate buffer. However, when the same p-SCN-Bn-NOTA was directly attached to the α-amine of E[c(RGDfK)]2 [3], the product NOTA-Bn-NCS-E[c(RGDfK)]2 [4] became unstable under similar conditions and the release of monomeric c(RGDfK) [5] was observed. The purpose of this work was to use HPLC and LC-MS to monitor the decomposition of glutamic acid linked dimeric peptides and their NOTA derivatives. A c(RGDyK) [6] and bombesin (BBN) [7] heterodimer c(RGDyK)-E-BBN [8], and a dimeric bombesin E(BBN)2 [9], both with a glutamic acid as the linker, along with a model compound PhSCN-E[c(RGDfK)] [10] were also studied. All the compounds were dissolved in 0.5 M pH 4.0 acetate buffer at the concentration of 1 mg/mL, and 0.1 mL of each sample was heated at 100 °C for 10 min and the more stable compounds were heated for another 30 min. The samples at both time points were analyzed with analytical HPLC to monitor the decomposition of the heated samples. The samples with decomposition were further analyzed by LC-MS to determine the mass of products from the decomposition for possible structure elucidation. After 10 min heating, the obvious release of c(RGDfK) [5] was observed for NOTA-Bn-NCS-E[c(RGDfK)]2 [4] and Ph-SCN-E[c(RGDfK)] [10]. Little or no release of monomers was observed for the remaining samples at this time point. After further heating, the release of monomers was clearly observed for E[c(RGDyK)]2 [2], E[c(RGDfK)]2 [3], c(RGDyK)-E-BBN [8], and E(BBN)2 [9]. No decomposition or little decomposition was observed for NOTA

  9. Stability analysis of glutamic acid linked peptides coupled to NOTA through different chemical linkages.

    PubMed

    Lang, Lixin; Ma, Ying; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2014-11-03

    Glutamic acid is a commonly used linker to form dimeric peptides with enhanced binding affinity than their corresponding monomeric counterparts. We have previously labeled NOTA-Bn-NCS-PEG3-E[c(RGDyK)]2 (NOTA-PRGD2) [1] with [(18)F]AlF and (68)Ga for imaging tumor angiogenesis. The p-SCN-Bn-NOTA was attached to E[c(RGDyK)]2 [2] through a mini-PEG with a thiourea linkage, and the product [1] was stable at radiolabeling condition of 100 °C and pH 4.0 acetate buffer. However, when the same p-SCN-Bn-NOTA was directly attached to the α-amine of E[c(RGDfK)]2 [3], the product NOTA-Bn-NCS-E[c(RGDfK)]2 [4] became unstable under similar conditions and the release of monomeric c(RGDfK) [5] was observed. The purpose of this work was to use HPLC and LC-MS to monitor the decomposition of glutamic acid linked dimeric peptides and their NOTA derivatives. A c(RGDyK) [6] and bombesin (BBN) [7] heterodimer c(RGDyK)-E-BBN [8], and a dimeric bombesin E(BBN)2 [9], both with a glutamic acid as the linker, along with a model compound PhSCN-E[c(RGDfK)] [10] were also studied. All the compounds were dissolved in 0.5 M pH 4.0 acetate buffer at the concentration of 1 mg/mL, and 0.1 mL of each sample was heated at 100 °C for 10 min and the more stable compounds were heated for another 30 min. The samples at both time points were analyzed with analytical HPLC to monitor the decomposition of the heated samples. The samples with decomposition were further analyzed by LC-MS to determine the mass of products from the decomposition for possible structure elucidation. After 10 min heating, the obvious release of c(RGDfK) [5] was observed for NOTA-Bn-NCS-E[c(RGDfK)]2 [4] and Ph-SCN-E[c(RGDfK)] [10]. Little or no release of monomers was observed for the remaining samples at this time point. After further heating, the release of monomers was clearly observed for E[c(RGDyK)]2 [2], E[c(RGDfK)]2 [3], c(RGDyK)-E-BBN [8], and E(BBN)2 [9]. No decomposition or little decomposition was observed for NOTA

  10. Novel PET Imaging of Atherosclerosis with 68Ga-Labeled NOTA-Neomannosylated Human Serum Albumin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eung Ju; Kim, Sungeun; Seo, Hong Seog; Lee, Yong Jik; Eo, Jae Seon; Jeong, Jae Min; Lee, Boeun; Kim, Jae Young; Park, Young Mi; Jeong, Myeongsook

    2016-11-01

    Activated macrophages take up (18)F-FDG via glucose transporters, so this compound is useful for atherosclerosis imaging by PET. However, (18)F-FDG application is limited for imaging of the heart and brain, in which glucose uptake is high, and in patients with aberrant glucose metabolism. The aims of this study were to confirm that mannosylated human serum albumin (MSA) specifically binds to the mannose receptor (MR) on macrophages and to test the feasibility of (68)Ga-labeled NOTA-MSA for PET imaging of atherosclerotic plaques. The peritoneal macrophages of C57/B6 mice were collected, incubated with rhodamine B isothiocyanate-MSA (10 μg/mL), and evaluated by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. The same evaluations were performed after preincubation of the macrophages with anti-CD206 MR blocking antibodies. NOTA-MSA was synthesized by conjugating 2-(p-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid to MSA, followed by labeling with (68)Ga. Rabbits with atherosclerotic aorta induced by a 3-mo cholesterol diet and chronic inflammation underwent consecutive PET/CT with (18)F-FDG and (68)Ga-NOTA-MSA at 2-d intervals. The binding of MSA to MR and its dose-dependent reduction by preincubation with anti-CD206 MR blocking antibody were confirmed. Rhodamine B isothiocyanate and fluorescein isothiocyanate fluorescence colocalized at the atherosclerotic plaque. The (68)Ga-NOTA-MSA SUVs of the atherosclerotic aorta were significantly higher than those of the healthy arteries and inferior vena cava and were comparable to those obtained with (18)F-FDG. These findings suggest that MR-specific (68)Ga-NOTA-MSA is effective for detecting atherosclerosis in the aorta and is a promising radiopharmaceutical for imaging atherosclerosis because of the presence of M2 macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  11. 68Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 PET/CT for Integrin Imaging in Patients with Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Kun; Liang, Naixin; Zhang, Jingjing; Lang, Lixin; Zhang, Wei; Li, Shanqing; Zhao, Jun; Niu, Gang; Li, Fang; Zhu, Zhaohui; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to assess the diagnostic value of (68)Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 (NOTA-PRGD2 is NOTA-PEG4-E[c(RGDfK)]2) PET/CT in lung cancer. Ninety-one patients (48 men and 43 women; age, 22-82 y) with suspected lung lesions on CT were enrolled with informed consent. Immediately after intravenous injection of 117.7 ± 37.7 MBq of (68)Ga-NOTA-PRGD2, 15 patients underwent dynamic whole-body PET/CT scans for 1-2 h, and the remaining 76 patients underwent whole-body PET/CT scans at 30 ± 10 min after bolus injection. Each patient also underwent standard (18)F-FDG PET/CT for comparison. No side effect was found after (68)Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 injection. (68)Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 was rapidly cleared from the blood pool and primarily excreted through the urinary system. The standardized uptake values of proven malignancies were significantly higher than those of the benign ones. With an average standardized uptake value of greater than 1.3 being considered malignant, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of (68)Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 PET/CT in diagnosing lung cancer were 83.8% (57/68), 91.3% (21/23), and 85.7% (78/91), respectively. The diagnostic value of (68)Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 for lung cancer is comparable to that of (18)F-FDG PET/CT. However, (68)Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 PET/CT is more specific than (18)F-FDG PET/CT in assessing lymph node metastasis, with positive and negative predictive values of 90.0% (27/30) and 93.8% (121/129), respectively, whereas those of (18)F-FDG PET/CT were 30.2% (29/96) and 90.5% (57/63), respectively. This study indicates the efficacy of (68)Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 PET/CT in lung cancer diagnosis. (68)Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 PET/CT shows significant advantage over (18)F-FDG PET/CT in judging metastatic lymph nodes with higher specificity. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  12. Development of a Novel PET Tracer [18F]AlF-NOTA-C6 Targeting MMP2 for Tumor Imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qinghua; Pan, Donghui; Cheng, Chao; Zhang, Dazhi; Zhang, Anyu; Wang, Lizhen; Jiang, Hongdie; Wang, Tao; Liu, Hongrui; Xu, Yuping; Yang, Runlin; Chen, Fei; Yang, Min; Zuo, Changjing

    2015-01-01

    The overexpression of gelatinases, that is, matrix metalloproteinase MMP2 and MMP9, has been associated with tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis. To image MMP2 in tumors, we developed a novel ligand termed [18F]AlF-NOTA-C6, with consideration that: c(KAHWGFTLD)NH2 (herein, C6) is a selective gelatinase inhibitor; Cy5.5-C6 has been visualized in many in vivo tumor models; positron emission tomography (PET) has a higher detection sensitivity and a wider field of view than optical imaging; fluorine-18 (18F) is the optimal PET radioisotope, and the creation of a [18F]AlF-peptide complex is a simple procedure. C6 was conjugated to the bifunctional chelator NOTA (1, 4, 7-triazacyclononanetriacetic acid) for radiolabeling [18F]AlF conjugation. The MMP2-binding characteristics and tumor-targeting efficacy of [18F]AlF-NOTA-C6 were tested in vitro and in vivo. The non-decay corrected yield of [18F]AlF-NOTA-C6 was 46.2-64.2%, and the radiochemical purity exceeded 95%. [18F]AlF-NOTA-C6 was favorably retained in SKOV3 and PC3 cells, determined by cell uptake. Using NOTA-C6 as a competitive ligand, the uptake of [18F]AlF-NOTA-C6 in SKOV3 cells decreased in a dose-dependent manner. In biodistribution and PET imaging studies, higher radioactivity concentrations were observed in tumors. Pre-injection of C6 caused a marked reduction in tumor tissue uptake. Immunohistochemistry showed MMP2 in tumor tissues. [18F]AlF-NOTA-C6 was easy to synthesize and has substantial potential as an imaging agent that targets MMP2 in tumors.

  13. Development of a Novel PET Tracer [18F]AlF-NOTA-C6 Targeting MMP2 for Tumor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chao; Zhang, Dazhi; Zhang, Anyu; Wang, Lizhen; Jiang, Hongdie; Wang, Tao; Liu, Hongrui; Xu, Yuping; Yang, Runlin; Chen, Fei; Yang, Min; Zuo, Changjing

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective The overexpression of gelatinases, that is, matrix metalloproteinase MMP2 and MMP9, has been associated with tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis. To image MMP2 in tumors, we developed a novel ligand termed [18F]AlF-NOTA-C6, with consideration that: c(KAHWGFTLD)NH2 (herein, C6) is a selective gelatinase inhibitor; Cy5.5-C6 has been visualized in many in vivo tumor models; positron emission tomography (PET) has a higher detection sensitivity and a wider field of view than optical imaging; fluorine-18 (18F) is the optimal PET radioisotope, and the creation of a [18F]AlF-peptide complex is a simple procedure. Methods C6 was conjugated to the bifunctional chelator NOTA (1, 4, 7-triazacyclononanetriacetic acid) for radiolabeling [18F]AlF conjugation. The MMP2-binding characteristics and tumor-targeting efficacy of [18F]AlF-NOTA-C6 were tested in vitro and in vivo. Results The non-decay corrected yield of [18F]AlF-NOTA-C6 was 46.2–64.2%, and the radiochemical purity exceeded 95%. [18F]AlF-NOTA-C6 was favorably retained in SKOV3 and PC3 cells, determined by cell uptake. Using NOTA-C6 as a competitive ligand, the uptake of [18F]AlF-NOTA-C6 in SKOV3 cells decreased in a dose-dependent manner. In biodistribution and PET imaging studies, higher radioactivity concentrations were observed in tumors. Pre-injection of C6 caused a marked reduction in tumor tissue uptake. Immunohistochemistry showed MMP2 in tumor tissues. Conclusions [18F]AlF-NOTA-C6 was easy to synthesize and has substantial potential as an imaging agent that targets MMP2 in tumors. PMID:26540114

  14. Comparison Study of [18F]FAl-NOTA-PRGD2, [18F]FPPRGD2 and [68Ga]Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 for PET Imaging of U87MG Tumors in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Lixin; Li, Weihua; Guo, Ning; Ma, Ying; Zhu, Lei; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Shen, Baozhong; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2011-01-01

    [18F]FPPRGD2, an F-18 labeled dimeric cyclic RGDyK peptide, has favorable properties for PET imaging of angiogenesis by targeting the αvβ3 integrin receptor. This radiotracer has been approved by the FDA for use in clinical trials. However, the time-consuming multiple-step synthetic procedure required for its preparation may hinder the widespread usage of this tracer. The recent development of a method using an F-18 fluoride-aluminum complex to radiolabel peptides provides a strategy for simplifying the labeling procedure. On the other hand, the easy-to-prepare [68Ga]-labeled NOTA-RGD derivatives have also been reported to have promising properties for imaging αvβ3 integrin receptors. The purpose of this study was to prepare [18F]FPPRDG2, [18F]FAl-NOTA-PRGD2, and [68Ga]Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 and to compare their pharmacokinetics and tumor imaging properties using small animal PET. All three compounds showed rapid and high tracer uptake in U87MG tumors with high target-to-background ratios. The uptake in the liver, kidneys and muscle were similar for all three tracers and they all showed predominant renal clearance. In conclusion, [18F]FAl-NOTA-PRGD2 and [68Ga]Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 have imaging properties and pharmacokinetics comparable to those of [18F]FPPRGD2. Considering their ease of preparation and good imaging qualities, [18F]FAl-NOTA-PRGD2 and [68Ga]NOTA-PRGD2 are promising alternatives to [18F]FPPRGD2 for PET imaging of tumor αvβ3 integrin expression. PMID:22026940

  15. Comparison study of [18F]FAl-NOTA-PRGD2, [18F]FPPRGD2, and [68Ga]Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 for PET imaging of U87MG tumors in mice.

    PubMed

    Lang, Lixin; Li, Weihua; Guo, Ning; Ma, Ying; Zhu, Lei; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Shen, Baozhong; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2011-12-21

    [(18)F]FPPRGD2, an F-18 labeled dimeric cyclic RGDyK peptide, has favorable properties for PET imaging of angiogenesis by targeting the α(v)β(3) integrin receptor. This radiotracer has been approved by the FDA for use in clinical trials. However, the time-consuming multiple-step synthetic procedure required for its preparation may hinder the widespread usage of this tracer. The recent development of a method using an F-18 fluoride-aluminum complex to radiolabel peptides provides a strategy for simplifying the labeling procedure. On the other hand, the easy-to-prepare [(68)Ga]-labeled NOTA-RGD derivatives have also been reported to have promising properties for imaging α(v)β(3) integrin receptors. The purpose of this study was to prepare [(18)F]FPPRGD2 [corrected] , [(18)F]FAl-NOTA-PRGD2, and [(68)Ga]Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 and to compare their pharmacokinetics and tumor imaging properties using small animal PET. All three compounds showed rapid and high tracer uptake in U87MG tumors with high target-to-background ratios. The uptake in the liver, kidneys, and muscle were similar for all three tracers, and they all showed predominant renal clearance. In conclusion, [(18)F]FAl-NOTA-PRGD2 and [(68)Ga]Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 have imaging properties and pharmacokinetics comparable to those of [(18)F]FPPRGD2. Considering their ease of preparation and good imaging qualities, [(18)F]FAl-NOTA-PRGD2 and [(68)Ga]NOTA-PRGD2 are promising alternatives to [(18)F]FPPRGD2 for PET imaging of tumor α(v)β(3) integrin expression.

  16. Ficusnotins A-F: Rare diarylbutanoids from the leaves of Ficus nota.

    PubMed

    Latayada, Felmer S; Uy, Mylene M; Akihara, Yui; Ohta, Emi; Nehira, Tatsuo; Ômura, Hisashi; Ohta, Shinji

    2017-09-01

    Six diarylbutanoids, designated as ficusnotins A-F, with a rare carbon skeleton consisting of two aromatic rings separated by an unbranched C4-chain have been isolated from the leaves of Ficus nota (Blanco) Merr. (Moraceae). The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data, as well as X-ray crystallographic analysis. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Just Say No to NOTA: Why the Prohibition of Compensation for Human Transplant Organs in NOTA Should Be Repealed and a Regulated Market for Cadaver Organs Instituted.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kristy Lynn; Finley, Marisa; Rohack, J James

    2014-01-01

    The United States faces a shortage of organs for transplantation; thousands of individuals die each year while waiting for organs. The organ donation system relies on altruism because the National Organ Transplantation Act (NOTA) prohibits donors from receiving valuable consideration for organs to be used for transplantation. This paper contains a proposal for a regulated market for cadaveric organs as a mechanism to increase the number of organs available for transplantation. A regulated market for cadaveric organs is appropriate in the United States for the following reasons: (1) it is consistent with the numerous ways in which bodies. are currently treated as commodities; (2) it is unlikely to further disadvantage the poor; (3) it would not expose organ recipients to undue harm; (4) in the current organ transplantation system, everyone except the organ donor, benefits financially; (5) the prohibition in NOTA is inconsistent with laws permitting next of kin to recover for damage to the body of a deceased family member; (6) the protection of the dignitary interests of organs for donation is inconsistent with the current protections of the dignitary interests of human specimens; and (7) permitting a market for organs promotes the American values of autonomy and liberty.

  18. One-step radiosynthesis of ¹⁸F-AlF-NOTA-RGD₂ for tumor angiogenesis PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuanglong; Liu, Hongguang; Jiang, Han; Xu, Yingding; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Zhen

    2011-09-01

    One of the major obstacles of the clinical translation of (18)F-labeled arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides has been the laborious multistep radiosynthesis. In order to facilitate the application of RGD-based positron emission tomography (PET) probes in the clinical setting we investigated in this study the feasibility of using the chelation reaction between Al(18)F and a macrocyclic chelator-conjugated dimeric RGD peptide as a simple one-step (18)F labeling strategy for development of a PET probe for tumor angiogenesis imaging. Dimeric cyclic peptide E[c(RGDyK)](2) (RGD(2)) was first conjugated with a macrocyclic chelator, 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA), and the resulting bioconjugate NOTA-RGD(2) was then radiofluorinated via Al(18)F intermediate to synthesize (18)F-AlF-NOTA-RGD(2). Integrin binding affinities of the peptides were assessed by a U87MG cell-based receptor binding assay using (125)I-echistatin as the radioligand. The tumor targeting efficacy and in vivo profile of (18)F-AlF-NOTA-RGD(2) were further evaluated in a subcutaneous U87MG glioblastoma xenograft model by microPET and biodistribution. NOTA-RGD(2) was successfully (18)F-fluorinated with good yield within 40 min using the Al(18)F intermediate. The IC(50) of (19)F-AlF-NOTA-RGD(2) was determined to be 46 ± 4.4 nM. Quantitative microPET studies demonstrated that (18)F-AlF-NOTA-RGD(2) showed high tumor uptake, fast clearance from the body, and good tumor to normal organ ratios. NOTA-RGD(2) bioconjugate has been successfully prepared and labeled with Al(18)F in one single step of radiosynthesis. The favorable in vivo performance and the short radiosynthetic route of (18)F-AlF-NOTA-RGD(2) warrant further optimization of the probe and the radiofluorination strategy to accelerate the clinical translation of (18)F-labeled RGD peptides.

  19. One-step radiosynthesis of 18F-AlF-NOTA-RGD2 for tumor angiogenesis PET imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuanglong; Liu, Hongguang; Jiang, Han; Xu, Yingding; Zhang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose One of the major obstacles of the clinical translation of 18F-labeled arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides has been the laborious multistep radiosynthesis. In order to facilitate the application of RGD-based positron emission tomography (PET) probes in the clinical setting we investigated in this study the feasibility of using the chelation reaction between Al18F and a macrocyclic chelator-conjugated dimeric RGD peptide as a simple one-step 18F labeling strategy for development of a PET probe for tumor angiogenesis imaging. Methods Dimeric cyclic peptide E[c(RGDyK)]2 (RGD2) was first conjugated with a macrocyclic chelator, 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA), and the resulting bioconjugate NOTA-RGD2 was then radiofluorinated via Al18F intermediate to synthesize 18F-AlF-NOTA-RGD2. Integrin binding affinities of the peptides were assessed by a U87MG cell-based receptor binding assay using 125I-echistatin as the radioligand. The tumor targeting efficacy and in vivo profile of 18F-AlF-NOTA-RGD2 were further evaluated in a subcutaneous U87MG glioblastoma xenograft model by microPET and biodistribution. Results NOTA-RGD2 was successfully 18F-fluorinated with good yield within 40 min using the Al18F intermediate. The IC50 of 19F-AlF-NOTA-RGD2 was determined to be 46±4.4 nM. Quantitative microPET studies demonstrated that 18F-AlF-NOTA-RGD2 showed high tumor uptake, fast clearance from the body, and good tumor to normal organ ratios. Conclusion NOTA-RGD2 bioconjugate has been successfully prepared and labeled with Al18F in one single step of radiosynthesis. The favorable in vivo performance and the short radiosynthetic route of 18F-AlF-NOTA-RGD2 warrant further optimization of the probe and the radiofluorination strategy to accelerate the clinical translation of 18F-labeled RGD peptides. PMID:21617974

  20. Quantitative analysis and comparison study of [18F]AlF-NOTA-PRGD2, [18F]FPPRGD2 and [68Ga]Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 using a reference tissue model.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ning; Lang, Lixin; Li, Weihua; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Gao, Haokao; Niu, Gang; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2012-01-01

    With favorable pharmacokinetics and binding affinity for α(v)β(3) integrin, (18)F-labeled dimeric cyclic RGD peptide ([(18)F]FPPRGD2) has been intensively used as a PET imaging probe for lesion detection and therapy response monitoring. A recently introduced kit formulation method, which uses an (18)F-fluoride-aluminum complex labeled RGD tracer ([(18)F]AlF-NOTA-PRGD2), provides a strategy for simplifying the labeling procedure to facilitate clinical translation. Meanwhile, an easy-to-prepare (68)Ga-labeled NOTA-PRGD2 has also been reported to have promising properties for imaging integrin α(v)β(3). The purpose of this study is to quantitatively compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of [(18)F]FPPRGD2, [(18)F]AlF-NOTA-PRGD2, and [(68)Ga]Ga-NOTA-PRGD2. U87MG tumor-bearing mice underwent 60-min dynamic PET scans following the injection of three tracers. Kinetic parameters were calculated using Logan graphical analysis with reference tissue. Parametric maps were generated using voxel-level modeling. All three compounds showed high binding potential (Bp(ND) = k(3)/k(4)) in tumor voxels. [(18)F]AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 showed comparable Bp(ND) value (3.75±0.65) with those of [(18)F]FPPRGD2 (3.39±0.84) and [(68)Ga]Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 (3.09±0.21) (p>0.05). Little difference was found in volume of distribution (V(T)) among these three RGD tracers in tumor, liver and muscle. Parametric maps showed similar kinetic parameters for all three tracers. We also demonstrated that the impact of non-specific binding could be eliminated in the kinetic analysis. Consequently, kinetic parameter estimation showed more comparable results among groups than static image analysis. In conclusion, [(18)F]AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 and [(68)Ga]Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 have comparable pharmacokinetics and quantitative parameters compared to those of [(18)F]FPPRGD2. Despite the apparent difference in tumor uptake (%ID/g determined from static images) and clearance pattern, the actual specific binding component extrapolated

  1. Quantitative Analysis and Comparison Study of [18F]AlF-NOTA-PRGD2, [18F]FPPRGD2 and [68Ga]Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 Using a Reference Tissue Model

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ning; Lang, Lixin; Li, Weihua; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Gao, Haokao; Niu, Gang; Xie, Qingguo; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2012-01-01

    With favorable pharmacokinetics and binding affinity for αvβ3 integrin, 18F-labeled dimeric cyclic RGD peptide ([18F]FPPRGD2) has been intensively used as a PET imaging probe for lesion detection and therapy response monitoring. A recently introduced kit formulation method, which uses an 18F-fluoride-aluminum complex labeled RGD tracer ([18F]AlF-NOTA-PRGD2), provides a strategy for simplifying the labeling procedure to facilitate clinical translation. Meanwhile, an easy-to-prepare 68Ga-labeled NOTA-PRGD2 has also been reported to have promising properties for imaging integrin αvβ3. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of [18F]FPPRGD2, [18F]AlF-NOTA-PRGD2, and [68Ga]Ga-NOTA-PRGD2. U87MG tumor-bearing mice underwent 60-min dynamic PET scans following the injection of three tracers. Kinetic parameters were calculated using Logan graphical analysis with reference tissue. Parametric maps were generated using voxel-level modeling. All three compounds showed high binding potential (BpND = k3/k4) in tumor voxels. [18F]AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 showed comparable BpND value (3.75±0.65) with those of [18F]FPPRGD2 (3.39±0.84) and [68Ga]Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 (3.09±0.21) (p>0.05). Little difference was found in volume of distribution (VT) among these three RGD tracers in tumor, liver and muscle. Parametric maps showed similar kinetic parameters for all three tracers. We also demonstrated that the impact of non-specific binding could be eliminated in the kinetic analysis. Consequently, kinetic parameter estimation showed more comparable results among groups than static image analysis. In conclusion, [18F]AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 and [68Ga]Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 have comparable pharmacokinetics and quantitative parameters compared to those of [18F]FPPRGD2. Despite the apparent difference in tumor uptake (%ID/g determined from static images) and clearance pattern, the actual specific binding component extrapolated from kinetic modeling appears to be comparable

  2. Preliminary evaluation of [18F]AlF-NOTA-MAL-Cys39-exendin-4 in insulinoma with PET.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qing; Zhu, Chen; Xu, Yuping; Pan, Donghui; Liu, Ping; Yang, Runlin; Wang, Lizhen; Chen, Fei; Sun, Xinchen; Luo, Shineng; Yang, Min

    2015-01-01

    High expression of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) in insulinoma supplies a potential drug target for tumor imaging. Exendin-4 can specifically bind to GLP-1R as an agonist and its analogs are extensively used in receptor imaging studies. A new GLP-1R imaging agent, [(18)F]AlF-NOTA-MAL-Cys(39)-exendin-4, was designed and prepared for insulinoma imaging. Cys(39)-exendin-4 was conjugated with NOTA-MAL, then the compound was radiolabeled with [(18)F]AlF complex to obtained [(18)F]AlF-NOTA-MAL-Cys(39)-exendin-4. The tumor-targeting characters of the tracer were evaluated in INS-1 cells and BALB/c nude mice models. [(18)F]AlF-NOTA-MAL-Cys(39)-exendin-4 can be efficiently produced with a yield of 17.5 ± 3.2% (non-decay corrected) and radiochemical purity of >95%. The IC50 value of displacement [(18)F]AlF-NOTA-MAL-Cys(39)-exendin-4 with Cys(39)-exendin-4 was 13.52 ± 1.36 nM. PET images showed excellent tumor visualization with high uptake (9.15 ± 1.6%ID/g at 30 min and 7.74 ± 0.87%ID/g at 60 min). The tumor to muscle, pancreas and liver ratios were 63.25, 3.85 and 7.29 at 60 min after injection. GLP-1R binding specificity was demonstrated by co-injection with an excess of unlabeled Cys(39)-exendin-4 and the tumor uptake was found to be reduced significantly. [(18)F]AlF-NOTA-MAL-Cys(39)-exendin-4 shows favorable characteristics for insulinoma imaging and may be translated to clinical studies.

  3. Metabolically Stabilized (68)Ga-NOTA-Bombesin for PET Imaging of Prostate Cancer and Influence of Protease Inhibitor Phosphoramidon.

    PubMed

    Richter, Susan; Wuest, Melinda; Bergman, Cody N; Krieger, Stephanie; Rogers, Buck E; Wuest, Frank

    2016-04-04

    Peptide receptor-based targeted molecular imaging and therapy of cancer is on the current forefront of nuclear medicine preclinical research and clinical practice. The frequent overexpression of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptors in prostate cancer stimulated the development of radiolabeled bombesin derivatives as high affinity peptide ligands for selective targeting of the GRP receptor. In this study, we have evaluated a novel (68)Ga-labeled bombesin derivative for PET imaging of prostate cancer in vivo. In addition, we were interested in testing the recently proposed "serve-and-protect" strategy to improve metabolic stability of radiolabeled peptides in vivo and to enhance tumor uptake. GRP receptor targeting peptides NOTA-BBN2 and (nat)Ga-NOTA-BBN2 demonstrated a characteristic antagonistic profile and high binding affinity toward the GRP receptor in PC3 cells (IC50 4.6-8.2 nM). Radiolabeled peptide (68)Ga-NOTA-BBN2 was obtained from NOTA-BBN2 in radiochemical yields greater than 62% (decay-corrected). Total synthesis time was 35 min, including purification using solid-phase extraction. (68)Ga-NOTA-BBN2 exhibited favorable resistance against metabolic degradation by peptidases in vivo within the investigated time frame of 60 min. Interestingly, metabolic stability was not further enhanced in the presence of protease inhibitor phosphoramidon. Dynamic PET studies showed high tumor uptake in both PC3- and LNCaP-bearing BALB/c nude mice (SUV5min > 0.6; SUV60min > 0.5). Radiotracer (68)Ga-NOTA-BBN2 represents a novel radiometal-based bombesin derivative suitable for GRP receptor targeting in PC3 and LNCaP mouse xenografts. Further increase of metabolic stability in vivo and enhanced tumor uptake were not observed upon administration of protease inhibitor phosphoramidon. This led to the conclusion that the recently proposed "serve-and-protect" strategy may not be valid for peptides exhibiting favorable intrinsic metabolic stability in vivo.

  4. Synthesis and Preclinical Evaluation of Folate-NOTA-Al(18)F for PET Imaging of Folate-Receptor-Positive Tumors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingshou; Meng, Xiangjun; McQuade, Paul; Rubins, Daniel; Lin, Shu-An; Zeng, Zhizhen; Haley, Hyking; Miller, Patricia; González Trotter, Dinko; Low, Philip S

    2016-05-02

    Folate-receptor-targeted PET radiotracers can potentially serve as versatile imaging agents for the diagnosis, staging, and prediction of response to therapy of patients with folate-receptor (FR)-expressing cancers. Because current FR-targeted PET reagents can be compromised by complex labeling procedures, low specific activities, poor radiochemical yields, or unwanted accumulation in FR negative tissues, we have undertaken to design an improved folate-PET agent that might be more amenable for clinical development. For this purpose, we have synthesized a folate-NOTA-Al(18)F radiotracer and examined its properties both in vitro and in vivo. Radiochemical synthesis of folate-NOTA-Al(18)F was achieved by incubating (18)F(-) with AlCl3 for 2 min followed by heating in the presence of folate-NOTA for 15 min at 100 °C. Binding of folate-NOTA-Al(18)F to FR was quantitated in homogenates of KB and Cal51 tumor xenografts in the presence and absence of excess folic acid as a competitor. In vivo imaging was performed on nu/nu mice bearing either FR+ve (KB cell) or FR-ve (A549 cell) tumor xenografts, and specific accumulation of the radiotracer in tumor and other tissues was assessed by high-resolution micro-PET and ex vivo biodistribution in the presence and absence of excess folic acid. Image quality of folate-NOTA-Al(18)F was compared with that of (99m)Tc-EC20, a clinically established folate-targeted SPECT imaging agent. Total radiochemical synthesis and purification of folate-NOTA-Al(18)F was completed within 37 min, yielding a specific activity of 68.82 ± 18.5 GBq/μmol, radiochemical yield of 18.6 ± 4.5%, and radiochemical purity of 98.3 ± 2.9%. Analysis of FR binding revealed a Kd of ∼1.0 nM, and micro-PET imaging together with ex vivo biodistribution analyses demonstrated high FR-mediated uptake in an FR+ tumor and the kidneys. Folate-NOTA-Al(18)F constitutes an easily prepared FR-targeted PET imaging agent with improved radiopharmaceutical properties and high

  5. Prospective Study of (68)Ga-NOTA-NFB: Radiation Dosimetry in Healthy Volunteers and First Application in Glioma Patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Mingru; Wang, Liang; Wang, Shengjun; Kang, Fei; Li, Guoquan; Jacobson, Orit; Niu, Gang; Yang, Weidong; Wang, Jing; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is overexpressed in various types of human cancers. As a specific imaging agent of CXCR4, (68)Ga-NOTA-NFB was investigated in this study to assess its safety, biodistribution and dosimetry properties in healthy volunteers, and to preliminarily evaluate its application in glioma patients. Six healthy volunteers underwent whole-body PET scans at 0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 h after (68)Ga-NOTA-NFB injection (mean dose, 182.4 ± 3.7 MBq (4.93 ± 0.10 mCi)). For time-activity curve calculations, 1 mL blood samples were obtained at 1, 3, 5, 10, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min after the injection. The estimated radiation doses were calculated by OLINDA/EXM software. Eight patients with glioma were enrolled and underwent both (68)Ga-NOTA-NFB and (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans before surgery. The expression of CXCR4 on the resected brain tumor tissues was determined by immunohistochemical staining. (68)Ga-NOTA-NFB was safe and well tolerated by all subjects. A rapid activity clearance from the blood circulation was observed. The organs with the highest absorbed doses were spleen (193.8 ± 32.5 μSv/MBq) and liver (119.3 ± 25.0 μSv/MBq). The mean effective dose was 25.4 ± 6.1 μSv/MBq. The maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) and the maximum target to non-target ratios (T/NTmax) of (68)Ga-NOTA-NFB PET/CT in glioma tissues were 4.11 ± 2.90 (range, 0.45-8.21) and 9.21 ± 8.75 (range, 3.66-24.88), respectively, while those of (18)F-FDG PET/CT were 7.34 ± 2.90 (range, 3.50-12.27) and 0.86 ± 0.41 (range, 0.35-1.59). The histopathological staining confirmed that CXCR4 was overexpressed on resected tumor tissues with prominent (68)Ga-NOTA-NFB uptake. With a favorable radiation dosimetry profile, (68)Ga-NOTA-NFB is safe for clinical imaging. Compared to (18)F-FDG PET/CT, (68)Ga-NOTA-NFB PET/CT is more sensitive in detecting glioma and could have potential in diagnosing and treatment planning for CXCR4 positive patients.

  6. Morphological distinction between estuarine polychaetes: Laeonereis culveri and L. nota (Phyllodocida: Nereididae).

    PubMed

    de Jesus-Flores, Citlalli; Salazar-González, S Alejandro; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I

    2016-03-01

    The family Nereididae includes more than 500 polychaete species described worldwide, and includes species common in many benthic environments, but some other species may tolerate freshwater or can even thrive in humid substrates in tropical forests. In estuarine environments, nereidid polychaetes can be abundant and relevant as a food source for resident or migratory birds. Laeonereis culveri (Webster, 1879) is a common estuarine species found in tropical and subtropical Atlantic American shores and was described from New Jersey; its median and posterior parapodia have upper notopodial ligules usually longer than the lower ones, and the latter are parallel to the notaciculae throughout the body. L. culveri distribution is from Connecticut to central Argentina; however, this wide distribution might be due to the inclusion of several other species as junior synonyms, despite that some morphological differences were found between them. One of such species is L. nota (Treadwell, 1941), that was described from Texas; its parapodia have notopodial ligules of about the same size, and the lower ones are oblique to the notaciculae. In order to clarify the differences between these two species, and to define which inhabits the Northwestern Caribbean region, topotype materials from these two species and specimens from Chetumal Bay were collected, and their morphological features were compared. Our results indicated that L. culveri and L. nota are different species and that the latter is found in Chetumal Bay. On the basis of mature specimens, L. culveri is hereby restricted to the Northern Gulf of Mexico and Northwestern Atlantic Ocean, and L. nota are reinstated and its distribution extends from Texas, in the Gulf of Mexico to Chetumal Bay, in the Northwestern Caribbean Sea. A key to identify all species in Laeonereis Hartman (1945) is also included.

  7. Angiogenesis imaging in myocardial infarction using 68Ga-NOTA-RGD PET: characterization and application to therapeutic efficacy monitoring in rats.

    PubMed

    Eo, Jae Seon; Paeng, Jin Chul; Lee, Song; Lee, Yun-Sang; Jeong, Jae Min; Kang, Keon Wook; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Dong Soo

    2013-06-01

    Ga-NOTA-RGD PET is a newly developed molecular imaging for angiogenesis. In this study, Ga-NOTA-RGD PET was used to investigate imaging characteristics in a rat myocardial infarction (MI) model and to monitor the efficacy of an angiogenesis induction therapy. Ga-NOTA-RGD PET was performed serially in rats with MI or sham operation, and myocardial uptake was analyzed with respect to time duration and tissue characteristics. Subsequently, Ga-NOTA-RGD PET was serially performed for therapeutic efficacy monitoring in MI-induced rats, which were treated with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) injection or saline injection. Image findings were compared with the final change in MI lesion. Ga-NOTA-RGD uptake was significantly increased in MI lesion and gradually decreased over time. Ga-NOTA-RGD uptake in the infarcted tissue corresponded with vascular endothelial growth factor expression and macrophage accumulation. In monitoring of therapeutic efficacy, the lesion uptake in the bFGF-injected group was significantly higher than that of the saline-injected and sham-operated groups on the first day. However, no significant differences were observed between bFGF and saline-injected groups at subsequent time points, corresponding to the final infarct size change. Ga-NOTA-RGD PET would be a useful angiogenesis imaging modality in MI for assessment of pathophysiology or monitoring of therapeutic efficacy.

  8. None-of-the-above (NOTA) capability for INTELL-based NCTI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, Eric; Mahler, Ronald P. S.; Brundage, Trent

    2001-08-01

    When trying to determine the identity of individual target classes a model database is often used which categorizes the known individuals. The models contain attributes which characterize each individual such as color, propulsion type, shape, number of wheels, etc. Based on sensed characteristics. Often new targets are introduced which are not modeled in the database but of interest to the observer. Historical classification systems will attempt to map measurements of new targets into the known model base as best as possible. This paper presents an approach for automatically generating a none-of-the-above (NOTA) class to allow for the detection of new classes.

  9. Gallium-68-labelled NOTA-oligonucleotides: an optimized method for their preparation.

    PubMed

    Gijs, Marlies; Dammicco, Sylvestre; Warnier, Corentin; Aerts, An; Impens, Nathalie R E N; D'Huyvetter, Matthias; Léonard, Marc; Baatout, Sarah; Luxen, André

    2016-02-01

    One of the most essential aspects to the success of radiopharmaceuticals is an easy and reliable radiolabelling protocol to obtain pure and stable products. In this study, we optimized the bioconjugation and gallium-68 ((68) Ga) radiolabelling conditions for a single-stranded 40-mer DNA oligonucleotide, in order to obtain highly pure and stable radiolabelled oligonucleotides. Quantitative bioconjugation was obtained for a disulfide-functionalized oligonucleotide conjugated to the macrocylic bifunctional chelator MMA-NOTA (maleimido-mono-amide (1,4,7-triazanonane-1,4,7-triyl)triacetic acid). Next, this NOTA-oligonucleotide bioconjugate was radiolabelled at room temperature with purified and pre-concentrated (68) Ga with quantitative levels of radioactive incorporation and high radiochemical and chemical purity. In addition, high chelate stability was observed in physiological-like conditions (37 °C, PBS and serum), in the presence of a transchelator (EDTA) and transferrin. A specific activity of 51.1 MBq/nmol was reached using a 1470-fold molar excess bioconjugate over (68) Ga. This study presents a fast, straightforward and reliable protocol for the preparation of (68) Ga-radiolabelled DNA oligonucleotides under mild reaction conditions and without the use of organic solvents. The methodology herein developed will be applied to the preparation of oligonucleotidic sequences (aptamers) targeting the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) for cancer imaging. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. [(68)Ga]NOTA-Galactosyl Human Serum Albumin: a Tracer for Liver Function Imaging with Improved Stability.

    PubMed

    Haubner, Roland; Schmid, Andreas M; Maurer, Andreas; Rangger, Christine; Roig, Llanos Geraldo; Pichler, Bernd J; Virgolini, Irene J

    2017-02-13

    Non-invasive techniques allowing quantitative determination of the functional liver mass are of great interest for patient management in a variety of clinical settings. Recently, we presented [(68)Ga]DTPA-GSA to target the hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptor for this purpose. Here, we introduce [(68)Ga]NOTA-GSA to improve metabolic stability of the radiopharmaceutical and compare the imaging properties with [(68)Ga]DTPA-GSA. Labeling of the compounds was carried out at room temperature using 1.9 M sodium acetate as buffer. For quality control, thin-layer, high-performance liquid, and size exclusion chromatographies were used. Metabolic stability was studied in rat and human serums. For in vivo evaluation, Fischer rats were scanned by positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging and subsequently sacrificed for biodistribution studies. Time activity curves (TACs) for heart and liver were generated and corresponding parameters (T50, T90, LHL15, HH15) were calculated. [(68)Ga]NOTA-GSA can be produced in high radiochemical yield and purity (>95 %) within 15 min. Stability studies revealed almost no metabolite formation over the 2-h observation period. Analysis of the TACs showed comparable results for most of the investigated parameters. The only significant difference was found in the T90 value, where [(68)Ga]NOTA-GSA showed slower uptake in comparison with (68)Ga-DTPA-GSA (123 ± 10 vs. 89 ± 3 s, p < 0.01). [(68)Ga]NOTA-GSA showed a significant increase of the metabolic stability and in most organs lower background activity. However, comparison of LHL15 and HH15 indicates that the increased stability did not further improve the diagnostic value. Thus, [(68)Ga]NOTA-GSA and [(68)Ga]DTPA-GSA can be used equivalent for imaging hepatic function with positron emission tomography.

  11. Peptide synthesis, characterization and ⁶⁸Ga-radiolabeling of NOTA-conjugated ubiquicidin fragments for prospective infection imaging with PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Ebenhan, Thomas; Chadwick, Nicholas; Sathekge, Mike M; Govender, Patrick; Govender, Thavendran; Kruger, Hendrik G; Marjanovic-Painter, Biljana; Zeevaart, Jan Rijn

    2014-01-01

    Human antimicrobial peptides are of interest for the development of positron emission tomography (PET) tracers as they exhibit desirable characteristics that make them good candidates for targeting vectors. Due to their natural role in the innate immune system they selectively bind to pathogenic bacteria and yeast, whilst remaining minimally immunogenic and cytotoxic to humans. Research into ubiquicidin (UBI)-based tracers has focused on (99m)Tc as a radionuclide, however, the use of bi-functional chelators such as 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA), in combination with ⁶⁸Ga as a radionuclide, allows for a simple radiolabeling procedure which is preferable in a clinical setting using PET/CT. The peptides fragments UBI29-41, UBI30-41 were synthesized by standard microwave Fmoc/tert-butyl (tBu)-solid phase synthetic protocols. Characterizations were performed using analytical HPLC and LC/MS. Both NOTA-conjugated peptides were exposed to (nat)Ga³⁺; their complexed form was quantified by direct LC/MS injection. This complexation was utilized to testify bacterial and mammalian cell binding potential of fluorophore-linked NOTA-UBI29-41/30-41. ⁶⁸Ga labeled NOTA-UBI fragments were also tested for competitive interaction to Staphylococcus aureus to proof the binding target. ⁶⁸Ga was eluted from SnO₂- and TiO₂-based ⁶⁸Ge/⁶⁸Ga generators using fractionated elution and anion exchanged-based post-procession. NOTA-peptide radiolabeling was carried out including optimization of buffer molarity, NOTA-peptide concentration(s), incubation temperature and -duration as well as considering various SPE purification cartridges. Pure UBI29-41, UBI30-41 and NOTA-UBI30-41 were successfully characterized. Both, NOTA-UBI fragments exhibited complexation rates to (nat)Ga³⁺)≥ 99%. The percentage binding was significantly higher to Staphylococcus aureus bacilli over Mt4 human leucocytes (P>0.05) for NOTA-UBI29-41[Lys(Abz)]<NOTA-UBI30-41[Lys

  12. Radiolabeling and in vitro evaluation of (67)Ga-NOTA-modular nanotransporter--a potential Auger electron emitting EGFR-targeted radiotherapeutic.

    PubMed

    Koumarianou, Eftychia; Slastnikova, Tatiana A; Pruszynski, Marek; Rosenkranz, Andrey A; Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Sobolev, Alexander S; Zalutsky, Michael R

    2014-07-01

    Modular nanotransporters (MNTs) are vehicles designed to transport drugs from the cell surface via receptor-mediated endocytosis and endosomal escape to nucleus. Hence their conjugation to Auger electron emitters, can cause severe cell killing, by nuclear localization. Herein we evaluate the use of MNT as a platform for targeted radiotherapy with (67)Ga. EGF was the targeting ligand on the MNT, and NOTA was selected for its radiolabeling with (67)Ga. In the radiolabeling study we dealt with the precipitation of MNT (pI 5.7) at the labeling pH (4.5-5.5) of (67)Ga. Cellular and nuclei uptake of (67)Ga-NOTA-MNT by the A431 cell line was determined. Its specific cytotoxicity was compared to that of (67)Ga-EDTA, (67)Ga-NOTA-BSA and (67)Ga-NOTA-hEGF, in A431 and U87MGWTT, cell lines, by clonogenic assay. Dosimetry studies were also performed. (67)Ga-NOTA-MNT was produced with 90% yield and specific activity of 25.6mCi/mg. The in vitro kinetics revealed an increased uptake over 24h. 55% of the internalized radioactivity was detected in the nuclei at 1h. The cytotoxicity of (67)Ga-NOTA-MNT on A431 cell line was 17 and 385-fold higher when compared to non-specific (67)Ga-NOTA-BSA and (67)Ga-EDTA. While its cytotoxic potency was 13 and 72-fold higher when compared to (67)Ga-NOTA-hEGF in the A431 and the U87MGWTT cell lines, respectively, validating its nuclear localization. The absorbed dose, for 63% cell killing, was 8Gy, confirming the high specific index of (67)Ga. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using MNT as a platform for single cell kill targeted radiotherapy by Auger electron emitters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiolabeling and in vitro evaluation of 67Ga-NOTA-modular nanotransporter – A potential Auger electron emitting EGFR-targeted radiotherapeutic

    PubMed Central

    Koumarianou, Eftychia; Slastnikova, Tatiana A.; Pruszynski, Marek; Rosenkranz, Andrey A.; Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Sobolev, Alexander S.; Zalutsky, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Modular nanotransporters (MNTs) are vehicles designed to transport drugs from the cell surface via receptor-mediated endocytosis and endosomal escape to nucleus. Hence their conjugation to Auger electron emitters, can cause severe cell killing, by nuclear localization. Herein we evaluate the use of MNT as a platform for targeted radiotherapy with 67Ga. Methods EGF was the targeting ligand on the MNT, and NOTA was selected for its radiolabeling with 67Ga. In the radiolabeling study we dealt with the precipitation of MNT (pI 5.7) at the labeling pH (4.5–5.5) of 67Ga. Cellular and nuclei uptake of 67Ga-NOTA-MNT by the A431 cell line was determined. Its specific cytotoxicity was compared to that of 67Ga-EDTA, 67Ga-NOTA-BSA and 67Ga-NOTA-hEGF, in A431 and U87MGWTT, cell lines, by clonogenic assay. Dosimetry studies were also performed. Results 67Ga-NOTA-MNT was produced with 90% yield and specific activity of 25.6 mCi/mg. The in vitro kinetics revealed an increased uptake over 24 h. 55% of the internalized radioactivity was detected in the nuclei at 1 h. The cytotoxicity of 67Ga-NOTA-MNT on A431 cell line was 17 and 385-fold higher when compared to non-specific 67Ga-NOTA-BSA and 67Ga-EDTA. While its cytotoxic potency was 13 and 72 – fold higher when compared to 67Ga-NOTA-hEGF in the A431 and the U87MGWTT cell lines, respectively, validating its nuclear localization. The absorbed dose, for 63% cell killing, was 9 Gy, confirms the high specific index of 67Ga. Conclusion These results demonstrate the feasibility of using MNT as a platform for single cell kill targeted radiotherapy by Auger electron emitters. PMID:24776093

  14. (67/68)Ga-labeling agent that liberates (67/68)Ga-NOTA-methionine by lysosomal proteolysis of parental low molecular weight polypeptides to reduce renal radioactivity levels.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Tomoya; Rokugawa, Takemi; Kinoshita, Mai; Nemoto, Souki; Fransisco Lazaro, Guerra Gomez; Hanaoka, Hirofumi; Arano, Yasushi

    2014-11-19

    The renal localization of gallium-67 or gallium-68 ((67/68)Ga)-labeled low molecular weight (LMW) probes such as peptides and antibody fragments constitutes a problem in targeted imaging. Wu et al. previously showed that (67)Ga-labeled S-2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (SCN-Bz-NOTA)-conjugated methionine ((67)Ga-NOTA-Met) was rapidly excreted from the kidney in urine following lysosomal proteolysis of the parental (67)Ga-NOTA-Bz-SCN-disulfide-stabilized Fv fragment (Bioconjugate Chem., (1997) 8, 365-369). In the present study, a new (67/68)Ga-labeling reagent for LMW probes that liberates (67/68)Ga-NOTA-Met was designed, synthesized, and evaluated using longer-lived (67)Ga in order to reduce renal radioactivity levels. We employed a methionine-isoleucine (MI) dipeptide bond as the cleavable linkage. The amine residue of MI was coupled with SCN-Bz-NOTA for (67)Ga-labeling, while the carboxylic acid residue of MI was derivatized to maleimide for antibody conjugation in order to synthesize NOTA-MI-Mal. A Fab fragment of the anti-Her2 antibody was thiolated with iminothiolane, and NOTA-MI-Mal was conjugated with the antibody fragment by maleimide-thiol chemistry. The Fab fragment was also conjugated with SCN-Bz-NOTA (NOTA-Fab) for comparison. (67)Ga-NOTA-MI-Fab was obtained at radiochemical yields of over 95% and was stable in murine serum for 24 h. In the biodistribution study using normal mice, (67)Ga-NOTA-MI-Fab registered significantly lower renal radioactivity levels from 1 to 6 h postinjection than those of (67)Ga-NOTA-Fab. An analysis of urine samples obtained 6 h after the injection of (67)Ga-NOTA-MI-Fab showed that the majority of radioactivity was excreted as (67)Ga-NOTA-Met. In the biodistribution study using tumor-bearing mice, the tumor to kidney ratios of (67)Ga-NOTA-MI-Fab were 4 times higher (6 h postinjection) than those of (67)Ga-NOTA-Fab. Although further studies including the structure of radiometabolites and

  15. ⁶⁸Ga-NOTA-UBI-29-41 as a PET Tracer for Detection of Bacterial Infection.

    PubMed

    Vilche, Mónica; Reyes, Ana Laura; Vasilskis, Elena; Oliver, Patricia; Balter, Henia; Engler, Henry

    2016-04-01

    The cationic peptide (68)Ga-NOTA-UBI-29-41 was synthesized and characterized. Biodistribution and PET/CT examinations were performed for evaluation of its biologic behavior. Differentiation of infection from sterile inflammation was investigated using microbiology methods at the sites of bacterial infections. Labeling of UBI-29-41 conjugated with NOTA with (68)Ga was optimized at 20°C-100°C and pH 3.5-5.5. Radiochemical purity, stability up to 260 min, and binding to serum proteins were determined. In vitro binding to Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated from 9.14 × 10(7) to 1.17 × 10(10) cfu/mL. Of 3 groups of Mus musculus Swiss male mice, the first was inoculated intramuscularly with 1.2 × 10(8) cfu of S. aureus to provoke infection, and the second, with 1.2 × 10(8) cfu of heat shock-treated S. aureus to generate sterile inflammation. The third mouse was not treated and served as a control. After 24 h, (68)Ga-NOTA-UBI-29-41 was administrated intravenously, and biodistribution was performed at 30, 60, and 120 min. PET/CT dynamic studies (120 min) were acquired. Sinograms were reconstructed using 3D maximum-likelihood expectation maximization and analyzed with software. Infected or inflamed muscles were dissected, homogenized, and cultured in tryptic soy agar medium. Recovered S. aureus was calculated as cfu/g. (68)Ga-NOTA-UBI-29-41 showed high renal excretion (83.2% ± 7.3%) of injected dose and rapid blood clearance. More than 95% was bound in vitro to 5 × 10(9) cfu/mL. A significantly higher (P< 0.05) accumulation of (68)Ga-NOTA-UBI-29-41 was observed at sites of S. aureus inoculation in infected mice (ratio of target to nontarget, 5.0 at 60 min and 4.1 at 120 min) compared with animals with inflammation (ratio of target to nontarget, 1.6 at 60 min and 1.2 at 120 min). The difference in uptake of (68)Ga-NOTA-UBI-29-41 in the infected muscles compared with the inflamed muscles was clearly observed in the PET/CT images and positively correlated with the

  16. In vivo imaging of Aminopeptidase N (CD13) receptors in experimental renal tumors using the novel radiotracer (68)Ga-NOTA-c(NGR).

    PubMed

    Máté, Gábor; Kertész, István; Enyedi, Kata Nóra; Mező, Gábor; Angyal, János; Vasas, Nikolett; Kis, Adrienn; Szabó, Éva; Emri, Miklós; Bíró, Tamás; Galuska, László; Trencsényi, György

    2015-03-10

    Aminopeptidase N (APN/CD13) plays an important role in tumor neoangiogenic process and the development of metastases. Furthermore, it may serve as a potential target for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Previous studies have already shown that asparagine-glycine-arginine (NGR) peptides specifically bind to APN/CD13. The aim of the study was to synthesize and investigate the APN/CD13 specificity of a novel (68)Ga-labeled NOTA-c(NGR) molecule in vivo using miniPET. c[KNGRE]-NH2 peptide was conjugated with p-SCN-Bn-NOTA and was labeled with Ga-68 ((68)Ga-NOTA-c(NGR)). Orthotopic and heterotopic transplanted mesoblastic nephroma (NeDe) bearing Fischer-344 rats were prepared, on which biodistribution studies and miniPET scans were performed for both (68)Ga-NOTA-c(NGR) and ανβ3 integrin selective (68)Ga-NODAGA-[c(RGD)]2 tracers. APN/CD13 receptor expression of NeDe tumors and metastases was analyzed by western blot. (68)Ga-NOTA-c(NGR) was produced with high specific activity (5.13-5.92GBq/μmol) and with excellent radiochemical purity (95%<), at all cases. Biodistribution studies in normal rats showed that uptake of the (68)Ga-NOTA-c(NGR) was significantly (p⩽0.05) lower in abdominal organs in comparison with (68)Ga-NODAGA-[c(RGD)]2. Both radiotracers were mainly excreted from the kidney. In NeDe tumor bearing rats higher (68)Ga-NOTA-c(NGR) accumulation was found in the tumors than that of the (68)Ga-NODAGA-[c(RGD)]2. Using orthotopic transplantation, metastases were developed which showed specific (68)Ga-NOTA-c(NGR) uptake. Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of APN/CD13 expression in NeDe tumors and metastases. Our novel radiotracer (68)Ga-NOTA-c(NGR) showed specific binding to the APN/CD13 expressed ortho- and heterotopic transplanted NeDe tumors. Therefore, (68)Ga-NOTA-c(NGR) is a suitable tracer for the detection of APN/CD13 positive tumors and metastases in vivo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Preparation and characterization of a novel Al(18)F-NOTA-BZA conjugate for melanin-targeted imaging of malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Chao; Chang, Chih-Hsien; Lo, Yi-Hsuan; Lin, Ming-Hsien; Shen, Chih-Chieh; Liu, Ren-Shyan; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Chen, Chuan-Lin

    2016-08-15

    Melanin is an attractive target for the diagnosis and treatment of malignant melanoma. Previous studies have demonstrated the specific binding ability of benzamide moiety to melanin. In this study, we developed a novel (18)F-labeled NOTA-benzamide conjugate, Al(18)F-NOTA-BZA, which can be synthesized in 30min with a radiochemical yield of 20-35% and a radiochemical purity of >95%. Al(18)F-NOTA-BZA is highly hydrophilic (logP=-1.96) and shows good in vitro stability. Intravenous administration of Al(18)F-NOTA-BZA in two melanoma-bearing mouse models revealed highly specific uptake in B16F0 melanotic melanoma (6.67±0.91 and 1.50±0.26%ID/g at 15 and 120min p.i., respectively), but not in A375 amelanotic melanoma (0.87±0.21 and 0.24±0.09%ID/g at 15 and 120min p.i., respectively). The clearance from most normal tissues was fast. A microPET scan of Al(18)F-NOTA-BZA-injected mice also displayed high-contrast tumor images as compared with normal organs. Owing to the favorable in vivo distribution of Al(18)F-NOTA-BZA after intravenous administration, the estimated absorption dose was low in all normal organs and tissues. The melanin-specific binding ability, sustained tumor retention, fast normal tissues clearance and thelow projected human dosimetry supported that Al(18)F-NOTA-BZA is a very promising melanin-specific PET probe for melanin-positive melanoma.

  18. Synthesis of (68)Ga-labeled NOTA-RGD-GE11 heterodimeric peptide for dual integrin and epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hung-Man; Chen, Jyun-Hong; Lin, Kun-Liang; Lin, Wuu-Jyh

    2015-06-15

    Radiolabeled Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide analogs have been extensively studied for αvβ3 integrin-targeted angiogenesis imaging. According to recently presented evidence, the dodecapeptide GE11 has high affinity to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is overexpressed in many types of cancer. Dual-receptor molecular imaging probes with two different heterodimeric peptides exhibit improved cancer targeting efficacy. In the present study, the design and synthesis of a new RGD-GE11 peptide heterodimer for dual αvβ3 integrin/EGFR-targeted cancer imaging are described. The RGD-GE11 heterodimer was linked with 6-aminohexanoic acid (6-Ahx) and cysteine and conjugated with 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N',N″-triacetic acid (NOTA) to form NOTA-RGD-cys-6-Ahx-GE11. The monomeric peptides, NOTA-cys-6-Ahx-GE11 and c(RGDyK), were formed by a peptide synthesizer. The peptide heterodimer NOTA-RGD-GE11 was obtained by NOTA-cys-6-Ahx-GE11 and maleimidopropyl-c(RGDyK) conjugation with a thioether linkage. The NOTA peptide conjugate was labeled with freshly eluted (68)Ga and purified using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD-cys-6-Ahx-GE11 was successfully prepared, in this study, with a radiochemical yield of 85% and a radiochemical purity of >98%. These results warrant further investigation of this heterodimeric peptide's binding affinity to the receptors. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Impact of dianionic and dicationic linkers on tumor uptake and biodistribution of [(64) Cu]Cu/NOTA peptide-based gastrin-releasing peptide receptors antagonists.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Nematallah; Dumulon-Perreault, Véronique; Ait-Mohand, Samia; Paquette, Michel; Lecomte, Roger; Guérin, Brigitte

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we investigated for the first time the influence of 2-aminoethyl-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid (APCA) and amino-hexanedioic-1-acid (AHDA) on tumor uptake and elimination kinetics of [(64) Cu]-radiolabeled gastrin releasing peptide receptors (GRPR) antagonists. Three GRPR antagonists containing the RM26 sequence were synthesized and conjugated with NOTA via different linkers (LK): polyethylene glycol (PEG-neutral), APCA (dicationic) or AHDA (dianionic). The NOTA-LK-RM26 peptides were radiolabeled with (64) Cu to assess their pharmacokinetic and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging properties using PC3 tumor-bearing athymic nude mice. The inhibition constants (Ki ) of the 3 (nat) Cu/NOTA-LK-RM26 peptides bearing PEG, dicationic and dianionic linkers were 0.98 ± 0.48 nM, 0.95 ± 0.21 nM, and 17.97 ± 2.79 nM, respectively. The [(64) Cu] NOTA-LK-RM26 conjugates were prepared with labeling yields superior to 95% and specific activities of 67 to 77 TBq/mmol. The 3 radiopeptides were stable in vivo and showed GRPR-specific uptake in pancreas with a very fast washout of this tissue observed for [(64) Cu]-NOTA-AHDA-RM26 peptide. Results from imaging studies displayed specific PC3 tumor uptake for both [(64) Cu]-NOTA-APCA- and AHDA-RM26, similar kidney elimination and fast liver washout. Considering their adequate imaging characteristics, [(64) Cu]-NOTA-LK-RM26 bearing APCA- and AHDA-linkers are promising candidates for GRPR-targeted PET imaging prostate cancer. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of a 64Cu-Labeled NOTA-Bn-SCN-Aoc-Bombesin Analogue in Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor Expressing Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Craft, Jeffrey M.; De Silva1, Ravindra A.; Lears, Kimberly A.; Andrews, Rebecca; Liang, Kexian; Achilefu, Samuel; Rogers, Buck E.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Bombesin (BN) is an amphibian peptide that binds to the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR). It has been demonstrated that BN analogues can be radiolabeled for potential diagnosis and treatment of GRPR-expressing malignancies. Previous studies have conjugated various chelators to the eight C-terminal amino acids of BN (BN(7-14)) for radiolabeling with 64Cu. Recently, (1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid) (NOTA) has been evaluated as the five coordinate 64Cu complex with results indicating GRPR-specific tumor uptake. This study aimed to conjugate S-2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-NOTA (p-SCN-Bn-NOTA) to BN(7-14) such that it could form a six coordinate complex with 64Cu and evaluate the resulting peptide. Methods p-SCN-NOTA was conjugated to 8-aminooctanoic acid (Aoc)-BN(7-14) in solution to yield NOTA-Bn-SCN-Aoc-BN(7-14). The unlabeled peptide was evaluated in a cell binding assay using PC-3 prostate cancer cells and 125I-Tyr4-BN to determine the IC50 value. The peptide was radiolabeled with 64Cu and evaluated for internalization into PC-3 cells and for tumor uptake in mice bearing PC-3 xenografts using biodistribution and microPET imaging studies. Results The binding assay demonstrated that NOTA-Bn-SCN-Aoc-BN(7-14) bound with high affinity to GRPR with an IC50 of 1.4 nM. The radiolabeled peptide demonstrated time-dependent internalization into PC-3 cells. In vivo, the peptide demonstrated tumor-specific uptake and imaging that was comparable to that of previously reported 64Cu-labeled BN analogues. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that 64Cu-NOTA-Bn-SCN-Aoc-BN(7-14) binds to GRPR expressing cells and that it can be used for imaging of GRPR-expressing prostate cancer. PMID:22261146

  1. Comparative gallium-68 labeling of TRAP-, NOTA-, and DOTA-peptides: practical consequences for the future of gallium-68-PET.

    PubMed

    Notni, Johannes; Pohle, Karolin; Wester, Hans-Jürgen

    2012-06-09

    Currently, 68Ga-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-peptides are the most widely used class of 68Ga radiotracers for PET, although DOTA is not optimal for 68Ga complexation. More recently, 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-triacetic acid (NOTA) and particularly triazacyclononane-phosphinate (TRAP) chelators have been shown to possess superior 68Ga binding ability. Here, we report on the efficiency, reproducibility, and achievable specific activity for fully automated 68Ga labeling of DOTA-, NOTA-, and TRAP-peptide conjugates. Compared to NOTA- and DOTA-peptides, achievable specific activity (AS) for TRAP-peptide is approximately 10 and 20 times higher, respectively. AS values in the range of 5,000 GBq/μmol were routinely obtained using 1 GBq of 68Ga, equivalent to 0.11 μg of cold mass for a 185-MBq patient dose of a 3-kDa conjugate. The TRAP-peptide could be 68Ga-labeled with excellent reproducibility and > 95% radiochemical yield for precursor amounts as low as 1 nmol. High 68Ga labeling efficiency of TRAP-peptides could facilitate realization of kit labeling procedures. The good reproducibility of the automated synthesis is of relevance for GMP production, and the possibility to provide very high specific activities offers a high degree of safety in first clinical trials, due to reduction of cold mass content in tracer formulations.

  2. (68)Ga/DOTA- and (64)Cu/NOTA-phthalocyanine conjugates as fluorescent/PET bimodal imaging probes.

    PubMed

    Ranyuk, Elena; Lebel, Réjean; Bérubé-Lauzière, Yves; Klarskov, Klaus; Lecomte, Roger; van Lier, Johan E; Guérin, Brigitte

    2013-09-18

    In this paper, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a series of new bimodal probes combining water-soluble sulfonated zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) as a fluorescence imaging unit and either (68)Ga/1,4,7,10-tetraazocyclododecane-N,N'N″,N'″-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) or (64)Cu/1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA) for PET imaging. The two moieties were linked through aliphatic chains of different lengths to modulate amphiphilicity. Labeling of DOTA- or NOTA-ZnPc conjugates with (68)Ga (t1/2 = 68 min) and (64)Cu (t1/2 = 12.7 h) was performed at 100 °C for 15 min with >90% efficiency for all conjugates. In vitro plasma stability assays demonstrated high stability of the (64)Cu/NOTA-ZnPc conjugate, which remained intact over a 24 h time period, and reasonably high stability of the (68)Ga/DOTA-ZnPc conjugate, which released up to 7% of free (68)Ga over a 3 h period. Based on in vitro plasma stability results, we performed biodistribution studies on two (64)Cu-labeled derivatives, which allowed us to select a single candidate for preliminary in vivo experiments. Fluorescence and PET imaging confirmed the potential of these novel conjugates to act as bimodal probes.

  3. Preliminary biological evaluation of (18)F-AlF-NOTA-MAL-Cys-Annexin V as a novel apoptosis imaging agent.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chunxiong; Jiang, Quanfu; Hu, Minjin; Tan, Cheng; Yu, Huixin; Hua, Zichun

    2017-08-01

    A novel annexin V derivative (Cys-Annexin V) with a single cysteine residue at its C-terminal has been successfully labeled site-specifically with NOTA-maleimide aluminum [(18)F]fluoride complexation and evaluated it as a novel apoptosis agent in vitro and in vivo. The total synthesis time of (18)F-AlF-NOTA-MAL-Cys-Annexin V from [(18)F]fluoride was about 65 min. The tracer was stable in vitro and it was excreted through renal in normal mice. The rate of the tracer bound to erythrocytes with exposed phosphatidylserine was 89.36±0.61% and this binding could be blocked by unlabeled Cys-Annexin V. In rats treated with cycloheximide, there were 6.23±0.23 times (n=4) increase in hepatic uptake of the tracer as compared to normal rats at 1h p.i. The uptake of the tracer in liver also could be blocked by co-injection of unlabeled Cys-Annexin V. These results indicated the favorable characterizations such as convenient synthesis and specific apoptotic cells targeting of(18)F-AlF-NOTA-MAL- Cys-Annexin V were suitable for its further investigation in clinical apoptosis imaging.

  4. Comparative gallium-68 labeling of TRAP-, NOTA-, and DOTA-peptides: practical consequences for the future of gallium-68-PET

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Currently, 68Ga-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-peptides are the most widely used class of 68Ga radiotracers for PET, although DOTA is not optimal for 68Ga complexation. More recently, 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-triacetic acid (NOTA) and particularly triazacyclononane-phosphinate (TRAP) chelators have been shown to possess superior 68Ga binding ability. Here, we report on the efficiency, reproducibility, and achievable specific activity for fully automated 68Ga labeling of DOTA-, NOTA-, and TRAP-peptide conjugates. Findings Compared to NOTA- and DOTA-peptides, achievable specific activity (AS) for TRAP-peptide is approximately 10 and 20 times higher, respectively. AS values in the range of 5,000 GBq/μmol were routinely obtained using 1 GBq of 68Ga, equivalent to 0.11 μg of cold mass for a 185-MBq patient dose of a 3-kDa conjugate. The TRAP-peptide could be 68Ga-labeled with excellent reproducibility and > 95% radiochemical yield for precursor amounts as low as 1 nmol. Conclusions High 68Ga labeling efficiency of TRAP-peptides could facilitate realization of kit labeling procedures. The good reproducibility of the automated synthesis is of relevance for GMP production, and the possibility to provide very high specific activities offers a high degree of safety in first clinical trials, due to reduction of cold mass content in tracer formulations. PMID:22682112

  5. Comparison of 18F-AIF-NOTA-PRGD2 and 18F-FDG uptake in lymph node metastasis of differentiated thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Weiwei; Wu, Zhenyu; Liang, Sheng; Fu, Hongliang; Wu, Shuqi; Tang, Yiyun; Ye, Zhiyi; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    A widespread application of integrin αvβ3 imaging has been emerging in both pre-clinical and clinical studies. But few studies reported its value as compared with 18F-FDG PET, especially for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). In this study, we compared the tracer uptake of 18F-AIF-NOTA-PRGD2 and 18F-FDG in lymph node metastasis of DTC to evaluate 18F-AIF-NOTA-PRGD2 as compared with 18F-FDG. 20 DTC patients with presumptive lymph node metastasis were examined with 18F-AIF-NOTA-PRGD2 and 18F-FDG PET/CT. 16 patients undergoing fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) were evaluated by cytology results. For lesions without FNAB, the findings of clinical staging procedures served as the standard of reference (including neck ultrasound and serum thyroglobulin). A total of 39 presumptive lymph node metastases were visualized on PET/CT images. 35 lesions were confirmed as malignant by FNAB and other clinical findings. The mean 18F-AIF-NOTA-PRGD2 in radioactive iodine-refractory (RAIR) lesions and benign lesions were 2.5±0.9 and 2.8±0.9 respectively. The mean SUV for 18F-FDG in all malignant lesions was 4.5±1.6 while in benign lesions it was 3.3±1.2. For all malignant lesions, the mean SUV for 18F-FDG was significantly higher than that for 18F-AIF-NOTA-PRGD2 (P<0.05). No significant correlation was found between the SUVs of 18F-AIF-NOTA-PRGD2 and 18F-FDG for 35 lesions (r = 0.114, P = 0.515). Moreover, 15 lesions of which the diameter larger than 1.5 cm had higher 18F-AIF-NOTA-PRGD2 uptake as compared with the lesions smaller than 1.5 cm. Although most lymph node metastases of DTC showed abnormal uptake of 18F-AIF-NOTA-PRGD2, its diagnostic value was inferior to 18F-FDG. No correlation was found between the uptake of 18F-AIF-NOTA-PRGD2 and 18F-FDG, which may suggest the two tracers provide complementary information in DTC lesions.

  6. Comparison of 18F-AIF-NOTA-PRGD2 and 18F-FDG Uptake in Lymph Node Metastasis of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Sheng; Fu, Hongliang; Wu, Shuqi; Tang, Yiyun; Ye, Zhiyi; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    A widespread application of integrin αvβ3 imaging has been emerging in both pre-clinical and clinical studies. But few studies reported its value as compared with 18F-FDG PET, especially for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). In this study, we compared the tracer uptake of 18F-AIF-NOTA-PRGD2 and 18F-FDG in lymph node metastasis of DTC to evaluate 18F-AIF-NOTA-PRGD2 as compared with 18F-FDG. Methods 20 DTC patients with presumptive lymph node metastasis were examined with 18F-AIF-NOTA-PRGD2 and 18F-FDG PET/CT. 16 patients undergoing fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) were evaluated by cytology results. For lesions without FNAB, the findings of clinical staging procedures served as the standard of reference (including neck ultrasound and serum thyroglobulin). Results A total of 39 presumptive lymph node metastases were visualized on PET/CT images. 35 lesions were confirmed as malignant by FNAB and other clinical findings. The mean 18F-AIF-NOTA-PRGD2 in radioactive iodine-refractory (RAIR) lesions and benign lesions were 2.5±0.9 and 2.8±0.9 respectively. The mean SUV for 18F-FDG in all malignant lesions was 4.5±1.6 while in benign lesions it was 3.3±1.2. For all malignant lesions, the mean SUV for 18F-FDG was significantly higher than that for 18F-AIF-NOTA-PRGD2 (P<0.05). No significant correlation was found between the SUVs of 18F-AIF-NOTA-PRGD2 and 18F-FDG for 35 lesions (r = 0.114, P = 0.515). Moreover, 15 lesions of which the diameter larger than 1.5cm had higher 18F-AIF-NOTA-PRGD2 uptake as compared with the lesions smaller than 1.5cm. Conclusion Although most lymph node metastases of DTC showed abnormal uptake of 18F-AIF-NOTA-PRGD2, its diagnostic value was inferior to 18F-FDG. No correlation was found between the uptake of 18F-AIF-NOTA-PRGD2 and 18F-FDG, which may suggest the two tracers provide complementary information in DTC lesions. PMID:24956393

  7. Quantitative positron emission tomography imaging of angiogenesis in rats with forelimb ischemia using (68)Ga-NOTA-c(RGDyK).

    PubMed

    Kim, Joong Hyun; Kim, Young-Hwa; Kim, Young Joo; Yang, Bo Yeun; Jeong, Jae Min; Youn, Hyewon; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Jae Sung

    2013-10-01

    Gallium-68-labeled 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA)-cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Tyr-Lys (c(RGDyK)) was developed for αvβ3 targeting, and is a promising agent for imaging of cancer and disorders related to angiogenesis. In this study, we performed kinetic analysis of (68)Ga-NOTA-c(RGDyK) in rats with surgically induced forelimb ischemia, and immunohistochemical analysis was also performed to assess αvβ3 immuno-staining level. Animal models were created by excision of the left brachial vessels, and a sham operation was performed on the right brachial region under 2 % isoflurane anesthesia. Using an animal positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scanner, a list mode PET scan (120 min) was started with the injection of (68)Ga-NOTA-c(RGDyK) via the tail vein at 3, 5 and 7 days after ischemic surgery. Volumes of interest were drawn on the left ventricle, sham operation, control, and ischemic regions. Compartmental and two graphical analyses (Logan and RE plots) were performed for kinetic parameter estimation. The immunohistochemical analysis was also performed after the last PET scan, and cell components were scored on a six point scale for quantification of immuno-staining level (0-negative to 5-very high). A 3-compartment model with reversible binding best described the tissue time-activity curves. The distribution volume of the ischemic region was significantly higher than that of the sham operation (P < 10(-6)) and control region (P < 10(-9)). Both the Logan and RE plots showed high correlation with compartmental analysis (R(2) = 0.96 and 0.95 for Logan and RE, respectively). The temporal changes in distribution volume and binding potential were not significant. The immuno-staining level of the ischemic region was significantly higher than that of sham operation (P < 10(-4)) and control region (P < 10(-8)). Kinetic modeling studies with dynamic (68)Ga-NOTA-c(RGDyK) PET scan are feasible based on an image-derived input function in a

  8. A systematic study on the utility of CHX-A''-DTPA-NCS and NOTA-NCS as bifunctional chelators for (177)Lu radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Usha; Gamre, Naresh; Lohar, Sharad Pandurang; Dash, Ashutosh

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of [(R)-2-Amino-3-(4-isothiocyanatophenyl)propyl]-trans-(S,S)-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine-pentaacetic acid (CHX-A''-DTPA-NCS) and 2-S-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA-NCS) as bifunctional chelators for (177)Lu. While (177)Lu-CHX-A''-DTPA-NCS could be obtained in high yields at equimolar ratios of lutetium to CHX-A''-DTPA-NCS, >95% yield of (177)Lu-NOTA-NCS could be achieved at 1:2M ratio of lutetium to NOTA-NCS. Trace metals reduced the yields of (177)Lu-NOTA-NCS significantly as compared to (177)Lu-CHX-A''-DTPA-NCS. In vitro stability of (177)Lu-CHX-A''-DTPA-NCS was also superior to (177)Lu-NOTA-NCS. It could be concluded from this study that among the two chelators evaluated, CHX-A''-DTPA-NCS is more appropriate for preparation of (177)Lu radiopharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of a high-affinity NOTA-conjugated bombesin antagonist for GRPR-targeted tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Varasteh, Zohreh; Velikyan, Irina; Lindeberg, Gunnar; Sörensen, Jens; Larhed, Mats; Sandström, Mattias; Selvaraju, Ram Kumar; Malmberg, Jennie; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Orlova, Anna

    2013-07-17

    The gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR/BB2) is a molecular target for the visualization of prostate cancer. This work focused on the development of high-affinity, hydrophilic, antagonistic, bombesin-based imaging agents for PET and SPECT. The bombesin antagonist analog d-Phe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Sta-Leu-NH2 ([d-Phe(6),Sta(13),Leu(14)]bombesin[6-14]) was synthesized and conjugated to 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N',N″-triacetic acid (NOTA) via a diethylene glycol (PEG2) linker. The resulting conjugate, NOTA-PEG2-[d-Phe(6),Sta(13),Leu(14)]bombesin[6-14] (NOTA-P2-RM26), was labeled with (68)Ga (T1/2 = 68 min, positron emitter) and (111)In (T1/2 = 2.8 days, gamma emitter). The labeling stability, specificity, inhibition efficiency (IC50), and dissociation constant (KD) of both labeled compounds as well as their cellular retention and internalization were investigated. The pharmacokinetics of the dual isotope ((111)In/(68)Ga)-labeled peptide in both normal NMRI mice and PC-3 tumor-bearing Balb/c nu/nu mice was also studied. NOTA-P2-RM26 was labeled with (111)In and (68)Ga at a radiochemical yield of >98%. Both conjugates were shown to have high specificity and binding affinity for GRPR. The KD value was determined to be 23 ± 13 pM for the (111)In-labeled compound in a saturation binding experiment. In addition, (nat)In- and (nat)Ga-NOTA-P2-RM26 showed low nanomolar binding inhibition concentrations (IC50 = 1.24 ± 0.29 nM and 0.91 ± 0.19 nM, respectively) in a competitive binding assay. The internalization rate of the radiolabeled conjugates was slow. The radiometal-labeled tracers demonstrated rapid blood clearance via the kidney and GRPR-specific uptake in the pancreas in normal mice. Tumor targeting and biodistribution studies in mice bearing PC-3 xenografts displayed high and specific uptake in tumors (8.1 ± 0.4%ID/g for (68)Ga and 5.7 ± 0.3%ID/g for (111)In) and high tumor-to-background ratios (tumor/blood: 12 ± 1 for (68)Ga and 10 ± 1 for (111)In

  10. Gallium(III) complexes of NOTA-bis (phosphonate) conjugates as PET radiotracers for bone imaging.

    PubMed

    Holub, Jan; Meckel, Marian; Kubíček, Vojtěch; Rösch, Frank; Hermann, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Ligands with geminal bis(phosphonic acid) appended to 1,4,7-triazacyclonone-1,4-diacetic acid fragment through acetamide (NOTAM(BP) ) or methylenephosphinate (NO2AP(BP) ) spacers designed for (68) Ga were prepared. Ga(III) complexation is much faster for ligand with methylenephosphinate spacer than that with acetamide one, in both chemical (high reactant concentrations) and radiolabeling studies with no-carrier-added (68) Ga. For both ligands, formation of Ga(III) complex was slower than that with NOTA owing to the strong out-of-cage binding of bis(phosphonate) group. Radiolabeling was efficient and fast only above 60 °C and in a narrow acidity region (pH ~3). At higher temperature, hydrolysis of amide bond of the carboxamide-bis(phosphonate) conjugate was observed during complexation reaction leading to Ga-NOTA complex. In vitro sorption studies confirmed effective binding of the (68) Ga complexes to hydroxyapatite being comparable with that found for common bis(phosphonate) drugs such as pamindronate. Selective bone uptake was confirmed in healthy rats by biodistribution studies ex vivo and by positron emission tomography imaging in vivo. Bone uptake was very high, with SUV (standardized uptake value) of 6.19 ± 1.27 for [(68) Ga]NO2AP(BP) ) at 60 min p.i., which is superior to uptake of (68) Ga-DOTA-based bis(phosphonates) and [(18) F]NaF reported earlier (SUV of 4.63 ± 0.38 and SUV of 4.87 ± 0.32 for [(68) Ga]DO3AP(BP) and [(18) F]NaF, respectively, at 60 min p.i.). Coincidently, accumulation in soft tissue is generally low (e.g. for kidneys SUV of 0.26 ± 0.09 for [(68) Ga]NO2AP(BP) at 60 min p.i.), revealing the new (68) Ga complexes as ideal tracers for noninvasive, fast and quantitative imaging of calcified tissue and for metastatic lesions using PET or PET/CT. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. PET imaging with [⁶⁸Ga]NOTA-RGD for prostate cancer: a comparative study with [¹⁸F]fluorodeoxyglucose and [¹⁸F]fluoroethylcholine.

    PubMed

    Israel, Ina; Richter, Dominik; Stritzker, Jochen; van Ooschot, Michaela; Donat, Ulrike; Buck, Andreas K; Samnick, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    The α(v)β₃ integrin is highly expressed in prostate cancer (PCa), in which it is a key player in tumour invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis formation. Therefore, α(v)β₃ integrin is considered a very promising target for molecular imaging of PCa. This study tested the potential of the novel α(v)β₃ integrin affine agent [⁶⁸Ga]NOTA-RGD in comparison with the established [¹⁸F]fluoroethylcholine (FEC) and [¹⁸F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) for assessing PCa using positron emission tomography (PET). [⁶⁸Ga]NOTA-RGD showed a lower uptake in PC-3 and DU-145 cells compared with FEC and FDG. µPET imaging studies showed a good delineation of the PCa xenografts in mice. The means tumor-to-muscle and tumor-to-bone-ratio amounted 5.1 ± 1.4 and 5.2 ± 1.2 for [⁶⁸Ga]NOTA-RGD compared with 2.6 ± 0.9 and 2.9 ± 1.6 for FDG, and 2.4 ± 0.7 and 0.8 ± 0.2 for FEC, respectively. The uptake of [⁶⁸Ga]NOTA-RGD into tumor was fully inhibited by c(RGDfV), known to bind specifically to α(v)β₃ integrin, confirming the specificity of the tumor uptake in vivo. These results suggest that [⁶⁸Ga]NOTA-RGD is a promising candidate for PET imaging of α(v)β₃ integrin expression in PCa and warrant further in vivo validations to ascertain its potential as an imaging agent for clinical use. The simple and fast preparation of [⁶⁸Ga]NOTA-RGD may greatly facilitate its translation to a clinical setting.

  12. 68Ga-NOTA-exendin-4 PET/CT in localization of an occult insulinoma and appearance of coexisting esophageal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yaping; Li, Naishi; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Li, Fang

    2015-01-01

    A 61-year-old woman with biochemically proven endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia and negative conventional imaging underwent 68Ga-NOTA-exendin-4 PET/CT for localization of insulinoma. Focal intense radioactivity in the tail of the pancreas was observed that was subsequently confirmed as insulinoma pathologically after surgical resection. Additionally, esophageal carcinoma with lymph node and hepatic metastases was found by FDG PET/CT in the same patient. Neither the primary carcinoma nor the metastases showed increased radioactivity on 68Ga-NOTA-exendin-4 PET/CT. PMID:26647001

  13. Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor-PET with (68)Ga-NOTA-AE105: First Clinical Experience with a Novel PET Ligand.

    PubMed

    Skovgaard, Dorthe; Persson, Morten; Kjaer, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a key component in proteolysis and extracellular matrix degradation during cancer invasion and metastasis. uPAR overexpression is an important biomarker for aggressiveness in several solid tumors and provides independent clinical information. A recent major breakthrough was obtained with human translation of uPAR PET using (68)Ga-NOTA-AE105. Clinical results are encouraging and several large-scale clinical trials are now ongoing. This review focuses on uPAR PET with (68)Ga-NOTA-AE105 as a new broadly applicable diagnostic and prognostic imaging biomarker in cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. In vivo characterization of 68Ga-NOTA-VEGF 121 for the imaging of VEGF receptor expression in U87MG tumor xenograft models.

    PubMed

    Kang, Choong Mo; Kim, Sung-Min; Koo, Hyun-Jung; Yim, Min Su; Lee, Kyung-Han; Ryu, Eun Kyoung; Choe, Yearn Seong

    2013-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs) are associated with tumor growth and induction of tumor angiogenesis and are known to be overexpressed in various human tumors. In the present study, we prepared and evaluated (68)Ga-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid-benzyl (NOTA)-VEGF(121) as a positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand for the in vivo imaging of VEGFR expression. (68)Ga-NOTA-VEGF(121) was prepared by conjugation of VEGF(121) and p-SCN-NOTA, followed by radiolabeling with (68)GaCl(3) and then purification using a PD-10 column. Human aortic endothelial cell (HAEC) binding of (68)Ga-NOTA-VEGF(121) was measured as a function of time. MicroPET and biodistribution studies of U87MG tumor xenografted mice were performed at 1, 2, and 4 h after injection of (68)Ga-NOTA-VEGF(121). The tumor tissues were then sectioned and subjected to immunostaining. The decay-corrected radiochemical yield of (68)Ga-NOTA-VEGF(121) was 40 ± 4.5 % and specific activity was 243.1 ± 104.6 GBq/μmol (8.6 ± 3.7 GBq/mg). (68)Ga-NOTA-VEGF(121) was avidly taken up by HAECs in a time-dependent manner, and the uptake was blocked either by 32 % with VEGF(121) or by 49 % with VEGFR2 antibody at 4 h post-incubation. In microPET images of U87MG tumor xenografted mice, radioactivity was accumulated in tumors (2.73±0.32 %ID/g at 2 h), and the uptake was blocked by 40 % in the presence of VEGF(121). In biodistribution studies, tumor uptake (1.84±0.14 %ID/g at 2 h) was blocked with VEGF(121) at a similar level (52 %) to that of microPET images. Immunostaining analysis of U87MG tumor tissues obtained after the microPET imaging showed high levels of VEGFR2 expression. These results demonstrate that (68)Ga-NOTA-VEGF(121) has potential for the in vivo imaging of VEGFR expression. In addition, our results also suggest that the in vivo characteristics of radiolabeled VEGF depend on the properties of the radioisotope and the chelator used.

  15. 68Ga-NOTA-Exendin-4 PET/CT in Localization of an Occult Insulinoma and Appearance of Coexisting Esophageal Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yaping; Li, Naishi; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Li, Fang

    2016-04-01

    A 61-year-old woman with biochemically proven endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia and negative conventional imaging underwent 68Ga-NOTA-exendin-4 PET/CT for localization of insulinoma. Focal intense radioactivity in the tail of the pancreas was observed that was subsequently confirmed as insulinoma pathologically after surgical resection. In addition, esophageal carcinoma with lymph node and hepatic metastases was found by FDG PET/CT in the same patient. Neither the primary carcinoma nor the metastases showed increased radioactivity on 68Ga-NOTA-exendin-4 PET/CT.

  16. Syntheses and preliminary evaluation of [(18) F]AlF-NOTA-G-TMTP1 for PET imaging of high aggressive hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Yesen; Zhang, Deliang; Shi, Ying; Guo, Zhide; Wu, Xinying; Ren, Jian-Lin; Zhang, Xianzhong; Wu, Hua

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate a new (18) F-labeled imaging agent for diagnosing high metastatic (aggressive) hepatocellular carcinoma using positron emission tomography (PET). The new (18) F-labeled imaging agent [(18) F]AlF-NOTA-G-TMTP1 was synthesized and radiolabeled with (18) F using NOTA-AlF chelation method. The tumor-targeting characteristics of [(18) F]AlF-NOTA-G-TMTP1 was assessed in HepG2, SMCC-7721, HCC97L and HCCLM3 xenografts. The total synthesis time was about 20 min with radiochemical yield of 25 ± 6%. The specific activity was about 11.1-14.8 GBq/µmol at the end of synthesis based on the amount of peptide used and the amount of radioactivity trapped on the C18 column. The log P value of [(18) F]AlF-NOTA-G-TMTP1 was -3.166 ± 0.022. [(18) F]AlF-NOTA-G-TMTP1 accumulated in SMCC-7721 and HCCLM3 tumors (high metastatic potential) in vivo and result in tumor/muscle (T/M) ratios of 4.5 ± 0.3 and 4.7 ± 0.2 (n = 4) as measured by PET at 40 min post-injection (p.i.). Meanwhile, the tumor/muscle (T/M) ratios of HepG2 and HCC97L tumors (low metastatic potential) were1.6 ± 0.3 and 1.8 ± 0.4. The tumor uptake of [(18) F]AlF-NOTA-G-TMTP1 could be inhibited 61.9% and 57.6% by unlabeled G-TMTP1 in SMCC-7721 and HCCLM3 xenografts at 40 min p.i., respectively. Furthermore, [(18) F]AlF-NOTA-G-TMTP1 showed pretty low activity in the liver and intestines in all tumor bearing mice, such in vivo distribution pattern would be advantageous for the detection of hepatic carcinoma. Overall, [(18) F]AlF-NOTA-G-TMTP1 may specifically target high metastatic or/and aggressive hepatocellular carcinoma with low background activity and, therefore, holds the potential to be used as an imaging agent for detecting tumor lesions within the liver area. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of a 18F-Labeled High Affinity NOTA Conjugated Bombesin Antagonist as a PET Ligand for GRPR-Targeted Tumor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Velikyan, Irina; Lindeberg, Gunnar; Sörensen, Jens; Larhed, Mats; Antoni, Gunnar; Sandström, Mattias; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Orlova, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Expression of the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) in prostate cancer suggests that this receptor can be used as a potential molecular target to visualize and treat these tumors. We have previously investigated an antagonist analog of bombesin (D-Phe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Sta-Leu-NH2, RM26) conjugated to 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N',N''-triacetic acid (NOTA) via a diethylene glycol (PEG2) spacer (NOTA-P2-RM26) labeled with 68Ga and 111In. We found that this conjugate has favorable properties for in vivo imaging of GRPR-expression. The focus of this study was to develop a 18F-labelled PET agent to visualize GRPR. NOTA-P2-RM26 was labeled with 18F using aluminum-fluoride chelation. Stability, in vitro binding specificity and cellular processing tests were performed. The inhibition efficiency (IC50) of the [natF]AlF-NOTA-P2-RM26 was compared to that of the natGa-loaded peptide using 125I-Tyr4-BBN as the displacement radioligand. The pharmacokinetics and in vivo binding specificity of the compound were studied. NOTA-P2-RM26 was labeled with 18F within 1 h (60-65% decay corrected radiochemical yield, 55 GBq/µmol). The radiopeptide was stable in murine serum and showed high specific binding to PC-3 cells. [natF]AlF-NOTA-P2-RM26 showed a low nanomolar inhibition efficiency (IC50=4.4±0.8 nM). The internalization rate of the tracer was low. Less than 14% of the cell-bound radioactivity was internalized after 4 h. The biodistribution of [18F]AlF-NOTA-P2-RM26 demonstrated rapid blood clearance, low liver uptake and low kidney retention. The tumor uptake at 3 h p.i. was 5.5±0.7 %ID/g, and the tumor-to-blood, -muscle and -bone ratios were 87±42, 159±47, 38±16, respectively. The uptake in tumors, pancreas and other GRPR-expressing organs was significantly reduced when excess amount of non-labeled peptide was co-injected. The low uptake in bone suggests a high in vivo stability of the Al-F bond. High contrast PET image was obtained 3 h p.i. The initial biological

  18. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a (18)F-labeled high affinity NOTA conjugated bombesin antagonist as a PET ligand for GRPR-targeted tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Varasteh, Zohreh; Aberg, Ola; Velikyan, Irina; Lindeberg, Gunnar; Sörensen, Jens; Larhed, Mats; Antoni, Gunnar; Sandström, Mattias; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Orlova, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Expression of the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) in prostate cancer suggests that this receptor can be used as a potential molecular target to visualize and treat these tumors. We have previously investigated an antagonist analog of bombesin (D-Phe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Sta-Leu-NH2, RM26) conjugated to 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N',N''-triacetic acid (NOTA) via a diethylene glycol (PEG2) spacer (NOTA-P2-RM26) labeled with (68)Ga and (111)In. We found that this conjugate has favorable properties for in vivo imaging of GRPR-expression. The focus of this study was to develop a (18)F-labelled PET agent to visualize GRPR. NOTA-P2-RM26 was labeled with (18)F using aluminum-fluoride chelation. Stability, in vitro binding specificity and cellular processing tests were performed. The inhibition efficiency (IC50) of the [(nat)F]AlF-NOTA-P2-RM26 was compared to that of the (nat)Ga-loaded peptide using (125)I-Tyr(4)-BBN as the displacement radioligand. The pharmacokinetics and in vivo binding specificity of the compound were studied. NOTA-P2-RM26 was labeled with (18)F within 1 h (60-65% decay corrected radiochemical yield, 55 GBq/µmol). The radiopeptide was stable in murine serum and showed high specific binding to PC-3 cells. [(nat)F]AlF-NOTA-P2-RM26 showed a low nanomolar inhibition efficiency (IC50=4.4±0.8 nM). The internalization rate of the tracer was low. Less than 14% of the cell-bound radioactivity was internalized after 4 h. The biodistribution of [(18)F]AlF-NOTA-P2-RM26 demonstrated rapid blood clearance, low liver uptake and low kidney retention. The tumor uptake at 3 h p.i. was 5.5±0.7 %ID/g, and the tumor-to-blood, -muscle and -bone ratios were 87±42, 159±47, 38±16, respectively. The uptake in tumors, pancreas and other GRPR-expressing organs was significantly reduced when excess amount of non-labeled peptide was co-injected. The low uptake in bone suggests a high in vivo stability of the Al-F bond. High contrast PET image was obtained 3 h p

  19. Evaluation of a Flexible NOTA-RGD Kit Solution Using Gallium-68 from Different (68)Ge/(68)Ga-Generators: Pharmacokinetics and Biodistribution in Nonhuman Primates and Demonstration of Solitary Pulmonary Nodule Imaging in Humans.

    PubMed

    Ebenhan, Thomas; Schoeman, Isabel; Rossouw, Daniel D; Grobler, Anne; Marjanovic-Painter, Biljana; Wagener, Judith; Kruger, Hendrik G; Sathekge, Mike M; Zeevaart, Jan Rijn

    2017-06-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals containing the motive tripeptide arginyl-glycyl-asparatic acid (RGD) are known to target ανβ3 integrins during tumor angiogenesis. A more generic kit radiolabeling procedure accommodating Ga-68 from different generators was developed for NOTA-RGD and evaluated for its versatile use and safety in subsequent in vivo applications. The [(68)Ga]NOTA-RGD kit was further verified for its expected biodistribution and pharmacokinetics in nonhuman primates and its clinical sensitivity to detect solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN) in cancer patients. Single vial kits containing 28-56 nmol of NOTA-cyclo-Arg-Gly-Asp-d-Tyr-Lys (NOTA-RGD) and sodium acetate trihydrate buffer were formulated. Versatility of the NOTA-RGD radiolabeling performance and adaption to a TiO2- and a SnO2-based generator type, characterization and long-term storage stability of the kits were carried out. The blood clearance and urine recovery kinetics as well as the image-guided biodistribution of [(68)Ga]NOTA-RGD was studied in a vervet monkey model. [(68)Ga]NOTA-RGD kits were further tested clinically to target solitary pulmonary nodules. The kits could be successfully formulated warranting integrity over 3-4 months with a good [(68)Ga]NOTA-RGD radiolabeling performance (radiochemical purity >95 %, decay corrected yield 76-94 %, specific activity of 8.8-37.9 GBq/μmol) The kits met all quality requirements to be further tested in vivo. [(68)Ga]NOTA-RGD cleared rapidly from blood and was majorly excreted via the renal route. The liver, spleen, heart and intestines showed initial uptake with steadily declining tissue activity concentration over time. In addition, the [(68)Ga]NOTA-RGD kit allowed for delineation of SPN from non-malignant lung tissue in humans. A more versatile radiolabeling procedure using kit-formulated NOTA-RGD and different generator types was achieved. The uncompromised in vivo behavior and efficient targeting of SPN warrants further investigations on the

  20. Comparative study of 64Cu/NOTA-[D-Tyr6,βAla11,Thi13,Nle14]BBN(6-14) monomer and dimers for prostate cancer PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Patrick; Dumulon-Perreault, Véronique; Ait-Mohand, Samia; Langlois, Réjean; Bénard, François; Lecomte, Roger; Guérin, Brigitte

    2012-02-14

    Gastrin-releasing peptide receptors [GRPR] are highly over-expressed in multiple cancers and have been studied as a diagnostic target. Multimeric gastrin-releasing peptides are expected to have enhanced tumor uptake and affinity for GRPR. In this study, a 64Cu-labeled 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid [NOTA]-monomer and two NOTA-dimers of [D-Tyr6,βAla11, Thi13, Nle14]bombesin(6-14) ] [BBN(6-14)] were compared. Monomeric and dimeric peptides were synthesized on solid phase support and radiolabeled with 64Cu. NOTA-dimer 1 consists of asymmetrically linked BBN(6-14), while NOTA-dimer 2 has similar spacer between the two BBN(6-14) ligands and the chelator. In vitro GRPR-binding affinities were determined with competitive binding assays on PC3 human prostate cancer cells. In vivo stability and biodistribution of radiolabeled compounds were assessed in Balb/c mice. Cellular uptake and efflux were measured with radiolabeled NOTA-monomer and NOTA-dimer 2 on PC3 cells for up to 4 h. In vivo biodistribution kinetics were measured in PC3 tumor-bearing Balb/c nude mice by μ-positron emission tomography [μPET] imaging and confirmed by dissection and counting. NOTA-monomer, NOTA-dimers 1 and 2 were prepared with purity of 99%. The inhibition constants of the three BBN peptides were comparable and in the low nanomolar range. All 64Cu-labeled peptides were stable up to 24 h in mouse plasma and 1 h in vivo. 64Cu/NOTA-dimer 2 featuring a longer spacer between the two BBN(6-14) ligands is a more potent GRPR-targeting probe than 64Cu/NOTA-dimer 1. PC3 tumor uptake profiles are slightly different for 64Cu/NOTA-monomer and 64Cu/NOTA-dimer 2; the monomeric BBN-peptide tracer exhibited higher tumor uptake during the first 0.5 h and a fast renal clearance resulting in higher tumor-to-muscle ratio when compared to 64Cu/NOTA-dimer 2. The latter exhibited higher tumor-to-blood ratio and was retained longer at the tumor site when compared to 64Cu/NOTA-monomer. Lower ratios of

  1. MicroPET/CT imaging of αvβ₃ integrin via a novel ⁶⁸Ga-NOTA-RGD peptidomimetic conjugate in rat myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Menichetti, Luca; Kusmic, Claudia; Panetta, Daniele; Arosio, Daniela; Petroni, Debora; Matteucci, Marco; Salvadori, Piero A; Casagrande, Cesare; L'Abbate, Antonio; Manzoni, Leonardo

    2013-08-01

    The αvβ3 integrin is expressed in angiogenic vessels and is a potential target for molecular imaging of evolving pathological processes. Its expression is upregulated in cancer lesions and metastases as well as in acute myocardial infarction (MI) as part of the infarct healing process. The purpose of our study was to determine the feasibility of a new imaging approach with a novel (68)Ga-2,2',2″-(1,4,7-triazonane-1,4,7-triyl)triacetic acid (NOTA)-arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) construct to assess integrin expression in the evolving MI. A straightforward labelling chemistry to attach the radionuclide (68)Ga to a NOTA-based chelating agent conjugated with a cyclic RGD peptidomimetic is described. Affinity for αvβ₃ integrin was assessed by in vitro receptor binding assay. The proof-of-concept in vivo studies combined the (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD with the flow tracer (13)N-NH₃ imaging in order to obtain positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging of both integrin expression and perfusion defect at 4 weeks after infarction. Hearts were then processed for immunostaining of integrin β₃. NOTA-RGD conjugate displayed a binding affinity for αvβ₃ integrin of 27.9 ± 6.8 nM. (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD showed stability without detectable degradation or formation of by-products in urine up to 2 h following injection in the rat. MI hearts exhibited (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD uptake in correspondence to infarcted and border zone regions. The tracer signal drew a parallel with vascular remodelling due to ischaemia-induced angiogenesis as assessed by immunohistochemistry. As compared to similar imaging approaches using the (18)F-galacto-derivative, we documented for the first time with microPET/CT imaging the (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD derivative that appears eligible for PET imaging in animal models of vascular remodelling during evolving MI. The simple chemistry employed to synthesize the (68)Ga-based radiotracer may greatly facilitate its translation to a clinical setting.

  2. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a 64Cu-labeled NOTA-Bn-SCN-Aoc-bombesin analogue in gastrin-releasing peptide receptor expressing prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Craft, Jeffrey M; De Silva, Ravindra A; Lears, Kimberly A; Andrews, Rebecca; Liang, Kexian; Achilefu, Samuel; Rogers, Buck E

    2012-07-01

    Bombesin (BN) is an amphibian peptide that binds to the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR). It has been demonstrated that BN analogues can be radiolabeled for potential diagnosis and treatment of GRPR-expressing malignancies. Previous studies have conjugated various chelators to the eight C-terminal amino acids of BN [BN(7-14)] for radiolabeling with 64Cu. Recently, (1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid) (NOTA) has been evaluated as the five-coordinate 64Cu complex, with results indicating GRPR-specific tumor uptake. This study aimed to conjugate S-2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-NOTA (p-SCN-Bn-NOTA) to BN(7-14) such that it could form a six-coordinate complex with 64Cu and to evaluate the resulting peptide. p-SCN-NOTA was conjugated to 8-aminooctanoic acid (Aoc)-BN(7-14) in solution to yield NOTA-Bn-SCN-Aoc-BN(7-14). The unlabeled peptide was evaluated in a cell binding assay using PC-3 prostate cancer cells and 125I-Tyr4-BN to determine the IC50 value. The peptide was radiolabeled with 64Cu and evaluated for internalization into PC-3 cells and for tumor uptake in mice bearing PC-3 xenografts using biodistribution and micro-positron emission tomography imaging studies. The binding assay demonstrated that NOTA-Bn-SCN-Aoc-BN(7-14) bound with high affinity to GRPR with an IC50 of 1.4 nM. The radiolabeled peptide demonstrated time-dependent internalization into PC-3 cells. In vivo, the peptide demonstrated tumor-specific uptake and imaging that were comparable to those of previously reported 64Cu-labeled BN analogues. These studies demonstrate that 64Cu-NOTA-Bn-SCN-Aoc-BN(7-14) binds to GRPR-expressing cells and that it can be used for imaging of GRPR-expressing prostate cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Preclinical evaluation of [(68)Ga]NOTA-pentixafor for PET imaging of CXCR4 expression in vivo - a comparison to [(68)Ga]pentixafor.

    PubMed

    Poschenrieder, Andreas; Schottelius, Margret; Schwaiger, Markus; Wester, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-12-01

    Due to its overexpression in a variety of tumor types, the chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) represents a highly relevant diagnostic and therapeutic target in nuclear oncology. Recently, [(68)Ga]pentixafor has emerged as an excellent imaging agent for positron emission tomography (PET) of CXCR4 expression in vivo. In this study, the corresponding [(68)Ga]-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-triacetic acid (NOTA) analog was preclinically evaluated and compared to the 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) parent compound [(68)Ga]pentixafor. NOTA-pentixafor was synthesized by combining solid and solution-phase peptide synthesis. The CXCR4 receptor affinities of [(68)Ga]pentixafor and [(68)Ga]NOTA-pentixafor were determined in competitive binding assays using the leukemic CXCR4-expressing Jurkat T-cell line and [(125)I]FC131 as the radioligand. Internalization and cell efflux assays were performed using CXCR4-transfected Chem-1 cells. Small-animal PET and biodistribution studies were carried out using Daudi-tumor bearing SCID mice. [(68)Ga]NOTA-pentixafor showed a 1.4-fold improved affinity towards CXCR4 (IC50). However, internalization efficiency into CXCR4(+)-Chem-1 cells was substantially decreased compared to [(68)Ga]pentixafor. Accordingly, small-animal PET imaging and biodistribution studies revealed a 9.5-fold decreased uptake of [(68)Ga]NOTA-pentixafor in Daudi lymphoma xenografts (1.7 ± 0.4 % vs 16.2 ± 3.8 % ID/g at 90 min p.i.) and higher levels of non-specific accumulation, primarily in the excretory organs such as the liver, intestines, and kidneys (2.3 ± 0.9 % vs 2.0 ± 0.3 % ID/g, 1.9 ± 0.8 % vs 0.7 ± 0.2 % ID/g, and 2.7 ± 1.1 % vs 1.7 ± 0.9 % ID/g, respectively). Despite enhanced CXCR4-affinity in vitro, the [(68)Ga]NOTA-analog of pentixafor showed reduced CXCR4 targeting efficiency in vivo. In combination with enhanced background accumulation, this resulted in significantly inferior PET imaging

  4. The effect of mini-PEG-based spacer length on binding and pharmacokinetic properties of a 68Ga-labeled NOTA-conjugated antagonistic analog of bombesin.

    PubMed

    Varasteh, Zohreh; Rosenström, Ulrika; Velikyan, Irina; Mitran, Bogdan; Altai, Mohamed; Honarvar, Hadis; Rosestedt, Maria; Lindeberg, Gunnar; Sörensen, Jens; Larhed, Mats; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Orlova, Anna

    2014-07-17

    The overexpression of gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) in cancer can be used for peptide-receptor mediated radionuclide imaging and therapy. We have previously shown that an antagonist analog of bombesin RM26 conjugated to 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N',N''-triacetic acid (NOTA) via a diethyleneglycol (PEG2) spacer (NOTA-PEG2-RM26) and labeled with 68Ga can be used for imaging of GRPR-expressing tumors. In this study, we evaluated if a variation of mini-PEG spacer length can be used for optimization of targeting properties of the NOTA-conjugated RM26. A series of analogs with different PEG-length (n = 2, 3, 4, 6) was synthesized, radiolabeled and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The IC50 values of natGa-NOTA-PEGn-RM26 (n = 2, 3, 4, 6) were 3.1 ± 0.2, 3.9 ± 0.3, 5.4 ± 0.4 and 5.8 ± 0.3 nM, respectively. In normal mice all conjugates demonstrated similar biodistribution pattern, however 68Ga-NOTA-PEG3-RM26 showed lower liver uptake. Biodistribution of 68Ga-NOTA-PEG3-RM26 was evaluated in nude mice bearing PC-3 (prostate cancer) and BT-474 (breast cancer) xenografts. High uptake in tumors (4.6 ± 0.6%ID/g and 2.8 ± 0.4%ID/g for PC-3 and BT-474 xenografts, respectively) and high tumor-to-background ratios (tumor/blood of 44 ± 12 and 42 ± 5 for PC-3 and BT-474 xenografts, respectively) were found already at 2 h p.i. of 68Ga-NOTA-PEG3-RM26. Results of this study suggest that variation in the length of the PEG spacer can be used for optimization of targeting properties of peptide-chelator conjugates. However, the influence of the mini-PEG length on biodistribution is minor when di-, tri-, tetra- and hexaethylene glycol are compared.

  5. Synthesis, preclinical validation, dosimetry, and toxicity of 68Ga-NOTA-anti-HER2 Nanobodies for iPET imaging of HER2 receptor expression in cancer.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Catarina; Vaneycken, Ilse; D'huyvetter, Matthias; Heemskerk, Johannes; Keyaerts, Marleen; Vincke, Cécile; Devoogdt, Nick; Muyldermans, Serge; Lahoutte, Tony; Caveliers, Vicky

    2013-05-01

    Nanobodies are the smallest fully functional antigen-binding antibody fragments possessing ideal properties as probes for molecular imaging. In this study we labeled the anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) Nanobody with (68)Ga via a 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA) derivative and assessed its use for HER2 iPET imaging. The 2Rs15dHis6 Nanobody and the lead optimized current-good-manufacturing-practice grade analog 2Rs15d were conjugated with S-2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (p-SCN-Bn-NOTA) to enable fast and efficient (68)Ga labeling. Biodistribution and PET/CT studies were performed on HER2-positive and -negative tumor xenografts. The effect of injected mass on biodistribution was evaluated. The biodistribution data were extrapolated to calculate radiation dose estimates for the adult female using OLINDA software. A single-dose extended-toxicity study for NOTA-2Rs15d was performed on healthy mice up to a dose of 10 mg/kg. Radiolabeling was quantitative (>97%) after 5 min of incubation at room temperature; specific activity was 55-200 MBq/nmol. Biodistribution studies showed fast and specific uptake (percentage injected activity [%IA]) in HER2-positive tumors (3.13 ± 0.06 and 4.34 ± 0.90 %IA/g for (68)Ga-NOTA-2Rs15dHis6 and (68)Ga-NOTA-2Rs15d, respectively, at 1 h after injection) and high tumor-to-blood and tumor-to-muscle ratios at 1 h after injection, resulting in high-contrast PET/CT images with high specific tumor uptake. A remarkable finding of the biodistribution studies was that kidney uptake was reduced by 60% for the Nanobody lacking the C-terminal His6 tag. The injected mass showed an effect on the general biodistribution: a 100-fold increase in NOTA-2Rs15d mass decreased liver uptake from 7.43 ± 1.89 to 2.90 ± 0.26 %IA/g whereas tumor uptake increased from 2.49 ± 0.68 to 4.23 ± 0.99 %IA/g. The calculated effective dose, based on extrapolation of mouse data, was 0

  6. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor PET/CT with 68Ga-NOTA-Exendin-4 for Detecting Localized Insulinoma: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yaping; Pan, Qingqing; Yao, Shaobo; Yu, Miao; Wu, Wenming; Xue, Huadan; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Zhu, Zhaohui; Li, Fang; Zhao, Yupei; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2016-05-01

    Preoperative localization of insulinoma is a clinical dilemma. We aimed to investigate whether glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) PET/CT with (68)Ga-NOTA-MAL-cys(40)-exendin-4 ((68)Ga-NOTA-exendin-4) is efficient in detecting insulinoma. In our prospective cohort study, patients with endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia were enrolled. CT, MRI, endoscopic ultrasound, and (99m)Tc-hydrazinonicotinamide-TOC SPECT/CT were done according to standard protocols. GLP-1R PET/CT was performed 30-60 min after the injection of (68)Ga-NOTA-exendin-4. The gold standard for diagnosis was the histopathologic results after surgery. Of 52 recruited patients, 43 patients with histopathologically proven insulinomas were included for the imaging studies. Nine patients did not undergo surgical intervention. (68)Ga-NOTA-exendin-4 PET/CT correctly detected insulinomas in 42 of 43 patients with high tumor uptake (mean SUVavg ± SD, 10.2 ± 4.9; mean SUVmax ± SD, 23.6 ± 11.7), resulting in sensitivity of 97.7%. In contrast, (99m)Tc-hydrazinonicotinamide-TOC SPECT/CT showed a low sensitivity of 19.5% (8/41) in this group of patients; however, it successfully localized the tumor that was false-negative with GLP-1R PET/CT. The sensitivities of CT, MR, and endoscopic ultrasonography were 74.4% (32/43), 56.0% (14/25), and 84.0% (21/25), respectively. (68)Ga-NOTA-exendin-4 PET/CT is a highly sensitive imaging technique for the localization of insulinoma. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  7. Whole-body distribution and radiation dosimetry of (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD, a positron emission tomography agent for angiogenesis imaging.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joong Hyun; Lee, Jae Sung; Kang, Keon Wook; Lee, Ho-Young; Han, Sae-Won; Kim, Tae-You; Lee, Yun-Sang; Jeong, Jae Min; Lee, Dong Soo

    2012-02-01

    (68)Ga labeled NOTA-RGD was a recently developed positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer for the visualization of angiogenesis, and is regarded as a promising imaging agent for cancer and several other disorders. In this study, we investigated the whole-body distribution and radiation dosimetry of (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD in humans. Ten cancer patients (53.7 ± 13.5 years; 61.5 ± 7.4  kg) participated in this study. PET scans were performed using a PET/computed tomography (scanner in three-dimensional mode). After an intravenous injection of 172.4 ± 20.5  MBq of (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD, eight serial whole-body scans were performed during 90 minutes. Volumes of interest were drawn manually over the entire volumes of the urinary bladder, the gallbladder, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, pancreas, spleen, and stomach. Time-activity curves were obtained from serial PET scan data. Residence times were calculated from areas under curve of time-activity curves and used as input to the OLINDA/EXM 1.1 software. The uptake of (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD was highest in the kidneys and urinary bladder. Radiation doses to kidneys and urinary bladder were 71.6 ± 28.4  μ Gy/MBq and 239.6 ± 56.6  μ Gy/MBq. Mean effective doses were 25.0 ± 4.4  μ Sv/MBq using International Commission of Radiation Protection (ICRP) publication 60 and 22.4 ± 3.8  μ Sv/MBq using ICRP publication 103 weighting factor. We evaluated the radiation dosimetry of (68)Ga labeled NOTA-RGD, which has an acceptable effective radiation dose.

  8. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor PET/CT with 68Ga-NOTA-Exendin-4 for Detecting Localized Insulinoma: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yaping; Pan, Qingqing; Yao, Shaobo; Yu, Miao; Wu, Wenming; Xue, Huadan; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Zhu, Zhaohui; Li, Fang; Zhao, Yupei; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2017-01-01

    Preoperative localization of insulinoma is a clinical dilemma. We aimed to investigate whether glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) PET/CT with 68Ga-NOTA-MAL-cys40-exendin-4 (68Ga-NOTA-exendin-4) is efficient in detecting insulinoma. Methods In our prospective cohort study, patients with endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia were enrolled. CT, MRI, endoscopic ultrasound, and 99mTc-hydrazinonicotinamide-TOC SPECT/CT were done according to standard protocols. GLP-1R PET/CT was performed 30–60 min after the injection of 68Ga-NOTA-exendin-4. The gold standard for diagnosis was the histopathologic results after surgery. Results Of 52 recruited patients, 43 patients with histopathologically proven insulinomas were included for the imaging studies. Nine patients did not undergo surgical intervention. 68Ga-NOTA-exendin-4 PET/CT correctly detected insulinomas in 42 of 43 patients with high tumor uptake (mean SUVavg ± SD, 10.2 ± 4.9; mean SUVmax ± SD, 23.6 ± 11.7), resulting in sensitivity of 97.7%. In contrast, 99mTc-hydrazinonicotinamide-TOC SPECT/CT showed a low sensitivity of 19.5% (8/41) in this group of patients; however, it successfully localized the tumor that was false-negative with GLP-1R PET/CT. The sensitivities of CT, MR, and endoscopic ultrasonography were 74.4% (32/43), 56.0% (14/25), and 84.0% (21/25), respectively. Conclusion 68Ga-NOTA-exendin-4 PET/CT is a highly sensitive imaging technique for the localization of insulinoma. PMID:26795291

  9. PET imaging of angiogenesis after myocardial infarction/reperfusion using a one-step labeled integrin-targeted tracer 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2.

    PubMed

    Gao, Haokao; Lang, Lixin; Guo, Ning; Cao, Feng; Quan, Qimeng; Hu, Shuo; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2012-04-01

    The α(v)β(3) integrin represents a potential target for noninvasive imaging of angiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel one-step labeled integrin α(v)β(3)-targeting positron emission tomography (PET) probe, (18)F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2, for angiogenesis imaging in a myocardial infarction/reperfusion (MI/R) animal model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 45-min transient left coronary artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. The myocardial infarction was confirmed by ECG, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) imaging, and cardiac ultrasound. In vivo PET imaging was used to determine myocardial uptake of (18)F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 at different time points following reperfusion. The control peptide RAD was labeled with a similar procedure and used to confirm the specificity. Ex vivo autoradiographic analysis and CD31/CD61 double immunofluorescence staining were performed to validate the PET results. Myocardial origin of the (18)F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 accumulation was confirmed by (18)F-FDG and autoradiography. PET imaging demonstrated increased focal accumulation of (18)F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 in the infarcted area which started at day 3 (0.28 ± 0.03%ID/g, p < 0.05) and peaked between 1 and 3 weeks (0.59 ± 0.16 and 0.55 ± 0.13%ID/g, respectively). The focal accumulation decreased but still kept at a higher level than the sham group after 4 months of reperfusion (0.31 ± 0.01%ID/g, p < 0.05). Pretreatment with unlabeled arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide significantly decreased tracer uptake, indicating integrin specificity of this tracer. At 1 week after MI/R, uptake of the control tracer (18)F-AlF-NOTA-RAD that does not bind to integrin, in the infarcted area, was only 0.21 ± 0.01%ID/g. Autoradiographic imaging showed the same trend of uptake in the myocardial infarction area. The time course of focal tracer uptake was consistent with the pattern of vascular density and integrin β(3) expression as measured by CD31 and CD61 immunostaining analysis. PET

  10. PET Imaging of Angiogenesis after Myocardial Infarction/Reperfusion using a One-Step Labeled Integrin Targeted Tracer 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Haokao; Lang, Lixin; Guo, Ning; Cao, Feng; Quan, Qimeng; Hu, Shuo; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2012-01-01

    Objective The αvβ3 integrin represents a potential target for noninvasive imaging of angiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel one-step labeled integrin αvβ3 targeting PET probe, 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2, for angiogenesis imaging in a myocardial infract/reperfusion (MI/R) animal model. Methods Male SD rats underwent 45 min transient left coronary artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. The myocardial infarction was confirmed by ECG, 18F-FDG imaging and cardiac ultrasound. In vivo PET imaging were used to determine myocardial uptake of 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 at different time points following reperfusion. The control peptide RAD was labeled with a similar procedure and used to confirm the specificity. Ex vivo autoradiographic analysis and CD31/CD61 double immunofluoresence staining were performed to validate the PET results. Results Myocardial origin of the 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 accumulation was confirmed by 18F-FDG and autoradiography. PET imaging demonstrated increased focal accumulation of 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 in the infarcted area started at day 3 (0.28 ± 0.03 %ID/g, p < 0.05), peaked between 1 and 3 weeks (0.59 ± 0.16 and 0.55 ± 0.13 %ID/g, respectively). The focal accumulation decreased but still kept at a higher level than the sham group after 4 months of reperfusion (0.31 ± 0.01 %ID/g, p < 0.05). Pretreatment with unlabeled RGD peptide significantly decreased tracer uptake, indicating integrin specificity of this tracer. At 1 week after MI/R, uptake of the control tracer 18F-AlF-NOTA-RAD that does not bind to integrin, in the infarcted area, was only 0.21 ± 0.01 %ID/g. Autoradiographic imaging showed the same trend of uptake in myocardial infarction area. The time course of focal tracer uptake was consistent with the pattern of vascular density and integrin β3 expression as measured by CD31 and CD61 immunostaining analysis. Conclusion PET imaging using one-step labeled 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 allows noninvasive visualization of ischemia

  11. "Que vienen los lobos!" (Breve nota sobre el plural de los apellidos) ("May The Wolves Come:" [A Brief Note on the Plural of Surnames])

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivaldi, Gonzalo Martin

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses the problems that arise with the formation of plural forms of surnames in Spanish, problems both with morphology and with ambiguity. Suggestions as to how to lessen problems are made. (Text is in Spanish.) (CLK)

  12. (68)Ga-NOTA-CHSg and (99m)Tc-CHSg Labeled Microspheres for Lung Perfusion and Liver Radiomicrospheres Therapy Planning.

    PubMed

    Amor-Coarasa, Alejandro; Milera, Andrew; Carvajal, Denny; Gulec, Seza; Leichner, Jared; McGoron, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    Fast biodegradable (12 h < half-life < 48 h) radioactive labeled microspheres are needed for PET and SPECT lung perfusion and radiomicrosphere therapy planning. An emulsion method was used to create 30.1 ±4.8  μ m size range microspheres with biodegradable Chitosan glycol (CHSg). Microspheres were characterized and labeled with (99m)Tc or (68)Ga as an alternative to MAA in perfusion PET and SPECT studies. Surface decoration of CHSg microspheres with p-SCN-Bn-NOTA was performed to increase (68)Ga  in vivo stability. (99m)Tc was labeled directly to the CHSg microspheres. Labeling yield and in vitro radiochemical stability were evaluated. In vitro CHSg microsphere degradation half-life was ~24 hours in porcine blood. Labeled microspheres were injected into Sprague Dawley rats and biodistribution was determined after 2 and 4 hours. Both (99m)Tc-CHSg and (68)Ga-NOTA-CHSg were quickly allocated in the lungs after injection. (99m)Tc-CHSg showed 91.6 ± 6.5% and 83.2 ± 4.1% of the decay corrected injected activity remaining in the lungs after 2 and 4 hours, respectively. For the obtained (68)Ga-NOTA-CHSg microspheres, lung allocation was very high with 98.9 ± 0.2% and 95.6 ± 0.9% after 2 and 4 hours, respectively. The addition of p-SCN-Bn-NOTA acts as a radioprotectant eliminating the released (68)Ga activity from the lungs to the bladder protecting the other organs.

  13. Novel radiolabeled peptides for breast and prostate tumor PET imaging: (64)Cu/and (68)Ga/NOTA-PEG-[D-Tyr(6),βAla(11),Thi(13),Nle(14)]BBN(6-14).

    PubMed

    Fournier, Patrick; Dumulon-Perreault, Véronique; Ait-Mohand, Samia; Tremblay, Sébastien; Bénard, François; Lecomte, Roger; Guérin, Brigitte

    2012-08-15

    Bombesin (BBN)-based radiolabeled peptides exhibit promising properties for targeted imaging of gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPR)-positive tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate with positron emission tomography (PET) the pharmacokinetic and imaging properties of two novel BBN-based radiolabeled peptides, (64)Cu/and (68)Ga/NOTA-PEG-BBN(6-14), for diagnosis of breast and prostate cancers using small animal models. Competitive binding assays on T47D breast and PC3 prostate cancer cells showed that the affinity for GRPR depends on the complexed metal and can vary up to a factor of about 3; (64)Cu/NOTA-PEG-BBN(6-14) was found to have the lowest inhibition constant (1.60 ± 0.59 nM). (64)Cu/and (68)Ga/NOTA-PEG-BBN(6-14) presented similar cell uptake on T47D and PC3 cells and were stable in vivo. Biodistribution studies of radiolabeled peptides carried out in Balb/c and tumor-bearing Balb/c nude mice showed that (64)Cu/NOTA-PEG-BBN(6-14) presented higher GRPR-mediated uptake in pancreas and adrenal glands, but comparable PC3 tumor uptake as (68)Ga/NOTA-PEG-BBN(6-14). Finally, receptor-dependent responses were observed during blocking studies with unlabeled peptide in both biodistribution and small-animal PET imaging studies. Our results confirmed the dependence of the affinity and pharmacokinetics of BBN-based radiopeptides on the complexed radiometal. Interspecies differences between mouse and human GRPR binding properties were also noted in these preclinical studies. Considering their good imaging characteristics, both (64)Cu/NOTA-PEG-BBN(6-14) and (68)Ga/NOTA-PEG-BBN(6-14) are promising candidates for GRPR-targeted PET imaging of breast and prostate cancers.

  14. Imaging angiogenesis using (68)Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 positron emission tomography/computed tomography in patients with severe intracranial atherosclerotic disease.

    PubMed

    Shu, Shi; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Yi Cheng; Li, Fang; Cui, Li Ying; Wang, Hao; Sun, Yi; Wu, Pei Lin; Zhu, Zhao Hui; Peng, Bin

    2017-10-01

    Angiogenesis is a critical compensation route, which has been demonstrated in the brain following ischemic stroke; however, few studies have investigated angiogenesis in chronic intracranial atherosclerosis disease (ICAD). We used (68)Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 positron emission tomography/computed tomography based imaging to detect angiogenesis in chronic ICAD and to explore the factors that may have affected it. A total of 21 participants with unilateral severe chronic ICAD were included in the study. Of the 21 participants, 19 were men; the mean (SD) age was 52 (15) years. In 18 participants, we observed elevated (68)Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 uptake in the peri-infarct, subcortical, and periventricular regions of the lesioned side, with a higher (68)Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 SUVmax compared to that in the contralateral hemisphere (0.15 vs. 0.06, p=0.001). The (18)F-FDG PET SUVmax was significantly lower on the lesioned side (11.28 vs. 13.92, p=0.001). Subgroup analyses revealed that the recent group (<6 months) had a higher lesion-to-contralateral region ratio SUVmax than the remote group (>6 months) (6.73 vs. 2.36, p<0.05). Our results provide molecular imaging evidence of angiogenesis in patients with severe chronic ICAD. Furthermore, the extent of angiogenesis in chronic ICAD may be affected by the post-qualified event time interval, and not by infarction itself or the severity of the arterial lesion.

  15. Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of CD105 Expression with a 64Cu-Labeled Monoclonal Antibody: NOTA Is Superior to DOTA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yin; Hong, Hao; Engle, Jonathan W.; Bean, Jero; Yang, Yunan; Leigh, Bryan R.; Barnhart, Todd E.; Cai, Weibo

    2011-01-01

    Optimizing the in vivo stability of positron emission tomography (PET) tracers is of critical importance to cancer diagnosis. In the case of 64Cu-labeled monoclonal antibodies (mAb), in vivo behavior and biodistribution is critically dependent on the performance of the bifunctional chelator used to conjugate the mAb to the radiolabel. This study compared the in vivo characteristics of 64Cu-labeled TRC105 (a chimeric mAb that binds to both human and murine CD105), through two commonly used chelators: 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA) and 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA). Flow cytometry analysis confirmed that chelator conjugation of TRC105 did not affect its CD105 binding affinity or specificity. PET imaging and biodistribution studies in 4T1 murine breast tumor-bearing mice revealed that 64Cu-NOTA-TRC105 exhibited better stability than 64Cu-DOTA-TRC105 in vivo, which resulted in significantly lower liver uptake without compromising the tumor targeting efficiency. In conclusion, this study confirmed that NOTA is a superior chelator to DOTA for PET imaging with 64Cu-labeled TRC105. PMID:22174762

  16. Development and pre-clinical evaluation of new 68Ga-NOTA-folate conjugates for PET imaging of folate receptor-positive tumors.

    PubMed

    Aljammaz, Ibrahim; Al-Otaibi, Basim; Al-Hokbany, Nourah; Amer, Suad; Okarvi, Subhani

    2014-11-01

    In an attempt to develop new folate radiotracers with favorable biochemical properties for detecting folate receptor-positive cancers, we synthesized 68Ga-NOTA- and 68Ga-NOTAM-folate conjugates using a straightforward and a one-step simple reaction. Radiochemical yields were greater than 95% (decay-corrected) with total synthesis time of less than 20 min. Radiochemical purities were always greater than 98% without high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) purification. These synthetic approaches hold considerable promise as a rapid and simple method for 68Ga-folate conjugate preparation with high radiochemical yield in a short synthesis time. In vitro tests on the KB cell line showed that significant amounts of the radioconjugates were associated with cell fractions. Biodistribution studies in nude mice bearing human KB xenografts, demonstrated a significant tumor uptake and favorable biodistribution profile for 68Ga-NOTA-folate over the 68Ga-NOTAM-folate conjugate. The uptake in the tumors was blocked by excess injection of folic acid, suggesting a receptor-mediated process. These results demonstrate that the 68Ga-NOTA-folate conjugate may be useful as a molecular probe for detection and staging of folate receptor-positive cancers, such as ovarian cancer and their metastasis, as well as monitoring tumor response to treatment. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  17. Isomerism of [64Cu-NOTA-Bn]-labeled radiotracers: separation of two complex isomers and determination of their interconversion energy barrier using ion pair chromatography.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Joern; Rajander, Johan; Ihalainen, Janne A; Ramesh, Dinesh; Eklund, Patrik; Fagerholm, Veronica; Nuutila, Pirjo; Solin, Olof

    2011-05-16

    The model complex [(64)Cu((S)-p-NH(2)-Bn-NOTA)](-) ([(64)Cu]1) was used to study the isomerism of [(64)Cu-NOTA-Bn]-labeled radiotracers. Two complex isomers [(64)Cu]1a and [(64)Cu]1b, which were formed at a ratio of 1:9 during the complexation of [(64)Cu]Cu(2+) with (S)-p-NH(2)-Bn-NOTA, were separated using ion pair chromatography. To study the interconversion, the nonradioactive complex isomers Cu1a and Cu1b were separated and thermally treated at 90 °C in both ammonium acetate solution and deionized water. A faster interconversion rate was observed for both isomers with lower concentrations of ammonium ions. At the end of reaction, the thermodynamic Cu1a to Cu1b equilibrium ratio was 6:94. The particular energy barriers of the interconversion for Cu1a and Cu1b were 130 kJ mol(-1) and 140 kJ mol(-1). Spectrophotometric measurements with Cu1a and Cu1b revealed two isomers adopting different geometrical configurations.

  18. Positron emission tomography imaging of CD105 expression with a 64Cu-labeled monoclonal antibody: NOTA is superior to DOTA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin; Hong, Hao; Engle, Jonathan W; Bean, Jero; Yang, Yunan; Leigh, Bryan R; Barnhart, Todd E; Cai, Weibo

    2011-01-01

    Optimizing the in vivo stability of positron emission tomography (PET) tracers is of critical importance to cancer diagnosis. In the case of (64)Cu-labeled monoclonal antibodies (mAb), in vivo behavior and biodistribution is critically dependent on the performance of the bifunctional chelator used to conjugate the mAb to the radiolabel. This study compared the in vivo characteristics of (64)Cu-labeled TRC105 (a chimeric mAb that binds to both human and murine CD105), through two commonly used chelators: 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA) and 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA). Flow cytometry analysis confirmed that chelator conjugation of TRC105 did not affect its CD105 binding affinity or specificity. PET imaging and biodistribution studies in 4T1 murine breast tumor-bearing mice revealed that (64)Cu-NOTA-TRC105 exhibited better stability than (64)Cu-DOTA-TRC105 in vivo, which resulted in significantly lower liver uptake without compromising the tumor targeting efficiency. In conclusion, this study confirmed that NOTA is a superior chelator to DOTA for PET imaging with (64)Cu-labeled TRC105.

  19. [64Cu-NOTA-8-Aoc-BBN(7-14)NH2] targeting vector for positron-emission tomography imaging of gastrin-releasing peptide receptor-expressing tissues.

    PubMed

    Prasanphanich, Adam F; Nanda, Prasant K; Rold, Tammy L; Ma, Lixin; Lewis, Michael R; Garrison, Jered C; Hoffman, Timothy J; Sieckman, Gary L; Figueroa, Said D; Smith, Charles J

    2007-07-24

    Radiolabeled peptides hold promise as diagnostic/therapeutic targeting vectors for specific human cancers. We report the design and development of a targeting vector, [(64)Cu-NOTA-8-Aoc-BBN(7-14)NH(2)] (NOTA = 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid, 8-Aoc = 8-aminooctanoic acid, and BBN = bombesin), having very high selectivity and affinity for the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPr). GRPrs are expressed on a variety of human cancers, including breast, lung, pancreatic, and prostate, making this a viable approach toward site-directed localization or therapy of these human diseases. In this study, [NOTA-X-BBN(7-14)NH(2)] conjugates were synthesized, where X = a specific pharmacokinetic modifier. The IC(50) of [NOTA-8-Aoc-BBN(7-14)NH(2)] was determined by a competitive displacement cell-binding assay in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells using (125)I-[Tyr(4)]-BBN as the displacement ligand. An IC(50) of 3.1 +/- 0.5 nM was obtained, demonstrating high binding affinity of [NOTA-8-Aoc-BBN] for the GRPr. [(64)Cu-NOTA-X-BBN] conjugates were prepared by the reaction of (64)CuCl(2) with peptides in buffered aqueous solution. In vivo studies of [(64)Cu-NOTA-8-Aoc-BBN(7-14)NH(2)] in tumor-bearing PC-3 mouse models indicated very high affinity of conjugate for the GRPr. Uptake of conjugate in tumor was 3.58 +/- 0.70% injected dose (ID) per g at 1 h postintravenous injection (p.i.). Minimal accumulation of radioactivity in liver tissue (1.58 +/- 0.40% ID per g, 1 h p.i.) is indicative of rapid renal-urinary excretion and suggests very high in vivo kinetic stability of [(64)Cu-NOTA-8-Aoc-BBN(7-14)NH(2)] with little or no in vivo dissociation of (64)Cu(2+) from the NOTA chelator. Kidney accumulation at 1 h p.i. was 3.79 +/- 1.09% ID per g. Molecular imaging studies in GRPr-expressing tumor models produced high-contrast, high-quality micro-positron-emission tomography images.

  20. Estudios sobre Educacion, 2002 (Studies on Education, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estudios sobre Educacion, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This journal, which provides abstracts of its articles mostly in Spanish and a few in English, contains studies (estudios) and notes (notas) about educational issues, as well as relevant book reviews (recensiones). Studies in this issue (No. 3, 2002) are: "Unprotected Time of Early Adolescence and Intergenerational Relations: A New…

  1. Evaluation of an [(18)F]AlF-NOTA Analog of Exendin-4 for Imaging of GLP-1 Receptor in Insulinoma.

    PubMed

    Kiesewetter, Dale O; Guo, Ning; Guo, Jinxia; Gao, Haokao; Zhu, Lei; Ma, Ying; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2012-01-01

    The GLP-1 receptor plays an important role in glucose homeostasis and thus is a very important target for diabetes therapy. The receptor is also overexpressed in insulinoma, a tumor of pancreatic beta-cells. We previously evaluated two fluorine-18-labeled analogs of exendin-4 prepared by conjugation with [(18)F]FBEM (N-[2-(4-[(18)F]fluorobenzamide)ethyl]maleimide). Both compounds demonstrated good tumor uptake, but the synthesis of the radiotracers was time consuming. To overcome this challenge, we developed a NOTA analog and performed radiolabeling using aluminum [(18)F]fluoride complexation. Cys(40)-exendin-4 was conjugated with NOTA mono N-ethylmaleimide. [(18)F]AlF conjugation was conducted and the radiolabeled product purified by preparative HPLC. Dynamic and static PET imaging scans were conducted on nude mice with established INS-1 xenografts. Uptake of tumor and other major organs in static images was quantitated (%ID/g) and comparison with blocking studies was made. PET quantification was also compared with ex vivo biodistribution results. The radiosynthesis provided [(18)F]AlF-NOTA-MAL-cys(40)-exendin-4 in 23.6 ± 2.4 % radiochemical yield (uncorrected, n = 3) after HPLC; the process required about 55 min. The specific activity at time of injection ranged from 19.6 to 31.4 GBq (0.53-0.85 Ci)/µmol. Tumor uptake had reached its maximum (16.09 ± 1.18% ID/g, n = 4) by 5 min and remained nearly constant for the duration of the study. Kidney uptake continued to increase throughout the entire one hour time course. Pre-injection of exendin-4 caused a marked reduction in tissue uptake with the major exception of liver and kidneys, in which uptake was not affected. HPLC analysis of the radioactive components in extracts of the tumor and plasma showed primarily parent compound at 60 min post-injection, whereas extracts of kidney and urine contained exclusively one polar radioactive component. The radiotracer is prepared in a simple one-step procedure and obtained

  2. Safety, Dosimetry, and Tumor Detection Ability of (68)Ga-NOTA-AE105: First-in-Human Study of a Novel Radioligand for uPAR PET Imaging.

    PubMed

    Skovgaard, Dorthe; Persson, Morten; Brandt-Larsen, Malene; Christensen, Camilla; Madsen, Jacob; Klausen, Thomas Levin; Holm, Søren; Andersen, Flemming Littrup; Loft, Annika; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Pappot, Helle; Brasso, Klaus; Kroman, Niels; Højgaard, Liselotte; Kjaer, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    The overexpression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptors (uPARs) represents an established biomarker for aggressiveness in most common malignant diseases, including breast cancer (BC), prostate cancer (PC), and urinary bladder cancer (UBC), and is therefore an important target for new cancer therapeutic and diagnostic strategies. In this study, uPAR PET imaging using a (68)Ga-labeled version of the uPAR-targeting peptide (AE105) was investigated in a group of patients with BC, PC, and UBC. The aim of this first-in-human, phase I clinical trial was to investigate the safety and biodistribution in normal tissues and uptake in tumor lesions. Methods: Ten patients (6 PC, 2 BC, and 2 UBC) received a single intravenous dose of (68)Ga-NOTA-AE105 (154 ± 59 MBq; range, 48-208 MBq). The biodistribution and radiation dosimetry were assessed by serial whole-body PET/CT scans (10 min, 1 h, and 2 h after injection). Safety assessment included measurements of vital signs with regular intervals during the imaging sessions and laboratory blood screening tests performed before and after injection. In a subgroup of patients, the in vivo stability of (68)Ga-NOTA-AE105 was determined in collected blood and urine. PET images were visually analyzed for visible tumor uptake of (68)Ga-NOTA-AE105, and SUVs were obtained from tumor lesions by manually drawing volumes of interest in the malignant tissue. Results: No adverse events or clinically detectable pharmacologic effects were found. The radioligand exhibited good in vivo stability and fast clearance from tissue compartments primarily by renal excretion. The effective dose was 0.015 mSv/MBq, leading to a radiation burden of 3 mSv when the clinical target dose of 200 MBq was used. In addition, radioligand accumulation was seen in primary tumor lesions as well as in metastases. Conclusion: This first-in-human, phase I clinical trial demonstrates the safe use and clinical potential of (68)Ga-NOTA-AE105 as a new radioligand for

  3. Preclinical Comparative Study of (68)Ga-Labeled DOTA, NOTA, and HBED-CC Chelated Radiotracers for Targeting PSMA.

    PubMed

    Ray Banerjee, Sangeeta; Chen, Zhengping; Pullambhatla, Mrudula; Lisok, Ala; Chen, Jian; Mease, Ronnie C; Pomper, Martin G

    2016-06-15

    (68)Ga-labeled, low-molecular-weight imaging agents that target the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) are increasingly used clinically to detect prostate and other cancers with positron emission tomography (PET). The goal of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of three PSMA-targeted radiotracers: (68)Ga-1, using DOTA-monoamide as the chelating agent; (68)Ga-2, containing the macrocyclic chelating agent p-SCN-Bn-NOTA; and (68)Ga-DKFZ-PSMA-11, currently in clinical trials, which uses the acyclic chelating agent, HBED-CC. The PSMA-targeting scaffold for all three agents utilized a similar Glu-urea-Lys-linker construct. Each radiotracer enabled visualization of PSMA+ PC3 PIP tumor, kidney, and urinary bladder as early as 15 min post-injection using small animal PET/computed tomography (PET/CT). (68)Ga-2 demonstrated the fastest rate of clearance from all tissues in this series and displayed higher uptake in PSMA+ PC3 PIP tumor compared to (68)Ga-1 at 1 h post-injection. There was no significant difference in PSMA+ PC3 PIP tumor uptake for the three agents at 2 and 3 h post-injection. (68)Ga-DKFZ-PSMA-11 demonstrated the highest uptake and retention in normal tissues, including kidney, blood, spleen, and salivary glands and PSMA-negative PC3 flu tumors up to 3 h post-injection. In this preclinical evaluation (68)Ga-2 had the most advantageous characteristics for PSMA-targeted PET imaging.

  4. Prognostic Value of 68Ga-NOTA-RGD PET/CT for Predicting Disease-Free Survival for Patients With Breast Cancer Undergoing Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Surgery: A Comparison Study With Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Il; Yoon, Hai-Jeon; Paeng, Jin Chul; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key; Kim, E Edmund; Moon, Woo Kyung; Kang, Keon Wook

    2016-08-01

    We performed pretreatment angiogenesis imaging (Ga-NOTA-arginyl-glycyl-aspartic acid [RGD] PET/CT) to compare its prognostic value to dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI in breast cancer patients. Forty-four female patients with stage II or III breast cancer (aged 47.3 ± 8.1 years) were prospectively enrolled and underwent Ga-NOTA-RGD PET/CT and DCE-MRI imaging. All patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and underwent surgery. With pretreatment Ga-NOTA-RGD PET/CT, SUVmax of the tumor in the torso (-T) and regional (-R) images were measured. With pretreatment DCE-MRI, the largest diameter of the tumor and maximum enhancement index (EImax; EImax = [highest signal / baseline signal] - 1) of the tumor were assessed. Ten patients (22.7%) were found to have breast cancer recurrence after 17.9 ± 11.2 months. The SUVmax-R (P = 0.017, cutoff >2.79) of Ga-NOTA-RGD PET/CT, the largest diameter of tumor (P = 0.017, cutoff >6.3 cm), and the EImax (P = 0.008, cutoff >5.38) of DCE-MRI showed significant results by univariate analysis. The 3-year disease-free survival of SUVmax-R was 91.7% versus 59.1% by Kaplan-Meier analysis (hazard ratio, 5.379). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that SUVmax-R with tumor diameter or EImax were the significant parameters. In addition, the combined parameters of SUVmax-R and EImax revealed better predictive value for prediction of breast cancer recurrence (75.0%) than each parameter of SUVmax-R (64.2%) and EImax (68.7%). Increased angiogenic activity of regional Ga-NOTA-RGD PET/CT (SUVmax-R) can be an early prognostic marker for the prediction of breast cancer recurrence.

  5. The feasibility of 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 PET/CT for monitoring early response of Endostar antiangiogenic therapy in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma xenograft model compared with 18F-FDG.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yanfen; Liu, Huanhuan; Liang, Sheng; Zhang, Caiyuan; Cheng, Weiwei; Hai, Wangxi; Yin, Bing; Wang, Dengbin

    2016-05-10

    Radiolabeled arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides have been developed for PET imaging of integrin avβ3 in the tumor vasculature, leading to great potential for noninvasively evaluating tumor angiogenesis and monitoring antiangiogenic treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate a novel one-step labeled integrin-targeted tracer, 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2, for PET/CT for detecting tumor angiogenesis and monitoring the early therapeutic efficacy of antiangiogenic agent Endostar in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) xenograft model. Mice bearing NPC underwent 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 PET/CT at baseline and after 2, 4, 7, and 14 days of consecutive treatment with Endostar or PBS, compared with 18F-FDG PET/CT. Tumors were harvested at all imaging time points for histopathological analysis with H & E and microvessel density (MVD) and integrin avβ3 immunostaining. The maximum percent injected dose per gram of body weight (%ID/gmax) tumor uptake of 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 PET/CT was significantly lower than that in the control group starting from day 2 (p < 0.01), much earlier and more accurately than that of 18F-FDG PET/CT. Moreover, a moderate linear correlation was observed between tumor MVD and the corresponding tumor uptake of 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 PET/CT (r = 0.853, p < 0.01). 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 PET/CT can be used for in vivo angiogenesis imaging and monitoring early response to Endostar antiangiogenic treatment in NPC xenograft model, favoring its potential clinical translation.

  6. 68Ga-NOTA-Aca-BBN(7-14) PET/CT in Healthy Volunteers and Glioma Patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingjing; Li, Deling; Lang, Lixin; Zhu, Zhaohui; Wang, Ling; Wu, Peilin; Niu, Gang; Li, Fang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2016-01-01

    This work was designed to study the safety, biodistribution, and radiation dosimetry of a gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR)-targeting, (68)Ga-labeled bombesin (BBN) peptide derivative PET tracer, NOTA-Aca-BBN(7-14) (denoted as (68)Ga-BBN) in healthy volunteers and to assess the level of receptor expression in glioma patients. Four healthy volunteers (2 male and 2 female) underwent whole-body PET/CT at multiple time points after a bolus injection of (68)Ga-BBN (111 ± 148 MBq). Regions of interest were drawn manually over major organs, and time-activity curves were obtained. Dosimetry was calculated using the OLINDA/EXM software. Twelve patients with glioma diagnosed by contrast-enhanced MRI underwent PET/CT at 30-45 min after (68)Ga-BBN injection. Within 1 wk afterward, the tumor was surgically removed and immunohistochemical staining of tumor samples against GRPR was performed and correlated with the PET/CT results. (68)Ga-BBN was well tolerated in all healthy volunteers, with no adverse symptoms being noticed or reported. (68)Ga-BBN cleared rapidly from the circulation and was excreted mainly through the kidneys and urinary tract. The total effective dose equivalent and effective dose were 0.0335 ± 0.0079 and 0.0276 ± 0.0066 mSv/MBq, respectively. In glioma patients, all MRI-identified lesions showed high signal intensity on (68)Ga-BBN PET/CT. SUVmax and SUVmean were 2.08 ± 0.58 and 1.32 ± 0.37, respectively. With normal brain tissue as background, tumor-to-background ratios were 24.0 ± 8.85 and 13.4 ± 4.54 based on SUVmax and SUVmean, respectively. The immunohistochemical staining confirmed a positive correlation between SUV and GRPR expression level (r(2) = 0.71, P < 0.001). (68)Ga-BBN is a PET tracer with favorable pharmacokinetics and a favorable dosimetry profile. It has the potential to evaluate GRPR expression in glioma patients and guide GRPR-targeted therapy of glioma. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  7. 68Ga-NOTA-Aca-BBN(7–14) PET/CT in Healthy Volunteers and Glioma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingjing; Li, Deling; Lang, Lixin; Zhu, Zhaohui; Wang, Ling; Wu, Peilin; Niu, Gang; Li, Fang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2017-01-01

    This work was designed to study the safety, biodistribution, and radiation dosimetry of a gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR)– targeting, 68Ga-labeled bombesin (BBN) peptide derivative PET tracer, NOTA-Aca-BBN(7–14) (denoted as 68Ga-BBN) in healthy volunteers and to assess the level of receptor expression in glioma patients. Methods Four healthy volunteers (2 male and 2 female) underwent whole-body PET/CT at multiple time points after a bolus injection of 68Ga-BBN (111 ± 148 MBq). Regions of interest were drawn manually over major organs, and time–activity curves were obtained. Dosimetry was calculated using the OLINDA/EXM software. Twelve patients with glioma diagnosed by contrast-enhanced MRI underwent PET/CT at 30–45 min after 68Ga-BBN injection. Within 1 wk afterward, the tumor was surgically removed and immunohistochemical staining of tumor samples against GRPR was performed and correlated with the PET/CT results. Results 68Ga-BBN was well tolerated in all healthy volunteers, with no adverse symptoms being noticed or reported. 68Ga-BBN cleared rapidly from the circulation and was excreted mainly through the kidneys and urinary tract. The total effective dose equivalent and effective dose were 0.0335 ± 0.0079 and 0.0276 ± 0.0066 mSv/MBq, respectively. In glioma patients, all MRI-identified lesions showed high signal intensity on 68Ga-BBN PET/CT. SUVmax and SUVmean were 2.08 ± 0.58 and 1.32 ± 0.37, respectively. With normal brain tissue as background, tumor-to-background ratios were 24.0 ± 8.85 and 13.4 ± 4.54 based on SUVmax and SUVmean, respectively. The immunohistochemical staining confirmed a positive correlation between SUV and GRPR expression level (r2 = 0.71, P < 0.001). Conclusion 68Ga-BBN is a PET tracer with favorable pharmacokinetics and a favorable dosimetry profile. It has the potential to evaluate GRPR expression in glioma patients and guide GRPR-targeted therapy of glioma. PMID:26449838

  8. Pravastatin stimulates angiogenesis in a murine hindlimb ischemia model: a positron emission tomography imaging study with (64)Cu-NOTA-TRC105.

    PubMed

    Orbay, Hakan; Hong, Hao; Koch, Jill M; Valdovinos, Hector F; Hacker, Timothy A; Theuer, Charles P; Barnhart, Todd E; Cai, Weibo

    2013-01-01

    In this study, (64)Cu-NOTA-TRC105 (TRC105 is an anti-CD105 monoclonal antibody that binds to both human and murine CD105) positron emission tomography (PET) was used to assess the response to pravastatin treatment in a murine model of peripheral artery disease (PAD). Hindlimb ischemia was induced by ligation of the right femoral arteries in BALB/c mice under anesthesia, and the left hindlimb served as an internal control. Mice in the treatment group were given intraperitoneal pravastatin daily until the end of the study, whereas the animals in the control group were injected with 0.9% sodium chloride solution. Laser Doppler imaging showed that blood flow in the ischemic hindlimb plummeted to ~20% of the normal level after surgery, and gradually recovered to near normal level on day 10 in the treatment group and on day 20 in the control group. Angiogenesis was non-invasively monitored and quantified with (64)Cu-NOTA-TRC105 PET on postoperative days 3, 10, 17, and 24. Tracer uptake at 48 h post-injection in the ischemic hindlimb in the treatment group was significantly higher than that of the control group on day 10 (20.5 ± 1.9 %ID/g vs 11.4 ± 1.5 %ID/g), suggesting increased CD105 expression and higher level of angiogenesis upon pravastatin treatment, and gradually decreased to background levels in both groups (4.9 ± 0.8 %ID/g vs 3.4 ± 1.9 %ID/g on day 24). The in vivo PET data correlated well with ex vivo biodistribution studies performed on day 24. Increased CD105 expression on days 3 and 10 following ischemia was further confirmed by immunofluorescence staining. Taken together, our results indicated that (64)Cu-NOTA-TRC105 PET is a suitable and non-invasive method to monitor the angiogenesis and therapeutic response in PAD, which can also be utilized for non-invasive evaluation of other pro-angiogenic/anti-angiogenic drugs in other cardiovascular diseases and cancer.

  9. Development and preclinical studies of (64)Cu-NOTA-pertuzumab F(ab')2 for imaging changes in tumor HER2 expression associated with response to trastuzumab by PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Lam, Karen; Chan, Conrad; Reilly, Raymond M

    2017-01-01

    We previously reported that microSPECT/CT imaging with (111)In-labeled pertuzumab detected decreased HER2 expression in human breast cancer (BC) xenografts in athymic mice associated with response to treatment with trastuzumab (Herceptin). Our aim was to extend these results to PET/CT by constructing F(ab')2 of pertuzumab modified with NOTA chelators for complexing (64)Cu. The effect of the administered mass (5-200 µg) of (64)Cu-NOTA-pertuzumab F(ab')2 was studied in NOD/SCID mice engrafted with HER2-positive SK-OV-3 human ovarian cancer xenografts. Biodistribution studies were performed in non-tumor bearing Balb/c mice to predict radiation doses to normal organs in humans. Serial PET/CT imaging was conducted on mice engrafted with HER2-positive and trastuzumab-sensitive BT-474 or trastuzumab-insensitive SK-OV-3 xenografted mice treated with weekly doses of trastuzumab. There were no significant effects of the administered mass of (64)Cu-NOTA-pertuzumab F(ab')2 on tumor or normal tissue uptake. The predicted total body dose in humans was 0.015 mSv/MBq, a 3.3-fold reduction compared to (111)In-labeled pertuzumab. MicroPET/CT images revealed specific tumor uptake of (64)Cu-NOTA-pertuzumab F(ab')2 at 24 or 48 h post-injection in mice with SK-OV-3 tumors. Image analysis of mice treated with trastuzumab showed 2-fold reduced uptake of (64)Cu-NOTA-pertuzumab F(ab')2 in BT-474 tumors after 1 week of trastuzumab normalized to baseline, and 1.9-fold increased uptake in SK-OV-3 tumors after 3 weeks of trastuzumab, consistent with tumor response and resistance, respectively. We conclude that PET/CT imaging with (64)Cu-NOTA-pertuzumab F(ab')2 detected changes in HER2 expression in response to trastuzumab while delivering a lower total body radiation dose compared to (111)In-labeled pertuzumab.

  10. ScVEGF-PEG-HBED-CC and scVEGF-PEG-NOTA conjugates: comparison of easy-to-label recombinant proteins for [68Ga]PET imaging of VEGF receptors in angiogenic vasculature.

    PubMed

    Eder, Matthias; Krivoshein, Arcadius V; Backer, Marina; Backer, Joseph M; Haberkorn, Uwe; Eisenhut, Michael

    2010-05-01

    VEGF receptors play a key role in angiogenesis and are important targets for several approved and many experimental drugs. Imaging of VEGF receptor expression in malignant tumors would provide important information, which can influence patient management. The aim of this study was the development of an easy-to-label positron-emitting tracer for imaging VEGF receptors. The tracer is based on engineered single-chain VEGF (scVEGF), expressed with cysteine-containing fusion tag (Cys-tag) for site-specific conjugation of PEGylated bifunctional chelating agents, HBED-CC or NOTA, suitable for labeling with (68)Ga at ambient temperature. scVEGF-PEG-HBED-CC was synthesized by activating a single carboxyl group of the [Fe(HBED-CC)](-) complex with N-hydroxysuccinimide. Reaction of the activated complex with NH(2)-PEG-maleimide was followed by site-specific conjugation of PEGylated chelator to a thiol group in Cys-tag of scVEGF. The scVEGF-PEG-NOTA conjugate was synthesized using NHS-PEG-maleimide and p-NH(2)-Bn-NOTA. (68)Ga complexation was performed in HEPES buffer (pH 4.2) at room temperature. The functional activity after labeling was tested by radioligand cell binding assays. Biodistribution and PET studies in tumor-bearing mice were performed after 1, 2, 3 and 4 h postinjection. The radiolabeling of scVEGF-PEG-HBED-CC proved more efficient than scVEGF-PEG-NOTA allowing to stop the reaction after 4 min (>97% radiochemical yield). Radioligand cell binding assays performed on HEK-293 cells overexpressing VEGFR-2 revealed no change in the binding properties of (68)Ga-radiolabeled scVEGF relative to other scVEGF-based tracers. Both tracers showed comparable results in biodistribution, such as tumor accumulation and low liver uptake. The tracers were stable in 50% human serum for at least 72 h. The conjugates scVEGF-PEG-HBED-CC and scVEGF-PEG-NOTA revealed comparable in vivo characteristics and allowed easy-to-perform labeling with high stability for fast [(68)Ga]PET imaging

  11. MicroPET/CT imaging of patient-derived pancreatic cancer xenografts implanted subcutaneously or orthotopically in NOD-scid mice using (64)Cu-NOTA-panitumumab F(ab')2 fragments.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Amanda J; Cao, Ping-Jiang; Hedley, David W; Sidhu, Sachdev S; Winnik, Mitchell A; Reilly, Raymond M

    2015-02-01

    Our objective was to study microPET/CT imaging of patient-derived pancreatic cancer xenografts in NOD-scid mice using F(ab')2 fragments of the fully-human anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, panitumumab (Vectibix) labeled with (64)Cu. More than 90% of pancreatic cancers are EGFR-positive. F(ab')2 fragments were produced by proteolytic digestion of panitumumab IgG or non-specific human IgG, purified by ultrafiltration then modified with NOTA chelators for complexing (64)Cu. Panitumumab IgG and Fab fragments were similarly labeled with (64)Cu. EGFR immunoreactivity was determined in competition and direct (saturation) cell binding assays. The biodistribution of (64)Cu-labeled panitumumab IgG, F(ab')2 and Fab was compared in non-tumor-bearing Balb/c mice. MicroPET/CT and biodistribution studies were performed in NOD-scid mice engrafted subcutaneously (s.c.) or orthotopically with patient-derived OCIP23 pancreatic tumors, or in NOD-scid with s.c. PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer xenografts. Panitumumab F(ab')2 fragments were produced in high purity (>90%), derivitized with 3.2±0.7 NOTA/F(ab')2, and labeled with (64)Cu (0.3-3.6MBq/μg). The binding of (64)Cu-NOTA-panitumumab F(ab')2 to OCIP23 or PANC-1 cells was decreased significantly by an excess of panitumumab IgG. The Kd for binding of (64)Cu-NOTA-panitumumab F(ab')2 to EGFR on PANC-1 cells was 0.14±0.05nmol/L. F(ab')2 fragments exhibited more suitable normal tissue distribution for tumor imaging with (64)Cu than panitumumab IgG or Fab. Tumor uptake at 48h post injection (p.i.) of (64)Cu-NOTA-panitumumab F(ab')2 was 12.0±0.9% injected dose/g (ID/g) in s.c. and 11.8±0.9% ID/g in orthotopic OCIP23 tumors vs. 6.1±1.1% ID/g in s.c. PANC-1 xenografts. Tumor/Blood (T/B) ratios were 5:1 to 9:1 for OCIP23 and 2.4:1 for PANC-1 tumors. Tumor uptake of (64)Cu-NOTA-non-specific F(ab')2 in OCIP23 xenografts was 5-fold lower than (64)Cu-panitumumab F(ab')2. All tumor xenografts were clearly imaged by microPET/CT at 24 or 48h p

  12. PET and SPECT imaging of a radiolabeled minigastrin analogue conjugated with DOTA, NOTA, and NODAGA and labeled with (64)Cu, (68)Ga, and (111)In.

    PubMed

    Roosenburg, S; Laverman, P; Joosten, L; Cooper, M S; Kolenc-Peitl, P K; Foster, J M; Hudson, C; Leyton, J; Burnet, J; Oyen, W J G; Blower, P J; Mather, S J; Boerman, O C; Sosabowski, J K

    2014-11-03

    Cholecystokinin-2 (CCK-2) receptors, overexpressed in cancer types such as small cell lung cancers (SCLC) and medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC), may serve as targets for peptide receptor radionuclide imaging. A variety of CCK and gastrin analogues has been developed, but a major drawback is metabolic instability or high kidney uptake. The minigastrin analogue PP-F11 has previously been shown to be a promising peptide for imaging of CCK-2 receptor positive tumors and was therefore further evaluated. The peptide was conjugated with one of the macrocyclic chelators DOTA, NOTA, or NODAGA. The peptide conjugates were then radiolabeled with either (68)Ga, (64)Cu, or (111)In. All (radio)labeled compounds were evaluated in vitro (IC50) and in vivo (biodistribution and PET/CT and SPECT/CT imaging). IC50 values were in the low nanomolar range for all compounds (0.79-1.51 nM). In the biodistribution studies, (68)Ga- and (111)In-labeled peptides showed higher tumor-to-background ratios than the (64)Cu-labeled compounds. All tested radiolabeled compounds clearly visualized the CCK2 receptor positive tumor in PET or SPECT imaging. The chelator did not seem to affect in vivo behavior of the peptide for (111)In- and (68)Ga-labeled peptides. In contrast, the biodistribution of the (64)Cu-labeled peptides showed high uptake in the liver and in other organs, most likely caused by high blood levels, probably due to dissociation of (64)Cu from the chelator and subsequent transchelation to proteins. Based on the present study, (68)Ga-DOTA-PP-F11 might be a promising radiopharmaceutical for PET/CT imaging of CCK2 receptor expressing tumors such as MTC and SCLC. Clinical studies are warranted to investigate the potential of this tracer.

  13. Identity-Forming Discourses: A Critical Discourse Analysis on Policy Making Processes Concerning English Language Teaching in Colombia (Discursos que forjan identidades: un análisis crítico de discursos en la formulación de políticas sobre la enseñanza del inglés en Colombia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobar Alméciga, Wilder Yesid

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses a critical problem about asymmetrical power relationships and uneven conditions in English language education exerted via identity shaping discourses in the document Educación: "Visión 2019" issued by the Colombian Ministry of National Education. The study follows the critical discourse analysis method. It…

  14. Can an ¹⁸F-ALF-NOTA-PRGD2 PET/CT Scan Predict Treatment Sensitivity to Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Liu, Ning; Gao, Song; Hu, Xudong; Zhao, Wei; Tao, Rongjie; Chen, Zhaoqiu; Zheng, Jinsong; Sun, Xiaorong; Xu, Liang; Li, Wanhu; Yu, Jinming; Yuan, Shuanghu

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the value of a novel 1-step labeled integrin α(v)β3-targeting (18)F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 (denoted as (18)F-RGD) scan in assessing sensitivity to concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Twenty-five patients with newly diagnosed GBM were enrolled in this study 3-5 wk after surgical resection. All participants were investigated with (18)F-RGD PET/CT on baseline (T1) and at the third week (T2) after the start of CCRT. Tumor volume, maximal and mean standardized uptake value of the tumor (SUVmax, SUVmean), and tumor-to-nontumor ratios of the tumor volume were obtained. The MRI treatment response was assessed at the 11th week (T3). The change in the lesion volume from T1 to T3 on MRI was used as an endpoint to evaluate the predictive ability of (18)F-RGD PET/CT. With (18)F-RGD PET/CT imaging, we successfully visualized the residual lesions of GBM. Twenty-five and 23 (18)F-RGD PET/CT scans at baseline and the third week, respectively, were available for analysis. We found that (18)F-RGD PET/CT parameters, both pretreatment SUVmax on baseline (P< 0.05) and intratreatment SUVmax at the third week (SUV(maxT2)) (P< 0.05) and tumor-to-nontumor ratios at the third week (P< 0.05), were predictive of treatment sensitivity to CCRT. Additionally, the change of volume from T1 to T2 on MRI was also predictive (P< 0.05). According to receiver-operating-characteristic curve analysis, the most significant parameter was SUV(maxT2) (area under the curve, 0.846). The threshold of SUV(maxT2) was 1.35, and its sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 84.6%, 90.0% and 87.0%, respectively. (18)F-RGD PET/CT allows for the noninvasive visualization of GBM lesions and the prediction of sensitivity to CCRT as early as 3 wk after treatment initiation. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  15. Comparative evaluation of synthetic anti-HER2 Affibody molecules site-specifically labelled with 111In using N-terminal DOTA, NOTA and NODAGA chelators in mice bearing prostate cancer xenografts.

    PubMed

    Malmberg, Jennie; Perols, Anna; Varasteh, Zohreh; Altai, Mohamed; Braun, Alexis; Sandström, Mattias; Garske, Ulrike; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Orlova, Anna; Karlström, Amelie Eriksson

    2012-03-01

    In disseminated prostate cancer, expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) is one of the pathways to androgen independence. Radionuclide molecular imaging of HER2 expression in disseminated prostate cancer might identify patients for HER2-targeted therapy. Affibody molecules are small (7 kDa) targeting proteins with high potential as tracers for radionuclide imaging. The goal of this study was to develop an optimal Affibody-based tracer for visualization of HER2 expression in prostate cancer. A synthetic variant of the anti-HER2 Z(HER2:342) Affibody molecule, Z(HER2:S1), was N-terminally conjugated with the chelators DOTA, NOTA and NODAGA. The conjugated proteins were biophysically characterized by electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS), circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensor analysis. After labelling with (111)In, the biodistribution was assessed in normal mice and the two most promising conjugates were further evaluated for tumour targeting in mice bearing DU-145 prostate cancer xenografts. The HER2-binding equilibrium dissociation constants were 130, 140 and 90 pM for DOTA-Z(HER2:S1), NOTA-Z(HER2:S1) and NODAGA-Z(HER2:S1), respectively. A comparative study of (111)In-labelled DOTA-Z(HER2:S1), NOTA-Z(HER2:S1) and NODAGA-Z(HER2:S1) in normal mice demonstrated a substantial influence of the chelators on the biodistribution properties of the conjugates. (111)In-NODAGA-Z(HER2:S1) had the most rapid clearance from blood and healthy tissues. (111)In-NOTA-Z(HER2:S1) showed high hepatic uptake and was excluded from further evaluation. (111)In-DOTA-Z(HER2:S1) and (111)In-NODAGA-Z(HER2:S1) demonstrated specific uptake in DU-145 prostate cancer xenografts in nude mice. The tumour uptake of (111)In-NODAGA-Z(HER2:S1), 5.6 ± 0.4%ID/g, was significantly lower than the uptake of (111)In-DOTA-Z(HER2:S1), 7.4 ± 0.5%ID/g, presumably because of lower bioavailability due to more rapid clearance

  16. Sobre el estado evolutivo de β Pictoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Desde el descubrimiento de fuertes excesos infrarrojos en β Pictoris, esta estrella ha sido muy estudiada y es considerada candidata a poseer un sistema planetario propio. β Pic está rodeada de un disco asimétrico de polvo que se observa de canto y que esta vacío a distancias <= 40 AU. Esto se considera una fuerte evidencia en favor de la presencia de (al menos) un planeta gigante. Recientemente se han observado líneas de material circunestelar que se han interpretado como consecuencia de la caída de objetos cometarios sobre esta estrella. Recientemente se ha utilizado la existencia del disco de polvo para atribuir una edad corta (pre - secuencia principal) a βPic. Sin embargo, la evaporación de estos cometas provee suficiente polvo como para explicar la presencia del disco observado sin necesidad de edades cortas. En este trabajo mostramos que la comparación entre la tasa de impactos cometarios estimada en el Sistema Solar para diferentes etapas de su evolución y los datos observados en β Pic indica edades avanzadas para β Pic. Esta estimación debe tomarse con cautela ya que depende de la estructura de los sistemas planetarios. Además mostramos que, desde el punto de vista de la evolución estelar y con las incertezas presentes en la luminosidad y la temperatura efectiva, existe un continuo de edades posible para β Pic. Sin embargo, empleando los datos provenientes de los flujos cometarios encontramos que una edad prolongada es consistente con ambos tratamientos.

  17. Sobre os sistemas de referência celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, P. C. R.; Martin, V. A. F.

    2003-02-01

    Apresentamos neste trabalho, algumas discussões sobre os sistemas de referência utilizados em Astronomia. Claramente, não é possível esgotar todo este assunto num único texto, mas esperamos, contudo, que o presente material possa ser apreciado nos cursos de Introdução à Astronomia, que estão cada vez mais presentes nas atuais propostas curriculares das graduações de Física. As discussões pertinentes às "Bases de Referência Celeste", serão apresentadas em um outro trabalho.

  18. Avisos de salud sobre el PFOA y PFOS en el agua potable

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La EPA estableció avisos de salud sobre el ácido perfluorooctanoico (PFOA) y el sulfonato de perfluorooctano (PFOS) para proporcionar información a los operadores de sistemas de agua potable y funcionarios estatales, tribales y locales sobre los riesgos de

  19. Hoja informativa sobre la Agenda de Acción EJ 2020

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Página principal de la hoja informativa sobre la Agenda de Acción EJ 2020 de la Agencia de Protección Ambiental de EE.UU. que delinea el plan estratégico de justicia ambiental de la agencia para los próximos cuatro años.

  20. Some Research-Based Issues and Recommendations Expressed at the Seminario Internacional Sobre la Educacion Bilingue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Ernesto M.

    The first Seminario Internacional Sobre la Educacion Bilingue (International Seminar on Bilingual Education), under the aegis of the National Association for Bilingual Education and the Mexican secretary for public education, brought together professionals from Canada, the United States, and Mexico in Oaxtepec, Mexico in November 1986 to share…

  1. Obtenga más información sobre la etiqueta Safer Choice

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Entérese más acerca del programa EPA Diseño para el medio ambiente, incluyendo información sobre su historia, proyectos anteriores y otros programas de la EPA que están relacionados con este programa.

  2. Ex-vivo biodistribution and micro-PET/CT imaging of 18F-FDG, 18F-FLT, 18F-FMISO, and 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 in a prostate tumor-bearing nude mouse model.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhuzhong; Wei, Renbo; Wu, Changqiang; Qing, Haomiao; Jiang, Xiao; Lu, Hao; Chen, Shirong; Li, Xinping; Xu, Guohui; Ai, Hua

    2015-09-01

    (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG), (18)F-fluoro-3'-deoxy-3'-L-fluorothymidine ((18)F-FLT), (18)F-fluoromisonidazole ((18)F-FMISO), and (18)F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 ((18)F-RGD) are all commonly used PET tracers for tumor diagnosis based on different mechanisms of tissue uptake. This study compared the ex-vivo biodistribution and PET/computed tomography (CT) imaging studies of these four PET tracers in a xenograft prostate tumor-bearing mouse model. Nude mice were inoculated with 5 × 10 PC-3 cells in the right armpit. The ex-vivo biodistribution of (18)F-FDG, (18)F-FLT, (18)F-FMISO, and (18)F-RGD at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after injection was compared. Micro-PET/CT images of (18)F-FDG, (18)F-FLT, and (18)F-RGD were acquired at 60 min, whereas (18)F-FMISO images were acquired at 90 min after injection. The tumors were clearly visualized by micro-PET/CT using all four PET tracers. Ex-vivo biodistribution results showed highest tumor accumulation and tumor-to-muscle ratio of (18)F-FDG at each time point, accompanied by physiologically high uptakes in the brain, heart, and intestinal tract. Modest uptake of (18)F-FLT and (18)F-FMISO in tumors was observed at 60 and 90 min after injection, with less interference from other tissues compared with (18)F-FDG. Besides, (18)F-RGD also exhibited high tumor specificity; however, relatively low uptake was observed in the tumor. Our results demonstrated the potential of (18)F-FMISO and (18)F-FLT in the diagnosis of xenograft prostate cancer.

  3. Effects of an acute bout of exercise on serum soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) levels.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chung Bing; Chuang, Chung-Chief; Kuo, Chung Sen; Hsu, Chin Hsing; Tsao, Te Hung

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of an acute bout of exercise on serum soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) concentrations. Eighteen male participants completed two different exercise sessions with intensities of 25% and 65% maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max). In addition to the energy expenditure during exercise sessions being measured, blood samples were collected before exercise, and immediately, at 24 h, and at 48 h post-exercise to analyse sOB-R, leptin and insulin levels. At 24 h post-exercise, sOB-R and leptin concentrations at the 65% VO2max were significantly different from those at the 25% VO2max. Leptin levels at 48 h post-exercise were also significantly lower for the 65% VO2max than for the 25% VO2max (P < 0.01). In the 65% VO2max session, the energy expenditure during exercise was significantly associated with leptin concentrations at 24 h and 48 h and sOB-R concentrations at 24 h post-exercise. However, no correlations were found between sOB-R and leptin at the three post-exercise time points. In conclusion, an acute bout of exercise with 920 kcal of output resulted in an increase in sOB-R levels at 24 h post-exercise. However, the changes in sOB-R levels due to an acute bout of exercise might not contribute to the delayed decrease observed for leptin.

  4. Discussions about the Nature of Science in a Course on the History of Astronomy. (Spanish Title: Discusiones sobre la Naturaleza de la Ciencia en un Curso sobre Historia de la Astronomía.) Discussões sobre a Natureza da Ciência em um Curso sobre a História da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires de Andrade, Victória Flório; L'Astorina, Bruno

    2010-07-01

    There are an increasing number of researches in science education that affirm the importance of discussions on the "nature of science" in basic education level as well as in teacher training. The history of science applied to education is a way to contextualize epistemological discussions, allowing both the understanding of scientific content and learning about science concepts. We present some reasonably consensual definitions on the nature of science that have been widely discussed by the academic community. We show also some episodes in the history of astronomy which can lead to discussions involving some aspects of the nature of science, and how they can do it. Hay un número creciente de investigaciones en la enseñanza de las ciencias que afirman la importancia de debates sobre la "naturaleza de la ciencia" en la educación básica y formación del profesorado. La historia de la ciencia aplicada a la educación es una manera de contextualizar los debates de la epistemología, lo que permite tanto la comprensión de los contenidos científicos como el aprendizaje de conceptos científicos. En esto trabajo, presentamos algunas definiciones bastante consensuales sobre la naturaleza de la ciencia que han sido ampliamente discutidas por la comunidad académica y mostramos cómo algunos episodios en la historia de la astronomía pueden llevar a discusiones sobre algunos aspectos de la naturaleza de la ciencia. Há um número crescente de pesquisas na área de ensino de ciências que afirmam a importância de discussões sobre a "natureza da ciência" na educação básica e na formação de professores. A história da ciência aplicada ao ensino é uma maneira de contextualizar discussões epistemológicas, permitindo tanto a compreensão de conteúdos científicos quanto o aprendizado de noções sobre as ciências. Neste trabalho apresentamos algumas definições razoavelmente consensuais sobre a natureza da ciência que foram amplamente discutidas pela

  5. Sobre la terapia génica para enfermedades de la retina.

    PubMed

    Fischer, M Dominik

    2017-07-11

    Las mutaciones en un gran número de genes provocan degeneración de la retina y ceguera sin que exista actualmente cura alguna. En las últimas décadas, la terapia génica para enfermedades de la retina ha evolucionado y se ha convertido en un nuevo y prometedor paradigma terapéutico para estas enfermedades poco comunes. Este artículo refleja las ideas y los conceptos que parten de la ciencia básica hacia la aplicabilidad de la terapia génica en el ámbito clínico. Se describen los avances y las reflexiones actuales sobre la eficacia de los ensayos clínicos en la actualidad y se discuten los posibles obstáculos y soluciones de cara al futuro de la terapia génica para enfermedades de la retina. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Información general sobre la preparación y la respuesta frente a desastres naturales

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Esta página brinda información general sobre la manera en que se puede preparar para enfrentar desastres naturales potenciales y las acciones a tomar después de dichos desastres naturales y otras emergencias ambientales.

  7. Aging in bacteria, immortality or not-a critical review.

    PubMed

    Gómez, José M G

    2010-12-01

    Bacteria were traditionally thought to have a symmetrical binary fission without a clear distinction between soma and germ-line, being thus considered as immortal biological entities. Yet it has been recently described that bacteria also undergo replicative aging (RA). That is, they exhibit finite replicative abilities under good conditions to growth. The apparently initial indistinguishability of sibling cells after cytokinesis is broken. After division, the daughter cell that inherits the "old" pole present in the "mother cell" progressively exhibits a decline in its proliferative capacity with increasing cell pole age. This is a clear hallmark and phenotypic manifestation of a bona fide RA phenomenon in toto. While the exact molecular mechanism(s) underlying to this lost of replicative potential are not yet fully understood, the "old pole cell" is considered as an aging parent that in a repeatedly manner is able to produce rejuvenated offspring which inherit a resetting of the biological clock. On the order hand, bacteria exhibit in addition to this "mandatory" RA the dubbed conditional senescence (CS). CS is defined as a decline in cellular viability observed in arrested-growing bacteria populations, a phenomenon apparently not related to RA under growing active conditions. To understand bacterial aging, it is necessary to put it within the sociality-multicellularity framework. This is a new conceptual paradigm that expresses the natural reality of the bacterial world. From this more ecological perspective these bacterial aging phenomena probably should represent an insurance/bethedging anticipative survival strategy. This is underpinned in a self-generation of an appropriate level of populational phenotypic diversity. That is, bacterial aging could be considered a communitarian adaptive response to cope with different environmental stresses and threats. I have highlighted the necessity to construct an integrative conceptual framework to achieve a unified view of bacteria aging to answer this fundamental question: what are the reasons of bacterial aging?

  8. Conversation with Lara about the Earth and Land. (Spanish Title: Conversando con Lara sobre la Tierra y la Teirra.) Conversando com Lara sobre a Terra e a Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Conceição Barbosa-Lima, Maria

    2010-12-01

    The present article is the analysis of a conversation between the author and Lara, a four-yearold- girl, enrolled in nursery school, while she makes a drawing of the Earth. It took place outside school environment and without any other person around to avoid interference during the interview. According to Ferreira & Silva (2004), a researcher can only comprehend a child's drawing, or form, by listening to him/her while he/she is creating it. Lara presented the traditional flat drawing, picturing the sky parallel to the ground, as reported by Nardi & Carvalho (1996). However, when asked to draw the World - term used by Butterworth et al. (2002), in order to avoid unnecessary confusion - she represented it by a circle, with herself on the surface. Her drawings led to the conclusion that such girl does not know yet the World in which she lives is the Earth, and probably because of that, within her age and consequent maturity, she accurately differentiates the concepts of land and Earth. El presente artículo analiza una entrevista libre, mientras una niña de 4 años y 4 meses, matriculada en el pregrado, dibuja la Tierra. Esta entrevista se realizó fuera del ambiente escolar y sin otra persona alrededor que pudiera interferir. De acuerdo con Ferreira Silva (2004), para quien investiga es posible conocer realmente lo que un niño o una niña pone en el papel a través de grafismos y/o dibujos si se lo escucha durante el proceso de creación de la escritura con imágenes. La niña, en este caso, representa la Tierra con el tradicional dibujo plano y el "cielo" paralelo al suelo, conforme analizaron Nardi & Carvalho (1996). Pero, cuando se Le solicita dibujar el "Mundo" - palabra empleada en un trabajo de Butterworth et al. (2002), con intención de no provocar "confusiones" innecesarias a sus sujetos de investigación- lo representa de forma circular, poniéndose sobre su superficie. Sus dibujos llevan a concluir que esta niña aún no tiene conocimiento que el mundo

  9. DISYUNTIVAS EN LAS CONCEPCIONES SOBRE AUTONOMÍA Y BENEFICENCIA QUE AFECTAN LA TERAPÉUTICA DEL INTENTO SUICIDA1

    PubMed Central

    Mondragón, Liliana; Monroy, Zuraya; Ito, Ma. Emily; Medina-Mora, Dra. Ma. Elena

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo es conocer las disyuntivas entre los principios de beneficencia y autonomía, que se presentan en la relación médico-paciente, durante la terapéutica del intento de suicidio. La investigación se realizó en dos hospitales psiquiátricos de la Ciudad de México. La muestra incluyó a tres sujetos con intento de suicidio, mayores de 18 años, que eran atendidos en consulta externa a causa de una lesión autoinfligida en el último año, y a tres psiquiatras que trataban a estos pacientes. La información se obtuvo previo consentimiento informado en entrevistas individuales. Se llevó a cabo un análisis de discurso argumentado para encontrar los significados que los participantes otorgaron a los principios bioéticos y las posibles disyuntivas entre éstos. Las discordancias entre la beneficencia y la autonomía estuvieron relacionadas con el beneficio del tratamiento, el respeto por los valores y las creencias de los pacientes, entre otros. Este trabajo presenta consideraciones éticas relevantes en el escenario clínico, al ofrecer al psiquiatra un análisis bioético que le permita actuar de acuerdo con la beneficencia y respetando la autonomía del paciente frente a casos de intento de suicidio y, de esta forma procurar una mejor atención para ellos. PMID:20830214

  10. DISYUNTIVAS EN LAS CONCEPCIONES SOBRE AUTONOMÍA Y BENEFICENCIA QUE AFECTAN LA TERAPÉUTICA DEL INTENTO SUICIDA.

    PubMed

    Mondragón, Liliana; Monroy, Zuraya; Ito, Ma Emily; Medina-Mora, Dra Ma Elena

    2010-06-01

    El objetivo del trabajo es conocer las disyuntivas entre los principios de beneficencia y autonomía, que se presentan en la relación médico-paciente, durante la terapéutica del intento de suicidio.La investigación se realizó en dos hospitales psiquiátricos de la Ciudad de México. La muestra incluyó a tres sujetos con intento de suicidio, mayores de 18 años, que eran atendidos en consulta externa a causa de una lesión autoinfligida en el último año, y a tres psiquiatras que trataban a estos pacientes. La información se obtuvo previo consentimiento informado en entrevistas individuales. Se llevó a cabo un análisis de discurso argumentado para encontrar los significados que los participantes otorgaron a los principios bioéticos y las posibles disyuntivas entre éstos.Las discordancias entre la beneficencia y la autonomía estuvieron relacionadas con el beneficio del tratamiento, el respeto por los valores y las creencias de los pacientes, entre otros. Este trabajo presenta consideraciones éticas relevantes en el escenario clínico, al ofrecer al psiquiatra un análisis bioético que le permita actuar de acuerdo con la beneficencia y respetando la autonomía del paciente frente a casos de intento de suicidio y, de esta forma procurar una mejor atención para ellos.

  11. O que bilíngues bimodais têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue?

    PubMed Central

    de Quadros, Ronice Müller; Lillo-Martin, Diane; Pichler, Deborah Chen

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar o que as pesquisas que estamos desenvolvendo com crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, adquirindo Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras) e Português e Língua de Sinais Americana (ASL) e Inglês (Lillo-Martin et al. 2010) têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue. Os dados deste estudo fazem parte de um banco de dados de interações espontâneas coletadas longitudinalmente, alternando contextos de aquisição da Libras e do português como língua alvo, no Brasil e dados coletados longitudinalmente. nos mesmos contextos, de crianças adquirindo ASL e inglês1. Além disso, há também dados do estudo experimental com testes aplicados nos dois pares de línguas que se agregam ao presente estudo. Uma visão geral dos estudos desenvolvidos sobre a aquisição bilíngue bimodal por crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, será apresentada e, então, serão expostos alguns aspectos linguísticos deste tipo de aquisição, considerando as discussões sobre aquisição bilíngue a partir da pesquisa realizada. PMID:24431480

  12. University Students' Conceptions about the Moon Phases. (Spanish Title: Concepciones de Estudiantes Universitários sobre Las Fases de la Luna.) Concepções de Estudantes Universitários sobre as Fases da Lua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Fátima Oliveira Saraiva, Maria; da Silveira, Fernando Lang; Steffani, Maria Helena

    2011-07-01

    In this article we describe the development of a multiple choice test about lunar phases and analyze the results of its application to ten groups of Physics students at the UFRGS. During the improvement of the test, we noticed that the percentage of right answers about some concepts increased significantly when associated with the reformulation of the question, emphasizing the importance of being careful to avoid incorrect answers generated by unclear questions, and not by ignorance on the matter. We confirm the results of other studies that show that students have great difficulty to relate the Moon's phase with its position in the sky at given time. On the other hand, our results suggest that, in general, students of Physics understand the phenomenon of lunar phases better than the average of university students. En estese artículo se describe la elaboración de una prueba de opción múltiple sobre las fases de la Luna y se analizan los resultados de su aplicación en diez grupos de estudiantes de Física de UFRGS. Durante el mejoramiento de la prueba observamos que el porcentaje de aciertos creció considerablemente cuando considerada una nueva redacción de la pregunta, destacando el cuidado que se debe tomar a fin de evitar respuestas incorrectas generadas por preguntas poco claras y no a causa de la ignorancia de los estudiantes sobre el tema. Confirmamos los resultados de otros estudios que las mayores dificultades de los alumnos sobre el tema fases de la Luna están en relacionar la fase de la Luna con su posición en el cielo en determinado momento. Por otra parte, nuestros resultados sugieren que, en general, los estudiantes de la Física comprenden mejor el fenómeno de las fases lunares que el promedio de los estudiantes universitarios. Neste artigo descrevemos a elaboração de um teste de múltipla escolha sobre as fases da Lua e analisamos os resultados de sua aplicação em dez grupos de estudantes de Física da UFRGS. Durante o aprimoramento do

  13. Sobre a largura da última superfície de espalhamento

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobre, M. A. S.; Pires, N.; Lima, J. A. S.

    2003-08-01

    De acordo com o modelo do "Big-Bang", no universo primordial a matéria estava em equilíbrio térmico com a radiação. Com a expansão a temperatura da radiação cai. Quando a temperatura chega em torno dos 4.000K, os espalhamentos diminuem, começando a recombinação dos prótons e elétrons em Hidrogênio neutro (era conhecida como da recombinação). Ao final da recombinação, os fótons se propagam livremente sofrendo, em princípio, somente os efeitos do "redshift" cosmológico. Esses fótons nos alcançam hoje como a radiação cósmica de fundo (RCF), e parecem vir de uma superfície esférica ao nosso redor, tal que o raio dela é a distância que ele viajou desde seu último espalhamento na época da recombinação. Naturalmente, esse processo não ocorreu abruptamente, implicando na existência de uma largura no espaço dos "redshifts" que deve depender do modelo cosmológico específico e dos processos físicos considerados. Neste trabalho analisamos os efeitos de diferentes modelos - a saber, aqueles com decaimento do vácuo L(t), criação de matéria, quintessência e gás de Chaplygin - sobre a última superfície de espalhamento da RCF, em particular sua largura e a função visibilidade, que determina a probabilidade de um fóton ter tido seu último espalhamento num "redshift" z. No caso particular dos modelos com decaimento do vácuo, existe uma forte dependência da função visibilidade com L(t). Tais efeitos poderão ser testados através da análise dos resultados de experimentos mais precisos que estão atualmente em andamento, como por exemplo, o WMAP.

  14. Tendências de teses e dissertações sobre ensino de astronomia no Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Megid Neto, J.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia. Teve por objetivo identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. O procedimento inicial consistiu de um levantamento bibliográfico junto ao Centro de Documentação em Ensino de Ciências (CEDOC) da Faculdade de Educação da UNICAMP e ao Banco de Teses da CAPES disponível na Internet. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: instituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Deste conjunto de pesquisas, 13 (81,3%) delas foram defendidas a partir da segunda metade dos anos 90, indicando uma preocupação mais recente com temas relativos ao ensino de Astronomia no conjunto da produção acadêmica em programas de pós-graduação no Brasil. Verificou-se que 43,7% dos trabalhos foram produzidas na USP e 18,8% na UNICAMP. Quanto ao nível escolar abrangido nos estudos, predominaram os estudos direcionados ao Ensino Fundamental de 5a a 8a séries (62,5%). No que diz respeito ao foco temático das pesquisas, as principais tendências voltaram-se: 56,3% para Conteúdo e Método; 43,8% para Concepções do Professor; 37,5% para Currículo e Programas; 37,5% para Recursos Didáticos. Quanto ao gênero de trabalho acadêmico, verificou-se que 43,8% são de Pesquisa Experimental e 31,3% de Pesquisa de Análise de Conteúdo. Estudos de revisão bibliográfica como este visam colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica em determinada área, traçando algumas de suas tendências. Ao mesmo tempo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as suas contribuições para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  15. Desarrollo de fotonovelas para concienciar sobre trastornos de la conducta alimentaria en latinos en los Estados Unidos

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; García, Marissa; Silva, Yormeri; Sala, Margarita; Quaranta, Michela; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2016-01-01

    Resumen El objetivo de este estudio fue desarrollar fotonovelas, un tipo de novela gráfica popular en la población latina, para crear conciencia y educar sobre los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (TCA). Cuatro caricaturas ilustradas y guiones adaptados para adultos y adolescentes de ambos sexos fueron presentados en discusiones focales y en una entrevista de profundidad. Diecisiete latinos adultos (14 mujeres; 3 hombres) y 10 adolescentes (9 féminas; 1 varón) participaron en el estudio. Los participantes encontraron las fotonovelas interesantes y que captaban más la atención que los folletos tradicionales. El uso del espanglish y la clarificación de las diferencias entre los TCA fueron sugeridos por las adolescentes femeninas. Los adultos varones sugirieron cambiar el título, que se enfocara en las consecuencias en la salud de los TCA para que llame la atención en los hombres a leer la historia. Basado en la aceptación encontrada en este estudio, la fotonovela pudiera ser una avenida prometedora para crear conciencia y educar a la comunidad latina sobre los TCA en los Estados Unidos. PMID:27313838

  16. Reflexión bioética sobre el uso de organismos genéticamente modificados

    PubMed Central

    Yunta, Eduardo Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    El presente artículo reflexiona desde los 4 principios de la bioética el uso comercial de organismos genéticamente modificados. Se cuestiona fundamentalmente la falta de transferencia de tecnología entre el mundo desarrollado y en desarrollo y el que el presente sistema de patentamiento de organismos vivos modificados fomenta intereses comerciales y no da debida importancia al desarrollo sostenible de la agricultura y ganadería en los países en desarrollo, donde más se necesita. Se reflexiona sobre la importancia que tiene evaluar los riesgos antes de introducirse en el mercado organismos genéticamente modificados y la necesidad de regulación en los países. PMID:21927675

  17. Human breast milk and adipokines--A potential role for the soluble leptin receptor (sOb-R) in the regulation of infant energy intake and development.

    PubMed

    Zepf, F D; Rao, P; Moore, J; Stewart, R; Ladino, Yuli Martinez; Hartmann, B T

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of different adipokines in human breast milk are thought to be able to affect energy intake of the infant. Leptin is a hormone synthesized by adipose tissue and the human placenta and favors satiety. The availability of leptin in breast milk is influenced by epithelial cells of the mammary gland that are known to be able to produce leptin, as well as leptin from maternal circulation that is transported to the breast milk, and which can thus in turn reach neonatal blood after absorption. Research so far as mainly focused on leptin concentrations in breast milk. However, evidence suggests that in addition to leptin concentrations levels of the so-called soluble leptin receptor (sOb-R), the main high-affinity binding protein for leptin in humans, are necessary in order to calculate the free leptin index (FLI) and to assess function of the leptin axis. FLI is calculated from the ratio of leptin to the sOb-R, and serves as the main parameter for assessing function of the leptin axis throughout maturation and development. Here we propose that assessing sOb-R levels in addition to leptin concentrations in breast milk could serve as a valuable tool to investigate effects of the leptin axis in breast milk because sOb-R concentrations can impact available leptin levels, and which in turn can have significant implications for infant energy intake and related development.

  18. Educación sobre sexualidad y prevención del VIH: un diagnóstico para América Latina y el Caribe

    PubMed Central

    DeMaria, Lisa M.; Galárraga, Omar; Campero, Lourdes; Walker, Dilys M.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Objetivo Mostrar, a través de un diagnóstico en América Latina y el Caribe, el panorama legislativo y curricular sobre sexualidad y prevención contra el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) en el ámbito escolar, contrastándolo con los comportamientos sexuales reportados en encuestas demográficas y de salud. Métodos En mayo de 2008 se realizó, con el apoyo del Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas (UNFPA), una encuesta a informantes clave en 34 países de la Región. El cuestionario autoaplicado solicitó información sustantiva de agentes de las diferentes partes interesadas, como ministerios de educación y de salud, sobre los programas de prevención contra el VIH/Sida que se están aplicando en las escuelas. Resultados Respondieron a la encuesta 27 países que representan 95,5% de la población objetivo (6 a 18 años de edad). La mayoría de los países informó tener al menos un libro de texto o un capítulo específico para enseñar los temas de educación sobre sexualidad y prevención del VIH. En la escuela secundaria se cubren la mayor parte de los temas pertinentes relevantes para la educación sobre sexualidad, pero no todos. Por ejemplo, el problema de la discriminación por orientación o preferencia sexual no se incluye en los programas escolares. Conclusiones El material educativo sobre sexualidad debe ser revisado y actualizado periódicamente de modo que refleje los avances en los temas y en la forma de tratar los contenidos. En cada país el currículo debe abordar el tema del respeto a la diversidad sobre orientación, preferencia e identidad sexuales, y en particular el manejo apropiado de la educación para prevenir infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) en hombres que tienen sexo con hombres. Los esfuerzos de evaluación de la efectividad de los programas deben contemplar desenlaces tales como marcadores biológicos (incidencia y prevalencia de ITS y embarazo) y no únicamente indicadores de conocimiento y

  19. Tendências De Teses e Dissertações Sobre Educação em Astronomia No Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio; Megid Neto, Jorge

    2005-07-01

    Apresentam-se os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia, com objetivo de identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: isntituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Pretende-se assim colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica na área. Ao mesmo tempo o estudo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as contribuições dessa produção para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  20. Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) konderi Galvao and Damasceno: Neotype Designation and Resurrection from Synonymy with Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) oswaldoi (Peryassu) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-07

    AND RESURRECTION FROM SYNONYMY WITH ANOPHELES (NYSSORHYNCHUS) OSWALDOI (PERYASSU) (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) CARMEN FLORES -MENDOZA, E. L. PEYTON, RICHARD C...Amazonas, Brazil, specimen 1629, 15-VIII-1998, C. Flores -Mendoza coil., deposited at Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC), Rio de Janeiro, Bra- zil...Hygiene, Monographic Series 18. 1948. Notas sobre a distribui•fio e a biologia dos anofelinos das Regi6es Nordestina e Amaz6n- ica do Brasil

  1. The Importance of an Integrated Approach in Solving a Problem in Mosquito Systematics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    species [Elliott considered =dunhami] that bites at sunset, and therefore mainly outside houses, and preferentially on animals .’ Kitzmiller, Kreutzer and...Deane, L. M., 0. R. Causey and M. P. Deane. 1948. Notas sobre a distrib- uicao e a biologia dos anofelinos das regioes Nordestina e Amazonica . do...summary of the “tarsimacu~atd’ complex of AnopheZes (Diptera: Culicidae). Am. J. Hyg. 33(C):88-100. Simpson, G. G. 1961. Principles of Animal

  2. Amazon Anopheles Biology. 12. Occurrence of Anopheles Species, Malaria Control and Transmission Dynamics in the Urban Zone of Ariquemes (Rondonia)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    RONDONIA) DTIC W. Tadei et al i ELECTEo0MAR 11991 D Translation of " Biologia de anofelinos amaz6nicos. XII. Ocorr~ncia de especies de anopheles...Serv. Sadde pdbl. (Rio de J.), 1: 3-60, 1947. 15 DEANE, L.M.; CAUSEY. O.R. & DEANE, M.P. - Notas sobre a distri- buigdo e a biologia dos anofelinos...R.G. & MARQUES, A.P. - Algumas obser- vag6es sobre a biologia dos anofelinos de importancia epidemiol6- gica de Beldm, Par&. Some observations on

  3. Actitud y conocimiento sobre donación de órganos de estudiantes de medicina de una universidad pública del noreste de México.

    PubMed

    Sebastián-Ruiz, María José; Guerra-Sáenz, Elda Karina; Vargas-Yamanaka, Anna Karen; Barboza-Quintana, Oralia; Ríos-Zambudio, Antonio; García-Cabello, Ricardo; Palacios-Saucedo, Gerardo Del Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Averiguar la actitud y el conocimiento que tienen los estudiantes de medicina de una universidad pública del noreste de México sobre la donación de órganos y tejidos. Estudio prolectivo, descriptivo, observacional y transversal. Se incluyeron 3056 encuestas de 34 reactivos realizadas a estudiantes de medicina durante el periodo 2013-2015 y se eliminaron aquellas con menos del 80% de los reactivos contestados. Análisis estadístico: frecuencias absolutas, porcentajes, medias, desviación estándar y prueba de ji al cuadrado. Se consideró significativo un valor de p < 0.05. El 74% de los estudiantes donaría sus órganos y el 41% lo haría por reciprocidad; del 26% que no donaría sus órganos, el 48% no lo haría por temor a que tomen sus órganos antes de estar muerto. Un 86% estaría dispuesto a donar los órganos de algún familiar. El 64% ha comentado el tema de la donación con su familia y el 67% con amigos. El 50% no ha recibido información alguna sobre el tema. El 68% entiende el concepto de muerte encefálica. Pocos estudiantes reciben información sobre donación de órganos al llegar a la universidad; pese a ello, la mayoría tiene una actitud positiva y estarían -dispuestos a -donar. The issue of organ donation is scarcely addressed during undergraduate medical studies. To evaluate the knowledge and attitude towards organ donation of medicine students of a Northwestern Mexico public university. A prolective, descriptive, observational, and cross-sectional study. A 34 items cross-sectional survey evaluating knowledge and attitude towards organ donation in 3056 medicine students during 2013-2015. Descriptive statistics were used as absolute frequencies, percentages, mean and standard deviation, as well as the Chi-square test. A p < 0.05 was considered significant. 74% of students would donate their own organs, mainly due to reciprocity (41%). 26% of students would not donate, 48% of them because of fear that their organs could be taken before death

  4. Concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as de biologia y futuros maestros/as de Ciencia de escuela secundaria sobre la teoria de evolucion biologica por seleccion natural

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Ramos, Egda M.

    La teoria de evolucion biologica (TEB) por seleccion natural es uno de los conceptos unificadores mas importantes del curriculo de Biologia. En Puerto Rico se han hecho pocas investigaciones que abunden sobre las concepciones y concepciones alternativas (CA) que tienen los estudiantes universitarios/as de Biologia y los maestros/as de Ciencia del nivel secundario sobre esta teoria. La politica publica educativa actual establece mediante documentos normativos como los Estandares de contenido y Expectativas de grado del Programa de Ciencias [Puerto Rico Core Standards] la ensenanza de esta teoria. Sin embargo, no se encontraron preguntas sobre la seleccion natural en los ejercicios de practica provistos por el Departamento de Educacion para las pruebas estandarizadas lo cual puede influir para que no se ensene adecuadamente. Las preguntas de investigacion fueron 1. ¿Cuales son las concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as y de los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB? 2. ¿Cuales conceptos que seleccionan los estudiantes universitarios/as y los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB coinciden con lo aceptado como valido por la comunidad cientifica? y 3. ¿Como comparan las respuestas de la prueba original. v. Entendiendo el cambio biologico que mide concepciones y CA sobre la TEB por seleccion natural, con las de la traducida al idioma espanol? Se utilizo el metodo cuantitativo con un diseno de investigacion transversal por encuesta. La tecnica principal para recopilar los datos fue una prueba con doce items, que formo parte de un instrumento para el cual se recopilaron diversas fuentes de evidencia acerca de su validez. Las muestras estuvieron formadas por 69 estudiantes de Ciencias Naturales y por 16 estudiantes futuros maestros y maestras del nivel secundario de la UPR-RP. Se utilizaron estadisticas descriptivas, analisis de Ji cuadrado y se calcularon los coeficientes alfa de Cronbach y de Spearman

  5. Cambios históricos en el aporte terrígeno de la cuenca del Río de la Plata sobre la plataforma interna Uruguaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, Analía; Tudurí, Adriana; Pérez, Laura; Cuña, Caroline; Muniz, Pablo; Lopes Figueira, Rubens; Michaelovitch de Mahiques, Michel; Alves de Lima Ferreira, Paulo; Pittauerová, Daniela; Hanebuth, Till; García Rodríguez, Felipe

    2014-12-01

    B 13813-4. También se determinó una mayor acumulación de sedimentos a través del tiempo en el cinturón de barro del Río de la Plata (plataforma continental adyacente), comparado con aquel registrado en la Barra del Indio (límite entre zona intermedia y externa del estuario). Estas diferencias podrían estar relacionadas con la influencia del Río de la Plata, el cual genera un ambiente altamente dinámico sobre la Barra del Indio y un ambiente más estable sobre el cinturón de barro en la plataforma continental.

  6. Desarrollo de la Escala sobre el Estigma Relacionado con el VIH/SIDA para Profesionales de la Salud mediante el uso de métodos mixtos123

    PubMed Central

    Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten B.; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Cintrón Bou, Francheska N.

    2009-01-01

    El estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA continúa siendo un obstáculo para la prevención primaria y secundaria del VIH. Las consecuencias para las personas que viven con la enfermedad han sido muy documentadas y continúan siendo una gran preocupación para las personas que proveen servicios de salud y para aquellas que investigan el tema. Estas consecuencias son preocupantes cuando el estigma emana de profesionales de la salud porque se puede limitar el acceso a los servicios. Uno de los principales obstáculos para la investigación del estigma relacionado con el VIH en Puerto Rico es la falta de instrumentos cuantitativos para evaluar las manifestaciones del estigma entre profesionales de la salud. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue desarrollar y probar las propiedades psicométricas de una escala sobre el estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA culturalmente apropiada para personas que proveen servicios de salud puertorriqueñas y desarrollar una versión corta de la escala que pudiera usarse en escenarios clínicos con tiempo limitado. El instrumento desarrollado estuvo basado en evidencia cualitativa recopilada entre profesionales y estudiantes de profesiones de la salud puertorriqueños/as (n=80) y administrado a una muestra de 421 profesionales de la salud en adiestramiento. La escala contenía 12 dimensiones del estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA. El análisis cuantitativo corroboró 11 de ellas, teniendo como resultado un instrumento con validez y confiabilidad satisfactoria. Estas dimensiones, a su vez, fueron subcomponentes de un factor de estigma general superior. PMID:20333258

  7. Conceptos Basicos Sobre el Propano

    SciTech Connect

    2016-08-01

    El propano provee energia a mas de 143.000 vehiculos en los Estados Unidos y 23 millones en todo el mundo. Flotas de todos los Estados Unidos han implementado con exito el uso de vehiculos que funcionan con gas propano, y en la actualidad varios funcionan gracias a este gas, incluyendo autobuses escolares, lanzaderas y autobuses publicos, asi como tambien furgonetas, taxis, vehiculos utilizados por las fuerzas del orden, barredoras de calles y camiones para uso profesional. El propano tambien se utiliza con frecuencia en aplicaciones fuera de la carretera, tales como montacargas, podadoras y equipos de uso profesional y otros equipos agricolas. Las ventajas del propano incluyen la disponibilidad interna, su rendimiento y el hecho de que genera menos emisiones de gases contaminantes que otras alternativas energeticas.

  8. La utilizacion de los mapas conceptuales en la ensenanza de biologia y su efecto sobre el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis en los estudiantes universitarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Rivera, Maria M.

    Se investigo el efecto de los mapas conceptuales sobre el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis en estudiantes universitarios. La investigacion utilizo dos estrategias: mapas conceptuales individuales y mapas conceptuales colaborativos, con el fin de investigar si existen diferencias significativas en el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis. El analisis de los datos incluyo aspectos cualitativos y cuantitativos. Se desprende del estudio que el 80% de los estudiantes describen la utilizacion de los mapas conceptuales como una experiencia beneficiosa. El 70% de los estudiantes expreso que los mapas conceptuales son utiles en el aprendizaje del proceso de fotosintesis y el 61% indico que facilitan la comprension de los conceptos. Los hallazgos mas importantes del analisis cuantitativo indican que los estudiantes que utilizaron los mapas conceptuales mejoraron significativamente su desempeno en la posprueba global. Se utilizo la prueba Mann-Whitney para investigar si existian diferencias significativas en la posprueba y preprueba global, el valor de W = 1945.0, para un valor p de 0.00, lo cual establece diferencias significativas. Para determinar si existian diferencias significativas entre la posprueba y preprueba del grupo individual, se realizo la prueba nuevamente. El valor de W correspondio a 490.5, que es significativo, con un valor p de 0.00. Se concluye que existen diferencias significativas entre la ejecucion de la posprueba y preprueba del grupo individual. Los datos proveen suficiente evidencia para sostener que los estudiantes que utilizaron la estrategia de mapas conceptuales individuales mejoraron el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis significativamente. Se realizo nuevamente la prueba para los resultados de posprueba y preprueba del grupo colaborativo. El valor de W correspondio a 446 con un valor p de 0.00. Se concluyo que existen diferencias significativas entre la ejecucion de la posprueba y preprueba del grupo colaborativo. Finalmente, se efectuo una

  9. Investigaccion-accion en la sala de clases sobre las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia de un grupo de estudiantes universitarios y su relacion reciproca con el aprendizaje de las ciencias biologicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordova-Santiago, Lizzette Astrid

    La investigacion---accion que se llevo a cabo en la sala de clases tenia como punto de partida las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia de un grupo de estudiantes universitarios para luego examinar sus implicaciones en el proceso de aprendizaje de las Ciencias Biologicas. ¿Que se supone que hagan las creencias en relacion con el aprendizaje? ¿En que consiste incorporar este aspecto a la practica educativa universitaria? Utilizando el modelo de Kemmis y McTaggart (1987) la investigacion-accion se planteo como un proceso dinamico en cuatro momentos en espiral constituidos por la planificacion, la accion, la observacion y la reflexion. Cada una de las fases tuvo una intencion retrospectiva y prospectiva formando una espiral de autorreflexion del conocimiento y la accion. Se llevaron a cabo audio grabaciones en clases y analisis de documentos. Ademas, la profesora-investigadora hizo un portafolio para reflexionar sobre las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia que tienen los estudiantes y las creencias del aprendizaje que tiene la profesora y sobre como la comprension de estos elementos ayudo a mejorar su practica educativa a traves del tiempo. Los resultados obtenidos apuntan a que las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia que tiene el grupo de estudiantes son diversas. Ellos si creen que la ciencia tiene una cultura la cual describieron como: complicada y desconocida que evoluciona constantemente, que es un conjunto de metodos, que es altamente tecnologica, que resuelve problemas de salud, ayuda a interpretar la realidad del mundo que los rodea y su origen y que existen unas intersecciones entre la ciencia y el poder. Sobre las creencias del proceso de aprendizaje de la profesora-investigadora, estas senalan que el modelaje de actores, la vision de la academia que tiene ella asi como la participacion y negociacion entre todos los involucrados en el proceso educativo, son factores que inciden en el proceso de aprendizaje.

  10. Regulando la Enfermedad a través de la Definición y la Restricción: Profesionales de la Salud Hablan sobre el VIH/SIDA1

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Souhail Malavé; Díaz, Nelson Varas

    2009-01-01

    Resumen Las profesiones de la salud tienen un papel social dual. Por un lado, velan por el mantenimiento de la salud de la población protegiendo el bien común. Por el otro, dictaminan las formas saludables, y por lo tanto socialmente apropiadas, de ser, actuar y pensar. Este último papel, está más ligado al control social de la población que a una preocupación altruista hacia la misma. A través de esta supervisión y control, se construyen los sujetos a los cuales todos/as debemos aspirar a ser para gozar de aceptación social. Los/as profesionales de la salud han jugado un rol protagónico en dicho proceso, siendo los agentes que delimitan y definen lo que es enfermo vs. saludable, útil vs. inútil, apropiado vs. inapropiado. En el caso de la epidemia del VIH, este esfuerzo se ha hecho cada vez más vigente ya que estos/as profesionales juegan un papel importante en el tratamiento de las personas que viven con VIH/SIDA (PVVS). Sin embargo, su función está plasmada de definiciones que sirven para criminalizar a las PVVS. El objetivo de este estudio fue explorar la manera en que una muestra de profesionales de la salud en Puerto Rico construyen a las PVVS. Con este propósito, entrevistamos 80 profesionales de la salud y estudiantes de estas profesiones. Estas entrevistas fueron grabadas, transcritas y sometidas a un análisis de discurso. Los resultados reflejaron que según las personas participantes: 1) la PVVS no es una persona “normal” o funcional bajo los estándares sociales debido a que su salud no se los permite, 2) representa una carga para la sociedad incluyendo familiares, amigos/as, el mundo del trabajo, e incluso para el gobierno, 3) debe ser vigilada porque representa un riesgo para la persona seronegativa que es descrita como saludable y productiva, y 4) necesita que su salud y conducta sexual sean controladas por vía legal y/o por las personas que representan las instituciones sociales, como lo son los/as profesionales de la salud

  11. Religiosidade, juventude e sexualidade: entre a autonomia e a rigidez1

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves da; Santos, Alessandro Oliveira; Licciardi, Daniele Carli; Paiva, Vera; Parker, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Esse artigo descreve como jovens religiosos e autoridades religiosas de sua comunidade compreendem a sexualidade, considerando suas experiências pessoais e como membros de comunidades religiosas. A análise pretende contribuir para que políticas públicas dedicadas à promoção da saúde sexual da juventude considerem a religiosidade, no contexto de um estado laico e da promoção do direito à prevenção. Foram realizadas 26 entrevistas abertas e semidirigidas em diferentes comunidades da região metropolitana da cidade de São Paulo (comunidades católicas, da umbanda, do candomblé e de diferentes denominações evangélicas) sobre iniciação sexual, casamento, gravidez, contracepção e prevenção das DST/Aids, homossexualidade, aborto e direitos humanos. Observou-se como jovens e autoridades religiosas convivem com a tensão entre tradição e modernidade e os distintos discursos sobre a sexualidade. Como sujeitos religiosos (do discurso religioso) e sujeitos sexuais (de discursos sobre sexualidade), devem ser incorporados pelos programas como sujeitos de direito nos termos de sua religiosidade. PMID:21886456

  12. PubMed

    Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves da; Santos, Alessandro Oliveira; Licciardi, Daniele Carli; Paiva, Vera; Parker, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Esse artigo descreve como jovens religiosos e autoridades religiosas de sua comunidade compreendem a sexualidade, considerando suas experiências pessoais e como membros de comunidades religiosas. A análise pretende contribuir para que políticas públicas dedicadas à promoção da saúde sexual da juventude considerem a religiosidade, no contexto de um estado laico e da promoção do direito à prevenção. Foram realizadas 26 entrevistas abertas e semidirigidas em diferentes comunidades da região metropolitana da cidade de São Paulo (comunidades católicas, da umbanda, do candomblé e de diferentes denominações evangélicas) sobre iniciação sexual, casamento, gravidez, contracepção e prevenção das DST/Aids, homossexualidade, aborto e direitos humanos. Observou-se como jovens e autoridades religiosas convivem com a tensão entre tradição e modernidade e os distintos discursos sobre a sexualidade. Como sujeitos religiosos (do discurso religioso) e sujeitos sexuais (de discursos sobre sexualidade), devem ser incorporados pelos programas como sujeitos de direito nos termos de sua religiosidade.

  13. Nota didattica sulle forme pronominali toniche dell'italiano (Pedagogical Note on the Disjunctive Pronoun Forms in Italian)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefanini, Ruggero

    1976-01-01

    Presents a scheme directed towards Italian language Teaching Assistants teaching subject and object pronouns, and discusses the etymology and diachronic development of these forms. (Text is in Italian.) (AM)

  14. Nota didattica sulle forme pronominali toniche dell'italiano (Pedagogical Note on the Disjunctive Pronoun Forms in Italian)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefanini, Ruggero

    1976-01-01

    Presents a scheme directed towards Italian language Teaching Assistants teaching subject and object pronouns, and discusses the etymology and diachronic development of these forms. (Text is in Italian.) (AM)

  15. Distinción Empírica Entre Engagement y Trabajolismo en Enfermeras Hospitalarias de Japón: Efecto Sobre la Calidad del Sueño y el Desempeño Laboral

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Kazumi; Shimazu, Akihito; Kawakami, Norito; Takahashi, Masaya; Nakata, Akinori; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo El objetivo de este estudio es demostrar la distinción entre engagement y trabajolismo, estudiando su relación con la calidad del sueño y el desempeño laboral. Método Un total de 447 enfermeras de 3 hospitales de Japón fueron entrevistadas mediante un cuestionario autoadministrado que incluía la escala Utrecht (UWES, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale), la Escala de Adicción al Trabajo Holandesa (DUWAS, Dutch Workaholism Scale), preguntas sobre la calidad del sueño (7 ítems) con respecto a (1) dificultad para conciliar el sueño, (2) dificultad para mantener el sueño, (3) despertar temprano por la mañana, (4) dormirse o tomar siestas durante el día, (5) somnolencia diurna excesiva en el trabajo, (6) dificultad para despertarse por la mañana, y (7) despertar cansado en la mañana, y el Cuestionario sobre Salud y Desempeño (CSD) de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados Los modelos de ecuaciones estructurales demostraron que el engagement se relaciona positivamente con la calidad del sueño y el rendimiento laboral, mientras que el trabajolismo tiene una relación negativa con la calidad del sueño y el desempeño laboral. Conclusión Los resultados indican que el engagement y el trabajolismo son conceptualmente diferentes. El primero tiene una connotación positiva, mientras que el segundo se asocia de manera negativa al bienestar (buena calidad del sueño y buen rendimiento en el trabajo). PMID:26752805

  16. Estudio de la estructura logica utilizada en la ensenanza y el aprendizaje de los conceptos sobre el comportamiento de gases en el curso introductorio de quimica a nivel universitario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa Diaz, Agnes

    El estudio que se presenta es de caracter cualitativo, un estudio multicasos donde se estudia la estructura logica utilizada por cuatro (4) profesores universitarios que ensenan el curso introductorio de quimica, en la planificacion, presentacion y evaluacion del tema sobre el comportamiento de los gases. Se utilizaron varias fuentes de informacion como: cuestionarios de profesores y estudiantes, entrevistas, grabaciones videomagnetofonicas, materiales didacticos y una prueba conceptual, entre otros. La informacion recopilada fue analizada de acuerdo al orden logico del contenido presentado, el estilo de ensenanza del profesor, las tecnicas y estrategias utilizadas para el desarrollo de destrezas de pensamiento, el ambiente fisico en el salon de clase y los instrumentos de evaluacion y avaluo. El estudio demuestra que lo que los profesores piensan y planifican para hacer sus presentaciones no necesariamente es lo que ocurre en el salon de clases. El desarrollo de destrezas de pensamiento, que constituye una prioridad de los profesores, no se elaboran efectivamente. El uso de las estrategias de resolucion de problemas numericos predomino. La participacion del estudiante en el salon de clases fue limitada y no se logro demostrar el desarrollo de las destrezas de pensamiento deseadas. Aunque los profesores tienen su propio estilo de ensenanza, el orden logico del contenido presentado en clase fue el mismo o siguio muy de cerca el orden establecido por el libro de texto. Los profesores utilizaron preferentemente la tiza y la pizarra para sus presentaciones y la dinamica en el salon de clases fue esencialmente tradicional. Los profesores hicieron su presentacion y los estudiantes copiaron pasivamente la informacion. Las evaluaciones de los estudiantes fueron esencialmente, pruebas escritas de seleccion multiple de acuerdo con el estilo en que se les enseno. El avaluo fue casi inexistente. La prueba conceptual administrada revela un aprendizaje pobre en los conceptos mas

  17. High School Student's Alternative Conceptions About the Phenomenon of the Formation of the Moon Phases. (Spanish Title: Concepciones Alternativas de Alumnos de Educación Media Sobre el Fenómeno de Formación de las Fases de La Luna.) Concepções Alternativas de Alunos do Ensino Médio Sobre o Fenômeno de Formação das Fases da Lua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo; Langhi, Rodolfo; Fernandes Scalvi, Rosa Maria

    2008-07-01

    Forty students, at ages between 14 and 18 years old, from three schools in Bauru city, were questioned about their alternative conceptions concerning the phenomenon of formation of the Moon Phases. It was observed that some of the pupils confound the phenomenon of the formation of the Moon Phases with the phenomenon of the formation of the lunar eclipses, others are unaware of the reason of the phenomenon, they present incoherent alternative conceptions of the reality or incomplete conceptions. The results found here are aimed at the teachers of Elementary Education and can be used as a subsidy for future development of new pedagogical methods. Cuarenta estudiantes, con edad entre 14 y 18 años, pertenecientes a tres escuelas de la ciudad de Bauru, fueron cuestionados sobre sus concepciones alternativas acerca del fenómeno de la formación de las fases de la Luna. Fue observado que algunos alumnos confunden el fenómeno de formación de las fases de la Luna con el fenómeno de formación de los eclipses lunares, otros desconocen el motivo delfenómeno, presentan concepciones alternativas incoherentes con la realidad o bien presentan concepciones incompletas. Los resultados aquí encontrados son destinados a los profesores de la Enseñanza Básica y podrán ser usados como ayuda para el futuro desarrollo de nuevos métodos pedagógicos. Quarenta estudantes, com idades entre 14 e 18 anos, pertencentes a três escolas da cidade de Bauru, foram questionados sobre suas concepções alternativas acerca do fenômeno de formação das fases da Lua. Foi observado que alguns dos alunos confundem o fenômeno da formação das fases da Lua com o fenômeno da formação dos eclipses lunares, outros desconhecem o motivo do fenômeno, apresentam concepções alternativas incoerentes com a realidade ou então concepções incompletas. Os resultados aqui encontrados são destinados aos professores do Ensino Básico e poderão ser usados como subsídio parafuturo desenvolvimento de

  18. [The Spanish AIDS Study Group and Spanish National AIDS Plan (GESIDA/Secretaría del Plan Nacional sobre el Sida) recommendations for the treatment of tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals (Updated January 2013)].

    PubMed

    Rivero, Antonio; Pulido, Federico; Caylá, Joan; Iribarren, José A; Miró, José M; Moreno, Santiago; Pérez-Camacho, Inés

    2013-12-01

    This consensus document was prepared by an expert panel of the Grupo de Estudio de Sida (GESIDA [Spanish AIDS Study Group]) and the Plan Nacional sobre el Sida (PNS [Spanish National AIDS Plan]). The document updates current guidelines on the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected individuals contained in the guidelines on the treatment of opportunistic infections published by GESIDA and PNS in 2008. The document aims to facilitate the management and treatment of HIV-infected patients with TB in Spain, and includes specific sections and recommendations on the treatment of drug-sensitive TB, multidrug-resistant TB, and extensively drug-resistant TB, in this population. The consensus guidelines also make recommendations on the treatment of HIV-infected patients with TB in special situations, such as chronic liver disease, pregnancy, kidney failure, and transplantation. Recommendations are made on the timing and initial regimens of antiretroviral therapy in patients with TB, and on immune reconstitution syndrome in HIV-infected patients with TB who are receiving antiretroviral therapy. The document does not cover the diagnosis of TB, diagnosis/treatment of latent TB, or treatment of TB in children. The quality of the evidence was evaluated and the recommendations graded using the approach of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group.

  19. LA BIOÉTICA COMO QUEHACER FILOSÓFICO

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Jorge José

    2009-01-01

    El artículo examina el estatuto epistemológico de la bioética como disciplina académica. El autor sostiene que el estatuto epistemológico de un discurso lo determina la pregunta fundamental que se plantea y la respuesta que se busca, focos integradores del discurso. En el caso de la bioética, la pregunta fundamental es de índole moral. La bioética es pues una disciplina ética que tiene su hogar epistemológico en la filosofía. El autor también defiende el concepto de “éticas aplicadas”. Sugiere finalmente que el método de la bioética, sobre todo la que se hace desde nuestras latitudes, debería adoptar el círculo hermenéutico como metodología para su filosofar. PMID:20463860

  20. Los Programas de Inmersion Bilingue y la Adquisicion del Discurso Academico (Bilingual Immersion Programs and the Acquisition of Academic Discourse).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Bonilla, Guadalupe

    2002-01-01

    A study examined the strategies used by a fourth-grade teacher in a two-way bilingual immersion program (English/Spanish) that contributed to students' development of academic language in Spanish. Analysis of a science lesson highlighted the use of an appropriate Spanish-language textbook and the teacher's use of visual elements, repetition,…

  1. Los Programas de Inmersion Bilingue y la Adquisicion del Discurso Academico (Bilingual Immersion Programs and the Acquisition of Academic Discourse).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Bonilla, Guadalupe

    2002-01-01

    A study examined the strategies used by a fourth-grade teacher in a two-way bilingual immersion program (English/Spanish) that contributed to students' development of academic language in Spanish. Analysis of a science lesson highlighted the use of an appropriate Spanish-language textbook and the teacher's use of visual elements, repetition,…

  2. Efectos combinados de la ampliación de la atención primaria de salud y de las transferencias condicionadas de dinero en efectivo sobre la mortalidad infantil en Brasil, 1998–2010*

    PubMed Central

    Guanais, Frederico C.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Examiné los efectos combinados del acceso a la atención primaria mediante el Programa de Salud Familiar (PSF) y las transferencias condicionadas de dinero en efectivo del Programa Bolsa Familia (PBF) sobre la mortalidad infantil posneonatal (MIPN) en Brasil. Métodos. Empleé un análisis ecológico longitudinal usando datos en panel de 4 583 municipios brasileños de 1998 al 2010, con 54 253 observaciones en total. Estimé modelos de regresión de efectos fijos por mínimos cuadrados ordinarios, con la tasa de MIPN como la variable dependiente y el PSF, el PBF y sus interacciones como las principales variables independientes de interés. Resultados. La asociación de una mayor cobertura del PSF con una menor tasa de MIPN se volvió más fuerte conforme aumentaba la cobertura del PBF. En los promedios de todas las demás variables, cuando la cobertura de PBF era 25%, la MIPN predicha fue 5,24 (intervalo de confianza [IC] de 95% = 4,95, 5,53) para una cobertura del PSF de 0%, y de 3,54 (IC de 95% = 2,77, 4,31) para una cobertura del PSF de 100%. Cuando la cobertura del PBF era de 60%, la MIPN predicha fue 4,65 (IC de 95% = 4,36, 4,94) para una cobertura del PSF de 0%, y de 1,38 (IC de 95% = 0,88, 1,89) para una cobertura del PSF de 100%. Conclusiones. El efecto del PSF depende de la ampliación del PBF. Para las poblaciones empobrecidas y subatendidas, la combinación de intervenciones tanto del lado de la oferta como del lado de la demanda podría ser necesaria para mejorar los resultados en salud.

  3. High School Students' Previous Knowledge about the Stars. (Spanish Title: Conocimientos Previos de Estudiantes de Secundaria Acerca de Las Estrellas.) O Conhecimento Prévio de Alunos do Ensino Médio sobre as Estrelas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo

    2011-12-01

    Based on the readings of articles related to Astronomy Education published in Brazil, it was noticed a lack of research on previous knowledge of students about the physical characteristics of stars, a fact that motivated us to develop this study. Previous knowledge of 125 students (approximated 15 years old) constituted the study sample; data was collected through written questionnaires (Appendix A) for analysis. From the content analysis of these responses it was possible to achieve some inferences as, for example, many students have some difficult to develop an explanatory model on the functioning of a star; there are few who say that the stars have a certain length of existence; some students have said that stars have tips; few recognize that a star is formed by a mass of gas; some previous knowledge come from purely visual aspects; furthermore, some students do not have the habit of observing nature in detail. We see this research as a reference in which science teachers can recognize the importance of previous knowledge for practice teaching and acquire resources for planning their lessons. De la lectura de artículos relacionados con la Educación en Astronomía publicados en el Brasil, se encuentra una falta de investigaciones acerca del conocimiento previo de los estudiantes sobre las características físicas de las estrellas, hecho que nos motivó a desarrollar este estudio. Los datos analizados se obtuvieron al aplicar un cuestionario a 125 estudiantes de secundaria, para posteriormente realizar un análisis de contenido, tal cuestionario se presenta en el Anexo A. Al realizar el análisis de contenido de las respuestas obtenidas, fue posible hacer algunas inferencias, como por ejemplo; muchos estudiantes tienen dificultades para desarrollar un modelo explicativo acerca del funcionamiento de una estrella; pocos estudiantes dicen que las estrellas tienen un cierto tiempo de vida; algunos estudiantes imaginan que las estrellas tienen puntas; pocos

  4. Conceptos Basicos Sobre el Gas Natural

    SciTech Connect

    2016-08-01

    El gas natural abastece cerca de 150.000 vehiculos en los Estados Unidos y aproximadamente 22 millones de vehiculos en todo el mundo. Los vehiculos de gas natural (NGV, por sus siglas en ingles) son una buena opcion para las flotas de vehiculos de alto kilometraje, tales como autobuses, taxis, vehiculos de recoleccion de basura, los cuales son alimentados centralmente u operan dentro de un area limitada o a lo largo de una ruta con estaciones de servicio de gas natural. Las ventajas del gas natural como combustible alternativo incluyen su disponibilidad interna, la red de distribucion establecida, un costo relativamente bajo, y los beneficios de las emisiones.

  5. Investigaciones sobre cascadas electromagnéticas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, M.; Pellizza, L.; Romero, G. E.

    Results from the latest generations of telescopes have revealed a rich sky at high and very high energies with more than a thousand sources at GeV energies and more than a hundred sources at TeV energies. The sources are galactic and extra-galactic natural particle accelerators where emission processes operate efficiently at the gamma-ray domain. The development of pair-photon cascades within the source or along the line of sight may modify the originally emitted spectrum. This effect should be included in our interpretation of the observations in order to progress in the understanding of the physical origin of the emission. Through numerical simulations; we follow the three-dimensional trajectories of such cascades. I here report on the status of our investigations; with focus on the propagation through the background photon fields. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  6. Reflecting on Language. (Reflexionando Sobre el Idioma.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazas, Jose Garcia

    1980-01-01

    Covering a 500-year span, this article traces the changes in and evolution of the Spanish language from its earliest written accounts in the eleventh century to the Spanish that was brought by the Conquistadores to the New World. (DS)

  7. Reflecting on Language. (Reflexionando Sobre el Idioma.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazas, Jose Garcia

    1980-01-01

    Covering a 500-year span, this article traces the changes in and evolution of the Spanish language from its earliest written accounts in the eleventh century to the Spanish that was brought by the Conquistadores to the New World. (DS)

  8. Reflecting on Culture. (Reflexionando Sobre la Cultura.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irizarry, Estelle

    1980-01-01

    The article comments on two articles, previously published in the same journal, which address the relationship between the "little" cultural tradition of Chicanos, Cubans, and Puerto Ricans and the "great" tradition of Hispanic arts and letters. Notes similarities among these groups and calls for the banding together of…

  9. Reflecting on Character (Reflexionando Sobre el Caracter).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candelaria, Cordelia

    1980-01-01

    Responding to the "Proyecto Resolana" article in the July/August 1980 issue of this journal, the article notes the heterogeneity of Hispanic Americans, the three main effects of the European conquest on people of the Western Hemisphere, and attempts to further define the character of Hispanic Americans. (SB)

  10. Reflecting on Culture. (Reflexionando Sobre la Cultura.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irizarry, Estelle

    1980-01-01

    The article comments on two articles, previously published in the same journal, which address the relationship between the "little" cultural tradition of Chicanos, Cubans, and Puerto Ricans and the "great" tradition of Hispanic arts and letters. Notes similarities among these groups and calls for the banding together of…

  11. Reflecting on Character (Reflexionando Sobre el Caracter).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candelaria, Cordelia

    1980-01-01

    Responding to the "Proyecto Resolana" article in the July/August 1980 issue of this journal, the article notes the heterogeneity of Hispanic Americans, the three main effects of the European conquest on people of the Western Hemisphere, and attempts to further define the character of Hispanic Americans. (SB)

  12. Sobre | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    Espanol.smokefree.gov ofrece apoyo y recursos para norteamericanos que hablan español y quieren dejar de fumar. Este sitio en la red fue creada por la División de Investigación para el Control del Tabaco del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer.

  13. Learning about the Sky from the Environment: An Experience Working Along One Year with Students of Elementary Education. (Spanish Title: Aprendiendo sobre EL Cielo Desde el Entorno: Una Experiencia Trabajando Durante un Año Junto a Estudiantes del Primario.) Aprendendo sobre o Céu a Partir do Entorno: Uma Experiência de Trabalho ao Longo de um Ano com Alunos de Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhini, Marcos Daniel; Gomide, Hanny Angeles

    2014-12-01

    Research developed with 95 students of the 6th year of elementary education in a public school of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. It was a continuous work from February to December 2013, which led the students to participate in activities of observation of the environment, specifically the sky, analyzing the changes occurred. We focused on the study of variations in temperature, rainfall, day length, variations in the size of the shadows and changes in the aspect of the Moon. Our focus of analysis targeted the discussion of the knowledge that these students had about the topics indicated and as they entered the stage during the implementation of the proposal. The results showed a limited perception that students have of their environment, however, lately expanded due to the undertaken activities, especially in relation to the Moon. Working with systematic measure procedures reveals the careful handling of data so that they become understandable to students, and working with the shadows points towards the students first understand how shadows are formed, and then apply this knowledge to Astronomy. Finally, we conclude that the lived process consisted of an initial step of a work that should be encouraged for the subsequent years of training of these students. Proyecto de investigación desarrollado con 95 alumnos del sexto año de primaria en una escuela pública de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Fue un trabajo continuo, de febrero a diciembre de 2013, que llevó a los estudiantes a participar en actividades de observación de su entorno, entre ellas, el cielo, analizando los cambios ocurridos. Nos centramos en el estudio de las variaciones en la temperatura, las precipitaciones, la duración del día, las variaciones en el tamaño de las sombras y los cambios en los aspectos de la Luna. Nuestro foco de análisis se centró en discutir el conocimiento que estos estudiantes tenían sobre los temas indicados al inicio y término de la propuesta. Los resultados mostraron una

  14. A Systematic Assessment of "None of the Above" on Multiple Choice Tests in a First Year Psychology Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pachai, Matthew V.; DiBattista, David; Kim, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple choice writing guidelines are decidedly split on the use of "none of the above" (NOTA), with some authors discouraging and others advocating its use. Moreover, empirical studies of NOTA have produced mixed results. Generally, these studies have utilized NOTA as either the correct response or a distractor and assessed its effect…

  15. 75 FR 19369 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon Quality Steel Products from Brazil: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... the same date as the nota fiscal (or invoice) date. Furthermore, based on record evidence, all material terms of sale are subject to change up until the date of the nota fiscal. See BCQR at U- 20 and C..., we have preliminarily used the nota fiscal date as the date of sale. See Preliminary Analysis Memo...

  16. The None-of-the-Above Option: An Empirical Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frary, Robert B.

    1991-01-01

    The use of the "none-of-the-above" option (NOTA) in 20 college-level multiple-choice tests was evaluated for classes with 100 or more students. Eight academic disciplines were represented, and 295 NOTA and 724 regular test items were used. It appears that the NOTA can be compatible with good classroom measurement. (TJH)

  17. EVALUATION OF POSTGRADUATES STRICTO SENSU: MONITORING POLICY FOR INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES.

    PubMed

    Lima, Wilma Terezinha Anselmo

    2015-01-01

    Search for references in relationship to international alumni on the website of the postgraduate programs of all postgraduate courses at Ribeirão Preto Medical School - FMRP. Verify with more attention to the ones with 5, 6 and 7 notes, and also the same search on the website of courses with notes 5, 6 and 7 of CAPES - Medicine III. Of the 22 programs of FMRP only three had any information on the site about the destiny of the postgraduates; they were: Surgical Clinics, Genetics, and Basic and Applied Immunology. Programs in the area of ​​Medicine III, notes 5, 6 and 7, only Ophthalmology and Visual Programs and Translational Sciences Surgery, both of UNIFESP, presented such information. It is urgent: to create project and funding evaluation mechanisms that are approved by different sources; to stimulate more efficient controls in relation to teachers and their students who participate in these projects; and to stimulate the interaction of teachers and students with the institution and the program. Verificar a existência de referências aos egressos internacionais nos sites dos programas de pós-graduação de todos os cursos de pós-graduação da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto - FMRP. Verificar com mais atenção aos cursos notas 5, 6 e 7, e também a mesma busca nos sites dos cursos com notas 5, 6 e 7 da Medicina III da CAPES. Dos 22 programas da FMRP apenas três tinham no site alguma informação sobre o destino dos egressos, foram eles: Clínica Cirúrgica, Genética e Imunologia Básica e Aplicada. Dos programas da área de Medicina III, notas 5, 6 e 7 apenas os programas de Oftalmologia e Ciências Visuais e Cirurgia Translacional, ambos da UNIFESP, apresentavam informações sobre o destino dos seus egressos. É urgente criar mecanismos de avaliação para os projetos de incentivo e fomento à pesquisa dos diferentes órgãos; estimular controles mais eficientes e atualizados em relação aos docentes e seus respectivos discentes que

  18. Notas para la decodificacion de lesicos desconocidos en el campo del ingles cientifico (Notes for Deciphering Unknown Lexical Items in Scientific English).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Cesar Morales

    1991-01-01

    This article outlines strategies for the inferring of English scientific terms by Spanish speakers. The article considers factors affecting the process of inference, the use of context morphology, and word origin in inferring word meaning. (SR)

  19. To Be Conformative or Not--A Question of Style or Education? A Comparative Study of Teacher Students in Sweden and Community Education Students in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boström, Lena; Coburn, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Education systems in Sweden and Scotland are currently undergoing reforms which have shifted curricula from content driven to student focused approaches. In Higher Education, the shift from elite to more accessible mass education may bring direct implications for teaching and learning. Institutions continually seek evidence of the effectiveness of…

  20. Notas para la decodificacion de lesicos desconocidos en el campo del ingles cientifico (Notes for Deciphering Unknown Lexical Items in Scientific English).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Cesar Morales

    1991-01-01

    This article outlines strategies for the inferring of English scientific terms by Spanish speakers. The article considers factors affecting the process of inference, the use of context morphology, and word origin in inferring word meaning. (SR)

  1. A Proposed Activity for a Meaningful Learning about the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Uma Proposta de Atividade Para a Aprendizagem Significativa sobre as Fases da Lua.) Una Actividad Propuesta Para EL Aprendizaje Significativo Acerca de Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Bruno Andrade; Langhi, Rodolfo

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents one of the concepts of Astronomy and its consequent failure in teaching this topic in high school, even when the official documents point out the necessity of Astronomy teaching at this school level. Among the spontaneous conceptions in Astronomy that high school students carry with them, even after the end of the school, we emphasized in this research the Moon phases. The development of different strategies in relation to traditional methods, aimed to teaching-learning process on this topic was considered in this study. These strategies were devised based on the reference frame of the Meaningful Learning, as elaborated by Ausubel. The proposals presented here include the active participation of students in experimental activities and other didactic activities, for their continuous evaluation during the process. These activities finished with a Comics elaboration about the Moon phases. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present a proposal for differentiated teaching activity about Moon phases supported by the theoretical principles of Meaningful Learning at Physics classes. Este texto foca um dos conteúdos de Astronomia e a consequente falha no ensino deste tema no ensino médio, apesar de os documentos oficiais apresentarem a necessidade de se trabalhar a Astronomia neste nível de ensino. Dentre as concepções alternativas em Astronomia que os alunos do ensino médio carregam consigo, mesmo após o término dos estudos, destacamos, nesta pesquisa, o fenômeno das fases da Lua. O desenvolvimento de estratégias diferenciadas em relação ao ensino tradicional, visando o processo de ensino-aprendizagem sobre este tema, foi contemplado neste trabalho como um dos resultados obtidos sob a luz dos referenciais da aprendizagem significativa, fundamentados em Ausubel. Segundo a proposta aqui apresentada, a participação ativa dos alunos na execução de uma atividade experimental e outras atividades didáticas, que visam sua cont

  2. Probabilistic Tracklet Characterization and Prioritization Using Admissible Regions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    ex: Earth-orbiting objects). As with all probabilistic classification problems, it is common to include a ‘none-of-the-above’ ( NOTA ) classification to... NOTA -/- -/- -/- -/- Table 2: Space Object Catalog Classification Statistics Classification (Ci) SOC Entries P [X ∈ Ci|SOC] LEO:polar 7642...0.0022 GEO:slot 476 0.0320 GEO:graveyard 235 0.0158 GEO:NOTA 411 0.0277 HEO:NOTA 75 0.0050 NOTA 83 0.0056 Total 14862 1.0000 5.2 Scenario Description The

  3. La formacion civica y la educacion de adultos; discurso de inauguracion y recomendaciones (Adult Training for Citizenship and Education; Opening Address and Recommendations).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Maestro, Mexico, 1970

    1970-01-01

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of the Mexican Education Minister's remarks at a conference for adult education. He stated that educational reform was part of a far reaching plan for social reform; he characterized civic training as an all-sector task, transcending confinement to the classroom and…

  4. La formacion civica y la educacion de adultos; discurso de inauguracion y recomendaciones (Adult Training for Citizenship and Education; Opening Address and Recommendations).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Maestro, Mexico, 1970

    1970-01-01

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of the Mexican Education Minister's remarks at a conference for adult education. He stated that educational reform was part of a far reaching plan for social reform; he characterized civic training as an all-sector task, transcending confinement to the classroom and…

  5. Attitudes and Discourse: Spanish Practitioners' and Undergraduates' Survey Results (Actitudes y discurso: resultados de encuestas a profesionales y estudiantes de medicina)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrando-Rodrigo, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of English as the international language of communication has increased the attention and concern given its teaching and learning. This survey-based study explores the attitudes of Spanish practitioners and undergraduate students towards English as the vehicular language in the field of medicine and towards Medical Electronic…

  6. Experiencias sobre el impacto del Programa de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial en el ámbito de la salud mental y la investigación conductual.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Liliana Mondragón

    2012-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo es presentar el impacto y la integración que los conocimientos adquiridos en el Programa Internacional de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial de la Universidad de Chile han tenido en mi experiencia profesional, en el ámbito de la investigación psicosocial en un Instituto de Salud de México. Para este objetivo, expondré tres áreas en las cuales se ha podido evidenciar tal impacto: trabajo en los comités de ética, desarrollo de programas de académicos en bioética e investigación y publicación sobre ética y bioética. El motivo que me llevó a incursionar en el Programa fue que su enseñanza vincula la investigación psicosocial con la ética y la bioética, lo cual me permitió dirigir este tipo de reflexión hacia problemas como violencia, suicidio, adicciones, depresión y salud mental, y a nuevos campos como los estudios comunitarios, con poblaciones en riesgo o vulnerables, en los cuales las diversas implicaciones son difíciles de indagar.

  7. Experiencias sobre el impacto del Programa de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial en el ámbito de la salud mental y la investigación conductual

    PubMed Central

    Barrios, Liliana Mondragón

    2012-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo es presentar el impacto y la integración que los conocimientos adquiridos en el Programa Internacional de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial de la Universidad de Chile han tenido en mi experiencia profesional, en el ámbito de la investigación psicosocial en un Instituto de Salud de México. Para este objetivo, expondré tres áreas en las cuales se ha podido evidenciar tal impacto: trabajo en los comités de ética, desarrollo de programas de académicos en bioética e investigación y publicación sobre ética y bioética. El motivo que me llevó a incursionar en el Programa fue que su enseñanza vincula la investigación psicosocial con la ética y la bioética, lo cual me permitió dirigir este tipo de reflexión hacia problemas como violencia, suicidio, adicciones, depresión y salud mental, y a nuevos campos como los estudios comunitarios, con poblaciones en riesgo o vulnerables, en los cuales las diversas implicaciones son difíciles de indagar. PMID:22754085

  8. The Meanings of Astronomical Observation: An Analysis on the Basis of Relationship with Knowledge. (Spanish Title: Los Sentidos de la Observación Astronómica: un Análisis sobre la Base de la Relación con el Saber.) Os Sentidos da Observação Astronômica: Uma Análise com Base na Relação com o Saber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Alberto Eduardo; de Mello Arruda, Sergio; Meneghello Passos, Marinez; Vinicius Domenes Zapparoli, Ferdinando

    2010-12-01

    This article presents results of a research which aimed to understand the meanings that people construct for astronomical observation. The subjects, students and school teachers, initially received some instruction on how to view astronomical objects through the telescope. After the observation was realized, they were interviewed. The data analysis allowed the creation of 12 categories, later interpreted on the basis of relationship with knowledge (relation to the world, with himself and with others), as presented by Bernard Charlot. Este artículo presenta los resultados de una investigación que tuvo como objetivo comprender los sentidos que las personas construyen para la observación astronómica. Los sujetos, los estudiantes y maestros de escuela, recibieron inicialmente algunas instrucciones sobre cómo ver los objetos astronómicos a través del telescopio. Al término de la observación, fueron entrevistados. El análisis de datos permitió la creación de 12 categorías que más tarde fueron interpretadas sobre la base de la relación con el conocimiento (relación con el mundo, consigo mismo y con los demás), tal como presentado por Bernard Charlot. Este artigo apresenta resultados de uma pesquisa que objetivou entender quais os sentidos que as pessoas constroem para a observação astronômica. Os sujeitos da pesquisa, estudantes e professores do ensino médio, receberam inicialmente alguma instrução sobre como visualizar os objetos astronômicos através do telescópio. Após a realização da observação, eles foram entrevistados. A análise dos dados permitiu a elaboração de 12 categorias que foram posteriormente interpretadas com base nas relações com o saber (relação com o mundo, consigo mesmo e com o outro), conforme apresentadas por Bernard Charlot.

  9. Mixed-Methods Study that Examines Nine Science Teachers' Perceptions of Slooh Robotic Telescope for Teaching Astronomy. (Breton Title: Métodos Mistos de Estudo que Examinam a Percepção de Nove Professores de Ciências sobre o Telescópio Robótico Slooh Para Ensino de Astronomia.) Métodos Mixtos de Estudio que Examinan la Percepcion de Nueve Profesores de Ciencias sobre EL Telescopio Robótico Slooh Para la Enseñanza de la Astronomía

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershun, Daniel C.; Slater, Timothy F.; Berryhill, Katie J.

    2014-07-01

    Although previous studies show that robotic telescopes have the potential to enhance student learning, there is comparatively little research that focuses on teacher perceptions of this technology. This study investigates: "what is the academic merit of using SLOOH robotic telescopes to teach astronomy as perceived by science teachers?" Our sample consists of nine science teachers of students aged 13-18 years. Pre- and post-tests, interviews, and surveys were collected during two weeks of a summer online course about robotic telescopes. While pre and post-tests do not reveal a statistically significant gain in astronomy content knowledge, analysis of qualitative data reveals five themes which describe the most important aspects of using SLOOH according to participants: "Images," "Interface," "Classroom Application," "Instructor Impact," and "Logistical Issues." Analysis of these themes suggests that SLOOH can provide an interactive and social learning environment with capabilities to incorporate crossdisciplinary themes. Embora estudos anteriores mostram que os telescópios robóticos têm o potencial de melhorar a aprendizagem dos alunos, há relativamente pouca investigação focada nas percepções de professores a respeito desta tecnologia. Este estudo investiga: "qual é o mérito acadêmico da utilização de telescópios robóticos Slooh para ensinar astronomia, tal como percebido pelos professores de ciências?" Nossa amostra é composta por nove professores de ciências de estudantes com idades entre 13-18 anos pré e pós-testes, entrevistas, e levantamentos foram coletados durante duas semanas de um curso on-line de verão sobre telescópios robóticos. Enquanto os testes pré e pós não revelaram um ganho estatisticamente significativo no conhecimento do conteúdo astronomia, a análise de dados qualitativos revela cinco temas que descrevem os aspectos mais importantes da utilização Slooh de acordo aos participantes: "Imagens", "Interface", "Aplica

  10. Eliminative Argumentation: A Basis for Arguing Confidence in System Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    Goodenough 2012]. The current report supersedes our earlier report by providing a revised nota - tion, explicit rules for using the notation correctly, a...confidence map. A summary of confidence map nota - tion is given in Table 2. The notation is explained in the next example. Table 2: Confidence Map...case notations. Since a confidence map is a visualization of an eliminative argument, we have specified nota - tional conventions that make confidence

  11. Epilepsy. Fact Sheet = Epilepsia. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet, written in both English and Spanish, provides a definition, information on incidence, typical characteristics, and educational implications of epilepsy. It notes that epilepsy is classified as "other health impaired" under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and that children with epilepsy or seizure disorders…

  12. [Parenting Information: Drugs. Informacion Para los Padres: Sobre las Drojas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Steve

    These two booklets provide basic information about drugs and drug abuse and are part of a series of 22 booklets, designed specifically to help parents understand their children and help them to learn. "Let's Talk about Drug Abuse," (booklet #18), reviews foreign substances or drugs young people are often exposed to (i.e., tobacco,…

  13. Posible influencia de exoplanetas sobre la actividad estelar: nuevos resultados

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, M. G.; Collado, A. E.; Jaque Arancibia, M.; Saffe, C. E.; Buccino, A. P.

    2017-10-01

    Our main aim of this work is to analyze 2 phenomena possibly related and at the same time very discussed in the literature. On the one hand, the difference in the activity levels shown by stars with and without planets. On the other hand, the excess of Lithium (Li) depletion presented by stars with planets when they are compared to stars with similar characteristics that do not host planets. To reach our main aim, the work has been divided into 3 stages. Thus, in this second contribution we present an analysis of the activity indexes calculated for the whole sample. To do so, we used high resolution spectra () of 1004 FGK stars taken with the HARPS (High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher) spectrograph, installed in the 3.6 m ESO telescope. We do not find a significant difference in the activity indexes of stars with and without planets. Furthermore, the chromosphere activity is not correlated with the mass of the planet.

  14. Reflexiones Sobre Investigacion Educacional (Reflections on Educational Research).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Victor M.

    Educational research can serve to improve education in both developed and developing countries. It can be oriented toward increasing knowledge about the educational reality, generating theories, or confirming immediate educational political decisions. Educational research should be an interdisciplinary undertaking; this variety helps to unify…

  15. Información general sobre los mosquitos

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Una consecuencia más importante de algunas picaduras de mosquitos es la trasmisión de ciertas enfermedades graves como el paludismo, la fiebre del dengue y varias formas de encefalitis, que incluyen el virus del Nilo occidental.

  16. Um Olhar sobre "Beleza Americana" (A Look at "American Beauty").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissoto, Maria Luisa

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the film "American Beauty" in light of a reading of Karl Marx. Finds that the film shows the circularity which marks bourgeois society, even though the rhythm of industry and renovation of the society masks it. States that Marx praises the industry, invention, and innovation of the bourgeoisie. (BT)

  17. Primeros resultados sobre el estudio de oscilaciones no radiales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córsico, A.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    En el Observatorio de La Plata se ha comenzado a elaborar un código de pulsaciones el cual resuelve el problema de las oscilaciones no radiales en el caso adiabático. Dicho código está basado en la técnica de diferencias finitas ampliamente usado en cálculos de estructura y evolución estelar. En este trabajo se presentan los primeros resultados encontrados aplicando el código mencionado al caso de una polítropa de índice n=3. Se presentan los valores de las autofrecuencias y las autofunciones para diferentes modos de pulsación de dicha configuración politrópica. En un futuro próximo, se aplicará este programa al estudio de las pulsaciones no radiales de estrellas enanas blancas.

  18. Pensamientos Sobre (Thoughts on) Teaching English as a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulibarri, Mari-Luci

    This document presents ideas on various topics in teaching English as a second language. Some of the problems of English orthography and semantics are illustrated. The role of contrastive analysis is mentioned with Spanish-English illustrations. A list of second-language-acquisition principles and techniques is provided, and suggestions for…

  19. Um Olhar sobre "Beleza Americana" (A Look at "American Beauty").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissoto, Maria Luisa

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the film "American Beauty" in light of a reading of Karl Marx. Finds that the film shows the circularity which marks bourgeois society, even though the rhythm of industry and renovation of the society masks it. States that Marx praises the industry, invention, and innovation of the bourgeoisie. (BT)

  20. Emotional Disturbance. Fact Sheet = Problemas Emocionales. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet, written in both English and Spanish, provides a definition, information on incidence, typical characteristics, and educational implications of emotional disturbance. The definition is from the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and incidence in 1999-2000 is reported as about 470,000 children and youth. Educational…

  1. Spina Bifida. Fact Sheet = Espina Bifida. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet offers definitions of the three types of spina bifida (spina bifida occulta, meningocele, and myelomeningocele), outlines their incidence, describes characteristics of individuals with spina bifida, and reviews educational implications. The fact sheet discusses the need for many children with myelomeningocele to learn to manage…

  2. Questions about Brain Development = Preguntas sobre el desarrollo del cerebro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southeastern Regional Vision for Education (SERVE), Tallahassee, FL.

    Noting that new research shows that a baby's earliest years shape how he or she grows later in life, this brochure, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides brief answers to some important questions parents may have about their baby's brain. The questions answered are: (1) "Why is brain development a popular subject lately?; (2)…

  3. Estudios sobre Educacion, 2002 (Studies on Education, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estudios sobre Educacion, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This scholarly journal deals with the study of education. Articles in this second issue are: "La Vertebracion Academica de la Formacion Inicial del Profesorado" (The Academic Backbone of the Initial Formation of Teachers) (Jose M. Esteve); "Deficiencia Visual en el Nino" (Visual Deficiency in the Young Child) (Feli Peralta;…

  4. Questions about Brain Development = Preguntas sobre el desarrollo del cerebro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southeastern Regional Vision for Education (SERVE), Tallahassee, FL.

    Noting that new research shows that a baby's earliest years shape how he or she grows later in life, this brochure, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides brief answers to some important questions parents may have about their baby's brain. The questions answered are: (1) "Why is brain development a popular subject lately?; (2)…

  5. Sobre prestamos y clasificaciones linguisticas (Regarding Borrowing and Linguistic Classification).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, Mary Ritchie

    1988-01-01

    This article explores the traditionally accepted etymologies of several lexical borrowings in the indigenous languages of the Americas within the framework of comparative linguistics and linguistic classification. The first section presents a general discussion of the problem of tracing lexical borrowings in this context. The section features a…

  6. Emotional Disturbance. Fact Sheet = Problemas Emocionales. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet, written in both English and Spanish, provides a definition, information on incidence, typical characteristics, and educational implications of emotional disturbance. The definition is from the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and incidence in 1999-2000 is reported as about 470,000 children and youth. Educational…

  7. Posible influencia de exoplanetas sobre la actividad estelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, M.; Saffe, C.; Buccino, A. P.; Jaque Arancibia, M.; Mauas, P.

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work is to analize the possible difference in the levels of activity showed by stars with and without planets. Several authors have suggested that stars with planets, in particular those with hot-Jupiter-like planets, have activity levels greater than those showed for stars of the same spectral class, but without planets. In this contribution we present the analysis of chromospheric activity indexes for 353 objects. To do so, we used high-resolution spectra () of F-, G-, and K-type stars taken with the High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher spectrograph, installed at the 3.6 m ESO telescope. We do no find a significant difference in the activity indexes of stars with and without planets.

  8. Proposiciones Sobre Autonomia Universitaria. (Propositions on University Autonomy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Victor M.

    University autonomy is a concept widely discussed and often misunderstood. In the Latin American context, university autonomy has been regarded as something inherent to the nature of the universities. As long as universities exist, the phenomenon of university autonomy will be present . University autonomy should be examined in the light of such…

  9. [Parenting Information: Teenagers. Informacion Para los Padres: Sobre los Jovenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Steve

    These four booklets are devoted specifically to the concerns of parents and their teenage children and are part of a series of 22 booklets designed specifically to help parents understand their children and help them to learn. "Parents--Learn about Your Teenager" (booklet #6) explains the changes which occur during the teen years and the…

  10. Leamos Sobre Veinte Ocupaciones! Twenty Trades to Read About.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamatino, Robyn; Mintz, Adin

    Twenty trades are explored in this bilingual supplementary workbook, designed specifically for native Spanish speakers who are in the process of learning English. The purpose of this book is to ease the Spanish-speaking student from his/her native language into English with as little discomfort as possible. There are twenty chapters in the book…

  11. Spina Bifida. Fact Sheet = Espina Bifida. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet offers definitions of the three types of spina bifida (spina bifida occulta, meningocele, and myelomeningocele), outlines their incidence, describes characteristics of individuals with spina bifida, and reviews educational implications. The fact sheet discusses the need for many children with myelomeningocele to learn to manage…

  12. Apuntes sobre Latinismos en Espanol (Notes on Latinisms in Spanish)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez B., L. A.

    1977-01-01

    Several Latinisms appear in Latin American Spanish, which would logically be farther from its Latin roots than Spanish in Spain. The existence of these elements and their importance as linguistic facts is analyzed here. Four words are treated: "Cliente,""cuadrar,""cuarto" and "rabula." (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  13. Gobierno Federal Contina Investigacin Cientfica Sobre Erupciones en Flint

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Flint, MICH. (24 de marzo, 2016) - Los expertos federales, del estado y del condado de salud y agua entienden que los residentes de Flint están preocupados por la calidad general de su agua-tanto como para beber y para bañarse. En este momento, el an

  14. Epilepsy. Fact Sheet = Epilepsia. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet, written in both English and Spanish, provides a definition, information on incidence, typical characteristics, and educational implications of epilepsy. It notes that epilepsy is classified as "other health impaired" under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and that children with epilepsy or seizure disorders…

  15. Los ojos de la NASA sobre la Tierra

    NASA Image and Video Library

    La NASA cuenta con más de una decena de satélites que estudian la Tierra. Conoce la información que recaban los satélites, junto con Gilberto Colón, asistente especial del subdirector del Centro de...

  16. Iniciativa sobre Efectividad: Primeros frutos (Initiative about Effectiveness: First Fruits).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno Garcia, Teresa, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This Spanish- and Portuguese-language bulletin is a follow-up to No. 15 (PS 030 558), which examined some Effectiveness Initiative (EI) projects. This issue presents some beginning efforts to reflect on what has been learned through EI and to draw conclusions. The articles cover the results of EI projects from such angles as their relations with…

  17. Informe Sobre la Conferencia (Think Tank) de Aspira Nacional Sobre Education Bilingue (Aspira National Think Tank Report: Bilingual Education)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspira, Inc., New York, NY.

    This Spanish edition reports on the Aspira National Think Tank Conference attended by educational leaders and social scientists representing the major bilingual communities namely, Puerto Ricans, Mexicans, and Cubans. The conference studied four major topics: (1) equality and not similarity, theory, rationale, and objectives of bilingual…

  18. [Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome. A series of 27 patients: their epidemiological and clinical characteristics. The current situation of the patients and the opinions of their caregivers regarding the diagnostic process].

    PubMed

    Blanco-Lago, Raquel; Málaga, Ignacio; García-Peñas, Juan José; García-Ron, Adrián

    2013-07-16

    Introduccion. El sindrome de Wolf-Hirschhorn (SWH) es una cromosomopatia producida por una delecion en la region distal del brazo corto del cromosoma 4. Se caracteriza por la presencia de un fenotipo peculiar, retraso en el crecimiento, retraso del desarrollo psicomotor y epilepsia. Objetivos. Describir las caracteristicas de una serie de niños con SWH, incluido el tiempo medio empleado para el diagnostico, y valorar la opinion de las familias sobre el proceso diagnostico. Pacientes y metodos. Se contacto con la Asociacion Nacional de SWH y, a traves de ella, con 29 familias afectadas. Se recogio informacion sobre la clinica del niño y la opinion sobre el proceso diagnostico, y se solicitaron informes medicos que confirmaran la informacion facilitada. Constituida una base de datos de pacientes, se procedio a su analisis estadistico. Resultados. Se obtuvo informacion de 27 familias. Los pacientes presentan una edad media actual de 6,94 ± 6,37 años. La edad media de diagnostico fue de 14,34 meses. Existe retraso del crecimiento intrauterino en el 92,6% de los embarazos. Un 92,6% de los pacientes presenta epilepsia, el 44,4% de ellos en monoterapia. Existe retraso del desarrollo psicomotor/cognitivo en todos los pacientes. Camina sin ayuda el 33%. Los padres califican con una nota media de 7,25 ± 2,17 el trato ofrecido por los facultativos y de 6,29 ± 2,11 la informacion recibida. Conclusiones. No se han encontrado referencias a la edad media de diagnostico para el SWH. En nuestra muestra, existen variaciones importantes en este aspecto, posiblemente condicionadas por el fenotipo del caso y la experiencia del medico. Las caracteristicas clinicas son similares a las esperadas. El grado de dependencia estimado es alto y la calidad de la informacion recibida por la familia, baja.

  19. In Vivo Evaluation of a Bombesin Analogue Labeled with Ga-68 and Co-55/57.

    PubMed

    Dam, Johan Hygum; Olsen, Birgitte Brinkmann; Baun, Christina; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul-Flemming; Thisgaard, Helge

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply an analogue of bombesin, NOTA-AMBA, labeled with Co-55 or Ga-68, for preclinical imaging of prostate cancer. The peptide NOTA-AMBA was labeled with Ga-68 or Co-55 by microwave irradiation. Biodistribution in xenograft mice (PC3) was performed at 1, 4, and 24 h (only cobalt at 24 h) using a fixed amount of peptide. Four weeks post-inoculation, xenograft mice were positron emission tomography/X-ray computed tomography scanned after tail vein injection of [(68)Ga]NOTA-AMBA or [(55)Co]NOTA-AMBA. Labeling with Ga-68 and Co-55/57 was achieved in yields greater than 90 %. A radiochemical purity (RCP) of 95 and 90 % were obtained for Ga-68 and Co-55, respectively. Both radiopeptides showed high uptake in the intestines, stomach, pancreas, and in the tumor ([(68)Ga]NOTA-AMBA, 10.3 %ID/g at 1 h to 6.4 %ID/g at 4 h; [(57)Co]NOTA-AMBA, 8.2 %ID/g at 1 h to 5.3%ID/g at 24 h). Normal tissue cleared over time improving tumor-to-background ratios. NOTA-AMBA was labeled in high yields and RCP with Ga-68 and Co-55/57. High tumor uptake in a subcutaneous mouse prostate cancer model was observed. At 24 h, [(55/57)Co]NOTA-AMBA showed better tumor-to-organ ratios than [(68)Ga]NOTA-AMBA at both 1 and 4 h post-injection. Hence, for imaging, [(55)Co]NOTA-AMBA was found to be superior compared to [(68)Ga]NOTA-AMBA.

  20. Bilinguismo e immigrazione: una nota sociolinguistica al piano europeo di mantenimento delle lingue nazionali nelle comunita di emigrati (Bilingualism and Immigration: A Sociolinguistic View of the European Plan for the Maintainance of National Languages in Immigrant Communities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosi, Arturo

    1979-01-01

    Outlines the European Economic Community's (EEC) plan for the maintainance of national languages among immigrants. Describes the variety of objectives behind the EEC's linguistic policy as incompatible with the creation of a unified instructional approach. Emphasizes that dialects spoken within immigrant families create additional problems in…

  1. "Una Communita" Poco Nota della Communicazione non Verbale: Come Communicano il Direttore e l'Orchestra (A Little Known "Community" of Nonverbal Communication: How the Conductor and Orchestra Communicate).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonardi, Magda Farago

    1992-01-01

    Examines how conductors and orchestras communicate. Communication is essentially nonverbal. Conductors use gestures, gaze, facial expression, nods and posture to deliver their message. Norbert Weiner's Cybernetic Theory of human communication is seen as a means of analyzing precisely how this musical communication takes place. (16 references) (LET)

  2. Linguistica matematica, statistica linguistica e linguistica applicata. Una nota storica sui lessici di frequenza e l'educazione linguistica (Mathematical Linguistics, Linguistic Statistics, and Applied Linguistics. An Historical Note on Word Frequencies and Linguistic Education)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elia, Annibale

    1977-01-01

    This article traces the history of several themes in applied linguistics and to show the relationships between linguistic theory and the sciences concerned with the learning and teaching of languages. Interest in word frequency statistics is discussed in particular. (Text is in Italian.) (CFM)

  3. Bilinguismo e immigrazione: una nota sociolinguistica al piano europeo di mantenimento delle lingue nazionali nelle comunita di emigrati (Bilingualism and Immigration: A Sociolinguistic View of the European Plan for the Maintainance of National Languages in Immigrant Communities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosi, Arturo

    1979-01-01

    Outlines the European Economic Community's (EEC) plan for the maintainance of national languages among immigrants. Describes the variety of objectives behind the EEC's linguistic policy as incompatible with the creation of a unified instructional approach. Emphasizes that dialects spoken within immigrant families create additional problems in…

  4. "Una Communita" Poco Nota della Communicazione non Verbale: Come Communicano il Direttore e l'Orchestra (A Little Known "Community" of Nonverbal Communication: How the Conductor and Orchestra Communicate).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonardi, Magda Farago

    1992-01-01

    Examines how conductors and orchestras communicate. Communication is essentially nonverbal. Conductors use gestures, gaze, facial expression, nods and posture to deliver their message. Norbert Weiner's Cybernetic Theory of human communication is seen as a means of analyzing precisely how this musical communication takes place. (16 references) (LET)

  5. Linguistica matematica, statistica linguistica e linguistica applicata. Una nota storica sui lessici di frequenza e l'educazione linguistica (Mathematical Linguistics, Linguistic Statistics, and Applied Linguistics. An Historical Note on Word Frequencies and Linguistic Education)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elia, Annibale

    1977-01-01

    This article traces the history of several themes in applied linguistics and to show the relationships between linguistic theory and the sciences concerned with the learning and teaching of languages. Interest in word frequency statistics is discussed in particular. (Text is in Italian.) (CFM)

  6. Logical versus Empirical Guidelines for Writing Test Items: The Case of "None of the Above."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Leon J.

    1994-01-01

    The use of the "none of the above" (NOTA) option in test items is explored. Empirical research on use of this option is obscuring the fact that, when NOTA is the correct answer, it can reward examinees with serious knowledge deficiencies or misinformation. This option should not be used. (SLD)

  7. A Meta-Analytic Review of Item Discrimination and Difficulty in Multiple-Choice Items Using "None-of-the-Above."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Susan L.; Welch, Cynthia A.

    1992-01-01

    A meta-analysis of the difficulty and discrimination of the "none-of-the-above" (NOTA) test option was conducted with 12 articles (20 effect sizes) for difficulty and 7 studies (11 effect sizes) for discrimination. Findings indicate that using the NOTA option does not result in items of lesser quality. (SLD)

  8. High-SNR Capacity of AWGN Channels with Generic Alphabet Constraints

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-01

    defined differently, through tensor nota - tion that we are trying to avoid delving into here. See, for example, [9, Ch. 4] for a proof that our...given by the case δ = 0.) Again for brevity, we will use the following temporary nota - 63 tion below (ρ > 0 and x, x′ ∈ X : ψ(ρ, x, x′) := ∣∣Bnρ

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance structural studies of an axially symmetric lanthanide ion chelate in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherry, A. D.; Singh, M.; Geraldes, C. F. G. C.

    The complexes of the macrocyclic ligand 1,4, 7-triazacyclononane- N,N',N″-triacetic acid (NOTA) with the paramagnetic trivalent lanthanide canons have been examined by proton and 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Lanthanide-induced shifts (LIS) have been measured for all proton and carbon resonances in nine paramagnetic Ln(NOTA) complexes at 25 and 70°C. At both temperatures the ethylene protons appear as a pair of resonances forming an AA'XX' splitting pattern (visible only in the Eu(NOTA) spectrum) while the acetate protons remain a singlet. The directions and magnitudes of the 1H and 13C shifts indicate they are dominated by contact interactions in most of the Ln(NOTA) complexes. The 13C spectrum of Pr(NOTA) provides evidence that more than one chelate structure is present in solution. The addition of LiCl to Pr(NOTA) and Eu(NOTA) samples results in significant shifts in the bound 1H and 13C resonances whereas the spectra of Dy(NOTA) and Yb(NOTA) do not change significantly when LiCl is added. These results, along with observed breaks in plots of experimental LIS data versus theoretical pseudocontact and contact shift values, suggest that the early members of the lanthanide ion series form mixed complexes with NOTA in aqueous solution, some with NOTA bound as a hexadentate chelate and some a pentadentate species with one unbound acetate group. The smaller trivalent lanthanide cations (Dy → Yb) appear to form complexes containing only hexadentate chelated NOTA. The contact and pseudocontact contributions to each of the observed LIS have been separated and the resulting pseudocontact shifts for the Dy → Yb complexes agree reasonably well with those calculated using the axial symmetry model. The 1H and 13C relaxation rates determined for three Ln(NOTA) complexes indicate that the smaller lanthanide cations fit into the triazamacrocyclic cavity better than do the larger ions resulting in structurally more rigid Ln(NOTA) complexes.

  10. [Oliver Sacks and literary neurology].

    PubMed

    Guardiola, Elena; Banos, Josep E

    2014-03-16

    Introduccion. La literatura medica de divulgacion intenta poner al alcance del publico general temas medicos en un lenguaje desprovisto, en lo posible, de jerga medica para hacerlo mas inteligible. En el ambito de la neurologia, su complejidad hace dificil que los relatos de esta especialidad sean faciles de comprender para el publico sin formacion medica. Objetivo. El presente articulo revisa la obra de Oliver Sacks en el ambito de la neurologia dirigida al publico general; se presentan las principales caracteristicas y las situaciones clinicas que describe. Desarrollo. Se incluyen unas notas biograficas sobre Oliver Sacks y se analizan los 11 libros publicados a lo largo de los ultimos 40 años. Para cada uno de ellos, se realiza una contextualizacion historica y se comentan los aspectos mas destacados que justifican el interes de su lectura. En la mayoria de los casos, se explica la genesis de la obra, asi como sus caracteristicas mas relevantes. Conclusiones. La obra de Sacks contiene un amplio abanico de situaciones clinicas de gran interes que se explican, generalmente, con un lenguaje accesible para el publico general. A los neurologos les permite, ademas, una vision holistica de diversas situaciones clinicas con una discusion de sus componentes biograficos, historicos y evolutivos.

  11. Development of 68Ga-labeled mannosylated human serum albumin (MSA) as a lymph node imaging agent for positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae Yeon; Jeong, Jae Min; Yoo, Byong Chul; Kim, Kyunggon; Kim, Youngsoo; Yang, Bo Yeun; Lee, Yun-Sang; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2011-04-01

    Although many sentinel lymph node (SLN) imaging agents labeled with (99m)Tc have been developed, no positron-emitting agent has been specifically designed for SLN imaging. Furthermore, the development of the beta probe and the requirement for better image resolution have increased the need for a positron-emitting SLN imaging agent. Here, we describe the development of a novel positron-emitting SLN imaging agent labeled with (68)Ga. A mannosylated human serum albumin (MSA) was synthesized by conjugating α-d-mannopyranosylphenyl isothiocyanate to human serum albumin in sodium carbonate buffer (pH 9.5), and then 2-(p-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid was conjugated to synthesize NOTA-MSA. Numbers of mannose and NOTA units conjugated in NOTA-MSA were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. NOTA-MSA was labeled with (68)Ga at room temperature. The stability of (68)Ga-NOTA-MSA was checked in labeling medium at room temperature and in human serum at 37°C. Biodistribution in normal ICR mice was investigated after tail vein injection, and micro-positron emission tomography (PET) images were obtained after injecting (68)Ga-NOTA-MSA into a tail vein or a footpad. The numbers of conjugated α-d-mannopyranosylphenyl isothiocyanate and 2-(p-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid units in NOTA-MSA were 10.6 and 6.6, respectively. The labeling efficiency of (68)Ga-NOTA-MSA was greater than 99% at room temperature, and its stability was greater than 99% at 4 h. Biodistribution and micro-PET studies of (68)Ga-NOTA-MSA showed high liver and spleen uptakes after intravenous injection. (68)Ga-NOTA-MSA injected into a footpad rapidly migrated to the lymph node. (68)Ga-NOTA-MSA was successfully developed as a novel SLN imaging agent for PET. NOTA-MSA is easily labeled at high efficiency, and subcutaneously administered (68)Ga-NOTA-MSA was found to migrate rapidly to the

  12. DIMED 86: Discurso dos Media e Ensino a Distancia = Discours des Media et Enseignement a Distance = Media Speech and Distance Teaching. Papers Presented at a Seminar (21st, Algarve, Portugal, March 10-15, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, Maria Eduarda Leal

    Presentations at this seminar on distance education focused on the different types of speech in multimedia presentations which contribute to the elaboration (simulated or substituted) of a situation involving different relationships. In addition to opening and closing remarks by Marcel de Greve and a final report by the Scientific Committee of…

  13. Developing Academic Literacy and Voice: Challenges Faced by a Mature ESL Student and Her Instructors (Desarrollo del discurso académico y la voz: retos de una estudiante de inglés como segunda lengua y sus profesores)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correa, Doris

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on critical, socio-cultural and sociolinguistic theories of writing, text and voice, this ethnographic study examines the challenges that a mature ESL student and her instructors in a university course on Spanish Language Media face as they co-construct a common understanding of academic literacy and voice in an undergraduate General…

  14. The Portrayal of EFLTeachers in Official Discourse: The Perpetuation of Disdain (La imagen de los profesores de inglés como lengua extranjera en el discurso oficial: la perpetuación del desdén)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrero, Carmen Helena

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to offer an interpretation of the images of Colombian English teachers constructed in official discourse, particularly (but not exclusively) in the document "Estándares básicos de competencias en lenguas extranjeras: inglés. Formar en lenguas extranjeras, el reto". This is part of a larger critical…

  15. DIMED 86: Discurso dos Media e Ensino a Distancia = Discours des Media et Enseignement a Distance = Media Speech and Distance Teaching. Papers Presented at a Seminar (21st, Algarve, Portugal, March 10-15, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, Maria Eduarda Leal

    Presentations at this seminar on distance education focused on the different types of speech in multimedia presentations which contribute to the elaboration (simulated or substituted) of a situation involving different relationships. In addition to opening and closing remarks by Marcel de Greve and a final report by the Scientific Committee of…

  16. El Discurso de Pasado en el Espanol de Houston: Imperfectividad Y Perfectividad Verbal en una Situacion de Contacto (Past Tense in the Discourse of Spanish Speakers in Houston: Use of Preterite and Imperfect in a Language Contact Situation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mrak, N. Ariana

    1998-01-01

    Investigates whether, due to the language contact situation in Houston in a group of a Mexican-American speakers, the imperfect forms of subordinate language (Spanish) are going through a process of reduction in favor of the forms of the superordinate language (English) when compared to the speech of Spanish monolinguals. (Author/VWL)

  17. El Discurso de Pasado en el Espanol de Houston: Imperfectividad Y Perfectividad Verbal en una Situacion de Contacto (Past Tense in the Discourse of Spanish Speakers in Houston: Use of Preterite and Imperfect in a Language Contact Situation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mrak, N. Ariana

    1998-01-01

    Investigates whether, due to the language contact situation in Houston in a group of a Mexican-American speakers, the imperfect forms of subordinate language (Spanish) are going through a process of reduction in favor of the forms of the superordinate language (English) when compared to the speech of Spanish monolinguals. (Author/VWL)

  18. Systemic Functional Linguistics and Discourse Analysis as Alternatives When Dealing with Texts (La lingüística sistémica funcional y el análisis del discurso como alternativas para trabajar con textos)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García Montes, Paula Andrea; Sagre Barboza, Ana María; Lacharme Olascoaga, Alba Isabel

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a case study research with aims to find out which activities, methodological and textual aspects used in a reading strategies course were causing a group of students difficulties when analyzing critically written information. We conducted the study at Universidad de Córdoba (Colombia) with seventh semester students from the…

  19. Nuclear magnetic resonance and potentiometric studies of the protonation scheme of a triaza triacetic macrocycle and its complexes with lanthanum and lutetium

    SciTech Connect

    Geraldes, C.F.G.C.; Alpoim, M.C.; Marques, M.P.M.; Sherry, A.D.; Singh, M.

    1985-11-06

    The protonation constants of the macrocyclic ligand 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N',N''-triacetic acid (NOTA) have been measured by potentiometry, and the protonation sequence of the various amino and carboxylate groups of NOTA has been studied in D/sub 2/O as a function of pD from the chemical shifts of the nonlabile protons. Shielding constants for protonation of the amino groups were determined in a NMR study of the triaza macrocyclic amine, its trimethylated analogue, and NOTA and compared with values reported for linear polyamino polycarboxylates and cyclic tetraaza tetracarboxylate ligands. The results indicate that two nitrogens of NOTA are protonated at higher pH than the carboxylate groups. The last nitrogen is protonated only at very low pH. The sequence of protonation of NOTA supports the formation of hydrogen bonds between two protonated nitrogens and the adjacent two nonprotonated carboxylates. The /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C spectra of the La(NOTA) and Lu(NOTA) species were studied as a function of pH and temperature. 33 references, 5 figures, 4 tables.

  20. Trichophoromyia auraensis is a putative vectorComments about the finding of Trichophoromyia auraensis (Mangabeira 1942) sandfly specimens infected by Leishmania (Viannia) parasites in Acre stateA new sandfly in the subgenus Nyssomyia (Diptera, Psychodidae) from the Amazon Basin of BrazilThe known geographical distribution of sandflies in the state of Acre, Brazil (Diptera: Psychodidae)Studies on the sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) from transmission areas of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in state of Acre, BrazilDevelopment and validation of PCR-based assays for diagnosis of American cutaneous leishmaniasis and identification of the parasite speciesFirst description of Leishmania (Viannia) infection in Evandromyia saulensis, Pressatia sp. and Trichophoromyia auraensis (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a transmission area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Acre state, Amazon Basin, BrazilSand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in an area of leishmaniasis transmission in the municipality of Rio Branco, state of Acre, BrazilIdentification of naturally infected Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia migonei with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) revealed by a PCR multiplex non-isotopic hybridization assayNotas sobre os flebotomíneos do estado do Acre, com a descrição de duas espécies novas (Diptera, Psychodidae)Description of Trichophoromyia ruifreitasi, a new phlebotomine species (Diptera, Psychodidae) from Acre state, Brazilian AmazonEpidemiologia da Leishmaniose Tegumentar e descrição das populações de flebotomíneos no município de Acrelândia, Acre, BrasilPhlebotomine sandfly (Diptera: Psychodidae) diversity and their Leishmania DNA in a hot spot of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis human cases along the Brazilian border with Peru and BoliviaDescription of a new phlebotomine species (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) and new records of sand flies from the state of Acre, Northern BrazilNatural Leishmania

    PubMed

    Teles, Carolina Bioni Garcia; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Camargo, Luís Marcelo Aranha

    2017-07-01

    The sandfly Trichophoromyia auraensis has recently evolved as a proven vector of Leishmania (Viannia) endemic to state of Acre in the north of Brazil. This note is intended to propose a correction in the report of the first occurrence of natural infection of Leishmania (Viannia) in this species. We and the other scientific groups reinforced that Tr. auraensis is a possible vector involved in the transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Acre, Brazil.

  1. Simposio interamericano sobre administracion de la educacion (Inter-American Symposium on Educational Administration).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cespedes, Francisco S., Ed.

    The presidents and foreign ministers in Latin America recognize the importance of applying technology to school administration as the first step in any educational reform. In October 1968, the Organization of American States (OAS) [Organizacion de los Estados Americanos (OEA)], sponsored a symposium in Brasilia, Brazil, in cooperation with the…

  2. Recursos de Trabajo: Informacion sobre Carreras (Occupational Resources: Career Information). CHOICE (Challenging Options in Career Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam and Northern Westchester Counties Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Yorktown Heights, NY.

    Part of a two-level career education curriculum initially developed for migrant children, the book is the first of three secondary level texts designed to provide high school students with self-awareness, job and role information, and decision-making/goal attaining information related to career education. The text provides job and role information…

  3. Homework Tips for Parents = Consejos para los padres sobre la tarea escola.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Intergovernmental and Interagency Affairs.

    Homework has been a part of students' lives since the beginning of formal school in the United States; the push for increased homework has increased, fueled by rising academic standards. Noting that parents involved can have either a positive or a negative influence on the value of homework, this booklet, in both English and Spanish, offers…

  4. Cerebral Palsy. Fact Sheet = La Paralisis Cerebral. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on cerebral palsy is written in both English and Spanish. First, it provides a definition of cerebral palsy and considers various causes (e.g., an insufficient amount of oxygen reaching the fetal or newborn brain). The fact sheet then offers incidence figures and explains characteristics of the three main types of cerebral palsy:…

  5. Profesionalismo: Un estudio fenomenologico sobre experiencias de universitarios en programas de salud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Ortiz, Wilma J.

    Some studies suggest that, upon admission, medicine programs students display eagerness for community service, aspirations to be useful, and to contribute to society's well-being. Those same studies reflect that qualities of idealism, moral nature, and internal motivation, suffer a subsequent diminishing. The researchers inferred that the main reason for this process of change in the mood and disposition of these future physicians lies in the modeling they receive from medical professionals throughout clinical learning activities, by way of behavior and relationships exhibited during daily interaction with peers, patients and the students themselves. This phenomenological study used a cross-sectional sample to explore the experiences of future health workers as they went through didactic and clinical phases of their training curriculum. The study employed semi-structured interviews and reflective journals to explore those experiences and to discover the meanings ascribed by the participants. The analysis revealed that the students defined "professionalism" in terms of scientific knowledge, commitment, respect for human dignity, comradeship, courtesy, empathy, integrity, altruism, motivation. They also described their feelings as they went through the didactic and clinical experiences, and recognized as very important the extracurricular activities of community service, describing them as useful opportunities which contributed to understand their work in terms of a mission dedicated to the achievement of the social benefit. From their individual perspectives, the clinical environment could, in general, be described as congruent with those characteristics of professionalism. During the study we had the opportunity to share, in a little deeper way, the environment... the world... of this small group of young students as we went on trying to decipher their feelings and thoughts. At the end, we realized the richness of their sensibilities, we perceived the intensity of their moral and ethical convictions, we were able to understand their concerns, worries, struggles and efforts. This life event had profound and significant repercussions in our personal and professional life. As a result, and from now on, we will no longer look at our young scholars and apprentices without imagining a noble spirit, with goals which at times could seem unattainable... without completely visualizing or conceiving real hope for a better country.

  6. Mental Retardation. Fact Sheet = El Retraso Mental. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on mental retardation is written in both English and Spanish. It begins with a vignette of a 15-year-old boy with mental retardation. Mental retardation is briefly explained as are some causes of mental retardation. It notes that a diagnosis of mental retardation looks at two things: first, the ability of a person's brain to learn,…

  7. Las Preguntas Que Hacen los Padres sobre la Escuela (Questions Parents Ask about School).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Opinion Research Center, Chicago, IL.

    This guide presents questions that parents frequently ask about their children's school along with answers to those questions. The questions and answers were prepared based on the results of studies conducted by the Partnership for Family Involvement in Education, the U.S. Department of Education, the GTE Foundation, and by the National Center for…

  8. Questions Parents Ask about Schools = Preguntas que hacen los padres sobre las escuelas. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Intergovernmental and Interagency Affairs.

    Noting that parents play an important role in the school success of their elementary- and middle-school-aged children, this booklet offers research-based tips to provide both practical guidance and information about a range of education-related topics. Presented in a question-answer format in both English and Spanish versions, the booklet provides…

  9. Bibliografia sobre el "bilinguismo" del Paraguay (A Bibliography on Bilingualism in Paraguay)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melia, Bartomeu

    1974-01-01

    This bibliography of ninety-five entries ranging in publication date from 1847 to 1947 brings together information from areas of history, literature, sociology, anthropology, sociolinguistics, descriptive linguistics, folk-lore and language planning, the central criterion being the relationship of these areas specifically to the bilingual…

  10. Guia para los padres sobre educacion preescolar (A Parents' Guide to Early Childhood Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister; Phinney, Joanna

    This handbook, entirely in Spanish, was originally intended for parents whose children attend programs which use "The Creative Curriculum for Early Childhood" (CCEC), but the information is also useful to parents whose children attend early childhood programs using other curriculum models based on child development theories. The purpose…

  11. Traumatic Brain Injury. Fact Sheet = Lesion Cerebral Traumatica (TBI). Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet, written in both English and Spanish, offers general information about traumatic brain injury. Information includes a definition, incidence, individual characteristics, and educational implications. The signs of traumatic brain injury are listed and include physical disabilities, difficulties with thinking, and social, behavioral,…

  12. SOBR: A High-Performance Shared Output Buffered Router for Networks-on-Chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yancang; Xie, Lunguo

    This paper presents a single-cycle shared output buffered router for Networks-on-Chip. In output ports, each input port always has an output virtual-channel (VC) which can be exchanged by VC swapper. Its critical path is only 24 logic gates, and it reduces 9.4% area overhead compared with the classical router.

  13. Curso Introductorio sobre el Sistema DIALOG (Introductory Course on the DIALOG System).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Ketty

    As an introduction to the use of the DIALOG online retrieval service, this guide presents material that was developed during a fellowship at Carlos III University, School of Library Science and Documentation, Madrid (Spain) and that is based on a course on the same subject taught in English at Texas Women's University. Although the use of DIALOG…

  14. Recopilacion Bibliografica Sobre Investigacion y Cambio Cultural (Bibliographic Compilation about Cultural Investigation and Exchange).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centro Latinoamericano de Educacion de Adultos, Santiago (Chile).

    The bibliography forms part of a project to define guidelines for a method of cultural investigation in the education of adults. A brief introduction is followed by a list of libraries and the plan for the listing of entries in the bibliography. Entries are arranged alphabetically by author under the following general headings: background on the…

  15. Una Metodologia de Analisis de la Interaccion Alumno-Orgendaor en la Investigacion Sobre Informatica Educativa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estepa, A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The recording of the interaction between pupil and computer is one of the data sources frequently used in research on the use of computers in teaching. Describes the analysis methodology of these recordings to determine the use of computers in statistics and its adaptation to other research work on the use of computers in education. (Author/MDH)

  16. Nueva investigacion sobre kindergarten de dia completo (Recent Research on All-Day Kindergarten). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Patricia

    Noting that much of the early research on the effects of all-day kindergarten had serious problems with internal and external validity due to inadequate methodological standards, this Spanish-language digest reviews research conducted in the 1990s. The digest discusses the academic, social, and behavioral effects of all-day kindergarten, as well…

  17. Glasario de Terminos sobre Germinacion de Semillas para Especialistas en Arboles Semilleros

    Treesearch

    F.T. Bonner

    1985-01-01

    The glossary, written in Spanish, is designed for scientists and technicians concerned with testing or research with forest tree seeds. Definitions have been simplified as much as possible without sacrificing their technical meanings.

  18. Modelo analítico del efecto de PRS sobre satélites GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza, A.; Brunini, C.; Usandivaras, J. C.

    El sistema GPS (Global Position System) es, hoy en día, la herramienta de navegación y posicionamiento más potente y lo será sin duda en la próxima década. Gran parte de su valiosa utilidad se debe a la alta precisión que permite lograr y ésta, a su vez, depende, entre otras causas, de la precisión con que se conocen las órbitas de los satélites. La presión de radiación solar (PRS) fija el límite de la precisión con que pueden calcularse en la actualidad las efemérides satelitarias. El objetivo de este trabajo es proponer una mejor resolución de este fenómeno. El modelo analítico aquí presentado, se basa en el análisis del comportamiento de los residuos de un ajuste por mínimos cuadrados en el que se utiliza el modelo de PRS propuesto por Beutler. El mismo consiste en un modelo determinista del fenómeno con dos parámetros libres. Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto que, aún después de aplicar dichos parámetros, prevalecen en los residuos efectos semidiurnos en las componentes radial,tangencial y normal. Estos resultados obtenidos se comparan con los de un trabajo desarrollado por el Instituto de Berne (Beutler et al., 1994), en el que se utilizaron como pseudo-observaciones las órbitas precisas del IGS (CODE). El intervalo de integración escogido por este centro fueron las semanas 680 y 681. En resumen se tienen arcos de 14 días para todos los satélites, donde las efemérides precisas de los mismos para los 14 días fueron utilizados como pseudo-observaciones. El modelo de fuerza que empleó dicho centro fue básicamente el tradicional en lo que respecta al modelo de las fuerzas gravitacionales, y para la PRS utilizo el modelo standard de Beutler. Los parámetros de este modelo junto con las 6 condiciones iniciales (posición y velocidad) fueron ajustados por el método general de mínimos cuadrados. Los residuos en la componente radial, tangencial y normal, para los satélites con un buen comportamiento, presentan una componente semidiurna. El modelo analítico planteado en este trabajo, predice el comportamiento de los residuos que se observan en las publicaciones más recientes. Esto abre el camino para plantear una estimación distinta de las incógnitas del problema, basado en el método de colocación por mínimos cuadrados. Ello requiere modelar estadísticamente la señal debida a las componentes de la PRS que no son tomadas en cuenta en el modelo determinista.

  19. Una Metodologia de Analisis de la Interaccion Alumno-Orgendaor en la Investigacion Sobre Informatica Educativa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estepa, A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The recording of the interaction between pupil and computer is one of the data sources frequently used in research on the use of computers in teaching. Describes the analysis methodology of these recordings to determine the use of computers in statistics and its adaptation to other research work on the use of computers in education. (Author/MDH)

  20. Ahorre Energia: Consejos sobre el ahorro de dinero y energia en el hogar (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    Learn how to save money with Energy Saver: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home, from the U.S. Department of Energy. The Energy Saver guide will help you reduce your monthly energy costs and live more efficiently. This guide takes you through the systems and appliances that consume the most energy in your home, and provides solutions to cut costs for you while saving the environment. The Energy Saver guide also includes transportation tips to help you save money at the pump.

  1. Questions Often Asked about Special Education Services = Preguntas sobre los servicios de educacion especial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupper, Lisa, Ed.

    This guide, available in both English and Spanish, answers questions often asked by parents about special education services. Questions and answers address the following topics: where to begin if a parent believes a child needs special education services, services available to very young children, the evaluation process, the Individualized…

  2. Perspectiva sobre una Personalidad Senera: Carmen Fischer Ramirez (Perspective on a Singular Personality: Carmen Fischer Ramirez).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quezeda, Dina Alarcon

    1992-01-01

    Traces the career of Carmen Fischer Ramirez, focusing on her work in improving early childhood education in Chile. Reviews her university career, work with the World Organization for Early Childhood Education, and major publications. (AC)

  3. Perspectiva General sobre la Sordo-Ceguera (Overview on Deaf-Blindness). DB-LINK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Barbara

    This overview provides basic information on the causes of deaf-blindness and the particular challenges faced by individuals who are deaf-blind. Causes of deaf-blindness include various syndromes, multiple congenital anomalies, prematurity, congenital prenatal dysfunction, and various postnatal causes. Differences between people deaf-blind from…

  4. Sobre Algumas Tecnicas de Perturbacao Utilizadas no Problema Ressonante 3/1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balthazar, J. M.; Sagnier, J. L.; Ferraz Mello, S.; Koiller, J.; Yokoyama, T.

    1987-05-01

    ABSTRACT. This work concerns with the study of a particular 3/1 resonant problem for which we have determined formal solutions according to the model belonging to the domain of the Restricted Elliptic Problem of Three Bodies. Key & : ASTEROIDS

  5. Como preparar un programa de informacion sobre la asistencia economica (Planning a Financial Aid Awareness Program).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, written in Spanish, is intended to be used with a set of slides as part of a presentation to students on "How To Apply for Federal Student Aid" ("Como Solicitar la Asistencia Economica Federal para Estudiantes"). The first part of the book is a script based on the slides. After the script is a guide to hosting a financial aid…

  6. Cultural Diversity Awareness Inventory = Inventario Sobre el Reconocimiento de Diversas Culturas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Gertrude B.

    This booklet features a checklist designed to help persons who are involved in providing direct services to culturally diverse, young special needs children to assess their attitudes, beliefs, and behavior toward these children. The booklet also contains suggestions and lists of print, film, and filmstrip resources for developing a school program…

  7. Speech and Language Disorders. Fact Sheet = Trastornos del Habla y Lenguaje. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on speech and language disorders is presented in English and Spanish. It provides information on the definition of speech and language disorders and possible causes; the incidence (about one in ten people); and characteristics of delayed communication, speech disorders, and language disorders. It notes educational implications,…

  8. Perspectiva sobre una Personalidad Senera: Carmen Fischer Ramirez (Perspective on a Singular Personality: Carmen Fischer Ramirez).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quezeda, Dina Alarcon

    1992-01-01

    Traces the career of Carmen Fischer Ramirez, focusing on her work in improving early childhood education in Chile. Reviews her university career, work with the World Organization for Early Childhood Education, and major publications. (AC)

  9. Informe sobre el proyecto contrastivo hispano-hungaro (Report on the Spanish-Hungarian Contrastive Project)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulei-Szanto, Andres

    1974-01-01

    A description of a contrastive linguistics project in Hungary aiming to augment linguistic theories in the Spanish language and propound theories for scientific and artistic translation. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  10. Informe sobre el proyecto contrastivo hispano-hungaro (Report on the Spanish-Hungarian Contrastive Project)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulei-Szanto, Andres

    1974-01-01

    A description of a contrastive linguistics project in Hungary aiming to augment linguistic theories in the Spanish language and propound theories for scientific and artistic translation. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  11. Bibliografia sobre el "bilinguismo" del Paraguay (A Bibliography on Bilingualism in Paraguay)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melia, Bartomeu

    1974-01-01

    This bibliography of ninety-five entries ranging in publication date from 1847 to 1947 brings together information from areas of history, literature, sociology, anthropology, sociolinguistics, descriptive linguistics, folk-lore and language planning, the central criterion being the relationship of these areas specifically to the bilingual…

  12. Guia para los padres sobre educacion preescolar (A Parents' Guide to Early Childhood Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister; Phinney, Joanna

    This handbook, entirely in Spanish, was originally intended for parents whose children attend programs which use "The Creative Curriculum for Early Childhood" (CCEC), but the information is also useful to parents whose children attend early childhood programs using other curriculum models based on child development theories. The purpose…

  13. ¿Origen dinámico del polvo sobre la superficie de Iapetus?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiva, A. M.; Briozzo, C. B.

    We implement the three-dimensional Circular Restricted Three Body Prob- lem for low energy particles entering the Saturn­Iapetus system from the recently discovered dust ring. The distribution of impacts with the surface of Iapetus so obtained shows features resembling that of the dark regions observed in this satellite. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  14. Consideracoes Historicas sobre o Ensino Profissionalizante no Brasil (Historical Considerations about Professional Education in Brazil).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barros, Marta Silene Ferreira

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes the paths taken in professional education in Brazil from the colonial period until the formation of the republic. Refers to specialists as well as specific laws for each period described in the study. (BT)

  15. Consideracoes Historicas sobre o Ensino Profissionalizante no Brasil (Historical Considerations about Professional Education in Brazil).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barros, Marta Silene Ferreira

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes the paths taken in professional education in Brazil from the colonial period until the formation of the republic. Refers to specialists as well as specific laws for each period described in the study. (BT)

  16. Sobre las soluciones acotadas del problema instantáneo de dos cuerpos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altavista, C.

    La demostración se basa en el hecho de que las integrales del problema de los N-cuerpos admiten componentes en el campo complejo según las raíces n-ésimas de la unidad. Definida la matriz unitaria correspondiente, la fórmula de Cayley permite transformar la matriz unitaria en una matriz hermitiana. Utilizando como parámetros los cosenos direccionales de un sistema de coordenadas orbitales referidos a un sistema de referencia fijo, puede construirse, utilizando el operador hermitiano antes definido, una forma cuadrática cuyas raíces mínima y máxima definen las cotas respectivas de los movimientos de los mencionados cosenos direccionales.

  17. Speech and Language Disorders. Fact Sheet = Trastornos del Habla y Lenguaje. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on speech and language disorders is presented in English and Spanish. It provides information on the definition of speech and language disorders and possible causes; the incidence (about one in ten people); and characteristics of delayed communication, speech disorders, and language disorders. It notes educational implications,…

  18. Sobre la ensenanza de la literatura hispanoamericana (The Teaching of Hispanoamerican Literature).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Keith

    There are three main problems in teaching Latin American literature: (1) It is difficult to maintain a regional overview, while, at the same time, including a sense of the literary history of Latin America; (2) It is necessary to teach literature so that the material seems worthwhile in its own right and not only as a complement to other…

  19. Consideraciones sobre la Ansiedad en la Primera Infancia (Considerations Concerning Anxiety in Early Infancy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Elsa

    The results of an experience obtained while working with children in the early stages of infancy are presented. They are basically observations taken of a child's reaction to sudden changes, particularly separation from its mother. Anxiety was observed in these infants in diverse circumstances; in some cases it was at a normal level and in others…

  20. Iniciativa sobre Efectividad: Un entorno para el aprendizaje (Initiative about Effectiveness: An Environment for Learning).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno Garcia, Teresa, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This Spanish- and Portuguese-language bulletin presents articles focusing on the Effectiveness Initiative (EI), a project of the Bernard van Leer Foundation for making a qualitative analysis of those elements of the programs of Early Childhood Development (ECD) that benefit the participants and their communities and cultures. The first article…

  1. Sobre o uso das séries de Puiseux em mecanica celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O. I.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho é apresentada uma demonstração do uso dos diferentes desenvolvimentos em séries para as equações de perturbação em Mecânica Celeste no marco Hamiltoniano. Em trabalhos clássicos como os de Poincaré (Poincaré, 1893) por exemplo, já esta planteado o uso de potências não inteiras no pequeno parâmetro, o que evidencia a não analiticidade das funções quando uma ressonância ocorre. Nestes trabalhos os desenvolvimentos são na raíz quadrada da massa de Júpiter (o pequeno parâmetro). Mais recentemente (Ferraz-Mello, 1985) outros tipos de desenvolvimentos foram aplicados modificando substancialmente as ordens de grandeza e a velocidade de convergência das séries. Com esta abordagem, os desenvolvimentos foram expressados em termos da raíz cúbica do pequeno parâmetro. Neste trabalho apresentamos um enfoque geral, onde os diferentes tipos de desenvolvimentos em séries de Puiseux (Valiron, 1950) são obtidos a partir da aplicação de Teorema de Preparação de Weierstrass (Goursat, 1916) considerando a equação de Hamilton-Jacobi como uma equação algébrica. Os resultados são aplicados ao problema restrito dos três corpos em ressonância de primeira ordem e, dependendo da grandeza da excentricidade do asteróide em relação à de Júpiter, obtemos os diferentes desenvolvimentos, em raíz quadrada ou raíz cúbica da massa de Júpiter.

  2. Reflexiones Sobre la Capacitacion de Docentes (Reflections on In-Service Teacher Training).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Victor M.

    Everyone concerned with educational systems performance agrees that the improvement of teaching qualities is a high priority in any educational effort. Teachers are assigned the role of change agents and are presented with new challenges, e.g., to make education global and permanent, flexible enough to serve in any environment (in or out of the…

  3. Católicos, fidelidade conjugal e AIDS: entre a cruz da doutrina moral e as espadas do cotidiano sexual dos adeptos1

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Luis Felipe; de Aquino, Francisca Luciana; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Oliveira, Cinthia; Parker, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Neste artigo discutimos a visão da Igreja Católica sobre sexualidade na interface com a epidemia do HIV/AIDS. Nossa reflexão está embasada em pesquisa etnográfica que envolveu dois meses de observação participante do cotidiano de católicos de um bairro popular da Região Metropolitana do Recife, além de contar com entrevistas a onze dos leigos engajados nos serviços religiosos da igreja do bairro e a oito sacerdotes que realizam seus trabalhos religiosos em outras localidades. Nelas abordamos diferentes temáticas relacionadas ao enfrentamento da epidemia da AIDS. Nesse contexto, conjugalidade e fidelidade se afiguram como importantes analisadores de como aqueles lidam com a epidemia, em uma variedade de re-descrições práticas e de re-interpretações conceptuais das assertivas do discurso moral religioso – ainda que, muitos impasses permaneçam em aberto em termos das prerrogativas da Igreja e seus possíveis rebatimentos na saúde sexual dos adeptos. PMID:21765650

  4. PubMed

    Rios, Luis Felipe; de Aquino, Francisca Luciana; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Oliveira, Cinthia; Parker, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Neste artigo discutimos a visão da Igreja Católica sobre sexualidade na interface com a epidemia do HIV/AIDS. Nossa reflexão está embasada em pesquisa etnográfica que envolveu dois meses de observação participante do cotidiano de católicos de um bairro popular da Região Metropolitana do Recife, além de contar com entrevistas a onze dos leigos engajados nos serviços religiosos da igreja do bairro e a oito sacerdotes que realizam seus trabalhos religiosos em outras localidades. Nelas abordamos diferentes temáticas relacionadas ao enfrentamento da epidemia da AIDS. Nesse contexto, conjugalidade e fidelidade se afiguram como importantes analisadores de como aqueles lidam com a epidemia, em uma variedade de re-descrições práticas e de re-interpretações conceptuais das assertivas do discurso moral religioso - ainda que, muitos impasses permaneçam em aberto em termos das prerrogativas da Igreja e seus possíveis rebatimentos na saúde sexual dos adeptos.

  5. Alejarse como proceso social: niños y ancianos «abandonados» en Ayacucho1

    PubMed Central

    Leinaweaver, Jessaca

    2013-01-01

    En investigaciones previas sobre el acogimiento familiar y la adopción en Ayacucho, se ha podido descubrir cómo los ayacuchanos adquieren y producen relaciones sociales. Mientras negocian creativamente los discursos y espacios construidos simultáneamente por instituciones, comunidades, y estructuras sociales, van adquiriendo nuevas formas de relacionarse. Este artículo discute el proceso opuesto: el deshacerse de relaciones de parentesco, y el proceso social del abandono o alejamiento. Cuando se aleja a una persona de su familia o su comunidad, los que se quedan en ella llegan a entenderse como ciertos tipos de personas. En los estudios de caso discutidos aquí, recopilados a través de una detallada y cuidadosa observación participante y de entrevistas etnográficas grabadas entre 2001 y 2007, se puede ver cómo, después de un alejamiento social, los individuos que alejan se reinterpretan como sujetos que se encuentran superándose o volviéndose modernos, o bien sacrificándose. PMID:25177044

  6. ImmunoPET of Tissue Factor in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hao; Zhang, Yin; Nayak, Tapas R.; Engle, Jonathan W.; Wong, Hing C.; Liu, Bai; Barnhart, Todd E.; Cai, Weibo

    2012-01-01

    Upregulation of tissue factor (TF) expression leads to increased patient morbidity and mortality in many solid tumor types. The goal of this study was to develop a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for imaging of TF expression in pancreatic cancer. Methods ALT-836, a chimeric anti-human TF monoclonal antibody, was conjugated to 2-S-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1, 4, 7-triazacyclononane-1, 4, 7-triacetic acid (p-SCN-Bn-NOTA) and labeled with 64Cu. To compare the TF binding affinity of ALT-836 and NOTA-ALT-836, flow cytometry analysis was performed in three pancreatic cancer cell lines with different expression level of TF (from low to high: PANC-1, ASPC-1, and BXPC-3). PET imaging, biodistribution, blocking, and histology studies were performed on pancreatic tumor-bearing mice to evaluate the ability and specificity of 64Cu-NOTA-ALT-836 to target TF in vivo. Results There was no difference in TF binding affinity between ALT-836 and NOTA-ALT-836. 64Cu-labeling was achieved with high yield and specific activity. Serial PET imaging revealed that the uptake of 64Cu-NOTA-ALT-836 in BXPC-3 tumors (high TF expression) was 5.7 ± 0.5, 10.3 ± 0.5, and 16.5 ± 2.6 %ID/g at 4, 24, and 48 h post-injection respectively (n = 4), significantly higher than that in the PANC-1 and ASPC-1 tumors. Biodistribution data as measured by gamma counting were consistent with the PET findings. Blocking experiments and histology further confirmed the TF specificity of 64Cu-NOTA-ALT-836. Conclusion Herein we report the first successful PET imaging of TF expression. Persistent and TF-specific uptake of 64Cu-NOTA-ALT-836 was observed in pancreatic cancer models. PMID:22988057

  7. First 18F-labeled ligand for PET imaging of uPAR: In vivo studies in human prostate cancer xenografts☆

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Morten; Liu, Hongguang; Madsen, Jacob; Cheng, Zhen; Kjaer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is overexpressed in human prostate cancer and uPAR has been found to be associated with metastatic disease and poor prognosis. AE105 is a small linear peptide with high binding affinity to uPAR. We synthesized an N-terminal NOTA-conjugated version (NOTA-AE105) for development of the first 18F-labeled uPAR positron-emission-tomography PET ligand using the Al18F radiolabeling method. In this study, the potential of 18F-AlF-NOTA-AE105 to specifically target uPAR-positive prostate tumors was investigated. Methods NOTA-conjugated AE105 was synthesized and radiolabeled with 18F-AlF according to a recently published optimized protocol. The labeled product was purified by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography RP-HPLC. The tumor targeting properties were evaluated in mice with subcutaneously inoculated PC-3 xenografts using small animal PET and ex vivo biodistribution studies. uPAR-binding specificity was studied by coinjection of an excess of a uPAR antagonist peptide AE105 analogue (AE152). Results NOTA-AE105 was labeled with 18F-AlF in high radiochemical purity (> 92%) and yield (92.7%) and resulted in a specific activity of greater than 20 GBq/μmol. A high and specific tumor uptake was found. At 1 h post injection, the uptake of 18F-AlF-NOTA-AE105 in PC-3 tumors was 4.22 ± 0.13%ID/g. uPAR-binding specificity was demonstrated by a reduced uptake of 18F-AlF-NOTA-AE105 after coinjection of a blocking dose of uPAR antagonist at all three time points investigated. Good tumor-to-background ratio was observed with small animal PET and confirmed in the biodistribution analysis. Ex vivo uPAR expression analysis on extracted tumors confirmed human uPAR expression that correlated close with tumor uptake of 18F-AlF-NOTA-AE105. Conclusion The first 18F-labeled uPAR PET ligand, 18F-AlF-NOTA-AE105, has successfully been prepared and effectively visualized noninvasively uPAR positive prostate cancer. The favorable in

  8. Experience of health professionals in care of the homeless population with tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Alecrim, Tatiana Ferraz de Araújo; Mitano, Fernando; Reis, Amanda Alessandra Dos; Roos, Cristine Moraes; Palha, Pedro Fredemir; Protti-Zanatta, Simone Teresinha

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing statements of health professionals from a Street Clinic regarding care of a homeless population with tuberculosis. This is a qualitative research, conducted in the central region of São Paulo at three basic health units in the period of November to December 2014. A semi-structured interview guideline was implemented for data collection and all interviews were recorded using a digital recorder. Six health professionals were interviewed. According to the Discourse Analysis perspective, three discursive segments emerged: experiences on care in the streets; weaknesses inherent to the treatment process; and incentives as a means of maintaining sick people in treatment. Caring for a the homeless population with tuberculosis constitutes a new and challenging experience. It involves difficulties in dealing with the reality of a miserable social context, a lack and inadequacy of services, as well as care limitations for treatment and treatment dropout, which reinforces multiresistance. However, the investigated Street Clinic teams seek to expand access to health and social care services to this population. Analisar os discursos dos profissionais de saúde do Consultório na Rua em relação ao cuidado à pessoa em situação de rua com tuberculose. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, realizada na região central do município de São Paulo, em três Unidades Básicas de Saúde, no período de novembro a dezembro de 2014. Utilizou-se de um roteiro de entrevista semiestruturada para a coleta de dados e todas as entrevistas foram gravadas com recurso a um gravador digital. Foram entrevistados seis profissionais de saúde. Segundo a perspectiva da Análise de Discurso, emergiram três blocos discursivos: experiência sobre o cuidar na rua; fragilidades inerentes ao processo de tratamento e incentivos como meio para a permanência do sujeito doente no tratamento. Cuidar da pessoa com tuberculose e em situação de rua constitui uma experiência nova e desafiadora

  9. Astronomical Perception of the Secondary School's Students in São Paulo's State School in Suzano City. (Spanish Title: Percepción Astronómica de Alumnos de la Enseñanza Media de la Red Estatal de San Pablo en la Ciudad de Suzano.) Percepção Astronômica de um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual de São Paulo da Cidade de Suzano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    França de Oliveira, Edilene; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Amaral, Luis Henrique

    2007-12-01

    año y 20,6% tenían la idea de cuales son los objetos celestes más cercanos de la Tierra. En contraposición, 67,6% clasificaron correctamente el Sol como una estrella; 55,9% relacionaron el Big Bang al origen del Universo; solamente 20,6% identificaron un año-luz como unidad de distancia y 32,4% reconocieron una estrella fugaz como meteoro. El presente análisis fue expandido para otros grupos de la Enseñanza Media, no solamente del período nocturno, sino también diurno de la misma escuela. En esta primera fase se nota el pequeño conocimiento de los alumnos sobre eventos astronómicos y principalmente la gran confusión sobre el significado correcto de los términos astronómicos populares. Embora a Astronomia seja uma das ciências mais antigas da humanidade e muitos dos conceitos astronômicos serem populares, observa-se que uma parcela significativa dos estudantes encontra-se à margem dessas informações. O presente trabalho visa analisar o nível de conhecimento básico dos alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual da cidade de Suzano quanto aos fenômenos astronômicos que os rodeiam. Para tanto foi elaborado um formulário constando de questões de múltipla escolha, aplicado no primeiro ano noturno da Escola Estadual Batista Renzi. Num espaço amostral de 34 alunos constatou-se que apenas 29,4% compreendiam a sucessão dos dias; 20,6% explicaram corretamente as estações do ano e 20,6% tinham idéia de quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra. Em contraposição, 67,6% classificaram corretamente o Sol como estrela; 55,9% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo; apenas 20,6% identificaram um ano-luz como unidade de distância e 32,4% reconheceram uma estrela cadente como meteoro. A presente análise foi expandida para mais 310 alunos de outras classes de Ensino Médio, não somente do período noturno, mas também diurno da mesma escola. Nesta primeira fase nota-se o pequeno discernimento dos alunos sobre eventos astronômicos e

  10. HaloTag as a reporter gene: positron emission tomography imaging with 64Cu-labeled second generation HaloTag ligands

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hao; Benink, Hélène A; Uyeda, H Tetsuo; Valdovinos, Hector F; Zhang, Yin; Meisenheimer, Poncho; Barnhart, Todd E; Fan, Frank; Cai, Weibo

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to employ the HaloTag technology for positron emission tomography (PET), which involves two components: the HaloTag protein (a modified hydrolase which covalently binds to synthetic ligands) and HaloTag ligands (HTLs). 4T1 murine breast cancer cells were stably transfected to express HaloTag protein on the surface (termed as 4T1-HaloTag-ECS, ECS denotes extracellular surface). Two new HTLs were synthesized and termed NOTA-HTL2G-S and NOTA-HTL2G-L (2G indicates second generation, S stands for short, L stands for long, NOTA denotes 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N’N’’-triacetic acid). Microscopy studies confirmed surface expression of HaloTag in 4T1-HaloTag-ECS cells, which specifically bind NOTA-HTL2G-S/L. Uptake of 64Cu-NOTA-HTL2G-L in 4T1-HaloTag-ECS tumors (4.3 ± 0.5, 4.1± 0.2, 4.0 ± 0.2, 2.3 ± 0.1, and 2.2 ± 0.1 %ID/g at 0.5, 3, 6, 18, and 24 h post-injection respectively; n = 4) was significantly higher than that in the 4T1 tumors (3.0 ± 0.3, 3.0± 0.1, 3.0 ± 0.2, 2.0 ± 0.4, and 2.4 ± 0.3 %ID/g at 0.5, 3, 6, 18, and 24 h post-injection respectively; n = 4) at early time points. In comparison, 64Cu-NOTA-HTL2G-S did not demonstrate significant uptake in either 4T1-HaloTag-ECS or 4T1 tumors. Blocking studies and autoradiography of tumor lysates confirmed that 64Cu-NOTA-HTL2G-L binds specifically to HaloTag protein in the 4T1-HaloTag-ECS tumors, corroborated by histology. HaloTag protein-specific targeting and PET imaging in vivo with 64Cu-NOTA-HTL2G-L serves as a proof-of-principle for future non-invasive and sensitive tracking of HaloTag-transfected cells with PET, as well as many other studies of gene/protein/cell function in vivo. PMID:23634240

  11. Sobre as inclinações carnais: inflexões do pensamento cristão sobre os desejos e as sensações prazerosas do baixo corporali

    PubMed Central

    RIOS, LUÍS FELIPE; PARKER, RICHARD; TERTO, VERIANO

    2011-01-01

    On carnal inclinations: from early Christianity to the present This study develops a historical review of the meanings of the “flesh” in the West, focusing on its significance in the context of Christianity. Our hope is that a study along these lines can help to illuminate current understandings of questions related to sexuality both within and outside of the religious contexts found in contemporary Brazil. Such questions are of special interest for those who are concerned with both old and new problems found in the field that has come to be known as sexual and reproductive rights, with implications for the field of Public Health. PMID:21980215

  12. Efecto de la dieta artificial MP sobre la emergencia y relacion de sexos de Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) mantenido sobre su hueped, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scloytidae)a traves de generaciones contin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phymastichus coffea La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an endoparasitoid that attacks the adult coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). The MP diet developed by Portilla and Streett is the only reported diet that allows cultures of P. coffea to develop and repr...

  13. Análise sobre o Conhecimento de um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual de São Paulo sobre Termos e Fenômenos Astronômicos do Cotidiano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, E. F.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2007-08-01

    Embora os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais do Ensino Médio (PCN-EM) e as orientações complementares a esses Parâmetros (PCN+) apontem a importância de uma abordagem significativa de conceitos relacionados à astronomia nas aulas de Física, muitos estudantes terminam o Ensino Médio (EM) sem compreender a razão de certos acontecimentos de origem celeste, ainda que estes façam parte de seu cotidiano. Este trabalho tem por objetivo analisar os conhecimentos básicos em astronomia dos alunos de EM da escola estadual Batista Renzi, bem como investigar os meios através dos quais estes conhecimentos foram adquiridos. Para tanto foi elaborado um questionário de múltipla escolha aplicado a 310 alunos distribuídos entre as três séries do EM dos períodos matutino e noturno. Dessa forma, observou-se que apenas 34,5% relacionaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra, 21,3% indicaram a influência gravitacional da Lua e do Sol como responsáveis pelo fenômeno das marés, 24,5% indicaram corretamente quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra, 36,1% identificaram ano-luz como uma medida de distância e 34,2% reconheceram uma estrela cadente como meteoro. Em contrapartida, 67,1% compreendiam a sucessão entre dia e noite, 73,9% identificaram o Sol como estrela e 52,3% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo. Além disso, foram comparadas as respostas de alunos de diferentes séries e períodos, observando-se, dentre outras coisas, que os estudantes do terceiro ano apresentam um percentual de acertos semelhante ao dos alunos do primeiro, caracterizando que a abordagem de tópicos relacionados à astronomia no EM não tem contribuído para uma maior compreensão dos fenômenos e conceitos.

  14. Towards a Discourse for Criticism in Language Teaching: Analysis of Sociocultural Representations in Mass Media (Hacia un discurso para la crítica en la enseñanza de la lengua: análisis de representaciones socioculturales en medios de comunicación)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas Torres, Margarita Rosa

    2010-01-01

    This article states that in order to exercise citizenship with responsibility, language teachers need to popularize a discourse for criticism in which students and teachers transcend tacit knowledge and common sense due to meta-cognition and argumentation and reach systematic knowledge and procedures posed by experts in the different disciplines.…

  15. Contribution of Oswaldo Paulo Forattini to public health: analysis of scientific production.

    PubMed

    Reis, Juliana Gonçalves; Kobayashi, Keilla Miki; Ueno, Helene Mariko; Ribeiro, Cristiane Martins; Cardoso, Telma Abdalla de Oliveira

    2016-12-22

    ção científica de Oswaldo Paulo Forattini, pesquisador e, por 40 anos, editor da Revista de Saúde Pública. Estudo descritivo com abordagem bibliométrica realizado em três etapas. (1) Identificação dos registros bibliográficos, utilizando a seguinte estratégia de busca: "Oswaldo Paulo Forattini" OR "Forattini OP" OR "Forattini O" nas fontes de informação Google Scholar, Web of Science e PubMed, em julho de 2016, o que recuperou 867 registros. (2) Composição do corpus da pesquisa, na qual foram incluídos 351 registros bibliográficos de artigos, livros, capítulos de livros, editoriais, resenhas de livros, notas informativas e relatórios anuais da RSP e excluídos 516 duplicatas e notas de agradecimento, notas de obituários e citações não recuperáveis. (3) Organização e análise dos dados, na qual foram construídos bancos de dados para análise descritiva e elaboração das redes de coautores e de termos do MeSH no software VOSviewer. Para análise dos editoriais, três revisores leram o texto completo de cada editorial e os categorizaram segundo assunto, contexto histórico e perspectivas, relacionando-o com marcos históricos. A produção científica de Forattini ocorreu de 1946 a 2009, a maioria composta por artigos (n = 218; 62,1%), editoriais (n = 43; 12,3%) e livros (n = 13; 3,7%). Os principais assuntos foram Culicidae (36,8%), Triatominae (12,5%) e Epidemiologia (10,0%). Os coautores dos artigos foram seus mestres, colegas de sua geração e alunos de pós-graduação. Seus editoriais abordaram reflexões críticas sobre a produção de conhecimento, prioridades em pesquisa e fatores que contribuíam ou desfavoreciam o progresso. O escopo dos assuntos é amplo, remetendo ao desenvolvimento científico e socioeconômico, questões de saúde pública em países desenvolvidos ou saúde global. A análise mostra o comprometimento de Forattini com a saúde pública, na pesquisa com vetores, na formação de pesquisadores e na comunicação científica.

  16. Difficulties of First Years Elementary School Teachers with the Teaching of Astronomy. (Breton Title: Dificuldades de Professores dos Anos Iniciais do Ensino Fundamental em Relação ao Ensino da Astronomia. ) Dificultades de LOS Profesores de los Primeros Años de la Escuela Primaria en Relación a la Enseñanza de la Astronomía

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, Rodolfo; Nardi, Roberto

    2005-12-01

    programa de formação continuada neste tema. O estudo se justifica mediante o fato de que planejamentos de cursos como estes só se adequarão à realidade do professor (e do aluno) se houver uma investigação antecipada sobre o que os docentes precisam saber e saber fazer a respeito da Astronomia, o que se concretizou em nosso caso pela interpretação dos discursos de uma amostra de professores coletados através de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, utilizando para interpretação os princípios e métodos da análise do discurso em sua linha francesa. Os resultados da pesquisa indicaram dificuldades de ordem pessoal, metodológica, de formação, de infra-estrutura e outras relacionadas às fontes de informações para docentes. Este artículo que relata las dificultades de los profesores en relación a la enseñanza da laAstronomía es parte de un estudio preliminar para la implantación dela Astrnomía enla formación de profesores de ls primeros años del ciclo primario.El estudio considera las concepciones alternativas de alumnos y profesores respecto a los fenómenos astronómicos, los errores conceptuales en los libros didácticos y las sugerencias de contenidos de Astronomía que constan en los Parámetros Curriculares Nacionales del Brasil. Caracterizar las dificultades de los profesores constituye la cuestión central de este texto, apuntando para el objetivo de contribuir para un futuro programa de educación contínua en este tema. El estudio se justifica mediante el hecho que la planificación de cursos de este tipo solo se adecuarán a la realidade del profesor (y del alumno) si existe una investigación anterior a respecto de lo que los docentes precisan saber y saber realizar en Astronomía, lo cual se concretó en nuestro caso por medio de la interpretación de los discursos de una muestra de profesores obtenidos através de entrevistas semiestructuradas, utilizand para esta interpretación los principios y métodos de análisis del discurso en su l

  17. Validacion de un Inventario Sobre La Percepcion de Los Padres de Superdotados Respecto a Los Servicios Educativos Disponibles Para Estos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina Munoz, Arlette Zamarie

    2013-01-01

    In Puerto Rico, there isn't a survey that collects the parent's perception of the available services for gifted children. Considering this, in this investigation an instrument was created and scientifically validated to collect the parents' perception of the educational services available. The instrument was validated using internal and external…

  18. Una Guia de Consejos Practicos Sobre la Lectura para los Padres (A Guide to Reading Tips for Parents).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    The No Child Left Behind program changes the federal role in education by asking America's schools to describe their success in terms of what each student accomplishes. The information in this reading guide, presented in Spanish, was developed by the United States Department of Education to assist parents, caregivers, and teachers in understanding…

  19. General Information about Learning Disabilities (Fact Sheet Number 7) = Informacion General sobre Impedimentos en el Aprendizaje (Fact Sheet Number 19).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interstate Research Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet providing general information about learning disabilities is presented in both English and Spanish versions. It begins with the federal definition of learning disabilities and a discussion of its implications followed by estimates of incidence. Typical characteristics of students with learning disabilities are then summarized as…

  20. Liv and Lucky in Liverland. . . Color Us Healthy! A Workbook about Your Liver = Un Cuaderno de trabajo sobre tu higado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1995

    This workbook/coloring book, on the liver and good health is designed for primary school students. The 21 line drawings illustrate different aspects of liver function, maintaining a healthy liver, and preventing liver disease. Each page is captioned in both English and Spanish. (ND)

  1. Ecocardiografía tridimensional. Nuevas perspectivas sobre la caracterización de la válvula mitral

    PubMed Central

    Solis, Jorge; Sitges, Marta; Levine, Robert A.; Hung, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Recent developments in three-dimensional echocardiography have made it possible to obtain images in real time, without the need for off-line reconstruction. These developments have enabled the technique to become an important tool for both research and daily clinical practice. A substantial proportion of the studies carried out using three-dimensional echocardiography have focused on the mitral valve, the pathophysiology of mitral valve disease and, in particular, functional mitral regurgitation. The aims of this article were to review the contribution of three-dimensional echocardiography to understanding of the functional anatomy of the mitral valve and to summarize the resulting clinical applications and therapeutic implications. PMID:19232192

  2. Liv and Lucky in Liverland. . . Color Us Healthy! A Workbook about Your Liver = Un Cuaderno de trabajo sobre tu higado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1995

    This workbook/coloring book, on the liver and good health is designed for primary school students. The 21 line drawings illustrate different aspects of liver function, maintaining a healthy liver, and preventing liver disease. Each page is captioned in both English and Spanish. (ND)

  3. [Drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A multicenter study of the Barcelona area. Grupo de Trabajo sobre Resistencias en Tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Martin-Casabona, N; Alcaide, F; Coll, P; González, J; Manterola, J M; Salvadó, M; Caylà, J A

    2000-10-21

    The aims of this multicenter study was to establish the level of primary and acquired drug resistance of M. Tuberculosis strains isolated in Barcelona and to identify possible risk groups using clinical data. All tuberculosis patients with isolation and identification of M. tuberculosis strains from October 1995 to September 1997 were included. Susceptibility tests isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, streptomycin and pyrazinamide were performed using the Bactec 460 system and the proportions method on solid medium. Logistic progression was used for statistical analysis. The total number of patients included was 1,749 (1,535 non-treated and 214 previously treated). Primary drug resistance was 5.7% (isoniazid 3.8%; rifampin 1.0%, streptomycin 2.1%, ethambutol 0.3% and pyrazinamide 1.0%). Acquired drug resistance was 20.5% (isoniazid 17.3%, rifampin 9.8%, ethambutol 1.9%, streptomycin 4.7% and pyrazinamide 6.5%). Primary drug resistance was associated with people over 60 years old and women. The low level of drug resistance enables antituberculosis treatment of non-treated patients to start with the standardised three-drug regimes except in the case of foreign people from countries with a high level of drug resistance. Susceptibility tests are recommended on all M. tuberculosis strains isolated, together with controlled studies of drug resistance surveillance.

  4. Lecturas sobre educacion de adultos en America latina (Readings on Adult Education in Latin America). Serie: Retablo de Papel 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latapi, Pablo, Comp.; Castillo, Alfonso, Comp.

    Twelve essays written in Spanish on the state of adult education in Latin America are presented. The essays are organized into three main sections, including: "Concepto y evolucion historica de la educacion de adultos" (Conception and Historical Evolution of Adult Education); "Aspectos particulares" (Specific Subjects); and…

  5. Validacion de un Inventario Sobre La Percepcion de Los Padres de Superdotados Respecto a Los Servicios Educativos Disponibles Para Estos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina Munoz, Arlette Zamarie

    2013-01-01

    In Puerto Rico, there isn't a survey that collects the parent's perception of the available services for gifted children. Considering this, in this investigation an instrument was created and scientifically validated to collect the parents' perception of the educational services available. The instrument was validated using internal and external…

  6. Estudio numerico y experimental del proceso de soldeo MIG sobre la aleacion 6063--T5 utilizando el metodo de Taguchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meseguer Valdenebro, Jose Luis

    Electric arc welding processes represent one of the most used techniques on manufacturing processes of mechanical components in modern industry. The electric arc welding processes have been adapted to current needs, becoming a flexible and versatile way to manufacture. Numerical results in the welding process are validated experimentally. The main numerical methods most commonly used today are three: finite difference method, finite element method and finite volume method. The most widely used numerical method for the modeling of welded joints is the finite element method because it is well adapted to the geometric and boundary conditions in addition to the fact that there is a variety of commercial programs which use the finite element method as a calculation basis. The content of this thesis shows an experimental study of a welded joint conducted by means of the MIG welding process of aluminum alloy 6063-T5. The numerical process is validated experimentally by applying the method of finite element through the calculation program ANSYS. The experimental results in this paper are the cooling curves, the critical cooling time t4/3, the weld bead geometry, the microhardness obtained in the welded joint, and the metal heat affected zone base, process dilution, critical areas intersected between the cooling curves and the curve TTP. The numerical results obtained in this thesis are: the thermal cycle curves, which represent both the heating to maximum temperature and subsequent cooling. The critical cooling time t4/3 and thermal efficiency of the process are calculated and the bead geometry obtained experimentally is represented. The heat affected zone is obtained by differentiating the zones that are found at different temperatures, the critical areas intersected between the cooling curves and the TTP curve. In order to conclude this doctoral thesis, an optimization has been conducted by means of the Taguchi method for welding parameters in order to obtain an improvement on mechanical properties in aluminum metal joint. Los procesos de soldadura por arco electrico representan unas de las tecnicas mas utilizadas en los procesos de fabricacion de componentes mecanicos en la industria moderna. Los procesos de soldeo por arco se han adaptado a las necesidades actuales, haciendose un modo de fabricacion flexible y versatil. Los resultados obtenidos numericamente en el proceso de soldadura son validados experimentalmente. Los principales metodos numericos mas empleados en la actualidad son tres, metodo por diferencias finitas, metodos por elementos finitos y metodo por volumenes finitos. El metodo numerico mas empleado para el modelado de uniones soldadas, es el metodo por elementos finitos, debido a que presenta una buena adaptacion a las condiciones geometricas y de contorno ademas de que existe una diversidad de programas comerciales que utilizan el metodo por elementos finitos como base de calculo. Este trabajo de investigacion presenta un estudio experimental de una union soldada mediante el proceso MIG de la aleacion de aluminio 6063-T5. El metodo numerico se valida experimentalmente aplicando el metodo de los elementos finitos con el programa de calculo ANSYS. Los resultados experimentales obtenidos son: las curvas de enfriamiento, el tiempo critico de enfriamiento t4/3, geometria del cordon, microdurezas obtenidas en la union soldada, zona afectada termicamente y metal base, dilucion del proceso, areas criticas intersecadas entre las curvas de enfriamiento y la curva TTP. Los resultados numericos son: las curvas del ciclo termico, que representan tanto el calentamiento hasta alcanzar la temperatura maxima y un posterior enfriamiento. Se calculan el tiempo critico de enfriamiento t4/3, el rendimiento termico y se representa la geometria del cordon obtenida experimentalmente. La zona afectada termicamente se obtiene diferenciando las zonas que se encuentran a diferentes temperaturas, las areas criticas intersecadas entre las curvas de enfriamiento y la curva TTP. Para finalizar el trabajo de investigacion se ha realizado una optimizacion, con la aplicacion del metodo de Taguchi, de los parametros de soldeo con el objetivo de obtener una mejora sustancial en las propiedades mecanicas de las uniones metalicas de aluminio.

  7. Mobile Library Guidelines. IFLA Professional Report No. 28 [and] Lineamientos sobre Bibliotecas Moviles. Informes Professionales de IFLA: 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pestell, Robert

    This publication provides the latest information available on the equipment and operation of mobile libraries operating out of road vehicles. The guide provides details on the establishment of mobile library services, financing, vehicles, furniture and equipment, staffing, collections, service base, and publicity. Some generalizations with regard…

  8. The ABCs of Special Education: A Handbook for Parents = El ABS Sobre Educacion Especial: Un Folleto para los Padres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Preston E., Jr.; Hinton, Valeska S.

    This bilingual handbook is intended to help parents understand their rights under P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. The following topics are addressed: the Act's legislative history, identification of special education, explanation of P.L. 94-142, parents' rights to know, student records, student testing, students'…

  9. A Guide for Parents about Retention and Promotion = Una Guia para los Padres de Familia sobre Retencion y Promocion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Oneonta. Coll. at Oneonta. Eastern Stream Center on Resources and Training.

    This bilingual (English and Spanish) brochure explains why retention is common among migrant students and what parents can do to help their children succeed in school. By second grade, nearly 50 percent of migrant students in the nation are older than their classmates and only about 50 percent of migrant students graduate from high school.…

  10. El Conocimiento Ocupacional y del Yo para los Grupos Especiales. Monografias sobre el Conocimiento Ocupacional y del Yo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Kenneth B.

    This Spanish translation of ED 132 428 includes the three papers representing Office of Education attempts to face the need for improving delivery of career education to special portions of the population. New additions are brief sections on basic definitions and additional considerations of the significance of work. The first paper, on career…

  11. [Sobre la (No) Responsabilidad de la Tecnociencia en los Problemas Ambientales y la Búsqueda de Política].

    PubMed

    Martínez Barrera, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    In this paper I propose to reflect upon modern configuration of technique, i.e., technoscience, and our responsibility towards environmental management. I show that the technological products of our world imply a certain attitude of aggression towards nature, contrasting with the attitude of protection from her, which was peculiar of the pre-technological world. Finally I suggest recovering the classical notion of politics as a possible alternative for controlling techno-scientific imperatives.

  12. Lecturas sobre educacion de adultos en America latina (Readings on Adult Education in Latin America). Serie: Retablo de Papel 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latapi, Pablo, Comp.; Castillo, Alfonso, Comp.

    Twelve essays written in Spanish on the state of adult education in Latin America are presented. The essays are organized into three main sections, including: "Concepto y evolucion historica de la educacion de adultos" (Conception and Historical Evolution of Adult Education); "Aspectos particulares" (Specific Subjects); and…

  13. Mobile Library Guidelines. IFLA Professional Report No. 28 [and] Lineamientos sobre Bibliotecas Moviles. Informes Professionales de IFLA: 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pestell, Robert

    This publication provides the latest information available on the equipment and operation of mobile libraries operating out of road vehicles. The guide provides details on the establishment of mobile library services, financing, vehicles, furniture and equipment, staffing, collections, service base, and publicity. Some generalizations with regard…

  14. "O Que Diriam Sobre Os Portugueses?????" [What Would You Say about Portuguese People?]: Intercultural Curiosity in Multilingual Chat-Rooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo e Sa, Maria Helena; de Carlo, Maddalena; Melo-Pfeifer, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we intend to discuss questioning as a sign of Intercultural Communicative Competence in plurilingual environments, stressing the relationship between questioning and the process of developing discovery skills in Romance chat-rooms. Focusing specifically on episodes beginning with intercultural questioning, we will analyse: (1)…

  15. The ABCs of Special Education: A Handbook for Parents = El ABS Sobre Educacion Especial: Un Folleto para los Padres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Preston E., Jr.; Hinton, Valeska S.

    This bilingual handbook is intended to help parents understand their rights under P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. The following topics are addressed: the Act's legislative history, identification of special education, explanation of P.L. 94-142, parents' rights to know, student records, student testing, students'…

  16. "O Que Diriam Sobre Os Portugueses?????" [What Would You Say about Portuguese People?]: Intercultural Curiosity in Multilingual Chat-Rooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo e Sa, Maria Helena; de Carlo, Maddalena; Melo-Pfeifer, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we intend to discuss questioning as a sign of Intercultural Communicative Competence in plurilingual environments, stressing the relationship between questioning and the process of developing discovery skills in Romance chat-rooms. Focusing specifically on episodes beginning with intercultural questioning, we will analyse: (1)…

  17. Investigación del USGS sobre el ecosistema de arrecifes de coral en el Atlántico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Yates, Kimberly K.; Zawada, David G.; Richey, Julie N.; Kellogg, Christina A.; Toth, Lauren T.; Torres-Garcia, Legna M.

    2015-10-23

    Los arrecifes de coral son estructuras sólidas, biomineralizadas que protegen comunidades costeras actuando como barreras protectoras de peligros tales como los huracanes y los tsunamis. Estos proveen arena a las playas a través de procesos naturales de erosión, fomentan la industria del turismo, las actividades recreacionales y proveen hábitats pesqueros esenciales. La conti-nua degradación mundial de ecosistemas de arrecifes de coral está bien documentada. Existe la necesidad de enfoque y organización de la ciencia para entender los procesos complejos físicos y biológicos e interacciones que están afectando el estado de los arrecifes coralinos y su capacidad para responder a un entorno cambiante.

  18. Impacto de la emisión de axiones sobre las propiedades evolutivas y pulsacionales de enanas blancas DB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battich, T.; Althaus, L. G.; Córsico, A. H.

    2016-08-01

    White dwarfs are found to be good laboratories for studying the properties of fundamental particles such as the hypothetical axions. If these particles exist and interact with electrons, they would be emitted from the dense interior of white dwarfs, abandoning these stars without interact again, becoming an important energy sink. This would have a detectable effect on the evolutionary and pulsational properties of white dwarfs. This effect was already studied for DA white dwarfs (white dwarfs with a surface rich in hydrogen), but not for DB white dwarfs (hydrogen-deficient white dwarfs). We studied the general effect of axion emission on the evolution of DB white dwarfs and on the pulsational properties of DBV white dwarfs (pulsating DBs) with the aim of determining the potential of these stars to study the physics of axions. Moreover, we use an estimation of the rate of change of period of the DBV white dwarf PG 1351489 corresponding to the dominant period to derive a new limit on axion mass.

  19. Apuntes sobre la distribución geográfica de Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) en Colombia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Neoleucinodes elegantalis is considered the most limiting pest for production and merchandising of solanaceous fruit and vegetables in the Neotropics. The present study updates the geographic distribution of N. elegantalis in areas of major agricultural production of Solanum lycopersicum, S. melong...

  20. Personal Safety for Children: A Guide for Parents = Una guia para los padres sobre la seguridad personal de los ninos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC.

    Noting that parents and teachers have the responsibility of safeguarding children and teaching them the skills they need to be safe, this pamphlet, in Spanish and English versions, is designed to help parents talk to their children about how to protect themselves against abduction and exploitation. The pamphlet is organized into six sections.…

  1. Path of infectious diseases in Brazil in the last 50 years: an ongoing challenge.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Eliseu Alves; Sato, Ana Paula Sayuri

    2016-12-22

    In this article, we comment on the main features of infectious diseases in Brazil in the last 50 years, highlighting how much of this path Revista de Saúde Pública could portray. From 1967 to 2016, 1,335 articles focusing on infectious diseases were published in Revista de Saúde Pública. Although the proportion of articles on the topic have decreased from about 50.0% to 15.0%, its notability remained and reflected the growing complexity of the research required for its control. It is noteworthy that studies design and analysis strategies progressively became more sophisticated, following the great development of epidemiology in Brazil in the recent decades. Thus, the journal has followed the success of public health interventions that permitted to control or eliminate numerous infectious diseases - which were responsible, in the past, for high rates of morbidity and mortality -, and also followed the reemergence of diseases already controlled and the emergence of until then unknown diseases, with a strong impact on the Brazilian population, establishing a little predictable and very challenging path. RESUMO Neste artigo, comentamos as principais características das doenças infecciosas no Brasil, nos últimos 50 anos, destacando o quanto a Revista de Saúde Pública conseguiu capturar essa trajetória. De 1967 a 2016, foram publicados 1.335 artigos na Revista de Saúde Pública com foco em doenças infecciosas. Ainda que a proporção de artigos sobre esse tema tenha declinado de cerca de 50,0% para 15,0%, seu destaque se manteve e refletiu a crescente complexidade das pesquisas necessárias para o seu controle. Nota-se que os desenhos dos estudos e as estratégias de análise ganharam progressivamente maior sofisticação, acompanhando o grande desenvolvimento da epidemiologia no Brasil, nas últimas décadas. Assim, foi registrado não apenas o sucesso de intervenções de saúde pública que permitiram o controle ou a eliminação de inúmeras doen

  2. Comparison of Two Site-Specifically 18F-Labeled Affibodies for PET Imaging of EGFR Positive Tumors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) serves as an attractive target for cancer molecular imaging and therapy. Our previous positron emission tomography (PET) studies showed that the EGFR-targeting affibody molecules 64Cu-DOTA-ZEGFR:1907 and 18F-FBEM-ZEGFR:1907 can discriminate between high and low EGFR-expression tumors and have the potential for patient selection for EGFR-targeted therapy. Compared with 64Cu, 18F may improve imaging of EGFR-expression and is more suitable for clinical application, but the labeling reaction of 18F-FBEM-ZEGFR:1907 requires a long synthesis time. The aim of the present study is to develop a new generation of 18F labeled affibody probes (Al18F-NOTA-ZEGFR:1907 and 18F-CBT-ZEGFR:1907) and to determine whether they are suitable agents for imaging of EGFR expression. The first approach consisted of conjugating ZEGFR:1907 with NOTA and radiolabeling with Al18F to produce Al18F-NOTA-ZEGFR:1907. In a second approach the prosthetic group 18F-labeled-2-cyanobenzothiazole (18F-CBT) was conjugated to Cys-ZEGFR:1907 to produce 18F-CBT-ZEGFR:1907. Binding affinity and specificity of Al18F-NOTA-ZEGFR:1907 and 18F-CBT-ZEGFR:1907 to EGFR were evaluated using A431 cells. Biodistribution and PET studies were conducted on mice bearing A431 xenografts after injection of Al18F-NOTA-ZEGFR:1907 or 18F-CBT-ZEGFR:1907 with or without coinjection of unlabeled affibody proteins. The radiosyntheses of Al18F-NOTA-ZEGFR:1907 and 18F-CBT-ZEGFR:1907 were completed successfully within 40 and 120 min with a decay-corrected yield of 15% and 41% using a 2-step, 1-pot reaction and 2-step, 2-pot reaction, respectively. Both probes bound to EGFR with low nanomolar affinity in A431 cells. Although 18F-CBT-ZEGFR:1907 showed instability in vivo, biodistribution studies revealed rapid and high tumor accumulation and quick clearance from normal tissues except the bones. In contrast, Al18F-NOTA-ZEGFR:1907 demonstrated high in vitro and in vivo stability, high tumor uptake

  3. National Labor Administration and Democracy in Argentina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    algunas experiencias Latinoanericanas," Estudios CEDES, V. 3, N. 2 (1980); Oszlak, "Notas Criticas para una Teoria de la Burocracia Estatal," Documento...Interpretation of Weber on Bureaucracy." World Politics, V. 31, N. 2 (January, 1979), pp. 195-227. 7 2For a discussion of the "Proceso"’s labor policies and

  4. 15 CFR 742.15 - Encryption items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... describing how your products qualify for mass market treatment under the criteria in the Cryptography Note... “ancillary cryptography”). (ii) (iii) “Ancillary cryptography”. Commodities and software that perform “ancillary cryptography.” See Nota Bene of definition of “ancillary cryptography” in § 772.1 of the EAR. (4...

  5. Calendar of Selected Aeronautical and Space Meetings (Calendrier des Manifestations Aeronautiques et Spatiales (Selection))

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    figurant dans la rubrique 06 (( Thermodynamique , Combustion, Propulsion et Energ6tique >> traite d’A6ro- NOTA I’AGARD ne peut se charger de...Dynamiquc des Fluides et Acoustique 30 05 - Navigation, Guidage et Pilotage 38 06 - Thermodynamique , Combustion, Propulsion ct Energ~tique 45 (07

  6. Calendar of Selected Aeronautical and Space Meetings January 1991 Onwards (Calendrier des Manifestations Aeronautiques et Spatiales (Selection) Janvier 1991 et au-dela)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    Thermodynamique , Combustion, Propulsion et Energ6tique >> traite d’AMro-6lasticit6). NOTA I’AGARD tie peut se charger de satisfaire les deniandes d’inforniation...05 - Navigation, Guidage et Pilotage 31 06 - Thermodynamique , Combustion, Propulsion et Energ6tique 35 07 - Structures, Mat~riaux et M~canique appliqu

  7. Toward an Understanding of Career Construction in the 21st Century: A Phenomenological Study of the Life Experiences of Graduating Student-Athletes at a Large Highly-Selective Midwestern University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Kristina Meissen

    2012-01-01

    During the 21st century, the American labor force has experienced significant challenges (Savickas 2002, 2005; Savickas, Nota, Rossier, Dauwalder, Duarte, Guichard, Salvatore, Van Esbroeck, & Van Vianen, 2009). As the job market has become increasingly unstable and economy has drastically declined during this time period, how individuals…

  8. Toward an Understanding of Career Construction in the 21st Century: A Phenomenological Study of the Life Experiences of Graduating Student-Athletes at a Large Highly-Selective Midwestern University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Kristina Meissen

    2012-01-01

    During the 21st century, the American labor force has experienced significant challenges (Savickas 2002, 2005; Savickas, Nota, Rossier, Dauwalder, Duarte, Guichard, Salvatore, Van Esbroeck, & Van Vianen, 2009). As the job market has become increasingly unstable and economy has drastically declined during this time period, how individuals…

  9. Detection of Rapalog-Mediated Therapeutic Response in Renal Cancer Xenografts Using 64Cu-bevacizumab ImmunoPET

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Albert J.; Sohn, Rebecca; Lu, Zhi Hong; Arbeit, Jeffrey M.; Lapi, Suzanne E.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of neovascularization for primary and metastatic tumor growth fostered numerous clinical trials of angiogenesis inhibitors either alone or in combination with conventional antineoplastic therapies. One challenge with the use of molecularly targeted agents has been the disconnection between size reduction and tumor biologic behavior, either when the drug is efficacious or when tumor resistance emerges. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of 64Cu-NOTA-bevacizumab as a PET imaging agent for imaging intratumoral VEGF content in vivo. 64Cu-NOTA-bevacizumab avidly accumulated in 786-O renal carcinoma xenografts with lower levels in host organs. RAD001 (everolimus) markedly attenuated 64Cu-NOTA-bevacizumab accumulation within 786-O renal carcinoma xenografts. Tumor tissue and cellular molecular analysis validated PET imaging, demonstrating decreases in total and secreted VEGF content and VEGFR2 activation. Notably, 64Cu-NOTA-bevacizumab PET imaging was concordant with the growth arrest of RAD001 tumors. These data suggest that immunoPET targeting of angiogenic factors such as VEGF could be a new class of surrogate markers complementing the RECIST criteria in patients receiving molecularly targeted therapies. PMID:23516584

  10. Manipulations of Choice Familiarity in Multiple-Choice Testing Support a Retrieval Practice Account of the Testing Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Yoonhee; Pashler, Hal; Huber, David E.

    2014-01-01

    We performed 4 experiments assessing the learning that occurs when taking a test. Our experiments used multiple-choice tests because the processes deployed during testing can be manipulated by varying the nature of the choice alternatives. Previous research revealed that a multiple-choice test that includes "none of the above" (NOTA)…

  11. Feasibility of Producing Synchronized Video Tapes as Instructional Aids in the Study of Music; Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skapski, George J.

    As an innovative aid to the study of music, recordings were made of musical performances and later synchronized with musical notations. To make the structures of the music more readily visible, and after experimenting with the use of staff notation, the author-developed "Nota-Graph" notation system was used. In this notation, there are…

  12. Word Processing for Portuguese on the IBM PC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vines, Robert

    1987-01-01

    Word processing in Portuguese on the IBM Personal Computer requires software capable of displaying, on the monitor and printouts, the special characters accessible through IBM's extended ACSII set. Among software packages which can do this are: "Alexander,""MultiMate,""Nota Bene,""Volkswriter Deluxe," and…

  13. Emergence of a New Neotropical Malaria Vector Facilitated by Human Migration and Changes in Land Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    the abdomen was stored in 95% ethanol and used subsequently for molecular species identification, and the head/thorax was dried and stored for...Deane LM, Causey OR, Deane MP, 1948. Notas s6bre a distri- buigao e a biologia dos anofelinos das regi6es Nordestina e Amazonica do Brasil. Bras Rev

  14. An Informal Study of Program Comprehension.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    made nota- tions that were only intended to be temporary reminders of some postponed task. 4. Useful user interface features were identified. The...current areas of interest include Artificial Intelligence, Software Engineering, Ergonomie User Interfaces, and Computer Aided Processes. Prior to

  15. Modern Experience in City Combat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    reinforce the West Wall in the Aachen sector. A rapid thrust bypassing the city was no longer possible. Aachen, as the ancient capital of Charlemagne , had...old capital of the Vietnamese emperors and its most nota- ble feature was the walled citadel, or old city, lying north of the Perfume River. The

  16. The Aging of Cork-Rubber Decoupling Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-09

    either the Gibbs function or the Helmholtz function is done by Berlincourt, Curran, and Jaffe and can be found in Mason [8]. In this work matrix nota...materials tested in thf, acoustic impedance tube. CALL ERIISET63.. FASE ...FALSE.,,) CALL ERRSET(64,,.FALSE.,..FALSE.,,) IITE(6,903) 903 FOWLMT/, I

  17. Improved 18F Labeling of Peptides with a Fluoride-Aluminum-Chelate Complex

    PubMed Central

    McBride, William J.; D’Souza, Christopher A.; Sharkey, Robert M.; Karacay, Habibe; Rossi, Edmund A.; Chang, Chien-Hsing; Goldenberg, David M.

    2010-01-01

    We reported previously the feasibility to radiolabel peptides with fluorine-18 (18F) using a rapid, one-pot, method that first mixes 18F− with Al3+, and then binds the (Al18F)2+ complex to a NOTA ligand on the peptide. In this report, we examined several new NOTA ligands and determined how temperature, reaction time, and reagent concentration affected the radiolabeling yield. Four structural variations of the NOTA ligand had isolated radiolabeling yields ranging from 5.8% to 87% under similar reaction conditions. All of the Al18F NOTA complexes were stable in vitro in human serum and those that were tested in vivo also were stable. The radiolabeling reactions were performed at 100°C and the peptides could be labeled in as little as five minutes. The IMP467 peptide could be labeled up to 115 GBq/μmol (3100 Ci/mmol), with a total reaction and purification time of 30 min without chromatographic purification. PMID:20540570

  18. Detection of rapalog-mediated therapeutic response in renal cancer xenografts using ⁶⁴Cu-bevacizumab immunoPET.

    PubMed

    Chang, Albert J; Sohn, Rebecca; Lu, Zhi Hong; Arbeit, Jeffrey M; Lapi, Suzanne E

    2013-01-01

    The importance of neovascularization for primary and metastatic tumor growth fostered numerous clinical trials of angiogenesis inhibitors either alone or in combination with conventional antineoplastic therapies. One challenge with the use of molecularly targeted agents has been the disconnection between size reduction and tumor biologic behavior, either when the drug is efficacious or when tumor resistance emerges. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of (64)Cu-NOTA-bevacizumab as a PET imaging agent for imaging intratumoral VEGF content in vivo. (64)Cu-NOTA-bevacizumab avidly accumulated in 786-O renal carcinoma xenografts with lower levels in host organs. RAD001 (everolimus) markedly attenuated (64)Cu-NOTA-bevacizumab accumulation within 786-O renal carcinoma xenografts. Tumor tissue and cellular molecular analysis validated PET imaging, demonstrating decreases in total and secreted VEGF content and VEGFR2 activation. Notably, (64)Cu-NOTA-bevacizumab PET imaging was concordant with the growth arrest of RAD001 tumors. These data suggest that immunoPET targeting of angiogenic factors such as VEGF could be a new class of surrogate markers complementing the RECIST criteria in patients receiving molecularly targeted therapies.

  19. Affinity Capillary Electrophoresis for Selective Control of Electrophoretic Mobility of Sialic Acid Using Lanthanide-Hexadentate Macrocyclic Polyazacarboxylate Complexes.

    PubMed

    Goto, Daiki; Ouchi, Kazuki; Shibukawa, Masami; Saito, Shingo

    2015-01-01

    It is difficult to control the electrophoretic mobility in order to obtain high resolution among saccharides in complex samples. We report herein on a new affinity capillary electrophoresis (ACE) method for an anionic monosaccharide, N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), which is important in terms of pathological diagnosis, using lanthanide-hexadentate macrocyclic polyazacarboxylate complexes (Ln-NOTA) as affinity reagents. It was shown that Ln-NOTA complexes increased the anionic mobility of Neu5Ac by approximately 40% through selective complexation with Neu5Ac. The extent of change in the mobility strongly depended on the type of central metal ion of Ln-NOTA. The stability constant (K) of Lu-NOTA with Neu5Ac was determined by ACE to be log Kb = 3.62 ± 0.04, which is the highest value among artificial receptors for Neu5Ac reported so far. Using this ACE, the Neu5Ac content in a glycoprotein sample, α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), was determined after acid hydrolysis. Complete separation between Neu5Ac and hydrolysis products was successful by controlling the mobility to determine the concentration of Neu5Ac.

  20. Revista Interamericana de Educacion de Adultos, 2003 (Interamerican Review of Adult Education, 2003).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Alfonso Rangel, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This journal offers a collection of Spanish-language articles, including: "Educacion a Distancia y Uso de las Tecnologias: Experiencias Desafios y Oportunidades Educativas para Jovenes y Adultos" (Ma. Mercedes Ruiz); "Volver a a Educacion Fundamental? Notas para una Arquelogia de los Mandatos Fundacionales del CREFAL" (Jorge…

  1. SupportNet for Frontline Behavioral Health Providers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    Leaving it at the office : A guide to psychotherapist self - care . NY: Guilford Press. Nota, L...psychotherapy: A practical guide . New York: Guilford. Meichenbaum, D. (2007, May). Self - care for trauma psychotherapists and caregivers: Individual...emotional states even after they have “left the office ”; over time, this detachment can lead to decreased self -awareness, self -monitoring, self - care

  2. Educacion intercultural (Intercultural Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estudios sobre Educacion, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This journal, which provides abstracts of its articles primarily in Spanish and a couple in English, contains studies (estudios) and notes (notas), as well as relevant book reviews (recensiones). Studies in this issue (No. 4, 2003) are: "Estrategias de Ensenanza para la Educacion Civica y Ciudadana en el Siglo XXI" (Teaching Strategies…

  3. Beyond the Washington Consensus: Promoting Economic Growth and Minimizing the Threat of Violence in Latin America through Social Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    72 Hubert Escaith and Igor Paunovic, Reformas Estructurales En América Latina y El Caribe Enel Período 1970–2000... Reformas Estructurales En América Latina y El Caribe Enel Período 1970–2000: Índices y Notas Metodológicas. Santiago, Chile: Economic Commission for Latin

  4. Identification and Optimization of Classifier Genes from Multi-Class Earthworm Microarray Dataset

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-28

    the different environmental sites. Similarly, Nota and co-workers recently identified a set of 188 genes from expression profiles of the springtail ...in environmental species from fish and springtail to water flea and earthworm. We report here some preliminary results of a much larger effort. Our

  5. PubMed

    Rodríguez-Martín, Beatriz; Castillo, Carlos Alberto

    2017-02-01

    Introducción: aunque el consumo de hidratos de carbono es un factor clave para alcanzar un óptimo rendimiento deportivo, los niveles de ingesta parecen cuestionados por algunos deportistas amateurs, que llegan a desarrollar una aversión irracional por los hidratos de carbono conocida como "carbofobia". Por otro lado, la alimentación es origen de comunidades virtuales erigidas como fuente de conocimiento e intercambio de información, aunque apenas se ha analizado la influencia de estas en los comportamientos alimentarios.Objetivos: conocer las conceptualizaciones sobre el consumo de hidratos de carbono y los patrones alimentarios relacionados con la carbofobia a través de la actividad en Twitter de aficionados a la práctica deportiva.Métodos: estudio cualitativo diseñado desde la Etnografía Virtual de Hine. Realizamos una inmersión virtual en cuentas en abierto de la red social Twitter en una muestra teórica de tuits de aficionados al deporte. Se realizó un análisis del discurso de la información narrativa de tuits mediante los procesos de codificación abierta, axial y selectiva y el método de comparación constante. Resultados: del análisis emergen cuatro grandes categorías que retratan las conceptualizaciones sobre los hidratos de carbono: los hidratos de carbono como sospechosos o culpables del estancamiento en el entrenamiento y de los problemas con el peso, la carbofobia como estilo de vida, la carbofobia como religión y la relación amor/odio con los hidratos de carbono. Conclusiones: la dieta baja en hidratos de carbono, o carente de ellos, es considerada como un estilo de vida saludable en algunos aficionados a la práctica deportiva. Los resultados de este estudio ponen de manifiesto el poder de herramientas de comunicación virtual como Twitter para apoyar, fomentar y mantener conductas alimentarias no frecuentes y no siempre saludables. Futuros estudios deben seguir profundizando en el contexto en el que aparecen estas prácticas.

  6. Noninvasive Imaging of Myocardial Inflammation in Myocarditis using 68Ga-tagged Mannosylated Human Serum Albumin Positron Emission Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Pyo; Im, Hyung-Jun; Kang, Shinae; Chung, Seock-Jin; Cho, Ye Seul; Kang, Hyejeong; Park, Ho Seon; Hwang, Do-Won; Park, Jun-Bean; Paeng, Jin-Chul; Cheon, Gi-Jeong; Lee, Yun-Sang; Jeong, Jae Min; Kim, Yong-Jin

    2017-01-01

    The diagnosis of myocarditis traditionally relies on invasive endomyocardial biopsy but none of the imaging studies so far are specific for infiltration of the inflammatory cells itself. We synthesized 68Ga-2-(p-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA) mannosylated human serum albumin (MSA) by conjugating human serum albumin with mannose, followed by conjugation with NOTA and labeling it with 68Ga. The efficacy of 68Ga-NOTA-MSA positron emission tomography (PET) for imaging myocardial inflammation was tested in a rat myocarditis model. A significant number of mannose receptor-positive inflammatory cells infiltrated the myocardium in both human and rat myocarditis tissue. 68Ga-NOTA-MSA uptake was upregulated in organs of macrophage accumulation, such as liver, spleen, bone marrow and myocardium (0.32 (0.31~0.33) for normal versus 1.02 (0.86~1.06) for myocarditis (median (range), SUV); n=4~6 per group, p-value=0.01). 68Ga-NOTA-MSA uptake in the left ventricle was upregulated in myocarditis compared with normal rats (2.29 (1.42~3.40) for normal versus 4.18 (3.43~6.15) for myocarditis (median (range), average standard uptake value ratio against paraspinal muscle); n=6 per group, p-value<0.01), which was downregulated in rats with cyclosporine-A treated myocarditis (3.69 (2.59~3.86) for myocarditis versus 2.28 (1.76~2.60) for cyclosporine-A treated myocarditis; n=6 per group, p-value<0.01). The specificity of the tracer was verified by administration of excess non-labeled MSA. 68Ga-NOTA-MSA uptake was significantly enhanced earlier in the evolution of myocarditis before any signs of inflammation could be seen on echocardiography. These results demonstrate the potential utility of visualizing infiltration of mannose receptor-positive macrophages with 68Ga-NOTA-MSA PET in the early diagnosis of as well as in the monitoring of treatment response of myocarditis. PMID:28042344

  7. PET Imaging of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with 64Cu-Labeled Anti-CD105 Antibody Fab Fragment

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Sixiang; Orbay, Hakan; Yang, Yunan; Graves, Stephen A.; Nayak, Tapas R.; Hong, Hao; Hernandez, Reinier; Luo, Haiming; Goel, Shreya; Theuer, Charles P.; Nickles, Robert J.; Cai, Weibo

    2015-01-01

    The critical challenge in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) research is the accurate diagnosis and assessment of AAA progression. Angiogenesis is a pathological hallmark of AAA, and CD105 is highly expressed on newly formed vessels. Our goal was to use 64Cu-labeled anti-CD105 antibody Fab fragment for noninvasive assessment of angiogenesis in the aortic wall in a murine model of AAA. Methods Fab fragment of TRC105, a mAb that specifically binds to CD105, was generated by enzymatic papain digestion and conjugated to NOTA for 64Cu-labeling. Binding affinity/specificity of NOTA-TRC105-Fab was evaluated by flow cytometry and various ex vivo studies. BALB/c mice were anesthetized and treated with calcium phosphate to induce AAA, which underwent weekly PET scans using 64Cu-NOTA-TRC105-Fab. Biodistribution and autoradiography studies were also performed to confirm the accuracy of PET results. Results NOTA-TRC105-Fab exhibited high purity and specifically bound to CD105 in vitro. Uptake of 64Cu-NOTA-TRC105-Fab increased from a control level of 3.4 ± 0.1 to 9.5 ± 0.4 %ID/g at 6 h p.i. on Day 5, and decreased to 7.2 ± 1.4 %ID/g on Day 12 which correlated well with biodistribution and autoradiography studies (i.e. much higher tracer uptake in AAA than normal aorta). Of note, enhanced AAA contrast was achieved, due to the minimal background in the abdominal area of mice. Degradation of elastic fibers and highly expressed CD105 were observed in ex vivo studies. Conclusion 64Cu-NOTA-TRC105-Fab cleared rapidly through kidneys, which enabled noninvasive PET imaging of the aorta with enhanced contrast and showed increased angiogenesis (CD105 expression) during AAA. 64Cu-NOTA-TRC105-Fab PET may potentially be used for future diagnosis and prognosis of AAA. PMID:25883125

  8. Imaging tumor angiogenesis in breast cancer experimental lung metastasis with positron emission tomography, near-infrared fluorescence, and bioluminescence

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yin; Hong, Hao; Nayak, Tapas R.; Valdovinos, Hector F.; Myklejord, Duane V.; Theuer, Charles P.; Barnhart, Todd E.; Cai, Weibo

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a molecular imaging agent that can allow for both positron emission tomography (PET) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging of CD105 expression in metastatic breast cancer. TRC105, a chimeric anti-CD105 monoclonal antibody, was labeled with both a NIRF dye (i.e., IRDye 800CW) and 64Cu to yield 64Cu-NOTA-TRC105-800CW. Flow cytometry analysis revealed no difference in CD105 binding affinity/specificity between TRC105 and NOTA-TRC105-800CW. Serial bioluminescence imaging (BLI) was carried out to non-invasively monitor the lung tumor burden in BALB/c mice, after intravenous injection of firefly luciferase-transfected 4T1 (i.e., fLuc-4T1) murine breast cancer cells to establish the experimental lung metastasis model. Serial PET imaging revealed that fLuc-4T1 lung tumor uptake of 64Cu-NOTA-TRC105-800CW was 11.9 ± 1.2, 13.9 ± 3.9, and 13.4 ± 2.1 %ID/g at 4, 24, and 48 h post-injection respectively (n = 3). Biodistribution studies, blocking fLuc-4T1 lung tumor uptake with excess TRC105, control experiments with 64Cu-NOTA-cetuximab-800CW (which served as an isotype-matched control), ex vivo BLI/PET/NIRF imaging, autoradiography, and histology all confirmed CD105 specificity of 64Cu-NOTA-TRC105-800CW. Successful PET/NIRF imaging of tumor angiogenesis (i.e., CD105 expression) in the breast cancer experimental lung metastasis model warrants further investigation and clinical translation of dual-labeled TRC105-based agents, which can potentially enable early detection of small metastases and image-guided surgery for tumor removal. PMID:23471463

  9. Positron Emission Tomographic Imaging of Copper 64– and Gallium 68–Labeled Chelator Conjugates of the Somatostatin Agonist Tyr3-Octreotate

    PubMed Central

    Nedrow, Jessie R.; White, Alexander G.; Modi, Jalpa; Nguyen, Kim; Chang, Albert J.; Anderson, Carolyn J.

    2014-01-01

    The bifunctional chelator and radiometal have been shown to have a direct effect on the pharmacokinetics of somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-targeted imaging agents. We evaluated three Y3-TATE analogues conjugated to NOTA-based chelators for radiolabeling with 64Cu and 68Ga for small-animal positron emission tomographic/computed tomographic (PET/CT) imaging. Two commercially available NOTA analogues, p-SCN-Bn-NOTA and NODAGA, were evaluated. The p-SCN-Bn-NOTA analogues were conjugated to Y3-TATE through β-Ala and PEG8 linkages. The NODAGA chelator was directly conjugated to Y3-TATE. The analogues labeled with 64Cu or 68Ga were analyzed in vitro for binding affinity and internalization and in vivo by PET/CT imaging, biodistribution, and Cerenkov imaging (68Ga analogues). We evaluated the effects of the radiometals, chelators, and linkers on the performance of the SSTR subtype 2-–targeted imaging agents and also compared them to a previously reported agent, 64Cu-CB-TE2A-Y3-TATE. We found that the method of conjugation, particularly the length of the linkage between the chelator and the peptide, significantly impacted tumor and nontarget tissue uptake and clearance. Among the 64Cu- and 68Ga-labeled NOTA analogues, NODAGA-Y3-TATE had the most optimal in vivo behavior and was comparable to 64Cu-CB-TE2A-Y3-TATE. An advantage of NODAGA-Y3-TATE is that it allows labeling with 64Cu and 68Ga, providing a versatile PET probe for imaging SSTr subtype 2–positive tumors. PMID:25060207

  10. A novel hexachelating amino-thiol ligand and its complex with gallium(III)

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.A.; Fanwick, P.E.; Welch, M.J. )

    1990-02-21

    The ligand 1,4,7-tris(2-mercaptoethyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane, TS-TACNH{sub 3} (1), was synthesized from the parent amine, TACN, by reaction with ethylene sulfide in benzene. TS-TACNH{sub 3} undergoes reaction with Ga(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{times}9H{sub 2}O in ethanol to give the neutral complex Ga(TS-TACN) (2). The complex may be recrystallized from dichloromethane as pale pink needles of the disolvate and the crystal structure is reported. There are four molecules of complex and two molecules of solvation (CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) present per unit cell. The gallium is fully chelated in a slightly distorted octahedral environment by the three amine nitrogens and the three thiolate sulfurs. For comparison, the Ga{sup 3+} complex of the similarly hexachelating ligand 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid, NOTA, is also presented. The complex Ga(NOTA) (3), crystallizes from boiling water also as pale pink needles. Again, the metal center is fully chelated in a slightly distorted octahedral environment. The degree of distortion may be expressed as trigonal twist, {phi}, where {phi} = 0{degree} for a true octahedron and {phi} = 60{degree} for a trigonal prism. While both Ga(TS-TACN) and Ga(NOTA) are potentially isostructural, in regard to coordination geometry, with trigonal-prismatic Fe(NOTA) ({phi} = 34.8{degree}), the gallium(III) complexes are only slightly distorted from a regular octahedral coordination sphere (Ga(NOTA) {phi} = 12.4{degree} and Ga(TS-TACN) {phi} = 10.4{degree}). Preliminary results indicate {sup 68}Ga(TS-TACN) to be stable in vivo versus the blood protein transferrin, indicating a relatively high stability constant for this hexachelating ligand. 14 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Evaluation of 68Ga-Labeled MG7 Antibody: A Targeted Probe for PET/CT Imaging of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bing; Li, Xiaowei; Yin, Jipeng; Liang, Cong; Liu, Lijuan; Qiu, Zhaoyan; Yao, Liping; Nie, Yongzhan; Wang, Jing; Wu, Kaichun

    2015-01-01

    MG7-Ag, a specific gastric cancer-associated antigen, can be used to non-invasively monitor gastric cancer by molecular imaging with positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). In this study, we prepared and evaluated a 68Ga-labeled MG7 antibody as a molecular probe for nanoPET/CT imaging of gastric cancer in a BGC-823 tumor xenografted mouse model. Macrocyclic chelator 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N0,N00-triacetic acid (NOTA)-conjugated MG7 antibody was synthesized and radiolabeled with 68Ga (t1/2 = 67.71 min). Then, 68Ga-NOTA-MG7 was tested using in vitro cytological studies, in vivo nanoPET/CT and Cerenkov imaging studies as well as ex vivo biodistribution and histology studies. The in vitro experiments demonstrated that 68Ga-NOTA-MG7 has an excellent radiolabeling efficiency of approximately 99% without purification, and it is stable in serum after 120 min of incubation. Cell uptake and retention studies confirmed that 68Ga-NOTA-MG7 has good binding affinity and tumor cell retention. For the nanoPET imaging study, the predominant uptake of 68Ga-NOTA-MG7 was visualized in tumor, liver and kidneys. The tumor uptake reached at its peak (2.53 ± 0.28%ID/g) at 60 min pi. Cherenkov imaging also confirmed the specificity of tumor uptake. Moreover, the biodistribution results were consistent with the quantification data of nanoPET/CT imaging. Histologic analysis also demonstrated specific staining of BGC-823 tumor cell lines. PMID:25733152

  12. Sexual violence as a limiting factor on the perception and management of the risk of HIV in women married to migrants.

    PubMed

    Flores, Yesica Yolanda Rangel

    2016-09-01

    não são decisivas na gestão da ameaça a qual estão expostas. Por isso, torna-se urgente que a enfermagem problematize a violência sexual nos "relacionamentos estáveis", como um desafio para a promoção de estilos de vida saudáveis. analizar la influencia que la violencia sexual tiene en la percepción y gestión del riesgo frente al VIH en mujeres parejas de migrantes. estudio con enfoque etnográfico, en comunidades urbanas y rurales. Los datos fueron obtenidos por triangulación de métodos, observación participante y no participante, así como entrevistas. Las informantes fueron 21 mujeres parejas de migrantes internacionales. Las entrevistas se transcribieron y se aplicó sobre ellas análisis de discurso. de los discursos emergieron tres categorías para problematizar la influencia de la violencia sexual en la percepción y la gestión del riesgo frente al VIH: "Caracterización de las prácticas sexuales en el marco de la migración", "Experiencias de violencia sexual" y "Construcción del riesgo de VIH-sida". las mujeres tienen dificultad para reconocer los actos de violencia sexual en sus cotidianeidades y sus percepciones respecto al riesgo no son determinantes en la gestión que respecto a la amenaza asumen. Resulta urgente que enfermería problematice la violencia sexual al interior de las "parejas estables", como desafío en la promoción de estilos de vida saludables.

  13. Analysis of astronomy knowledge of the students in the Federal Institute Sao Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes, A. C.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    Este trabalho é parte integrante da pesquisa de mestrado acadêmico em ensino de ciências. Nele, busca-se apresentar os resultados da pesquisa realizada entre os 106 alunos do curso superior de tecnologia em automação industrial do Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo campus Cubatão, divididos em cinco turmas, duas no período matutino e três no período noturno. A análise dos resultados deste pré questionárioconstatou a falta de conhecimento básico dos discentes, sobre assuntos relacionados à astronomia, o que pode ser atribuído ao ineficiente processo de aprendizado pelo qual eles passaram tanto no ensino médio como no ensino fundamental, em escolas municipais, estaduais e particulares onde estudaram. No ensino de astronomia, têm-se diagnosticado constantemente diversas dificuldades conceituais tanto por parte de alunos como de professores de todas as áreas e níveis de ensino e poucos de fato a compreendem (ALBRECHT; VOELZKE, 2010). Demonstra-se as duas etapas concluídas do trabalho. A primeira etapa indica a análise dos conhecimentos prévios sobre conceitos astronômicos, através do questionário com 25 perguntas. A fim de corrigir as falhas constatadas, experimentalmente ministrou-se, externo ao conteúdo programático, um curso básico em astronomia, com diferentes estratégias de ensino, tais como, utilização de aulas expositivas dialogadas, recursos audiovisuais e palestras, para corrigir as dificuldades diagnosticadas. Essas estratégias de ensino se comprovaram adequadas às necessidades dos alunos e os conceitos foram finalmente compreendidos. Ao término do curso, completado o interstício de 120 dias, para caracterizar que houve a aprendizagem significativa, realizou-se uma nova pesquisa, quando, exatamente os mesmos 106 alunos responderam as mesmas 25 questões aplicadas na primeira etapa. Constata-se na segunda etapa, após análise, que em todas as questões, houve maior compreensão dos assuntos

  14. Percepção Astronômica de Alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual de São Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, E. F.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2005-08-01

    Embora a astronomia seja uma das ciências mais antigas da humanidade e muitos dos conceitos astronômicos serem populares, principalmente nesta época de alta globalização do conhecimento por intermédio de eficientes meios de comunicação e de obtenção da informação, notadamente através da internet, observa-se que uma parcela significativa dos estudantes encontra-se à margem dessas informações. O presente trabalho visa analisar o nível de conhecimento básico dos alunos de Ensino Médio da rede estadual da cidade de Suzano quanto aos fenômenos astronômicos que os rodeiam, tais como a sucessão dos dias e das estações do ano, além de questioná-los sobre fatos genéricos tais como: quais são os astros que se encontram mais próximos do planeta Terra, o que vem a ser o Sol, o Big Bang, um ano-luz, uma estrela cadente, a estrela de Bélem e o que ocasionou a extinção dos dinossauros. Para tanto foi elaborado um formulário constando de questões de múltipla escolha, o qual foi aplicado no primeiro colegial noturno da Escola Estadual Batista Renzi. Num espaço amostral de 34 alunos constatou-se que apenas 29,4% compreendiam a sucessão dos dias da semana, que apenas 20,6% explicaram corretamente as estações do ano, que apenas 20,6% tinham idéia de quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra, em contraposição 67,6% sabiam classificar corretamente o Sol como estrela, 55,9% relacionavam o Big Bang à origem do universo, apenas 20,6% identificavam um ano-luz como unidade de distância, 32,4% reconheciam uma estrela cadente como meteoro, 41,2% consideravam a estrela de Belém como um cometa e 50,0% explicaram corretamente a extinção dos dinossauros. A presente análise será expandida para as demais classes de primeiro colegial, não somente do período noturno, mas também do diurno da Escola Estadual Batista Renzi, bem como o formulário será devidamente ampliado. Já nesta primeira fase nota-se claramente o pequeno discernimento

  15. (64)Cu-Labeled Trastuzumab Fab-PEG24-EGF Radioimmunoconjugates Bispecific for HER2 and EGFR: Pharmacokinetics, Biodistribution, and Tumor Imaging by PET in Comparison to Monospecific Agents.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Luke Yongkyu; Scollard, Deborah A; Reilly, Raymond M

    2017-02-06

    Heterodimerization of EGFR with HER2 coexpressed in breast cancer (BC) promotes tumor growth, and increased EGFR expression is associated with trastuzumab resistance. Our aim was to construct (64)Cu-labeled bispecific radioimmunoconjugates (bsRIC) composed of trastuzumab Fab, which binds HER2 linked through a polyethylene glycol (PEG24) spacer to EGF, and to compare their pharmacokinetic, biodistribution, and tumor imaging characteristics by positron-emission tomography (PET). bsRICs were generated by linking maleimide modified trastuzumab Fab with thiolated EGF through a thioether bond. HER2 and EGFR binding were assessed in vitro in MDA-MB-231 (EGFR(mod)/HER2(low)), MDA-MB-468 (EGFR(high)/HER2(neg)), MDA-MB-231-H2N (EGFR(mod)/HER2(mod)), and SKOV3 (EGFR(low)/HER2(high)) cells by competition and saturation cell binding assays to estimate the dissociation constant (Kd). The elimination of the (64)Cu-NOTA-trastuzumab Fab-PEG24-EGF bsRICs from the blood of Balb/c mice was compared to monospecific (64)Cu-NOTA-trastuzumab Fab and (64)Cu-NOTA-EGF. MicroPET/CT imaging was performed in NOD/SCID mice bearing subcutaneous MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231/H2N, or SKOV3 human BC xenografts at 24 and 48 h postinjection (p.i.) of bsRICs. Tumor and normal tissue uptake were quantified by biodistribution studies and compared to monospecific agents. The binding of bsRICs to MDA-MB-231 cells was decreased to 24.5 ± 5.2% by excess EGF, while the binding of bsRICs to SKOV3 cells was decreased to 38.6 ± 5.4% by excess trastuzumab Fab, demonstrating specific binding to both EGFR and HER2. (64)Cu-labeled bsRICs incorporating the PEG24 spacer were eliminated more slowly from the blood than (64)Cu-bsRICs without the PEG spacer and were cleared much more slowly than (64)Cu-NOTA-Fab or (64)Cu-NOTA-EGF. All three tumor xenografts were visualized by microPET/CT at 24 and 48 h p.i. of bsRICs. Biodistribution studies at 48 h p.i. in NOD/SCID mice with MDA-MB-231/H2N tumors demonstrated significantly

  16. Development of a New Folate-Derived Ga-68-Based PET Imaging Agent.

    PubMed

    Brand, Christian; Longo, Valerie A; Groaning, Mike; Weber, Wolfgang A; Reiner, Thomas

    2017-02-13

    The folate receptor (FR) has emerged as an interesting diagnostic and therapeutic drug target with many potential applications in oncologic and inflammatory disorders. It was therefore the aim of this study to develop a folate-derived Ga-68-based positron emission tomography (PET) imaging tracer that is straightforward to radiolabel and could be broadly used in clinical studies. We validated its target binding affinity and specificity and compared it to [(99m)Tc]EC20, the folate single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging tracer that has been most extensively studied clinically so far. The new folic acid-derived PET imaging agent is linked via a polyethyleneglycol linker to the chelator 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-trisacetic acid (NOTA). This new compound, NOTA-folate, was labeled with gallium-68. We tested the probe's stability in human plasma and its selectivity in vitro, using the FR-positive KB cell line as well as the FR-negative A549 cell line. The pharmacokinetic profile of [(68)Ga]NOTA-folate was evaluated in FR-positive KB mouse xenografts. Following intravenous injection of [(68)Ga]NOTA-folate (383 ± 53 μCi), PET/computed tomography (CT) imaging studies as well as biodistribution studies were performed using KB tumor-bearing mice (n = 3). In vitro as well as in vivo studies were performed in parallel with the SPECT imaging tracer [(99m)Tc]EC20. In comparison to [(99m)Tc]EC20 (radiochemical yield (RCY) = 82.0 ± 2.9 %, 91.8 ± 2.0 % purity), similar radiochemical yield (87.2 ± 6.9 %) and radiochemical purity (95.6 ± 1.8 %) could be achieved for [(68)Ga]NOTA-folate. For both tracers, we observed high affinity for FR-positive cells in vitro and high plasma stability. In PET/CT and biodistribution studies, [(68)Ga]NOTA-folate appeared to display slightly superior in vivo performance in comparison to [(99m)Tc]EC20. In detail, (68)Ga-NOTA-folate showed very good tumor uptake and retention (6.6 ± 1.1 %ID/g), relatively

  17. PET Imaging of VEGFR-2 Expression in Lung Cancer with 64Cu-Labeled Ramucirumab

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Haiming; England, Christopher G.; Graves, Stephen A.; Sun, Haiyan; Liu, Glenn; Nickles, Robert J.; Cai, Weibo

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer accounts for 17% of cancer-related deaths worldwide, and most patients present with locally advanced or metastatic disease. Novel PET imaging agents for assessing vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) expression can be used for detecting VEGFR-2–positive malignancies and subsequent monitoring of therapeutic response to VEGFR-2–targeted therapies. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of the antibody-based imaging agent for PET imaging of VEGFR-2 expression in vivo. Methods Ramucirumab (named RamAb), a fully humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody, was conjugated to 2-S-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (p-SCN-Bn-NOTA) and labeled with 64Cu. Flow cytometry analysis and microscopy studies were performed to compare the VEGFR-2 binding affinity of RamAb and NOTA-RamAb. PET imaging and biodistribution studies were performed in nude mice bearing HCC4006 and A549 xenograft tumors. Ex vivo histopathology was performed to elucidate the expression patterns of VEGFR-2 in different tissues and organs to validate in vivo results. Results Flow cytometry examination revealed the specific binding capacity of FITC-RamAb to VEGFR-2, and no difference in VEGFR-2 binding affinity was seen between RamAb and NOTA-RamAb. After being labeled with 64Cu, PET imaging revealed specific and prominent uptake of 64Cu-NOTA-RamAb in VEGFR-2–positive HCC4006 tumors (9.4 ± 0.5 percentage injected dose per gram at 48 h after injection; n = 4) and significantly lower uptake in VEGFR-2–negative A549 tumors (4.3 ± 0.2 percentage injected dose per gram at 48 h after injection; n = 3). Blocking experiments revealed significantly lower uptake in HCC4006 tumors, along with histology analysis, further confirming the VEGFR-2 specificity of 64Cu-NOTA-RamAb. Conclusion This study provides initial evidence that 64Cu-NOTA-RamAb can function as a PET imaging agent for visualizing VEGFR-2 expression in vivo, which may also find

  18. PET of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor: Broad Applicability to Cancer Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hao; Yan, Yongjun; Shi, Sixiang; Graves, Stephen A.; Krasteva, Lazura K.; Nickles, Robert J.; Yang, Min; Cai, Weibo

    2015-01-01

    Selective overexpression of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) inside the vascular endothelium of tumors has been confirmed to play critical roles in angiogenesis, tumor invasion, and metastases. The expression level of FSHR correlates strongly with the response of tumors to antiangiogenic therapies. In this study, an immunoPET tracer was developed for imaging of FSHR in different cancer types. A monoclonal antibody (FSHR-mAb) against FSHR was conjugated with S-2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (p-SCN-Bn-NOTA) and used for subsequent 64Cu-labeling. NOTA-FSHR-mAb preserved FSHR specificity/affinity, confirmed by flow cytometry measurements. 64Cu-labeling was successfully conducted with decent yields (~ 25%) and high specific activity (0.93 GBq/mg). The uptake of 64Cu-NOTA-FSHR-mAb was 3.6 ± 0.8, 13.2 ± 0.7, and 14.6 ± 0.4%ID/g in FSHR-positive CAOV-3 tumors at 4, 24, and 48 h post-injection, respectively (n = 3), significantly higher (p<0.05) than that in FSHR-negative SKOV-3 tumors (2.3 ± 1.2, 8.0 ± 0.9, and 9.1 ± 1.3 %ID/g at 4, 24, and 48 h post-injection, respectively (n = 3)) except at 4 h p.i. FSHR-relevant uptake of 64Cu-NOTA-FSHR-mAb was also readily observed in other tumor types (e.g. triple-negative breast tumor MDA-MB-231 or prostate tumor PC-3). Histology studies showed universal FSHR expression in microvasculature of these four tumor types and also prominent expression in tumor cells of CAOV-3, PC-3, and MDA-MB-231. Correlations between tumor FSHR level and uptake of 64Cu-NOTA-FSHR-mAb were witnessed in this study. FSHR-specific uptake of 64Cu-NOTA-FSHR mAb in different tumors enables its applicability for future cancer theranostic applications and simultaneously establishes FSHR as a promising clinical target for cancer. PMID:25581441

  19. (68)Ga-labeled cyclic RGD dimers with Gly3 and PEG4 linkers: promising agents for tumor integrin alphavbeta3 PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaofei; Niu, Gang; Shi, Jiyun; Liu, Shuanglong; Wang, Fan; Liu, Shuang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2009-06-01

    Radiolabeled cyclic RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) peptides have great potential for the early tumor detection and noninvasive monitoring of tumor metastasis and therapeutic response. (18)F-labeled RGD analogs ([(18)F]-AH111585 and [(18)F]Galacto-RGD) have been investigated in clinical trials for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of integrin expression in cancer patients. To develop new RGD radiotracers with higher tumor accumulation, improved in vivo kinetics, easy availability and low cost, we developed two new RGD peptides and labeled them with generator-eluted (68)Ga (t(1/2) = 68 min) for PET imaging of integrin alpha(v)beta(3) expression in tumor xenograft models. The two new cyclic RGD dimers, E[PEG(4)-c(RGDfK)](2) (P(4)-RGD2, PEG(4) = 15-amino-4,7,10,13-tetraoxapentadecanoic acid) and E[Gly(3)-c(RGDfK)](2) (G(3)-RGD2, G(3) = Gly-Gly-Gly) were designed, synthesized and conjugated with 1,4,7-triazacyclononanetriacetic acid (NOTA) for (68)Ga labeling. The microPET imaging and biodistribution of the (68)Ga labeled RGD tracers were investigated in integrin alpha(v)beta(3)-positive tumor xenografts. The new RGD dimers with the Gly(3) and PEG(4) linkers showed higher integrin alpha(v)beta(3) binding affinity than no-linker RGD dimer (RGD2). NOTA-G(3)-RGD2 and NOTA-P(4)-RGD2 could be labeled with (68)Ga within 30 min with higher purity (>98%) and specific activity (8.88-11.84 MBq/nmol). Both (68)Ga-NOTA-P(4)-RGD2 and (68)Ga-NOTA-G(3)-RGD2 exhibited significantly higher tumor uptake and tumor-to-normal tissue ratios than (68)Ga-NOTA-RGD2. Because of their high affinity, high specificity and excellent pharmacokinetic properties, further investigation of the two novel RGD dimers for clinical PET imaging of integrin alpha(v)beta(3) expression in cancer patients is warranted.

  20. Assessment and management of pain in newborns hospitalized in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sposito, Natália Pinheiro Braga; Rossato, Lisabelle Mariano; Bueno, Mariana; Kimura, Amélia Fumiko; Costa, Taine; Guedes, Danila Maria Batista

    2017-09-12

    , conforme escala de dor adotada ou anotação de enfermagem. Os recém-nascidos foram submetidos à média de 6,6 procedimentos invasivos por dia. Apenas 32,5% dos registros de dor resultaram na adoção de condutas farmacológicas ou não farmacológicas para seu alívio. observa-se que os recém-nascidos são frequentemente expostos à dor e a baixa frequência de intervenções farmacológicas ou não farmacológicas reforça o subtratamento dessa condição. determinar la frecuencia del dolor, comprobar las medidas tomadas para su alivio durante los siete primeros días de internación en una Unidad de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal e identificar el tipo de procedimientos invasivos y la frecuencia a que se sometieron los recién nacidos. estudio retrospectivo transversal. De las 188 internaciones realizadas en el período estipulado de 12 meses, se incluyeron 171 en la investigación. Los datos se recolectaron a partir de los prontuarios; la presencia de dolor se analizó según la Escala de Valorización del Dolor en el Neonato (Neonatal Infant Pain Scale) y las notas de enfermería sobre el dolor. Para el análisis estadístico, se utilizó el programa 'Paquete estadístico para las ciencias sociales' (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences), adoptándose el nivel de significación del 5%. en el 50,3% de las internaciones hubo al menos un registro de dolor, según la escala de dolor adoptada o las notas de la enfermería. Se sometió a los recién nacidos a un promedio de 6,6 procedimientos invasivos por día. Sólo el 32,5% de los registros de dolor resultaron en la adopción de conductas farmacológicas o no farmacológicas para su alivio. se observa que los recién nacidos a menudo están expuestos al dolor, y la frecuencia baja de intervenciones farmacológicas o de las no farmacológicas refuerza el subtratamiento de dicha condición.

  1. Tips for Parents on Keeping Children Drug Free = Consejos para Los Padres Sobre Como Mantener a Los Hijos Libres de La Droga.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Intergovernmental and Interagency Affairs.

    Research shows that recent trends in youth drug use have stabilized; however, the rates of use remain at high levels. It has been shown that the earlier drug use is initiated, the more likely a person is to develop drug problems later in life. Youth substance abuse may lead to many other problems that affect not only the child, but also the…

  2. Guia para Madres y Padres de Familia sobre Educacion Pre-Escolar a Temprana Edad (A Parents' Guide to Early Childhood Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister; Phinney, Joanna

    This booklet for parents explains what children learn in preschools that employ the Creative Curriculum for Early Childhood and the ways in which learning can be reinforced at home. The first sections of the booklet explain the goals and philosophy of experience-based preschools. Goals include teaching children to love reading and school and to be…

  3. A Parent's Guide to Infant/Toddler Programs = Guia para los padres sobre los programas de cuidado infantil de 0-3 anos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister; Dombro, Amy Laura; Colker, Laura J.

    Information on how warm and responsive care can help shape infants' and toddlers' development and their ability to learn can be reassuring for concerned parents. This guide, in English and Spanish versions, presents quality child care as a partnership between the child caregiver and the parents with the primary goal of benefiting the child. The…

  4. Sobre la naturaleza de cinco candidatos a cúmulos abiertos ubicados próximos a la dirección del centro galáctico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, A. E.; Clariá, J. J.

    CCD BVI Johnson-Cousins observations obtained for 1759 stars in 4'×4' regions around the unstudied southern stellar aggregates Ruprecht 103, 124, 129, 146 and 166 are presented. The objects are described as open clusters in the catalogues of star clusters and associations of Alter et al. (1970) and LyngÅ (1987), as well as, in the ESO/Uppsala Survey of the ESO (B) Atlas (Lauberts 1982). Our analysis shows that none of these objects are genuine open clusters, except perhaps Ruprecht 166, since no clear main sequences (MSs) or other meaningful features can be seen in the extracted (V,B-V) and (V,V-I) colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). The star sequences seen in the distinct CMDs, specially for Ruprecht 124 and 129, are apparently formed by the superimposition of MS field stars affected by varying amounts of interstellar absorption and/or placed at different distances from the Sun. The CMDs of Ruprecht 166 present a pronounced variation in the luminosity function along the apparent MS, a fact from which we can infer the notion of these stars had a different origin. Star counts carried out within and outside the cluster candidate fields not only support the results that the objects do not present a significant number density contrast with respect to the Galactic disk, but also show that they do not appear to be candidate late stages of star cluster dynamical evolution. Several other stellar aggregates included in open cluster catalogues have previously been disproved as genuine physical systems (see, e.g., Carraro & Patat 1995, MNRAS, 276, 563; Carraro 2000, A&A, 357, 145; Piatti & Clariá 2001, A&A, 370, 931). Thus, the present work implies the potential likelihood of other wrongly classified open clusters.

  5. Estudio Sobre Portadores Cronicos de Salmonellas en Manipuladores de Alimentos de la Ciudad de Iquitos (Study of Chronic Salmonella Carriers in Food Handlers in the City of Iquitos)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    manipuladores de alimentos en estudio. 779 (77.90%) fueron del sexo femcnino y 221 (22.10%) del sexo masculino. siendo el mayor porcentaje mujeres (234 - 30.04...papel de ios portadlores cr6- Woos en 460 mujeres dadas de alt. del hospital de Chile, encontrandose 34 porta- dores o sea 7.4 % excediindose las...4 sujetos 3.6 % portadores cr6nicos de Salmoncilas. 1S0 En Argentina 1974, se inves:,16 la frecuencia de Saiimoncilas en 146 manipulado- res de

  6. Parenting Information for Parents: Books 1-3 (Informacion Para Los Padres Sobre La Crianza De Los Hijos: Libros 1-3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Steve

    These 3 booklets provide ideas, guidelines, and activities for establishing effective parenting and are part of a series of 22 booklets specifically designed to help parents understand their children and help them to learn. The first booklet (booklet #20) discusses preparation for parenthood, infant and toddler developmental stages, the importance…

  7. Informe sobre el avance del proyecto de determinaciones de V sen i para todas las estrellas B más brillantes que 6.5 mag.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, H.; Levato, H.

    Se ha finalizado con la determinación de V sen i para todas las estrellas B más brillantes que 6.5 mag y al norte de -30 grados de declinación. Esta muestra involucra casi 1000 estrellas. Las observaciones fueron realizadas desde KPNO. Mientras tanto, se ha completado desde CASLEO la observación de 350 estrellas B más brillantes que 6.5 mag. al sur de -30 grados. Además de la determinación de la rotación axial se determinan, en los casos posibles, los anchos equivalentes de las líneas 4471 Ådel He I y 4481 Ådel Mg II.

  8. Kathy Finds Out about the Introduction of Solids. Mother-to-Mother Support = Josefa Descubre Conocimientos sobre la Introduccion de Solidos. Apoyo Madre a Madre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalhaes, Rebecca; Stone-Jimenez, Maryanne; Allen de Smith, Paulina; Smith, Natalia

    These magazine-sized booklets, one in English, one in Spanish, are in cartoon format and are designed to be used by people with limited literacy in English or Spanish. This booklet explains that exclusive breastfeeding means giving no water, liquids, or food; breast milk contains sufficient water to satisfy the baby's thirst; at about 6 months,…

  9. Pick and Choose: A Videotape Series on Nutrition for Migrant Families (Coja y Escoja: Peliculas para Television Sobre la Nutricion para las Familias Migratorias).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    One of the major problems faced by migrant workers throughout the United States is a lack of awareness of the relationship between proper diet and an individual's general health and well being. To help solve this problem was the major objective of the series "Pick and Choose." The three 15-minute programs in the series present…

  10. Memorias del tercer simposio internacional sobre economía, planificación, y políticas de los incendios forestales: problemas y enfoques comunes

    Treesearch

    Armando González-Cabán

    2009-01-01

    Estas memorias resumen el resultado de un simposio diseñado para discutir los problemas actuales que confrontan las agencias con responsabilidad para la proteccion contra incendios forestales a nivel federal y estadual en los EE.UU., al igual que agencias en la comunidad internacional. Los temas discutidos en el simposio incluyen economía del fuego, teoría y modelos...

  11. Pick and Choose: A Videotape Series on Nutrition for Migrant Families (Coja y Escoja: Peliculas para Television Sobre la Nutricion para las Familias Migratorias).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    One of the major problems faced by migrant workers throughout the United States is a lack of awareness of the relationship between proper diet and an individual's general health and well being. To help solve this problem was the major objective of the series "Pick and Choose." The three 15-minute programs in the series present…

  12. International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs Newsletter, July 1991-December 1992 = Boletin de Grupo Internacional de Trabajo sobre Asuntos Indigenas, Septiembre 1991-Diciembre 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IWGIA Newsletter, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This document contains seven consecutive English-language issues of the IWGIA Newsletter, from July 1991 through December 1992, followed by the seven corresponding issues in Spanish. These newsletters provide educators with a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination of indigenous peoples around the world.…

  13. Development and Initial Validation of a Questionnaire to Assess the Reading Beliefs of Undergraduate Students: The "Cuestionario de Creencias Sobre la Lectura"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lordán, Eva; Solé, Isabel; Beltran, Francesc S.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research was to develop a new questionnaire for exploring the reading beliefs of undergraduate students, because the only currently available instrument has conceptual and methodological limitations. The paper describes the process of developing the instrument and presents a range of psychometric data obtained from a sample of 558…

  14. The Dyslexia Handbook: Procedures Concerning Dyslexia and Related Disorders = Manual sobre la dislexia: Procedimientos relacionados con la dislexia y otros desordenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    This handbook, available in English and Spanish, contains the Texas State Board of Education's approved procedures concerning dyslexia and related disorders and information regarding the state's dyslexia statutes and their relation to the federal Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Section 504, and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Chapters…

  15. Guia para la Ensenanza Combinada de Ingles y Ciencia. Para Padres/sobre Padres. (A Guide to Teaching English and Science Together. For Parents/about Parents).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Wendy

    In the past, students who knew only a little English (called limited English proficient, or LEP), were usually taught only low-level science and mathematics. Now, new science and mathematics teaching methods can help LEP students get a good education in both fields. This guide will help parents know if their children are learning as much as…

  16. Sobre la convertibilidad de ciertos adjectivos en adverbios en el idioma espanol (Concerning the Convertibility of Some Spanish Adjectives into Adverbs).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zierer, Ernesto

    1971-01-01

    This paper considers Spanish adjectives and the possibility of converting some adjectives into adverbs, keeping the same general significance of a sentence. The conversion of an adjective into an adverb under these circumstances can be accomplished through a transformation which can be applied to a particular logical-semantic structure. The author…

  17. Uso de los Datos de Biomonitoreo para Informar sobre la Evaluacion Infantil (American translation is: USING BIOMONITORING DATA TO INFORM EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN CHILDREN)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  18. Sobre la posible existencia de un bulbo o núcleo de población II en la Nube Mayor de Magallanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clariá, J. J.; Dutra, D. M.; Bica, E.; Piatti, A. E.

    Based on recent results obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, we present a census of genuine globular clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and we examine their spatial distribution. Spectroscopic observations carried out at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO, Argentina) allow us to add two new clusters (NGC 1928 and NGC 1939) to the list of genuine LMC globular clusters. We present evidence that old clusters projected on the LMC bar region may constitute a population II core, probably reminiscent of an ancient bulge, which together with a central disc could have evolved into the observed LMC bar by SMC and/or Galaxy interactions. A detailed discussion was given in MNRAS 305, 373 (1999).

  19. Consideraciones sobre la investigacion hermeneutica en la educacion en lenguas y culturas extranjeras (Aspects of Applying a Hermeneutic Approach to Foreign Language and Culture Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoreda, Margaret Lee

    Drawing on writings by recent post-modernist thinkers and semioticians, this paper focuses on a combination of hermeneutic and semiotic viewpoints and applies them to defining the nature of interpretation in an educational setting (e.g., text interpretation), the interpreter, and the essence of the act of comprehension and interpretation. The main…

  20. Uso de los Datos de Biomonitoreo para Informar sobre la Evaluacion Infantil (American translation is: USING BIOMONITORING DATA TO INFORM EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN CHILDREN)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  1. Politica Nacional sobre Discapacidad: Un Informe del Progreso, Diciembre 2000-Diciembre 2001 (National Disability Policy: A Progress Report, December 2000-December 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Disability, Washington, DC.

    This report (written in Spanish) of the National Council on Disability (NCD) describes the nation's progress in advancing public policies to increase the inclusion, empowerment, and independence of people with disabilities in light of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. The report covers December 2000 through December 2001. It reviews…

  2. Que Sucede? Manual Informativo Sobre Rehabilitacion y Educacion Especial en Costa Rica (What's Happening? Informative Manual on Rehabilitation and Special Education in Costa Rica).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mezerville, Gaston; And Others

    The manual, in Spanish, provides descriptions of rehabilitation, medical, and special education services; centers and institutions which offer physical and mental rehabilitation services; and lists of professionals and advocacy organizations in Costa Rica. Part 1 includes an overview of rehabilitation and special education, a short history of…

  3. Manual sobre la Educacion en California para Padres de Idiomas Minoritarios (A Handbook on California Education for Language Minority Parents). Revised Edition. Spanish/English Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Office of Bilingual Bicultural Education.

    The handbook, an update of the 1986 handbook, is designed for Spanish-speaking parents of California public school students, and answers commonly-asked questions about the state public education system and its services, particularly those of interest to this population. Information is presented in both Spanish-and English-language sections, in a…

  4. Manual sobre la Educacion en California para Padres de Idiomas Minoritarios = A Handbook on California Education for Language Minority Parents--Spanish/English Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bilingual Education Office.

    This bilingual handbook, presented in both Spanish and English, is designed to assist parents of language minority students who are residing in California. The book is part of the technical assistance effort of the State Department of Education to clarify the operations of the California schools to language minority parents so they can better…

  5. La investigacion sobre la calidad de los programas para ninos de hasta dos anos de edad (Research on Quality in Infant-Toddler Programs). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    Concern about the quality of infant-toddler care programs has grown recently in response to two factors. The first is the need of employed parents for such care, and the second is research emphasizing the importance of brain development in the early years. This Spanish-language Digest introduces some of the many issues related to the quality of…

  6. Ahorre Energía: Consejos sobre el ahorro de dinero y energía en el hogar (Spanish Brochure), Energy Savers Guide

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-01

    La versión en castellano de la guía del Departamento de Energía de los Estados Unidos que ayuda a consumidores a ahorrar energía y dinero en el hogar y en las carreteras. The Spanish-language version of U.S. Department of Energy's consumer guide to saving energy and money at home and on the road.

  7. Investigación observacional sobre el papel de las estrellas binarias en la ecología de cúmulos estelares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. F.; Levato, H.; Grosso, M.

    We present preliminary results of a long-term project devoted to the observational study of the binary star population in open clusters and its connection with the dynamical and evolutionary properties of the clusters. We report the discovery of 17 double-lined spectroscopic binaries, 30 radial velocity variables and about 30 suspected variables. In the 17 clusters of our sample the binary frequency ranges between 20 and 40 %, and reaches typically 60 % if all suspected binaries are included. We study the spatial distribution of the binary stars with respect to the cluster center and we discuss the statistical correlation of the mass-ratio distribution with the cluster age.

  8. Perspectivas sobre las escuelas charter: Una resena para padres de familia (Perspectives on Charter Schools: A Review for Parents). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahoo, Saran

    Recently, charter schools have gained popularity with parents, students, and others as alternatives to public schools, but what are charter schools and what effects are they having? This Spanish-language Digest defines charter schools and clarifies some of the administrative and legal details surrounding such schools. The Digest also lays out some…

  9. Simposio sobre Educacion de Ninas: Evidencias, Temas, Acciones. Actas de sesiones. (Symposium on Girls Education: Evidence, Issues, Actions. Proceedings). (Washington, DC, May 17-18, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (IDCA), Washington, DC.

    This symposium highlighted core issues of controversy in girls' education and developed implications for policy and practice. Its evidence-based discussion forum encouraged dialogue, debate, and increased interaction and developed partnerships among academic institutions, nongovernmental organizations, multilateral development agencies, and other…

  10. Nuevos resultados sobre la cinemática global y nuclear de NGC 253: movimientos no circulares y emisión en Br γ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camperi, J. A.; Gunthardt, G. I.; Díaz, R. J.; Agüuero, M. P.; Gimeno, G.; Pessev, P.

    Continuing with previous research (Camperi et al., BAAA, 54, 377, 2011), new heliocentric radial velocity distributions are presented for the nearby galaxy NGC 253, obtained from the ionized hydrogen recombination line Hα. These distributions have been derived from long-slit spectroscopy for various position angles. It is also shown the heliocentric radial velocity distribution corresponding to part of the infrared data (ionized hydrogen recombination line Brγ) observed with the Phoenix spectrograph of the Gemini South Observatory. Sequential mapping with the long slit using this instrument will enable to study in detail the kinematics of the galaxy's core, which is strongly obscured by dust. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  11. How To Talk to Your Teens and Children about AIDS = Como hablar con sus adolescentes y sus ninos sobre el SIDA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National PTA, Chicago, IL.

    Two brochures, one in English and one in Spanish, provide parents with basic information that will enable them to educate their children about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Contents address 11 questions: (1) What is AIDS? (2) How do you get AIDS? (3) How is AIDS not spread? (4) Who can get AIDS? (5) How can you tell if someone has…

  12. How To Talk to Your Teens and Children about AIDS = Como hablar con sus adolescentes y sus ninos sobre el SIDA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National PTA, Chicago, IL.

    Two brochures, one in English and one in Spanish, provide parents with basic information that will enable them to educate their children about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Contents address 11 questions: (1) What is AIDS? (2) How do you get AIDS? (3) How is AIDS not spread? (4) Who can get AIDS? (5) How can you tell if someone has…

  13. Otra perspectiva sobre lo que los ninos deben estar aprendiendo (Another Look at What Young Children Should Be Learning). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G.

    This Spanish-language ERIC Digest addresses the question of what young children should be learning that will best serve their development and learning in the long term. Two major dimensions of development--normative and dynamic--are explored, and four categories of learning goals are discussed: (1) knowledge; (2) skills; (3) dispositions; and (4)…

  14. Tax and Record Keeping Information for Family Child Care = Informacion Sobre los Impuestos y la Documentacion para el Cuidado Infantil en el Hogar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellert, Sandra

    This pamphlet from the Children's Foundation, in both English- and Spanish-language versions, provides advice to child care providers on record-keeping methods. The pamphlet also gives definitions and guidance on business expenses (100% deductible, shared personal and business, and depreciated capital expenses), time-space formula, self-employment…

  15. A+chieving Excellence. A Parent's Guide to Site-Based Decision Making. Noteworthy = A+lcanzar la Excelencia. Un manual para padres sobre como hacer decisiones. Notable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, C. L.

    The parents' guide in English and Spanish versions, offers a synthesis of the Mid-Continent Regional Educational Laboratory's (McRel) "A+chieving Excellence," a 480-page manual on educational decision-making and management. Four sections examine four broad areas in which policies must be established for improving student achievement--efficiency,…

  16. 8 de noviembre de 2006: Mercurio pasea sobre el disco solar (Micro eclipse anular de Sol o el segundo tránsito de Mercurio del siglo XXI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallamaci, C. C.

    On Wendsday November 8, 2006, the second transit of Mercury over the Sun of the 21st. Century, took place. In this work we present the principal characteristics of the phenomenon ocurrence, the visibility region and the local circumstances for some locations of Argentina and other countries of the world. Full TEXT IN SPANISH

  17. International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs Newsletter, July 1991-December 1992 = Boletin de Grupo Internacional de Trabajo sobre Asuntos Indigenas, Septiembre 1991-Diciembre 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IWGIA Newsletter, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This document contains seven consecutive English-language issues of the IWGIA Newsletter, from July 1991 through December 1992, followed by the seven corresponding issues in Spanish. These newsletters provide educators with a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination of indigenous peoples around the world.…

  18. Lo Que los Padres y los Maestros Deberian Saber sobre la...Aceleraction (What Parents and Teachers Should Know about Academic Acceleration).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenther, Alex

    Designed for Spanish-speaking educators and parents, this pamphlet discusses academic acceleration for gifted children. Major types of academic acceleration and their benefits are described. These include: (1) early admission to kindergarten that saves parents of gifted children the expenses of a year of preschool, allows children to be…

  19. Kathy Finds Out about the Introduction of Solids. Mother-to-Mother Support = Josefa Descubre Conocimientos sobre la Introduccion de Solidos. Apoyo Madre a Madre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalhaes, Rebecca; Stone-Jimenez, Maryanne; Allen de Smith, Paulina; Smith, Natalia

    These magazine-sized booklets, one in English, one in Spanish, are in cartoon format and are designed to be used by people with limited literacy in English or Spanish. This booklet explains that exclusive breastfeeding means giving no water, liquids, or food; breast milk contains sufficient water to satisfy the baby's thirst; at about 6 months,…

  20. Catalysts for Change: Three Case Studies of Quality Education Worldwide = Catalizadores del Cambio: Tres Casos de Estudio sobre la Educacion de Calidad en el Mundo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puriefoy, Wendy D.

    2007-01-01

    Public education is the cornerstone of democracy and is absolutely fundamental to a democratic, civil and prosperous society. Beyond the boundaries of the United States, other countries are working to provide quality education to their children through civil society institutions. In particular, there are three extraordinary organizations in Peru,…

  1. Conservación de material histórico sobre papel en el Observatorio Astronómico de la Universidad Nacional de Córdoba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laguzzi, N.; Tonini, A.; Andreoli, G.; Goldes, G.; Paolantonio, S.; Cequeira, F.; Landi, L.; Alba, J.

    At the recently created Astronomical Museum ``Pte. Sarmiento - Dr. Benjamin Gould", the task of preventive conservation of historic documents has been faced. These materials include: 1) letters exchanged between national authorities and the directors of the Observatory, during the first decades (1870-1880-1890); b) original observation logs from these very first times, containing astrometrical and photometrical data; c) a variety of ancient books and papers; d) administrative documents. The state of conservation of this patrimony was varied: since well-conserved books and letters, to highly degraded logs. The observation logs written by B. Gould and the astronomers who followed him had been stocked in a safe with a permanent humidity of about 70 %, without any ventilation and exposed to the attack of insects of the family ``dermestidae." These conditions could not be worse for the conservation of paper. In order to stop the proccess of degradation and create a healthy environment for written-paper conservation, a team was formed with personnel belonging to the Cultural Area of the Municipality. The tasks being performed on the observation logs are: 1) an initial, mechanical cleaning, performed once the material is extracted from the contaminated safe: by these means, adult insects and pupas are removed 2) a stage of about two weeks of duration, in which the logs are mantained in a vacuum chamber, in orden to completely eliminate the adult, pupa and egg stage insects by anoxia 3) the final mechanical cleaning 4) storage in a clean location. In order to perform these tasks, we work in collaboration with the Environmental Observatory of the City, and the group of Material-Science Research of Fa.M.A.F. Regarding the letters, a mechanical cleaning was performed. After that, the letters were digitized by means of a scanner, inventoried, put inside acid-free polipropylene envelops and filed for conservation, protected from intense light and external sources of contamination. Copies of these letters will be included as exhibits.

  2. La influencia del medio interestelar sobre la evolución del remanente de supernova (RSN) G53.6-2.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacani, E. B.; Dubner, G.; Cappa, C.; Testori, J. C.

    G53.6-2.2 is a supernova remnant with an unusual morphology: in the radio band the overall shape can be described as two shells that overlap on the NW side of the remnant. The X-ray emission fills the source and peaks in the region where the radio rings overlap; while in the optical range the emission consists of filaments that correlate with portions of radio rings that overlap in the NW. The aim of the present project is to investigate the neutral hydrogen distribution around the remnant in search for signatures that allow to disclose the role of the surrounding gas in conditioning the observed morphology.

  3. Feedback Cheerleader, Mean-Spirited Feedback Estudio Critico Discursivo De Ideologias Sobre El Feedback Escrito En Un Departamento Universitario De Espanol En Estados Unidos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez-Mujica, Maria Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate ideologies that monitor and control styles of written feedback as well as discursive resources used in the expression of those ideologies. Using socio-cognitive analysis, a development of critical discourse studies, I have analyzed 44 sessions of chat on the Internet, 78 journal notes, 31 emails and 12…

  4. Tax and Record Keeping Information for Family Child Care = Informacion Sobre los Impuestos y la Documentacion para el Cuidado Infantil en el Hogar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellert, Sandra

    This pamphlet from the Children's Foundation, in both English- and Spanish-language versions, provides advice to child care providers on record-keeping methods. The pamphlet also gives definitions and guidance on business expenses (100% deductible, shared personal and business, and depreciated capital expenses), time-space formula, self-employment…

  5. Conservation Plan for the Cerulean Warbler on its nonbreeding range - Plan de conservación para la Reinita Cerúlea sobre su rango no reproductivo

    Treesearch

    Paula Caycedo; Paul Hamel; Melinda Welton; David Caro; D. Wiedenfield

    2010-01-01

    This plan was prepared by Paula Caycedo on behalf of American Bird Conservancy and Fundación ProAves with the editorial and technical assistance of Paul Hamel, Melinda Welton, David Caro, David Wiedenfeld, David Mehlman, Deanna Dawson, Katie Fallon, and Paul Salaman. Additional support was provided by the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Act of the U.S. Fish and...

  6. Conversacion sobre "Tres tristes tigres". Una entrevista de Rita Guibert (A Conversation about "Three Sad Tigers". An Interview with Rita Guibert)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrera Infante, Guillermo

    1971-01-01

    Interview took place in London, England, on October 5, 1970 between Cuban writer Guillermo Cabrera Infante and journalist Rita Guibert. Special issue dedicated to contemporary Spanish American literature. (DS)

  7. Sistema de cúmulos globulares de la galaxia lenticular NGC 6861: en busca de indicios sobre la formación de las S0s.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escudero, C. G.; Faifer, F. R.; Bassino, L. P.; Calderón, J. P.; Caso, J. P.

    We present a preliminar photometric study of the globular cluster system (GCS), associated to the lenticular galaxy (S0) NGC 6861, which is located in a low density environment (d˜31.8 Mpc). It is based on GEMINI/GMOS images (GS-2010B-Q-2: PI Lilia P. Bassino) in the filters g', r', i' of three fields, one of them centered in the galaxy. We find a large number of GCs candidates and detect the presence of at least two sub-populations of GCs (``blue''/metal-poor and ``red''/metal-rich). The spatial distribution of ``red'' candidates presents a higher concentration toward the galaxy (associated to the bulge?), while the distribution of ``blue'' candidates is more homogeneus over the three fields (associated to the halo?). In the color-magnitud diagram, the ``blue'' GC candidates show a possible mass-luminosity relation, known as ``blue-tilt'', probably detected for the first time in a lenticular galaxy. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  8. Producción masiva automatizada de la broca del café Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleóptera: Scolytidae) y de sus parasitoides sobre dietas artificiales

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This article reviews the current state of knowledge concerning the mass rearing system of the coffee berry borer, cbb, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), and its African parasitoids: the ectoparasitoids Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Betrem) and Prorops nasuta ((Waterston) (Hymenop...

  9. Guia para Madres y Padres de Familia sobre Educacion Pre-Escolar a Temprana Edad (A Parents' Guide to Early Childhood Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister; Phinney, Joanna

    This booklet for parents explains what children learn in preschools that employ the Creative Curriculum for Early Childhood and the ways in which learning can be reinforced at home. The first sections of the booklet explain the goals and philosophy of experience-based preschools. Goals include teaching children to love reading and school and to be…

  10. Feedback Cheerleader, Mean-Spirited Feedback Estudio Critico Discursivo De Ideologias Sobre El Feedback Escrito En Un Departamento Universitario De Espanol En Estados Unidos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez-Mujica, Maria Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate ideologies that monitor and control styles of written feedback as well as discursive resources used in the expression of those ideologies. Using socio-cognitive analysis, a development of critical discourse studies, I have analyzed 44 sessions of chat on the Internet, 78 journal notes, 31 emails and 12…

  11. Drug-eluting stent thrombosis: results from the multicenter Spanish registry ESTROFA (Estudio ESpañol sobre TROmbosis de stents FArmacoactivos).

    PubMed

    de la Torre-Hernández, José M; Alfonso, Fernando; Hernández, Felipe; Elizaga, Jaime; Sanmartin, Marcelo; Pinar, Eduardo; Lozano, Iñigo; Vazquez, Jose M; Botas, Javier; Perez de Prado, Armando; Hernández, Jose M; Sanchis, Juan; Nodar, Juan M Ruiz; Gomez-Jaume, Alfredo; Larman, Mariano; Diarte, Jose A; Rodríguez-Collado, Javier; Rumoroso, Jose R; Lopez-Minguez, Jose R; Mauri, Josepa

    2008-03-11

    This study sought to assess the incidence, predictors, and outcome of drug-eluting stent(DES) thrombosis in real-world clinical practice. The DES thromboses in randomized trials could not be comparable to those observed in clinical practice, frequently including off-label indications. We designed a large-scale, nonindustry-linked multicentered registry, with 20 centers in Spain. The participant centers provided follow-up data for their patients treated with DES, reporting a detailed standardized form in the event of any angiography-documented DES-associated thrombosis occurring. Of 23,500 patients treated with DES, definite stent thrombosis(ST) developed in 301: 24 acute, 125 subacute, and 152 late. Of the late, 62 occurred >1 year(very late ST). The cumulative incidence was 2% at 3 years. Antiplatelet treatment had been discontinued in 95 cases(31.6%). No differences in incidences were found among stent types. Independent predictors for subacute ST analyzed in a subgroup of 14,120 cases were diabetes, renal failure, acute coronary syndrome, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, stent length, and left anterior descending artery stenting, and for late ST were ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, stenting in left anterior descending artery, and stent length. Mortality at 1-year follow-up was 16% and ST recurrence 4.6%. Older age, left ventricular ejection fraction <45%, nonrestoration of Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction flow grade 3, and additional stenting were independent predictors for mortality. The cumulative incidence of ST after DES implantation was 2% at 3 years. No differences were found among stent types. Patient profiles differed between early and late ST. Short-term prognosis is poor, especially when restoration of normal flow fails.

  12. The Dyslexia Handbook: Procedures Concerning Dyslexia and Related Disorders = Manual sobre la dislexia: Procedimientos relacionados con la dislexia y otros desordenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    This handbook, available in English and Spanish, contains the Texas State Board of Education's approved procedures concerning dyslexia and related disorders and information regarding the state's dyslexia statutes and their relation to the federal Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Section 504, and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Chapters…

  13. Que Sucede? Manual Informativo Sobre Rehabilitacion y Educacion Especial en Costa Rica (What's Happening? Informative Manual on Rehabilitation and Special Education in Costa Rica).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mezerville, Gaston; And Others

    The manual, in Spanish, provides descriptions of rehabilitation, medical, and special education services; centers and institutions which offer physical and mental rehabilitation services; and lists of professionals and advocacy organizations in Costa Rica. Part 1 includes an overview of rehabilitation and special education, a short history of…

  14. Parenting Information for Parents: Books 1-3 (Informacion Para Los Padres Sobre La Crianza De Los Hijos: Libros 1-3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Steve

    These 3 booklets provide ideas, guidelines, and activities for establishing effective parenting and are part of a series of 22 booklets specifically designed to help parents understand their children and help them to learn. The first booklet (booklet #20) discusses preparation for parenthood, infant and toddler developmental stages, the importance…

  15. Resultados de una encuesta sobre posibles reformas ortograficas en el espanol del siglo XX (Results of a Survey Concerning Possible Orthographic Reforms in Twentieth Century Spanish)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varela Cuellar, Beatriz

    1976-01-01

    This article presents the results of a questionnaire sent to Spanish teachers regarding possible orthographic reforms in Spanish. Changes considered included elimination of certain letters and representation of each phoneme by only one letter. Responses to each question are classified and explained. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  16. Development and Initial Validation of a Questionnaire to Assess the Reading Beliefs of Undergraduate Students: The "Cuestionario de Creencias Sobre la Lectura"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lordán, Eva; Solé, Isabel; Beltran, Francesc S.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research was to develop a new questionnaire for exploring the reading beliefs of undergraduate students, because the only currently available instrument has conceptual and methodological limitations. The paper describes the process of developing the instrument and presents a range of psychometric data obtained from a sample of 558…

  17. Conversacion sobre "Tres tristes tigres". Una entrevista de Rita Guibert (A Conversation about "Three Sad Tigers". An Interview with Rita Guibert)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrera Infante, Guillermo

    1971-01-01

    Interview took place in London, England, on October 5, 1970 between Cuban writer Guillermo Cabrera Infante and journalist Rita Guibert. Special issue dedicated to contemporary Spanish American literature. (DS)

  18. Etnografía acelerada para transformar normas sociales sobre género y sexualidad en hombres puertorriqueños heterosexuales1,2

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Torres, Blanca; Rivera-Ortiz, Rafael J.; Mendoza, Sigrid

    2014-01-01

    Resumen La construcción de roles de género dominantes contribuyen al riesgo de contraer VIH, y por tal razón se ha urgido a que se integren las normas sociales relativas al género en las intervenciones preventivas del VIH. Este estudio pretende adaptar y desarrollar una intervención que facilite la transformación de normas sociales del género y de prácticas sexuales en hombres puertorriqueños. La intervención propone transformar normas sociales relacionadas al género y sexualidad en barras comunitarias utilizando el modelo de líderes de opinión. Luego de ser elegidos/as, los/as líderes de opinión diseminan mensajes integrando la importancia de relaciones equitativas entre parejas para la prevención del VIH. La primera fase de esta intervención es discutida en este artículo, la cual incluye un proceso de etnografía acelerada para identificar los escenarios comunitarios en los que podemos desarrollar esta intervención y permitirnos entender la cultura de las barras comunitarias. A partir de las observaciones etnográficas, pudimos: desarrollar un protocolo de seguridad para realizar las observaciones, desarrollar un perfil de la cultura de las barras, elegir las barras a participar en las dos condiciones del estudio y adaptar los instrumentos de la intervención para que respondieran a la particularidad de los/as participantes. PMID:25530828

  19. Resultados de una encuesta sobre posibles reformas ortograficas en el espanol del siglo XX (Results of a Survey Concerning Possible Orthographic Reforms in Twentieth Century Spanish)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varela Cuellar, Beatriz

    1976-01-01

    This article presents the results of a questionnaire sent to Spanish teachers regarding possible orthographic reforms in Spanish. Changes considered included elimination of certain letters and representation of each phoneme by only one letter. Responses to each question are classified and explained. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  20. Desarrollo de un instrumento para medir percepciones sobre el contexto de construccion del conocimiento cientifico de estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Ramirez, Jaime Antonio

    En esta investigacion, se desarrollo un instrumento que permite medir percepciones relacionadas al contexto de constriccion del conocimiento cientifico. Se examinaron instrumentos existentes y se encontro que el VOSTS (Views on science, technology, and society), instrumento desarrollado empiricamente en Canada por Aikenhead, Ryan y Fleming, podia traducirse y validarse en el contexto cultural puertorriqueno. El instrumento es extenso, consta de 113 reactivos, cada uno con una premisa basica relacionada a la tematica ciencia, tecnologia y sociedad y un numero de alternativas relacionadas a la premisa que oscila entre siete y trece. Se delimito su utilizacion a los quince reactivos identificados por los autores como relacionados a la construccion social del conocimiento cientifico. Metodologicamente, se procedio a utilizar el modelo de adaptacion intercultural, que permite que el instrumento desarrollado satisfaga las dimensiones de equivalencia semantica, de contenido, tecnica, de criterio y conceptual, atemperado asi al instrumento original. Se cumplio con este proposito mediante la traduccion de la version original en ingles al espanol y viceversa. Se utilizaron comites para examinar la traduccion y la retro-traduccion del instrumento. Se realizo una prueba piloto con estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso, utilizando el instrumento traducido para asegurar su intelegibilidad. La confiabilidad del instrumento se determino mediante la intervencion de un panel de expertos quienes clasificaron las distintas posiciones dentro de cada reactivo en: realista, con merito e ingenua; se transformaron estas opciones en valores numericos lo que permitio establecer una escala Likert para cada una. Se suministro el instrumento a una muestra de estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso con caracteristicas similares a las de la poblacion puertorriquena en cuanto a ejecucion en las pruebas de aptitud verbal y matematica del College Board. Los resultados de sus contestaciones fueron transformados numericamente para poder obtener el coeficiente de correlacion de Spearman-Brown para el instrumento (0.661, p < 0.01). El analisis de las contestaciones de los estudiantes refleja percepciones diversas y, en algunos casos, contradictorias con respecto al contexto de construccion del conocimiento cientifico.

  1. Steppin' On Up: A Post-Secondary Guide for Migrant Students = Tomando Accion: Una Guia para los Estudiantes Migrantes Sobre Que Hacer Despues de la Escuela Secundaria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Stream Migrant Education Program Coordination Center, Portland, OR.

    This bilingual guide (English and Spanish) provides information for migrant students on postsecondary education. The guide includes information on: (1) career planning, involving self-exploration, occupational exploration, and strategies for reaching career objectives; (2) planning for postsecondary education during high school, including a…

  2. Teorí­as de primer y segundo orden sobre el potencial de ciertas figuras de equilibrio de cuerpos celestes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumbau, Manuel Forner

    2010-11-01

    Uno de los problemas que aborda la Mecánica Celeste es la determinación de las figuras de equilibrio de los cuerpos celestes. Para investigar su solución mediante métodos directos, se precisa evaluar el potencial generado por su autogravitación, el generado por su fuerza centrí­fuga y el generado por la fuerza de atracción entre los cuerpos. Los métodos clásicos de Finlay y Kopal que afrontan estos problemas, para determinar el potencial autogravitatorio en las configuraciones de equilibrio, emplean desarrollos en serie de los potenciales interior y exterior del potencial autogravitatorio. Estos métodos incurren en el error de suponer la convergencia en capas donde resulta cuestionable dicha convergencia para estos desarrollos en serie. En este trabajo se han elaborado unos algoritmos que contemplan toda la casuí&stica y que permiten una manipulación efic iente del producto de polinomios de Legendre, del producto de funciones asociada s de Legendre y del producto de armónicos esféricos como combinacióon lineal de ellos mismos, respectivamente. Se han obtenido, para primer y segundo orden en las amplitudes, los desarrollos correctos para los potencial es interior y exterior del potencial autogravitatorio para configuraciones de equilibrio aisladas, y , en primer orden de amplitudes, los mismos potenciales para los sistemas binarios próximos. Se ha elaborado un método analítico, en primer orden respecto de las amplitudes, para la determinación del potencial de marea en sistemas binarios próximos en el cual se manifiesta la forma de la componente secundaria del sistema

  3. Borrowing Basics. FDIC Money Smart Financial Education Curriculum = Conceptos Basicos sobre Prestamos. FDIC Money Smart Plan de Educacion para Capacitacion en Finanzas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Deposit Insurance Corp., Washington, DC.

    This module, an introduction to credit, is one of ten in the Money Smart curriculum, and includes an instructor guide and a take-home guide. It was developed to help adults outside the financial mainstream enhance their money skills and create positive banking relationships. It is designed to enable participants to decide when and how to use…

  4. Check It Out. FDIC Money Smart Financial Education Curriculum = Conceptos Basicos sobre Cuentas Corientes. FDIC Money Smart Plan de Educacion para Capacitacion en Finanzas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Deposit Insurance Corp., Washington, DC.

    This module on how to choose and keep a checking account is one of ten in the Money Smart curriculum, and includes an instructor guide and a take-home guide. It was developed to help adults outside the financial mainstream enhance their money skills and create positive banking relationships. It is designed to enable participants to open and keep a…

  5. Synthesis and evaluation of a (68)Ga labeled folic acid derivative for targeting folate receptors.

    PubMed

    Jain, Akanksha; Mathur, Anupam; Pandey, Usha; Bhatt, Jyotsna; Mukherjee, Archana; Ram, Ramu; Sarma, Haladhar Dev; Dash, Ashutosh

    2016-10-01

    Present work evaluates the potential of a newly synthesized (68)Ga-NOTA-folic acid conjugate for PET imaging of tumors over-expressing folate receptors (FRs). NOTA-folic acid conjugate was synthesized and characterized. It was radiolabeled with (68)Ga in ≥ 95% radiolabeling yields. In vitro cell binding studies showed a maximum cell uptake of 1.7±0.4% per million KB cells which was completely blocked on addition of cold folic acid showing specificity towards the FRs. However, further studies in tumor xenografts are warranted in order to assess the potential of (68)Ga-folic acid complex for imaging tumors over-expressing FRs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Functionalized Hollow Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for Tumor Vasculature Targeting and PET Image-Guided Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Goel, Shreya; Hong, Hao; Chen, Feng; Valdovinos, Hector F.; Hernandez, Reinier; Barnhart, Todd E.; Cai, Weibo

    2014-01-01

    Aim Development of multifunctional and well-dispersed hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) for tumor vasculature targeted drug delivery and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Materials and Methods Amine functionalized HMSNs (150–250 nm) were conjugated with a macrocyclic chelator, NOTA, PEGylated and loaded with anti-angiogenesis drug, Sunitinib. Cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Tyr-Lys) (cRGDyK) peptide was attached to the nanoconjugate and radiolabeled with 64Cu for PET imaging. Results 64Cu-NOTA-HMSN-PEG-cRGDyK exhibited integrin specific uptake both in vitro and in vivo. PET results indicated ~ 8 %ID/g uptake of targeted nanoconjugates in U87MG tumors, which correlated well with ex vivo and histological analyses. Enhanced tumor targeted delivery of sunitinib was also observed. Conclusions We successfully developed tumor vasculature targeted HMSNs for PET imaging and image guided drug delivery. PMID:25955122

  7. Rapid Hepatobiliary Excretion of Micelle-Encapsulated/Radiolabeled Upconverting Nanoparticles as an Integrated Form

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hyo Jung; Nam, Sang Hwan; Im, Hyung-Jun; Park, Ji-yong; Lee, Ji Youn; Yoo, Byeongjun; Lee, Yun-Sang; Jeong, Jae Min; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Who Kim, Ji; Lee, Jae Sung; Jang, In-Jin; Cho, Joo-Youn; Hwang, Do Won; Suh, Yung Doug; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-01-01

    In the field of nanomedicine, long term accumulation of nanoparticles (NPs) in the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) such as liver is the major hurdle in clinical translation. On the other hand, NPs could be excreted via hepatobiliary excretion pathway without overt tissue toxicity. Therefore, it is critical to develop NPs that show favorable excretion property. Herein, we demonstrated that micelle encapsulated 64Cu-labeled upconverting nanoparticles (micelle encapsulated 64Cu-NOTA-UCNPs) showed substantial hepatobiliary excretion by in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) and also upconversion luminescence imaging (ULI). Ex vivo biodistribution study reinforced the imaging results by showing clearance of 84% of initial hepatic uptake in 72 hours. Hepatobiliary excretion of the UCNPs was also verified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examination. Micelle encapsulated 64Cu-NOTA-UCNPs could be an optimal bimodal imaging agent owing to quantifiability of 64Cu, ability of in vivo/ex vivo ULI and good hepatobiliary excretion property. PMID:26494465

  8. Unless reasoning.

    PubMed

    García-Madruga, Juan A; Carriedo, Nuria; Moreno-Ríos, Sergio; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Schaeken, Walter

    2008-11-01

    We report the results of two experiments investigating conditional inferences from conditional unless assertions, such as Juan is not in León unless Nuria is in Madrid. Experiments 1 and 2 check Fillenbaum's hypothesis about the semantic similarity of unless with if not and only if assertions; both also examine inferential endorsements (Experiment 1) and endorsements and latencies (Experiment 2) of the four logically equivalent conditional formulations: if A then B, if not-B then not-A, A only if B and notA unless B. The results of these experiments show the similarity of unless and only if confirming that the representation of both conditionals from the outset probably include two possibilities directionally oriented from B to A; results also confirm the especial difficulty of unless assertions. The implications of the results are discussed in the context of recent psychological and linguistic theories of the meaning of unless.

  9. IL TRAPIANTO ORTOTOPICO DEL FEGATO

    PubMed Central

    STARZL, THOMAS E.

    2010-01-01

    E’ormai noto che esiste la possibilità rivoluzionaria di utilizzare il fegato per il trattamento della stadio terminale delle epatopatie. Nel gennaio 1980 si celebra il decimo anna di sopravvivenza con fegato trapiantato (la più lunga della letteratura) di un paziente da noi trattato. Si tratta di uno dei 12 malati sottoposti a trapianto e seguiti per più di 5 anni. La nota positiva di questa tipo di trattamento è rappresentata dall’eccellente tenore di vita che i pazienti conducono e dalla riabilitazione sociale e professionale. La nota negativa è data, invece, dal fatto che i buoni risultati non vengono raggiunti con regolarità e non possono essere previsti con esattezza. In questa breve rassegna considereremo la esperienza da noi fatta presso l’Università di Denver nel Colorado, mettendo in risalto le cause dell’elevata mortalità precoce e le prospettive future di questa mezzo terapeutico. PMID:21572898

  10. The interpretation of indicative and subjunctive concessives.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Veiga, I; García-Madruga, J A; Moreno-Ríos, S

    2010-06-01

    Using a priming paradigm in the context of a reading comprehension task, the possibilities that people keep in mind in order to understand indicative and subjunctive concessive sentences were examined and compared to those from factual and counterfactual 'if A, not-B' conditionals. The length of time it took people to read conjunctive descriptions (i.e., A and B, A and not-B, not-A and B, not-A and not-B) after they had been primed by the different types of linguistic form was measured. The results suggest that, whereas indicative 'even though' concessives and 'if, not' conditionals are understood by keeping in mind just a single possibility ('A and B' and 'A and not-B', respectively), the initial representations of subjunctive 'even if' concessive-conditionals and 'if, not' counterfactuals are compatible with a multiple-model representation. The implications of these results are discussed within the mental models framework.

  11. The semantics of 'unless' conditionals: evidence from 'unless' and disjunctive inferences.

    PubMed

    García-Madruga, Juan A; Carriedo, Nuria; Moreno-Ríos, Sergio

    2011-11-01

    We report the results of an experiment investigating conditional inferences from conditional assertions such as 'Juan won't go to León unless Nuria goes to Madrid' and 'Either Nuria goes to Madrid or Juan won't go to León'. This experiment addresses Dancygier's claims about the semantics of 'unless' by examining inferential endorsements of 'not-A unless B' and 'Either B or not-A' in the canonical order, presenting the categorical premise after the conditional assertions, and in the inverse order, presenting the categorical premise before the conditional assertions. The results of the experiment confirm that the representation of 'unless' includes two possibilities, although as Dancygier holds one of the possibilities may not be complete. The implications of the results are discussed in the context of the strategic nature of conditional reasoning and recent convergent theories of linguistic processing.

  12. Combining bifunctional chelator with (3 + 2)-cycloaddition approaches: synthesis of dual-function technetium complexes.

    PubMed

    Braband, Henrik; Imstepf, Sebastian; Benz, Michael; Spingler, Bernhard; Alberto, Roger

    2012-04-02

    A new concept for the synthesis of dual-functionalized technetium (Tc) compounds is presented, on the basis of the reactivity of fac-{Tc(VII)O(3)}(+) complexes. The concept combines the "classical" bifunctional chelator (BFC) approach with the new ligand centered labeling strategy of fac-{TcO(3)}(+) complexes with alkenes ((3 + 2)-cycloaddition approach). To evidence this concept, fac-{(99)TcO(3)}(+) model complexes containing functionalized 1,4,7-triazacyclononane (tacn) derivatives N-benzyl-2-(1,4,7-triazonan-1-yl)acetamide (tacn-ba) and 2,2',2″-(1,4,7-triazonane-1,4,7-triyl)triacetic acid (nota·3H) were synthesized and characterized. Whereas [(99)TcO(3)(tacn-ba)](+) [2](+) can be synthesized following a established oxidation procedure starting from the Tc(V) complex [(99)TcO(glyc)(tacn-ba)](+) [1](+), a new synthetic pathway for the synthesis of [(99)TcO(3)(nota)](2-) [5](2-) had to be developed, starting from [(99)Tc(nota·3H)(CO)(3)](+) [4](+) and using sodium perborate tetrahydrate (NaBO(3)·4H(2)O) as oxidizing reagent. While [(99)TcO(3)(nota)](2-) [5](2-) is a very attractive candidate for the development of trisubstituted novel multifunctional radioprobes, (3 + 2)-cycloaddition reactions of [(99)TcO(3)(tacn-ba)](+) [2](+) with 4-vinylbenzenesulfonate (styrene-SO(3)(-)) demonstrated the suitability of monosubstituted tacn derivatives for the new mixed "BFC-(3 + 2)-cycloaddition" approach. Kinetic studies of this reaction lead to the conclusion that the alteration of the electronic structure of the nitrogen donors by, e.g., alkylation can be used to tune the rate of the (3 + 2)-cycloaddition.

  13. Wyeomyia (Prosopolepis) Confusa (Lutz): Subgeneric Validation, Species Description, and Recognition of Wyeomyia Flui (Bonne-Wepster and Bonne) as the Senior Synonym of Wyeomyia Kerri Del Ponte and Cerqueira

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    description includes illustrations of the male and female genitalia, the 4th-stage larva, and the pupa . Prosopolepis Jiui Bonne-Wepster and Bonne is...belong in the subgenus Prosopolepis and remains in the genus Wyeomyia without subgeneric placement. Trichoprosopon pusillum Lutz and Nuiiez-Tovar is not...a genus by Lutz (1905) for a single species named Prosopo- lepis confusus. Dyar and Knab added Prosopolepis jocosa to the genus in 1908, they

  14. The Development of a Graphical Notation for the Formal Specification of Software

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    Berztiss is prepared to restrict graphic nota - tions to strictly supporting formal specifications, Ambler and Burnett and Moriconi and Hare describe tools...representation is superior to the latter in terms of clarity and utility. The tuple is Refine’s construction for representing a collection of...then evaluated by the second map. The composition operator is actually a representation of the function composition operator in advanced algebra

  15. Turbulent Flow in Passage Around a 180 deg Bend; An Experimental and Numerical Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    equation can be written as: *For ease of presentation and general discussion, Cartesian tensor nota - tion is adopted in this section. Final algebraic ... Algebraic Stress Modeling, Numerical Diffusion, Secondary Flow. 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side if neceaeery end Identity by block number) Work...shown that while the algebraic stress model can resolve these variations, good spatial resolution of the mean flow field is required. "-I C A

  16. Mega-Scale Simulation of Multi-Layer Devices-- Formulation, Kinetics, and Visualization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-28

    to the Monte Carlo result. The spurious velocity around each node 17]. With the following normalized nota - overshoot spike at the anode junction...iterative ma- The discretization of (1)-(3) yields a nonlinear system trix solution algorithms, most of the operations involve of algebraic equations...finite volume formulation on a non- page 2 uniform triangular grid. The resulting algebraic equations are solved using a nonlinear iteration method

  17. A Comparison of U.S. and Soviet Strategic Defensive Doctrine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    1989 1 167 16 SUPPLEMENTARY NOTA ".O The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the...isolation continued to serve as an effective means of passive defense during this period of U.S. nuclear superiority . As Richard Pipes has noted, "America has... superiority . Anticipated threats were examined; a board of scientists recommended the concept of antiballistic missile defenses to the Army as early as

  18. A Defender-Attacker Optimization of Port Radar Surveillance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    path. This is a zero-sum Stackelberg game [23] (i.e., a sequential-play game with perfect information). Using nota - tion already defined, an...cells offer superior surveillance of the entire port, including restricted passages. to evaluate the returns from alternative positions. And, for...and implementa- tion of large-scale primal trans-shipment algorithms, Manage Sci 24 (1977), 1–34. [26] General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS), CPLEX

  19. Collisional Dynamics of the B 3Pi(O+) State of Bromine Monochloride.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    Nota tion Symbol Description Units T lifetime s T collisionless lifetime s *Tr radiative lifetime S Tv(Y) collisional lifetime of state v at buffer...of the pump transitions were made using the constants of Barrow et al. 8 9 In contrast to the side fluorescence scans, the superior resolution of...0) (E.1) The master rate equation (30) is such a system of equations. The transformation ximu iexp(kt) yields a system of linear homogeneous algebraic

  20. Strategy for a DOD Software Initiative. Volume 2. Appendices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    application areas and situations. Nonetheless, it can be expected that subsets of compatible nota - tions, guidelines and techniques can be found for...More substantial notions of executability can be developed for models which have an algebraic or formal computational basis such as abstract or... algebraic data type specifications [171. These are used both in specifications and in design and interpreters can be built to execute them over these very

  1. A New Approach to Teaching Mathematics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    in logical nota - tion and some skill in its use. We teach basic heuristics for developing proofs, and we relate such proofs to more common informal...school algebra . 2. After just three days of teaching logic, problems can be solved that would be difficult without the logic, thus providing motivation...school algebra and therefore become comfortable with the proof style rather quickly. The proof has the following nice properties: " All arguments are

  2. Survey of Formal Specification Techniques for Reactive Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    using the CSP nota - tion; rather some other notation must be used to formulate the appropriate structures. User Presentation - As shown in the example...CSP specification exists. The requirement on the designer is to demonstrate that an implementation satisfies its specifications. CSP has algebraic laws...have to be introduced into the requirements to allow orderly start-up and shut-down. One area in which VDM could have demonstrated its superiority a

  3. A Generalized Stochastic Lanchester Attrition Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-01

    superior side is able to make full use of its superiority (square law) or not (linear law). This is one interpretation of the dis- tinction as we...surviving Red force y (recall the nota - tion introduced in Assumption (1), above) the probability that the surviving target force has the composition z...the a- algebra of all its subsets. The sample space for our attrition process is the family ft of functions from R+ to E, which are right

  4. Maintenance in Service of High Temperature Parts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    ont une cinetique de croissance plus lente, contrl~e par la diffusion du nickel A travers la phase g-NiAI riche en nickel (60 us de NiAI sur IN 100 en...des procedes de soudage conventionrel notasTent sun les surerailiaccs Ac fonderie. Mais l’int~rnt economique est site apparu e la reparation de pieces

  5. Imaging of Ep-CAM Positive Metastatic Cancer in the Lymph System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    lymphedema . This research plan aims to develop a unique imaging agent to identify metastatic tumor cells within the lymph nodes of cancer patients...breast cancer- related lymphedema and the morbidity associated with axillary lymph node dissection. My goal in this work is to improve quality of life...risk of breast cancer-related lymphedema . This work developed an imaging agent, anti-Ep-CAM-IR800-NOTA-Ga-67, both for optical fluorescence

  6. Non-invasive glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor imaging in pancreas with {sup 18}F-Al labeled Cys{sup 39}-exendin-4

    SciTech Connect

    Mi, Baoming; Xu, Yuping; Pan, Donghui; Wang, Lizhen; Yang, Runlin; Yu, Chunjing; Wan, Weixing; Wu, Yiwei; Yang, Min

    2016-02-26

    Purpose: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is abundantly expressed on beta cells and may be an ideal target for the pancreas imaging. Monitoring the GLP-1R of pancreas could be benefit for understanding the pathophysiology of diabetes. In the present study, {sup 18}F-Al labeled exendin-4 analog, {sup 18}F-Al-NOTA-MAL-Cys{sup 39}-exendin-4, was evaluated for PET imaging GLP-1R in the pancreas. Methods: The targeting of {sup 18}F-Al labeled exendin-4 analog was examined in healthy and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Rats were injected with {sup 18}F-Al-NOTA-MAL-Cys{sup 39}-exendin-4 and microPET imaging was performed at 1 h postinjection, followed by ex vivo biodistribution. GLP-1R expression in pancreas was determined through post mortern examinations. Results: The pancreas of healthy rats was readily visualized after administration of {sup 18}F-Al-NOTA-MAL-Cys{sup 39}-exendin-4, whereas the pancreas of diabetic rats, as well as those from rats co-injected with excess of unlabeled peptides, was barely visible by microPET. At 60 min postinjection, the pancreatic uptakes were 1.02 ± 0.15%ID/g and 0.23 ± 0.05%ID/g in healthy and diabetic rats respectively. Under block, the pancreatic uptakes of non-diabetic rats reduced to 0.21 ± 0.07%ID/g at the same time point. Biodistribution data and IHC staining confirmed the findings of the microPET imaging. Conclusion: The favorable preclinical data indicated that {sup 18}F-Al-NOTA-MAL-Cys{sup 39}-exendin-4may be suitable for non-invasive monitoring functional pancreatic beta cells.

  7. Improved synthesis and biological evaluation of chelator-modified α-MSH analogues prepared by copper-free click chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Baumhover, Nicholas J.; Martin, Molly E.; Parameswarappa, Sharavathi G.; Kloepping, Kyle C.; O’Dorisio, M. Sue; Pigge, F. Christopher; Schultz, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    Radionuclide chelators (DOTA, NOTA) functionalized with a monofluorocyclooctyne group were prepared. These materials reacted rapidly and in high yield with a fully deprotected azide-modified peptide via Cu-free click chemistry under mild reaction conditions (aqueous solution, room temperature). The resulting bioconjugates bind with high affinity and specificity to their cell-surface receptor targets in vitro and appear stable to degradation in mouse serum over three hours of incubation at 37 °C. PMID:21873053

  8. Positron emission tomography imaging of tumor angiogenesis with a (61/64)Cu-labeled F(ab')(2) antibody fragment.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hao; Zhang, Yin; Orbay, Hakan; Valdovinos, Hector F; Nayak, Tapas R; Bean, Jero; Theuer, Charles P; Barnhart, Todd E; Cai, Weibo

    2013-02-04

    The objective of this study was to characterize the in vitro and in vivo properties of the F(ab')(2) fragment of TRC105, a human/murine chimeric IgG1 monoclonal antibody that binds with high avidity to human and murine CD105 (i.e., endoglin), and investigate its potential for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of tumor angiogenesis after (61/64)Cu-labeling. TRC105-F(ab')(2) of high purity was produced by pepsin digestion of TRC105, which was confirmed by SDS-PAGE, HPLC analysis, and mass spectrometry. (61/64)Cu-labeling of NOTA-TRC105-F(ab')(2) (NOTA denotes 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid) was achieved with yields of >75% (specific activity: ∼115 GBq/μmol). PET imaging revealed rapid tumor uptake of (64)Cu-NOTA-TRC105-F(ab')(2) in the 4T1 murine breast cancer model (5.8 ± 0.8, 7.6 ± 0.6, 5.6 ± 0.4, 5.0 ± 0.6, and 3.8 ± 0.7% ID/g at 0.5, 3, 16, 24, and 48 h postinjection respectively; n = 4). Since tumor uptake peaked at 3 h postinjection, (61)Cu-NOTA-TRC105-F(ab')(2) also gave good tumor contrast at 3 and 8 h postinjection. CD105 specificity of the tracers was confirmed by blocking studies and histopathology. In conclusion, the use of a F(ab')(2) fragment led to more rapid tumor uptake (which peaked at 3 h postinjection) than radiolabeled intact antibody (which often peaked after 24 h postinjection), which may allow for same day immunoPET imaging in future clinical studies.

  9. Understanding Natural Language Descriptions of Physical Phenomena

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-07

    continue pouring coffee in it. People know all these things and can explain them with ease to others, but in most cases mathematical formulas are not...a part of these explanations. Instead of producing mathematical formulas or using formal representation languages, people use their own natural...in all these cases is on developing a conceptual understanding of the phenomena. The fact that human readers can learn about the physical world

  10. PACE4-based molecular targeting of prostate cancer using an engineered ⁶⁴Cu-radiolabeled peptide inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Couture, Frédéric; Levesque, Christine; Dumulon-Perreault, Véronique; Ait-Mohand, Samia; D'Anjou, François; Day, Robert; Guérin, Brigitte

    2014-08-01

    The potential of PACE4 as a pharmacological target in prostate cancer has been demonstrated as this proprotein convertase is strongly overexpressed in human prostate cancer tissues and its inhibition, using molecular or pharmacological approaches, results in reduced cell proliferation and tumor progression in mouse tumor xenograft models. We developed a PACE4 high-affinity peptide inhibitor, namely, the multi-leucine (ML), and sought to determine whether this peptide could be exploited for the targeting of prostate cancer for diagnostic or molecular imaging purposes. We conjugated a bifunctional chelator 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7- triacetic acid (NOTA) to the ML peptide for copper-64 ((64)Cu) labeling and positron emission tomography (PET)- based prostate cancer detection. Enzyme kinetic assays against recombinant PACE4 showed that the NOTA-modified ML peptide displays identical inhibitory properties compared to the unmodified peptide. In vivo biodistribution of the (64)Cu/NOTA-ML peptide evaluated in athymic nude mice bearing xenografts of two human prostate carcinoma cell lines showed a rapid and high uptake in PACE4-expressing LNCaP tumor at an early time point and in PACE4-rich organs. Co-injection of unlabeled peptide confirmed that tumor uptake was target-specific. PACE4-negative tumors displayed no tracer uptake 15 minutes after injection, while the kidneys, demonstrated high uptake due to rapid renal clearance of the peptide. The present study supports the feasibility of using a (64)Cu/NOTA-ML peptide for PACE4-targeted prostate cancer detection and PACE4 status determination by PET imaging but also provides evidence that ML inhibitor-based drugs would readily reach tumor sites under in vivo conditions for pharmacological intervention or targeted radiation therapy.

  11. PACE4-Based Molecular Targeting of Prostate Cancer Using an Engineered 64Cu-Radiolabeled Peptide Inhibitor1☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Couture, Frédéric; Levesque, Christine; Dumulon-Perreault, Véronique; Ait-Mohand, Samia; D’Anjou, François; Day, Robert; Guérin, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    The potential of PACE4 as a pharmacological target in prostate cancer has been demonstrated as this proprotein convertase is strongly overexpressed in human prostate cancer tissues and its inhibition, using molecular or pharmacological approaches, results in reduced cell proliferation and tumor progression in mouse tumor xenograft models. We developed a PACE4 high-affinity peptide inhibitor, namely, the multi-leucine (ML), and sought to determine whether this peptide could be exploited for the targeting of prostate cancer for diagnostic or molecular imaging purposes. We conjugated a bifunctional chelator 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7- triacetic acid (NOTA) to the ML peptide for copper-64 (64Cu) labeling and positron emission tomography (PET)– based prostate cancer detection. Enzyme kinetic assays against recombinant PACE4 showed that the NOTA-modified ML peptide displays identical inhibitory properties compared to the unmodified peptide. In vivo biodistribution of the 64Cu/NOTA-ML peptide evaluated in athymic nude mice bearing xenografts of two human prostate carcinoma cell lines showed a rapid and high uptake in PACE4-expressing LNCaP tumor at an early time point and in PACE4-rich organs. Co-injection of unlabeled peptide confirmed that tumor uptake was target-specific. PACE4-negative tumors displayed no tracer uptake 15 minutes after injection, while the kidneys, demonstrated high uptake due to rapid renal clearance of the peptide. The present study supports the feasibility of using a 64Cu/NOTA-ML peptide for PACE4-targeted prostate cancer detection and PACE4 status determination by PET imaging but also provides evidence that ML inhibitor–based drugs would readily reach tumor sites under in vivo conditions for pharmacological intervention or targeted radiation therapy. PMID:25220591

  12. Non-invasive glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor imaging in pancreas with (18)F-Al labeled Cys(39)-exendin-4.

    PubMed

    Mi, Baoming; Xu, Yuping; Pan, Donghui; Wang, Lizhen; Yang, Runlin; Yu, Chunjing; Wan, Weixing; Wu, Yiwei; Yang, Min

    2016-02-26

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is abundantly expressed on beta cells and may be an ideal target for the pancreas imaging. Monitoring the GLP-1R of pancreas could be benefit for understanding the pathophysiology of diabetes. In the present study, (18)F-Al labeled exendin-4 analog, (18)F-Al-NOTA-MAL-Cys(39)-exendin-4, was evaluated for PET imaging GLP-1R in the pancreas. The targeting of (18)F-Al labeled exendin-4 analog was examined in healthy and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Rats were injected with (18)F-Al-NOTA-MAL-Cys(39)-exendin-4 and microPET imaging was performed at 1 h postinjection, followed by ex vivo biodistribution. GLP-1R expression in pancreas was determined through post mortern examinations. The pancreas of healthy rats was readily visualized after administration of (18)F-Al-NOTA-MAL-Cys(39)-exendin-4, whereas the pancreas of diabetic rats, as well as those from rats co-injected with excess of unlabeled peptides, was barely visible by microPET. At 60 min postinjection, the pancreatic uptakes were 1.02 ± 0.15%ID/g and 0.23 ± 0.05%ID/g in healthy and diabetic rats respectively. Under block, the pancreatic uptakes of non-diabetic rats reduced to 0.21 ± 0.07%ID/g at the same time point. Biodistribution data and IHC staining confirmed the findings of the microPET imaging. The favorable preclinical data indicated that (18)F-Al-NOTA-MAL-Cys(39)-exendin-4may be suitable for non-invasive monitoring functional pancreatic beta cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Visible Chemical Lasers: Reactions of Metastable Oxygen and the Study of the Red Yoshida Reaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-31

    Lamarre, •, Y. Louvet, M. Nota, D. Pigache, A.J. Ross and M. Setra Europhysics Lett. 12 569 (1990) 13 H.P. Yang, Y. Qin, T.J. Cui, Q.N. Yuan, X.B. Xie ... Q . Zhuang and C.H. Zhang Chem. Phys. Lett. 191 130 (1992) 14 F. Dienstback, F.P. Emmenegger and C.W. Sclapher Hefv. Chem. Acta 60 2460 (1977) Table

  14. High Temperature Silicon Carbide (SiC) Traction Motor Drive

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-09

    the battery bus. The motor drive contains an EMI filter to block switching noise from being transmitted to the input supply lines. Bus capacitance...suitable. Ceramic capacitors are known to be capable of withstanding greater temperatures and voltages than electrolytic or film capacitors, but are not...as power dense or as high in capacitance for their size. Capacitors manufactured by AVX utilizing X7R ceramic material in large “DIP” style packages

  15. Discourses of healthcare professionals about health surveillance actions for Tuberculosis control.

    PubMed

    Mitano, Fernando; Sicsú, Amélia Nunes; Sousa, Luciana de Oliveira; Silva, Laís Mara Caetano da; Palha, Pedro Fredemir

    2017-04-06

    To analyze the meanings produced in the Health Surveillance actions for tuberculosis control, carried out by healthcare professionals in Mozambique. Qualitative study using the theoretical and methodological framework of the French Discourse Analysis. A total of 15 healthcare professionals with more than one year of experience in disease control actions participated in the study. Four discursive blocks have emerged from the analysis: tuberculosis diagnosis process; meeting, communication and discussion of treatment; local strategies for tuberculosis control; involvement of family and community leaders in the tuberculosis control. The statements of the healthcare professionals suggest, as Health Surveillance actions, practices that include collecting sputum in the patient's home and sending it to the laboratory; deployment of the medical team with a microscope for tuberculosis testing; and testing for diseases that may be associated with tuberculosis. In this context, the actions of Health Surveillance for tuberculosis control involve valuing all actors: family, community leaders, patients and health professionals. Analisar os sentidos produzidos sobre as ações de Vigilância em Saúde no controle da tuberculose desenvolvidas por profissionais de saúde em Moçambique. Estudo qualitativo que tem como referencial teórico-metodológico a Análise de Discurso de matriz francesa. Participaram do estudo 15 profissionais de saúde, com mais de 1 ano de experiência em ações de controle da doença. Da análise, emergiram quatro blocos discursivos: processo do diagnóstico da tuberculose; reunião, comunicação e discussão do tratamento; estratégias locais para o controle da tuberculose; envolvimento da família e dos líderes comunitários no controle da tuberculose. Os dizeres dos profissionais de saúde sugerem, como ações de Vigilância em Saúde, práticas que incluem a coleta de escarro na residência do paciente e seu encaminhamento ao laboratório; o

  16. Intensive care unit team perception of palliative care: the discourse of the collective subject.

    PubMed

    Gulini, Juliana El Hage Meyer de Barros; Nascimento, Eliane Regina Pereira do; Moritz, Rachel Duarte; Rosa, Luciana Martins da; Silveira, Natyele Rippel; Vargas, Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira

    2017-05-25

    To learn the perception of health professionals in an intensive care unit towards palliative care. This was a descriptive and qualitative study based on the converging care approach conducted at an intensive care unit in the South of Brazil. Semi-structured interviews were used to investigate the understanding of the professionals about palliative care in this unit. The data were organized and analyzed using the discourse of the collective subject method with the help of Qualiquantisoft® software. Participants included 37 professionals (12 nurses, 11nursing technicians, 5 physical therapists and 9 doctors). The key ideas extracted from the interviews were: care in the end stage of life that avoids futile measures; comfort care; lack of standardized care and lack of team training. The professionals perceived palliative care as appropriate in the last stages of life, with no need for futile treatment or as comfort measures. However, they are aware of the lack of standardization and lack of capacity building in this area, which leads them to conceive palliative care as terminal care, and measures are recommended to break with this stigma. Conhecer a percepção dos profissionais de saúde de uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva acerca do cuidado paliativo. Pesquisa descritiva, qualitativa do tipo Convergente Assistencial realizada em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva da região sul do Brasil. Utilizou-se de entrevista semiestruturada que investigou o entendimento e a compreensão sobre cuidado paliativo nesta unidade. Os dados foram organizados e analisados pela técnica do discurso do sujeito coletivo com auxílio do software Qualiquantisoft®. Participaram do estudo 37 profissionais (12 enfermeiros, 11 técnicos de enfermagem, cinco fisioterapeutas e nove médicos). As ideias centrais extraídas dos relatos: cuidado na fase terminal da vida sem medidas fúteis; cuidados de conforto; falta uniformizar a assistência e falta capacitação para a equipe. Os profissionais

  17. Nursing team's conceptions about the families of hospitalized children.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Isabela Fornerolli de; Souza, Tania Vignuda de; Oliveira, Isabel Cristina Dos Santos; Cibreiros, Sylvia Alves; Morais, Rita de Cássia Melão de; Vieira, Rosana Fidelis Coelho

    2017-01-01

    to describe nursing team care and discuss the nursing team's conception of companion families of hospitalized children. The study was based on the theoretical framework of Collière's theory of nursing care identity. this was a qualitative study with 14 members of a nursing team, conducted through an unstructured group interview. Thematic data analysis was employed. habitual and repair care was delegated to families, regardless of the child's clinical condition. the team's official discourse about the families of hospitalized children, as recommended by the literature, refers to the family's alterity and participation in care provision, with sights on discharge and defending family participation as beneficial to children. In practice, however, the nursing staff makes concessions about the presence of chaperoning families and delegates care. descrever os cuidados da equipe de enfermagem e discutir as concepções da equipe de enfermagem frente à família acompanhante da criança hospitalizada. O referencial teórico está vinculado à identidade do cuidado de enfermagem de Collière. Estudo qualitativo com quatorze membros da equipe de enfermagem, utilizando a técnica de entrevista não diretiva em grupo. Foi realizada análise temática dos dados. os cuidados habituais e de reparação prestados à criança estão sendo delegados à família, independentemente da situação clínica da criança. o discurso oficial da equipe de enfermagem frente à família acompanhante da criança hospitalizada, preconizado pela literatura, refere-se à alteridade e à participação da família nos cuidados à criança, prevendo sua alta e justificando a participação como benéfica para a criança. Em contrapartida, na prática, a enfermagem faz concessões sobre a permanência da família e delega os cuidados.

  18. Taking care of the newborn dying and their families: Nurses' experiences of neonatal intensive care.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Fabiane de Amorim; Moraes, Mariana Salim de; Cunha, Mariana Lucas da Rocha

    2016-06-01

    To understand the experiences of nurses when caring for dying newborns and their families in the NICU; and redeem their perceptions about acting before the death and grieving process. A descriptive exploratory study with a qualitative approach, developed with nine nurses at the ICU of a hospital in São Paulo (SP), Brazil. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the Collective Subject Discourse (CSD). Caring for newborns who are dying and their families is very difficult for nurses, due to the intense involvement. They seek strategies to deal with the situation and, before the newborn's death, despite the suffering, express the feeling of accomplishment. Facing death and grief triggers mechanisms that emerge life references, coming across painful issues. Learning to deal with these questions is a daily challenge for nurses of the NICU. Compreender as experiências vivenciadas por enfermeiros ao cuidar de neonatos que estão morrendo e seus familiares na UTIN; e resgatar as suas percepções sobre a atuação diante do processo de morte e luto. Estudo descritivo exploratório, de abordagem qualitativa, desenvolvido com nove enfermeiras da UTIN de um hospital de São Paulo (SP), Brasil. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevista semi-estruturada e analisados pela técnica do Discurso de Sujeito Coletivo (DSC). Cuidar de neonatos que estão morrendo e suas famílias é muito difícil para as enfermeiras, devido ao intenso envolvimento. Buscam estratégias para lidar com a situação e, diante do óbito do neonato, apesar do sofrimento, manifestam o sentimento de dever cumprido. Enfrentar a morte e o luto aciona mecanismos que afloram referências de vida, deparando-se com questões dolorosas. Aprender a lidar com essas questões é um desafio diário para os enfermeiros de UTIN.

  19. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Molina Recio, Guillermo; Moreno Rojas, Rafael; García Rodríguez, María; Vaquero Abellán, Manuel

    2016-02-16

    Introducción: un gran número de encuestas nutricionales en Perú han identificado la magnitud y la ubicación de los diferentes tipos de desnutrición, siendo la forma crónica la más prevalente. Sin embargo, aunque las tasas pueden considerarse alarmantes (aún más en las zonas rurales), sólo un trabajo contiene información sobre las características de la ingesta, usando recordatorios de 24 horas (R24). Es decir, se carece de otros sistemas de estudio centrados en conocer las características gastronómicas de sus regiones y la biodisponibilidad de los alimentos, con el fin de localizar el origen de esta situación en cada área y proponer soluciones verdaderamente eficaces y eficientes.Objetivo: determinar el valor nutricional de los platos principales consumidos por los residentes de un barrio pobre de la Amazonía Peruana, para identificar las causas de la pérdida de un estado nutricional saludable.Métodos: noventa y ocho participantes completaron tres R24. Basándonos en estos datos, se seleccionaron los 25 platos más comúnmente consumidos y evaluamos su composición nutricional. Tomamos nota de las recetas, pesos y medidas caseras. Además, se observó la preparación y cocción. La composición nutricional media de cada plato se calculó por 100 g utilizando el software Nutriplato 4.6. También se calcularon lasganancias o pérdidas derivadas de los tratamientos culinarios.Resultados: dentro de los platos basados en la leche, el de más alta densidad de energía es el mingado de arroz. En el grupo de los pescados, la mayor cantidad de energía es aportada por el pescado frito, mientras que en las recetas a base de carne, las más energéticas son el tallarín con pollo, la res asada y el cerdo frito. Como platos preparados, el juane tiene la más alta densidad de energía de todas las recetas. Dentro de las guarniciones, aquellas que utilizan los plátanos como el ingrediente principal, el plátano frito y el madurito, son las más energ

  20. Molecular platform for design and synthesis of targeted dual-modality imaging probes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Zhang, Shanrong; Hao, Guiyang; Hassan, Gedaa; Ramezani, Saleh; Sagiyama, Koji; Lo, Su-Tang; Takahashi, Masaya; Sherry, A Dean; Öz, Orhan K; Kovacs, Zoltan; Sun, Xiankai

    2015-03-18

    We report a versatile dendritic structure based platform for construction of targeted dual-modality imaging probes. The platform contains multiple copies of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) branching out from a 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N',N″-triacetic acid (NOTA) core. The specific coordination chemistries of the NOTA and DOTA moieties offer specific loading of (68/67)Ga(3+) and Gd(3+), respectively, into a common molecular scaffold. The platform also contains three amino groups which can potentiate targeted dual-modality imaging of PET/MRI or SPECT/MRI (PET: positron emission tomography; SPECT: single photon emission computed tomography; MRI: magnetic resonance imaging) when further functionalized by targeting vectors of interest. To validate this design concept, a bimetallic complex was synthesized with six peripheral Gd-DOTA units and one Ga-NOTA core at the center, whose ion T1 relaxivity per gadolinium atom was measured to be 15.99 mM(-1) s(-1) at 20 MHz. Further, the bimetallic agent demonstrated its anticipated in vivo stability, tissue distribution, and pharmacokinetic profile when labeled with (67)Ga. When conjugated with a model targeting peptide sequence, the trivalent construct was able to visualize tumors in a mouse xenograft model by both PET and MRI via a single dose injection.

  1. Improved tumor-to-organ ratios of a novel 67Ga-human epidermal growth factor radionuclide conjugate with preadministered antiepidermal growth factor receptor affibody molecules.

    PubMed

    Sandström, Karl; Haylock, Anna-Karin; Velikyan, Irina; Spiegelberg, Diana; Kareem, Heewa; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Lundqvist, Hans; Nestor, Marika

    2011-10-01

    The overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is associated with poor prognosis. Targeted nuclear imaging of the EGFR expression could improve the diagnostics in patients with HNSCC. However, the high expression of EGFR in normal organs may conceal the tumor uptake and therefore limit the use. This study assesses the biodistribution of a novel human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) radionuclide conjugate after preinjection with anti-EGFR affibody molecules. hEGF was conjugated with p-SCN-Bn-NOTA and labeled with (67)Ga. The biodistribution of [(67)Ga]Ga-NOTA-Bn-NCS-hEGF in nude mice with EGFR-expressing xenografts was evaluated either alone or 45 minutes after preinjection with one of the anti-EGFR affibody molecules Z(EGFR:1907), (Z(EGFR:1907))(2), or (Z(EGFR:955))(2). The novel radioimmunoconjugate, [(67)Ga]Ga-NOTA-Bn-NCS-hEGF, demonstrated high stability in vitro and specific binding to hEGF in vitro and in vivo. Preinjection with anti-EGFR affibody molecules improved the tumor-to-organ ratio in the liver, salivary glands, and colon. Overall, the dimeric high-affinity affibody molecule (Z(EGFR:1907))(2) exhibited the best results. These findings show that preblocking with an anti-EGFR affibody molecule is a promising tool that could improve the outcome of radionuclide-based imaging of EGFR-expressing tumors.

  2. Molecular Platform for Design and Synthesis of Targeted Dual-Modality Imaging Probes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report a versatile dendritic structure based platform for construction of targeted dual-modality imaging probes. The platform contains multiple copies of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) branching out from a 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N′,N″-triacetic acid (NOTA) core. The specific coordination chemistries of the NOTA and DOTA moieties offer specific loading of 68/67Ga3+ and Gd3+, respectively, into a common molecular scaffold. The platform also contains three amino groups which can potentiate targeted dual-modality imaging of PET/MRI or SPECT/MRI (PET: positron emission tomography; SPECT: single photon emission computed tomography; MRI: magnetic resonance imaging) when further functionalized by targeting vectors of interest. To validate this design concept, a bimetallic complex was synthesized with six peripheral Gd-DOTA units and one Ga-NOTA core at the center, whose ion T1 relaxivity per gadolinium atom was measured to be 15.99 mM–1 s–1 at 20 MHz. Further, the bimetallic agent demonstrated its anticipated in vivo stability, tissue distribution, and pharmacokinetic profile when labeled with 67Ga. When conjugated with a model targeting peptide sequence, the trivalent construct was able to visualize tumors in a mouse xenograft model by both PET and MRI via a single dose injection. PMID:25615011

  3. Generation and Screening of Monoclonal Antibodies for ImmunoPET Imaging of IGF1R in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) plays an important role in proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and tumor invasion. The expression level of IGF1R is related to resistance to several targeted therapies. The goal of this study was to develop an immunoPET tracer for imaging of IGF1R in prostate cancer. Murine antibodies against human IGF1R were generated in BALB/c mice, which were screened in IGF1R-positive MCF-7 cells using flow cytometry as well as biodistribution studies with multiple 64Cu-labeled antibody clones. The antibody production method we adopted could readily produce milligram quantities of anti-IGF1R antibodies for in vivo studies. One antibody clone (1A2G11) with the highest affinity for IGF1R was selected and conjugated to NOTA for 64Cu-labeling. NOTA-1A2G11 maintained IGF1R specificity/avidity based on flow cytometry. 64Cu-labeling was achieved with good yield (>50%) and high specific activity (>1 Ci/μmol). Serial PET imaging revealed that uptake of 64Cu-NOTA-1A2G11 was 2.8 ± 0.7, 10.2 ± 2.6, and 9.6 ± 1.7 %ID/g in IGF1R-positive DU-145 tumors at 4, 24, and 48 h postinjection, respectively (n = 3), significantly higher than that in IGF1R-negative LNCaP tumors (<3 %ID/g at each time point) except at 4 h postinjection. Histology studies showed strong correlations between IGF1R expression level in the prostate cancer tumor tissues and tumor uptake of 64Cu-NOTA-1A2G11. Prominent, persistent, and IGF1R-specific uptake of 64Cu-NOTA-1A2G11 in IGF1R-positive prostate tumors holds strong potential for future cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy using this antibody. PMID:25157758

  4. Detailed evaluation on the effect of metal ion impurities on complexation of generator eluted 68Ga with different bifunctional chelators.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Dash, Ashutosh; Pillai, M R A

    2013-02-01

    The introduction of (68)Ga-based positron emission tomography (PET) to clinical practice using (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator represents a developmental milestone in the field of molecular imaging. Herein, we report a systematic study on (68)Ga complexes with different bifunctional chelators (BFCs) and the effect of metal ion impurities on the radiochemical yields in order to identify the most suitable BFC to be used for the development of (68)Ga-based target specific radiopharmaceuticals. Radiolabeling of four commonly used BFCs namely p-isothiocyanato benzyl derivatives of diethylenetriaminepentacetic acid (DTPA), 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA), 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA) and 3,6,9,15-tetraazabicyclo [9.3.1]pentadeca-1(15),11,13-triene-3,6,9-triacetic acid (PCTA) with (68)Ga was studied with respect to optimal radiolabeling conditions, effect of metal ion impurities on radiochemical yield, in vitro stability and in vivo clearance properties in biological system. Out of the four BFCs studied, p-isothiocyanato benzyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA-NCS) could be radiolabeled instantly with (68)Ga at room temperature with >98% yield, even in presence of up to 10 ppm of other metal ion impurities (such as Zn, Cu, Fe, Al, Sn and Ti ions). The (68)Ga-complex of NOTA-NCS demonstrated high in vitro stability even in the presence of 1000 times molar excess of metal ions (such as Fe, Cu, Zn and Ca ions). In contrast, other (68)Ga-labeled BFCs (DTPA-NCS, DOTA-NCS and PCTA-NCS) showed reduced radiochemical yields when incubated with the above concentration of metal ions. The biodistribution studies in Swiss mice revealed that (68)Ga-NOTA-NCS cleared rapidly through the kidneys with minimum retention in any major organ. The simple and rapid approach for preparation of (68)Ga-radiopharmaceuticals using NOTA based bifunctional chelators would render (68)Ga-radiopharmaceutical chemistry more convenient with

  5. Forms of Appropriation of Tools for the Astronomy Education in Continuous Training of Teachers. (Spanish Title: Formas de Apropriación de Herramientas Para la Enseñanza de la Astronomía en la Formación Docente Continua.) Formas de Apropriação de Instrumentos Para o Ensino de Astronomia na Formação Continuada de Professores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques Soares, Leonardo; Sousa Nascimento, Silvania

    2012-07-01

    The main focus of this article is to present some impressions about the way some teachers appropriated of the tools from the ASTRONOMY TEACHING KIT (KITPEA). The subjects of this research were teachers that took part in the astronomy teaching specialization course offered by the Continuing Education Project (FOCO) at Math and Science Teaching Center (CECIMIG) from the School of Education of Federal University of Minas Gerais (FaE/UFMG). The data was collected with the use of a questionnaire and of an interview applied to these teachers. The analysis of the data was structured with the aid of the Activity Theory and the Mediated Action Theory. We interpret the teachers' speech using the constitutive aspects of the activity system and the concepts of appropriation and domain as an analytical device. It was possible to recognize the appropriation of the tools in 7 narratives among the 11 individuals who took part in the research. El objetivo principal de ese artículo es presentar indicaciones sobre la manera como algunos maestros se apropiaron de las herramientas del KIT PARA LA ENSEÑANZA DE LA ASTRONOMÍA (KITPEA). Los sujetos de esa investigación son docentes que participaron del curso de especialización en enseñanza de astronomía ofrecido por el Proyecto de Formación Continua (Foco) en el Centro de Enseñanza de Ciencias y Matemática (CECIMIG) de la Facultad de Educación de la Universidad Federal de Minas Gerais (FaE/UFMG). Recogimos las informaciones a través de un cuestionario y de una encuesta, aplicados a esos docentes. Estructuramos el análisis de esas informaciones con la ayuda de la Teoría de la Actividad y de la Teoría de la Acción Mediada. Interpretamos os discursos de los docentes usando como dispositivo analítico los elementos constitutivos del sistema de actividad y los conceptos apropiación y dominio. Entre los 11 sujetos que participaron de la investigación, fue posible interpretar con claridad la apropiación de las herramientas en

  6. Transborder Library Forum [Proceedings] = Memorias del Foro Binacional de Bibliotecas (2nd, Hermosillo, Mexico, March 20-21, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1992

    At the second Transborder Library Forum, 181 participants from the United States and Mexico gathered to discuss topics of international librarianship. The proceedings include the following sections: Discurso de Bienvenida (Welcome Speech) (Carlos Salas); "El Etnocentrismo Mexicano y Los Servicios de Informacion" (Mexican Ethnocentrism…

  7. The Cuban Economy: Current Situation, and Prospects for the 1980s.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    Quesada, August 4, 1980; and Latin America ,.ecky Report, October 31, 1980. 55. F. Castro, "Discurso en la Clausura del Ii Periodo . . . 56. Roberto Veiga...and "ain fenort to 2.nd Congress , p. 9; and Varela , pp. 6-7. 79. Based on my own calculatio.s: assuing; t-hat the average capacity per center is

  8. Evaluation of bifunctional chelates for the development of gallium-based radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Cara L; Lamsa, Eric; Woods, Michael; Duan, Yin; Fernando, Pasan; Bensimon, Corinne; Kordos, Myra; Guenther, Katharina; Jurek, Paul; Kiefer, Garry E

    2010-03-17

    Ga radioisotopes, including the generator-produced positron-emitting isotope (68)Ga (t1/2 = 68 min), are of increasing interest for the development of new radiopharmaceuticals. Bifunctional chelates (BFCs) that can be efficiently radiolabeled with Ga to yield complexes with good in vivo stability are needed. To this end, we undertook a systematic comparison of four BFCs containing different chelating moieties: two novel BFCs, p-NO2-Bn-Oxo (1-oxa-4,7,10-triazacyclododecane-4,7,10-triacetic acid) and p-NO2-Bn-PCTA (3,6,9,15-tetraazabicyclo [9.3.1]pentadeca-1(15),11,13-triene-3,6,9-triacetic acid), and two more commonly used BFCs, p-NO2-Bn-DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) and p-NO2-Bn-NOTA (1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid). Each BFC was compared with respect to radiolabeling conditions, radiochemical yield, stability, and in vivo clearance properties. p-NO2-Bn-PCTA, p-NO2-Bn-Oxo, and p-NO2-Bn-NOTA were all more efficiently radiolabeled with Ga compared to p-NO2-Bn-DOTA. p-NO2-Bn-DOTA required longer reaction time, higher concentrations of BFC, or heating to obtain equivalent radiochemical yields. Better stability was observed for p-NO2-Bn-NOTA and p-NO2-Bn-PCTA compared to p-NO2-Bn-DOTA and p-NO2-Bn-Oxo, especially with respect to transmetalation to transferrin. Ga-radiolabled p-NO2-Bn-Oxo was found to be kinetically labile and therefore unstable in vivo. Ga-radiolabeled p-NO2-Bn-NOTA and p-NO2-Bn-PCTA were relatively inert, while Ga-radiolabeled p-NO2-Bn-DOTA had intermediate stability, losing >20% of Ga in less than one hour when incubated with apo-transferrin. Similar stability differences were seen when incubating at pH 2. In vivo PET imaging and biodistribution studies in mice showed that (68)Ga-radiolabeled p-NO2-Bn-PCTA, p-NO2-Bn-NOTA, and p-NO2-Bn-DOTA all cleared through the kidneys. While there was no statistical difference in the biodistribution results of (68)Ga-radiolabeled p-NO2-Bn-PCTA and p-NO2-Bn-DOTA, (68

  9. Simplified and reproducible radiochemical separations for the production of high specific activity 61Cu, 64Cu, 86Y and 55Co

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdovinos, Hector F.; Graves, Stephen; Barnhart, Todd; Nickles, Robert J.

    2017-05-01

    Four positron-emitting radiometals 61Cu, 64Cu, 86Y and 55Co are increasingly being employed as labels for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging due to their favorable half-lives that match the pharmacokinetics of targeting moeities such as peptides, antibodies and antibody fragments and due to their use in internal dosimetry and treatment planning of targeted radionuclide therapy when they are substituted by their therapeutic analogues 67Cu, 90Y and 58mCo. The main disadvantage of the production methods reported in the literature for these radionuclides is that the final separated radioactive product is diluted in a large volume (> 5 mL), which obligates a lengthy evaporation step in a large vessel that is difficult to automate in-line after the chromatographic steps and that results in a highly variable amount of radioactivity lost in the vessel's surface. In this work we present simplified radiochemical separation methods for the production of 61Cu, 64Cu, 86Y and 55Co that result in: 1) a final eluate volume ≤ 600 µL; 2) reproducible separation yields of 84±4%, 82±6%, 94±5% and 93±6%, respectively; and 3) effective specific activities of 64.0±45.0 GBq/μmol NOTA, 114.9±40.1 GBq/μmol NOTA, 1.4±0.5 GBq/μmol DTPA and 10.1±5.7 GBq/μmol NOTA, respectively; without compromising the recycling efficiencies of the respective isotopically-enriched target materials 60Ni, 64Ni, 86SrCO3 and 58Ni, which accounted for 98±1%, 96±3%, 90±3% and 94±1%, respectively.

  10. Affibody-mediated PET imaging of HER3 expression in malignant tumours

    PubMed Central

    Rosestedt, Maria; Andersson, Ken G.; Mitran, Bogdan; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Löfblom, John; Orlova, Anna; Ståhl, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3) is involved in the progression of various cancers and in resistance to therapies targeting the HER family. In vivo imaging of HER3 expression would enable patient stratification for anti-HER3 immunotherapy. Key challenges with HER3-targeting are the relatively low expression in HER3-positive tumours and HER3 expression in normal tissues. The use of positron-emission tomography (PET) provides advantages of high resolution, sensitivity and quantification accuracy compared to SPECT. Affibody molecules, imaging probes based on a non-immunoglobulin scaffold, provide high imaging contrast shortly after injection. The aim of this study was to evaluate feasibility of PET imaging of HER3 expression using 68Ga-labeled affibody molecules. The anti-HER3 affibody molecule HEHEHE-Z08698-NOTA was successfully labelled with 68Ga with high yield, purity and stability. The agent bound specifically to HER3-expressing cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. At 3 h pi, uptake of 68Ga-HEHEHE-Z08698-NOTA was significantly higher in xenografts with high HER3 expression (BT474, BxPC-3) than in xenografts with low HER3 expression (A431). In xenografts with high expression, tumour-to-blood ratios were >20, tumour-to-muscle >15, and tumour-to-bone >7. HER3-positive xenografts were visualised using microPET 3 h pi. In conclusion, PET imaging of HER3 expression is feasible using 68Ga-HEHEHE-Z08698-NOTA shortly after administration. PMID:26477646

  11. How is (68)Ga labeling of macrocyclic chelators influenced by metal ion contaminants in (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator eluates?

    PubMed

    Šimeček, Jakub; Hermann, Petr; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; Notni, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    To assess the influence of Zn(2+) , Cu(2+) , Fe(3+) , Al(3+) , Ti(IV) , and Sn(IV) on incorporation of (68) Ga(3+) into pendant-arm macrocyclic chelators, the (68) Ga labeling of 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA), 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA), 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-tris[methyl(2-carboxyethyl)phosphinic acid]) (TRAP), and 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1-[methyl(2-carboxyethyl)phosphinic acid]-4,7-bis[methyl(2-hydroxymethyl)phosphinic acid] (NOPO), as well as their peptide conjugates, was investigated in the presence of varying concentrations of these metal ions. The (68) Ga labeling yield for carboxylate-type chelators NOTA and DOTA is decreased at lower metal ion contaminant concentrations compared with phosphinate-type chelators TRAP and NOPO. The latter are able to rapidly exchange coordinated Zn(II) with (68) Ga(3+) , as confirmed by mass spectrometry and (31) P NMR spectroscopy. (68) Ga labeling of Zn(II) complexes of TRAP and NOPO proceeds as efficient as labeling of neat NOTA; this applies also to the corresponding peptide conjugates of these chelators. This behavior results in substantially improved selectivity for Ga(3+) and, therefore, in more robust and reliable (68) Ga labeling procedures. In addition, none of the investigated chelators binds (68) Ge, rendering post-labeling purification protocols, for example, solid-phase extraction, a reliable means of removal of (68) Ge contamination from (68) Ga radiopharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Cloud Tracking from Satellite Pictures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    algebra does not exist for two-dimensional func- tions (with the exception of separable functions). The principle of minimum-phase therefore has to be...coefficients b(k,l). Comparing this nota - tion with the filter (41), one can see that a(0,0) = 1 a(k,l) = -b(k,l) for (k,l) (0,0). (43) Recall that we...derivatives of J(x,y,a,b) with respect to a(k) equal to zero, one obtains after some lengthy algebraic operations N-I M 1 212 N a(m) cos(2- mk) cos(2-N k)+ sin

  13. VLSI Implementation of Digital Fourier Transforms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    algebraic tools which can be used to describe processor networks in terms of their patterns of connection. Although his notation is too limited to be...property, but does not require linearity, for example. Figure 54 shows circuits for various numbers of inputs where the nota - tion PL(n) is a circuit of...each multiply- add time. It is superior to the N-cell DFT in that it uses many fewer multiply- add cells. .Z 1. Building blocks All of the Fourier

  14. Exact Analysis of the Cache Behavior of Nested Loops

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    is the sequence obtained by replacing the jth u from the right with x(u)j . We extend this nota - tion to consider as a map from [0; 2q0 1... superior in terms of total misses. 2. Problem size n = 20, the leading dimension of each array is n, and the three arrays are adjacent to each other in...alternative array layout functions provide better cache behavior than canoni- cal layout functions for many dense linear algebra codes. Previous work

  15. Column Buckling of Isotropic and Composite Beams Using a Truncated Fourier Series.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    of the generated solution and the time it takes. General Approach In his thesis, Hannah showed the superiority of the virtual work equation (3,19-21...eigen- value related to the buckling load. Imbedded within the algebraic equations which form the eigenvalue matrix are the effects of variable...station approximation. Using the same nota - tion as for the conventional approach (X = node i and ±h/2 = -±1/2)±12W + h = W + -Xjsinwh/2 w(x0 +2) =i+1

  16. Convenient preparation of 68Ga-based PET-radiopharmaceuticals at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Velikyan, I; Maecke, H; Langstrom, B

    2008-02-01

    A straightforward labeling using generator produced positron emitting (68)Ga, which provides high quality images, may result in kit type production of PET radiopharmaceuticals and make PET examinations possible also at centers lacking accelerators. The introduction of macrocyclic bifunctional chelators that would provide fast (68)Ga-complexation at room temperature would simplify even further tracer preparation and open wide possibilities for (68)Ga-labeling of fragile and potent macromolecules. Gallium-68 has the potential to facilitate development of clinically practical PET and to promote PET technique for individualized medicine. The macrocyclic chelator, 1,4,7-triazacyclononanetriacetic acid (NOTA), and its derivative coupled to an eight amino acid residue peptide (NODAGA-TATE, [NODAGA (0), Tyr(3)]Octreotate) were labeled with (68)Ge/(68)Ga-generator produced positron emitting (68)Ga. Formation kinetics of (68)Ga-NOTA was studied as a function of pH and formation kinetics of (68)Ga-NODAGA-TATE was studied as a function of the bioconjugate concentration. The nearly quantitative radioactivity incorporation (RAI>95%) for (68)Ga-NOTA was achieved within less than 10 min at room temperature and pH 3.5. The concentrations of NODAGA-TATE required for RAI of >90% and >95% were, respectively, 2-5 and 10 microM. In both cases the purification of the (68)Ga-labeled products was not necessary since the radiochemical purity was >95% and the preparation buffer, 4-(2-hydroxyethyl) piperazine-1-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) is suitable for human use. In order to confirm the identity of the products, complexes comprising (nat)Ga were synthesized and analyzed by mass spectrometry. The complex was found to be stable in the reaction mixture, phosphate buffer, and human plasma during 4.5 h incubation. Free and peptide conjugated NOTA formed stable complexes with (68)Ga at room temperature within 10 min. This might be of special interest for the labeling of fragile and potent

  17. PET of c-Met in cancer with 64Cu-labeled Hepatocyte Growth Factor

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Haiming; Hong, Hao; Slater, Michael R.; Graves, Stephen A.; Shi, Sixiang; Yang, Yunan; Nickles, Robert J.; Fan, Frank; Cai, Weibo

    2015-01-01

    The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor, c-Met, are actively involved in tumor progression/metastasis and associated closely with poor prognostic outcome of cancer patients. Thus developing positron emission tomography (PET) agents for assessing c-Met expression would be extremely useful for diagnosis of cancer and subsequent monitoring of responses to c-Met-targeted therapies. Here we report the characterization of recombinant human hepatocyte growth factor (rh-HGF) as a PET tracer for detection of c-Met expression in vivo. Methods rh-HGF was expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells and purified by nickel-nitrilogriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) affinity chromatography. The concentrated rh-HGF was conjugated to 2-S-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (p-SCN-Bn-NOTA) and labeled with 64Cu. c-Met binding evaluation by flow cytometry was performed in both U87MG and MDA-MB-231 cell lines, which have high and low level of c-Met, respectively. PET imaging and biodistribution studies were performed in nude mice bearing U87MG and MDA-MB-231 xenografted tumors. Results The rh-HGF expression yield was 150–200 µg protein per 5 × 106 cells after 48 h transfection with purity of 85% ~ 90%. Flow cytometry examination confirmed strong and specific binding capacity of rh-HGF to c-Met. After labeled with 64Cu, PET imaging revealed specific and prominent uptake of 64Cu-NOTA-rh-HGF in c-Met positive U87MG tumors (6.7 ± 1.8 %ID/g at 9 h post-injection) and significantly lower uptake in c-Met negative MDA-MB-231 tumors (1.8 ± 0.6 %ID/g at 9 h post-injection). The fact that sonicated-denatured rh-HGF (termed as dnrh-HGF) had significantly lower uptake in U87MG tumors, along with histology analysis, confirmed the c-Met specificity of 64Cu-NOTA-rh-HGF. Conclusion The study provided the initial evidence to confirm that 64Cu-NOTA-rh-HGF is applicable for visualizing c-Met expression in vivo, which may also find potential applications in

  18. Transmission Line Analysis of Dielectric-Loaded Ferrite Kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.

    1994-02-03

    The RHIC injection kicker is constructed as a C-shaped ferrite kicker in which the ferrite blocks are spaced apart and the interstice is filled with high-permittivity ceramic. Due to this ferrite-dielectric composite structure, the kicker behaves like a transmission line rather than a lumped inductor. The electric properties of the kicker, nota bene characteristic impedance and propagation velocity, have been analyzed by Forsyth and his colleagues, Claus and Zhang, as a low pass filter with lumped L and C elements.

  19. Multimodality imaging using SPECT/CT and MRI and ligand functionalized 99mTc-labeled magnetic microbubbles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the present study, we used multimodal imaging to investigate biodistribution in rats after intravenous administration of a new 99mTc-labeled delivery system consisting of polymer-shelled microbubbles (MBs) functionalized with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), thiolated poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA), chitosan, 1,4,7-triacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA), NOTA-super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION), or DTPA-SPION. Methods Examinations utilizing planar dynamic scintigraphy and hybrid imaging were performed using a commercially available single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) system. For SPION containing MBs, the biodistribution pattern of 99mTc-labeled NOTA-SPION and DTPA-SPION MBs was investigated and co-registered using fusion SPECT/CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Moreover, to evaluate the biodistribution, organs were removed and radioactivity was measured and calculated as percentage of injected dose. Results SPECT/CT and MRI showed that the distribution of 99mTc-labeled ligand-functionalized MBs varied with the type of ligand as well as with the presence of SPION. The highest uptake was observed in the lungs 1 h post injection of 99mTc-labeled DTPA and chitosan MBs, while a similar distribution to the lungs and the liver was seen after the administration of PMAA MBs. The highest counts of 99mTc-labeled NOTA-SPION and DTPA-SPION MBs were observed in the lungs, liver, and kidneys 1 h post injection. The highest counts were observed in the liver, spleen, and kidneys as confirmed by MRI 24 h post injection. Furthermore, the results obtained from organ measurements were in good agreement with those obtained from SPECT/CT. Conclusions In conclusion, microbubbles functionalized by different ligands can be labeled with radiotracers and utilized for SPECT/CT imaging, while the incorporation of SPION in MB shells enables imaging using MR. Our investigation revealed that biodistribution

  20. Sport (and exercise) medicine in Britain: healthy citizens and abnormal athletes.

    PubMed

    Heggie, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    Historians have not so far considered Britain as a pioneer in sports medicine, instead arguing that an amateur ethos retarded developments in science and medicine. This article demonstrates that Britain institutionalized and formally recognized sport (and exercise) medicine in advance of most other nations. Further, its sports medicine grew from a focus on elite, competitive and professional sports and not--as had been the case for other countries--on school sports and exercise for health. An interest in the amateur athlete appeared only after 1970, the result of increased government intervention in national fitness and new theories in public health.

  1. Easy access to heterobimetallic complexes for medical imaging applications via microwave-enhanced cycloaddition

    PubMed Central

    Desbois, Nicolas; Pacquelet, Sandrine; Dubois, Adrien; Michelin, Clément

    2015-01-01

    Summary The Cu(I)-catalysed Huisgen cycloaddition, known as “click” reaction, has been applied to the synthesis of a range of triazole-linked porphyrin/corrole to DOTA/NOTA derivatives. Microwave irradiation significantly accelerates the reaction. The synthesis of heterobimetallic complexes was easily achieved in up to 60% isolated yield. Heterobimetallic complexes were easily prepared as potential MRI/PET (SPECT) bimodal contrast agents incorporating one metal (Mn, Gd) for the enhancement of contrast for MRI applications and one “cold” metal (Cu, Ga, In) for future radionuclear imaging applications. Preliminary relaxivity measurements showed that the reported complexes are promising contrast agents (CA) in MRI. PMID:26664643

  2. Two Species Previously Confused Under the Concept of Sabethes Tarsopus in Central America (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    Paulo. So Clark-Gil, S. and R.F. Darsie , Jr . 1983. The Paulo. mosquitoes of Guatemala. Their identifi- Forattini, O.P. and A. Toda. 1967. Notas cation...rec., A bio- interference contrast microscope. All meas- nomics): Clark-Gil and Darsie 1983:156. urements and counts are based on at least 10 180. 197...genitalia), 1. paratype larval exuviae. Clark-Gil and Darsie 1983:156. 180, 197. 4 paratype fourth-instar larvae, and mouth- 266 in part? (Guatemala: A

  3. Percepciones de los estudiantes de education en Venezuela sobre su preparacion e intervencion en violencia domestica. [Perceptions of Education Students in Venezuela about Their Preparation and Intervention in Domestic Violence].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Anna P.; Cellitti, Anarella; Perez de Linares, Sonia

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated Venezuelan university students' perceptions regarding domestic violence and possible encounters with domestic violence in programs for young children. Students indicated that they expected to encounter only those situations they were prepared to confront, indicating needs for curriculum changes in teacher-training programs.…

  4. Receta para el Exito. Una Guia Actualizada para Padres sobre el Mejoramiento de las Escuelas de Colorado y Logros Estudiantiles (Recipe for Success: An Updated Parents' Guide to Improving Colorado Schools and Student Achievement).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taher, Bonnie; Durr, Pamela

    This Spanish language guide describes ways that parents can help improve student achievement and school quality. It answers such questions as: how to choose the right early-education opportunity for a preschooler; how to make sure a 5-year-old is ready for school; how to help a daughter do well in school; how to work with a daughter's or son's…

  5. Role of Systematic Formative Assessment on Students' Views of Their Learning (El papel de la evaluación formativa en las percepciones de los estudiantes sobre su aprendizaje)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areiza Restrepo, Hugo Nelson

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a partial report of a small qualitative research study that explored the students' views of their learning during and after the implementation of formative procedures such as self-assessment, feedback, and conferences. The article also includes their perceptions about this implementation. The research was carried out with a…

  6. The Use of Blogs in English Language Learning: A Study of Student Perceptions (El uso de bitácoras o "blogs" en el aprendizaje del idioma inglés: un estudio sobre las percepciones del estudiante)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahluwalia, Gurleen; Gupta, Deepti; Aggarwal, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    In this article we present an investigation that focused on the students' perception of using Blogs as a means to supplement in-class language learning activities. Blogs are easy to manage and enable students to publish their work in a chronological manner. They help students to engage in online exchanges and promote learner autonomy. This study…

  7. Mision Informacion: Entrevista a Empleados en el Lugar donde Trabajan; Observar a Obreros mientras Trabajan; Programa sobre Experiencia Laboral (Mission Information: Worksite Interview, Shadow Community Workers, Work Experience Program). CHOICE (Challenging Options in Career Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam and Northern Westchester Counties Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Yorktown Heights, NY.

    The work-study guide is the third volume in the advanced level of a career education curriculum for elementary-secondary migrant children. Complementing the secondary level job information text and a workbook about decision making and self-awareness, the work-study guide is designed to accompany work exploration and experience programs. It…

  8. Fortalecete! Pensamientos e ideas sobre el desarrollo de curriculo para maestras de educacion basica en espanol ("Get Energized! Thoughts and Ideas on Curriculum Development for Spanish Basic Education Teachers").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holyoke JUNTOS Adult Basic Education Collaborative, MA.

    This booklet outlines approaches to adult basic education Spanish literacy. It includes the following: explanatory note for English (non-Spanish) readers; general goals of a Spanish language literacy (SLL) program in Holyoke, Massachusetts; checklists; learning objectives for reading and writing; SLL lesson plan guide; outline for SLL curriculum…

  9. La Ninez en Puerto Rico: Resultados del Censo 2000. Un informe de KIDS COUNT/PRB sobre el Censo 2000 (Children in Puerto Rico: Results from the 2000 Census. A KIDS COUNT/PRB Report on Census 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Mark

    This Spanish-language report provides data on children in Puerto Rico based on the 2000 U.S. Census. It compares the situation of Puerto Rico's children with that of children living in the 50 states and the District of Columbia, noting how characteristics of Puerto Rican children have changed over time. Between 1990-2000, the number of Puerto…

  10. Developing Mathematical Resilience: Students' Voice about the Use of ICT in Classroom (El desarrollo de la capacidad de resiliencia matemática: La voz de los estudiantes sobre el uso de las TIC en la aula)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mota, Ana Isabel; Oliveira, Hélia; Henriques, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mathematical resilience is assumed as one of the most important areas in school context and whose focus should be given priority, due to the distress exhibited by students when learning and understanding basic knowledge in mathematics year after year. The main goal of this research was to study how students attending middle schools…

  11. Exploring Authorship Development among Mexican EFL Teacher-Researchers (Exploración sobre el desarrollo de la autoría en los profesores-investigadores de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujeque Moreno, Eva Estefania; Encinas Prudencio, Fátima; Thomas-Ruzic, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a multi-theoretical model to address processes of "authorship development" in the English as a foreign language teaching profession. Working within a sociocultural perspective of second-language teacher education, the authors examined six experienced nonnative English-speaking teacher-researchers. Perceptions of…

  12. Grupo de Trabajo Para la Preparacion del Proyecto Sobre el Desarrolo de Servicias de Bibliotecas y de Informacion Cientifica y Tecnica (Working Group for the Preparation of the Proposal on the Development of Library Services and Scientific and Technical Information).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oficina de Educacion Iberoamericana, Madrid (Spain).

    The Office of Iberoamerican Education, an intergovernmental body based on educational and cultural cooperation for the purpose of disseminating information, documentation, advice, and assistance in the field of education, co-sponsors (with UNESCO) the work represented in this study of library and information planning and facilities in the Andean…

  13. [The EMECAM project: a discussion of the results in the participating cities. Estudio Multicéntrico Español sobre la Relación entre la Contaminación Atmosférica y la Mortalidad].

    PubMed

    Ballester Díez, F; Sáez Zafra, M; Pérez-Hoyos, S; Daponte Codina, A; Bellido Blasco, J B; Cañada Martínez, A; Abad Díez, J M; Pérez Boíllos, M J; Alonso Fustel, M E; Taracido Trunk, M; Aguinaga Ontoso, I; Guillén Pérez, J J; Ordóñez Iriarte, J M; Saurina Canals, C; Tenías Burillo, J M

    1999-01-01

    This article draws a comparison and provides a discussion of the findings resulting from the local analyses of the 14 cities participating in the EMECAM Project. An analysis is made of the time series related to mortality, pollutants (particles in suspension, SO2, NO2, O3 and CO), temperature and other factors taken from records of public institutions. By using Poisson autoregressive regression, an estimate has been made of the short-term relationship between the number of deaths and the air pollution indicators in each one of the following cities: Barcelona, metropolitan area of Bilbao, Cartagena, Castellón, Gijón, Huelva, Madrid, Pamplona, Seville, Oviedo, Valencia, Vigo, Vitoria and Saragossa. The findings reveal the air pollution figures in our country to be similar to those of other European cities. The levels of the different pollutants point toward road traffic as being the main source of most of this pollution. A relationship has been found between the mortality and different pollutants in most cities, although the results are not homogeneous among the cities and show variability in the different causes under study. In some cities, especially in those having smaller populations, there have been no findings providing any evidence of a relationship, or the findings themselves are not highly consistent. The meta-analysis will provide estimates for all of the cities as a whole and will allow the possibility of making a more clear-cut assessment of the time lag impact of air pollution on the mortality. Worthy of special mention is the participation in this project of public health officers as actively involved researchers.

  14. Guia para Evaluar y Ubicar a Estudiantes de Idiomas Minoritarios. Para Padres/sobre Padres (A Guide to Assessing and Placing Language Minority Students. For Parents/about Parents).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Wendy

    This guide helps parents understand how schools assess their child's English language ability and suggests ways for them to help schools place their children in the most useful language program. All districts must decide which students to test, and then how to test them. Some schools attempt to find out the English skills of all students, and…

  15. Directory of Adult Education Periodicals. Sixth Revised Edition = Repertoire des Periodiques sur l'Education des Adultes. Sixieme Edition Revisee = Repertorio de Periodicos sobre Educacion de Adultos. Sexta Edicion Revisada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Literacy, Adult Education and Rural Development.

    This directory lists approximately 175 adult education periodicals published in Africa, Arab states, Asia and the Pacific, Europe, North America, Latin America and the Caribbean, and other international areas. Within each category, periodicals are further divided into the individual countries in which they are published. Each entry may provide…

  16. Directory of Adult Education Periodicals. Seventh Revised Edition. = Repertoire des Periodiques sur l'Education des Adultes. Septieme Edition Revisee. = Repertorio de Periodicos sobre Educacion de Adultos. Septima Edicion Revisada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Primary Educ., Literacy & Adult Educ., Educ. in Rural Areas

    Intended as a reference for persons seeking documentation on adult education, this directory provides a list of professional journals and newsletters--international, national, and regional--appearing regularly and dealing either exclusively or substantially with information and activities relating to adult education. This seventh revised edition…

  17. Ten Facts Every Parent Should Know about the No Child Left Behind Act = Diez datos que cada padre debe saber sobre La Ley. Que Ningun Nino Se Quede Atras.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is President George W. Bush's education reform law passed by Republicans and Democrats in Congress. This flier, in both English and Spanish, details 10 facts concerning NCLB to inform parents as to the goals of the Act and how they will affect their child's school. The flier highlights how the Act: (1) gives…

  18. Actas de la 4th mesa redonda sobre investigacion en "Lenguas Extranjeras" en la Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana 1996. (Proceedings from the 4th Roundtable on Investigation in Foreign Languages in the Autonomous Metropolitan University 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoreda, Margaret Lee, Comp.; Diop, Mamoudou Si, Comp.; Vivaldo Lima, Javier, Comp.

    The articles included in this volume were selected as exemplary papers from the conference in Mexico. The goal of the forum was to provide an opportunity for researchers from the three branches of the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana (UAM) to meet and discuss research projects currently in progress at the university. The works presented here…

  19. Percepciones de los estudiantes de education en Venezuela sobre su preparacion e intervencion en violencia domestica. [Perceptions of Education Students in Venezuela about Their Preparation and Intervention in Domestic Violence].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Anna P.; Cellitti, Anarella; Perez de Linares, Sonia

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated Venezuelan university students' perceptions regarding domestic violence and possible encounters with domestic violence in programs for young children. Students indicated that they expected to encounter only those situations they were prepared to confront, indicating needs for curriculum changes in teacher-training programs.…

  20. Western Hemisphere Conference on Persons with Disabilities. Conference Proceedings (Washington, D.C., March 14-18, 1993) = Conferencia Hemisferica Occidental sobre Personas con Discapacidades. Actas de la Conferencia. (Washington, D.C., 14 al 18 de Marzo de 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Jerry D., Ed.; And Others

    This document presents the proceedings of a conference which brought together delegates and First Ladies representing western hemisphere nations to address needs and issues affecting people with disabilities in the Americas. It presents the texts of two keynote addresses: "Small Triumphs, Big Victories: A Global View of Persons with…