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Sample records for disease central auditory

  1. Clinical psychoacoustics in Alzheimer's disease central auditory processing disorders and speech deterioration

    PubMed Central

    Iliadou, Vassiliki; Kaprinis, Stergios

    2003-01-01

    Background Difficulty in speech understanding in the presence of background noise or competing auditory signals is typically present in central auditory processing disorders. These disorders may be diagnosed in Alzheimer's disease as a result of degeneration in the central auditory system. In addition perception and processing of speech may be affected. Material and Methods A MEDLINE research was conducted in order to answer the question whether there is a central auditory processing disorder involved in Alzheimer's disease. A second question to be investigated was what, if any is the connection, between central auditory processing disorders and speech deterioration? Articles were retrieved from the Medline to find relevance of Alzheimer's dis ease with central auditory processing disorders, they summed up to 34. Twelve papers were studied that contained testing for CAPD through psychoacoustic investigation. An additional search using the keywords 'speech production' and 'AD' produced a result of 33 articles, of them 14 are thoroughly discussed in this review as they have references concerning CAPD. The rest do not contain any relavent information on the central auditory system. Results Psychoacoustic tests reveal significantly lower scores in patients with Alzheimer's disease compared with normal subjects. Tests concerning sound localization and perception of tones as well as phoneme discrimination and tonal memory reveal deficits in Alzheimer's disease. Central auditory processing disorders may exist several years before the onset of clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Segmental characteristics of speech are normal. Deficits exist concerning the supra-segmental components of speech. Conclusions Central auditory processing disorders have been found in many cases when patients with Alzheimer's disease are tested. They may present as an early manifestation of Alzheimer's disease, preceding the disease by a minimum of 5 and a maximum of 10 years. During these

  2. Short-Term Longitudinal Study of Central Auditory Function in Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Idrizbegovic, Esma; Hederstierna, Christina; Dahlquist, Martin; Rosenhall, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Central auditory function can be studied to monitor the progression of mild cognitive impairment to dementia. Our aim was to address this issue in a prospective longitudinal setting. Methods Tests of central hearing function were performed on 70 subjects with either Alzheimer's disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment, and in controls with subjective memory complaints but normal cognition. The time span until follow-up was 1.5 years. Results The dichotic digit free recall test showed a significant decline in the AD group compared with the controls (left ear). Conclusion The short time span was long enough to disclose a central auditory processing decline in AD. PMID:24516414

  3. Central auditory imperception.

    PubMed

    Snow, J B; Rintelmann, W F; Miller, J M; Konkle, D F

    1977-09-01

    The development of clinically applicable techniques for the evaluation of hearing impairment caused by lesions of the central auditory pathways has increased clinical interest in the anatomy and physiology of these pathways. A conceptualization of present understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the central auditory pathways is presented. Clinical tests based on reduction of redundancy of the speech message, degradation of speech and binaural interations are presented. Specifically performance-intensity functions, filtered speech tests, competing message tests and time-compressed speech tests are presented with the emphasis on our experience with time-compressed speech tests. With proper use of these tests not only can central auditory impairments by detected, but brain stem lesions can be distinguished from cortical lesions.

  4. Auditory Training for Central Auditory Processing Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Weihing, Jeffrey; Chermak, Gail D.; Musiek, Frank E.

    2015-01-01

    Auditory training (AT) is an important component of rehabilitation for patients with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). The present article identifies and describes aspects of AT as they relate to applications in this population. A description of the types of auditory processes along with information on relevant AT protocols that can be used to address these specific deficits is included. Characteristics and principles of effective AT procedures also are detailed in light of research that reflects on their value. Finally, research investigating AT in populations who show CAPD or present with auditory complaints is reported. Although efficacy data in this area are still emerging, current findings support the use of AT for treatment of auditory difficulties. PMID:27587909

  5. Test-retest reliability of a dichotic digits test for assessing central auditory function in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Strouse, A L; Hall, J W

    1995-01-01

    Test-retest reliability for the dichotic digits test was measured in 10 subjects diagnosed with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease and a control group of 10 subjects with no evidence of dementia, matched for age, gender and average degree of hearing loss. Although initial scores among the Alzheimer group were more variable, test-retest reliability over a month period was reasonably high for both subject groups. Results are in agreement with previous reports on dichotic digits showing good sensitivity, ease in administration and time efficiency. Use of the dichotic digits test for screening of central auditory function in the Alzheimer population is supported.

  6. Central auditory testing and dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Welsh, L W; Welsh, J J; Healy, M P

    1980-06-01

    A group of dyslexic pupils with normal end organ function was studied by a central auditory battery to determine whether a hearing disability existed. The clinical features of dyslexia are presented with emphasis on the psychological developmental and functional disorders associated with this reading problem. The central battery of Willeford was selected as the test medium and the results of the 77 dyslexic students were compared to the normative data. The model proposed by Sparks, et al., is accepted as the mechanism for dichotic audition. Reference is made to the organic basis of reading disorders from lesion in the calcarine area to the angular gyrus. The competing sentence test, binaural fusion, rapidly alternating speech perception, and filtered speech are described in detail and are organic foundation for the study. The authors indentified a high rate of failure in this investigation. Over 50% of the dyslexic students failed two of the four tests, and each of the 77 failed at least one component. The most sensitive tests were binaural fusion and filtered speech with less variation from the norm in the remaining two components. The effect of maturation in central audition was measured in each of the four tests. The data suggest: 1. the scores are lower in the early ages in each test; 2. that rapidly alternating speech and competing sentences approach the normal range albeit somewhat delayed; and 3. that binaural fusion and filtered speech improve in score somewhat but rather moderately and never approach the normal range. Based upon the central auditory data and in conjunction with the anatomical pathways of vision, the authors suggest the site of lesion to be in the temporo-parietal cortex and the association fibers.

  7. Central auditory function of deafness genes.

    PubMed

    Willaredt, Marc A; Ebbers, Lena; Nothwang, Hans Gerd

    2014-06-01

    The highly variable benefit of hearing devices is a serious challenge in auditory rehabilitation. Various factors contribute to this phenomenon such as the diversity in ear defects, the different extent of auditory nerve hypoplasia, the age of intervention, and cognitive abilities. Recent analyses indicate that, in addition, central auditory functions of deafness genes have to be considered in this context. Since reduced neuronal activity acts as the common denominator in deafness, it is widely assumed that peripheral deafness influences development and function of the central auditory system in a stereotypical manner. However, functional characterization of transgenic mice with mutated deafness genes demonstrated gene-specific abnormalities in the central auditory system as well. A frequent function of deafness genes in the central auditory system is supported by a genome-wide expression study that revealed significant enrichment of these genes in the transcriptome of the auditory brainstem compared to the entire brain. Here, we will summarize current knowledge of the diverse central auditory functions of deafness genes. We furthermore propose the intimately interwoven gene regulatory networks governing development of the otic placode and the hindbrain as a mechanistic explanation for the widespread expression of these genes beyond the cochlea. We conclude that better knowledge of central auditory dysfunction caused by genetic alterations in deafness genes is required. In combination with improved genetic diagnostics becoming currently available through novel sequencing technologies, this information will likely contribute to better outcome prediction of hearing devices.

  8. Auditory hallucinations in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Inzelberg, R.; Kipervasser, S.; Korczyn, A.

    1998-01-01

    Whereas visual hallucinations are often found among patients with Parkinson's disease, the occurrence of auditory hallucinations has never been systematically documented. The occurrence, past and present, of auditory hallucinations has been studied in 121consecutive patients with Parkinson's disease attending a movement disorders clinic. The cognitive state was evaluated using the short mental test (SMT). Hallucinations were reported for 45patients (37%); 35 (29%) had only visual hallucinations and 10(8%) both visual and auditory hallucinations. No patient reported auditory hallucinations unaccompanied by visual hallucinations. The auditory hallucinations occurred repeatedly, consisting of human voices. They were non-imperative (n=9), non-paranoid (n=9), and often incomprehensible (n=5). They were not obviously influenced by the patients' age, duration of disease, or treatment with levodopa. Cognitive impairment was more common among hallucinating patients (64%, 50%, and 25% among patients with visual hallucinations, auditory hallucinations, and non-hallucinating parkinsonian patients respectively). Depression necessitating antidepressants was present in five of 10 and other psychotic features in six patients with auditory hallucinations. It is concluded that auditory hallucinations occur in Parkinson's disease, particularly in patients who also have visual hallucinations and are cognitively impaired.

 PMID:9576549

  9. Auditory dysfunction in patients with Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Profant, Oliver; Roth, Jan; Bureš, Zbyněk; Balogová, Zuzana; Lišková, Irena; Betka, Jan; Syka, Josef

    2017-10-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal, dominantly inherited, neurodegenerative disease. The main clinical features are motor impairment, progressive cognitive deterioration and behavioral changes. The aim of our study was to find out whether patients with HD suffer from disorders of the auditory system. A group of 17 genetically verified patients (11 males, 6 females) with various stages of HD (examined by UHDRS - motor part and total functional capacity, MMSE for cognitive functions) underwent an audiological examination (high frequency pure tone audiometry, otoacoustic emissions, speech audiometry, speech audiometry in babble noise, auditory brainstem responses). Additionally, 5 patients underwent a more extensive audiological examination, focused on central auditory processing. The results were compared with a group of age-matched healthy volunteers. Our results show that HD patients have physiologic hearing thresholds, otoacoustic emissions and auditory brainstem responses; however, they display a significant decrease in speech understanding, especially under demanding conditions (speech in noise) compared to age-matched controls. Additional auditory tests also show deficits in sound source localization, based on temporal and intensity cues. We also observed a statistically significant correlation between the perception of speech in noise, and motoric and cognitive functions. However, a correlation between genetic predisposition (number of triplets) and function of inner ear was not found. We conclude that HD negatively influences the function of the central part of the auditory system at cortical and subcortical levels, altering predominantly speech processing and sound source lateralization. We have thoroughly characterized auditory pathology in patients with HD that suggests involvement of central auditory and cognitive areas. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Central Auditory Processing Disorders: Mostly Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, M. Gay; Stecker, Nancy A.; Katz, Jack

    This book offers the latest available information on central auditory processing disorders (CAPDs) drawn from a State University of New York at Buffalo conference on CAPDs in September of 1996. It is divided into three parts: introduction, management approaches, and specific methods and populations. Chapters include: (1) "Overview and Update…

  11. Central Auditory Processing Disorders: Mostly Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, M. Gay; Stecker, Nancy A.; Katz, Jack

    This book offers the latest available information on central auditory processing disorders (CAPDs) drawn from a State University of New York at Buffalo conference on CAPDs in September of 1996. It is divided into three parts: introduction, management approaches, and specific methods and populations. Chapters include: (1) "Overview and Update…

  12. Central auditory neurons have composite receptive fields

    PubMed Central

    Kozlov, Andrei S.; Gentner, Timothy Q.

    2016-01-01

    High-level neurons processing complex, behaviorally relevant signals are sensitive to conjunctions of features. Characterizing the receptive fields of such neurons is difficult with standard statistical tools, however, and the principles governing their organization remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate multiple distinct receptive-field features in individual high-level auditory neurons in a songbird, European starling, in response to natural vocal signals (songs). We then show that receptive fields with similar characteristics can be reproduced by an unsupervised neural network trained to represent starling songs with a single learning rule that enforces sparseness and divisive normalization. We conclude that central auditory neurons have composite receptive fields that can arise through a combination of sparseness and normalization in neural circuits. Our results, along with descriptions of random, discontinuous receptive fields in the central olfactory neurons in mammals and insects, suggest general principles of neural computation across sensory systems and animal classes. PMID:26787894

  13. (Central) auditory processing disorders in individuals with and without dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Simões, Mariana Buncana; Schochat, Eliane

    2010-01-01

    Comparison of (central) auditory processing disorders in children with and without dyslexia. To compare the (central) auditory processing disorders in Brazilian children with and without dyslexia using speech in noise, dichotic digits and pattern of frequency tests. Forty-five children with ages ranging between 7:0 and 12:11 years were assessed; twenty children composed the dyslexic group and twenty composed the (Central) auditory processing disorder group. The tests used involved closing aural, auditory figure-ground and temporal ordering abilities. Individuals of the (Central) auditory processing disorder group presented a higher alteration probability in the speech in noise and dichotic digits tests than those from the dyslexic group. Subjects from the dyslexic group presented different patterns of (central) auditory processing disorder, with greater alteration in the tests that evaluate the temporal processing when compared to the tests that evaluate other auditory abilities.

  14. The Central Auditory Processing Kit[TM]. Book 1: Auditory Memory [and] Book 2: Auditory Discrimination, Auditory Closure, and Auditory Synthesis [and] Book 3: Auditory Figure-Ground, Auditory Cohesion, Auditory Binaural Integration, and Compensatory Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokhemar, Mary Ann

    This kit for assessing central auditory processing disorders (CAPD), in children in grades 1 through 8 includes 3 books, 14 full-color cards with picture scenes, and a card depicting a phone key pad, all contained in a sturdy carrying case. The units in each of the three books correspond with auditory skill areas most commonly addressed in…

  15. The Central Auditory Processing Kit[TM]. Book 1: Auditory Memory [and] Book 2: Auditory Discrimination, Auditory Closure, and Auditory Synthesis [and] Book 3: Auditory Figure-Ground, Auditory Cohesion, Auditory Binaural Integration, and Compensatory Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokhemar, Mary Ann

    This kit for assessing central auditory processing disorders (CAPD), in children in grades 1 through 8 includes 3 books, 14 full-color cards with picture scenes, and a card depicting a phone key pad, all contained in a sturdy carrying case. The units in each of the three books correspond with auditory skill areas most commonly addressed in…

  16. Central auditory disorders: toward a neuropsychology of auditory objects

    PubMed Central

    Goll, Johanna C.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Warren, Jason D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review Analysis of the auditory environment, source identification and vocal communication all require efficient brain mechanisms for disambiguating, representing and understanding complex natural sounds as ‘auditory objects’. Failure of these mechanisms leads to a diverse spectrum of clinical deficits. Here we review current evidence concerning the phenomenology, mechanisms and brain substrates of auditory agnosias and related disorders of auditory object processing. Recent findings Analysis of lesions causing auditory object deficits has revealed certain broad anatomical correlations: deficient parsing of the auditory scene is associated with lesions involving the parieto-temporal junction, while selective disorders of sound recognition occur with more anterior temporal lobe or extra-temporal damage. Distributed neural networks have been increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of such disorders as developmental dyslexia, congenital amusia and tinnitus. Auditory category deficits may arise from defective interaction of spectrotemporal encoding and executive and mnestic processes. Dedicated brain mechanisms are likely to process specialised sound objects such as voices and melodies. Summary Emerging empirical evidence suggests a clinically relevant, hierarchical and fractionated neuropsychological model of auditory object processing that provides a framework for understanding auditory agnosias and makes specific predictions to direct future work. PMID:20975559

  17. Auditory spatial processing in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Golden, Hannah L; Nicholas, Jennifer M; Yong, Keir X X; Downey, Laura E; Schott, Jonathan M; Mummery, Catherine J; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2015-01-01

    The location and motion of sounds in space are important cues for encoding the auditory world. Spatial processing is a core component of auditory scene analysis, a cognitively demanding function that is vulnerable in Alzheimer's disease. Here we designed a novel neuropsychological battery based on a virtual space paradigm to assess auditory spatial processing in patient cohorts with clinically typical Alzheimer's disease (n = 20) and its major variant syndrome, posterior cortical atrophy (n = 12) in relation to healthy older controls (n = 26). We assessed three dimensions of auditory spatial function: externalized versus non-externalized sound discrimination, moving versus stationary sound discrimination and stationary auditory spatial position discrimination, together with non-spatial auditory and visual spatial control tasks. Neuroanatomical correlates of auditory spatial processing were assessed using voxel-based morphometry. Relative to healthy older controls, both patient groups exhibited impairments in detection of auditory motion, and stationary sound position discrimination. The posterior cortical atrophy group showed greater impairment for auditory motion processing and the processing of a non-spatial control complex auditory property (timbre) than the typical Alzheimer's disease group. Voxel-based morphometry in the patient cohort revealed grey matter correlates of auditory motion detection and spatial position discrimination in right inferior parietal cortex and precuneus, respectively. These findings delineate auditory spatial processing deficits in typical and posterior Alzheimer's disease phenotypes that are related to posterior cortical regions involved in both syndromic variants and modulated by the syndromic profile of brain degeneration. Auditory spatial deficits contribute to impaired spatial awareness in Alzheimer's disease and may constitute a novel perceptual model for probing brain network disintegration across the Alzheimer's disease

  18. Central auditory onset responses, and temporal asymmetries in auditory perception.

    PubMed

    Phillips, D P; Hall, S E; Boehnke, S E

    2002-05-01

    Historically, central auditory responses have been studied for their sensitivity to various parameters of tone and noise burst stimulation, with response rate plotted as a function of the stimulus variable. The responses themselves are often quite brief, and locked in time to stimulus onset. In the stimulus amplitude domain, it has recently become clear that these responses are actually driven by properties of the stimulus' onset transient, and this has had important implications for how we interpret responses to manipulations of tone (or noise) burst plateau level. That finding was important in its own right, but a more general scrutiny of the available neurophysiological and psychophysical evidence reveals that there is a significant asymmetry in the neurophysiological and perceptual processing of stimulus onsets and offsets: sound onsets have a more elaborate neurophysiological representation, and receive a greater perceptual weighting. Hypotheses about origins of the asymmetries, derived independently from psychophysics and from neurophysiology, have in common a response threshold mechanism which adaptively tracks the ongoing level of stimulation.

  19. Auditory Dysfunction in Patients with Cerebrovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Auditory dysfunction is a common clinical symptom that can induce profound effects on the quality of life of those affected. Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is the most prevalent neurological disorder today, but it has generally been considered a rare cause of auditory dysfunction. However, a substantial proportion of patients with stroke might have auditory dysfunction that has been underestimated due to difficulties with evaluation. The present study reviews relationships between auditory dysfunction and types of CVD including cerebral infarction, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebrovascular malformation, moyamoya disease, and superficial siderosis. Recent advances in the etiology, anatomy, and strategies to diagnose and treat these conditions are described. The numbers of patients with CVD accompanied by auditory dysfunction will increase as the population ages. Cerebrovascular diseases often include the auditory system, resulting in various types of auditory dysfunctions, such as unilateral or bilateral deafness, cortical deafness, pure word deafness, auditory agnosia, and auditory hallucinations, some of which are subtle and can only be detected by precise psychoacoustic and electrophysiological testing. The contribution of CVD to auditory dysfunction needs to be understood because CVD can be fatal if overlooked. PMID:25401133

  20. Central Auditory Dysfunction in Older People with Memory Impairment or Alzheimer's Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Gates, George A.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Feeney, M. Patrick; McCurry, Susan M.; Larson, Eric B.

    2009-01-01

    Central auditory function is commonly compromised in people with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may precede the onset of clinical dementia by several years. Given that screening for AD in its earliest stages might someday be useful for emerging therapies aimed at limiting progression, we inquired whether central auditory testing might be suitable for identifying people at risk for dementia. To address this question, we performed a battery of behavioral central auditory tests in a cohort of 313 older people enrolled in a dementia surveillance research program. The cohort consisted of three groups: controls without memory loss (N=232), targets with mild memory impairment but without dementia (N=64), and targets with a dementia diagnosis (N=17). The auditory tests were the Synthetic Sentence Identification with Ipsilateral Competing Message (SSI), the Dichotic Sentence Identification test (DSI), the Dichotic Digits Test (DDT), and the Pitch Pattern Sequence (PPS) test. Additional control was provided by electrophysiologic testing to assess the integrity of the primary auditory pathways. The mean score on each central auditory test worsened significantly across the three memory groups even after adjusting for age and peripheral hearing status, being poorest in the pAD group and moderately reduced in the memory-impaired group compared to the mean scores in the control group. Heterogeneity of results was noted in all three groups. The electrophysiologic tests did not differ across the three groups. Central auditory function was affected by mild memory impairment. The Dichotic Sentence Identification in the free report mode appears to be the central auditory test most sensitive to the presence of memory impairment. Although central auditory testing requires specialized equipment and training, the objectivity of these tests is appealing. We recommend that comprehensive auditory testing be considered and further evaluated for its potential value as a baseline

  1. Central auditory processing in elderly with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Tomader Taha Abdel; Mohamed, Somaia Tawfeek; Albanouby, Mohamed Hasan; Bekhet, Hanaa Farag

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess if central auditory processing affected patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or not and to assess sensitivity and specificity of central auditory processing tests in detection of MCI. This was a case-control study conducted at the Geriatrics Department and Audiology Unit, Ain Shams University Hospital. Participants were 150 elderly diagnosed as MCI compared with 150 normal subjects, based on a neuropsychological diagnostic test battery, the Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG), and who were matched for age, sex and average threshold of hearing. Both cases and control groups were subjected to otological examination, immittancemetry, pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry and central auditory processing assessment by the use of a selective auditory attention test, dichotic digits test, auditory fusion test, pitch pattern sequences test and auditory memory battery of Goldman-Fristoe-Woodcock. The MCI group scored significantly lower than the control group in central auditory processing tests (P < 0.05). Sensitivity of dichotic digit test, pitch pattern sequence test and recognition memory test were 76.6%, 71.7% and 70.4%, respectively, while specificity were 56.2%, 81.2% and 92.2%, respectively. When the previous three tests were used together the sensitivity and specificity were 82.8% and 93.2%, respectively. Central auditory processing was affected in MCI patients. The dichotic digit test, pitch pattern sequence test and recognition memory test can be used in detection of MCI with high sensitivity and specificity. © 2011 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  2. Effects of an Auditory Lateralization Training in Children Suspected to Central Auditory Processing Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Yones; Moosavi, Abdollah; Bakhshi, Enayatollah; Sadjedi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Central auditory processing disorder [(C)APD] refers to a deficit in auditory stimuli processing in nervous system that is not due to higher-order language or cognitive factors. One of the problems in children with (C)APD is spatial difficulties which have been overlooked despite their significance. Localization is an auditory ability to detect sound sources in space and can help to differentiate between the desired speech from other simultaneous sound sources. Aim of this research was investigating effects of an auditory lateralization training on speech perception in presence of noise/competing signals in children suspected to (C)APD. Subjects and Methods In this analytical interventional study, 60 children suspected to (C)APD were selected based on multiple auditory processing assessment subtests. They were randomly divided into two groups: control (mean age 9.07) and training groups (mean age 9.00). Training program consisted of detection and pointing to sound sources delivered with interaural time differences under headphones for 12 formal sessions (6 weeks). Spatial word recognition score (WRS) and monaural selective auditory attention test (mSAAT) were used to follow the auditory lateralization training effects. Results This study showed that in the training group, mSAAT score and spatial WRS in noise (p value≤0.001) improved significantly after the auditory lateralization training. Conclusions We used auditory lateralization training for 6 weeks and showed that auditory lateralization can improve speech understanding in noise significantly. The generalization of this results needs further researches. PMID:27626084

  3. Electrically evoked hearing perception by functional neurostimulation of the central auditory system.

    PubMed

    Tatagiba, M; Gharabaghi, A

    2005-01-01

    Perceptional benefits and potential risks of electrical stimulation of the central auditory system are constantly changing due to ongoing developments and technical modifications. Therefore, we would like to introduce current treatment protocols and strategies that might have an impact on functional results of auditory brainstem implants (ABI) in profoundly deaf patients. Patients with bilateral tumours as a result of neurofibromatosis type 2 with complete dysfunction of the eighth cranial nerves are the most frequent candidates for auditory brainstem implants. Worldwide, about 300 patients have already received an ABI through a translabyrinthine or suboccipital approach supported by multimodality electrophysiological monitoring. Patient selection is based on disease course, clinical signs, audiological, radiological and psycho-social criteria. The ABI provides the patients with access to auditory information such as environmental sound awareness together with distinct hearing cues in speech. In addition, this device markedly improves speech reception in combination with lip-reading. Nonetheless, there is only limited open-set speech understanding. Results of hearing function are correlated with electrode design, number of activated electrodes, speech processing strategies, duration of pre-existing deafness and extent of brainstem deformation. Functional neurostimulation of the central auditory system by a brainstem implant is a safe and beneficial procedure, which may considerably improve the quality of life in patients suffering from deafness due to bilateral retrocochlear lesions. The auditory outcome may be improved by a new generation of microelectrodes capable of penetrating the surface of the brainstem to access more directly the auditory neurons.

  4. Age-related changes in the central auditory system.

    PubMed

    Ouda, Ladislav; Profant, Oliver; Syka, Josef

    2015-07-01

    Aging is accompanied by the deterioration of hearing that complicates our understanding of speech, especially in noisy environments. This deficit is partially caused by the loss of hair cells as well as by the dysfunction of the stria vascularis. However, the central part of the auditory system is also affected by processes accompanying aging that may run independently of those affecting peripheral receptors. Here, we review major changes occurring in the central part of the auditory system during aging. Most of the information that is focused on age-related changes in the central auditory system of experimental animals arises from experiments using immunocytochemical targeting on changes in the glutamic-acid-decarboxylase, parvalbumin, calbindin and calretinin. These data are accompanied by information about age-related changes in the number of neurons as well as about changes in the behavior of experimental animals. Aging is in principle accompanied by atrophy of the gray as well as white matter, resulting in the enlargement of the cerebrospinal fluid space. The human auditory cortex suffers not only from atrophy but also from changes in the content of some metabolites in the aged brain, as shown by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In addition to this, functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals differences between activation of the central auditory system in the young and old brain. Altogether, the information reviewed in this article speaks in favor of specific age-related changes in the central auditory system that occur mostly independently of the changes in the inner ear and that form the basis of the central presbycusis.

  5. Association between central auditory processing mechanism and cardiac autonomic regulation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to describe the association between central auditory processing mechanism and the cardiac autonomic regulation. Methods It was researched papers on the topic addressed in this study considering the following data bases: Medline, Pubmed, Lilacs, Scopus and Cochrane. The key words were: “auditory stimulation, heart rate, autonomic nervous system and P300”. Results The findings in the literature demonstrated that auditory stimulation influences the autonomic nervous system and has been used in conjunction with other methods. It is considered a promising step in the investigation of therapeutic procedures for rehabilitation and quality of life of several pathologies. Conclusion The association between auditory stimulation and the level of the cardiac autonomic nervous system has received significant contributions in relation to musical stimuli. PMID:24834128

  6. Central projections of auditory nerve fibers in the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Carr, C E; Boudreau, R E

    1991-12-08

    The central projections of the auditory nerve were examined in the barn owl. Each auditory nerve fiber enters the brain and divides to terminate in both the cochlear nucleus angularis and the cochlear nucleus magnocellularis. This division parallels a functional division into intensity and time coding in the auditory system. The lateral branch of the auditory nerve innervates the nucleus angularis and gives rise to a major and a minor terminal field. The terminals range in size and shape from small boutons to large irregular boutons with thorn-like appendages. The medial branch of the auditory nerve conveys phase information to the cells of the nucleus magnocellularis via large axosomatic endings or end bulbs of Held. Each medial branch divides to form 3-6 end bulbs along the rostrocaudal orientation of a single tonotopic band, and each magnocellular neuron receives 1-4 end bulbs. The end bulb envelops the postsynaptic cell body and forms large numbers of synapses. The auditory nerve profiles contain round clear vesicles and form punctate asymmetric synapses on both somatic spines and the cell body.

  7. Can Children with (Central) Auditory Processing Disorders Ignore Irrelevant Sounds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Emily M.; Bhagat, Shaum P.; Lynn, Sharon D.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of irrelevant sounds on the serial recall performance of visually presented digits in a sample of children diagnosed with (central) auditory processing disorders [(C)APD] and age- and span-matched control groups. The irrelevant sounds used were samples of tones and speech. Memory performance was significantly…

  8. Can Children with (Central) Auditory Processing Disorders Ignore Irrelevant Sounds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Emily M.; Bhagat, Shaum P.; Lynn, Sharon D.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of irrelevant sounds on the serial recall performance of visually presented digits in a sample of children diagnosed with (central) auditory processing disorders [(C)APD] and age- and span-matched control groups. The irrelevant sounds used were samples of tones and speech. Memory performance was significantly…

  9. Central Auditory Nervous System Dysfunction in Echolalic Autistic Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetherby, Amy Miller; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The results showed that all the Ss had normal hearing on the monaural speech tests; however, there was indication of central auditory nervous system dysfunction in the language dominant hemisphere, inferred from the dichotic tests, for those Ss displaying echolalia. (Author)

  10. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response in Children with Central Language Disturbance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggott, Leonard R.; Anderson, Theodora

    1983-01-01

    Two groups of 10 children between the ages of 94 and 165 months were paired for age (wthin 6 months) and sex and were compared for Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response patterns. One child in each pair showed evidence of central language disturbance as determined by neuropsychological testing. The other did not. All had normal hearing and IQs of 80…

  11. Living and Working with a Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CAPD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paton, Judith W.

    This paper describes adult symptoms of Central Auditory Processing Disorder and provides strategies for dealing with this disability. Symptoms include talking or turning on the television louder than normal, interpreting words too literally, needing remarks repeated, having difficulty sounding out words, ignoring people, being unusually sensitive…

  12. Manipulation of a central auditory representation shapes learned vocal output

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Huimeng; Mooney, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Learned vocalizations depend on the ear’s ability to monitor and ultimately instruct the voice. Where is auditory feedback processed in the brain and how does it modify motor networks for learned vocalizations? Here we addressed these questions using singing-triggered microstimulation and chronic recording methods in the singing zebra finch, a small songbird that relies on auditory feedback to learn and maintain its species-typical vocalizations. Manipulating the singing-related activity of feedback-sensitive thalamic neurons subsequently triggered vocal plasticity, constraining the central pathway and functional mechanisms through which feedback-related information shapes vocalization. PMID:20152118

  13. Central auditory processing and migraine: a controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to verify and compare central auditory processing (CAP) performance in migraine with and without aura patients and healthy controls. Methods Forty-one volunteers of both genders, aged between 18 and 40 years, diagnosed with migraine with and without aura by the criteria of “The International Classification of Headache Disorders” (ICDH-3 beta) and a control group of the same age range and with no headache history, were included. Gaps-in-noise (GIN), Duration Pattern test (DPT) and Dichotic Digits Test (DDT) tests were used to assess central auditory processing performance. Results The volunteers were divided into 3 groups: Migraine with aura (11), migraine without aura (15), and control group (15), matched by age and schooling. Subjects with aura and without aura performed significantly worse in GIN test for right ear (p = .006), for left ear (p = .005) and for DPT test (p < .001) when compared with controls without headache, however no significant differences were found in the DDT test for the right ear (p = .362) and for the left ear (p = .190). Conclusions Subjects with migraine performed worsened in auditory gap detection, in the discrimination of short and long duration. They also presented impairment in the physiological mechanism of temporal processing, especially in temporal resolution and temporal ordering when compared with controls. Migraine could be related to an impaired central auditory processing. Clinical trial registration Research Ethics Committee (CEP 0480.10) – UNIFESP PMID:25380661

  14. Some effects of aging on central auditory processing.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jeffrey S; Jerger, James F

    2005-01-01

    Seniors often have more difficulty understanding speech than younger adults, particularly in noisy environments. While loss in peripheral hearing sensitivity explains many of the listening problems of elderly persons, age-related declines in general cognitive skill and central auditory processing also appear to contribute. In this article, we focus primarily on the effects of age on central auditory mechanisms. To this end, we review research examining a central locus for deficits in temporal processing and summarize behavioral and event-related potential findings from our laboratory's research on the effects of aging on dichotic listening performance. Results show that age-related deficits in interhemispheric information processing may underlie some of the listening problems among seniors. We also discuss implications for clinical audiological rehabilitative efforts in this population.

  15. The mismatch negativity in evaluating central auditory dysfunction in dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Kujala, T; Näätänen, R

    2001-08-01

    The mismatch negativity (MMN), a brain response elicited by a discriminable change in any repetitive aspect of auditory stimulation even in the absence of attention, has been widely used in both basic and clinical research during recent years. The fact that the MMN reflects the accuracy of auditory discrimination and that it can be obtained even from unattentive subjects makes it an especially attractive tool for studying various central auditory-system dysfunctions both in adults and children. In this review, we will discuss the applicability of the MMN to studies in dyslexia, which is currently thought, in the majority of the cases, to primarily result either from a dysfunction of the phonological system or a more general auditory deficit. Recent evidence indicates that the MMN enables one to determine which aspects of auditory information are deficiently processed in dyslexia. The MMN might also be helpful in the early definition of the dyslexia type, which would make it possible to start correctly-targeted training programmes before any major learning delays occur. Furthermore, the MMN holds promise of showing plastic changes in the brain of dyslexic individuals underlying the alleviation or remediation of dyslexia in the course of a successful training programme.

  16. Impairments of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Goll, Johanna C; Kim, Lois G; Ridgway, Gerard R; Hailstone, Julia C; Lehmann, Manja; Buckley, Aisling H; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2012-01-01

    Parsing of sound sources in the auditory environment or 'auditory scene analysis' is a computationally demanding cognitive operation that is likely to be vulnerable to the neurodegenerative process in Alzheimer's disease. However, little information is available concerning auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease. Here we undertook a detailed neuropsychological and neuroanatomical characterization of auditory scene analysis in a cohort of 21 patients with clinically typical Alzheimer's disease versus age-matched healthy control subjects. We designed a novel auditory dual stream paradigm based on synthetic sound sequences to assess two key generic operations in auditory scene analysis (object segregation and grouping) in relation to simpler auditory perceptual, task and general neuropsychological factors. In order to assess neuroanatomical associations of performance on auditory scene analysis tasks, structural brain magnetic resonance imaging data from the patient cohort were analysed using voxel-based morphometry. Compared with healthy controls, patients with Alzheimer's disease had impairments of auditory scene analysis, and segregation and grouping operations were comparably affected. Auditory scene analysis impairments in Alzheimer's disease were not wholly attributable to simple auditory perceptual or task factors; however, the between-group difference relative to healthy controls was attenuated after accounting for non-verbal (visuospatial) working memory capacity. These findings demonstrate that clinically typical Alzheimer's disease is associated with a generic deficit of auditory scene analysis. Neuroanatomical associations of auditory scene analysis performance were identified in posterior cortical areas including the posterior superior temporal lobes and posterior cingulate. This work suggests a basis for understanding a class of clinical symptoms in Alzheimer's disease and for delineating cognitive mechanisms that mediate auditory scene analysis

  17. Maturation of the Central Auditory Nervous System in Children with Auditory Processing Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tomlin, Dani; Rance, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental delay has been proposed as the underlying cause of the majority of cases of auditory processing disorder (APD). The current study employs the cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) to assess if maturational differences of the central auditory nervous system (CANS) can be identified between children who do and do not meet the diagnostic criterion for APD. The P1-N1 complex of the CAEP has previously been used for tracking development of the CANS in children with hearing impairment. Twenty-seven children (7 to 12 years old) who failed an APD behavioral test battery were age-matched (within 3 months) to children who had passed the same battery. CAEP responses to 500-Hz tone burst stimuli were recorded and analyzed for latency and amplitude measures. The P1-N1 complex of the CAEP, which has previously been used for tracking development of the CANS in children with hearing impairment, showed significant group differences. The children diagnosed with APD showed significantly increased latency (∼10 milliseconds) and significantly reduced amplitude (∼10 μV) of the early components of the CAEP compared with children with normal auditory processing. No significant differences were seen in the later P2 wave. The normal developmental course is for a decrease in latency and increase in amplitude as a function of age. The results of this study are, therefore, consistent with an immaturity of the CANS as an underlying cause of APD in children. PMID:27587924

  18. The memory systems of children with (central) auditory disorder.

    PubMed

    Pires, Mayra Monteiro; Mota, Mailce Borges; Pinheiro, Maria Madalena Canina

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate working, declarative, and procedural memory in children with (central) auditory processing disorder who showed poor phonological awareness. Thirty 9- and 10-year-old children participated in the study and were distributed into two groups: a control group consisting of 15 children with typical development, and an experimental group consisting of 15 children with (central) auditory processing disorder who were classified according to three behavioral tests and who showed poor phonological awareness in the CONFIAS test battery. The memory systems were assessed through the adapted tests in the program E-PRIME 2.0. The working memory was assessed by the Working Memory Test Battery for Children (WMTB-C), whereas the declarative memory was assessed by a picture-naming test and the procedural memory was assessed by means of a morphosyntactic processing test. The results showed that, when compared to the control group, children with poor phonological awareness scored lower in the working, declarative, and procedural memory tasks. The results of this study suggest that in children with (central) auditory processing disorder, phonological awareness is associated with the analyzed memory systems.

  19. Behavioural Indices of Central Auditory Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    trauma. Subjects were tested individually in a sound proof booth. The test materials were commercially available on compact discs (CDs). These were...and had no history of otological or neurological disease or head trauma. Subjects were tested individually in a sound proof booth. The test...materials were presented monaurally or binaurally over a headset at a comfortable listening level. All but the Gaps-in-Noise Test were presented twice

  20. Central auditory processing in aging: the dichotic listening paradigm.

    PubMed

    Hommet, C; Mondon, K; Berrut, G; Gouyer, Y; Isingrini, M; Constans, T; Belzung, C

    2010-11-01

    Aging is associated with cognitive changing. Central auditory processing dysfunction may explain some understanding difficulties in elderly. It may be evaluated with the dichotic listening (DL) test, a widely-used experimental paradigm for studying inter-hemispheric interactions and attentional processes. This study examines central auditory language processing with a dichotic listening task in right-handed old subjects according to their age. Cross sectional-study. memory clinic and geriatric unit. Adult group (Ad) consisted in 26 subjects (21 women and 5 men) aged 50-69 years and an old adults group (Old-Ad) consisted in 20 subjects (19 women and 1 man) aged 70 to 89 years. DL consisted in a free-recall word task and a digit forced-attention task (forced-right: FR and forced-left: FL) in order to study central auditory language processing. In addition, we used neuropsychological tests to study executive functions and cognitive control, sustained by the prefrontal cortex. In the free recall condition, we confirmed the classic right ear advantage (REA) in both groups, particularly in older subjects. In the forced condition, we observed an ear advantage with a change in ear asymmetry as a consequence of instruction: REA in FR and a left-ear advantage (LEA) in FL. We compared contaminations by the contra-lateral inattentive ear: reports of the left ear (LE) in the FR condition and reports of the right ear (RE) in the FL condition. Contaminations by the RE in the FL condition were more pronounced in Old-Ad suggesting difficulties in competition between the natural tendency for the RE and the instruction. In the Old-Ad group, the correlation between the RE score in FL and TMT B-A/A suggests an impairment in mental flexibility. DL may be helpful to study central auditory dysfunction in aging. Our results suggest difficulties in attentional control and executive functions. Central auditory dysfunction should be evaluated in elderly because it potentially contributes to

  1. Auditory performance and central auditory processing after cochlear implantation in patients deafened by meningitis.

    PubMed

    García, Juan Manuel; Aparicio, Maria Leonor; Peñaranda, Augusto; Barón, Clemencia; Cutha, Pilar

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the auditory performance of patients deafened by meningitis in closed-set, open-set and language tests (Luria's test). Ten paediatric subjects deafened by meningitis were compared with a peer group of ten paediatric congenitally deaf subjects. All the subjects had a full insertion of a Nucleus device. Three of the subjects in each group had a longer follow-up period and were selected to perform the Luria test. The closed-set tests did not show statistically significant differences between the two groups (p < 0.21) but comparative results of open-set bisyllabic tests did show statistically significant differences (p < 0.003). It was concluded that meningitis might affect the central auditory processing and acquisition process of language. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. (Central) Auditory Processing: the impact of otitis media

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Leticia Reis; Paschoal, Jorge Rizzato; Colella-Santos, Maria Francisca

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze auditory processing test results in children suffering from otitis media in their first five years of age, considering their age. Furthermore, to classify central auditory processing test findings regarding the hearing skills evaluated. METHODS: A total of 109 students between 8 and 12 years old were divided into three groups. The control group consisted of 40 students from public school without a history of otitis media. Experimental group I consisted of 39 students from public schools and experimental group II consisted of 30 students from private schools; students in both groups suffered from secretory otitis media in their first five years of age and underwent surgery for placement of bilateral ventilation tubes. The individuals underwent complete audiological evaluation and assessment by Auditory Processing tests. RESULTS: The left ear showed significantly worse performance when compared to the right ear in the dichotic digits test and pitch pattern sequence test. The students from the experimental groups showed worse performance when compared to the control group in the dichotic digits test and gaps-in-noise. Children from experimental group I had significantly lower results on the dichotic digits and gaps-in-noise tests compared with experimental group II. The hearing skills that were altered were temporal resolution and figure-ground perception. CONCLUSION: Children who suffered from secretory otitis media in their first five years and who underwent surgery for placement of bilateral ventilation tubes showed worse performance in auditory abilities, and children from public schools had worse results on auditory processing tests compared with students from private schools. PMID:23917659

  3. Auditory spatial processing in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Hannah L.; Nicholas, Jennifer M.; Yong, Keir X. X.; Downey, Laura E.; Schott, Jonathan M.; Mummery, Catherine J.; Crutch, Sebastian J.

    2015-01-01

    The location and motion of sounds in space are important cues for encoding the auditory world. Spatial processing is a core component of auditory scene analysis, a cognitively demanding function that is vulnerable in Alzheimer’s disease. Here we designed a novel neuropsychological battery based on a virtual space paradigm to assess auditory spatial processing in patient cohorts with clinically typical Alzheimer’s disease (n = 20) and its major variant syndrome, posterior cortical atrophy (n = 12) in relation to healthy older controls (n = 26). We assessed three dimensions of auditory spatial function: externalized versus non-externalized sound discrimination, moving versus stationary sound discrimination and stationary auditory spatial position discrimination, together with non-spatial auditory and visual spatial control tasks. Neuroanatomical correlates of auditory spatial processing were assessed using voxel-based morphometry. Relative to healthy older controls, both patient groups exhibited impairments in detection of auditory motion, and stationary sound position discrimination. The posterior cortical atrophy group showed greater impairment for auditory motion processing and the processing of a non-spatial control complex auditory property (timbre) than the typical Alzheimer’s disease group. Voxel-based morphometry in the patient cohort revealed grey matter correlates of auditory motion detection and spatial position discrimination in right inferior parietal cortex and precuneus, respectively. These findings delineate auditory spatial processing deficits in typical and posterior Alzheimer’s disease phenotypes that are related to posterior cortical regions involved in both syndromic variants and modulated by the syndromic profile of brain degeneration. Auditory spatial deficits contribute to impaired spatial awareness in Alzheimer’s disease and may constitute a novel perceptual model for probing brain network disintegration across the Alzheimer

  4. Math5 expression and function in the central auditory system

    PubMed Central

    Saul, Sara M.; Brzezinski, Joseph A.; Altschuler, Richard A.; Shore, Susan E.; Rudolph, Dellaney D.; Kabara, Lisa L.; Halsey, Karin E.; Hufnagel, Robert B.; Zhou, Jianxun; Dolan, David F.; Glaser, Tom

    2008-01-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor Math5 (Atoh7) is required for retinal ganglion cell (RGC) and optic nerve development. Using Math5-lacZ knockout mice, we have identified an additional expression domain for Math5 outside the eye, in functionally connected structures of the central auditory system. In the adult hindbrain, the cytoplasmic Math5-lacZ reporter is expressed within the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), in a subpopulation of neurons that project to medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), lateral superior olive (LSO), and lateral lemniscus (LL). These cells were identified as globular and small spherical bushy cells based on their morphology, abundance, distribution within the cochlear nucleus (CN), co-expression of Kv1.1, Kv3.1b and Kcnq4 potassium channels, and projection patterns within the auditory brainstem. Math5-lacZ is also expressed by cochlear root neurons in the auditory nerve. During embryonic development, Math5-lacZ was detected in precursor cells emerging from the caudal rhombic lip from embryonic day (E)12 onwards, consistent with the time course of CN neurogenesis. These cells co-express MafB, Math1 and Math5 and are post-mitotic. Math5 expression in the CN was verified by mRNA in situ hybridization, and the identity of positive neurons was confirmed morphologically using a Math5-Cre BAC transgene with an alkaline phosphatase reporter. The hindbrains of Math5 mutants appear grossly normal, with the exception of the CN. Although overall CN dimensions are unchanged, the lacZ positive cells are significantly smaller in Math5 −/− mice compared to Math5 +/− mice, suggesting these neurons may function abnormally. The Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) of Math5 mutants was evaluated in a BALB/cJ congenic background. ABR thresholds of Math5 −/− mice were similar to those of wild-type and heterozygous mice, but the interpeak latencies for Peaks II-IV were significantly altered. These temporal changes are consistent

  5. The spiral ganglion: connecting the peripheral and central auditory systems

    PubMed Central

    Nayagam, Bryony A; Muniak, Michael A; Ryugo, David K

    2011-01-01

    In mammals, the initial bridge between the physical world of sound and perception of that sound is established by neurons of the spiral ganglion. The cell bodies of these neurons give rise to peripheral processes that contact acoustic receptors in the organ of Corti, and the central processes collect together to form the auditory nerve that projects into the brain. In order to better understand hearing at this initial stage, we need to know the following about spiral ganglion neurons: (1) their cell biology including cytoplasmic, cytoskeletal, and membrane properties, (2) their peripheral and central connections including synaptic structure; (3) the nature of their neural signaling; and (4) their capacity for plasticity and rehabilitation. In this report, we will update the progress on these topics and indicate important issues still awaiting resolution. PMID:21530629

  6. SALICYLATE INCREASES THE GAIN OF THE CENTRAL AUDITORY SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Sun, W.; Lu, J.; Stolzberg, D.; Gray, L.; Deng, A.; Lobarinas, E.; Salvi, R. J.

    2009-01-01

    High doses of salicylate, the anti-inflammatory component of aspirin, induce transient tinnitus and hearing loss. Systemic injection of 250 mg/kg of salicylate, a dose that reliably induces tinnitus in rats, significantly reduced the sound evoked output of the rat cochlea. Paradoxically, salicylate significantly increased the amplitude of the sound-evoked field potential from the auditory cortex (AC) of conscious rats, but not the inferior colliculus (IC). When rats were anesthetized with isoflurane, which increases GABA-mediated inhibition, the salicylate-induced AC amplitude enhancement was abolished, whereas ketamine, which blocks N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, further increased the salicylate-induced AC amplitude enhancement. Direct application of salicylate to the cochlea, however, reduced the response amplitude of the cochlea, IC and AC, suggesting the AC amplitude enhancement induced by systemic injection of salicylate does not originate from the cochlea. To identify a behavioral correlate of the salicylate-induced AC enhancement, the acoustic startle response was measured before and after salicylate treatment. Salicylate significantly increased the amplitude of the startle response. Collectively, these results suggest that high doses of salicylate increase the gain of the central auditory system, presumably by down-regulating GABA-mediated inhibition, leading to an exaggerated acoustic startle response. The enhanced startle response may be the behavioral correlate of hyperacusis that often accompanies tinnitus and hearing loss. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of IBRO. PMID:19154777

  7. Using Different Criteria to Diagnose (Central) Auditory Processing Disorder: How Big a Difference Does It Make?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Wayne J.; Arnott, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify how 9 different diagnostic criteria affected potential (central) auditory processing disorder ([C]APD) diagnoses in a large sample of children referred for (central) auditory processing ([C]AP) assessment. Method: A file review was conducted on 150 children (94 boys and 56 girls; ages 7.0-15.6 years) with normal peripheral…

  8. Using Different Criteria to Diagnose (Central) Auditory Processing Disorder: How Big a Difference Does It Make?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Wayne J.; Arnott, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify how 9 different diagnostic criteria affected potential (central) auditory processing disorder ([C]APD) diagnoses in a large sample of children referred for (central) auditory processing ([C]AP) assessment. Method: A file review was conducted on 150 children (94 boys and 56 girls; ages 7.0-15.6 years) with normal peripheral…

  9. The Impact of Mild Central Auditory Processing Disorder on School Performance during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heine, Chyrisse; Slone, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Central Auditory Processing (CAP) difficulties have attained increasing recognition leading to escalating rates of referrals for evaluation. Recognition of the association between (Central) Auditory Processing Disorder ((C)APD) and language, learning, and literacy difficulties has resulted in increased referrals and detection in school-aged…

  10. [Application of simultaneous auditory evoked potentials and functional magnetic resonance recordings for examination of central auditory system--preliminary results].

    PubMed

    Milner, Rafał; Rusiniak, Mateusz; Wolak, Tomasz; Piatkowska-Janko, Ewa; Naumczyk, Patrycja; Bogorodzki, Piotr; Senderski, Andrzej; Ganc, Małgorzata; Skarzyński, Henryk

    2011-01-01

    Processing of auditory information in central nervous system bases on the series of quickly occurring neural processes that cannot be separately monitored using only the fMRI registration. Simultaneous recording of the auditory evoked potentials, characterized by good temporal resolution, and the functional magnetic resonance imaging with excellent spatial resolution allows studying higher auditory functions with precision both in time and space. was to implement the simultaneous AEP-fMRI recordings method for the investigation of information processing at different levels of central auditory system. Five healthy volunteers, aged 22-35 years, participated in the experiment. The study was performed using high-field (3T) MR scanner from Siemens and 64-channel electrophysiological system Neuroscan from Compumedics. Auditory evoked potentials generated by acoustic stimuli (standard and deviant tones) were registered using modified odd-ball procedure. Functional magnetic resonance recordings were performed using sparse acquisition paradigm. The results of electrophysiological registrations have been worked out by determining voltage distributions of AEP on skull and modeling their bioelectrical intracerebral generators (dipoles). FMRI activations were determined on the basis of deviant to standard and standard to deviant functional contrasts. Results obtained from electrophysiological studies have been integrated with functional outcomes. Morphology, amplitude, latency and voltage distribution of auditory evoked potentials (P1, N1, P2) to standard stimuli presented during simultaneous AEP-fMRI registrations were very similar to the responses obtained outside scanner room. Significant fMRI activations to standard stimuli were found mainly in the auditory cortex. Activations in these regions corresponded with N1 wave dipoles modeled based on auditory potentials generated by standard tones. Auditory evoked potentials to deviant stimuli were recorded only outside the MRI

  11. CENTRAL AUDITORY DYSFUNCTION AS A HARBINGER OF ALZHEIMER’S DEMENTIA

    PubMed Central

    Gates, George A.; Anderson, Melissa L.; McCurry, Susan M.; Feeney, M. Patrick; Larson, Eric B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Confirm that central auditory dysfunction may be a precursor to the onset of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) Design Cohort study Setting Research study center Participants 274 volunteers from a dementia surveillance cohort were followed for up to 4 years after having complete audiometric assessment. 21 of the participants received a consensus diagnosis of AD after hearing testing. Intervention Three central auditory tests were performed: the Dichotic Sentence Identification, the Dichotic Digits, and the Synthetic Sentence Identification with Ipsilateral Competing Message. Main Outcome Measures A new diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease using the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke–Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria at a consensus conference Results The mean scores on each CAD test were significantly poorer in the incident dementia group. Cox proportional hazards models with age as the time-scale were used to estimate the hazard ratio for incident dementia based on CAD test results. After adjusting for educational level, the hazard ratio for incident dementia in people with severe CAD based on a Dichotic Sentence Identification in free report mode of <50% was 9.9 (95% C.I. 3.6, 26.7). Conclusions In these cases, CAD was a precursor to Alzheimer’s dementia. We recommend evaluating older adults complaining of hearing difficulty with CAD tests. Those with severe CAD should receive a modified rehabilitation program and be considered for referral for neurologic evaluation. PMID:21502479

  12. Effects of auditory cues on gait initiation and turning in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Gómez-González, J; Martín-Casas, P; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, R

    2016-12-08

    To review the available scientific evidence about the effectiveness of auditory cues during gait initiation and turning in patients with Parkinson's disease. We conducted a literature search in the following databases: Brain, PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Library Plus, CENTRAL, Trip Database, PEDro, DARE, OTseeker, and Google Scholar. We included all studies published between 2007 and 2016 and evaluating the influence of auditory cues on independent gait initiation and turning in patients with Parkinson's disease. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed with the Jadad scale. We included 13 studies, all of which had a low methodological quality (Jadad scale score≤2). In these studies, high-intensity, high-frequency auditory cues had a positive impact on gait initiation and turning. More specifically, they 1) improved spatiotemporal and kinematic parameters; 2) decreased freezing, turning duration, and falls; and 3) increased gait initiation speed, muscle activation, and gait speed and cadence in patients with Parkinson's disease. We need studies of better methodological quality to establish the Parkinson's disease stage in which auditory cues are most beneficial, as well as to determine the most effective type and frequency of the auditory cue during gait initiation and turning in patients with Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Golden, Hannah L; Agustus, Jennifer L; Goll, Johanna C; Downey, Laura E; Mummery, Catherine J; Schott, Jonathan M; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2015-01-01

    Auditory scene analysis is a demanding computational process that is performed automatically and efficiently by the healthy brain but vulnerable to the neurodegenerative pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Here we assessed the functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease using the well-known 'cocktail party effect' as a model paradigm whereby stored templates for auditory objects (e.g., hearing one's spoken name) are used to segregate auditory 'foreground' and 'background'. Patients with typical amnestic Alzheimer's disease (n = 13) and age-matched healthy individuals (n = 17) underwent functional 3T-MRI using a sparse acquisition protocol with passive listening to auditory stimulus conditions comprising the participant's own name interleaved with or superimposed on multi-talker babble, and spectrally rotated (unrecognisable) analogues of these conditions. Name identification (conditions containing the participant's own name contrasted with spectrally rotated analogues) produced extensive bilateral activation involving superior temporal cortex in both the AD and healthy control groups, with no significant differences between groups. Auditory object segregation (conditions with interleaved name sounds contrasted with superimposed name sounds) produced activation of right posterior superior temporal cortex in both groups, again with no differences between groups. However, the cocktail party effect (interaction of own name identification with auditory object segregation processing) produced activation of right supramarginal gyrus in the AD group that was significantly enhanced compared with the healthy control group. The findings delineate an altered functional neuroanatomical profile of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease that may constitute a novel computational signature of this neurodegenerative pathology.

  14. Background Noise Degrades Central Auditory Processing in Toddlers.

    PubMed

    Niemitalo-Haapola, Elina; Haapala, Sini; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira; Kujala, Teija

    2015-01-01

    Noise, as an unwanted sound, has become one of modern society's environmental conundrums, and many children are exposed to higher noise levels than previously assumed. However, the effects of background noise on central auditory processing of toddlers, who are still acquiring language skills, have so far not been determined. The authors evaluated the effects of background noise on toddlers' speech-sound processing by recording event-related brain potentials. The hypothesis was that background noise modulates neural speech-sound encoding and degrades speech-sound discrimination. Obligatory P1 and N2 responses for standard syllables and the mismatch negativity (MMN) response for five different syllable deviants presented in a linguistic multifeature paradigm were recorded in silent and background noise conditions. The participants were 18 typically developing 22- to 26-month-old monolingual children with healthy ears. The results showed that the P1 amplitude was smaller and the N2 amplitude larger in the noisy conditions compared with the silent conditions. In the noisy condition, the MMN was absent for the intensity and vowel changes and diminished for the consonant, frequency, and vowel duration changes embedded in speech syllables. Furthermore, the frontal MMN component was attenuated in the noisy condition. However, noise had no effect on P1, N2, or MMN latencies. The results from this study suggest multiple effects of background noise on the central auditory processing of toddlers. It modulates the early stages of sound encoding and dampens neural discrimination vital for accurate speech perception. These results imply that speech processing of toddlers, who may spend long periods of daytime in noisy conditions, is vulnerable to background noise. In noisy conditions, toddlers' neural representations of some speech sounds might be weakened. Thus, special attention should be paid to acoustic conditions and background noise levels in children's daily environments

  15. Observations on the Use of SCAN To Identify Children at Risk for Central Auditory Processing Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Maria F.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    The SCAN: A Screening Test for Auditory Processing Disorders was administered to 14 elementary children with a history of otitis media and 14 typical children, to evaluate the validity of the test in identifying children with central auditory processing disorder. Another experiment found that test results differed based on the testing environment…

  16. Observations on the Use of SCAN To Identify Children at Risk for Central Auditory Processing Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Maria F.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    The SCAN: A Screening Test for Auditory Processing Disorders was administered to 14 elementary children with a history of otitis media and 14 typical children, to evaluate the validity of the test in identifying children with central auditory processing disorder. Another experiment found that test results differed based on the testing environment…

  17. Central Auditory Development: Evidence from CAEP Measurements in Children Fit with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, Michael F.; Sharma, Anu; Gilley, Phillip; Martin, Kathryn; Roland, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In normal-hearing children the latency of the P1 component of the cortical evoked response to sound varies as a function of age and, thus, can be used as a biomarker for maturation of central auditory pathways. We assessed P1 latency in 245 congenitally deaf children fit with cochlear implants following various periods of auditory deprivation. If…

  18. Central Auditory Development: Evidence from CAEP Measurements in Children Fit with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, Michael F.; Sharma, Anu; Gilley, Phillip; Martin, Kathryn; Roland, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In normal-hearing children the latency of the P1 component of the cortical evoked response to sound varies as a function of age and, thus, can be used as a biomarker for maturation of central auditory pathways. We assessed P1 latency in 245 congenitally deaf children fit with cochlear implants following various periods of auditory deprivation. If…

  19. Human Central Auditory Plasticity Associated with Tone Sequence Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottselig, Julie Marie; Brandeis, Daniel; Hofer-Tinguely, Gilberte; Borbely, Alexander A.; Achermann, Peter

    2004-01-01

    We investigated learning-related changes in amplitude, scalp topography, and source localization of the mismatch negativity (MMN), a neurophysiological response correlated with auditory discrimination ability. Participants (n = 32) underwent two EEG recordings while they watched silent films and ignored auditory stimuli. Stimuli were a standard…

  20. Auditory function in children with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    PubMed

    Rance, Gary; Ryan, Monique M; Bayliss, Kristen; Gill, Kathryn; O'Sullivan, Caitlin; Whitechurch, Marny

    2012-05-01

    The peripheral manifestations of the inherited neuropathies are increasingly well characterized, but their effects upon cranial nerve function are not well understood. Hearing loss is recognized in a minority of children with this condition, but has not previously been systemically studied. A clear understanding of the prevalence and degree of auditory difficulties in this population is important as hearing impairment can impact upon speech/language development, social interaction ability and educational progress. The aim of this study was to investigate auditory pathway function, speech perception ability and everyday listening and communication in a group of school-aged children with inherited neuropathies. Twenty-six children with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease confirmed by genetic testing and physical examination participated. Eighteen had demyelinating neuropathies (Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1) and eight had the axonal form (Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2). While each subject had normal or near-normal sound detection, individuals in both disease groups showed electrophysiological evidence of auditory neuropathy with delayed or low amplitude auditory brainstem responses. Auditory perception was also affected, with >60% of subjects with Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 and >85% of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2 suffering impaired processing of auditory temporal (timing) cues and/or abnormal speech understanding in everyday listening conditions.

  1. Social experience influences the development of a central auditory area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousillas, Hugo; George, Isabelle; Mathelier, Maryvonne; Richard, Jean-Pierre; Henry, Laurence; Hausberger, Martine

    2006-12-01

    Vocal communication develops under social influences that can enhance attention, an important factor in memory formation and perceptual tuning. In songbirds, social conditions can delay sensitive periods of development, overcome learning inhibitions and enable exceptional learning or induce selective learning. However, we do not know how social conditions influence auditory processing in the brain. In the present study, we raised young naive starlings under different social conditions but with the same auditory experience of adult songs, and we compared the effects of these different conditions on the development of the auditory cortex analogue. Several features appeared to be influenced by the social experience, among which the proportion of auditory neuronal sites and the neuronal selectivity. Both physical and social isolation from adult models altered the development of the auditory area in parallel to alterations in vocal development. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that social deprivation has as much influence on neuronal responsiveness as sensory deprivation.

  2. Social experience influences the development of a central auditory area.

    PubMed

    Cousillas, Hugo; George, Isabelle; Mathelier, Maryvonne; Richard, Jean-Pierre; Henry, Laurence; Hausberger, Martine

    2006-12-01

    Vocal communication develops under social influences that can enhance attention, an important factor in memory formation and perceptual tuning. In songbirds, social conditions can delay sensitive periods of development, overcome learning inhibitions and enable exceptional learning or induce selective learning. However, we do not know how social conditions influence auditory processing in the brain. In the present study, we raised young naive starlings under different social conditions but with the same auditory experience of adult songs, and we compared the effects of these different conditions on the development of the auditory cortex analogue. Several features appeared to be influenced by the social experience, among which the proportion of auditory neuronal sites and the neuronal selectivity. Both physical and social isolation from adult models altered the development of the auditory area in parallel to alterations in vocal development. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that social deprivation has as much influence on neuronal responsiveness as sensory deprivation.

  3. Effects of aging on peripheral and central auditory processing in rats.

    PubMed

    Costa, Margarida; Lepore, Franco; Prévost, François; Guillemot, Jean-Paul

    2016-08-01

    Hearing loss is a hallmark sign in the elderly population. Decline in auditory perception provokes deficits in the ability to localize sound sources and reduces speech perception, particularly in noise. In addition to a loss of peripheral hearing sensitivity, changes in more complex central structures have also been demonstrated. Related to these, this study examines the auditory directional maps in the deep layers of the superior colliculus of the rat. Hence, anesthetized Sprague-Dawley adult (10 months) and aged (22 months) rats underwent distortion product of otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) to assess cochlear function. Then, auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were assessed, followed by extracellular single-unit recordings to determine age-related effects on central auditory functions. DPOAE amplitude levels were decreased in aged rats although they were still present between 3.0 and 24.0 kHz. ABR level thresholds in aged rats were significantly elevated at an early (cochlear nucleus - wave II) stage in the auditory brainstem. In the superior colliculus, thresholds were increased and the tuning widths of the directional receptive fields were significantly wider. Moreover, no systematic directional spatial arrangement was present among the neurons of the aged rats, implying that the topographical organization of the auditory directional map was abolished. These results suggest that the deterioration of the auditory directional spatial map can, to some extent, be attributable to age-related dysfunction at more central, perceptual stages of auditory processing. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Hemispheric Lateralization of Bilaterally Presented Homologous Visual and Auditory Stimuli in Normal Adults, Normal Children, and Children with Central Auditory Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellis, Teri James; Billiet, Cassie; Ross, Jody

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the performance of normal adults, normal children, and children diagnosed with central auditory dysfunction presumed to involve the interhemispheric pathways on a dichotic digits test in common clinical use for the diagnosis of central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) and its corresponding visual…

  5. Hemispheric Lateralization of Bilaterally Presented Homologous Visual and Auditory Stimuli in Normal Adults, Normal Children, and Children with Central Auditory Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellis, Teri James; Billiet, Cassie; Ross, Jody

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the performance of normal adults, normal children, and children diagnosed with central auditory dysfunction presumed to involve the interhemispheric pathways on a dichotic digits test in common clinical use for the diagnosis of central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) and its corresponding visual…

  6. Central gain restores auditory processing following near-complete cochlear denervation

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Anna R.; Resnik, Jennifer; Yuan, Yasheng; Whitton, Jonathon P.; Edge, Albert S.; Liberman, M. Charles; Polley, Daniel B.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory organ damage induces a host of cellular and physiological changes in the periphery and the brain. Here, we show that some aspects of auditory processing recover after profound cochlear denervation due to a progressive, compensatory plasticity at higher stages of the central auditory pathway. Lesioning >95% of cochlear nerve afferent synapses, while sparing hair cells, in adult mice virtually eliminated the auditory brainstem response and acoustic startle reflex, yet tone detection behavior was nearly normal. As sound-evoked responses from the auditory nerve grew progressively weaker following denervation, sound-evoked activity in the cortex – and to a lesser extent the midbrain – rebounded or surpassed control levels. Increased central gain supported the recovery of rudimentary sound features encoded by firing rate, but not features encoded by precise spike timing such as modulated noise or speech. These findings underscore the importance of central plasticity in the perceptual sequelae of cochlear hearing impairment. PMID:26833137

  7. The influence of (central) auditory processing disorder in speech sound disorders.

    PubMed

    Barrozo, Tatiane Faria; Pagan-Neves, Luciana de Oliveira; Vilela, Nadia; Carvallo, Renata Mota Mamede; Wertzner, Haydée Fiszbein

    2016-01-01

    Considering the importance of auditory information for the acquisition and organization of phonological rules, the assessment of (central) auditory processing contributes to both the diagnosis and targeting of speech therapy in children with speech sound disorders. To study phonological measures and (central) auditory processing of children with speech sound disorder. Clinical and experimental study, with 21 subjects with speech sound disorder aged between 7.0 and 9.11 years, divided into two groups according to their (central) auditory processing disorder. The assessment comprised tests of phonology, speech inconsistency, and metalinguistic abilities. The group with (central) auditory processing disorder demonstrated greater severity of speech sound disorder. The cutoff value obtained for the process density index was the one that best characterized the occurrence of phonological processes for children above 7 years of age. The comparison among the tests evaluated between the two groups showed differences in some phonological and metalinguistic abilities. Children with an index value above 0.54 demonstrated strong tendencies towards presenting a (central) auditory processing disorder, and this measure was effective to indicate the need for evaluation in children with speech sound disorder. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of sleep deprivation on central auditory processing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sleep deprivation is extremely common in contemporary society, and is considered to be a frequent cause of behavioral disorders, mood, alertness, and cognitive performance. Although the impacts of sleep deprivation have been studied extensively in various experimental paradigms, very few studies have addressed the impact of sleep deprivation on central auditory processing (CAP). Therefore, we examined the impact of sleep deprivation on CAP, for which there is sparse information. In the present study, thirty healthy adult volunteers (17 females and 13 males, aged 30.75 ± 7.14 years) were subjected to a pure tone audiometry test, a speech recognition threshold test, a speech recognition task, the Staggered Spondaic Word Test (SSWT), and the Random Gap Detection Test (RGDT). Baseline (BSL) performance was compared to performance after 24 hours of being sleep deprived (24hSD) using the Student’s t test. Results Mean RGDT score was elevated in the 24hSD condition (8.0 ± 2.9 ms) relative to the BSL condition for the whole cohort (6.4 ± 2.8 ms; p = 0.0005), for males (p = 0.0066), and for females (p = 0.0208). Sleep deprivation reduced SSWT scores for the whole cohort in both ears [(right: BSL, 98.4 % ± 1.8 % vs. SD, 94.2 % ± 6.3 %. p = 0.0005)(left: BSL, 96.7 % ± 3.1 % vs. SD, 92.1 % ± 6.1 %, p < 0.0001)]. These effects were evident within both gender subgroups [(right: males, p = 0.0080; females, p = 0.0143)(left: males, p = 0.0076; females: p = 0.0010). Conclusion Sleep deprivation impairs RGDT and SSWT performance. These findings confirm that sleep deprivation has central effects that may impair performance in other areas of life. PMID:22823997

  9. Demonstration of prosthetic activation of central auditory pathways using ( sup 14 C)-2-deoxyglucose

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, D.A.; Niparko, J.K.; Altschuler, R.A.; Frey, K.A.; Miller, J.M. )

    1990-02-01

    The cochlear prosthesis is not applicable to patients who lack an implantable cochlea or an intact vestibulocochlear nerve. Direct electrical stimulation of the cochlear nucleus (CN) of the brain stem might provide a method for auditory rehabilitation of these patients. A penetrating CN electrode has been developed and tissue tolerance to this device demonstrated. This study was undertaken to evaluate metabolic activation of central nervous system (CNS) auditory tracts produced by such implants. Regional cerebral glucose use resulting from CN stimulation was estimated in a series of chronically implanted guinea pigs with the use of ({sup 14}C)-2-deoxyglucose (2-DG). Enhanced 2-DG uptake was observed in structures of the auditory tract. The activation of central auditory structures achieved with CN stimulation was similar to that produced by acoustic stimulation and by electrical stimulation of the modiolar portion of the auditory nerve in control groups. An interesting banding pattern was observed in the inferior colliculus following CN stimulation, as previously described with acoustic stimulation. This study demonstrates that functional metabolic activation of central auditory pathways can be achieved with a penetrating CNS auditory prosthesis.

  10. Designing auditory cues for Parkinson's disease gait rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Cancela, Jorge; Moreno, Eugenio M; Arredondo, Maria T; Bonato, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Recent works have proved that Parkinson's disease (PD) patients can be largely benefit by performing rehabilitation exercises based on audio cueing and music therapy. Specially, gait can benefit from repetitive sessions of exercises using auditory cues. Nevertheless, all the experiments are based on the use of a metronome as auditory stimuli. Within this work, Human-Computer Interaction methodologies have been used to design new cues that could benefit the long-term engagement of PD patients in these repetitive routines. The study has been also extended to commercial music and musical pieces by analyzing features and characteristics that could benefit the engagement of PD patients to rehabilitation tasks.

  11. Tonotopic and localized pathways from primary auditory cortex to the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Markovitz, Craig D.; Tang, Tien T.; Lim, Hubert H.

    2013-01-01

    Descending projections from the cortex to subcortical structures are critical for auditory plasticity, including the ability for central neurons to adjust their frequency tuning to relevant and meaningful stimuli. We show that focal electrical stimulation of primary auditory cortex in guinea pigs produces excitatory responses in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC) with two tonotopic patterns: a narrow tuned pattern that is consistent with previous findings showing direct frequency-aligned projections; and a broad tuned pattern in which the auditory cortex can influence multiple frequency regions. Moreover, excitatory responses could be elicited in the caudomedial portion along the isofrequency laminae of the CNIC but not in the rostrolateral portion. This descending organization may underlie or contribute to the ability of the auditory cortex to induce changes in frequency tuning of subcortical neurons as shown extensively in previous studies. PMID:23641201

  12. The Effect of Citalopram Versus a Placebo on Central Auditory Processing in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Polanski, Jose Fernando; Soares, Alexandra Dezani; Pereira, Liliane Desgualdo; Laercio de Mendonça Cruz, Oswaldo

    2017-10-01

    Evaluate the effects of therapy with citalopram on the central auditory processing in the elderly measured by central auditory tests. Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Tertiary referral center. Thirty-nine patients older than 60 years with normal hearing thresholds or symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss up to 70 dBHL, word-recognition score equal to or better than 70%, and diagnosed with central auditory processing disorders completed the study. They underwent the mini-mental state examination, as a way to screen those with the possibility of dementia; they also underwent the Beck depression inventory, for screening individuals with depression. Citalopram 20 mg/d or placebo for 6 months. The central auditory tests were applied to the selection of individuals with auditory processing disorders and repeated after 6 months' treatment. The tests were sound localization, speech in noise, dichotic digits test, pitch pattern sequence, duration pattern test, and gaps-in-noise. Comparisons of central auditory tests pre- and posttreatment in groups showed: sound localization (p = 0.022), pitch pattern sequence humming (p = 0.110), pitch pattern sequence nomination (p = 0.355), duration pattern test humming (p = 0.801), duration pattern test nomination (p = 0.614), and gaps-in-noise (p = 0.230). Dichotic tests in right and left ears respectively: speech in noise (p = 0.949; p = 0.722), dichotic digits test (p = 0.943; p = 0.513). There was no clinical effect with the use of citalopram in central auditory processing tests of the subjects.

  13. Morphometric changes in subcortical structures of the central auditory pathway in mice with bilateral nodular heterotopia.

    PubMed

    Truong, Dongnhu T; Rendall, Amanda R; Rosen, Glenn D; Fitch, R Holly

    2015-04-01

    Malformations of cortical development (MCD) have been observed in human reading and language impaired populations. Injury-induced MCD in rodent models of reading disability show morphological changes in the auditory thalamic nucleus (medial geniculate nucleus; MGN) and auditory processing impairments, thus suggesting a link between MCD, MGN, and auditory processing behavior. Previous neuroanatomical examination of a BXD29 recombinant inbred strain (BXD29-Tlr4(lps-2J)/J) revealed MCD consisting of bilateral subcortical nodular heterotopia with partial callosal agenesis. Subsequent behavioral characterization showed a severe impairment in auditory processing-a deficient behavioral phenotype seen across both male and female BXD29-Tlr4(lps-2J)/J mice. In the present study we expanded upon the neuroanatomical findings in the BXD29-Tlr4(lps-2J)/J mutant mouse by investigating whether subcortical changes in cellular morphology are present in neural structures critical to central auditory processing (MGN, and the ventral and dorsal subdivisions of the cochlear nucleus; VCN and DCN, respectively). Stereological assessment of brain tissue of male and female BXD29-Tlr4(lps-2J)/J mice previously tested on an auditory processing battery revealed overall smaller neurons in the MGN of BXD29-Tlr4(lps-2J)/J mutant mice in comparison to BXD29/Ty coisogenic controls, regardless of sex. Interestingly, examination of the VCN and DCN revealed sexually dimorphic changes in neuronal size, with a distribution shift toward larger neurons in female BXD29-Tlr4(lps-2J)/J brains. These effects were not seen in males. Together, the combined data set supports and further expands the observed co-occurrence of MCD, auditory processing impairments, and changes in subcortical anatomy of the central auditory pathway. The current stereological findings also highlight sex differences in neuroanatomical presentation in the presence of a common auditory behavioral phenotype. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B

  14. The Relationship between Central Auditory Processing, Language, and Cognition in Children Being Evaluated for Central Auditory Processing Disorder.

    PubMed

    Brenneman, Lauren; Cash, Elizabeth; Chermak, Gail D; Guenette, Linda; Masters, Gay; Musiek, Frank E; Brown, Mallory; Ceruti, Julianne; Fitzegerald, Krista; Geissler, Kristin; Gonzalez, Jennifer; Weihing, Jeffrey

    2017-09-01

    Pediatric central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) is frequently comorbid with other childhood disorders. However, few studies have examined the relationship between commonly used CAPD, language, and cognition tests within the same sample. The present study examined the relationship between diagnostic CAPD tests and "gold standard" measures of language and cognitive ability, the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). A retrospective study. Twenty-seven patients referred for CAPD testing who scored average or better on the CELF and low average or better on the WISC were initially included. Seven children who scored below the CELF and/or WISC inclusion criteria were then added to the dataset for a second analysis, yielding a sample size of 34. Participants were administered a CAPD battery that included at least the following three CAPD tests: Frequency Patterns (FP), Dichotic Digits (DD), and Competing Sentences (CS). In addition, they were administered the CELF and WISC. Relationships between scores on CAPD, language (CELF), and cognition (WISC) tests were examined using correlation analysis. DD and FP showed significant correlations with Full Scale Intelligence Quotient, and the DD left ear and the DD interaural difference measures both showed significant correlations with working memory. However, ∼80% or more of the variance in these CAPD tests was unexplained by language and cognition measures. Language and cognition measures were more strongly correlated with each other than were the CAPD tests with any CELF or WISC scale. Additional correlations with the CAPD tests were revealed when patients who scored in the mild-moderate deficit range on the CELF and/or in the borderline low intellectual functioning range on the WISC were included in the analysis. While both the DD and FP tests showed significant correlations with one or more cognition measures, the majority of the variance in these

  15. The effect of auditory memory load on intensity resolution in individuals with Parkinson's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Kelly C.

    Purpose: The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of auditory memory load on intensity resolution in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) as compared to two groups of listeners without PD. Methods: Nineteen individuals with Parkinson's disease, ten healthy age- and hearing-matched adults, and ten healthy young adults were studied. All listeners participated in two intensity discrimination tasks differing in auditory memory load; a lower memory load, 4IAX task and a higher memory load, ABX task. Intensity discrimination performance was assessed using a bias-free measurement of signal detectability known as d' (d-prime). Listeners further participated in a continuous loudness scaling task where they were instructed to rate the loudness level of each signal intensity using a computerized 150mm visual analogue scale. Results: Group discrimination functions indicated significantly lower intensity discrimination sensitivity (d') across tasks for the individuals with PD, as compared to the older and younger controls. No significant effect of aging on intensity discrimination was observed for either task. All three listeners groups demonstrated significantly lower intensity discrimination sensitivity for the higher auditory memory load, ABX task, compared to the lower auditory memory load, 4IAX task. Furthermore, a significant effect of aging was identified for the loudness scaling condition. The younger controls were found to rate most stimuli along the continuum as significantly louder than the older controls and the individuals with PD. Conclusions: The persons with PD showed evidence of impaired auditory perception for intensity information, as compared to the older and younger controls. The significant effect of aging on loudness perception may indicate peripheral and/or central auditory involvement.

  16. Hearing loss and the central auditory system: Implications for hearing aids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisina, Robert D.

    2003-04-01

    Hearing loss can result from disorders or damage to the ear (peripheral auditory system) or the brain (central auditory system). Here, the basic structure and function of the central auditory system will be highlighted as relevant to cases of permanent hearing loss where assistive devices (hearing aids) are called for. The parts of the brain used for hearing are altered in two basic ways in instances of hearing loss: (1) Damage to the ear can reduce the number and nature of input channels that the brainstem receives from the ear, causing plasticity of the central auditory system. This plasticity may partially compensate for the peripheral loss, or add new abnormalities such as distorted speech processing or tinnitus. (2) In some situations, damage to the brain can occur independently of the ear, as may occur in cases of head trauma, tumors or aging. Implications of deficits to the central auditory system for speech perception in noise, hearing aid use and future innovative circuit designs will be provided to set the stage for subsequent presentations in this special educational session. [Work supported by NIA-NIH Grant P01 AG09524 and the International Center for Hearing & Speech Research, Rochester, NY.

  17. Polarity-dependent transcranial direct current stimulation effects on central auditory processing.

    PubMed

    Ladeira, Andrea; Fregni, Felipe; Campanhã, Camila; Valasek, Cláudia Aparecida; De Ridder, Dirk; Brunoni, André Russwsky; Boggio, Paulo Sérgio

    2011-01-01

    Given the polarity dependent effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in facilitating or inhibiting neuronal processing, and tDCS effects on pitch perception, we tested the effects of tDCS on temporal aspects of auditory processing. We aimed to change baseline activity of the auditory cortex using tDCS as to modulate temporal aspects of auditory processing in healthy subjects without hearing impairment. Eleven subjects received 2mA bilateral anodal, cathodal and sham tDCS over auditory cortex in a randomized and counterbalanced order. Subjects were evaluated by the Random Gap Detection Test (RGDT), a test measuring temporal processing abilities in the auditory domain, before and during the stimulation. Statistical analysis revealed a significant interaction effect of time vs. tDCS condition for 4000 Hz and for clicks. Post-hoc tests showed significant differences according to stimulation polarity on RGDT performance: anodal improved 22.5% and cathodal decreased 54.5% subjects' performance, as compared to baseline. For clicks, anodal also increased performance in 29.4% when compared to baseline. tDCS presented polarity-dependent effects on the activity of the auditory cortex, which results in a positive or negative impact in a temporal resolution task performance. These results encourage further studies exploring tDCS in central auditory processing disorders.

  18. The correlation between central auditory processing in autistic children and their language processing abilities.

    PubMed

    Azouz, Hanan Galal; Kozou, Hesham; Khalil, Mona; Abdou, Rania M; Sakr, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    To study the auditory profile at different levels of the auditory system in children with ASD and to verify the role of (Central) auditory processing disorder as an essential pathology of the autistic disorder or as an associated co-morbidity, and to establish the correlation between CAP findings and the language delay in these cases. The study included 30 children with definite autistic disorder according to DSM-IV-TR criteria and ADI-R among those attending the outpatient neuropsychiatry clinic of Alexandria University Children Hospital at El Shatby. An informed consent was taken from all patients in this part of the study. Confidentiality of the records was maintained. All cases were subjected to complete history taking and examination; special assessment to language skills and evoked potentials were done. The results concluded that (central) auditory processing disorder is an essential pathology of the autistic disorder. Autistic children possess a dysfunctioning or an immature central auditory nervous system at both the brainstem and cortical levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Central auditory development after long-term cochlear implant use.

    PubMed

    Jiwani, Salima; Papsin, Blake C; Gordon, Karen A

    2013-09-01

    We aimed to determine whether long-term cortical auditory development is altered or delayed in children using cochlear implants relative to their normal hearing peers. We hypothesized that cortical development in children using unilateral cochlear implants follows a normal trajectory with long-term auditory input when the duration of bilateral auditory deprivation in childhood is limited. Electrically-evoked cortical responses were recorded in 79 children who received one cochlear implant within 2.03 ± 1.36 years of bilateral deafness and had up to ∼16 years of time-in-sound experience, and in 58 peers with normal hearing. Amplitude differences between the responses from children using cochlear implants and with normal hearing were calculated between 0 and 300 ms. Responses from cochlear implant users remain different from those of their normal hearing peers. These differences decreased over time, but were not eliminated even after 10 years of time-in-sound. Specifically, the P(1)-N(1)-P(2)-N(2) complex, typical of a normally mature response, began to emerge by 10 years of time-in-sound experience, but the amplitudes of peaks P(2) and N(2) became abnormally large. Mature-like cortical responses emerge in children after long-term unilateral cochlear implant use, however, differences from normal persist. Maturation of cortical responses with long-term cochlear implant use potentially underlies functional improvements in hearing. Persistent differences from normal could reflect an increase in attention or multi-sensory processing during listening. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Appearances are deceptive? Long-term cognitive and central auditory sequelae from closed head injury.

    PubMed

    Bergemalm, Per-Olof; Lyxell, Björn

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine possible signs of long-term cognitive and/or central auditory sequelae seven to eleven years after a closed head injury (CHI) of sufficient severity to cause scull fracture and/or brain contusion. Another purpose was that this investigation should be carried out in a group of recovered trauma victims with, to the individual, no known or minimal sequelae. A computer-based set of five cognitive tests and three central auditory tests were used in a group of formerly brain-injured patients who considered themselves as well recovered. Most of the participants did not report any signs of cognitive or auditory impairment. Tests of working memory capacity, verbal information processing speed, phonological processing and verbal inference-making ability were used. Auditory brain response (ABR), distorted speech audiometry (interrupted speech), and phase audiometry were used to test central auditory function. The initial severity of brain damage, i.e. status when the patient arrived at the emergency ward, was estimated with Swedish Reaction Level Scale (RLS). Cognitive shortcomings after CHI were demonstrated in a high percentage (59%, 13/22) of the cases seven to eleven years after the injury. Central auditory processing disorders (APD) were also demonstrated in a fairly high percentage (58%, 11/19) of the subjects. None of the correlations between RLS and the results on cognitive and central auditory tests reached statistical significance. However, there was a correlation between cognitive performance and the results on the central auditory tests used in this investigation. Eighty percent (8/10) of those participants with pathologies on ABR and/or phase audiometry and/or IS also failed on one or more of the cognitive tasks, compared to 44% (4/9) among those with no signs of APD. It is possible, many years after CHI, to observe cognitive shortcomings and APD in a relatively high percentage of CHI cases that are subjectively

  1. Performance of normal adults and children on central auditory diagnostic tests and their corresponding visual analogs.

    PubMed

    Bellis, Teri James; Ross, Jody

    2011-09-01

    It has been suggested that, in order to validate a diagnosis of (C)APD (central auditory processing disorder), testing using direct cross-modal analogs should be performed to demonstrate that deficits exist solely or primarily in the auditory modality (McFarland and Cacace, 1995; Cacace and McFarland, 2005). This modality-specific viewpoint is controversial and not universally accepted (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association [ASHA], 2005; Musiek et al, 2005). Further, no such analogs have been developed to date, and neither the feasibility of such testing in normally functioning individuals nor the concurrent validity of cross-modal analogs has been established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of cross-modal testing by examining the performance of normal adults and children on four tests of central auditory function and their corresponding visual analogs. In addition, this study investigated the degree to which concurrent validity of auditory and visual versions of these tests could be demonstrated. An experimental repeated measures design was employed. Participants consisted of two groups (adults, n=10; children, n=10) with normal and symmetrical hearing sensitivity, normal or corrected-to-normal visual acuity, and no family or personal history of auditory/otologic, language, learning, neurologic, or related disorders. Visual analogs of four tests in common clinical use for the diagnosis of (C)APD were developed (Dichotic Digits [Musiek, 1983]; Frequency Patterns [Pinheiro and Ptacek, 1971]; Duration Patterns [Pinheiro and Musiek, 1985]; and the Random Gap Detection Test [RGDT; Keith, 2000]). Participants underwent two 1 hr test sessions separated by at least 1 wk. Order of sessions (auditory, visual) and tests within each session were counterbalanced across participants. ANOVAs (analyses of variance) were used to examine effects of group, modality, and laterality (for the Dichotic/Dichoptic Digits tests) or response condition

  2. Proposed screening test for central auditory disorders: follow-up on the dichotic digits test.

    PubMed

    Musiek, F E; Gollegly, K M; Kibbe, K S; Verkest-Lenz, S B

    1991-03-01

    A follow-up report on the dichotic digits test (DDT) demonstrates that this procedure has good sensitivity to central auditory nervous system (CANS) pathology while remaining relatively resistant to mild-to-moderate high-frequency cochlear hearing loss. The DDT's test-retest reliability and short administration time make it an attractive screening procedure for CANS disorders.

  3. A Central Capacity Limit to the Simultaneous Storage of Visual and Auditory Arrays in Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saults, J. Scott; Cowan, Nelson

    2007-01-01

    If working memory is limited by central capacity (e.g., the focus of attention; N. Cowan, 2001), then storage limits for information in a single modality should apply also to the simultaneous storage of information from different modalities. The authors investigated this by combining a visual-array comparison task with a novel auditory-array…

  4. Readability of Questionnaires Assessing Listening Difficulties Associated with (Central) Auditory Processing Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atcherson, Samuel R.; Richburg, Cynthia M.; Zraick, Richard I.; George, Cassandra M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Eight English-language, student- or parent proxy-administered questionnaires for (central) auditory processing disorders, or (C)APD, were analyzed for readability. For student questionnaires, readability levels were checked against the approximate reading grade levels by intended administration age per the questionnaires' developers. For…

  5. Readability of Questionnaires Assessing Listening Difficulties Associated with (Central) Auditory Processing Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atcherson, Samuel R.; Richburg, Cynthia M.; Zraick, Richard I.; George, Cassandra M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Eight English-language, student- or parent proxy-administered questionnaires for (central) auditory processing disorders, or (C)APD, were analyzed for readability. For student questionnaires, readability levels were checked against the approximate reading grade levels by intended administration age per the questionnaires' developers. For…

  6. A Central Capacity Limit to the Simultaneous Storage of Visual and Auditory Arrays in Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Saults, J. Scott; Cowan, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    If working memory is limited by central capacity (e.g., the focus of attention; Cowan, 2001) then storage limits for information in a single modality should also apply to the simultaneous storage of information from different modalities. We investigated this by combining a visual-array comparison task with a novel auditory-array comparison task in five experiments. Participants were to remember only the visual or only the auditory arrays (unimodal memory conditions) or both arrays (bimodal memory conditions). Experiments 1-2 showed significant dual-task tradeoffs for visual but not auditory capacity. In Experiments 3-5, modality-specific memory was eliminated using post-perceptual masks. Dual-task costs occurred for both modalities and the number of auditory and visual items remembered together was no more than the higher of the unimodal capacities (visual, 3-4 items). The findings suggest a central capacity supplemented by modality- or code-specific storage and point to avenues for further research on the role of processing in central storage. PMID:17999578

  7. The representation of level and loudness in the central auditory system for unilateral stimulation.

    PubMed

    Behler, Oliver; Uppenkamp, Stefan

    2016-06-16

    Loudness is the perceptual correlate of the physical intensity of a sound. However, loudness judgments depend on a variety of other variables and can vary considerably between individual listeners. While functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been extensively used to characterize the neural representation of physical sound intensity in the human auditory system, only few studies have also investigated brain activity in relation to individual loudness. The physiological correlate of loudness perception is not yet fully understood. The present study systematically explored the interrelation of sound pressure level, ear of entry, individual loudness judgments, and fMRI activation along different stages of the central auditory system and across hemispheres for a group of normal hearing listeners. 4-kHz-bandpass filtered noise stimuli were presented monaurally to each ear at levels from 37 to 97dB SPL. One diotic condition and a silence condition were included as control conditions. The participants completed a categorical loudness scaling procedure with similar stimuli before auditory fMRI was performed. The relationship between brain activity, as inferred from blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrasts, and both sound level and loudness estimates were analyzed by means of functional activation maps and linear mixed effects models for various anatomically defined regions of interest in the ascending auditory pathway and in the cortex. Our findings are overall in line with the notion that fMRI activation in several regions within auditory cortex as well as in certain stages of the ascending auditory pathway might be more a direct linear reflection of perceived loudness rather than of sound pressure level. The results indicate distinct functional differences between midbrain and cortical areas as well as between specific regions within auditory cortex, suggesting a systematic hierarchy in terms of lateralization and the representation of level and

  8. Neural Hyperactivity of the Central Auditory System in Response to Peripheral Damage.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yi; Song, Qiang; Li, Xinyi; Li, Chunyan

    2016-01-01

    It is increasingly appreciated that cochlear pathology is accompanied by adaptive responses in the central auditory system. The cause of cochlear pathology varies widely, and it seems that few commonalities can be drawn. In fact, despite intricate internal neuroplasticity and diverse external symptoms, several classical injury models provide a feasible path to locate responses to different peripheral cochlear lesions. In these cases, hair cell damage may lead to considerable hyperactivity in the central auditory pathways, mediated by a reduction in inhibition, which may underlie some clinical symptoms associated with hearing loss, such as tinnitus. Homeostatic plasticity, the most discussed and acknowledged mechanism in recent years, is most likely responsible for excited central activity following cochlear damage.

  9. Optogenetic stimulation of the cochlear nucleus using channelrhodopsin-2 evokes activity in the central auditory pathway

    PubMed Central

    Darrow, Keith N.; Slama, Michaël C. C.; Owoc, Maryanna; Kozin, Elliott; Hancock, Kenneth; Kempfle, Judith; Edge, Albert; Lacour, Stephanie; Boyden, Edward; Polley, Daniel; Brown, M. Christian; Lee, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Optogenetics has become an important research tool and is being considered as the basis for several neural prostheses. However, few studies have applied optogenetics to the auditory brainstem. This study explored whether optical activation of the cochlear nucleus (CN) elicited responses in neurons in higher centers of the auditory pathway, and it measured the evoked response to optical stimulation. Viral-mediated gene transfer was used to express channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in the mouse CN. Blue light was delivered via an optical fiber placed near the surface of the infected CN and recordings were made in higher-level centers. Optical stimulation evoked excitatory multiunit spiking activity throughout the tonotopic axis of central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (IC) and the auditory cortex (Actx). The pattern and magnitude of IC activity elicited by optical stimulation was comparable to that obtained with a 50 dB SPL acoustic click stimulus. This broad pattern of activity was consistent with histological confirmation of GFP label of cell bodies and axons throughout the CN. Increasing pulse rates up to 320 Hz did not significantly affect threshold or bandwidth of the IC responses, but rates higher than 50 Hz resulted in desynchronized activity. Optical stimulation also evoked an auditory brainstem response, which had a simpler waveform than the response to acoustic stimulation. Control cases showed no responses to optical stimulation. These data suggest that optogenetic control of central auditory neurons is feasible, but opsins with faster channel kinetics will be necessary to convey information in rates typical of many auditory signals. PMID:25481416

  10. The influence of (central) auditory processing disorder on the severity of speech-sound disorders in children

    PubMed Central

    Vilela, Nadia; Barrozo, Tatiane Faria; de Oliveira Pagan-Neves, Luciana; Sanches, Seisse Gabriela Gandolfi; Wertzner, Haydée Fiszbein; Carvallo, Renata Mota Mamede

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify a cutoff value based on the Percentage of Consonants Correct-Revised index that could indicate the likelihood of a child with a speech-sound disorder also having a (central) auditory processing disorder. METHODS: Language, audiological and (central) auditory processing evaluations were administered. The participants were 27 subjects with speech-sound disorders aged 7 to 10 years and 11 months who were divided into two different groups according to their (central) auditory processing evaluation results. RESULTS: When a (central) auditory processing disorder was present in association with a speech disorder, the children tended to have lower scores on phonological assessments. A greater severity of speech disorder was related to a greater probability of the child having a (central) auditory processing disorder. The use of a cutoff value for the Percentage of Consonants Correct-Revised index successfully distinguished between children with and without a (central) auditory processing disorder. CONCLUSIONS : The severity of speech-sound disorder in children was influenced by the presence of (central) auditory processing disorder. The attempt to identify a cutoff value based on a severity index was successful. PMID:26934233

  11. [Advances in auditory function research of Meniere disease].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Liu, B

    2017-03-07

    Meniere disease is a unique, progressive disease of the inner ear. The complex manifestation presents diagnostic challenges. It is difficult to diagnose due to the absence of typical presentations especially in the early stages. The cochlear symptoms often present prior to vertigo and tend to be ignored. Therefore, focusing on the cochlear symptoms and functions may provide information for early diagnosis and may protect the patients from acquiring a hearing disability. This review focused on the pure-tone audiometry, glycerin test, distortion product otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem response, electrocochleogram, multifrequency tympanometry, and speech audiometry, which hopefully could emphasize the importance of the symptomatic and functional findings of cochlear, and be helpful in diagnosis for Meniere disease.

  12. Kangaroo rats exhibit spongiform degeneration of the central auditory system similar to that found in gerbils.

    PubMed

    McGinn, M D; Faddis, B T

    1997-02-01

    Kangaroo rats develop spongiform degeneration of the central auditory system similar to that seen in the gerbil. Light microscopic and transmission electron microscopic study of the cochlear nucleus and auditory nerve root (ANR) of Dipodomys deserti and D. merriami show that spongiform lesions develop in dendrites and oligodendrocytes of the cochlear nucleus and in oligodendrocytes of the ANR that are morphologically indistinguishable from those extensively described in the Mongolian gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus. As in Mongolian gerbils, the spongiform degeneration in Dipodomys were much more numerous in animals continually exposed to modest levels of low-frequency noise (< 75 dB SPL). The kangaroo rats with extensive spongiform degeneration also show slightly, but significantly, elevated auditory brainstem evoked response (ABR) thresholds to low-frequency stimuli, a result also found in Mongolian gerbils. These results suggest that the elevated ABR thresholds may be the result of spongiform degeneration. Because low-frequency noise-induced spongiform degeneration has now been shown in the cochlear nucleus of animals from separate families of Rodentia (Heteromyidae and Muridae), the possibility should be investigated that similar noise-induced degenerative changes occur in the central auditory system of other mammals with good low-frequency hearing.

  13. The relationship between brainstem temporal processing and performance on tests of central auditory function in children with reading disorders.

    PubMed

    Billiet, Cassandra R; Bellis, Teri James

    2011-02-01

    Studies using speech stimuli to elicit electrophysiologic responses have found approximately 30% of children with language-based learning problems demonstrate abnormal brainstem timing. Research is needed regarding how these responses relate to performance on behavioral tests of central auditory function. The purpose of the study was to investigate performance of children with dyslexia with and without abnormal brainstem timing and children with no history of learning or related disorders on behavioral tests of central auditory function. Performance of 30 school-age children on behavioral central auditory tests in common clinical use was examined: Group 1 (n = 10): dyslexia, abnormal brainstem timing; Group 2 (n = 10): dyslexia, normal brainstem timing; Group 3 (n = 10): typical controls. Results indicated that all participants in Group 2 met diagnostic criteria for (central) auditory processing disorder [(C)APD], whereas only 4 participants in Group 1 met criteria. The Biological Marker of Auditory Processing (BioMARK) identified 6 children in Group 1 who did not meet diagnostic criteria for (C)APD but displayed abnormal brainstem timing. Results underscore the importance of central auditory assessment for children with dyslexia. Furthermore, the BioMARK may be useful in identifying children with central auditory dysfunction who would not have been identified using behavioral methods of (C)APD assessment.

  14. Sensorineural hearing loss amplifies neural coding of envelope information in the central auditory system of chinchillas

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Ziwei; Henry, Kenneth S.; Heinz, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    People with sensorineural hearing loss often have substantial difficulty understanding speech under challenging listening conditions. Behavioral studies suggest that reduced sensitivity to the temporal structure of sound may be responsible, but underlying neurophysiological pathologies are incompletely understood. Here, we investigate the effects of noise-induced hearing loss on coding of envelope (ENV) structure in the central auditory system of anesthetized chinchillas. ENV coding was evaluated noninvasively using auditory evoked potentials recorded from the scalp surface in response to sinusoidally amplitude modulated tones with carrier frequencies of 1, 2, 4, and 8 kHz and a modulation frequency of 140 Hz. Stimuli were presented in quiet and in three levels of white background noise. The latency of scalp-recorded ENV responses was consistent with generation in the auditory midbrain. Hearing loss amplified neural coding of ENV at carrier frequencies of 2 kHz and above. This result may reflect enhanced ENV coding from the periphery and/or an increase in the gain of central auditory neurons. In contrast to expectations, hearing loss was not associated with a stronger adverse effect of increasing masker intensity on ENV coding. The exaggerated neural representation of ENV information shown here at the level of the auditory midbrain helps to explain previous findings of enhanced sensitivity to amplitude modulation in people with hearing loss under some conditions. Furthermore, amplified ENV coding may potentially contribute to speech perception problems in people with cochlear hearing loss by acting as a distraction from more salient acoustic cues, particularly in fluctuating backgrounds. PMID:24315815

  15. Sensorineural hearing loss amplifies neural coding of envelope information in the central auditory system of chinchillas.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ziwei; Henry, Kenneth S; Heinz, Michael G

    2014-03-01

    People with sensorineural hearing loss often have substantial difficulty understanding speech under challenging listening conditions. Behavioral studies suggest that reduced sensitivity to the temporal structure of sound may be responsible, but underlying neurophysiological pathologies are incompletely understood. Here, we investigate the effects of noise-induced hearing loss on coding of envelope (ENV) structure in the central auditory system of anesthetized chinchillas. ENV coding was evaluated noninvasively using auditory evoked potentials recorded from the scalp surface in response to sinusoidally amplitude modulated tones with carrier frequencies of 1, 2, 4, and 8 kHz and a modulation frequency of 140 Hz. Stimuli were presented in quiet and in three levels of white background noise. The latency of scalp-recorded ENV responses was consistent with generation in the auditory midbrain. Hearing loss amplified neural coding of ENV at carrier frequencies of 2 kHz and above. This result may reflect enhanced ENV coding from the periphery and/or an increase in the gain of central auditory neurons. In contrast to expectations, hearing loss was not associated with a stronger adverse effect of increasing masker intensity on ENV coding. The exaggerated neural representation of ENV information shown here at the level of the auditory midbrain helps to explain previous findings of enhanced sensitivity to amplitude modulation in people with hearing loss under some conditions. Furthermore, amplified ENV coding may potentially contribute to speech perception problems in people with cochlear hearing loss by acting as a distraction from more salient acoustic cues, particularly in fluctuating backgrounds.

  16. The role of event-related brain potentials in assessing central auditory processing.

    PubMed

    Alain, Claude; Tremblay, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    The perception of complex acoustic signals such as speech and music depends on the interaction between peripheral and central auditory processing. As information travels from the cochlea to primary and associative auditory cortices, the incoming sound is subjected to increasingly more detailed and refined analysis. These various levels of analyses are thought to include low-level automatic processes that detect, discriminate and group sounds that are similar in physical attributes such as frequency, intensity, and location as well as higher-level schema-driven processes that reflect listeners' experience and knowledge of the auditory environment. In this review, we describe studies that have used event-related brain potentials in investigating the processing of complex acoustic signals (e.g., speech, music). In particular, we examine the role of hearing loss on the neural representation of sound and how cognitive factors and learning can help compensate for perceptual difficulties. The notion of auditory scene analysis is used as a conceptual framework for interpreting and studying the perception of sound.

  17. Glycinergic Pathways of the Central Auditory System and Adjacent Reticular Formation of the Rat.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Chyren

    The development of techniques to visualize and identify specific transmitters of neuronal circuits has stimulated work on the characterization of pathways in the rat central nervous system that utilize the inhibitory amino acid glycine as its neurotransmitter. Glycine is a major inhibitory transmitter in the spinal cord and brainstem of vertebrates where it satisfies the major criteria for neurotransmitter action. Some of these characteristics are: uneven distribution in brain, high affinity reuptake mechanisms, inhibitory neurophysiological actions on certain neuronal populations, uneven receptor distribution and the specific antagonism of its actions by the convulsant alkaloid strychnine. Behaviorally, antagonism of glycinergic neurotransmission in the medullary reticular formation is linked to the development of myoclonus and seizures which may be initiated by auditory as well as other stimuli. In the present study, decreases in the concentration of glycine as well as the density of glycine receptors in the medulla with aging were found and may be responsible for the lowered threshold for strychnine seizures observed in older rats. Neuroanatomical pathways in the central auditory system and medullary and pontine reticular formation (RF) were investigated using retrograde transport of tritiated glycine to identify glycinergic pathways; immunohistochemical techniques were used to corroborate the location of glycine neurons. Within the central auditory system, retrograde transport studies using tritiated glycine demonstrated an ipsilateral glycinergic pathway linking nuclei of the ascending auditory system. This pathway has its cell bodies in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) and projects to the ventrocaudal division of the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (VLL). Collaterals of this glycinergic projection terminate in the ipsilateral lateral superior olive (LSO). Other glycinergic pathways found were afferent to the VLL and have their origin

  18. Noise Equally Degrades Central Auditory Processing in 2- and 4-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Niemitalo-Haapola, Elina; Haapala, Sini; Kujala, Teija; Raappana, Antti; Kujala, Tiia; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira

    2017-08-16

    The aim of this study was to investigate developmental and noise-induced changes in central auditory processing indexed by event-related potentials in typically developing children. P1, N2, and N4 responses as well as mismatch negativities (MMNs) were recorded for standard syllables and consonants, frequency, intensity, vowel, and vowel duration changes in silent and noisy conditions in the same 14 children at the ages of 2 and 4 years. The P1 and N2 latencies decreased and the N2, N4, and MMN amplitudes increased with development of the children. The amplitude changes were strongest at frontal electrodes. At both ages, background noise decreased the P1 amplitude, increased the N2 amplitude, and shortened the N4 latency. The noise-induced amplitude changes of P1, N2, and N4 were strongest frontally. Furthermore, background noise degraded the MMN. At both ages, MMN was significantly elicited only by the consonant change, and at the age of 4 years, also by the vowel duration change during noise. Developmental changes indexing maturation of central auditory processing were found from every response studied. Noise degraded sound encoding and echoic memory and impaired auditory discrimination at both ages. The older children were as vulnerable to the impact of noise as the younger children. https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5233939.

  19. Effect of caffeine on central auditory pathways: an evoked potential study.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Abhinav; Vaney, Neelam; Tandon, O P

    2006-10-01

    Caffeine is consumed in various forms like tea, coffee, chocolates and colas. The present study evaluated the effect of caffeine on auditory brainstem response (ABR), mid latency response (MLR) and slow vertex response (SVR) in 40 male volunteers. The recordings were done using a computerized evoked potential recorder by 10-20 electrode placement system. The subjects consumed 3mg/kg body weight of caffeine after 12h abstinence from caffeine in any form. The data obtained revealed that latencies of waves IV and V along with I-V interpeak interval of ABR decreased significantly. This was accompanied with significant increase in amplitude of wave V. MLR latencies and latency of P1 wave of SVR was significantly decreased following caffeine ingestion. The results indicated that caffeine improves transmission in the peripheral and central brain auditory pathways.

  20. Right cerebral hemisphere and central auditory processing in children with developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Murphy-Ruiz, Paulina C; Peñaloza-López, Yolanda R; García-Pedroza, Felipe; Poblano, Adrián

    2013-11-01

    We hypothesized that if the right hemisphere auditory processing abilities can be altered in children with developmental dyslexia (DD), we can detect dysfunction using specific tests. We performed an analytical comparative cross-sectional study. We studied 20 right-handed children with DD and 20 healthy right-handed control subjects (CS). Children in both groups were age, gender, and school-grade matched. Focusing on the right hemisphere's contribution, we utilized tests to measure alterations in central auditory processing (CAP), such as determination of frequency patterns; sound duration; music pitch recognition; and identification of environmental sounds. We compared results among the two groups. Children with DD showed lower performance than CS in all CAP subtests, including those that preferentially engaged the cerebral right hemisphere. Our data suggests a significant contribution of the right hemisphere in alterations of CAP in children with DD. Thus, right hemisphere CAP must be considered for examination and rehabilitation of children with DD.

  1. Influence of Acoustic Overstimulation on the Central Auditory System: An Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Study

    PubMed Central

    Wolak, Tomasz; Cieśla, Katarzyna; Rusiniak, Mateusz; Piłka, Adam; Lewandowska, Monika; Pluta, Agnieszka; Skarżyński, Henryk; Skarżyński, Piotr H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The goal of the fMRI experiment was to explore the involvement of central auditory structures in pathomechanisms of a behaviorally manifested auditory temporary threshold shift in humans. Material/Methods The material included 18 healthy volunteers with normal hearing. Subjects in the exposure group were presented with 15 min of binaural acoustic overstimulation of narrowband noise (3 kHz central frequency) at 95 dB(A). The control group was not exposed to noise but instead relaxed in silence. Auditory fMRI was performed in 1 session before and 3 sessions after acoustic overstimulation and involved 3.5–4.5 kHz sweeps. Results The outcomes of the study indicate a possible effect of acoustic overstimulation on central processing, with decreased brain responses to auditory stimulation up to 20 min after exposure to noise. The effect can be seen already in the primary auditory cortex. Decreased BOLD signal change can be due to increased excitation thresholds and/or increased spontaneous activity of auditory neurons throughout the auditory system. Conclusions The trial shows that fMRI can be a valuable tool in acoustic overstimulation studies but has to be used with caution and considered complimentary to audiological measures. Further methodological improvements are needed to distinguish the effects of TTS and neuronal habituation to repetitive stimulation. PMID:27893698

  2. Influence of Acoustic Overstimulation on the Central Auditory System: An Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Study.

    PubMed

    Wolak, Tomasz; Cieśla, Katarzyna; Rusiniak, Mateusz; Piłka, Adam; Lewandowska, Monika; Pluta, Agnieszka; Skarżyński, Henryk; Skarżyński, Piotr H

    2016-11-28

    BACKGROUND The goal of the fMRI experiment was to explore the involvement of central auditory structures in pathomechanisms of a behaviorally manifested auditory temporary threshold shift in humans. MATERIAL AND METHODS The material included 18 healthy volunteers with normal hearing. Subjects in the exposure group were presented with 15 min of binaural acoustic overstimulation of narrowband noise (3 kHz central frequency) at 95 dB(A). The control group was not exposed to noise but instead relaxed in silence. Auditory fMRI was performed in 1 session before and 3 sessions after acoustic overstimulation and involved 3.5-4.5 kHz sweeps. RESULTS The outcomes of the study indicate a possible effect of acoustic overstimulation on central processing, with decreased brain responses to auditory stimulation up to 20 min after exposure to noise. The effect can be seen already in the primary auditory cortex. Decreased BOLD signal change can be due to increased excitation thresholds and/or increased spontaneous activity of auditory neurons throughout the auditory system. CONCLUSIONS The trial shows that fMRI can be a valuable tool in acoustic overstimulation studies but has to be used with caution and considered complimentary to audiological measures. Further methodological improvements are needed to distinguish the effects of TTS and neuronal habituation to repetitive stimulation.

  3. Mutation of Npr2 Leads to Blurred Tonotopic Organization of Central Auditory Circuits in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Cindy C.; Cao, Xiao-Jie; Wright, Samantha; Ma, Le; Oertel, Donata; Goodrich, Lisa V.

    2014-01-01

    Tonotopy is a fundamental organizational feature of the auditory system. Sounds are encoded by the spatial and temporal patterns of electrical activity in spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) and are transmitted via tonotopically ordered processes from the cochlea through the eighth nerve to the cochlear nuclei. Upon reaching the brainstem, SGN axons bifurcate in a stereotyped pattern, innervating target neurons in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (aVCN) with one branch and in the posteroventral and dorsal cochlear nuclei (pVCN and DCN) with the other. Each branch is tonotopically organized, thereby distributing acoustic information systematically along multiple parallel pathways for processing in the brainstem. In mice with a mutation in the receptor guanylyl cyclase Npr2, this spatial organization is disrupted. Peripheral SGN processes appear normal, but central SGN processes fail to bifurcate and are disorganized as they exit the auditory nerve. Within the cochlear nuclei, the tonotopic organization of the SGN terminal arbors is blurred and the aVCN is underinnervated with a reduced convergence of SGN inputs onto target neurons. The tonotopy of circuitry within the cochlear nuclei is also degraded, as revealed by changes in the topographic mapping of tuberculoventral cell projections from DCN to VCN. Nonetheless, Npr2 mutant SGN axons are able to transmit acoustic information with normal sensitivity and timing, as revealed by auditory brainstem responses and electrophysiological recordings from VCN neurons. Although most features of signal transmission are normal, intermittent failures were observed in responses to trains of shocks, likely due to a failure in action potential conduction at branch points in Npr2 mutant afferent fibers. Our results show that Npr2 is necessary for the precise spatial organization typical of central auditory circuits, but that signals are still transmitted with normal timing, and that mutant mice can hear even with these deficits. PMID

  4. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of sound pressure level encoding in the rat central auditory system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jevin W; Lau, Condon; Cheng, Joe S; Xing, Kyle K; Zhou, Iris Y; Cheung, Matthew M; Wu, Ed X

    2013-01-15

    Intensity is an important physical property of a sound wave and is customarily reported as sound pressure level (SPL). Invasive techniques such as electrical recordings, which typically examine one brain region at a time, have been used to study neuronal encoding of SPL throughout the central auditory system. Non-invasive functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with large field of view can simultaneously examine multiple auditory structures. We applied fMRI to measure the hemodynamic responses in the rat brain during sound stimulation at seven SPLs over a 72 dB range. This study used a sparse temporal sampling paradigm to reduce the adverse effects of scanner noise. Hemodynamic responses were measured from the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CIC), external cortex of the inferior colliculus (ECIC), lateral lemniscus (LL), medial geniculate body (MGB), and auditory cortex (AC). BOLD signal changes generally increase significantly (p<0.001) with SPL and the dependence is monotonic in CIC, ECIC, and LL. The ECIC has higher BOLD signal change than CIC and LL at high SPLs. The difference between BOLD signal changes at high and low SPLs is less in the MGB and AC. This suggests that the SPL dependences of the LL and IC are different from those in the MGB and AC and the SPL dependence of the CIC is different from that of the ECIC. These observations are likely related to earlier observations that neurons with firing rates that increase monotonically with SPL are dominant in the CIC, ECIC, and LL while non-monotonic neurons are dominant in the MGB and AC. Further, the IC's SPL dependence measured in this study is very similar to that measured in our earlier study using the continuous imaging method. Therefore, sparse temporal sampling may not be a prerequisite in auditory fMRI studies of the IC.

  5. Mutation of Npr2 leads to blurred tonotopic organization of central auditory circuits in mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Cindy C; Cao, Xiao-Jie; Wright, Samantha; Ma, Le; Oertel, Donata; Goodrich, Lisa V

    2014-12-01

    Tonotopy is a fundamental organizational feature of the auditory system. Sounds are encoded by the spatial and temporal patterns of electrical activity in spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) and are transmitted via tonotopically ordered processes from the cochlea through the eighth nerve to the cochlear nuclei. Upon reaching the brainstem, SGN axons bifurcate in a stereotyped pattern, innervating target neurons in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (aVCN) with one branch and in the posteroventral and dorsal cochlear nuclei (pVCN and DCN) with the other. Each branch is tonotopically organized, thereby distributing acoustic information systematically along multiple parallel pathways for processing in the brainstem. In mice with a mutation in the receptor guanylyl cyclase Npr2, this spatial organization is disrupted. Peripheral SGN processes appear normal, but central SGN processes fail to bifurcate and are disorganized as they exit the auditory nerve. Within the cochlear nuclei, the tonotopic organization of the SGN terminal arbors is blurred and the aVCN is underinnervated with a reduced convergence of SGN inputs onto target neurons. The tonotopy of circuitry within the cochlear nuclei is also degraded, as revealed by changes in the topographic mapping of tuberculoventral cell projections from DCN to VCN. Nonetheless, Npr2 mutant SGN axons are able to transmit acoustic information with normal sensitivity and timing, as revealed by auditory brainstem responses and electrophysiological recordings from VCN neurons. Although most features of signal transmission are normal, intermittent failures were observed in responses to trains of shocks, likely due to a failure in action potential conduction at branch points in Npr2 mutant afferent fibers. Our results show that Npr2 is necessary for the precise spatial organization typical of central auditory circuits, but that signals are still transmitted with normal timing, and that mutant mice can hear even with these deficits.

  6. Impact of Different Cutoff Criteria on Rate of (Central) Auditory Processing Disorders Diagnosis Using the Central Test Battery

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Mohsin Ahmed; Fox-Thomas, Lisa; Tucker, Denise

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify how the use of two different cutoff criteria affects the test failure rate and potential diagnosis of central auditory processing disorder ([C]APD) in a sample of children subjected to central auditory processing ([C]AP) assessment. Test failure rates for the central test battery (CTB) using two different cutoff criteria (1 and 2 SDs below the mean) were measured retrospectively for 98 children who completed (C)AP assessment. The rates of potential (C)APD diagnosis ranged from 86.8% [when a 1 standard deviation (SD) cutoff was used] to 66.2% (when a 2 SD cutoff was used). The current use of two different cutoffs for the CTB has a large impact on the diagnostic rate for (C)APD. These findings have clinical implications for the diagnosis of (C)APD due to the widespread use of the CTB in the United States for the assessment of (C)APD in children. Thus, it is important to create awareness among audiologists that use of the 2 SDs cutoff criterion is recommended for reducing false positives (error). PMID:27942373

  7. Hearing the light: neural and perceptual encoding of optogenetic stimulation in the central auditory pathway

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wei; Hight, Ariel E.; Chen, Jenny X.; Klapoetke, Nathan C.; Hancock, Kenneth E.; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.; Boyden, Edward S.; Lee, Daniel J.; Polley, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    Optogenetics provides a means to dissect the organization and function of neural circuits. Optogenetics also offers the translational promise of restoring sensation, enabling movement or supplanting abnormal activity patterns in pathological brain circuits. However, the inherent sluggishness of evoked photocurrents in conventional channelrhodopsins has hampered the development of optoprostheses that adequately mimic the rate and timing of natural spike patterning. Here, we explore the feasibility and limitations of a central auditory optoprosthesis by photoactivating mouse auditory midbrain neurons that either express channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) or Chronos, a channelrhodopsin with ultra-fast channel kinetics. Chronos-mediated spike fidelity surpassed ChR2 and natural acoustic stimulation to support a superior code for the detection and discrimination of rapid pulse trains. Interestingly, this midbrain coding advantage did not translate to a perceptual advantage, as behavioral detection of midbrain activation was equivalent with both opsins. Auditory cortex recordings revealed that the precisely synchronized midbrain responses had been converted to a simplified rate code that was indistinguishable between opsins and less robust overall than acoustic stimulation. These findings demonstrate the temporal coding benefits that can be realized with next-generation channelrhodopsins, but also highlight the challenge of inducing variegated patterns of forebrain spiking activity that support adaptive perception and behavior. PMID:26000557

  8. Inhalation of Hydrocarbon Jet Fuel Suppress Central Auditory Nervous System Function.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, O'neil W; Wong, Brian A; McInturf, Shawn M; Reboulet, James E; Ortiz, Pedro A; Mattie, David R

    2015-01-01

    More than 800 million L/d of hydrocarbon fuels is used to power cars, boats, and jet airplanes. The weekly consumption of these fuels necessarily puts the public at risk for repeated inhalation exposure. Recent studies showed that exposure to hydrocarbon jet fuel produces lethality in presynaptic sensory cells, leading to hearing loss, especially in the presence of noise. However, the effects of hydrocarbon jet fuel on the central auditory nervous system (CANS) have not received much attention. It is important to investigate the effects of hydrocarbons on the CANS in order to complete current knowledge regarding the ototoxic profile of such exposures. The objective of the current study was to determine whether inhalation exposure to hydrocarbon jet fuel might affect the functions of the CANS. Male Fischer 344 rats were randomly divided into four groups (control, noise, fuel, and fuel + noise). The structural and functional integrity of presynaptic sensory cells was determined in each group. Neurotransmission in both peripheral and central auditory pathways was simultaneously evaluated in order to identify and differentiate between peripheral and central dysfunctions. There were no detectable effects on pre- and postsynaptic peripheral functions. However, the responsiveness of the brain was significantly depressed and neural transmission time was markedly delayed. The development of CANS dysfunctions in the general public and the military due to cumulative exposure to hydrocarbon fuels may represent a significant but currently unrecognized public health issue.

  9. Otoacoustic Emissions (Part I) and central auditory effects: A moderated discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Wei; Verhulst, Sarah

    2015-12-01

    The following is an edited transcript of a recorded discussion session on the topics of "Otoacoustic Emissions" and "Central Auditory Effects". The discussion, moderated by the authors, took place at the 12th International Workshop on the Mechanics of Hearing held at Cape Sounio, Greece, in June 2014. All participants knew that the session was being recorded. In view of both the spontaneous nature of the discussion and the editing, however, this transcript may not represent the considered or final views of the participants, and may not represent a consensus of experts in the field. The reader is advised to consult additional independent publications.

  10. Atypical central auditory speech-sound discrimination in children who stutter as indexed by the mismatch negativity.

    PubMed

    Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira; Eggers, Kurt; Järvenpää, Anu; Suominen, Kalervo; Van den Bergh, Bea; De Nil, Luc; Kujala, Teija

    2014-09-01

    Recent theoretical conceptualizations suggest that disfluencies in stuttering may arise from several factors, one of them being atypical auditory processing. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate whether speech sound encoding and central auditory discrimination, are affected in children who stutter (CWS). Participants were 10 CWS, and 12 typically developing children with fluent speech (TDC). Event-related potentials (ERPs) for syllables and syllable changes [consonant, vowel, vowel-duration, frequency (F0), and intensity changes], critical in speech perception and language development of CWS were compared to those of TDC. There were no significant group differences in the amplitudes or latencies of the P1 or N2 responses elicited by the standard stimuli. However, the Mismatch Negativity (MMN) amplitude was significantly smaller in CWS than in TDC. For TDC all deviants of the linguistic multifeature paradigm elicited significant MMN amplitudes, comparable with the results found earlier with the same paradigm in 6-year-old children. In contrast, only the duration change elicited a significant MMN in CWS. The results showed that central auditory speech-sound processing was typical at the level of sound encoding in CWS. In contrast, central speech-sound discrimination, as indexed by the MMN for multiple sound features (both phonetic and prosodic), was atypical in the group of CWS. Findings were linked to existing conceptualizations on stuttering etiology. The reader will be able (a) to describe recent findings on central auditory speech-sound processing in individuals who stutter, (b) to describe the measurement of auditory reception and central auditory speech-sound discrimination, (c) to describe the findings of central auditory speech-sound discrimination, as indexed by the mismatch negativity (MMN), in children who stutter. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Central Auditory Processing of Temporal and Spectral-Variance Cues in Cochlear Implant Listeners

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Carol Q.; Bremen, Peter; Shen, Weidong; Yang, Shi-Ming; Middlebrooks, John C.; Zeng, Fan-Gang; Mc Laughlin, Myles

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) listeners have difficulty understanding speech in complex listening environments. This deficit is thought to be largely due to peripheral encoding problems arising from current spread, which results in wide peripheral filters. In normal hearing (NH) listeners, central processing contributes to segregation of speech from competing sounds. We tested the hypothesis that basic central processing abilities are retained in post-lingually deaf CI listeners, but processing is hampered by degraded input from the periphery. In eight CI listeners, we measured auditory nerve compound action potentials to characterize peripheral filters. Then, we measured psychophysical detection thresholds in the presence of multi-electrode maskers placed either inside (peripheral masking) or outside (central masking) the peripheral filter. This was intended to distinguish peripheral from central contributions to signal detection. Introduction of temporal asynchrony between the signal and masker improved signal detection in both peripheral and central masking conditions for all CI listeners. Randomly varying components of the masker created spectral-variance cues, which seemed to benefit only two out of eight CI listeners. Contrastingly, the spectral-variance cues improved signal detection in all five NH listeners who listened to our CI simulation. Together these results indicate that widened peripheral filters significantly hamper central processing of spectral-variance cues but not of temporal cues in post-lingually deaf CI listeners. As indicated by two CI listeners in our study, however, post-lingually deaf CI listeners may retain some central processing abilities similar to NH listeners. PMID:26176553

  12. Loss of auditory sensitivity from inner hair cell synaptopathy can be centrally compensated in the young but not old brain.

    PubMed

    Möhrle, Dorit; Ni, Kun; Varakina, Ksenya; Bing, Dan; Lee, Sze Chim; Zimmermann, Ulrike; Knipper, Marlies; Rüttiger, Lukas

    2016-08-01

    A dramatic shift in societal demographics will lead to rapid growth in the number of older people with hearing deficits. Poorer performance in suprathreshold speech understanding and temporal processing with age has been previously linked with progressing inner hair cell (IHC) synaptopathy that precedes age-dependent elevation of auditory thresholds. We compared central sound responsiveness after acoustic trauma in young, middle-aged, and older rats. We demonstrate that IHC synaptopathy progresses from middle age onward and hearing threshold becomes elevated from old age onward. Interestingly, middle-aged animals could centrally compensate for the loss of auditory fiber activity through an increase in late auditory brainstem responses (late auditory brainstem response wave) linked to shortening of central response latencies. In contrast, old animals failed to restore central responsiveness, which correlated with reduced temporal resolution in responding to amplitude changes. These findings may suggest that cochlear IHC synaptopathy with age does not necessarily induce temporal auditory coding deficits, as long as the capacity to generate neuronal gain maintains normal sound-induced central amplitudes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Inadequate inhibition of redundant auditory inputs in Alzheimer's disease: an MEG study.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Wang, Pei-Ning; Hsu, Wan-Yu; Lin, Yung-Yang

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to characterize the cortical deficits in processing auditory inputs in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The magnetic counterparts of P50 (M50) and mismatch negativity (MMNm) during a passive oddball paradigm were analyzed with equivalent current dipole modeling. The results showed larger cortical activation of standard-evoked M50 in AD patients compared to young and elderly controls. In contrast, smaller amplitudes and longer peak latencies were found in the MMNm of the elderly and AD patients compared with young adults. The MMNm latency was longer in AD patients than in elderly controls. A Spearman correlation test showed an inverse correlation between the cortical strengths of M50 and MMNm in the right hemisphere. In conclusion, age-related changes in the M50 and MMNm components, which may reflect deficits in central auditory processing, are discussed, along with the possibility that increased M50 responses are related to decreased inhibition of redundant inputs in mild AD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Educational evaluation. The first step toward understanding and remediation of central auditory disorders.

    PubMed

    Knapp, R M

    1985-05-01

    Of all the problems experienced by children with learning disabilities, a language disorder may be the most detrimental to school performance. Because the problems of a child with a language disorder are frequently not recognized until he begins school, it is important that the educational clinician, teacher, related professional, and parents understand what a central auditory disorder is, that it may manifest itself as language disorder, and the way it can academically and emotionally affect a child. Evaluation and identification of a child with a central auditory disorder is vital at an early stage of development; however, testing, while it appears simple, is an extremely complex process and is not always exact. Therefore, the educational clinician must be skilled and understand the frailties which exist in the test instrument and the testing situation. It must be remembered, also, that testing in only part of the diagnostic procedure. Organized, perceptive classroom observations are essential. These must be followed by multidisciplinary meetings that generate remedial procedures and directions to be taken by parents and teachers. Finally, parents must be accepted by professionals as reasonable, concerned, and able to offer knowledgeable insight into their child's learning problems. If a language disorder is suspected, professional help should be sought immediately. Truth is better than fiction or fantasy in helping a child become a happy, adjusted, productive human being.

  15. Hemispheric lateralization of bilaterally presented homologous visual and auditory stimuli in normal adults, normal children, and children with central auditory dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bellis, Teri James; Billiet, Cassie; Ross, Jody

    2008-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the performance of normal adults, normal children, and children diagnosed with central auditory dysfunction presumed to involve the interhemispheric pathways on a dichotic digits test in common clinical use for the diagnosis of central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) and its corresponding visual analog. Results of the first experiment revealed a significant right ear advantage (REA) for the dichotic listening task and a left-visual-field advantage (LVFA) for the corresponding visual analog in normal adults and children. In the second experiment, results revealed a significantly larger REA in the children with CAPD as compared to the normal children. Results also revealed a reversed cerebral asymmetry (RVFA) for the children with CAPD on the visual task. Significant cross-modal correlations suggest that the two tasks may reflect, at least in part, similar interhemispheric processing mechanisms in children. Findings are discussed in relation to differential diagnosis and modality-specificity of CAPD.

  16. [Manganese enhanced magnetic resonance imaging investigation in the central auditory pathway of the cat].

    PubMed

    Li, T; Zeng, R; Wang, X X; Xian, J F

    2016-04-19

    To compare enhancement of the central auditory pathway in cats receiving auditory stimulation between manganese enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) with intraperitoneal manganese injection route and MEMRI with intratympanic manganese injection route, and investigate the optimal method for displaying enhancement of the central auditory pathway. Twenty-seven normal hearing adult cats were randomly divided into three groups, receiving intraperitoneal manganese injection, left intratympanic manganese injection or left intratympanic gadolinium injection respectively.All cats received white noise stimulation of 80 dB in twenty-four hours after injection.Three dimensionally coronal T1-weighted imaging of the cat brain was obtained with an animal dedicated MRI scanner.The signal noise ratios (SNRs) of bilateral cochlear nuclei (CN), dorsal nuclei of the trapezoid bodies (DNTB), caudal colliculi (CC) and auditory cortices (AC) were measured on reconstructed images and compared. Obvious increased SNRs on both sides were shown in intraperitoneal mangasese injection group while left predilection was shown in intratympanic manganese injection group: left CN 45.7±6.0, 37.4±11.9, 23.9±2.7, F=17.694, P=0.000; left DNTB 50.5±11.2, 37.1±11.2, 27.6±7.3, F=11.781, P=0.000; left CC 37.6±3.9, 22.6±3.1, 17.9±0.7, F=111.898, P=0.000; left AC 27.7±2.5, 17.3±2.3, 14.5±1.0, F=105.132, P=0.000; right CN 42.7±8.3, 23.9±3.0, 22.7±2.1, F=41.492, P=0.000; right DNTB 44.1±8.3, 21.9±3.0, 23.9±4.0, F=27.862, P=0.000; right CC 38.0±4.0, 21.9±3.0, 17.6±0.9, F=120.032, P=0.000; right AC 26.7±3.4, 17.1±2.9, 14.9±1.3, F=64.587, P=0.000.Compared with the left intratympanic gadolinium injection group, the intraperitoneal manganese injection group showed higher SNRs in bilateral CN and CC (P<0.05), and the left intratympanic manganese injection group showed higher SNRs in left CN, AC and bilateral CC.The SNRs of right CN, bilateral DNTB, CC and AC were significantly higher in

  17. Results from a National Central Auditory Processing Disorder Service: A Real-World Assessment of Diagnostic Practices and Remediation for Central Auditory Processing Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Sharon; Glyde, Helen; Dillon, Harvey; King, Alison; Gillies, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of a national service to diagnose and remediate central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). Data were gathered from 38 participating Australian Hearing centers over an 18-month period from 666 individuals age 6, 0 (years, months) to 24, 8 (median 9, 0). A total of 408 clients were diagnosed with either a spatial processing disorder (n = 130), a verbal memory deficit (n = 174), or a binaural integration deficit (n = 104). A hierarchical test protocol was used so not all children were assessed on all tests in the battery. One hundred fifty clients decided to proceed with deficit-specific training (LiSN & Learn or Memory Booster) and/or be fitted with a frequency modulation system. Families were provided with communication strategies targeted to a child's specific listening difficulties and goals. Outcomes were measured using repeat assessment of the relevant diagnostic test, as well as the Client Oriented Scale of Improvement measure and Listening Inventories for Education teacher questionnaire. Group analyses revealed significant improvements postremediation for all training/management options. Individual posttraining performance and results of outcome measures also are discussed. PMID:27587910

  18. Catecholaminergic Innervation of Central and Peripheral Auditory Circuitry Varies with Reproductive State in Female Midshipman Fish, Porichthys notatus

    PubMed Central

    Forlano, Paul M.; Ghahramani, Zachary N.; Monestime, Camillia M.; Kurochkin, Philip; Chernenko, Alena; Milkis, Dmitriy

    2015-01-01

    In seasonal breeding vertebrates, hormone regulation of catecholamines, which include dopamine and noradrenaline, may function, in part, to modulate behavioral responses to conspecific vocalizations. However, natural seasonal changes in catecholamine innervation of auditory nuclei is largely unexplored, especially in the peripheral auditory system, where encoding of social acoustic stimuli is initiated. The plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, has proven to be an excellent model to explore mechanisms underlying seasonal peripheral auditory plasticity related to reproductive social behavior. Recently, we demonstrated robust catecholaminergic (CA) innervation throughout the auditory system in midshipman. Most notably, dopaminergic neurons in the diencephalon have widespread projections to auditory circuitry including direct innervation of the saccule, the main endorgan of hearing, and the cholinergic octavolateralis efferent nucleus (OE) which also projects to the inner ear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that gravid, reproductive summer females show differential CA innervation of the auditory system compared to non-reproductive winter females. We utilized quantitative immunofluorescence to measure tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH-ir) fiber density throughout central auditory nuclei and the sensory epithelium of the saccule. Reproductive females exhibited greater density of TH-ir innervation in two forebrain areas including the auditory thalamus and greater density of TH-ir on somata and dendrites of the OE. In contrast, non-reproductive females had greater numbers of TH-ir terminals in the saccule and greater TH-ir fiber density in a region of the auditory hindbrain as well as greater numbers of TH-ir neurons in the preoptic area. These data provide evidence that catecholamines may function, in part, to seasonally modulate the sensitivity of the inner ear and, in turn, the appropriate behavioral response to reproductive acoustic signals. PMID

  19. Catecholaminergic innervation of central and peripheral auditory circuitry varies with reproductive state in female midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus.

    PubMed

    Forlano, Paul M; Ghahramani, Zachary N; Monestime, Camillia M; Kurochkin, Philip; Chernenko, Alena; Milkis, Dmitriy

    2015-01-01

    In seasonal breeding vertebrates, hormone regulation of catecholamines, which include dopamine and noradrenaline, may function, in part, to modulate behavioral responses to conspecific vocalizations. However, natural seasonal changes in catecholamine innervation of auditory nuclei is largely unexplored, especially in the peripheral auditory system, where encoding of social acoustic stimuli is initiated. The plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, has proven to be an excellent model to explore mechanisms underlying seasonal peripheral auditory plasticity related to reproductive social behavior. Recently, we demonstrated robust catecholaminergic (CA) innervation throughout the auditory system in midshipman. Most notably, dopaminergic neurons in the diencephalon have widespread projections to auditory circuitry including direct innervation of the saccule, the main endorgan of hearing, and the cholinergic octavolateralis efferent nucleus (OE) which also projects to the inner ear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that gravid, reproductive summer females show differential CA innervation of the auditory system compared to non-reproductive winter females. We utilized quantitative immunofluorescence to measure tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH-ir) fiber density throughout central auditory nuclei and the sensory epithelium of the saccule. Reproductive females exhibited greater density of TH-ir innervation in two forebrain areas including the auditory thalamus and greater density of TH-ir on somata and dendrites of the OE. In contrast, non-reproductive females had greater numbers of TH-ir terminals in the saccule and greater TH-ir fiber density in a region of the auditory hindbrain as well as greater numbers of TH-ir neurons in the preoptic area. These data provide evidence that catecholamines may function, in part, to seasonally modulate the sensitivity of the inner ear and, in turn, the appropriate behavioral response to reproductive acoustic signals.

  20. Relationship between auditory thresholds, central spontaneous activity and hair cell loss after acoustic trauma

    PubMed Central

    Mulders, W.H.A.M.; Ding, D.; Salvi, R.; Robertson, D.

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic trauma caused by exposure to a very loud sound increases spontaneous activity in central auditory structures such as the inferior colliculus. This hyperactivity has been suggested as a neural substrate for tinnitus, a phantom hearing sensation. In previous studies we have described a tentative link between the frequency region of hearing impairment and the corresponding tonotopic regions in the inferior colliculus showing hyperactivity. In this study we further investigated the relationship between cochlear compound action potential threshold loss, cochlear outer and inner hair cell loss and central hyperactivity in inferior colliculus of guinea pigs. Two weeks after a 10 kHz pure tone acoustic trauma, a tight relationship was demonstrated between the frequency region of compound action potential threshold loss and frequency regions in the inferior colliculus showing hyperactivity. Extending the duration of the acoustic trauma from 1 to 2 h did not result in significant increases in final cochlear threshold loss, but did result in a further increase of spontaneous firing rates in the inferior colliculus. Interestingly, hair cell loss was not present in the frequency regions where elevated cochlear thresholds and central hyperactivity were measured, suggesting that subtle changes in hair cell or primary afferent neural function are sufficient for central hyperactivity to be triggered and maintained. PMID:21491427

  1. Relationship between central auditory processing and reading skills: preliminary observations in Hebrew speaking children.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Mimran, Ravit; Sapir, Shimon

    2008-01-01

    To assess the relationships between central auditory processing (CAP) of sinusoidally modulated speech-like and non-speech acoustic signals and reading skills in shallow (pointed) and deep (unpointed) Hebrew orthographies. Twenty unselected fifth-grade Hebrew speakers performed a rate change detection (RCD) task using the aforementioned acoustic signals. They also performed reading and general ability (IQ) tests. After controlling for general ability, RCD tasks contributed a significant unique variance to the decoding skills. In addition, there was a fairly strong correlation between the score on the RCD with the speech-like stimuli and the unpointed text reading score. CAP abilities may affect reading skills, depending on the nature of orthography (deep vs shallow), at least in the Hebrew language.

  2. Behavioral Signs of (Central) Auditory Processing Disorder in Children With Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip and/or Palate: A Parental Questionnaire Approach.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoran; McPherson, Bradley; Ma, Lian

    2016-03-01

    Objective Children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate often have a high prevalence of middle ear dysfunction. However, there are also indications that they may have a higher prevalence of (central) auditory processing disorder. This study used Fisher's Auditory Problems Checklist for caregivers to determine whether children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate have potentially more auditory processing difficulties compared with craniofacially normal children. Methods Caregivers of 147 school-aged children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate were recruited for the study. This group was divided into three subgroups: cleft lip, cleft palate, and cleft lip and palate. Caregivers of 60 craniofacially normal children were recruited as a control group. Hearing health tests were conducted to evaluate peripheral hearing. Caregivers of children who passed this assessment battery completed Fisher's Auditory Problems Checklist, which contains 25 questions related to behaviors linked to (central) auditory processing disorder. Results Children with cleft palate showed the lowest scores on the Fisher's Auditory Problems Checklist questionnaire, consistent with a higher index of suspicion for (central) auditory processing disorder. There was a significant difference in the manifestation of (central) auditory processing disorder-linked behaviors between the cleft palate and the control groups. The most common behaviors reported in the nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate group were short attention span and reduced learning motivation, along with hearing difficulties in noise. Conclusion A higher occurrence of (central) auditory processing disorder-linked behaviors were found in children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate, particularly cleft palate. Auditory processing abilities should not be ignored in children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate, and it is necessary to consider assessment tests for (central) auditory processing disorder when an

  3. The Relationship between Brainstem Temporal Processing and Performance on Tests of Central Auditory Function in Children with Reading Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billiet, Cassandra R.; Bellis, Teri James

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Studies using speech stimuli to elicit electrophysiologic responses have found approximately 30% of children with language-based learning problems demonstrate abnormal brainstem timing. Research is needed regarding how these responses relate to performance on behavioral tests of central auditory function. The purpose of the study was to…

  4. Development of myelination and cholinergic innervation in the central auditory system of a prosimian primate (Otolemur garnetti).

    PubMed

    Miller, Daniel J; Lackey, Elizabeth P; Hackett, Troy A; Kaas, Jon H

    2013-11-01

    Change in the timeline of neurobiological growth is an important source of biological variation, and thus phenotypic evolution. However, no study has to date investigated sensory system development in any of the prosimian primates that are thought to most closely resemble our earliest primate ancestors. Acetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter critical to normal brain function by regulating synaptic plasticity associated with attention and learning. Myelination is an important structural component of the brain because it facilitates rapid neuronal communication. In this work we investigated the expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the density of myelinated axons throughout postnatal development in the inferior colliculus (IC), medial geniculate complex (MGC), and auditory cortex (auditory core, belt, and parabelt) in Garnett's greater galago (Otolemur garnetti). We found that the IC and MGC exhibit relatively high myelinated fiber length density (MFLD) values at birth and attain adult-like values by the species-typical age at weaning. In contrast, neocortical auditory fields are relatively unmyelinated at birth and only attain adult-like MFLD values by the species-typical age at puberty. Analysis of AChE expression indicated that, in contrast to evidence from rodent samples, the adult-like distribution of AChE in the core area of auditory cortex, dense bands in layers I, IIIb/IV, and Vb/VI, is present at birth. These data indicate the differential developmental trajectory of central auditory system structures and demonstrate the early onset of adult-like AChE expression in primary auditory cortex in O. garnetti, suggesting the auditory system is more developed at birth in primates compared to rodents. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effects of location and timing of co-activated neurons in the auditory midbrain on cortical activity: implications for a new central auditory prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straka, Małgorzata M.; McMahon, Melissa; Markovitz, Craig D.; Lim, Hubert H.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. An increasing number of deaf individuals are being implanted with central auditory prostheses, but their performance has generally been poorer than for cochlear implant users. The goal of this study is to investigate stimulation strategies for improving hearing performance with a new auditory midbrain implant (AMI). Previous studies have shown that repeated electrical stimulation of a single site in each isofrequency lamina of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) causes strong suppressive effects in elicited responses within the primary auditory cortex (A1). Here we investigate if improved cortical activity can be achieved by co-activating neurons with different timing and locations across an ICC lamina and if this cortical activity varies across A1. Approach. We electrically stimulated two sites at different locations across an isofrequency ICC lamina using varying delays in ketamine-anesthetized guinea pigs. We recorded and analyzed spike activity and local field potentials across different layers and locations of A1. Results. Co-activating two sites within an isofrequency lamina with short inter-pulse intervals (<5 ms) could elicit cortical activity that is enhanced beyond a linear summation of activity elicited by the individual sites. A significantly greater extent of normalized cortical activity was observed for stimulation of the rostral-lateral region of an ICC lamina compared to the caudal-medial region. We did not identify any location trends across A1, but the most cortical enhancement was observed in supragranular layers, suggesting further integration of the stimuli through the cortical layers. Significance. The topographic organization identified by this study provides further evidence for the presence of functional zones across an ICC lamina with locations consistent with those identified by previous studies. Clinically, these results suggest that co-activating different neural populations in the rostral-lateral ICC rather

  6. Assessment of Functional Hearing in Greek-Speaking Children Diagnosed with Central Auditory Processing Disorder.

    PubMed

    Sidiras, Chris; Iliadou, Vasiliki Vivian; Chermak, Gail D; Nimatoudis, Ioannis

    2016-05-01

    Including speech recognition in noise testing in audiological evaluations may reveal functional hearing deficits that may otherwise remain undetected. The current study explored the potential utility of the Speech-in-Babble (SinB) test in the assessment of central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) in young children for whom diagnosis is challenging. A cross-sectional analysis. Forty-one Greek children 4-13 yr of age diagnosed with CAPD and exhibiting listening and academic problems (clinical group) and 20 age-matched controls with no listening or academic problems participated in the study. All participants' auditory processing was assessed using the same tests and instrumentation in a sound-treated room. Two equivalent lists of the SinB test, developed at the Psychoacoustic Laboratory of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, were administered monaurally in a counterbalanced order. SinB consists of lists of 50 phonetically balanced disyllabic words presented in background multitalker babble. Five signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were used in a fixed order. The children were instructed to repeat the word after each presentation. The SNR at which the child achieved 50% correct word identification served as the dependent variable or outcome measure, with higher SinB scores (measured in SNR dB) corresponding to poorer performance. SinB performance was better (lower SNR) for the normal control group versus the clinical group [F(1,35) = 43.03, p < 0.0001]. SinB inversely correlated with age for both CAPD and control groups (r = -0.648, p < 0.001 and r = -0.658, p < 0.005, respectively). Regression analysis revealed that linear models better explained the variance in the data than a quadratic model for both the control and CAPD groups. The slope (beta value of the linear model) was steeper for the clinical group compared to the control group (beta = -0.306 versus beta = -0.130, respectively). An analysis of covariance run with age as the covariate to assess the

  7. Impaired auditory-to-motor entrainment in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Te Woerd, Erik S; Oostenveld, Robert; De Lange, Floris Pieter; Praamstra, Peter

    2017-02-08

    Several electrophysiological studies suggest that PD patients have a reduced tendency to entrain to regular environmental patterns. Here we investigate whether this reduced entrainment concerns a generalized deficit or is confined to movement-related activity, leaving sensory entrainment intact. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was recorded during a rhythmic auditory target detection task in 14 PD patients and 14 control subjects. Participants were instructed to press a button when hearing a target tone amidst an isochronous sequence of standard tones. The variable pitch of standard tones indicated the probability of the next tone to be a target. In addition, targets were occasionally omitted to evaluate entrainment uncontaminated by stimulus effects. Response times were not significantly different between groups and both groups benefited equally from the predictive value of standard tones. Analyses of oscillatory beta power over auditory cortices showed equal entrainment to the tones in both groups. By contrast, oscillatory beta power and event-related fields (ERFs) demonstrated a reduced engagement of motor cortical areas in PD patients, expressed in the modulation depth of beta power, in the response to omitted stimuli, and in an absent motor area P300 effect. Together, these results show equally strong entrainment of neural activity over sensory areas in controls and patients, but, in patients, a deficient translation of the adjustment to the task rhythm to motor circuits. We suggest that the reduced activation does not merely reflect altered resonance to rhythmic external events, but a compromised recruitment of an endogenous response reflecting internal rhythm generation.

  8. Maturation of Outcomes of Behavioral and Electrophysiologic Tests of Central Auditory Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schochat, Eliane; Musiek, Frank E.

    2006-01-01

    The human peripheral auditory system is fully developed at birth; however, myelination continues for several years in the higher auditory pathways. The aim of the present study was to assess the maturation course of the frequency and duration pattern tests and the middle latency response (MLR). One hundred and fifty normal participants ranging…

  9. Jet Fuel, Noise, and the Central Auditory Nervous System: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Warner, Rachelle; Fuente, Adrian; Hickson, Louise

    2015-09-01

    Prompted by the continued prevalence of hearing related disabilities accepted as eligible for compensation and treatment under Australian Department of Veterans' Affairs legislation, a review of recent literature regarding possible causation mechanisms and thus, possible prevention strategies, is timely. The emerging thoughts on the effects of a combination of jet fuel and noise exposure on the central auditory nervous system (CANS) have relevance in the military aviation context because of the high exposures to solvents (including fuels) and unique noise hazards related to weapons systems and military aircraft. This literature review aimed to identify and analyze the current knowledge base of the effects of combined exposure to JP-8 jet fuel (or its aromatic solvent components) and noise on the CANS in human populations. We reviewed articles examining electrophysiological and behavioral measurement of the CANS following combined exposures to jet fuel (or its aromatic constituents) and noise. A total of 6 articles met the inclusion criteria for the review and their results are summarized. The articles considered in this review indicate that assessment of the CANS should be undertaken as part of a comprehensive test battery for military members exposed to both noise and solvents in the workplace.

  10. Central, auditory mechanisms of perceptual compensation for spectral-envelope distortion.

    PubMed

    Watkins, A J

    1991-12-01

    The spectral envelope is a major determinant of the perceptual identity of many classes of sound including speech. When sounds are transmitted from the source to the listener, the spectral envelope is invariably and diversely distorted, by factors such as room reverberation. Perceptual compensation for spectral-envelope distortion was investigated here. Carrier sounds were distorted by spectral envelope difference filters whose frequency response is the spectral envelope of one vowel minus the spectral envelope of another. The filter /I/ minus /e/ and its inverse were used. Subjects identified a test sound that followed the carrier. The test sound was drawn from an /Itch/ to /etch/ continuum. Perceptual compensation produces a phoneme boundary difference between /I/ minus /e/ and its inverse. Carriers were the phrase "the next word is" spoken by the same (male) speaker as the test sounds, signal-correlated noise derived from this phrase, the same phrase spoken by a female speaker, male and female versions played backwards, and a repeated end-point vowel. The carrier and test were presented to the same ear, to different ears, and from different apparent directions (by varying interaural time delay). The results show that compensation is unlike peripheral phenomena, such as adaptation, and unlike phonetic perceptual phenomena. The evidence favors a central, auditory mechanism.

  11. Inner Hair Cell Loss Disrupts Hearing and Cochlear Function Leading to Sensory Deprivation and Enhanced Central Auditory Gain.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Richard; Sun, Wei; Ding, Dalian; Chen, Guang-Di; Lobarinas, Edward; Wang, Jian; Radziwon, Kelly; Auerbach, Benjamin D

    2016-01-01

    There are three times as many outer hair cells (OHC) as inner hair cells (IHC), yet IHC transmit virtually all acoustic information to the brain as they synapse with 90-95% of type I auditory nerve fibers. Here we review a comprehensive series of experiments aimed at determining how loss of the IHC/type I system affects hearing by selectively destroying these cells in chinchillas using the ototoxic anti-cancer agent carboplatin. Eliminating IHC/type I neurons has no effect on distortion product otoacoustic emission or the cochlear microphonic potential generated by OHC; however, it greatly reduces the summating potential produced by IHC and the compound action potential (CAP) generated by type I neurons. Remarkably, responses from remaining auditory nerve fibers maintain sharp tuning and low thresholds despite innervating regions of the cochlea with ~80% IHC loss. Moreover, chinchillas with large IHC lesions have surprisingly normal thresholds in quiet until IHC losses exceeded 80%, suggesting that only a few IHC are needed to detect sounds in quiet. However, behavioral thresholds in broadband noise are elevated significantly and tone-in-narrow band noise masking patterns exhibit greater remote masking. These results suggest the auditory system is able to compensate for considerable loss of IHC/type I neurons in quiet but not in difficult listening conditions. How does the auditory brain deal with the drastic loss of cochlear input? Recordings from the inferior colliculus found a relatively small decline in sound-evoked activity despite a large decrease in CAP amplitude after IHC lesion. Paradoxically, sound-evoked responses are generally larger than normal in the auditory cortex, indicative of increased central gain. This gain enhancement in the auditory cortex is associated with decreased GABA-mediated inhibition. These results suggest that when the neural output of the cochlea is reduced, the central auditory system compensates by turning up its gain so that

  12. Inner Hair Cell Loss Disrupts Hearing and Cochlear Function Leading to Sensory Deprivation and Enhanced Central Auditory Gain

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, Richard; Sun, Wei; Ding, Dalian; Chen, Guang-Di; Lobarinas, Edward; Wang, Jian; Radziwon, Kelly; Auerbach, Benjamin D.

    2017-01-01

    There are three times as many outer hair cells (OHC) as inner hair cells (IHC), yet IHC transmit virtually all acoustic information to the brain as they synapse with 90–95% of type I auditory nerve fibers. Here we review a comprehensive series of experiments aimed at determining how loss of the IHC/type I system affects hearing by selectively destroying these cells in chinchillas using the ototoxic anti-cancer agent carboplatin. Eliminating IHC/type I neurons has no effect on distortion product otoacoustic emission or the cochlear microphonic potential generated by OHC; however, it greatly reduces the summating potential produced by IHC and the compound action potential (CAP) generated by type I neurons. Remarkably, responses from remaining auditory nerve fibers maintain sharp tuning and low thresholds despite innervating regions of the cochlea with ~80% IHC loss. Moreover, chinchillas with large IHC lesions have surprisingly normal thresholds in quiet until IHC losses exceeded 80%, suggesting that only a few IHC are needed to detect sounds in quiet. However, behavioral thresholds in broadband noise are elevated significantly and tone-in-narrow band noise masking patterns exhibit greater remote masking. These results suggest the auditory system is able to compensate for considerable loss of IHC/type I neurons in quiet but not in difficult listening conditions. How does the auditory brain deal with the drastic loss of cochlear input? Recordings from the inferior colliculus found a relatively small decline in sound-evoked activity despite a large decrease in CAP amplitude after IHC lesion. Paradoxically, sound-evoked responses are generally larger than normal in the auditory cortex, indicative of increased central gain. This gain enhancement in the auditory cortex is associated with decreased GABA-mediated inhibition. These results suggest that when the neural output of the cochlea is reduced, the central auditory system compensates by turning up its gain so that

  13. Contextual and Auditory Fear Conditioning are Mediated by the Lateral, Basal, and Central Amygdaloid Nuclei in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Goosens, Ki A.; Maren, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    A large body of literature implicates the amygdala in Pavlovian fear conditioning. In this study, we examined the contribution of individual amygdaloid nuclei to contextual and auditory fear conditioning in rats. Prior to fear conditioning, rats received a large electrolytic lesion of the amygdala in one hemisphere, and a nucleus-specific neurotoxic lesion in the contralateral hemisphere. Neurotoxic lesions targeted either the lateral nucleus (LA), basolateral and basomedial nuclei (basal nuclei), or central nucleus (CE) of the amygdala. LA and CE lesions attenuated freezing to both contextual and auditory conditional stimuli (CSs). Lesions of the basal nuclei produced deficits in contextual and auditory fear conditioning only when the damage extended into the anterior divisions of the basal nuclei; damage limited to the posterior divisions of the basal nuclei did not significantly impair conditioning to either auditory or contextual CS. These effects were typically not lateralized, although neurotoxic lesions of the posterior divisions of the basal nuclei had greater effects on contextual fear conditioning when the contralateral electrolytic lesion was placed in the right hemisphere. These results indicate that there is significant overlap within the amygdala in the neural pathways mediating fear conditioning to contextual and acoustic CS, and that these forms of learning are not anatomically dissociable at the level of amygdaloid nuclei. PMID:11390634

  14. Developmental changes in P1 and N1 central auditory responses elicited by consonant-vowel syllables.

    PubMed

    Sharma, A; Kraus, N; McGee, T J; Nicol, T G

    1997-11-01

    Normal maturation and functioning of the central auditory system affects the development of speech perception and oral language capabilities. This study examined maturation of central auditory pathways as reflected by age-related changes in the P1/N1 components of the auditory evoked potential (AEP). A synthesized consonant-vowel syllable (ba) was used to elicit cortical AEPs in 86 normal children ranging in age from 6 to 15 years and ten normal adults. Distinct age-related changes were observed in the morphology of the AEP waveform. The adult response consists of a prominent negativity (N1) at about 100 ms, preceded by a smaller P1 component at about 50 ms. In contrast, the child response is characterized by a large P1 response at about 100 ms. This wave decreases significantly in latency and amplitude up to about 20 years of age. In children, P1 is followed by a broad negativity at about 200 ms which we term N1b. Many subjects (especially older children) also show an earlier negativity (N1a). Both N1a and N1b latencies decrease significantly with age. Amplitudes of N1a and N1b do not show significant age-related changes. All children have the N1b; however, the frequency of occurrence of N1a increases with age. Data indicate that the child P1 develops systematically into the adult response; however, the relationship of N1a and N1b to the adult N1 is unclear. These results indicate that maturational changes in the central auditory system are complex and extend well into the second decade of life.

  15. Central neurocytoma: establishment of the disease entity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Gyu; Park, Chul-Kee

    2015-01-01

    The establishment and identification of central neurocytoma as a distinct disease entity are invaluable in catalyzing investigations of neuronal differentiation in central nervous system tumors. The discovery of neuronal differentiation in neuroepithelial tumors has been extended to extraventricular tumors and potentially to various glial tumors undergoing neuronal differentiation. Understanding the disease spectrum of neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors is important for deciphering the mechanism of gliomagenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Single fibre electromyography in central core disease

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, A. Cruz; Ferrer, M. T.; López-Terradas, J. M.; Pascual-Castroviejo, I.; Mingo, P.

    1979-01-01

    Single fibre electromyography in the extensor digitorum communis muscle was studied in five patients with central core disease. The average number of muscle fibre action potentials belonging to the same motor unit was higher in patients than in healthy subjects of the same age. The increase in motor unit fibre density is consistent with increased terminal innervation ratio described in other papers about central core disease. PMID:479907

  17. Damage to the Lateral and Central, but Not Other, Amygdaloid Nuclei Prevents the Acquisition of Auditory Fear Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Nader, Karim; Majidishad, Pedram; Amorapanth, Prin; LeDoux, Joseph E.

    2001-01-01

    It is well established that the amygdala plays an essential role in Pavlovian fear conditioning, with the lateral nucleus serving as the interface with sensory systems that transmit the conditioned stimulus and the central nucleus as the link with motor regions that control conditioned fear responses. The lateral nucleus connects with the central nucleus directly and by way of several other amygdala regions, including the basal, accessory basal, and medial nuclei. To determine which of these regions is necessary, and thus whether conditioning requires the direct or one of the indirect intra-amygdala pathways, we made lesions in rats of the lateral, central, basal, accessory basal, and medial nuclei, as well as combined lesions of the basal and accessory basal nuclei and of the entire amygdala. Animals subsequently underwent fear conditioning trials in which an auditory conditioned stimulus was paired with a footshock unconditioned stimulus. Animals that received lesions of the lateral or central nucleus, or of the entire amygdala, were dramatically impaired, whereas the other lesions had little effect. These findings show that only the lateral and central nuclei are necessary for the acquisition of conditioned fear response to an auditory conditioned stimulus. PMID:11390635

  18. Auditory and visual cueing modulate cycling speed of older adults and persons with Parkinson's disease in a Virtual Cycling (V-Cycle) system.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Rosemary; Damodaran, Harish; Werner, William G; Powell, Wendy; Deutsch, Judith E

    2016-08-19

    Evidence based virtual environments (VEs) that incorporate compensatory strategies such as cueing may change motor behavior and increase exercise intensity while also being engaging and motivating. The purpose of this study was to determine if persons with Parkinson's disease and aged matched healthy adults responded to auditory and visual cueing embedded in a bicycling VE as a method to increase exercise intensity. We tested two groups of participants, persons with Parkinson's disease (PD) (n = 15) and age-matched healthy adults (n = 13) as they cycled on a stationary bicycle while interacting with a VE. Participants cycled under two conditions: auditory cueing (provided by a metronome) and visual cueing (represented as central road markers in the VE). The auditory condition had four trials in which auditory cues or the VE were presented alone or in combination. The visual condition had five trials in which the VE and visual cue rate presentation was manipulated. Data were analyzed by condition using factorial RMANOVAs with planned t-tests corrected for multiple comparisons. There were no differences in pedaling rates between groups for both the auditory and visual cueing conditions. Persons with PD increased their pedaling rate in the auditory (F 4.78, p = 0.029) and visual cueing (F 26.48, p < 0.000) conditions. Age-matched healthy adults also increased their pedaling rate in the auditory (F = 24.72, p < 0.000) and visual cueing (F = 40.69, p < 0.000) conditions. Trial-to-trial comparisons in the visual condition in age-matched healthy adults showed a step-wise increase in pedaling rate (p = 0.003 to p < 0.000). In contrast, persons with PD increased their pedaling rate only when explicitly instructed to attend to the visual cues (p < 0.000). An evidenced based cycling VE can modify pedaling rate in persons with PD and age-matched healthy adults. Persons with PD required attention directed to the visual cues in order

  19. Paired-Pulse Inhibition in the Auditory Cortex in Parkinson's Disease and Its Dependence on Clinical Characteristics of the Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lukhanina, Elena; Berezetskaya, Natalia; Karaban, Irina

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to determine the value of the paired-pulse inhibition (PPI) in the auditory cortex in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and analyze its dependence on clinical characteristics of the patients. The central (Cz) auditory evoked potentials were recorded in 58 patients with PD and 22 age-matched healthy subjects. PPI of the N1/P2 component was significantly (P < .001) reduced for interstimulus intervals 500, 700, and 900 ms in patients with PD compared to control subjects. The value of PPI correlated negatively with the age of the PD patients (P < .05), age of disease onset (P < .05), body bradykinesia score (P < .01), and positively with the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) cognitive score (P < .01). Negative correlation between value of PPI and the age of the healthy subjects (P < .05) was also observed. Thus, results show that cortical inhibitory processes are deficient in PD patients and that the brain's ability to carry out the postexcitatory inhibition is age-dependent. PMID:21052541

  20. Altered brainstem auditory evoked potentials in a rat central sensitization model are similar to those in migraine.

    PubMed

    Arakaki, Xianghong; Galbraith, Gary; Pikov, Victor; Fonteh, Alfred N; Harrington, Michael G

    2014-05-14

    Migraine symptoms often include auditory discomfort. Nitroglycerin (NTG)-triggered central sensitization (CS) provides a rodent model of migraine, but auditory brainstem pathways have not yet been studied in this example. Our objective was to examine brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) in rat CS as a measure of possible auditory abnormalities. We used four subdermal electrodes to record horizontal (h) and vertical (v) dipole channel BAEPs before and after injection of NTG or saline. We measured the peak latencies (PLs), interpeak latencies (IPLs), and amplitudes for detectable waveforms evoked by 8, 16, or 32 kHz auditory stimulation. At 8 kHz stimulation, vertical channel positive PLs of waves 4, 5, and 6 (vP4, vP5, and vP6), and related IPLs from earlier negative or positive peaks (vN1-vP4, vN1-vP5, vN1-vP6; vP3-vP4, vP3-vP6) increased significantly 2h after NTG injection compared to the saline group. However, BAEP peak amplitudes at all frequencies, PLs and IPLs from the horizontal channel at all frequencies, and the vertical channel stimulated at 16 and 32 kHz showed no significant/consistent change. For the first time in the rat CS model, we show that BAEP PLs and IPLs ranging from putative bilateral medial superior olivary nuclei (P4) to the more rostral structures such as the medial geniculate body (P6) were prolonged 2h after NTG administration. These BAEP alterations could reflect changes in neurotransmitters and/or hypoperfusion in the midbrain. The similarity of our results with previous human studies further validates the rodent CS model for future migraine research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Increasing diversity of neural responses to speech sounds across the central auditory pathway.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, K G; Vrana, W A; Matney, C J; Kilgard, M P

    2013-11-12

    Neurons at higher stations of each sensory system are responsive to feature combinations not present at lower levels. As a result, the activity of these neurons becomes less redundant than lower levels. We recorded responses to speech sounds from the inferior colliculus and the primary auditory cortex neurons of rats, and tested the hypothesis that primary auditory cortex neurons are more sensitive to combinations of multiple acoustic parameters compared to inferior colliculus neurons. We independently eliminated periodicity information, spectral information and temporal information in each consonant and vowel sound using a noise vocoder. This technique made it possible to test several key hypotheses about speech sound processing. Our results demonstrate that inferior colliculus responses are spatially arranged and primarily determined by the spectral energy and the fundamental frequency of speech, whereas primary auditory cortex neurons generate widely distributed responses to multiple acoustic parameters, and are not strongly influenced by the fundamental frequency of speech. We found no evidence that inferior colliculus or primary auditory cortex was specialized for speech features such as voice onset time or formants. The greater diversity of responses in primary auditory cortex compared to inferior colliculus may help explain how the auditory system can identify a wide range of speech sounds across a wide range of conditions without relying on any single acoustic cue.

  2. Both Central and Peripheral Auditory Systems Are Involved in Salicylate-Induced Tinnitus in Rats: A Behavioral Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi; Sun, Yongzhu; Chang, Haifeng; Cui, Pengcheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to establish a low dose salicylate-induced tinnitus rat model and to investigate whether central or peripheral auditory system is involved in tinnitus. Methods Lick suppression ratio (R), lick count and lick latency of conditioned rats in salicylate group (120 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and saline group were first compared. Bilateral auditory nerves were ablated in unconditioned rats and lick count and lick latency were compared before and after ablation. The ablation was then performed in conditioned rats and lick count and lick latency were compared between salicylate group and saline group and between ablated and unablated salicylate groups. Results Both the R value and the lick count in salicylate group were significantly higher than those in saline group and lick latency in salicylate group was significantly shorter than that in saline group. No significant changes were observed in lick count and lick latency before and after ablation. After ablation, lick count and lick latency in salicylate group were significantly higher and shorter respectively than those in saline group, but they were significantly lower and longer respectively than those in unablated salicylate group. Conclusion A low dose of salicylate (120 mg/kg) can induce tinnitus in rats and both central and peripheral auditory systems participate in the generation of salicylate-induced tinnitus. PMID:25269067

  3. Characteristics of brain stem auditory evoked potentials in children with hearing impairment due to infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Ječmenica, Jovana Radovan; Opančina, Aleksandra Aleksandar Bajec

    2015-05-01

    Among objective audiologic tests, the most important were tests of brain stem auditory evoked potentials. The objective of the study was to test the configuration, degree of hearing loss, and response characteristics of auditory brain stem evoked potentials in children with hearing loss occurred due to infectious disease. A case control study design was used. The study group consisted of 54 patients referred for a hearing test because of infectious diseases caused by other agents or that occurred as congenital infection. Infectious agents have led to the emergence of various forms of sensorineural hearing loss. We have found deviations from the normal values of absolute and interwave latencies in some children in our group. We found that in the group of children who had the diseases such as purulent meningitis, or were born with rubella virus and cytomegalovirus infection, a retrocochlear damage was present in children with and without cochlear damage. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Central blood pressure and chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Yoichi; Kanno, Yoshihiko; Takenaka, Tsuneo

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we focused on the relationship between central blood pressure and chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Wave reflection is a major mechanism that determines central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Recent medical technology advances have enabled non-invasive central blood pressure measurements. Clinical trials have demonstrated that compared with brachial blood pressure, central blood pressure is a stronger risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) and renal diseases. CKD is characterized by a diminished renal autoregulatory ability, an augmented direct transmission of systemic blood pressure to glomeruli, and an increase in proteinuria. Any elevation in central blood pressure accelerates CKD progression. In the kidney, interstitial inflammation induces oxidative stress to handle proteinuria. Oxidative stress facilitates atherogenesis, increases arterial stiffness and central blood pressure, and worsens the CV prognosis in patients with CKD. A vicious cycle exists between CKD and central blood pressure. To stop this cycle, vasodilator antihypertensive drugs and statins can reduce central blood pressure and oxidative stress. Even in early-stage CKD, mineral and bone disorders (MBD) may develop. MBD promotes oxidative stress, arteriosclerosis, and elevated central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Early intervention or prevention seems necessary to maintain vascular health in patients with CKD. PMID:26788468

  5. Hearing Loss and Auditory Function in Sickle Cell Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burch-Sims, G.P.; Matlock, V.R.

    2005-01-01

    Sickle cell disease was first reported in 1910 by J. Herrick, and since then, various associated conditions and complications have been described. Sickle cell disease is a hereditary disorder characterized by abnormality of the hemoglobin in the red blood cell. During periods of decreased oxygen tension in the red blood cell's environment, the…

  6. Hearing Loss and Auditory Function in Sickle Cell Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burch-Sims, G.P.; Matlock, V.R.

    2005-01-01

    Sickle cell disease was first reported in 1910 by J. Herrick, and since then, various associated conditions and complications have been described. Sickle cell disease is a hereditary disorder characterized by abnormality of the hemoglobin in the red blood cell. During periods of decreased oxygen tension in the red blood cell's environment, the…

  7. [Functional anatomy of the cochlear nerve and the central auditory system].

    PubMed

    Simon, E; Perrot, X; Mertens, P

    2009-04-01

    The auditory pathways are a system of afferent fibers (through the cochlear nerve) and efferent fibers (through the vestibular nerve), which are not limited to a simple information transmitting system but create a veritable integration of the sound stimulus at the different levels, by analyzing its three fundamental elements: frequency (pitch), intensity, and spatial localization of the sound source. From the cochlea to the primary auditory cortex, the auditory fibers are organized anatomically in relation to the characteristic frequency of the sound signal that they transmit (tonotopy). Coding the intensity of the sound signal is based on temporal recruitment (the number of action potentials) and spatial recruitment (the number of inner hair cells recruited near the cell of the frequency that is characteristic of the stimulus). Because of binaural hearing, commissural pathways at each level of the auditory system and integration of the phase shift and the difference in intensity between signals coming from both ears, spatial localization of the sound source is possible. Finally, through the efferent fibers in the vestibular nerve, higher centers exercise control over the activity of the cochlea and adjust the peripheral hearing organ to external sound conditions, thus protecting the auditory system or increasing sensitivity by the attention given to the signal.

  8. A behavioral framework to guide research on central auditory development and plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Sanes, Dan H.; Woolley, Sarah M. N.

    2011-01-01

    The auditory CNS is influenced profoundly by sounds heard during development. Auditory deprivation and augmented sound exposure can each perturb the maturation of neural computations as well as their underlying synaptic properties. However, we have learned little about the emergence of perceptual skills in these same model systems, and especially how perception is influenced by early acoustic experience. Here, we argue that developmental studies must take greater advantage of behavioral benchmarks. We discuss quantitative measures of perceptual development, and suggest how they can play a much larger role in guiding experimental design. Most importantly, including behavioral measures will allow us to establish empirical connections among environment, neural development, and perception. PMID:22196328

  9. Central Hemodynamics for Management of Arteriosclerotic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Junichiro

    2017-08-01

    Arteriosclerosis, particularly aortosclerosis, is the most critical risk factor associated with cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and renal diseases. The pulsatile hemodynamics in the central aorta consists of blood pressure, flow, and stiffness and substantially differs from the peripheral hemodynamics in muscular arteries. Arteriosclerotic changes with age appear earlier in the elastic aorta, and age-dependent increases in central pulse pressure are more marked than those apparent from brachial pressure measurement. Central pressure can be affected by lifestyle habits, metabolic disorders, and endocrine and inflammatory diseases in a manner different from brachial pressure. Central pulse pressure widening due to aortic stiffening increases left ventricular afterload in systole and reduces coronary artery flow in diastole, predisposing aortosclerotic patients to myocardial hypertrophy and ischemia. The widened pulse pressure is also transmitted deep into low-impedance organs such as the brain and kidney, causing microvascular damage responsible for lacunar stroke and albuminuria. In addition, aortic stiffening increases aortic blood flow reversal, which can lead to retrograde embolic stroke and renal function deterioration. Central pressure has been shown to predict cardiovascular events in most previous studies and potentially serves as a surrogate marker for intervention. Quantitative and comprehensive evaluation of central hemodynamics is now available through various noninvasive pressure/flow measurement modalities. This review will focus on the clinical usefulness and mechanistic rationale of central hemodynamic measurements for cardiovascular risk management.

  10. Central Hemodynamics for Management of Arteriosclerotic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Arteriosclerosis, particularly aortosclerosis, is the most critical risk factor associated with cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and renal diseases. The pulsatile hemodynamics in the central aorta consists of blood pressure, flow, and stiffness and substantially differs from the peripheral hemodynamics in muscular arteries. Arteriosclerotic changes with age appear earlier in the elastic aorta, and age-dependent increases in central pulse pressure are more marked than those apparent from brachial pressure measurement. Central pressure can be affected by lifestyle habits, metabolic disorders, and endocrine and inflammatory diseases in a manner different from brachial pressure. Central pulse pressure widening due to aortic stiffening increases left ventricular afterload in systole and reduces coronary artery flow in diastole, predisposing aortosclerotic patients to myocardial hypertrophy and ischemia. The widened pulse pressure is also transmitted deep into low-impedance organs such as the brain and kidney, causing microvascular damage responsible for lacunar stroke and albuminuria. In addition, aortic stiffening increases aortic blood flow reversal, which can lead to retrograde embolic stroke and renal function deterioration. Central pressure has been shown to predict cardiovascular events in most previous studies and potentially serves as a surrogate marker for intervention. Quantitative and comprehensive evaluation of central hemodynamics is now available through various noninvasive pressure/flow measurement modalities. This review will focus on the clinical usefulness and mechanistic rationale of central hemodynamic measurements for cardiovascular risk management. PMID:28603219

  11. The Central Role of Recognition in Auditory Perception: A Neurobiological Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLachlan, Neil; Wilson, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The model presents neurobiologically plausible accounts of sound recognition (including absolute pitch), neural plasticity involved in pitch, loudness and location information integration, and streaming and auditory recall. It is proposed that a cortical mechanism for sound identification modulates the spectrotemporal response fields of inferior…

  12. The Central Role of Recognition in Auditory Perception: A Neurobiological Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLachlan, Neil; Wilson, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The model presents neurobiologically plausible accounts of sound recognition (including absolute pitch), neural plasticity involved in pitch, loudness and location information integration, and streaming and auditory recall. It is proposed that a cortical mechanism for sound identification modulates the spectrotemporal response fields of inferior…

  13. Relationship Patterns between Central Auditory Processing Disorders and Language Disorders, Learning Disabilities, and Sensory Integration Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Retha J.; Kruger, Johann J.; Hugo, Rene; Campbell, Nicole G.

    2001-01-01

    A multimodal assessment of 19 children (ages 4-9) with learning disabilities was used to identify problem areas. The majority presented with deficits involving both visual and auditory modalities, as well as problems with motor abilities and concentration skills. Subgroups of problem areas were found to occur together. (Contains references.)…

  14. Auditory musical hallucinations associated with extended-release pramipexole in an elderly patient with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Hiroshi; Ueno, Satoshi

    2014-12-01

    Auditory musical hallucinations (AMHs) are rare complex auditory hallucinations in Parkinson's disease (PD) that have been limited previously. The characteristics of AMHs in PD remain uncertain. We describe a 72-year-old woman with PD who presented with AMHs. The AMHs occurred after immediate-release pramipexole was switched to extended-release pramipexole. The AMHs were a quiet piano or often songs on a loud radio or background music over other sounds. The music was unpleasant, but not objectionable, threatening, or ego-syntonic, and it did not interrupt her daily activities. AMHs in PD were non-threatening, and dopaminergic treatment may predispose patients to AMHs or be a unique possible cause of AMHs. The hallucinations can occur after immediate-release pramipexole was switched to extended-release pramipexole.

  15. Auditory Musical Hallucinations Associated With Extended-Release Pramipexole in an Elderly Patient With Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, Hiroshi; Ueno, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Auditory musical hallucinations (AMHs) are rare complex auditory hallucinations in Parkinson's disease (PD) that have been limited previously. The characteristics of AMHs in PD remain uncertain. We describe a 72-year-old woman with PD who presented with AMHs. The AMHs occurred after immediate-release pramipexole was switched to extended-release pramipexole. The AMHs were a quiet piano or often songs on a loud radio or background music over other sounds. The music was unpleasant, but not objectionable, threatening, or ego-syntonic, and it did not interrupt her daily activities. AMHs in PD were non-threatening, and dopaminergic treatment may predispose patients to AMHs or be a unique possible cause of AMHs. The hallucinations can occur after immediate-release pramipexole was switched to extended-release pramipexole. PMID:25501095

  16. [Assessment of central auditory processes in Spanish in children with dyslexia and controls. Binaural Fusion Test and Filtered Word Test].

    PubMed

    Peñaloza-López, Yolanda Rebeca; Olivares García, María del Rosario; Jiménez de la Sancha, Sabino; García-Pedroza, Felipe; Pérez Ruiz, Santiago J

    2009-01-01

    The aim is to assess the ability to discriminate words, using two psychoacoustic verbal tests of central auditory processes in Spanish: Binaural Fusion Test (BFT in its Spanish version) and Filtered Word Test (FWT in its Spanish version) in children with dyslexia and controls. One group of 40 dyslexic children was receiving therapy for dyslexia at the time of the tests. 40 children without dyslexia were selected as controls, out of 298 children who attended a public school. The rate of males to females was 2/1 in the dyslexic group. The average correct answers for the BFT were 65-66% in dyslexic group and 75-80% in the control group. For the FWT they were 50-54% in the dyslexic group and 67-71% in the control group (student t <0.05). These results contribute to make evident disorders in central auditory processing in children with dyslexia. We suggest using the tests with each patient in order to elaborate a rehabilitation plan.

  17. An Analysis of the Visual and Auditory Aspects of Sound Blending Including Central Auditory Integration as Measured on the Maid. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Judith Lynn

    Analyzed was the performance of 30 children with normal reading and speech skills on various blending tasks. There were three groups of ten Ss each with each group receiving one of three modes of presentation: auditory, visual, or auditory visual. The stimuli consisted of 150 consonant-vowel (CV), vowel-consonant (VC), and…

  18. The Adverse Effects of Heavy Metals with and without Noise Exposure on the Human Peripheral and Central Auditory System: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Marie-Josée; Fuente, Adrian

    2016-12-09

    Exposure to some chemicals in the workplace can lead to occupational chemical-induced hearing loss. Attention has mainly focused on the adverse auditory effects of solvents. However, other chemicals such as heavy metals have been also identified as ototoxic agents. The aim of this work was to review the current scientific knowledge about the adverse auditory effects of heavy metal exposure with and without co-exposure to noise in humans. PubMed and Medline were accessed to find suitable articles. A total of 49 articles met the inclusion criteria. Results from the review showed that no evidence about the ototoxic effects in humans of manganese is available. Contradictory results have been found for arsenic, lead and mercury as well as for the possible interaction between heavy metals and noise. All studies found in this review have found that exposure to cadmium and mixtures of heavy metals induce auditory dysfunction. Most of the studies investigating the adverse auditory effects of heavy metals in humans have investigated human populations exposed to lead. Some of these studies suggest peripheral and central auditory dysfunction induced by lead exposure. It is concluded that further evidence from human studies about the adverse auditory effects of heavy metal exposure is still required. Despite this issue, audiologists and other hearing health care professionals should be aware of the possible auditory effects of heavy metals.

  19. The Adverse Effects of Heavy Metals with and without Noise Exposure on the Human Peripheral and Central Auditory System: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Castellanos, Marie-Josée; Fuente, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to some chemicals in the workplace can lead to occupational chemical-induced hearing loss. Attention has mainly focused on the adverse auditory effects of solvents. However, other chemicals such as heavy metals have been also identified as ototoxic agents. The aim of this work was to review the current scientific knowledge about the adverse auditory effects of heavy metal exposure with and without co-exposure to noise in humans. PubMed and Medline were accessed to find suitable articles. A total of 49 articles met the inclusion criteria. Results from the review showed that no evidence about the ototoxic effects in humans of manganese is available. Contradictory results have been found for arsenic, lead and mercury as well as for the possible interaction between heavy metals and noise. All studies found in this review have found that exposure to cadmium and mixtures of heavy metals induce auditory dysfunction. Most of the studies investigating the adverse auditory effects of heavy metals in humans have investigated human populations exposed to lead. Some of these studies suggest peripheral and central auditory dysfunction induced by lead exposure. It is concluded that further evidence from human studies about the adverse auditory effects of heavy metal exposure is still required. Despite this issue, audiologists and other hearing health care professionals should be aware of the possible auditory effects of heavy metals. PMID:27941700

  20. Central Mechanisms and Treatment of Blast Induced Auditory and Vestibular Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-01

    Care and Use of Laboratory Animals , NRC Publication, 2011 edition. Blast shockwave damages to outer hair cells was visualized by confocal microscopy; (a...Year 1: Obtain IACUC and ACURO approval of animal use protocol, define time- course of blast-induced auditory function deficits; define the role of...research  During this initial reporting period, we received approval of two animal use protocols, since all experimental objectives of the project are

  1. Malnutrition during central nervous system growth and development impairs permanently the subcortical auditory pathway.

    PubMed

    Penido, Alexandre Batista; Rezende, Gustavo Henrique de Souza; Abreu, Renata Viana; de Oliveira, Antônio Carlos Pinheiro; Guidine, Patrícia Alves Maia; Pereira, Grace Schenatto; Chianca, Deoclécio Alves; Massensini, André Ricardo; Moraes-Santos, Tasso; Moraes, Márcio Flávio Dutra

    2012-01-01

    The brain that grows and develops under the continued influence of malnutrition presents permanent impairment on functioning and neurotransmitter release. The aim of this study was to investigate the chronic effects of neonatal food restriction on neurochemical and neurodynamical aspects within the primary auditory sensory pathway. Our working hypothesis is that neonatal malnutrition may affect the flow of primary sensory information both at a neurochemical and neurodynamical level. To test this hypothesis, three groups of rats were assigned, from birth to 370 days of life, to the following dietary scheme: a well-nourished (WN) group fed ad libitum lab chow diet; an undernourished (UN) group fed 60% of diet consumed by WN group; and a rehabilitated group, undergoing same dietary restriction as undernourished until 42 days of age and thereafter fed ad libitum until the end of the experiment. At 370 days of age, the animals were submitted to brainstem auditory-evoked potentials (BAEPs) recordings and sacrificed for neurochemical evaluation of glutamate release. Undernutrition decreased glutamate release in the cortex, hippocampus, midbrain and brainstem, and significantly increased the latency of BAEP wave V. In addition; the re-establishment of the dietary conditions was not sufficient to reverse the neurochemical and electrophysiological alterations observed in the UN group. Taken altogether, our results suggest that malnutrition imposed at a critical development period caused an irreversible effect within the auditory primary sensory pathway.

  2. Can rhythmic auditory cuing remediate language-related deficits in Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    Kotz, Sonja A; Gunter, Thomas C

    2015-03-01

    Neurodegenerative changes of the basal ganglia in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) lead to motor deficits as well as general cognitive decline. Given these impairments, the question arises as to whether motor and nonmotor deficits can be ameliorated similarly. We reason that a domain-general sensorimotor circuit involved in temporal processing may support the remediation of such deficits. Following findings that auditory cuing benefits gait kinematics, we explored whether reported language-processing deficits in IPD can also be remediated via auditory cuing. During continuous EEG measurement, an individual diagnosed with IPD heard two types of temporally predictable but metrically different auditory beat-based cues: a march, which metrically aligned with the speech accent structure, a waltz that did not metrically align, or no cue before listening to naturally spoken sentences that were either grammatically well formed or were semantically or syntactically incorrect. Results confirmed that only the cuing with a march led to improved computation of syntactic and semantic information. We infer that a marching rhythm may lead to a stronger engagement of the cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuit that compensates dysfunctional striato-cortical timing. Reinforcing temporal realignment, in turn, may lead to the timely processing of linguistic information embedded in the temporally variable speech signal. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  3. Assessment and rehabilitation of central sensory impairments for balance in mTBI using auditory biofeedback: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Fino, Peter C; Peterka, Robert J; Hullar, Timothy E; Murchison, Chad; Horak, Fay B; Chesnutt, James C; King, Laurie A

    2017-02-23

    Complaints of imbalance are common non-resolving signs in individuals with post-concussive syndrome. Yet, there is no consensus rehabilitation for non-resolving balance complaints following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). The heterogeneity of balance deficits and varied rates of recovery suggest varied etiologies and a need for interventions that address the underlying causes of poor balance function. Our central hypothesis is that most chronic balance deficits after mTBI result from impairments in central sensorimotor integration that may be helped by rehabilitation. Two studies are described to 1) characterize balance deficits in people with mTBI who have chronic, non-resolving balance deficits compared to healthy control subjects, and 2) determine the efficacy of an augmented vestibular rehabilitation program using auditory biofeedback to improve central sensorimotor integration, static and dynamic balance, and functional activity in patients with chronic mTBI. Two studies are described. Study 1 is a cross-sectional study to take place jointly at Oregon Health and Science University and the VA Portland Health Care System. The study participants will be individuals with non-resolving complaints of balance following mTBI and age- and gender-matched controls who meet all inclusion criteria. The primary outcome will be measures of central sensorimotor integration derived from a novel central sensorimotor integration test. Study 2 is a randomized controlled intervention to take place at Oregon Health & Science University. In this study, participants from Study 1 with mTBI and abnormal central sensorimotor integration will be randomized into two rehabilitation interventions. The interventions will be 6 weeks of vestibular rehabilitation 1) with or 2) without the use of an auditory biofeedback device. The primary outcome measure is the daily activity of the participants measured using an inertial sensor. The results of these two studies will improve our

  4. Catecholaminergic connectivity to the inner ear, central auditory and vocal motor circuitry in the plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus

    PubMed Central

    Forlano, Paul M.; Kim, Spencer D.; Krzyminska, Zuzanna M.; Sisneros, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Although the neuroanatomical distribution of catecholaminergic (CA) neurons has been well documented across all vertebrate classes, few studies have examined CA connectivity to physiologically and anatomically identified neural circuitry that controls behavior. The goal of this study was to characterize CA distribution in the brain and inner ear of the plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) with particular emphasis on their relationship with anatomically labeled circuitry that both produces and encodes social acoustic signals in this species. Neurobiotin labeling of the main auditory endorgan, the saccule, combined with tyrosine hydroxylase immunofluorescence (TH-ir) revealed a strong CA innervation of both the peripheral and central auditory system. Diencephalic TH-ir neurons in the periventricular posterior tuberculum, known to be dopaminergic, send ascending projections to the ventral telencephalon and prominent descending projections to vocal-acoustic integration sites, notably the hindbrain octavolateralis efferent nucleus, as well as onto the base of hair cells in the saccule via nerve VIII. Neurobiotin backfills of the vocal nerve in combination with TH-ir revealed CA terminals on all components of the vocal pattern generator which appears to largely originate from local TH-ir neurons but may include diencephalic projections as well. This study provides strong evidence for catecholamines as important neuromodulators of both auditory and vocal circuitry and acoustic-driven social behavior in midshipman fish. This first demonstration of TH-ir terminals in the main endorgan of hearing in a non-mammalian vertebrate suggests a conserved and important anatomical and functional role for dopamine in normal audition. PMID:24715479

  5. Catecholaminergic connectivity to the inner ear, central auditory, and vocal motor circuitry in the plainfin midshipman fish porichthys notatus.

    PubMed

    Forlano, Paul M; Kim, Spencer D; Krzyminska, Zuzanna M; Sisneros, Joseph A

    2014-09-01

    Although the neuroanatomical distribution of catecholaminergic (CA) neurons has been well documented across all vertebrate classes, few studies have examined CA connectivity to physiologically and anatomically identified neural circuitry that controls behavior. The goal of this study was to characterize CA distribution in the brain and inner ear of the plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) with particular emphasis on their relationship with anatomically labeled circuitry that both produces and encodes social acoustic signals in this species. Neurobiotin labeling of the main auditory end organ, the saccule, combined with tyrosine hydroxylase immunofluorescence (TH-ir) revealed a strong CA innervation of both the peripheral and central auditory system. Diencephalic TH-ir neurons in the periventricular posterior tuberculum, known to be dopaminergic, send ascending projections to the ventral telencephalon and prominent descending projections to vocal-acoustic integration sites, notably the hindbrain octavolateralis efferent nucleus, as well as onto the base of hair cells in the saccule via nerve VIII. Neurobiotin backfills of the vocal nerve in combination with TH-ir revealed CA terminals on all components of the vocal pattern generator, which appears to largely originate from local TH-ir neurons but may include input from diencephalic projections as well. This study provides strong neuroanatomical evidence that catecholamines are important modulators of both auditory and vocal circuitry and acoustic-driven social behavior in midshipman fish. This demonstration of TH-ir terminals in the main end organ of hearing in a nonmammalian vertebrate suggests a conserved and important anatomical and functional role for dopamine in normal audition. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Effect of acupuncture on the auditory evoked brain stem potential in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingling; He, Chong; Liu, Yueguang; Zhu, Lili

    2002-03-01

    Under the auditory evoked brain stem potential (ABP) examination, the latent period of V wave and the intermittent periods of III-V peak and I-V peak were significantly shortened in Parkinson's disease patients of the treatment group (N = 29) after acupuncture treatment. The difference of cumulative scores in Webster's scale was also decreased in correlation analysis. The increase of dopamine in the brain and the excitability of the dopamine neurons may contribute to the therapeutic effects, in TCM terms, of subduing the pathogenic wind and tranquilizing the mind.

  7. The performance of South African English first language child speakers on a "low linguistically loaded" central auditory processing test protocol.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Nicole G; Wilson, Wayne J

    2003-01-01

    The lack of standardized tests for central auditory processing disorders (CAPD) in South Africa (SA) led to the formation of a SA CAPD Taskforce, and the interim development of a "Low Linguistically Loaded" CAPD test protocol using test recordings from the 'Tonal and Speech Materials for Auditory Perceptual Assessment Disc 2.0'. This study compared the performance of 50 SA English first language child speakers (aged 8 to 12 years of age) on this protocol, with the previously published American normative data of Bellis (1996, 2003). Results with respect to predicted pass criteria as calculated by mean-2SD cutoffs, suggested that the SA speakers performed of a lower level than the American speakers by an average of 5.3% per ear for the two pair dichotic digits test, 1.9 dB for the masking level difference test, 8.8% per ear for the frequency pattern test--humming report, 14.5% per ear for the frequency patterns test--verbal report, and 39.7% per ear for the low pass filtered speech test. Consequently, the Bellis (1996, 2003) data was not considered appropriate for immediate use as normative data in SA. Instead, the preliminary data provided in this study was recommended as interim normative data for SA English first language child speakers until larger scale SA normative data can be obtained.

  8. Lead exposure and the central auditory processing abilities and cognitive development of urban children: the Cincinnati Lead Study cohort at age 5 years

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, K.N.; Succop, P.A.; Berger, O.G.; Keith, R.W. )

    1992-01-01

    This analysis examined the relationship between lead exposure as registered in whole blood (PbB) and the central auditory processing abilities and cognitive developmental status of the Cincinnati cohort (N = 259) at age 5 years. Although the effects were small, higher prenatal, neonatal, and postnatal PbB levels were associated with poorer central auditory processing abilities on the Filtered Word Subtest of the SCAN (a screening test for auditory processing disorders). Higher postnatal PbB levels were associated with poorer performance on all cognitive developmental subscales of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC). However, following adjustment for measures of the home environment and maternal intelligence, few statistically or near statistically significant associations remained. Our findings are discussed in the context of the related issues of confounding and the detection of weak associations in high risk populations.

  9. Infectious diseases mortality in central Serbia.

    PubMed Central

    Vlajinac, H D; Marinković, J M; Kocev, N I; Adanja, B J; Pekmezović, T D; Sipetić, S B; Jovanović, D J

    1997-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence and the effect of the war in the former Yugoslavia and of the United Nations economic sanctions on mortality from infectious diseases. DESIGN: This was a descriptive study analysing mortality data time series. SETTING: Central Serbia, Yugoslavia. PARTICIPANTS: The population of central Serbia was the subject of the study (about six million inhabitants). MEASUREMENTS: Mortality rates were standardised directly, using the "European population" as the standard. Regression analysis and analysis of covariance were undertaken. MAIN RESULTS: During the period 1973-93, mortality from infectious diseases showed a decreasing trend. From 1987-90, and infectious diseases was significantly higher than expected on the basis of the trend for the preceding period (p = 0.020 and p = 0.00). In addition, there was a statistically significant departure from the preceding trend (p = 0.036) in men between 1991 and 1993 (the period of the war and UN sanctions)--the main effect being in younger age groups. CONCLUSION: The economic crisis in the former Yugoslavia during the 1980s followed by the outbreak of the war and the damaging effects of UN economic sanctions had a distinctly adverse effect on mortality from infectious diseases. PMID:9196647

  10. Atypical development of the central auditory system in young children with Autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Yuko; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Hiraishi, Hirotoshi; Hasegawa, Chiaki; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Remijn, Gerard B; Oi, Manabu; Munesue, Toshio; Higashida, Haruhiro; Minabe, Yoshio; Kojima, Haruyuki

    2016-11-01

    The P1m component of the auditory evoked magnetic field is the earliest cortical response associated with language acquisition. However, the growth curve of the P1m component is unknown in both typically developing (TD) and atypically developing children. The aim of this study is to clarify the developmental pattern of this component when evoked by binaural human voice stimulation using child-customized magnetoencephalography. A total of 35 young TD children (32-121 months of age) and 35 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (38-111 months of age) participated in this study. This is the first report to demonstrate an inverted U-shaped growth curve for the P1m dipole intensity in the left hemisphere in TD children. In addition, our results revealed a more diversified age-related distribution of auditory brain responses in 3- to 9-year-old children with ASD. These results demonstrate the diversified growth curve of the P1m component in ASD during young childhood, which is a crucial period for first language acquisition. Autism Res 2016, 9: 1216-1226. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. [Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system].

    PubMed

    Schmutzhard, E

    2010-02-01

    Central nervous system infections and infestations by protozoa and helminths constitute a problem of increasing importance throughout all of central European and northern/western countries. This is partially due to the globalisation of our society, tourists and business people being more frequently exposed to parasitic infection/infestation in tropical countries than in moderate climate countries. On top of that, migrants may import chronic infestations and infections with parasitic pathogens, eventually also--sometimes exclusively--involving the nervous system. Knowledge of epidemiology, initial clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures as well as specific chemotherapeutic therapies and adjunctive therapeutic strategies is of utmost important in all of these infections and infestations of the nervous systems, be it by protozoa or helminths. This review lists, mainly in the form of tables, all possible infections and infestations of the nervous systems by protozoa and by helminths. Besides differentiating parasitic diseases of the nervous system seen in migrants, tourists etc., it is very important to have in mind that disease-related (e.g. HIV) or iatrogenic immunosuppression has led to the increased occurrence of a wide variety of parasitic infections and infestations of the nervous system (e. g. babesiosis, Chagas disease, Strongyloides stercoralis infestation, toxoplasmosis, etc.).

  12. Refined genetic localization for central core disease

    SciTech Connect

    Mulley, J.C.; Kozman, H.M.; Phillips, H.A.; Gedeon, A.K.; McCure, J.A.; Haan, E.A. ); Iles, D.E. ); Gregg, R.G.; Hogan, K.; Couch, F.J. ); MacLennan, D.H. )

    1993-02-01

    Central core disease (CCO) is an autosomal dominant myopathy clinically distinct from malignant hyperthermia (MHS). In a large kindred in which the gene for CCO is segregating, two-point linkage analysis gave a maximum lod score, between the central core disease locus (CCO) and the ryanodine receptor locus (RYR1), of 11.8, with no recombination. Mutation within RYR1 is responsible for MHS, and RYR1 is also a candidate locus for CCO. A combination of physical mapping using a radiation-induced human-hamster hybrid panel and of multipoint linkage analysis using the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain families established the marker order and sex-average map distances (in centimorgans) on the background map as D19S75-(5.2)-D19S9-(3.4)-D19S191-(2.2)-RYR1-(1.7)-D19S190-(1.6)-D19S47-(2.0)-CYP2B. Recombination was observed between CCO and the markers flanking RYR1. These linkage data are consistent with the hypothesis that CCO and RYR1 are allelic. The most likely position for CCO is near RYR1, with a multipoint lod score of 11.4, in 19q13.1 between D19S191 and D19S190, within the same interval as MHS (RYR1). 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Effects of Auditory Rhythm and Music on Gait Disturbances in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ashoori, Aidin; Eagleman, David M; Jankovic, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Gait abnormalities, such as shuffling steps, start hesitation, and freezing, are common and often incapacitating symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other parkinsonian disorders. Pharmacological and surgical approaches have only limited efficacy in treating these gait disorders. Rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS), such as playing marching music and dance therapy, has been shown to be a safe, inexpensive, and an effective method in improving gait in PD patients. However, RAS that adapts to patients' movements may be more effective than rigid, fixed-tempo RAS used in most studies. In addition to auditory cueing, immersive virtual reality technologies that utilize interactive computer-generated systems through wearable devices are increasingly used for improving brain-body interaction and sensory-motor integration. Using multisensory cues, these therapies may be particularly suitable for the treatment of parkinsonian freezing and other gait disorders. In this review, we examine the affected neurological circuits underlying gait and temporal processing in PD patients and summarize the current studies demonstrating the effects of RAS on improving these gait deficits.

  14. Effects of Auditory Rhythm and Music on Gait Disturbances in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ashoori, Aidin; Eagleman, David M.; Jankovic, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Gait abnormalities, such as shuffling steps, start hesitation, and freezing, are common and often incapacitating symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and other parkinsonian disorders. Pharmacological and surgical approaches have only limited efficacy in treating these gait disorders. Rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS), such as playing marching music and dance therapy, has been shown to be a safe, inexpensive, and an effective method in improving gait in PD patients. However, RAS that adapts to patients’ movements may be more effective than rigid, fixed-tempo RAS used in most studies. In addition to auditory cueing, immersive virtual reality technologies that utilize interactive computer-generated systems through wearable devices are increasingly used for improving brain–body interaction and sensory–motor integration. Using multisensory cues, these therapies may be particularly suitable for the treatment of parkinsonian freezing and other gait disorders. In this review, we examine the affected neurological circuits underlying gait and temporal processing in PD patients and summarize the current studies demonstrating the effects of RAS on improving these gait deficits. PMID:26617566

  15. A developmental shift from GABAergic to glycinergic transmission in the central auditory system.

    PubMed

    Kotak, V C; Korada, S; Schwartz, I R; Sanes, D H

    1998-06-15

    GABAergic and glycinergic circuits are found throughout the auditory brainstem, and it is generally assumed that transmitter phenotype is established early in development. The present study documents a profound transition from GABAergic to glycinergic transmission in the gerbil lateral superior olive (LSO) during the first 2 postnatal weeks. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings were obtained from LSO neurons in a brain slice preparation, and IPSCs were evoked by electrical stimulation of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), a known glycinergic projection in adult animals. GABAergic and glycinergic components were identified by blocking transmission with bicuculline and strychnine (SN), respectively. In the medial limb of LSO, there was a dramatic change in the GABAergic IPSC component, decreasing from 78% at postnatal day 3 (P3)-P5 to 12% at P12-P16. There was an equal and opposite increase in the glycinergic component during this same period. Direct application of GABA also elicited significantly larger amplitude and longer duration responses in P3-P5 neurons compared with glycine-evoked responses. In contrast, MNTB-evoked IPSCs in lateral limb neurons were more sensitive to SN throughout development. Consistent with the electrophysiological observations, there was a reduction in staining for the beta2,3-GABAA receptor subunit from P4 to P14, whereas staining for the glycine receptor-associated protein gephyrin increased. Brief exposure to baclofen depressed transmission at excitatory and inhibitory synapses for approximately 15 min, suggesting a GABAB-mediated metabotropic signal. Collectively, these data demonstrate a striking switch from GABAergic to glycinergic transmission during postnatal development. Although GABA and glycine elicit similar postsynaptic ionotropic responses, our results raise the possibility that GABAergic transmission in neonates may play a developmental role distinct from that of glycine.

  16. Contribution of auditory P300 test to the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Fikriye Tüter; Özkaynak, Sehür Siber; Barçin, Ebru

    2017-09-08

    Abnormalities in auditory P300 test have been observed in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We aimed to investigate whether or not additional electrophysiological tests assist in making the clinical diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD-MCI), and we evaluated P300 changes in patients with non-demented PD and analyzed the correlation between the cognitive features and P300 changes. Twenty patients with PD who had been diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI group) according to the Movement Disorder Society (MDS) 2012 PD-MCI level II criteria, 21 patients with PD without cognitive impairment (PD-Normal group), and 20 control subjects (control group) who were neurologically normal were examined by the standard auditory oddball paradigm. The N100, P200, N200, and P300 latencies and N100-P200, P200-N200, and N200-P300 amplitudes were measured and analyzed. P300 latencies recorded from Fz, Cz, and Pz and N200 latency recorded from Fz were significantly longer in the PD-MCI group than in the PD-Normal and the control group (respectively p < 0.001, p = 0.041). P300 amplitude recorded from Fz was significantly lower in PD-MCI group than those in the other groups (p = 0.038). While P300 was obtained in all patients in the PD-Normal and the control group, it was lost in 35% of PD-MCI patients. The results show that P300 provides a diagnostic tool for detecting PDMCI. We suggest that P300 prolongation and loss of P300 potential could be used as supportive parameter in the diagnosis of PD-MCI.

  17. Silicon central pattern generators for cardiac diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nogaret, Alain; O'Callaghan, Erin L; Lataro, Renata M; Salgado, Helio C; Meliza, C Daniel; Duncan, Edward; Abarbanel, Henry D I; Paton, Julian F R

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm management devices provide therapies for both arrhythmias and resynchronisation but not heart failure, which affects millions of patients worldwide. This paper reviews recent advances in biophysics and mathematical engineering that provide a novel technological platform for addressing heart disease and enabling beat-to-beat adaptation of cardiac pacing in response to physiological feedback. The technology consists of silicon hardware central pattern generators (hCPGs) that may be trained to emulate accurately the dynamical response of biological central pattern generators (bCPGs). We discuss the limitations of present CPGs and appraise the advantages of analog over digital circuits for application in bioelectronic medicine. To test the system, we have focused on the cardio-respiratory oscillators in the medulla oblongata that modulate heart rate in phase with respiration to induce respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). We describe here a novel, scalable hCPG comprising physiologically realistic (Hodgkin–Huxley type) neurones and synapses. Our hCPG comprises two neurones that antagonise each other to provide rhythmic motor drive to the vagus nerve to slow the heart. We show how recent advances in modelling allow the motor output to adapt to physiological feedback such as respiration. In rats, we report on the restoration of RSA using an hCPG that receives diaphragmatic electromyography input and use it to stimulate the vagus nerve at specific time points of the respiratory cycle to slow the heart rate. We have validated the adaptation of stimulation to alterations in respiratory rate. We demonstrate that the hCPG is tuneable in terms of the depth and timing of the RSA relative to respiratory phase. These pioneering studies will now permit an analysis of the physiological role of RSA as well as its any potential therapeutic use in cardiac disease. PMID:25433077

  18. Silicon central pattern generators for cardiac diseases.

    PubMed

    Nogaret, Alain; O'Callaghan, Erin L; Lataro, Renata M; Salgado, Helio C; Meliza, C Daniel; Duncan, Edward; Abarbanel, Henry D I; Paton, Julian F R

    2015-02-15

    Cardiac rhythm management devices provide therapies for both arrhythmias and resynchronisation but not heart failure, which affects millions of patients worldwide. This paper reviews recent advances in biophysics and mathematical engineering that provide a novel technological platform for addressing heart disease and enabling beat-to-beat adaptation of cardiac pacing in response to physiological feedback. The technology consists of silicon hardware central pattern generators (hCPGs) that may be trained to emulate accurately the dynamical response of biological central pattern generators (bCPGs). We discuss the limitations of present CPGs and appraise the advantages of analog over digital circuits for application in bioelectronic medicine. To test the system, we have focused on the cardio-respiratory oscillators in the medulla oblongata that modulate heart rate in phase with respiration to induce respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). We describe here a novel, scalable hCPG comprising physiologically realistic (Hodgkin-Huxley type) neurones and synapses. Our hCPG comprises two neurones that antagonise each other to provide rhythmic motor drive to the vagus nerve to slow the heart. We show how recent advances in modelling allow the motor output to adapt to physiological feedback such as respiration. In rats, we report on the restoration of RSA using an hCPG that receives diaphragmatic electromyography input and use it to stimulate the vagus nerve at specific time points of the respiratory cycle to slow the heart rate. We have validated the adaptation of stimulation to alterations in respiratory rate. We demonstrate that the hCPG is tuneable in terms of the depth and timing of the RSA relative to respiratory phase. These pioneering studies will now permit an analysis of the physiological role of RSA as well as its any potential therapeutic use in cardiac disease. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  19. Blur Adaptation to Central Retinal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Diaz, Fuensanta A.; Woods, Russell L.; Peli, Eli

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The long-term, low-resolution vision experienced by individuals affected by retinal disease that causes central vision loss (CVL) may change their perception of blur through adaptation. This study used a short-term adaptation paradigm to evaluate adaptation to blur and sharpness in patients with CVL. Methods A variation of Webster's procedure was used to measure the point of subjective neutrality (PSN). The image that appeared normal after adaptation to each of seven blur and sharpness levels (PSN) was measured in 12 patients with CVL (20/60 to 20/320) and 5 subjects with normal sight (NS). Patients with CVL used a preferred retinal locus to view the images. Small control studies investigated the effects of long-term and medium-term (1 hour) defocus and diffusive blur. Results Adaptation was reliably measured in patients with CVL and in the peripheral vision of NS subjects. The shape of adaptation curves was similar in patients with CVL and both central and peripheral vision of NS subjects. No statistical correlations were found between adaptation and age, visual acuity, retinal eccentricity, or contrast sensitivity. Long-term blur experience by a non-CVL myopic participant caused a shift in the adaptation function. Conversely, medium-term adaptation did not cause a shift in the adaptation function. Conclusions Blur and sharp short-term adaptation occurred in peripheral vision of normal and diseased retinas. In most patients with CVL, neither adaptation nor blur perception was affected by long-term attention to peripheral low-resolution vision. The impact of blur/sharp adaptation on the benefit of image enhancement techniques for patients with CVL is discussed. PMID:28728172

  20. Steroid-dependent sensorineural hearing loss in a patient with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease showing auditory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yukihide; Kataoka, Yuko; Sugaya, Akiko; Kariya, Shin; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2015-06-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most common form of hereditary sensorimotor neuropathy and sometimes involves disorders of the peripheral auditory system. We present a case of steroid-dependent auditory neuropathy associated with CMT, in which the patient experienced 3 episodes of acute exacerbation of hearing loss and successful rescue of hearing by prednisolone. An 8-year-old boy was referred to the otolaryngology department at the University Hospital. He had been diagnosed with CMT type 1 (demyelinating type) at the Child Neurology Department and was suffering from mild hearing loss due to auditory neuropathy. An audiological diagnosis of auditory neuropathy was confirmed by auditory brainstem response and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions. At 9 years and 0 months old, 9 years and 2 months old, and 10 years and 0 months old, he had experienced acute exacerbations of hearing loss, each of which was successfully rescued by intravenous or oral prednisolone within 2 weeks. Steroid-responsive cases of CMT have been reported, but this is the first case report of steroid-responsive sensorineural hearing loss in CMT. The present case may have implications for the mechanisms of action of glucocorticoids in the treatment of sensorineural hearing loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Relations Among Central Auditory Abilities, Socio-Economic Factors, Speech Delay, Phonic Abilities and Reading Achievement: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Arthur; Crandell, Edwin W.

    Three auditory perceptual processes (resistance to distortion, selective listening in the form of auditory dedifferentiation, and binaural synthesis) were evaluated by five assessment techniques: (1) low pass filtered speech, (2) accelerated speech, (3) competing messages, (4) accelerated plus competing messages, and (5) binaural synthesis.…

  2. Are evoked potentials in patients with adult-onset pompe disease indicative of clinically relevant central nervous system involvement?

    PubMed

    Wirsching, Andreas; Müller-Felber, Wolfgang; Schoser, Benedikt

    2014-08-01

    Pompe disease is a multisystem autosomal recessive glycogen storage disease. Autoptic findings in patients with classic infantile and late-onset Pompe disease have proven that accumulation of glycogen can also be found in the peripheral and central nervous system. To assess the functional role of these pathologic findings, multimodal sensory evoked potentials were analyzed. Serial recordings for brainstem auditory, visual, and somatosensory evoked potentials of 11 late-onset Pompe patients were reviewed. Data at the onset of the enzyme replacement therapy with alglucosidase alfa were compared with follow-up recordings at 12 and 24 months. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials showed a delayed peak I in 1/10 patients and an increased I-III and I-V interpeak latency in 1/10 patients, respectively. The III-V interpeak latencies were in the normal range. Visual evoked potentials were completely normal. Median somatosensory evoked potentials showed an extended interpeak latency in 3/9 patients. Wilcoxon tests comparing age-matched subgroups found significant differences in brainstem auditory evoked potentials and visual evoked potentials. We found that the majority of recordings for evoked potentials were within the ranges for standard values, therefore reflecting the lack of clinically relevant central nervous system involvement. Regular surveillance by means of evoked potentials does not seem to be appropriate in late-onset Pompe patients.

  3. Evaluation of central nervous system in patients with glycogen storage disease type 1a.

    PubMed

    Aydemir, Yusuf; Gürakan, Figen; Saltık Temizel, İnci Nur; Demir, Hülya; Oğuz, Kader Karlı; Yalnızoğlu, Dilek; Topçu, Meral; Özen, Hasan; Yüce, Aysel

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate structure and functions of central nervous system (CNS) in children with glycogen storage disease (GSD) type 1a. Neurological examination, psychometric tests, electroencephalography (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), visual evoked potentials (VEP) and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) were performed. The results were compared between patients with good and poor metabolic control and healthy children. Twenty-three patients with GSD type 1a were studied. Twelve patients were in poor metabolic control group and 11 patients in good metabolic control group. Five patients had intellectual disability, 10 had EEG abnormalities, seven had abnormal VEP and two had abnormal BAEP results. MRI was abnormal in five patients. There was significant correlation between the number of hypoglycemic attacks and MRI abnormalities. Central nervous system may be affected in GSD type 1a even in patients with normal neurologic examination. Accumulation of abnormal results in patients with poor metabolic control supports the importance of metabolic control in GSD type 1a.

  4. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials (BAEP)- A Pilot Study Conducted on Young Healthy Adults from Central India

    PubMed Central

    Gandhe, Mahendra Bhauraoji; Gandhe, Swapnali Mahendra; Puttewar, A.N.; Saraf, Chhaya; Singh, Ramji

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To Evaluate I, II, III, IV, V wave latencies and I-III, III-V, I-V inter-peak latencies and V/I wave amplitude ratio in Normal subjects in Central India. Methods: We recorded BAEP from 50 healthy normal subjects from the community of same sex and geographical setup. The absolute, interpeak and wave V/I amplitude ratio were measurement and recording was done using RMS EMG EP MARK II machine manufactured by RMS recorders and Medicare system, Chandigarh. Result: Absolute, interpeak and wave V/I amplitude ratio were measured in normal subjects and compared with other previous studies. Conclusion: This study was conducted as exploratory pilot study only on male healthy controls. Since, the study conducted in different regions, there are some differences in the latencies and interpeak latencies and amplitude ratio but they are within range, so reference range of this study can be used for future studies in this Wardha region of Central India. PMID:25120971

  5. Improvements in rate of development and magnitude of force with intense auditory stimuli in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Anzak, Anam; Tan, Huiling; Pogosyan, Alek; Djamshidian, Atbin; Ling, Helen; Lees, Andrew; Brown, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease can show brief but dramatic normalization of motor activity in highly arousing situations, a phenomenon often termed paradoxical kinesis. We sought to mimic this in a controlled experimental environment. Nine patients with Parkinson's disease and nine age-matched healthy controls were asked to grip a force dynamometer as quickly and strongly as possible in response to a visual cue. A loud (96 dB) auditory stimulus was delivered at the same time as the visual cue in ~50% of randomly selected trials. In patients with Parkinson's disease, the experiment was conducted after overnight withdrawal of antiparkinsonian drugs and again 1 h after patients had taken their usual morning medication. Patients showed improvements in the peak rate of force development and the magnitude of force developed when loud auditory stimuli accompanied visual cues. Equally, they showed improvements in the times taken to reach the peak rate of force development and their maximal force. The paradoxical facilitatory effect of sound was similar whether patients were off or on their usual antiparkinsonian medication, and could be reproduced in age-matched healthy controls. We conclude that motor improvement induced by loud auditory stimuli in Parkinson's disease is related to a physiological phenomenon which survives both with and after withdrawal of antiparkinsonian medication. The potential independence of the mediating pathways from the dopaminergic system provides impetus for further investigation as it may yield a novel nondopaminergic target for therapeutic manipulation in Parkinson's disease.

  6. Verbal Auditory Cueing of Improvisational Dance: A Proposed Method for Training Agency in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Batson, Glenna; Hugenschmidt, Christina E; Soriano, Christina T

    2016-01-01

    Dance is a non-pharmacological intervention that helps maintain functional independence and quality of life in people with Parkinson's disease (PPD). Results from controlled studies on group-delivered dance for people with mild-to-moderate stage Parkinson's have shown statistically and clinically significant improvements in gait, balance, and psychosocial factors. Tested interventions include non-partnered dance forms (ballet and modern dance) and partnered (tango). In all of these dance forms, specific movement patterns initially are learned through repetition and performed in time-to-music. Once the basic steps are mastered, students may be encouraged to improvise on the learned steps as they perform them in rhythm with the music. Here, we summarize a method of teaching improvisational dance that advances previous reported benefits of dance for people with Parkinson's disease (PD). The method relies primarily on improvisational verbal auditory cueing with less emphasis on directed movement instruction. This method builds on the idea that daily living requires flexible, adaptive responses to real-life challenges. In PD, movement disorders not only limit mobility but also impair spontaneity of thought and action. Dance improvisation demands open and immediate interpretation of verbally delivered movement cues, potentially fostering the formation of spontaneous movement strategies. Here, we present an introduction to a proposed method, detailing its methodological specifics, and pointing to future directions. The viewpoint advances an embodied cognitive approach that has eco-validity in helping PPD meet the changing demands of daily living.

  7. Normal Hearing Ability but Impaired Auditory Selective Attention Associated with Prediction of Response to Donepezil in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ouchi, Yoshitaka; Meguro, Kenichi; Akanuma, Kyoko; Kato, Yuriko; Yamaguchi, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background. Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients have a poor response to the voices of caregivers. After administration of donepezil, caregivers often find that patients respond more frequently, whereas they had previously pretended to be “deaf.” We investigated whether auditory selective attention is associated with response to donepezil. Methods. The subjects were40 AD patients, 20 elderly healthy controls (HCs), and 15 young HCs. Pure tone audiometry was conducted and an original Auditory Selective Attention (ASA) test was performed with a MoCA vigilance test. Reassessment of the AD group was performed after donepezil treatment for 3 months. Results. Hearing level of the AD group was the same as that of the elderly HC group. However, ASA test scores decreased in the AD group and were correlated with the vigilance test scores. Donepezil responders (MMSE 3+) also showed improvement on the ASA test. At baseline, the responders had higher vigilance and lower ASA test scores. Conclusion. Contrary to the common view, AD patients had a similar level of hearing ability to healthy elderly. Auditory attention was impaired in AD patients, which suggests that unnecessary sounds should be avoided in nursing homes. Auditory selective attention is associated with response to donepezil in AD. PMID:26161001

  8. Relationship between SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction and central serotonergic activity based on the loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Min

    2014-02-01

    It has been hypothesized that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)-induced sexual dysfunction can occur more frequently in patients with higher central serotonergic activity, and that this higher serotonergic activity can induce inhibition of sexual desire, ejaculation, and orgasm. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship between SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction and increased serotonin. Event-related potentials for the loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP) were measured in 46 patients at a single time point. The subjects' scores on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Antidepressant Side-Effect Checklist were also determined by the investigators at the same time point. All patients had received SSRI monotherapy. Overall, 37 % (17/46) of the patients experienced some form of SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction: lack of sexual desire, impotence, orgasm, and menstrual abnormality or mastalgia were experienced by 21.7, 8.3, 15.2, and 20.6 % of the patients, respectively. The subjects were thus divided into two groups-those with and without sexual dysfunction-and their data were compared. There was a tendency for the LDAEP to be lower in the group with sexual dysfunction (1.04 ± 0.77 μV) than the group without sexual dysfunction (1.45 ± 0.86 μV), although the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.086). Furthermore, the distribution of the frequency of SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction differed marginally significantly between patients with low and high LDAEP, dichotomized according to the median LDAEP on the Cz electrode (χ (2) = 3.664, p = 0.056). There was a relatively high frequency of SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction in patients with low LDAEP.

  9. MEG biomarker of Alzheimer's disease: Absence of a prefrontal generator during auditory sensory gating.

    PubMed

    Josef Golubic, Sanja; Aine, Cheryl J; Stephen, Julia M; Adair, John C; Knoefel, Janice E; Supek, Selma

    2017-10-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG), a direct measure of neuronal activity, is an underexplored tool in the search for biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we used MEG source estimates of auditory gating generators, nonlinear correlations with neuropsychological results, and multivariate analyses to examine the sensitivity and specificity of gating topology modulation to detect AD. Our results demonstrated the use of MEG localization of a medial prefrontal (mPFC) gating generator as a discrete (binary) detector of AD at the individual level and resulted in recategorizing the participant categories in: (1) controls with mPFC generator localized in response to both the standard and deviant tones; (2) a possible preclinical stage of AD participants (a lower functioning group of controls) in which mPFC activation was localized to the deviant tone only; and (3) symptomatic AD in which mPFC activation was not localized to either the deviant or standard tones. This approach showed a large effect size (0.9) and high accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity (100%) in identifying symptomatic AD patients within a limited research sample. The present results demonstrate high potential of mPFC activation as a noninvasive biomarker of AD pathology during putative preclinical and clinical stages. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5180-5194, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. [Parasitic diseases in the central nervous system].

    PubMed

    Nawa, Yukifumi

    2005-11-01

    Along with the drastic decrease of soil-transmitted intestinal helminthiases, parasitic diseases in general are ignored, or considered as the disease of the past, in Japan. However, due to the Japanese food culture of eating raw materials, food-borne parasitic diseases are still present in Japan. The majority of food-borne parasitic diseases are zoonotic, and caused by ectopic migration of parasite larvae. They accidentally migrate into CNS to cause deleterious conditions. Clinicians should always remind about the possibility of parasitic diseases when they make differential diagnosis for CNS diseases.

  11. Auditory Delta Event-Related Oscillatory Responses are Decreased in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yener, G. G.; Güntekin, B.; Örken, D. Necioglu; Tülay, E.; Forta, H.; Başar, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Visual delta event-related (ERO) and evoked oscillations (EO) of Alzheimer patients (AD) are different than healthy. In the present study, the analysis is extented to include auditory ERO and EO in AD. The rationale is to reveal whether the auditory ERO delta responses are also reduced, and whether this is a general phenomenon in Alzheimer patients upon applying stimuli with cognitive load. Methods: Thirty-four mild AD subjects (17 de-novo and 17 medicated (cholinergic)) and seventeen healthy controls were included. Auditory oddball paradigm and sensory auditory stimuli were applied to the subjects. Oscillatory responses were analyzed by measuring maximum amplitudes in delta frequency range (0.5–3.5 Hz). Results: Auditory delta ERO (0.5–3.5 Hz) responses of healthy controls were higher than either de-novo AD or medicated AD group, without a difference between two AD subgroups. Furthermore, the auditory EO after presentation of tone bursts yielded no group difference. Conclusion: Our findings imply that delta ERO is highly unstable in AD patients in comparison to age-matched healthy controls only during the cognitive paradigm. Our results favor the hypothesis that neural delta networks are activated during cognitive tasks and that the reduced delta response is a general phenomenon in AD, due to cognitive impairment. PMID:22207418

  12. Auditory delta event-related oscillatory responses are decreased in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Yener, G G; Güntekin, B; Örken, D Necioglu; Tülay, E; Forta, H; Başar, E

    2012-01-01

    Visual delta event-related (ERO) and evoked oscillations (EO) of Alzheimer patients (AD) are different than healthy. In the present study, the analysis is extented to include auditory ERO and EO in AD. The rationale is to reveal whether the auditory ERO delta responses are also reduced, and whether this is a general phenomenon in Alzheimer patients upon applying stimuli with cognitive load. Thirty-four mild AD subjects [17 de-novo and 17 medicated (cholinergic)] and seventeen healthy controls were included. Auditory oddball paradigm and sensory auditory stimuli were applied to the subjects. Oscillatory responses were analyzed by measuring maximum amplitudes in delta frequency range (0.5-3.5 Hz). Auditory delta ERO (0.5-3.5 Hz) responses of healthy controls were higher than either de-novo AD or medicated AD group, without a difference between two AD subgroups. Furthermore, the auditory EO after presentation of tone bursts yielded no group difference. Our findings imply that delta ERO is highly unstable in AD patients in comparison to age-matched healthy controls only during the cognitive paradigm. Our results favor the hypothesis that neural delta networks are activated during cognitive tasks and that the reduced delta response is a general phenomenon in AD, due to cognitive impairment.

  13. Effect of rhythmic auditory cueing on gait in people with Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Wittwer, Joanne E; Webster, Kate E; Hill, Keith

    2013-04-01

    To determine whether rhythmic music and metronome cues alter spatiotemporal gait measures and gait variability in people with Alzheimer disease (AD). A repeated-measures study requiring participants to walk under different cueing conditions. University movement laboratory. Of the people (N=46) who met study criteria (a diagnosis of probable AD and ability to walk 100m) at routine medical review, 30 (16 men; mean age ± SD, 80±6y; revised Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination range, 26-79) volunteered to participate. Participants walked 4 times over an electronic walkway synchronizing to (1) rhythmic music and (2) a metronome set at individual mean baseline comfortable speed cadence. Gait spatiotemporal measures and gait variability (coefficient of variation [CV]). Data from individual walks under each condition were combined. A 1-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare uncued baseline, cued, and retest measures. Gait velocity decreased with both music and metronome cues compared with baseline (baseline, 110.5cm/s; music, 103.4cm/s; metronome, 105.4cm/s), primarily because of significant decreases in stride length (baseline, 120.9cm; music, 112.5cm; metronome, 114.8cm) with both cue types. This was coupled with increased stride length variability compared with baseline (baseline CV, 3.4%; music CV, 4.3%; metronome CV, 4.5%) with both cue types. These changes did not persist at (uncued) retest. Temporal variability was unchanged. Rhythmic auditory cueing at comfortable speed tempo produced deleterious effects on gait in a single session in this group with AD. The deterioration in spatial gait parameters may result from impaired executive function associated with AD. Further research should investigate whether these instantaneous cue effects are altered with more practice or with learning methods tailored to people with cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  14. Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test scores can be predicted from whole brain MRI in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Elaheh; Hallikainen, Ilona; Hänninen, Tuomo; Tohka, Jussi

    2017-01-01

    Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is a powerful neuropsychological tool for testing episodic memory, which is widely used for the cognitive assessment in dementia and pre-dementia conditions. Several studies have shown that an impairment in RAVLT scores reflect well the underlying pathology caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD), thus making RAVLT an effective early marker to detect AD in persons with memory complaints. We investigated the association between RAVLT scores (RAVLT Immediate and RAVLT Percent Forgetting) and the structural brain atrophy caused by AD. The aim was to comprehensively study to what extent the RAVLT scores are predictable based on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data using machine learning approaches as well as to find the most important brain regions for the estimation of RAVLT scores. For this, we built a predictive model to estimate RAVLT scores from gray matter density via elastic net penalized linear regression model. The proposed approach provided highly significant cross-validated correlation between the estimated and observed RAVLT Immediate (R = 0.50) and RAVLT Percent Forgetting (R = 0.43) in a dataset consisting of 806 AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or healthy subjects. In addition, the selected machine learning method provided more accurate estimates of RAVLT scores than the relevance vector regression used earlier for the estimation of RAVLT based on MRI data. The top predictors were medial temporal lobe structures and amygdala for the estimation of RAVLT Immediate and angular gyrus, hippocampus and amygdala for the estimation of RAVLT Percent Forgetting. Further, the conversion of MCI subjects to AD in 3-years could be predicted based on either observed or estimated RAVLT scores with an accuracy comparable to MRI-based biomarkers.

  15. Antidromic activation reveals tonotopically organized projections from primary auditory cortex to the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus in guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hubert H; Anderson, David J

    2007-02-01

    The inferior colliculus (IC) is highly modulated by descending projections from higher auditory and nonauditory centers. Traditionally, corticofugal fibers were believed to project mainly to the extralemniscal IC regions. However, there is some anatomical evidence suggesting that a substantial number of fibers from the primary auditory cortex (A1) project into the IC central nucleus (ICC) and appear to be tonotopically organized. In this study, we used antidromic stimulation combined with other electrophysiological techniques to further investigate the spatial organization of descending fibers from A1 to the ICC in ketamine-anesthetized guinea pigs. Based on our findings, corticofugal fibers originate predominantly from layer V of A1, are amply scattered throughout the ICC and only project to ICC neurons with a similar best frequency (BF). This strict tonotopic pattern suggests that these corticofugal projections are involved with modulating spectral features of sound. Along the isofrequency dimension of the ICC, there appears to be some differences in projection patterns that depend on BF region and possibly isofrequency location within A1 and may be indicative of different descending coding strategies. Furthermore, the success of the antidromic stimulation method in our study demonstrates that it can be used to investigate some of the functional properties associated with corticofugal projections to the ICC as well as to other regions (e.g., medial geniculate body, cochlear nucleus). Such a method can address some of the limitations with current anatomical techniques for studying the auditory corticofugal system.

  16. AN EVALUATION OF SELF-ADMINISTRATION OF AUDITORY CUEING TO IMPROVE GAIT IN PERSONS WITH PARKINSON’S DISEASE (PD)

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, MS; Rintala, DH; Lai, EC; Protas, EJ

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate a self-administration of auditory cueing on gait difficulties in persons with Parkinson’s disease (PD) over a one week period. Design Single group pre- and post-test Setting Research lab, Community. Participants Twenty-one individuals with PD. Interventions Self-application of an auditory pacer set at a rate 25% faster than preferred cadence. Main outcome measures Self-selected gait speed, cadence, stride length, and double support time with and without the pacer at the initial visit and after 1-week of pacer use. Results During the initial visit, the auditory pacer improved gait speed (79.57 (18.13) cm/s vs. 94.02 (22.61) cm/s, p<.0005), cadence (102.88 (11.34) step/min vs. 109.22 (10.23) step/min, p= .036) and stride length (94.33 (21.31) cm vs. 103.5 (22.65) cm, p=.012). After one week, preferred gait speed was faster than the initial preferred speed (79.57 (18.13) vs. 95.20 (22.23) cm/s, p<.0005). Stride length was significantly increased (94.33 (21.31) vs. 107.67 (20.01) cm, p=.001). Double support time was decreased from 21.73 (5.23) to 18.94 (3.59) % Gait Cycle, p=.016. Conclusion Gait performance in persons with PD improved significantly after walking with the auditory pacer for one week. PMID:19786421

  17. Symmetry matched auditory cues improve gait steadiness in most people with Parkinson's disease but not in healthy older people.

    PubMed

    Brodie, Matthew A D; Dean, Roger T; Beijer, Tim R; Canning, Colleen G; Smith, Stuart T; Menant, Jasmine C; Lord, Stephen R

    2015-01-01

    Unsteady gait and falls are major problems for people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Symmetric auditory cues at altered cadences have been used to improve walking speed or step length. However, few people are exactly symmetric in terms of morphology or movement patterns and effects of symmetric cueing on gait steadiness are inconclusive. To investigate if matching auditory cue a/symmetry to an individual's intrinsic symmetry or asymmetry affects gait steadiness, gait symmetry, and comfort to cues, in people with PD, healthy age-matched controls (HAM) and young. Thirty participants; 10 with PD, 11 HAM (66 years), and 9 young (30 years), completed five baseline walks (no cues) and twenty-five cued walks at habitual cadence but different a/symmetries. Outcomes included; gait steadiness (step time variability and smoothness by harmonic ratios), walking speed, symmetry, comfort, and cue lag times. Without cues, PD participants had slower and less steady gait than HAM or young. Gait symmetry was distinct from gait steadiness, and unaffected by cue symmetry or a diagnosis of PD, but associated with aging. All participants maintained preferred gait symmetry and lag times independent of cue symmetry. When cues were matched to the individual's habitual gait symmetry and cadence: Gait steadiness improved in the PD group, but deteriorated in the HAM controls, and was unchanged in the young. Gait outcomes worsened for the two PD participants who reported discomfort to cued walking and had high New Freezing of Gait scores. It cannot be assumed all individuals benefit equally from auditory cues. Symmetry matched auditory cues compensated for unsteady gait in most people with PD, but interfered with gait steadiness in older people without basal ganglia deficits.

  18. Coral disease dynamics in the central Philippines.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarsky, Longin T

    2006-03-23

    Limited quantitative research has been conducted on coral disease in the Philippines and baseline data are much needed. Field surveys for prevalence and distribution patterns were conducted from November 2002 to August 2003. Sites included the islands of Negros, Cebu, Siquijor, Panglao, Olango, Sumilon, Bantayan, Pescador, Balicassag and Palawan. In 154 belt transects, 10 026 Porites colonies were examined at 28 sites covering 3080 m2. Two syndromes, Porites ulcerative white spot (PUWS) and coral tumors, occurred at high prevalence. Tumors as high as 39.1% occurred among massive Porites, and PUWS was as high as 53.7% among massive and branching Porites. In 8 mo, 116 tagged colonies showed slow progression and low mortality. Along a 41 km human impact gradient centered on Dumaguete City (Negros), 15 sites were examined. Correlation analyses linked higher disease prevalence to anthropogenic influence (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient [r(s)] = -0.54, p = 0.04 for tumors and r(s) = -0.69, p = 0.005 for PUWS). In most sites disease prevalence was lower than in the sites near Dumaguete. High PUWS prevalence near uninhabited Sumilon Island appeared to be linked to the highly diseased reefs near Dumaguete City due to transmission of disease along a cross-shelf front formed between the Tañon Strait and Bohol Sea. Other observations included 12 potential new host species for PUWS (4 new genera and 1 octocorallia) and 5 likely new hosts for black band disease (BBD) in the Philippines, and a relatively high prevalence (7.8%) of BBD in 1 site in western Palawan.

  19. Electrical synaptic transmission in developing zebrafish: properties and molecular composition of gap junctions at a central auditory synapse

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Cong; Vanderpool, Kimberly G.; Delfiner, Matthew; Eddy, Vanessa; Lucaci, Alexander G.; Soto-Riveros, Carolina; Yasumura, Thomas; Rash, John E.

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the knowledge of chemical synapses, little is known regarding the properties of gap junction-mediated electrical synapses in developing zebrafish, which provide a valuable model to study neural function at the systems level. Identifiable “mixed” (electrical and chemical) auditory synaptic contacts known as “club endings” on Mauthner cells (2 large reticulospinal neurons involved in tail-flip escape responses) allow exploration of electrical transmission in fish. Here, we show that paralleling the development of auditory responses, electrical synapses at these contacts become anatomically identifiable at day 3 postfertilization, reaching a number of ∼6 between days 4 and 9. Furthermore, each terminal contains ∼18 gap junctions, representing between 2,000 and 3,000 connexon channels formed by the teleost homologs of mammalian connexin 36. Electrophysiological recordings revealed that gap junctions at each of these contacts are functional and that synaptic transmission has properties that are comparable with those of adult fish. Thus a surprisingly small number of mixed synapses are responsible for the acquisition of auditory responses by the Mauthner cells, and these are likely sufficient to support escape behaviors at early developmental stages. PMID:25080573

  20. Auditory pathways: anatomy and physiology.

    PubMed

    Pickles, James O

    2015-01-01

    This chapter outlines the anatomy and physiology of the auditory pathways. After a brief analysis of the external, middle ears, and cochlea, the responses of auditory nerve fibers are described. The central nervous system is analyzed in more detail. A scheme is provided to help understand the complex and multiple auditory pathways running through the brainstem. The multiple pathways are based on the need to preserve accurate timing while extracting complex spectral patterns in the auditory input. The auditory nerve fibers branch to give two pathways, a ventral sound-localizing stream, and a dorsal mainly pattern recognition stream, which innervate the different divisions of the cochlear nucleus. The outputs of the two streams, with their two types of analysis, are progressively combined in the inferior colliculus and onwards, to produce the representation of what can be called the "auditory objects" in the external world. The progressive extraction of critical features in the auditory stimulus in the different levels of the central auditory system, from cochlear nucleus to auditory cortex, is described. In addition, the auditory centrifugal system, running from cortex in multiple stages to the organ of Corti of the cochlea, is described. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of the auditory system.

    PubMed

    Litovsky, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Auditory development involves changes in the peripheral and central nervous system along the auditory pathways, and these occur naturally, and in response to stimulation. Human development occurs along a trajectory that can last decades, and is studied using behavioral psychophysics, as well as physiologic measurements with neural imaging. The auditory system constructs a perceptual space that takes information from objects and groups, segregates sounds, and provides meaning and access to communication tools such as language. Auditory signals are processed in a series of analysis stages, from peripheral to central. Coding of information has been studied for features of sound, including frequency, intensity, loudness, and location, in quiet and in the presence of maskers. In the latter case, the ability of the auditory system to perform an analysis of the scene becomes highly relevant. While some basic abilities are well developed at birth, there is a clear prolonged maturation of auditory development well into the teenage years. Maturation involves auditory pathways. However, non-auditory changes (attention, memory, cognition) play an important role in auditory development. The ability of the auditory system to adapt in response to novel stimuli is a key feature of development throughout the nervous system, known as neural plasticity.

  2. Development of the auditory system

    PubMed Central

    Litovsky, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Auditory development involves changes in the peripheral and central nervous system along the auditory pathways, and these occur naturally, and in response to stimulation. Human development occurs along a trajectory that can last decades, and is studied using behavioral psychophysics, as well as physiologic measurements with neural imaging. The auditory system constructs a perceptual space that takes information from objects and groups, segregates sounds, and provides meaning and access to communication tools such as language. Auditory signals are processed in a series of analysis stages, from peripheral to central. Coding of information has been studied for features of sound, including frequency, intensity, loudness, and location, in quiet and in the presence of maskers. In the latter case, the ability of the auditory system to perform an analysis of the scene becomes highly relevant. While some basic abilities are well developed at birth, there is a clear prolonged maturation of auditory development well into the teenage years. Maturation involves auditory pathways. However, non-auditory changes (attention, memory, cognition) play an important role in auditory development. The ability of the auditory system to adapt in response to novel stimuli is a key feature of development throughout the nervous system, known as neural plasticity. PMID:25726262

  3. Effects of Methylphenidate (Ritalin) on Auditory Performance in Children with Attention and Auditory Processing Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillery, Kim L.; Katz, Jack; Keller, Warren D.

    2000-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined effects of methylphenidate (Ritalin) on auditory processing in 32 children with both attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and central auditory processing (CAP) disorder. Analyses revealed that Ritalin did not have a significant effect on any of the central auditory processing measures, although…

  4. Effects of Methylphenidate (Ritalin) on Auditory Performance in Children with Attention and Auditory Processing Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillery, Kim L.; Katz, Jack; Keller, Warren D.

    2000-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined effects of methylphenidate (Ritalin) on auditory processing in 32 children with both attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and central auditory processing (CAP) disorder. Analyses revealed that Ritalin did not have a significant effect on any of the central auditory processing measures, although…

  5. Prolonged Walking with a Wearable System Providing Intelligent Auditory Input in People with Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ginis, Pieter; Heremans, Elke; Ferrari, Alberto; Dockx, Kim; Canning, Colleen G.; Nieuwboer, Alice

    2017-01-01

    Rhythmic auditory cueing is a well-accepted tool for gait rehabilitation in Parkinson’s disease (PD), which can now be applied in a performance-adapted fashion due to technological advance. This study investigated the immediate differences on gait during a prolonged, 30 min, walk with performance-adapted (intelligent) auditory cueing and verbal feedback provided by a wearable sensor-based system as alternatives for traditional cueing. Additionally, potential effects on self-perceived fatigue were assessed. Twenty-eight people with PD and 13 age-matched healthy elderly (HE) performed four 30 min walks with a wearable cue and feedback system. In randomized order, participants received: (1) continuous auditory cueing; (2) intelligent cueing (10 metronome beats triggered by a deviating walking rhythm); (3) intelligent feedback (verbal instructions triggered by a deviating walking rhythm); and (4) no external input. Fatigue was self-scored at rest and after walking during each session. The results showed that while HE were able to maintain cadence for 30 min during all conditions, cadence in PD significantly declined without input. With continuous cueing and intelligent feedback people with PD were able to maintain cadence (p = 0.04), although they were more physically fatigued than HE. Furthermore, cadence deviated significantly more in people with PD than in HE without input and particularly with intelligent feedback (both: p = 0.04). In PD, continuous and intelligent cueing induced significantly less deviations of cadence (p = 0.006). Altogether, this suggests that intelligent cueing is a suitable alternative for the continuous mode during prolonged walking in PD, as it induced similar effects on gait without generating levels of fatigue beyond that of HE. PMID:28428770

  6. Central auditory processing during chronic tinnitus as indexed by topographical maps of the mismatch negativity obtained with the multi-feature paradigm.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudian, Saeid; Farhadi, Mohammad; Najafi-Koopaie, Mojtaba; Darestani-Farahani, Ehsan; Mohebbi, Mehrnaz; Dengler, Reinhard; Esser, Karl-Heinz; Sadjedi, Hamed; Salamat, Behrouz; Danesh, Ali A; Lenarz, Thomas

    2013-08-21

    This study aimed to compare the neural correlates of acoustic stimulus representation in the auditory sensory memory on an automatic basis between tinnitus subjects and normal hearing (NH) controls, using topographical maps of the MMNs obtained with the multi-feature paradigm. A new and faster paradigm was adopted to look for differences between 2 groups of subjects. Twenty-eight subjects with chronic subjective idiopathic tinnitus and 33 matched healthy controls were included in the study. Brain electrical activity mapping of multi-feature MMN paradigm was recorded from 32 surface scalp electrodes. Three MMN parameters for five deviants consisting frequency, intensity, duration, location and silent gap were compared between the two groups. The MMN amplitude, latency and area under the curve over a region of interest comprising: F3, F4, Fz, FC3, FC4, FCz, and Cz were computed to provide better signal to noise ratio. These three measures could differentiate the cognitive processing disturbances in tinnitus sufferers. The MMN topographic maps revealed significant differences in amplitude and area under the curve for frequency, duration and silent gap deviants in tinnitus subjects compared to NH controls. The current study provides electrophysiological evidence supporting the theory that the pre-attentive and automatic central auditory processing is impaired in individuals with chronic tinnitus. Considering the advantages offered by the MMN paradigm used here, these data might be a useful reference point for the assessment of sensory memory in tinnitus patients and it can be applied with reliability and success in treatment monitoring.

  7. Abnormal Degree Centrality of Bilateral Putamen and Left Superior Frontal Gyrus in Schizophrenia with Auditory Hallucinations: A Resting-state Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng; Wang, Hui-Ling; Wu, Shi-Hao; Huang, Huan; Zou, Ji-Lin; Chen, Jun; Jiang, Tian-Zi; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Gao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dysconnectivity hypothesis of schizophrenia has been increasingly emphasized. Recent researches showed that this dysconnectivity might be related to occurrence of auditory hallucination (AH). However, there is still no consistent conclusion. This study aimed to explore intrinsic dysconnectivity pattern of whole-brain functional networks at voxel level in schizophrenic with AH. Methods: Auditory hallucinated patients group (n = 42 APG), no hallucinated patients group (n = 42 NPG) and normal controls (n = 84 NCs) were analyzed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The functional connectivity metrics index (degree centrality [DC]) across the entire brain networks was calculated and evaluated among three groups. Results: DC decreased in the bilateral putamen and increased in the left superior frontal gyrus in all the patients. However, in APG, the changes of DC were more obvious compared with NPG. Symptomology scores were negatively correlated with the DC of bilateral putamen in all patients. AH score of APG positively correlated with the DC in left superior frontal gyrus but negatively correlated with the DC in bilateral putamen. Conclusion: Our findings corroborated that schizophrenia was characterized by functional dysconnectivity, and the abnormal DC in bilateral putamen and left superior frontal gyrus might be crucial in the occurrence of AH. PMID:26612293

  8. Inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system in dogs.

    PubMed

    Thomas, W B

    1998-08-01

    Inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) are important causes of seizures in dogs. Specific diseases include canine distemper, rabies, cryptococcosis, coccidioidomycosis, toxoplasmosis, neosporosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, ehrlichiosis, granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis, and pug dog encephalitis. Inflammatory disorders should be considered when a dog with seizures has persistent neurological deficits, suffers an onset of seizures at less than 1 or greater than 5 years of age, or exhibits signs of systemic illness. A thorough history, examination, and analysis of cerebrospinal fluid are important in the diagnosis of inflammatory diseases. However, even with extensive diagnostic testing, a specific etiology is identified in less than two thirds of dogs with inflammatory diseases of the CNS.

  9. Weak central coherence in patients with Alzheimer's disease(•).

    PubMed

    Mårdh, Selina

    2013-03-15

    Central coherence refers to the ability to interpret details of information into a whole. To date, the concept of central coherence is mainly used in research of autism, Asperger's syndrome and recently in the research on eating disorders. The main purpose of the present study was to examine central coherence in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Nine Alzheimer's disease patients and ten age- and gender-matched control subjects, who differed significantly in neurological assessment, were shown a picture of a fire. Compared to control subjects, the Alzheimer's disease patients described the picture in a fragmented way by mentioning details and separate objects without perceiving the context of the fire. In conclusion, patients with Alzheimer's disease are at the weak end of central coherence, and hence suffer from a fragmented view of their surroundings. The findings have important clinical implications for the understanding of patients with Alzheimer's diseaseand also for the possibility of caregivers to meet the Alzheimer's disease individual in an appropriate way in the everyday care.

  10. Nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway in the peripheral and central auditory system of the rat.

    PubMed

    Fessenden, J D; Altschuler, R A; Seasholtz, A F; Schacht, J

    1999-02-01

    The neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) were localized in the cochlea, the cochlear nucleus (CN), and the superior olivary complex (SOC) of Fisher 344 rats. In the cochlea, nNOS was identified in spiral ganglion cells by using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-diaphorase histochemistry and in situ hybridization. NADPH-diaphorase staining also was detected in blood vessels of the modiolus. By using immunohistochemistry against cyclic guanosine monophosphate, cochlear sGC activity was localized to pericytes in the spiral ligament as well as nerve fibers innervating outer hair cells. In the lower auditory brainstem, nNOS was localized to principal cells of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) with NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry and in situ hybridization. NADPH-diaphorase activity also was observed in the lateral and medial superior olive (LSO and MSO, respectively), the superior periolivary nucleus (SPN), the ventral and lateral nuclei of the trapezoid body (VNTB and LNTB, respectively), and the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN). Transcripts of the beta-subunit of sGC were localized in rat brainstem by using in situ hybridization. mRNA for sGC was expressed in neurons within the SPN, LSO, MSO, LNTB, MNTB, VNTB, and VCN. Highest levels of sGC expression were seen in the SPN. These results suggest that the NO/cGMP pathway is involved in both the ascending and descending pathways of the auditory brainstem.

  11. Effect of sound deprivation on central hearing.

    PubMed

    Welsh, L W; Welsh, J J; Healy, M P

    1983-12-01

    The authors have investigated the thesis that intermittent hearing impairment due to middle ear disease in the early years of life results in a central auditory disturbance which may persist in adulthood. The concept that, during the speech development years, auditory disturbances interfere with the normal maturation of central auditory processing appear to be clearly established. Thirty-five children, free of active ear disease and normally hearing by standard peripheral audiometry, are the basis for the study. The monotic tests employing temporal and frequency distortion and the dichotic challenges of competing stimuli and central integration provide the test data. Approximately 75% of the study group fail at least 1 segment of the battery, beyond 2 standard deviations from the normal data. A decreasing percentage of the study group exceed the normative values in 2 or more of the test components. In view of these data on aggressive program of auditory conservation is suggested during the early years of life.

  12. Isolated central nervous system Whipple's disease: Two cases.

    PubMed

    Vural, Atay; Acar, Nazire Pinar; Soylemezoglu, Figen; Oguz, Kader K; Dericioğlu, Neşe; Saka, Esen

    2015-12-01

    Although it is an orphan disease, isolated central nervous system Whipple's disease is one of the "must be known" conditions in neurology because it belongs to the list of "treatable disorders". Here, we present two cases which highlight the importance of early diagnosis. Additionally, we provide a discussion on up to date diagnostic approach to this life-threatening disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The effects of startle and non-startle auditory stimuli on wrist flexion movement in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Del-Olmo, Miguel; Bello, Olalla; Lopez-Alonso, Virginia; Marquez, G; Sanchez, Jose A; Morenilla, Luis; Valls-Solé, Josep

    2013-08-26

    Startle stimuli lead to shorter reaction times in control subjects and Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. However, non-startle stimuli also enhance movement initiation in PD. We wanted to examine whether a startle-triggered movement would retain similar kinematic and EMG-related characteristics compared to one induced by a non-startle external cue in PD patients. In this study we investigated the electromyography pattern and the reaction time during a wrist flexion movement in response to three different stimuli: a visual imperative stimulus; visual stimulus simultaneous with a non-startle auditory stimulus and with a startle auditory stimulus. Ten PD patients and ten aged matched controls participated in this study. The reaction times were faster for startle and non-startle stimuli in comparison with the visual imperative stimulus, in both patients and control subjects. The startle cue induced a faster reaction than the non-startle cue. The electromyography pattern remained unchanged across the conditions. The results suggest that the startle reaction effect for upper limb movements are unimpaired in PD patients and has different characteristics than the effect of non-startle stimuli. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Auditory agnosia.

    PubMed

    Slevc, L Robert; Shell, Alison R

    2015-01-01

    Auditory agnosia refers to impairments in sound perception and identification despite intact hearing, cognitive functioning, and language abilities (reading, writing, and speaking). Auditory agnosia can be general, affecting all types of sound perception, or can be (relatively) specific to a particular domain. Verbal auditory agnosia (also known as (pure) word deafness) refers to deficits specific to speech processing, environmental sound agnosia refers to difficulties confined to non-speech environmental sounds, and amusia refers to deficits confined to music. These deficits can be apperceptive, affecting basic perceptual processes, or associative, affecting the relation of a perceived auditory object to its meaning. This chapter discusses what is known about the behavioral symptoms and lesion correlates of these different types of auditory agnosia (focusing especially on verbal auditory agnosia), evidence for the role of a rapid temporal processing deficit in some aspects of auditory agnosia, and the few attempts to treat the perceptual deficits associated with auditory agnosia. A clear picture of auditory agnosia has been slow to emerge, hampered by the considerable heterogeneity in behavioral deficits, associated brain damage, and variable assessments across cases. Despite this lack of clarity, these striking deficits in complex sound processing continue to inform our understanding of auditory perception and cognition.

  15. Children with chronic lung diseases have cognitive dysfunction as assessed by event-related potential (auditory P300) and Stanford-Binet IQ (SB-IV) test.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Terez Boshra; Abd Elmonaem, Mahmoud Tarek; Khalil, Lobna Hamed; Goda, Mona Hamdy; Sanyelbhaa, Hossam; Ramzy, Mourad Alfy

    2016-10-01

    Chronic lung disease (CLD) in children represents a heterogeneous group of many clinico-pathological entities with risk of adverse impact of chronic or intermittent hypoxia. So far, few researchers have investigated the cognitive function in these children, and the role of auditory P300 in the assessment of their cognitive function has not been investigated yet. This study was designed to assess the cognitive functions among schoolchildren with different chronic pulmonary diseases using both auditory P300 and Stanford-Binet test. This cross-sectional study included 40 school-aged children who were suffering from chronic chest troubles other than asthma and 30 healthy children of similar age, gender and socioeconomic state as a control group. All subjects were evaluated through clinical examination, radiological evaluation and spirometry. Audiological evaluation included (basic otological examination, pure-tone, speech audiometry and immittancemetry). Cognitive function was assessed by auditory P300 and psychological evaluation using Stanford-Binet test (4th edition). Children with chronic lung diseases had significantly lower anthropometric measures compared to healthy controls. They had statistically significant lower IQ scores and delayed P300 latencies denoting lower cognitive abilities. Cognitive dysfunction correlated to severity of disease. P300 latencies were prolonged among hypoxic patients. Cognitive deficits in children with different chronic lung diseases were best detected using both Stanford-Binet test and auditory P300. P300 is an easy objective tool. P300 is affected early with hypoxia and could alarm subtle cognitive dysfunction.

  16. Late components of motor unit potentials in central core disease

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Terradas, J. M.; Lopez, M. Conde

    1979-01-01

    Electromyographic studies in five patients suffering from central core disease are presented. A variable amount of late components of motor unit potentials were found in all of them, as others have found in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. This suggests the existence of collateral innervation of the resultant fragments of the muscular fibre splitting present in this disorder. Images PMID:448385

  17. Central Venous Disease in Hemodialysis Patients: An Update

    SciTech Connect

    Modabber, Milad; Kundu, Sanjoy

    2013-08-01

    Central venous occlusive disease (CVD) is a common concern among the hemodialysis patient population, with the potential to cause significant morbidity. Endovascular management of CVD, comprising percutaneous balloon angioplasty and bare-metal stenting, has been established as a safe alternative to open surgical treatment. However, these available treatments have poor long-term patency, requiring close surveillance and multiple repeat interventions. Recently, covered stents have been proposed and their efficacy assessed for the treatment of recalcitrant central venous stenosis and obstruction. Moreover, newly proposed algorithms for the surgical management of CVD warrant consideration. Here, we seek to provide an updated review of the current literature on the various treatment modalities for CVD.

  18. Central venous disease in hemodialysis patients: an update.

    PubMed

    Modabber, Milad; Kundu, Sanjoy

    2013-08-01

    Central venous occlusive disease (CVD) is a common concern among the hemodialysis patient population, with the potential to cause significant morbidity. Endovascular management of CVD, comprising percutaneous balloon angioplasty and bare-metal stenting, has been established as a safe alternative to open surgical treatment. However, these available treatments have poor long-term patency, requiring close surveillance and multiple repeat interventions. Recently, covered stents have been proposed and their efficacy assessed for the treatment of recalcitrant central venous stenosis and obstruction. Moreover, newly proposed algorithms for the surgical management of CVD warrant consideration. Here, we seek to provide an updated review of the current literature on the various treatment modalities for CVD.

  19. Auditory Imagination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croft, Martyn

    Auditory imagination is used in this paper to describe a number of issues and activities related to sound and having to do with listening, thinking, recalling, imagining, reshaping, creating, and uttering sounds and words. Examples of auditory imagination in religious and literary works are cited that indicate a belief in an imagined, expected, or…

  20. The performance of South African English first and second adult speakers on a "low linguistically loaded" central auditory processing test protocol.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Safia; Campbell, Nicole G; Wilson, Wayne J

    2003-01-01

    The lack of standardized tests of central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) in South Africa (SA) led to the formation of a SA CAPD Taskforce, and the interim development of a "low linguistically loaded" CAPD test protocol using test recordings from the 'Tonal and Speech Materials for Auditory Perceptual Assessment Disc 2.0'. This study inferentially compared the performance of 16 SA English first, and 16 SA English second, language adult speakers on this test protocol, and descriptively compared their performances to previously published American normative data. Comparisons between the SA English first and second language speakers showed a poorer right ear performance (p < .05) by the second language speakers on the two-pair dichotic digits test only. Equivalent performances (p < .05) were observed on the left ear performance on the two pair dichotic digits test, and the frequency patterns test, the duration patterns test, the low-pass filtered speech test, the 45% time compressed speech test, the speech masking level difference test, and the consonant vowel consonant (CVC) binaural fusion test. Comparisons between the SA English and the American normative data showed many large differences (up to 37.1% with respect to predicted pass criteria as calculated by mean-2SD cutoffs), with the SA English speakers performing both better and worse depending on the test involved. As a result, the American normative data was not considered appropriate for immediate use as normative data in SA. Instead, the preliminary data provided in this study was recommended as interim normative data for both SA English first and second language adult speakers, until larger scale SA normative data can be obtained.

  1. Differences in central serotoninergic transmission among patients with recent onset, sub-chronic, and chronic schizophrenia as assessed by the loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Min; Jung, Eunjoo; Kim, Hyang Sook; Hahn, Sang Woo; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2015-10-01

    Previous research has shown that abnormalities in serotonin systems are associated with schizophrenia. The loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP) has been used as a metric of central serotonin activity. The present study aimed to evaluate LDAEP in patients with schizophrenia of differing chronicity. Sixty-four patients with schizophrenia and 50 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. LDAEP and psychometric ratings, such as the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS), were measured. The cohort was stratified into three subgroups according to the duration of illness: recent onset (<2years, n=21), sub-chronic (2-9years, n=28), and chronic (≥10years, n=15) groups. The LDAEP differed significantly among the three groups. A post-hoc analysis (Bonferroni) demonstrated that the LDAEP differed significantly between the recent onset and chronic groups (p=0.029), and between the healthy control and chronic groups (p=0.008). Age, sex, dosage of antipsychotics, and smoking did not significantly affect the group differences. In the correlation analysis, there was a significant correlation of LDAEP values with illness duration (r=-0.259, p=0.045). The present study verifies that the LDAEP is related to the duration of illness in patients with schizophrenia. This suggests that central serotonin neurotransmission is changeable, and it may depend on the chronicity of schizophrenia pathology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Central auditory plasticity after carboplatin-induced unilateral inner ear damage in the chinchilla: up-regulation of GAP-43 in the ventral cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Kraus, K S; Ding, D; Zhou, Y; Salvi, R J

    2009-09-01

    Inner ear damage may lead to structural changes in the central auditory system. In rat and chinchilla, cochlear ablation and noise trauma result in fiber growth and synaptogenesis in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN). In this study, we documented the relationship between carboplatin-induced hair cell degeneration and VCN plasticity in the chinchilla. Unilateral application of carboplatin (5mg/ml) on the round window membrane resulted in massive hair cell loss. Outer hair cell degeneration showed a pronounced basal-to-apical gradient while inner hair cell loss was more equally distributed throughout the cochlea. Expression of the growth associated protein GAP-43, a well-established marker for synaptic plasticity, was up-regulated in the ipsilateral VCN at 15 and 31 days post-carboplatin, but not at 3 and 7 days. In contrast, the dorsal cochlear nucleus showed only little change. In VCN, the high-frequency area dorsally showed slightly yet significantly stronger GAP-43 up-regulation than the low-frequency area ventrally, possibly reflecting the high-to-low frequency gradient of hair cell degeneration. Synaptic modification or formation of new synapses may be a homeostatic process to re-adjust mismatched inputs from two ears. Alternatively, massive fiber growth may represent a deleterious process causing central hyperactivity that leads to loudness recruitment or tinnitus.

  3. [VARICELLA ZOSTER VIRUS AND DISEASES OF CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VESSELS].

    PubMed

    Kazanova, A S; Lavrov, V F; Zverev, V V

    2015-01-01

    Systemized data on epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, diagnostics and therapy of VZV-vasculopathy--a disease, occurring due to damage of arteries of the central nervous system by Varicella Zoster virus, are presented in the review. A special attention in the paper is given to the effect of vaccine prophylaxis of chicken pox and herpes zoster on the frequency of development and course of VZV-vasculopathy.

  4. Auditory and audio-visual processing in patients with cochlear, auditory brainstem, and auditory midbrain implants: An EEG study.

    PubMed

    Schierholz, Irina; Finke, Mareike; Kral, Andrej; Büchner, Andreas; Rach, Stefan; Lenarz, Thomas; Dengler, Reinhard; Sandmann, Pascale

    2017-04-01

    There is substantial variability in speech recognition ability across patients with cochlear implants (CIs), auditory brainstem implants (ABIs), and auditory midbrain implants (AMIs). To better understand how this variability is related to central processing differences, the current electroencephalography (EEG) study compared hearing abilities and auditory-cortex activation in patients with electrical stimulation at different sites of the auditory pathway. Three different groups of patients with auditory implants (Hannover Medical School; ABI: n = 6, CI: n = 6; AMI: n = 2) performed a speeded response task and a speech recognition test with auditory, visual, and audio-visual stimuli. Behavioral performance and cortical processing of auditory and audio-visual stimuli were compared between groups. ABI and AMI patients showed prolonged response times on auditory and audio-visual stimuli compared with NH listeners and CI patients. This was confirmed by prolonged N1 latencies and reduced N1 amplitudes in ABI and AMI patients. However, patients with central auditory implants showed a remarkable gain in performance when visual and auditory input was combined, in both speech and non-speech conditions, which was reflected by a strong visual modulation of auditory-cortex activation in these individuals. In sum, the results suggest that the behavioral improvement for audio-visual conditions in central auditory implant patients is based on enhanced audio-visual interactions in the auditory cortex. Their findings may provide important implications for the optimization of electrical stimulation and rehabilitation strategies in patients with central auditory prostheses. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2206-2225, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. An outbreak of Marek's disease in chickens in central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Lobago, F; Woldemeskel, M

    2004-05-01

    A study was conducted on an outbreak of Marek's disease in a commercial poultry farm containing 8500 chickens in central Ethiopia. On repeated visits, farm and flock history was collected, sick birds were examined and clinical signs and daily mortality were recorded. A total of 80 (27 sick and 53 dead) birds 12-22 weeks old, were collected, autopsied and examined. The mortality rate was 46% for the first 14 weeks of the outbreak. Acute and chronic (classical) forms of the disease, the respective occurrence of which varied significantly (p<0.01) in young (14.6% vs 85.4%) and adults (48.7% vs 51.31%) were manifested. All the autopsied birds had gross and microscopic lesions indicative of Marek's disease in the peripheral nerve(s) and/or visceral organs. Lesions involving peripheral nerves and visceral lymphomas were recorded mainly in adults (28/35, 80%) and young birds (34/45, 75%), respectively. These differences in the two age groups were statistically significant (p<0.01). Young birds seem to be highly susceptible to the acute disease. Poor management, overstocking and lack of vaccination might have favoured the outbreak. Marek's disease causes considerable economic loss and is a major threat to poultry production in Ethiopia. This report emphasizes that Marek's disease should be considered as a disease of economic significance in chicken production in Ethiopia and warrants due attention.

  6. Microglia emerge as central players in brain disease.

    PubMed

    Salter, Michael W; Stevens, Beth

    2017-09-08

    There has been an explosion of new findings recently giving us insights into the involvement of microglia in central nervous system (CNS) disorders. A host of new molecular tools and mouse models of disease are increasingly implicating this enigmatic type of nervous system cell as a key player in conditions ranging from neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and chronic pain. Contemporaneously, diverse roles are emerging for microglia in the healthy brain, from sculpting developing neuronal circuits to guiding learning-associated plasticity. Understanding the physiological functions of these cells is crucial to determining their roles in disease. Here we focus on recent developments in our rapidly expanding understanding of the function, as well as the dysfunction, of microglia in disorders of the CNS.

  7. Sickle Cell Disease in Central India: A Potentially Severe Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jain, Dipty; Warthe, Vinit; Dayama, Paridhi; Sarate, Dilip; Colah, Roshan; Mehta, Pallavi; Serjeant, Graham

    2016-10-01

    To explore clinical, hematological and molecular features of homozygous sickle cell (SS) disease in central India. Focusing on the pediatric age group attending a clinic at the Akola Government Medical College, Akola, Maharashtra State, India, a cross-sectional assessment of 91 patients with sickle cell disease was performed during one week in March 2015. Of the 91 patients, there were 49 with SS disease, 36 with sickle cell-beta thalassemia, and 6 with sickle cell-HbD Punjab. Alpha globin gene deletions occurred in only 8/49 (16 %) SS disease but fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels were markedly elevated with mean and median of 24.4 %; all except 3 SS disease patients had the Xmn1(+/+) polymorphism consistent with the Asian haplotype. Among the 36 patients with sickle cell-beta thalassemia, 25 (69 %) had the severe beta(+) mutation, IVS1-5 G > C, and seven other molecular mutations, all beta(o) occurred in the other 11 patients. Many patients had a relatively severe clinical course. Comparison of SS disease and sickle cell-beta thalassemia showed no differences in the prevalence of dactylitis, bone pain crisis, acute chest syndrome, hemoglobin level, reticulocyte counts or hydroxyurea usage but patients with sickle cell-beta thalassemia had significantly more blood transfusions, and greater frequencies of splenomegaly and hepatomegaly. Many patients in central India have relatively severe manifestations. This may result from lower frequencies of alpha thalassemia and more frequent severe sickle cell-beta(+) thalassemia. There is a need for assessment of the indications and policies for blood transfusion and for hydroxyurea.

  8. Verbal Auditory Cueing of Improvisational Dance: A Proposed Method for Training Agency in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Batson, Glenna; Hugenschmidt, Christina E.; Soriano, Christina T.

    2016-01-01

    Dance is a non-pharmacological intervention that helps maintain functional independence and quality of life in people with Parkinson’s disease (PPD). Results from controlled studies on group-delivered dance for people with mild-to-moderate stage Parkinson’s have shown statistically and clinically significant improvements in gait, balance, and psychosocial factors. Tested interventions include non-partnered dance forms (ballet and modern dance) and partnered (tango). In all of these dance forms, specific movement patterns initially are learned through repetition and performed in time-to-music. Once the basic steps are mastered, students may be encouraged to improvise on the learned steps as they perform them in rhythm with the music. Here, we summarize a method of teaching improvisational dance that advances previous reported benefits of dance for people with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The method relies primarily on improvisational verbal auditory cueing with less emphasis on directed movement instruction. This method builds on the idea that daily living requires flexible, adaptive responses to real-life challenges. In PD, movement disorders not only limit mobility but also impair spontaneity of thought and action. Dance improvisation demands open and immediate interpretation of verbally delivered movement cues, potentially fostering the formation of spontaneous movement strategies. Here, we present an introduction to a proposed method, detailing its methodological specifics, and pointing to future directions. The viewpoint advances an embodied cognitive approach that has eco-validity in helping PPD meet the changing demands of daily living. PMID:26925029

  9. A Comparative Study of Central Hemodynamics in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Park, Joong Hyun; Han, Sang Won; Baik, Jong Sam

    2017-09-01

    To explore the central aortic pressure in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigated central arterial stiffness by measurement of the augmentation index (AIx) in PD patients. Patients were eligible for the study if they were de novo PD and 45 years of age or older. The patients' demographics, vascular risk factors, and neurologic examinations were collected at baseline. The AIx was measured by applanation tonometry. A total of 147 subjects (77 in control and 70 in PD groups) were enrolled in the study. While there was no significant difference in peripheral systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), or mean arterial pressure between groups, peripheral pulse pressure (PP) was significantly lower in the PD group than in the control group (p = 0.012). Regarding central pressure, aortic DBP was significantly higher and PP was significantly lower in the PD group (p = 0.001, < 0.0001). Although there was no significant difference in the AIx between the groups, a trend toward a lower AIx was observed in the PD group (31.2% vs. 28.1%, p = 0.074). This study showed that peripheral and central PP was significantly lower in the PD group than in the control group. Our study suggests that PD patients may have a low risk of a cardiovascular event by reason of a lower PP.

  10. Breast cancer by stage of disease at diagnosis, central Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Owora, Arthur H; Wendelboe, Aaron; Thompson, David; Campbell, Janis

    2010-10-01

    We describe factors associated with an initial diagnosis of stage IV breast cancer to identify segments of Oklahoma's population that need earlier screening. We obtained data from the Central Oklahoma chapter of Susan G. Komen for the Cure and from the Oklahoma Central Cancer Registry. All analyses were cross-sectional and ecologic. The distributions of breast cancer stage at diagnosis for ten central Oklahoma counties were analyzed with respect to age group, race/ethnicity, insurance status, family income, and the percent of women who reported [not] receiving a mammogram in the previous twelve months. The percentage of African American women diagnosed with stage IV disease (7.8%) was nearly double that in white (4.2%) and other races (4.1%; p < 0.01). After controlling for confounding variables, the proportion of women diagnosed with breast cancer at stage IV was still higher among African American than among white females (p < 0.01) and females aged 65+ years (p = 0.02). The availability of breast cancer screening services should be increased among African American women in central Oklahoma.

  11. Venous endothelial injury in central nervous system diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The role of the venous system in the pathogenesis of inflammatory neurological/neurodegenerative diseases remains largely unknown and underinvestigated. Aside from cerebral venous infarcts, thromboembolic events, and cerebrovascular bleeding, several inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), and optic neuritis, appear to be associated with venous vascular dysfunction, and the neuropathologic hallmark of these diseases is a perivenous, rather than arterial, lesion. Such findings raise fundamental questions about the nature of these diseases, such as the reasons why their pathognomonic lesions do not develop around the arteries and what exactly are the roles of cerebral venous inflammation in their pathogenesis. Apart from this inflammatory-based view, a new hypothesis with more focus on the hemodynamic features of the cerebral and extracerebral venous system suggests that MS pathophysiology might be associated with the venous system that drains the CNS. Such a hypothesis, if proven correct, opens new therapeutic windows in MS and other neuroinflammatory diseases. Here, we present a comprehensive review of the pathophysiology of MS, ADEM, pseudotumor cerebri, and optic neuritis, with an emphasis on the roles of venous vascular system programming and dysfunction in their pathogenesis. We consider the fundamental differences between arterial and venous endothelium, their dissimilar responses to inflammation, and the potential theoretical contributions of venous insufficiency in the pathogenesis of neurovascular diseases. PMID:24228622

  12. Insomnia in central neurologic diseases--occurrence and management.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Geert; Jennum, Poul; Riemann, Dieter; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this review is to highlight the impact of insomnia in central neurological disorders by providing information on its prevalence and give recommendations for diagnosis and treatment. Insomnia in neurological disorders is a frequent, but underestimated symptom. Its occurrence may be a direct consequence of the disease itself or may be secondary to pain, depression, other sleep disorders or the effects of medications. Insomnia can have a significant impact on the patient's cognitive and physical function and may be associated with psychological distress and depression. Diagnosis of insomnia is primarily based on medical history and validated questionnaires. Actigraphy is a helpful diagnostic tool for assessing the circadian sleep-wake rhythm. For differential diagnosis and to measure the duration of sleep full polysomnography may be recommended. Prior to initiating treatment the cause of insomnia must be clearly identified. First line treatment aims at the underlying neurologic disease. The few high quality treatment studies show that short term treatment with hypnotics may be recommended in most disorders after having ruled out high risk for adverse effects. Sedating antidepressants may be an effective treatment for insomnia in stroke and Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Melatonin and light treatment can stabilize the sleep-wake circadian rhythm and shorten sleep latency in dementias and PD. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can be effective in treating insomnia symptoms associated with most of the central neurological diseases. The prevalence and treatment of insomnia in neurological diseases still need to be studied in larger patient groups with randomized clinical trials to a) better understand their impact and causal relationship and b) to develop and improve specific evidence-based treatment strategies.

  13. Using Mismatch Negativity to Study Central Auditory Processing in Developmental Language and Literacy Impairments: Where Are We, and where Should We Be Going?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, D. V. M.

    2007-01-01

    A popular theoretical account of developmental language and literacy disorders implicates poor auditory temporal processing in their etiology, but evidence from studies using behavioral measures has yielded inconsistent results. The mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the auditory event-related potential has been recommended as an alternative,…

  14. Improving neural decoding in the central auditory system using bio-inspired spectro-temporal representations and a generalized bilinear model.

    PubMed

    Siahpoush, Shadi; Erfani, Yousof; Rode, Thilo; Lim, Hubert H; Rouat, Jean; Plourde, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We study the impact of different encoding models and spectro-temporal representations on the accuracy of Bayesian decoding of neural activity recorded from the central auditory system. Two encoding models, a generalized linear model (GLM) and a generalized bilinear model (GBM), are compared along with three different spectro-temporal representations of the input stimuli: a spectrogram and two bio-inspired representations, i.e. a gammatone filter bank (GFB) and a spikegram. Signal to noise ratios between the reconstructed and original representations are used to evaluate the decoding, or reconstruction accuracy. We experimentally show that the reconstruction accuracy is best with the spikegram representation and worst with the spectrogram representation and, furthermore, that using a GBM instead of a GLM significantly increases the reconstruction accuracy. In fact, our results show that the spikegram reconstruction accuracy with a GBM fitting yields an SNR that is 3.3 dB better than when using the standard decoding approach of reconstructing a spectrogram with GLM fitting.

  15. Auditory neglect.

    PubMed Central

    De Renzi, E; Gentilini, M; Barbieri, C

    1989-01-01

    Auditory neglect was investigated in normal controls and in patients with a recent unilateral hemispheric lesion, by requiring them to detect the interruptions that occurred in one ear in a sound delivered through earphones either mono-aurally or binaurally. Control patients accurately detected interruptions. One left brain damaged (LBD) patient missed only once in the ipsilateral ear while seven of the 30 right brain damaged (RBD) patients missed more than one signal in the monoaural test and nine patients did the same in the binaural test. Omissions were always more marked in the left ear and in the binaural test with a significant ear by test interaction. The lesion of these patients was in the parietal lobe (five patients) and the thalamus (four patients). The relation of auditory neglect to auditory extinction was investigated and found to be equivocal, in that there were seven RBD patients who showed extinction, but not neglect and, more importantly, two patients who exhibited the opposite pattern, thus challenging the view that extinction is a minor form of neglect. Also visual and auditory neglect were not consistently correlated, the former being present in nine RBD patients without auditory neglect and the latter in two RBD patients without visual neglect. The finding that in some RBD patients with auditory neglect omissions also occurred, though with less frequency, in the right ear, points to a right hemisphere participation in the deployment of attention not only to the contralateral, but also to the ipsilateral space. PMID:2732732

  16. Chemokines and their receptors in central nervous system disease.

    PubMed

    Biber, Knut; de Jong, Eiko K; van Weering, Hilmar R J; Boddeke, Hendrikus W G M

    2006-01-01

    Almost a decade ago, it was discovered that the human deficiency virus (HIV) makes use of chemokine receptors to infect blood cells. This appreciation of the clinical relevance of specific chemokine receptors has initiated a considerable boost in the field of chemokine research. It is clear today that chemokine signaling orchestrates the immune system and is widely involved in both physiological and pathophysiological processes. Since the chemokine system offers various targets through which pathology could be influenced, most pharmaceutical companies have chosen this system as a therapeutic target for a variety of diseases. Here recent developments concerning the role of chemokines in diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) as well as their possible therapeutic relevance are discussed.

  17. Quantitative electromyographic analysis of reaction time to external auditory stimuli in drug-naïve Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Do-Young; Park, Byung Kyu; Kim, Ji Won; Eom, Gwang-Moon; Hong, Junghwa; Koh, Seong-Beom; Park, Kun-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) is still based on clinical rating scales by clinicians. Reaction time (RT) is the time interval between a specific stimulus and the start of muscle response. The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of RT responses in PD patients using electromyography (EMG) and to elucidate the relationship between RT and clinical features of PD. The EMG activity of 31 PD patients was recorded during isometric muscle contraction. RT was defined as the time latency between an auditory beep and responsive EMG activity. PD patients demonstrated significant delays in both initiation and termination of muscle contraction compared with controls. Cardinal motor symptoms of PD were closely correlated with RT. RT was longer in more-affected side and in more-advanced PD stages. Frontal cognitive function, which is indicative of motor programming and movement regulation and perseveration, was also closely related with RT. In conclusion, greater RT is the characteristic motor features of PD and it could be used as a sensitive tool for motor function assessment in PD patients. Further investigations are required to clarify the clinical impact of the RT on the activity of daily living of patients with PD.

  18. Quantitative Electromyographic Analysis of Reaction Time to External Auditory Stimuli in Drug-Naïve Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Do-Young; Park, Byung Kyu; Kim, Ji Won; Eom, Gwang-Moon; Hong, Junghwa; Koh, Seong-Beom; Park, Kun-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) is still based on clinical rating scales by clinicians. Reaction time (RT) is the time interval between a specific stimulus and the start of muscle response. The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of RT responses in PD patients using electromyography (EMG) and to elucidate the relationship between RT and clinical features of PD. The EMG activity of 31 PD patients was recorded during isometric muscle contraction. RT was defined as the time latency between an auditory beep and responsive EMG activity. PD patients demonstrated significant delays in both initiation and termination of muscle contraction compared with controls. Cardinal motor symptoms of PD were closely correlated with RT. RT was longer in more-affected side and in more-advanced PD stages. Frontal cognitive function, which is indicative of motor programming and movement regulation and perseveration, was also closely related with RT. In conclusion, greater RT is the characteristic motor features of PD and it could be used as a sensitive tool for motor function assessment in PD patients. Further investigations are required to clarify the clinical impact of the RT on the activity of daily living of patients with PD. PMID:24724037

  19. Neurocognitive impairment in Whipple disease with central nervous system involvement.

    PubMed

    Christidi, Foteini; Kararizou, Evangelia; Potagas, Constantin; Triantafyllou, Nikolaos I; Stamboulis, Eleftherios; Zalonis, Ioannis

    2014-03-01

    Young-onset dementias pose a major challenge to both clinicians and researchers. Cognitive decline may be accompanied by systemic features, leading to a diagnosis of "dementia plus" syndromes. Whipple disease is a rare systemic illness characterized by arthralgias, chronic diarrhea, weight loss, fever, and abdominal pain. Central nervous system involvement, including severe cognitive deterioration, may precede systemic manifestations, appear during the course of the disease, or even be the only symptom. We report a previously highly functional 48-year-old man whom we first suspected of having early-onset neurodegenerative dementia but then diagnosed with Whipple disease based on a detailed clinical and laboratory evaluation. Initial neuropsychological evaluation revealed marked impairment in the patient's fluid intelligence and severe cognitive deficits in his information processing speed, complex attention, memory, visuomotor and construction dexterities, problem solving, and executive functions. At neuropsychological follow-up 21 months later, his information processing speed had improved only slightly and deficits persisted in his other cognitive functions. Repeat brain magnetic resonance imaging at that time showed that he had responded to antibiotic treatment. Because Whipple disease can cause young-onset "dementia plus" syndromes that may leave patients with neurocognitive deficits even after apparently successful treatment, we recommend comprehensive neuropsychological assessment for early detection of residual and reversible cognitive processes and evaluation of treatment response.

  20. Auditory- and Vestibular-Evoked Potentials Correlate with Motor and Non-Motor Features of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Shalash, Ali Soliman; Hassan, Dalia Mohamed; Elrassas, Hanan Hani; Salama, Mohamed Mosaad; Méndez-Hernández, Edna; Salas-Pacheco, José M; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    Degeneration of several brainstem nuclei has been long related to motor and non-motor symptoms (NMSs) of Parkinson's disease (PD). Nevertheless, due to technical issues, there are only a few studies that correlate that association. Brainstem auditory-evoked potential (BAEP) and vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) responses represent a valuable tool for brainstem assessment. Here, we investigated the abnormalities of BAEPs, ocular VEMPs (oVEMPs), and cervical VEMPs (cVEMPs) in patients with PD and its correlation to the motor and NMSs. Fifteen patients diagnosed as idiopathic PD were evaluated by Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and its subscores, Hoehn and Yahr scale, Schwab and England scale, and Non-Motor Symptoms Scale. PD patients underwent pure-tone, speech audiometry, tympanometry, BAEP, oVEMPs, and cVEMPs, and compared to 15 age-matched control subjects. PD subjects showed abnormal BAEP wave morphology, prolonged absolute latencies of wave V and I-V interpeak latencies. Absent responses were the marked abnormality seen in oVEMP. Prolonged latencies with reduced amplitudes were seen in cVEMP responses. Rigidity and bradykinesia were correlated to the BAEP and cVEMP responses contralateral to the clinically more affected side. Contralateral and ipsilateral cVEMPs were significantly correlated to sleep (p = 0.03 and 0.001), perception (p = 0.03), memory/cognition (p = 0.025), and urinary scores (p = 0.03). The oVEMP responses showed significant correlations to cardiovascular (p = 0.01) and sexual dysfunctions (p = 0.013). PD is associated with BAEP and VEMP abnormalities that are correlated to the motor and some non-motor clinical characteristics. These abnormalities could be considered as potential electrophysiological biomarkers for brainstem dysfunction and its associated motor and non-motor features.

  1. Auditory- and Vestibular-Evoked Potentials Correlate with Motor and Non-Motor Features of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shalash, Ali Soliman; Hassan, Dalia Mohamed; Elrassas, Hanan Hani; Salama, Mohamed Mosaad; Méndez-Hernández, Edna; Salas-Pacheco, José M.; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    Degeneration of several brainstem nuclei has been long related to motor and non-motor symptoms (NMSs) of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Nevertheless, due to technical issues, there are only a few studies that correlate that association. Brainstem auditory-evoked potential (BAEP) and vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) responses represent a valuable tool for brainstem assessment. Here, we investigated the abnormalities of BAEPs, ocular VEMPs (oVEMPs), and cervical VEMPs (cVEMPs) in patients with PD and its correlation to the motor and NMSs. Fifteen patients diagnosed as idiopathic PD were evaluated by Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale and its subscores, Hoehn and Yahr scale, Schwab and England scale, and Non-Motor Symptoms Scale. PD patients underwent pure-tone, speech audiometry, tympanometry, BAEP, oVEMPs, and cVEMPs, and compared to 15 age-matched control subjects. PD subjects showed abnormal BAEP wave morphology, prolonged absolute latencies of wave V and I–V interpeak latencies. Absent responses were the marked abnormality seen in oVEMP. Prolonged latencies with reduced amplitudes were seen in cVEMP responses. Rigidity and bradykinesia were correlated to the BAEP and cVEMP responses contralateral to the clinically more affected side. Contralateral and ipsilateral cVEMPs were significantly correlated to sleep (p = 0.03 and 0.001), perception (p = 0.03), memory/cognition (p = 0.025), and urinary scores (p = 0.03). The oVEMP responses showed significant correlations to cardiovascular (p = 0.01) and sexual dysfunctions (p = 0.013). PD is associated with BAEP and VEMP abnormalities that are correlated to the motor and some non-motor clinical characteristics. These abnormalities could be considered as potential electrophysiological biomarkers for brainstem dysfunction and its associated motor and non-motor features. PMID:28289399

  2. Rehabilitation treatment of gait in patients with Parkinson's disease with freezing: a comparison between two physical therapy protocols using visual and auditory cues with or without treadmill training.

    PubMed

    Frazzitta, Giuseppe; Maestri, Roberto; Uccellini, Davide; Bertotti, Gabriella; Abelli, Paola

    2009-06-15

    Freezing is a disabling symptom in patients with Parkinson's disease. We investigated the effectiveness of a new rehabilitation strategy based on treadmill training associated with auditory and visual cues. Forty Parkinsonian patients with freezing were randomly assigned to two groups: Group 1 underwent a rehabilitation program based on treadmill training associated with auditory and visual cues, while Group 2 followed a rehabilitation protocol using cues and not associated with treadmill. Functional evaluation was based on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Motor Section (UPDRS III), Freezing of Gait Questionnaire (FOGQ), 6-minute walking test (6MWT), gait speed, and stride cycle. Patients in both the groups had significant improvements in all variables considered by the end of the rehabilitation program (all P = 0.0001). Patients treated with the protocol including treadmill, had more improvement than patients in Group 2 in most functional indicators (P = 0.007, P = 0.0004, P = 0.0126, and P = 0.0263 for FOGQ, 6MWT, gait speed, stride cycle, respectively). The most striking result was obtained for 6MWT, with a mean increase of 130 m in Group 1 compared with 57 m in Group 2. Our results suggest that treadmill training associated with auditory and visual cues might give better results than more conventional treatments. Treadmill training probably acts as a supplementary external cue.

  3. Multipoint mapping of the central core disease locus

    SciTech Connect

    Schwemmle, S.; Wolff, K.; Grimm, T.; Mueller, C.R. ); Palmucci, L.M. ); Lehmann-Horn, F. ); Huebner, Ch. ); Hauser, E. ); Iles, D.E. ); MacLennan, D.H. )

    1993-07-01

    A linkage analysis with 12 DNA markers from proximal 19q was performed in eight families with central core disease (CCO). Two-point analysis gave a peak lod score of Z = 4.95 at [theta] = 0.00 for the anonymous marker D19S190 and of Z = 2.53 at [theta] = 0.00 for the ryanodine receptor (RYR1) candidate gene. Multipoint linkage data place the CCO locus at 19q13.1, flanked proximally by D19S191/D19S28 and distally by D19S47. This map location includes the RYR1 gene. The results of the linkage study present no evidence for genetic heterogeneity of CCO. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Regenerative Therapies for Central Nervous System Diseases: a Biomaterials Approach

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Roger Y; Fuehrmann, Tobias; Mitrousis, Nikolaos; Shoichet, Molly S

    2014-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) has a limited capacity to spontaneously regenerate following traumatic injury or disease, requiring innovative strategies to promote tissue and functional repair. Tissue regeneration strategies, such as cell and/or drug delivery, have demonstrated promising results in experimental animal models, but have been difficult to translate clinically. The efficacy of cell therapy, which involves stem cell transplantation into the CNS to replace damaged tissue, has been limited due to low cell survival and integration upon transplantation, while delivery of therapeutic molecules to the CNS using conventional methods, such as oral and intravenous administration, have been limited by diffusion across the blood–brain/spinal cord-barrier. The use of biomaterials to promote graft survival and integration as well as localized and sustained delivery of biologics to CNS injury sites is actively being pursued. This review will highlight recent advances using biomaterials as cell- and drug-delivery vehicles for CNS repair. PMID:24002187

  5. Targeted Temperature Management in Pediatric Central Nervous System Disease

    PubMed Central

    Newmyer, Robert; Mendelson, Jenny; Pang, Diana; Fink, Ericka L.

    2015-01-01

    Opinion Statement Acute central nervous system conditions due to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, traumatic brain injury (TBI), status epilepticus, and central nervous system infection/inflammation, are a leading cause of death and disability in childhood. There is a critical need for effective neuroprotective therapies to improve outcome targeting distinct disease pathology. Fever, defined as patient temperature > 38°C, has been clearly shown to exacerbate brain injury. Therapeutic hypothermia (HT) is an intervention using targeted temperature management that has multiple mechanisms of action and robust evidence of efficacy in multiple experimental models of brain injury. Prospective clinical evidence for its neuroprotective efficacy exists in narrowly-defined populations with hypoxic-ischemic injury outside of the pediatric age range while trials comparing hypothermia to normothermia after TBI have failed to demonstrate a benefit on outcome but consistently demonstrate potential use in decreasing refractory intracranial pressure. Data in children from prospective, randomized controlled trials using different strategies of targeted temperature management for various outcomes are few but a large study examining HT versus controlled normothermia to improve neurological outcome in cardiac arrest is underway. PMID:26042193

  6. Investigation of Marek's disease virus from chickens in central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Demeke, Berhan; Jenberie, Shiferaw; Tesfaye, Biruk; Ayelet, Gelagay; Yami, Martha; Lamien, Charles Euloge; Gelaye, Esayas

    2017-02-01

    Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative and neuropathic disease of domestic chickens and less commonly, turkeys and quails, caused by a highly contagious, cell-associated, oncogenic herpesvirus. In Ethiopia, MD is believed to be introduced with importation of exotic and crossbred to improve the poultry production and has been reported to be a potential threat to the poultry sector both in backyard and commercial farming systems. This study was aimed at isolation and molecular analysis of MD virus isolates circulating in chicken population in the central part of Ethiopia where commercial farms are populated. From September 2013 to January 2014, clinical and post-mortem examination were conducted on diseased chickens suspected of MD virus infection. Representative spleen and feather follicle samples were collected following sterile procedure, and infectious virus isolation was performed using primary chicken fibroblast cell culture. Cell culture inoculated with suspension of pathological samples developed characteristic MD virus cytopathic effect of rounding of the cells and small plaques. Further analysis of the virus was conducted by conventional PCR amplifying the ICP4 gene fragment from eleven tissue samples using MD virus specific primers. PCR products were further sequenced and analyzed. Nucleotide sequence similarity search of the local isolates resulted a high degree of sequence similarity with Gallid Herpes virus type 2 strain (Marek's disease virus type 1, JN034558). To our knowledge, the present study is the first report conducted on virus isolation and molecular characterization of MD virus isolates circulated in Ethiopia. Eleven ICP4-like gene fragment (318 bp) sequences generated in the present study were uploaded in the public database (KU842366-76). Further research on virus isolation, genetic characterization, and infection dynamics is recommended targeting chickens of all age groups reared in different agro-ecological zones under different

  7. The Effect of Dopaminergic Medication on Beat-Based Auditory Timing in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Daniel J; Pickett, Kristen A; Earhart, Gammon M; Grahn, Jessica A

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) adversely affects timing abilities. Beat-based timing is a mechanism that times events relative to a regular interval, such as the "beat" in musical rhythm, and is impaired in PD. It is unknown if dopaminergic medication influences beat-based timing in PD. Here, we tested beat-based timing over two sessions in participants with PD (OFF then ON dopaminergic medication) and in unmedicated control participants. People with PD and control participants completed two tasks. The first was a discrimination task in which participants compared two rhythms and determined whether they were the same or different. Rhythms either had a beat structure (metric simple rhythms) or did not (metric complex rhythms), as in previous studies. Discrimination accuracy was analyzed to test for the effects of beat structure, as well as differences between participants with PD and controls, and effects of medication (PD group only). The second task was the Beat Alignment Test (BAT), in which participants listened to music with regular tones superimposed, and responded as to whether the tones were "ON" or "OFF" the beat of the music. Accuracy was analyzed to test for differences between participants with PD and controls, and for an effect of medication in patients. Both patients and controls discriminated metric simple rhythms better than metric complex rhythms. Controls also improved at the discrimination task in the second vs. first session, whereas people with PD did not. For participants with PD, the difference in performance between metric simple and metric complex rhythms was greater (sensitivity to changes in simple rhythms increased and sensitivity to changes in complex rhythms decreased) when ON vs. OFF medication. Performance also worsened with disease severity. For the BAT, no group differences or effects of medication were found. Overall, these findings suggest that timing is impaired in PD, and that dopaminergic medication influences beat-based and non

  8. Correlation between cognitive impairment and the Rey auditory-verbal learning test in a population with Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Barzotti, T; Gargiulo, A; Marotta, M G; Tedeschi, G; Zannino, G; Guglielmi, S; Dell'Armi, A; Ettorre, E; Marigliano, V

    2004-01-01

    Patients affected by Alzheimer disease (AD) need an accurate diagnosis, to the extent allowing us to find the best therapy or polytherapy, in order to take under control their cognitive impairment. In our Alzheimer Evaluation Units (from the Italian name abbreviated: UVA), the patients undergo a multidimensional evaluation, which can address us towards a proper diagnosis and of other weakening, or even dementia-related diseases. The patients are also subject to neuropsychometric and neuropsychological evaluations, allowing a more focused analysis on cognitive impairments. Among the tests, we use the Rey auditory-verbal learning test (RAVLT), evaluating the patient's verbal memory. A list of 15 words is read to each patient. N the first part of the test, the clinician repeats 5 times such a list. the patient is hen asked, at the end of every repetition, to tell all words he/she remembers. This part is useful to evaluate the immediate recall (IR) ability. The score, i.e., the total number of recalled words, ranges from 0 to 75. After 15 minutes, the delayed recall (DR) ability is evaluated: the patient is newly asked to repeat as many words as he can recall from the list. The score for this part ranges from 0 to 15 minutes. The score is corrected of rage and education, with a cut-off of 28.5 for IR and 4.7 for DR. We made a survey with the purpose of deciding if there was a correlation between cognitive impairment and verbal memory lack, whose deficiency appears earlier in AD. To this aim, we selected several patients with AD, diagnosed during the period between September 2002 and February 2003. We only considered those patients whose AD was not associated with other weakening diseases, and whose clinical dementia rating scale (CDR) score was between 0.5-2.0. A sample of 35 individuals (11 men and 24 women) could be obtained. A meaningful correlation was observed between CDR and IR (r = -0.725, p < 0.01), as well as between CDR and DR (r = -0.470; p < 0.05). Such a

  9. Auditory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ades, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    The physical correlations of hearing, i.e. the acoustic stimuli, are reported. The auditory system, consisting of external ear, middle ear, inner ear, organ of Corti, basilar membrane, hair cells, inner hair cells, outer hair cells, innervation of hair cells, and transducer mechanisms, is discussed. Both conductive and sensorineural hearing losses are also examined.

  10. Auditory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ades, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    The physical correlations of hearing, i.e. the acoustic stimuli, are reported. The auditory system, consisting of external ear, middle ear, inner ear, organ of Corti, basilar membrane, hair cells, inner hair cells, outer hair cells, innervation of hair cells, and transducer mechanisms, is discussed. Both conductive and sensorineural hearing losses are also examined.

  11. The Effect of Dopaminergic Medication on Beat-Based Auditory Timing in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Daniel J.; Pickett, Kristen A.; Earhart, Gammon M.; Grahn, Jessica A.

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) adversely affects timing abilities. Beat-based timing is a mechanism that times events relative to a regular interval, such as the “beat” in musical rhythm, and is impaired in PD. It is unknown if dopaminergic medication influences beat-based timing in PD. Here, we tested beat-based timing over two sessions in participants with PD (OFF then ON dopaminergic medication) and in unmedicated control participants. People with PD and control participants completed two tasks. The first was a discrimination task in which participants compared two rhythms and determined whether they were the same or different. Rhythms either had a beat structure (metric simple rhythms) or did not (metric complex rhythms), as in previous studies. Discrimination accuracy was analyzed to test for the effects of beat structure, as well as differences between participants with PD and controls, and effects of medication (PD group only). The second task was the Beat Alignment Test (BAT), in which participants listened to music with regular tones superimposed, and responded as to whether the tones were “ON” or “OFF” the beat of the music. Accuracy was analyzed to test for differences between participants with PD and controls, and for an effect of medication in patients. Both patients and controls discriminated metric simple rhythms better than metric complex rhythms. Controls also improved at the discrimination task in the second vs. first session, whereas people with PD did not. For participants with PD, the difference in performance between metric simple and metric complex rhythms was greater (sensitivity to changes in simple rhythms increased and sensitivity to changes in complex rhythms decreased) when ON vs. OFF medication. Performance also worsened with disease severity. For the BAT, no group differences or effects of medication were found. Overall, these findings suggest that timing is impaired in PD, and that dopaminergic medication influences beat

  12. Citation classics in central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jee-Eun; Park, Kang M; Kim, Yerim; Yoon, Dae Y; Bae, Jong S

    2017-06-01

    To identify and analyze the characteristics of the most influential articles about central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory demyelinating disease. The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science database and the 2014 Journal Citation Reports Science Edition were used to retrieve the top 100 cited articles on CNS inflammatory demyelinating disease. The citation numbers, journals, years of publication, authorships, article types, subjects and main issues were analyzed. For neuromyelitis optica (NMO), articles that were cited more than 100 times were regarded as a citation classic and described separately. The top 100 cited articles were published between 1972 and 2011 in 13 journals. The highest number of articles (n = 24) was published in Brain, followed by The New England Journal of Medicine (n = 21). The average number of citations was 664 (range 330-3,897), and 64% of the articles were from the United States and the United Kingdom. The majority of the top 100 cited articles were related to multiple sclerosis (n = 87), and only a few articles reported on other topics such as NMO (n = 9), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (n = 2) and optic neuritis (n = 2). Among the top 100 cited articles, 77% were original articles. Forty-one citation classics were found for NMO. Our study provides a historical perspective on the research progress on CNS inflammatory demyelinating disease and may serve as a guide for important advances and trends in the field for associated researchers.

  13. Auditory Processing Disorders: An Overview. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciocci, Sandra R.

    This digest presents an overview of children with auditory processing disorders (APDs), children who can typically hear information but have difficulty attending to, storing, locating, retrieving, and/or clarifying that information to make it useful for academic and social purposes. The digest begins by describing central auditory processing and…

  14. The immediate effect of attentional, auditory, and a combined cue strategy on gait during single and dual tasks in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Baker, Katherine; Rochester, Lynn; Nieuwboer, Alice

    2007-12-01

    To compare the effect of rhythmic auditory and attentional cues, and a combination of both cues on gait, in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) during single and dual tasks. A repeated-measures study requiring participants to perform single and dual-motor tasks under different cueing conditions. Human movement analysis laboratory. Fifteen participants with idiopathic PD and a comparison group of 12 healthy participants. Three cueing strategies were compared: a rhythmic auditory cue (walking in time to a metronome beat), an attentional strategy (asked to focus on taking big step), and a combination cue (asked to walk in time to a metronome beat while taking big steps). Walking speed, step amplitude, and step frequency. Walking speed of PD participants improved significantly compared with noncued walking in the single- and dual-task condition with the attentional (P<.001, P=.037) and combination cue strategies (P=.013, P=.028). Step amplitude also increased significantly with the attentional and combination cue strategies in single- (P<.001, P<.001) and dual-task (P<.001, P<.001) conditions. Step frequency was reduced significantly with the attentional strategy (P=.042) in the single and dual tasks (P<.001) and combination cue strategy (P=.009) in the dual task. The rhythmic auditory cue alone did not alter significantly any parameter of gait in the single or dual tasks. The attentional strategy and the combination of a rhythmic auditory cue with an attentional strategy were equally effective, and improved walking speed and step amplitude significantly during both single and dual tasks. The combination cue, however, may still be a useful alternative in situations of increased attentional demand, or where problems exist with executive function.

  15. Central projection of auditory receptors in the prothoracic ganglion of the buschcricket Psorodonotus illyricus (tettigoniidae): computer-aided analysis of the end branch pattern.

    PubMed

    Ebendt, R; Friedel, J; Kalmring, K

    1994-01-01

    The projection patterns of morphologically and functionally identified auditory and auditory-vibratory receptor cells of receptor organs (the crista acustica and the intermediate organ) in the foreleg of the tettigoniid Psorodonotus illyricus, were investigated with combined recording and staining techniques, and subsequent histological examination and morphometric measurements. With the application of a computer program (AutoCAD), three-dimensional reconstructions of the axon end branches of receptor cells within the neuropile of the anterior Ring Tract (aRT) were made, in order to determine, the entire shape of each, the pattern and density of the end branches, and the positions of the target areas within the auditory neuropile. Clear differences for different functional types of receptors were found.

  16. Listenmee and Listenmee smartphone application: synchronizing walking to rhythmic auditory cues to improve gait in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lopez, William Omar Contreras; Higuera, Carlos Andres Escalante; Fonoff, Erich Talamoni; Souza, Carolina de Oliveira; Albicker, Ulrich; Martinez, Jairo Alberto Espinoza

    2014-10-01

    Evidence supports the use of rhythmic external auditory signals to improve gait in PD patients (Arias & Cudeiro, 2008; Kenyon & Thaut, 2000; McIntosh, Rice & Thaut, 1994; McIntosh et al., 1997; Morris, Iansek, & Matyas, 1994; Thaut, McIntosh, & Rice, 1997; Suteerawattananon, Morris, Etnyre, Jankovic, & Protas , 2004; Willems, Nieuwboer, Chavert, & Desloovere, 2006). However, few prototypes are available for daily use, and to our knowledge, none utilize a smartphone application allowing individualized sounds and cadence. Therefore, we analyzed the effects on gait of Listenmee®, an intelligent glasses system with a portable auditory device, and present its smartphone application, the Listenmee app®, offering over 100 different sounds and an adjustable metronome to individualize the cueing rate as well as its smartwatch with accelerometer to detect magnitude and direction of the proper acceleration, track calorie count, sleep patterns, steps count and daily distances. The present study included patients with idiopathic PD presented gait disturbances including freezing. Auditory rhythmic cues were delivered through Listenmee®. Performance was analyzed in a motion and gait analysis laboratory. The results revealed significant improvements in gait performance over three major dependent variables: walking speed in 38.1%, cadence in 28.1% and stride length in 44.5%. Our findings suggest that auditory cueing through Listenmee® may significantly enhance gait performance. Further studies are needed to elucidate the potential role and maximize the benefits of these portable devices.

  17. Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Cañellas, A Rovira; Gols, A Rovira; Izquierdo, J Río; Subirana, M Tintoré; Gairin, X Montalban

    2007-05-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases (IIDDs) include a broad spectrum of central nervous system disorders that can usually be differentiated on the basis of clinical, imaging, laboratory and pathological findings. However, there can be a considerable overlap between at least some of these disorders, leading to misdiagnoses or diagnostic uncertainty. The relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) are the most common IIDDs. Other MS phenotypes include those with a progressive course from onset (primary progressive and progressive relapsing) or with a benign course continuing for years after onset (benign MS). Uncommon forms of IIDDs can be classified clinically into: (1) fulminant or acute IIDDs, such as the Marburg variant of MS, Baló's concentric sclerosis, Schilder's disease, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; (2) monosymptomatic IIDDs, such as those involving the spinal cord (transverse myelitis), optic nerve (optic neuritis) or brainstem and cerebellum; and (3) IIDDs with a restricted topographical distribution, including Devic's neuromyelitis optica, recurrent optic neuritis and relapsing transverse myelitis. Other forms of IIDD, which are classified clinically and radiologically as pseudotumoral, can have different forms of presentation and clinical courses. Although some of these uncommon IIDDs are variants of MS, others probably correspond to different entities. MR imaging of the brain and spine is the imaging technique of choice for diagnosing these disorders, and together with the clinical and laboratory findings can accurately classify them. Precise classification of these disorders may have relevant prognostic and treatment implications, and might be helpful in distinguishing them from tumoral or infectious lesions, avoiding unnecessary aggressive diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.

  18. Central nervous system disease in Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

    PubMed Central

    Grois, N.; Tsunematsu, Y.; Barkovich, A. J.; Favara, B. E.

    1994-01-01

    Diabetes insipidus and anterior pituitary dysfunction, are familiar central nervous system (CNS) complications of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) but the pathophysiology and biological behaviour of other forms of CNS involvement in LCH are poorly understood. In an attempt to improve our understanding of these rare complications, we studied 23 patients with LCH in whom neuroradiological abnormalities, with or without neurological dysfunction other than diabetes insipidus, developed during the course of disease. Neuroradiological abnormalities were of three basic types (a) poorly-defined changes in white matter, (b) well-defined changes in white and grey matter and (c) extra-parenchymal "tumoural" masses. There was a profusion of associated neurological signs and symptoms in most cases but some patients were asymptomatic. The neuropathological features were complex but infiltration of the CNS by histiocytes with xanthomatous change, particularly prominent in mass lesions, was common in the 13 cases in which biopsies were done. Patients with lytic lesions of the skull and diabetes insipidus are evidently most at risk of developing these rare manifestations of LCH. Therapeutic questions could not be answered from this study because no standard treatment had been given and outcome varied widely. Images Figure 7 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8075002

  19. Association between Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers for Alzheimer's Disease, APOE Genotypes and Auditory Verbal Learning Task in Subjective Cognitive Decline, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Mandecka, Monika; Budziszewska, Magdalena; Barczak, Anna; Pepłońska, Beata; Chodakowska-Żebrowska, Małgorzata; Filipek-Gliszczyńska, Anna; Nesteruk, Marta; Styczyńska, Maria; Barcikowska, Maria; Gabryelewicz, Tomasz

    2016-07-29

    In the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD), early pathological changes in the brain start decades before any clinical manifestation. The concentration levels of AD cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, such as amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ1-42), total tau (T-tau), and phosphorylated tau (P-tau), may reflect a cerebral pathology facilitating an early diagnosis of the disease and predicting a cognitive deterioration. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of AD CSF biomarkers in those individuals with a subjective cognitive decline (SCD), a mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's dementia (AD-D), together with the relationships between the biomarkers, an APOE ɛ4 presence, and a verbal episodic memory performance. We included 252 patients from the memory clinic with a diagnosis of SCD (n = 85), MCI (n = 87), and AD-D (n = 80). A verbal episodic memory performance level was assessed and was based on a delayed recall trial from the 10-word list of an auditory verbal learning task (AVLT). We found that the patients with more severe cognitive impairments had significantly lower levels of Aβ1-42 and higher levels of T-tau and P-tau. This pattern was also typical for the APOE ɛ4 carriers, who had lower levels of Aβ1-42 than the noncarriers in the AD-D and MCI groups. The levels of T-tau and P-tau were significantly higher in the APOE ɛ4 carriers than in the noncarriers, but only in the MCI patients. The AVLT performance in the whole study samples was predicted by age, Aβ1-42, and the T-tau CSF biomarkers, but not by the APOE genotyping.

  20. Mouse Auditory Brainstem Response Testing

    PubMed Central

    Akil, Omar; Oursler, A. E.; Fan, Kevin; Lustig, Lawrence R.

    2016-01-01

    The auditory brainstem response (ABR) test provides information about the inner ear (cochlea) and the central pathways for hearing. The ABR reflects the electrical responses of both the cochlear ganglion neurons and the nuclei of the central auditory pathway to sound stimulation (Zhou et al., 2006; Burkard et al., 2007). The ABR contains 5 identifiable wave forms, labeled as I-V. Wave I represents the summated response from the spiral ganglion and auditory nerve while waves II-V represent responses from the ascending auditory pathway. The ABR is recorded via electrodes placed on the scalp of an anesthetized animal. ABR thresholds refer to the lowest sound pressure level (SPL) that can generate identifiable electrical response waves. This protocol describes the process of measuring the ABR of small rodents (mouse, rat, guinea pig, etc.), including anesthetizing the mouse, placing the electrodes on the scalp, recording click and tone burst stimuli and reading the obtained waveforms for ABR threshold values. As technology continues to evolve, ABR will likely provide more qualitative and quantitative information regarding the function of the auditory nerve and brainstem pathways involved in hearing.

  1. Central Obesity and Disease Risk in Japanese Americans

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-08

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Heart Diseases; Atherosclerosis; Hypertension; Obesity; Diabetes Mellitus, Non-insulin Dependent; Hyperinsulinism; Insulin Resistance; Coronary Arteriosclerosis; Diabetes Mellitus; Metabolic Syndrome X

  2. [Auditory fatigue].

    PubMed

    Sanjuán Juaristi, Julio; Sanjuán Martínez-Conde, Mar

    2015-01-01

    Given the relevance of possible hearing losses due to sound overloads and the short list of references of objective procedures for their study, we provide a technique that gives precise data about the audiometric profile and recruitment factor. Our objectives were to determine peripheral fatigue, through the cochlear microphonic response to sound pressure overload stimuli, as well as to measure recovery time, establishing parameters for differentiation with regard to current psychoacoustic and clinical studies. We used specific instruments for the study of cochlear microphonic response, plus a function generator that provided us with stimuli of different intensities and harmonic components. In Wistar rats, we first measured the normal microphonic response and then the effect of auditory fatigue on it. Using a 60dB pure tone acoustic stimulation, we obtained a microphonic response at 20dB. We then caused fatigue with 100dB of the same frequency, reaching a loss of approximately 11dB after 15minutes; after that, the deterioration slowed and did not exceed 15dB. By means of complex random tone maskers or white noise, no fatigue was caused to the sensory receptors, not even at levels of 100dB and over an hour of overstimulation. No fatigue was observed in terms of sensory receptors. Deterioration of peripheral perception through intense overstimulation may be due to biochemical changes of desensitisation due to exhaustion. Auditory fatigue in subjective clinical trials presumably affects supracochlear sections. The auditory fatigue tests found are not in line with those obtained subjectively in clinical and psychoacoustic trials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  3. Helminths and helminthoses in Central Europe: diseases caused by nematodes (roundworms).

    PubMed

    Auer, Herbert; Aspöck, Horst

    2014-10-01

    The third part of the overview "Helminths and helminthoses in Central Europe" deals with the medically relevant nematodes (roundworms) and nematode-caused diseases occurring in Central Europe. The paper comprises data on the biology of the parasites and their ways of transmission, describes the symptomatology of the diseases, summarizes the possibilities of diagnosis and refers to the prophylactic means.

  4. The Role of Glia in the Peripheral and Central Auditory System Following Noise Overexposure: Contribution of TNF-α and IL-1β to the Pathogenesis of Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Santamaría, Verónica; Alvarado, Juan Carlos; Melgar-Rojas, Pedro; Gabaldón-Ull, María C.; Miller, Josef M.; Juiz, José M.

    2017-01-01

    Repeated noise exposure induces inflammation and cellular adaptations in the peripheral and central auditory system resulting in pathophysiology of hearing loss. In this study, we analyzed the mechanisms by which noise-induced inflammatory-related events in the cochlea activate glial-mediated cellular responses in the cochlear nucleus (CN), the first relay station of the auditory pathway. The auditory function, glial activation, modifications in gene expression and protein levels of inflammatory mediators and ultrastructural changes in glial-neuronal interactions were assessed in rats exposed to broadband noise (0.5–32 kHz, 118 dB SPL) for 4 h/day during 4 consecutive days to induce long-lasting hearing damage. Noise-exposed rats developed a permanent threshold shift which was associated with hair cell loss and reactive glia. Noise-induced microglial activation peaked in the cochlea between 1 and 10D post-lesion; their activation in the CN was more prolonged reaching maximum levels at 30D post-exposure. RT-PCR analyses of inflammatory-related genes expression in the cochlea demonstrated significant increases in the mRNA expression levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase, intercellular adhesion molecule and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 at 1 and 10D post-exposure. In noise-exposed cochleae, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were upregulated by reactive microglia, fibrocytes, and neurons at all time points examined. In the CN, however, neurons were the sole source of these cytokines. These observations suggest that noise exposure causes peripheral and central inflammatory reactions in which TNF-α and IL-1β are implicated in regulating the initiation and progression of noise-induced hearing loss. PMID:28280462

  5. Auditory and audiovisual inhibition of return.

    PubMed

    Spence, C; Driver, J

    1998-01-01

    Two experiments examined any inhibition-of-return (IOR) effects from auditory cues and from preceding auditory targets upon reaction times (RTs) for detecting subsequent auditory targets. Auditory RT was delayed if the preceding auditory cue was on the same side as the target, but was unaffected by the location of the auditory target from the preceding trial, suggesting that response inhibition for the cue may have produced its effects. By contrast, visual detection RT was inhibited by the ipsilateral presentation of a visual target on the preceding trial. In a third experiment, targets could be unpredictably auditory or visual, and no peripheral cues intervened. Both auditory and visual detection RTs were now delayed following an ipsilateral versus contralateral target in either modality on the preceding trial, even when eye position was monitored to ensure central fixation throughout. These data suggest that auditory target-target IOR arises only when target modality is unpredictable. They also provide the first unequivocal evidence for cross-modal IOR, since, unlike other recent studies (e.g., Reuter-Lorenz, Jha, & Rosenquist, 1996; Tassinari & Berlucchi, 1995; Tassinari & Campara, 1996), the present cross-modal effects cannot be explained in terms of response inhibition for the cue. The results are discussed in relation to neurophysiological studies and audiovisual links in saccade programming.

  6. [Auditory processing evaluation in children born preterm].

    PubMed

    Gallo, Júlia; Dias, Karin Ziliotto; Pereira, Liliane Desgualdo; Azevedo, Marisa Frasson de; Sousa, Elaine Colombo

    2011-01-01

    To verify the performance of children born preterm on auditory processing evaluation, and to correlate the data with behavioral hearing assessment carried out at 12 months of age, comparing the results to those of auditory processing evaluation of children born full-term. Participants were 30 children with ages between 4 and 7 years, who were divided into two groups: Group 1 (children born preterm), and Group 2 (children born full-term). The auditory processing results of Group 1 were correlated to data obtained from the behavioral auditory evaluation carried out at 12 months of age. The results were compared between groups. Subjects in Group 1 presented at least one risk indicator for hearing loss at birth. In the behavioral auditory assessment carried out at 12 months of age, 38% of the children in Group 1 were at risk for central auditory processing deficits, and 93.75% presented auditory processing deficits on the evaluation. Significant differences were found between the groups for the temporal order test, the PSI test with ipsilateral competitive message, and the speech-in-noise test. The delay in sound localization ability was associated to temporal processing deficits. Children born preterm have worse performance in auditory processing evaluation than children born full-term. Delay in sound localization at 12 months is associated to deficits on the physiological mechanism of temporal processing in the auditory processing evaluation carried out between 4 and 7 years.

  7. Genetics of isolated auditory neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Del Castillo, Francisco J; Del Castillo, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Auditory neuropathies are disorders combining absent or abnormal auditory brainstem responses with preserved otoacoustic emissions and/or cochlear microphonics. These features indicate a normal function of cochlear outer hair cells. Thus, the primary lesion might be located in the inner hair cells, in the auditory nerve or in the intervening synapse. Auditory neuropathy is observed in up to 10 percent of deaf infants and children, either as part of some systemic neurodegenerative diseases or as an isolated entity. Research on the genetic causes of isolated auditory neuropathies has been remarkably successful in the last few years. Here we review the current knowledge on the structure, expression and function of the genes and proteins so far known to be involved in these disorders, as well as the clinical features that are associated with mutations in the different genes. This knowledge is permitting to classify isolated auditory neuropathies into etiologically homogeneous types, so providing clues for the better diagnosis, management and therapy of the affected subjects.

  8. Relationship between Auditory and Cognitive Abilities in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sheft, Stanley

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective was to evaluate the association of peripheral and central hearing abilities with cognitive function in older adults. Methods Recruited from epidemiological studies of aging and cognition at the Rush Alzheimer’s Disease Center, participants were a community-dwelling cohort of older adults (range 63–98 years) without diagnosis of dementia. The cohort contained roughly equal numbers of Black (n=61) and White (n=63) subjects with groups similar in terms of age, gender, and years of education. Auditory abilities were measured with pure-tone audiometry, speech-in-noise perception, and discrimination thresholds for both static and dynamic spectral patterns. Cognitive performance was evaluated with a 12-test battery assessing episodic, semantic, and working memory, perceptual speed, and visuospatial abilities. Results Among the auditory measures, only the static and dynamic spectral-pattern discrimination thresholds were associated with cognitive performance in a regression model that included the demographic covariates race, age, gender, and years of education. Subsequent analysis indicated substantial shared variance among the covariates race and both measures of spectral-pattern discrimination in accounting for cognitive performance. Among cognitive measures, working memory and visuospatial abilities showed the strongest interrelationship to spectral-pattern discrimination performance. Conclusions For a cohort of older adults without diagnosis of dementia, neither hearing thresholds nor speech-in-noise ability showed significant association with a summary measure of global cognition. In contrast, the two auditory metrics of spectral-pattern discrimination ability significantly contributed to a regression model prediction of cognitive performance, demonstrating association of central auditory ability to cognitive status using auditory metrics that avoided the confounding effect of speech materials. PMID:26237423

  9. One hundred ways to process time, frequency, rate and scale in the central auditory system: a pattern-recognition meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hemery, Edgar; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian auditory system extracts features from the acoustic environment based on the responses of spatially distributed sets of neurons in the subcortical and cortical auditory structures. The characteristic responses of these neurons (linearly approximated by their spectro-temporal receptive fields, or STRFs) suggest that auditory representations are formed, as early as in the inferior colliculi, on the basis of a time, frequency, rate (temporal modulations) and scale (spectral modulations) analysis of sound. However, how these four dimensions are integrated and processed in subsequent neural networks remains unclear. In this work, we present a new methodology to generate computational insights into the functional organization of such processes. We first propose a systematic framework to explore more than a hundred different computational strategies proposed in the literature to process the output of a generic STRF model. We then evaluate these strategies on their ability to compute perceptual distances between pairs of environmental sounds. Finally, we conduct a meta-analysis of the dataset of all these algorithms' accuracies to examine whether certain combinations of dimensions and certain ways to treat such dimensions are, on the whole, more computationally effective than others. We present an application of this methodology to a dataset of ten environmental sound categories, in which the analysis reveals that (1) models are most effective when they organize STRF data into frequency groupings—which is consistent with the known tonotopic organization of receptive fields in auditory structures -, and that (2) models that treat STRF data as time series are no more effective than models that rely only on summary statistics along time—which corroborates recent experimental evidence on texture discrimination by summary statistics. PMID:26190996

  10. One hundred ways to process time, frequency, rate and scale in the central auditory system: a pattern-recognition meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hemery, Edgar; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian auditory system extracts features from the acoustic environment based on the responses of spatially distributed sets of neurons in the subcortical and cortical auditory structures. The characteristic responses of these neurons (linearly approximated by their spectro-temporal receptive fields, or STRFs) suggest that auditory representations are formed, as early as in the inferior colliculi, on the basis of a time, frequency, rate (temporal modulations) and scale (spectral modulations) analysis of sound. However, how these four dimensions are integrated and processed in subsequent neural networks remains unclear. In this work, we present a new methodology to generate computational insights into the functional organization of such processes. We first propose a systematic framework to explore more than a hundred different computational strategies proposed in the literature to process the output of a generic STRF model. We then evaluate these strategies on their ability to compute perceptual distances between pairs of environmental sounds. Finally, we conduct a meta-analysis of the dataset of all these algorithms' accuracies to examine whether certain combinations of dimensions and certain ways to treat such dimensions are, on the whole, more computationally effective than others. We present an application of this methodology to a dataset of ten environmental sound categories, in which the analysis reveals that (1) models are most effective when they organize STRF data into frequency groupings-which is consistent with the known tonotopic organization of receptive fields in auditory structures -, and that (2) models that treat STRF data as time series are no more effective than models that rely only on summary statistics along time-which corroborates recent experimental evidence on texture discrimination by summary statistics.

  11. The Effects of Acoustic White Noise on the Rat Central Auditory System During the Fetal and Critical Neonatal Periods: A Stereological Study.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Mohammad Saied; Namavar, Mohammad Reza; Tamadon, Amin; Bahmani, Raziyeh; Jafarzadeh Shirazi, Mohammad Reza; Khazali, Homayoun; Dargahi, Leila; Pandamooz, Sareh; Mohammad-Rezazadeh, Farzad; Rashidi, Fatemeh Sadat

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of long-term, moderate level noise exposure during crucial periods of rat infants on stereological parameters of medial geniculate body (MGB) and auditory cortex. Twenty-four male offspring of 12 pregnant rats were divided into four groups: fetal-to-critical period group, which were exposed to noise from the last 10 days of fetal life till postnatal day (PND) 29; fetal period group that exposed to noise during the last 10 days of fetal life; critical period group, exposed to noise from PND 15 till PND 29, and control group. White noise at 90 dB for 2 h per day was used. Variance for variables was performed using Proc GLM followed by mean comparison by Duncan's multiple range test. Numerical density of neurons in MGB of fetal-to-critical period group was lower than control group. Similar results were seen in numerical density of neurons in layers IV and VI of auditory cortex. Furthermore, no significant difference was observed in the volume of auditory cortex among groups, and only MGB volume in fetal-to-critical period group was higher than other groups. Estimated total number of neurons in MGB was not significantly different among groups. It seems necessary to prevent long-term moderate level noise exposure during fetal-to-critical neonatal period.

  12. Neuropathological changes in auditory brainstem nuclei in cattle with experimentally induced bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, S; Okada, H; Arai, S; Yokoyama, T; Mohri, S

    2011-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is characterized by the appearance of spongy lesions in the brain, particularly in the brainstem nuclei. This study evaluated the degenerative changes observed in the central auditory brainstem of BSE-challenged cattle. The neuropathological changes in the auditory brainstem nuclei were assessed by determining the severity of vacuolation and the presence of disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)). Sixteen female Holstein-Friesian calves, 2-4 months of age, were inoculated intracerebrally with BSE agent. BSE-challenged animals developed the characteristic clinical signs of BSE approximately 18 months post inoculation (mpi) and advanced neurological signs after 22 mpi. Before the appearance of clinical signs (i.e. at 3, 10, 12 and 16 mpi), vacuolar change was absent or mild and PrP(Sc) deposition was minimal in the auditory brainstem nuclei. The two cattle sacrificed at 18 and 19 mpi had no clinical signs and showed mild vacuolar degeneration and moderate amounts of PrP(Sc) accumulation in the auditory brainstem pathway. In the animals challenged with BSE agent that developed clinical sings (i.e. after 20 mpi), spongy changes were more prominent in the nucleus of the inferior colliculus compared with the other nuclei of the auditory brainstem and the medial geniculate body. Neuropathological changes characterized by spongy lesions accompanied by PrP(Sc) accumulation in the auditory brainstem nuclei of BSE-infected cattle may be associated with hyperacusia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone above USA standards are associated with auditory brainstem dysmorphology and abnormal auditory brainstem evoked potentials in healthy young dogs.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; González-González, Luis O; Kulesza, Randy J; Fech, Tatiana M; Pérez-Guillé, Gabriela; Luna, Miguel Angel Jiménez-Bravo; Soriano-Rosales, Rosa Eugenia; Solorio, Edelmira; Miramontes-Higuera, José de Jesús; Gómez-Maqueo Chew, Aline; Bernal-Morúa, Alexia F; Mukherjee, Partha S; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Mills, Paul C; Wilson, Wayne J; Pérez-Guillé, Beatriz; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2017-10-01

    Delayed central conduction times in the auditory brainstem have been observed in Mexico City (MC) healthy children exposed to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) above the current United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) standards. MC children have α synuclein brainstem accumulation and medial superior olivary complex (MSO) dysmorphology. The present study used a dog model to investigate the potential effects of air pollution on the function and morphology of the auditory brainstem. Twenty-four dogs living in clean air v MC, average age 37.1 ± 26.3 months, underwent brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) measurements. Eight dogs (4 MC, 4 Controls) were analysed for auditory brainstem morphology and histopathology. MC dogs showed ventral cochlear nuclei hypotrophy and MSO dysmorphology with a significant decrease in cell body size, decreased neuronal packing density with regions in the nucleus devoid of neurons and marked gliosis. MC dogs showed significant delayed BAEP absolute wave I, III and V latencies compared to controls. MC dogs show auditory nuclei dysmorphology and BAEPs consistent with an alteration of the generator sites of the auditory brainstem response waveform. This study puts forward the usefulness of BAEPs to study auditory brainstem neurodegenerative changes associated with air pollution in dogs. Recognition of the role of non-invasive BAEPs in urban dogs is warranted to elucidate novel neurodegenerative pathways link to air pollution and a promising early diagnostic strategy for Alzheimer's Disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Increased cognitive functioning in symptomatic Huntington's disease as revealed by behavioral and event-related potential indices of auditory sensory memory and attention.

    PubMed

    Beste, Christian; Saft, Carsten; Güntürkün, Onur; Falkenstein, Michael

    2008-11-05

    Cognitive functions are thought to deteriorate globally in late stages of various neurodegenerative disorders. Here we describe that this general assumption is not justified and fails in Huntington's disease (HD). Presymptomatic gene mutation carriers (pHDs) and healthy controls performed worse compared with symptomatic HDs in an auditory signal detection task. During task performance, behavioral data and event-related potentials (ERPs) [i.e., MMN (mismatch negativity), P3a, and RON (reorienting negativity)] were recorded. Not only behavioral performance but also neurophysiological correlates of auditory sensory memory and attentional reorientation indicate enhanced performance occurring primal in late stages of a neurodegenerative disorder. Increased activity of the NMDA-receptor system, an assumed pathogenic mechanism in HD, might facilitate signal propagation at striatal level that enables more efficient task execution through a winner-take-all process. The results challenge the view that late stage neurodegeneration is necessarily related to a global decline in cognitive abilities in HD. In contrast, selectively enhanced cognitive functioning can emerge together with otherwise impaired cognitive functioning.

  15. Current understanding of auditory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Boo, Nem-Yun

    2008-12-01

    Auditory neuropathy is defined by the presence of normal evoked otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and absent or abnormal auditory brainstem responses (ABR). The sites of lesion could be at the cochlear inner hair cells, spiral ganglion cells of the cochlea, synapse between the inner hair cells and auditory nerve, or the auditory nerve itself. Genetic, infectious or neonatal/perinatal insults are the 3 most commonly identified underlying causes. Children usually present with delay in speech and language development while adult patients present with hearing loss and disproportionately poor speech discrimination for the degree of hearing loss. Although cochlear implant is the treatment of choice, current evidence show that it benefits only those patients with endocochlear lesions, but not those with cochlear nerve deficiency or central nervous system disorders. As auditory neuropathy is a disorder with potential long-term impact on a child's development, early hearing screen using both OAE and ABR should be carried out on all newborns and infants to allow early detection and intervention.

  16. The central nervous system in motor neurone disease

    PubMed Central

    Brownell, Betty; Oppenheimer, D. R.; Hughes, J. Trevor

    1970-01-01

    Forty-five necropsied cases with primary degeneration of lower motor neurones are described and discussed. Of these, 36 are considered to be `typical' cases of motor neurone disease, eight of which showed no upper motor neurone lesions. The relation of the nine `atypical' cases to the remainder is discussed. It is concluded that motor neurone disease constitutes an ill-defined band in a broad spectrum of multiple system atrophies. The authors have found no evidence suggesting a causal relation between motor neurone disease and either vascular or malignant diseases. They point out suggestive analogies with various subacute encephalomyelopathies in man and other animals. Images PMID:5431724

  17. Pediatric central nervous system infections and inflammatory white matter disease.

    PubMed

    Silvia, Mary T; Licht, Daniel J

    2005-08-01

    This article reviews the immunology of the central nervous system and the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of children with viral or parainfectious encephalitis. The emphasis is on the early recognition of treatable causes of viral encephalitis (herpes simplex virus), and the diagnosis and treatment of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis are described in detail. Laboratory and imaging findings in the two conditions also are described.

  18. [Infectious disease outbreaks in centralized homes for asylum seekers in Germany from 2004-2014].

    PubMed

    Kühne, Anna; Gilsdorf, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Migration and imported infections are changing the distribution of infectious diseases in Europe. However little is known about the extent of transmission of imported diseases within Europe. Asylum seekers are of increasing importance for infectious disease epidemiology and can be particularly vulnerable for infections and disease progression due to stressful conditions of migration and incomplete vaccination status. The aim is to analyse transmission of infectious diseases in centralized homes for asylum seekers in national infectious disease surveillance data to identify relevant infectious diseases and possible public health measures to reduce transmission. German national notification data was systematically analysed from 2004 to 2014 for outbreaks reported to have occurred within centralized homes for asylum seekers followed by descriptive analysis of outbreak- and case-characteristics. From 2004 to 2014 the number of outbreaks in centralized homes for asylum seekers per year increased, a total of 119 outbreaks with 615 cases were reported. Cases in these outbreaks were caused by chicken pox (30 %), measles (20 %), scabies (19 %), rota-virus-gastroenteritis (8 %) and others (each <5 %). Of 119 outbreaks, two outbreaks of measles in centralized homes were connected to outbreaks outside the centralized homes. For 210 of 311 cases in 2014 the place of infection was reported, 87 % of those with known place of infection were infected in Germany. Infectious disease outbreaks in centralized homes for asylum seekers are reported increasingly often in Germany. Chicken pox, measles and scabies were the most frequent outbreak causing diseases. Spread of such outbreaks outside centralized homes for asylum seekers was rare and infectious diseases are mainly acquired in Germany. The majority of outbreaks in centralized homes for asylum seekers would be preventable with vaccinations at arrival and appropriate hygiene measures.

  19. Patterns and trends in human papillomavirus-related diseases in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Bray, Freddie; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Znaor, Ariana; Brotons, Maria; Poljak, Mario; Arbyn, Marc

    2013-12-31

    This article provides an overview of cervical cancer and other human papillomavirus (HPV)-related diseases in Central and Eastern Europe (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and the Former Yugoslav Republic [FYR] of Macedonia) and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan). Despite two- to three-fold variations, cervical cancer incidence rates are high in many countries in these two regions relative to other populations on the European and Asian continents. In Central and Eastern Europe, Romania and the FYR of Macedonia had the highest rates in 2008 alongside Bulgaria, Lithuania and Serbia, while in Central Asia, rates are elevated in Kyrgyzstan (the highest rates across the regions), Kazakhstan and Armenia. In each of these countries, at least one woman in 50 develops cervical cancer before the age of 75. The high cervical cancer burden is exacerbated by a lack of effective screening and an increasing risk of death from the disease among young women, as observed in Belarus, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Ukraine, the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan. In several countries with longstanding cancer registries of reasonable quality (Belarus, Estonia and the Russian Federation), there are clear birth cohort effects; the risk of onset of cervical cancer is increasing in successive generations of women born from around 1940-50, a general phenomenon indicative of changing sexual behaviour and increasing risk of persistent HPV infection. There are limited data for other HPV-related cancers and other diseases at present in these countries. While options for reducing the HPV-related disease burden are resource-dependent, universal HPV vaccination with enhanced screening would maximally reduce the burden of

  20. Effects of communal exercise with visual and auditory feedback provided by a smart application on gait ability and fear of falling in Parkinson’s disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yun-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease is a chronically developing neurodegenerative disease showing typical motor symptoms of the following triad: resting tremor, freezing of gait, and bradykinesia-hypokinesia. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a communal exercise program, using the visual and auditory feedback provided by a smart application, to assess gait ability, fear of falling, and fall efficacy in Parkinson’s disease patients. Subjects consisted of 29 Parkinson’s disease patients who were non-demented individuals. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups: the control group (n= 9, CG), the communal exercise group using the smart application (n= 10, CCEG), and the individual exercise group using the smart application (n= 10, ICEG). The communal exercise program consisted of a warm up (10 min) followed by communal exercise using the smart application (40 min), and a cool down (10 min) for 3 days per week over 10 weeks. The results presented here show that velocity and cadence were significantly increased among groups. Step and stride length were significantly increased among times. Fear of falling and fall efficacy were significantly different among groups and times. In particular, fear of falling was lower and fall efficacy was higher in the CCEG than in the ICEG and CG. These findings indicate that 10 weeks of the communal exercise program using the smart application can be effective in improving gait ability, fear of falling, and fall efficacy in Parkinson’s disease patients. PMID:25426465

  1. Loss of Kv3.1 tonotopicity and alterations in cAMP response element-binding protein signaling in central auditory neurons of hearing impaired mice.

    PubMed

    von Hehn, Christian A A; Bhattacharjee, Arin; Kaczmarek, Leonard K

    2004-02-25

    The promoter for the kv3.1 potassium channel gene is regulated by a Ca2+-cAMP responsive element, which binds the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). Kv3.1 is expressed in a tonotopic gradient within the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) of the auditory brainstem, where Kv3.1 levels are highest at the medial end, which corresponds to high auditory frequencies. We have compared the levels of Kv3.1, CREB, and the phosphorylated form of CREB (pCREB) in a mouse strain that maintains good hearing throughout life, CBA/J (CBA), with one that suffers early cochlear hair cell loss, C57BL/6 (BL/6). A gradient of Kv3.1 immunoreactivity in the MNTB was detected in both young (6 week) and older (8 month) CBA mice. Although no gradient of CREB was detected, pCREB-immunopositive cells were grouped together in distinct clusters along the tonotopic axis. The same pattern of Kv3.1, CREB, and pCREB localization was also found in young BL/6 mice at a time (6 weeks) when hearing is normal. In contrast, at 8 months, when hearing is impaired, the gradient of Kv3.1 was abolished. Moreover, in the older BL/6 mice there was a decrease in CREB expression along the tonotopic axis, and the pattern of pCREB labeling appeared random, with no discrete clusters of pCREB-positive cells along the tonotopic axis. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that ongoing activity in auditory brainstem neurons is necessary for the maintenance of Kv3.1 tonotopicity through the CREB pathway.

  2. Meteorological variability and infectious disease in Central Africa: a review of meteorological data quality.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Alexandra; Little, Eliza; Ng, Sophia; Shaman, Jeffrey

    2016-10-01

    Central African countries may bear high climate change-related infectious disease burdens because of preexisting high rates of disease, poor healthcare infrastructure, land use changes, and high environmental change vulnerabilities. However, making connections between climate and infectious diseases in this region is hampered by the paucity of high-quality meteorological data. This review analyzes the sources and quality of meteorological data used to study the interactions between weather and infectious diseases in Central African countries. Results show that 23% of studies used meteorological data that mismatched with the disease spatial scale of interest. Use of inappropriate weather data was most frequently identified in analyses using meteorological station data or gridded data products. These findings have implications for the interpretation of existing analyses and provide guidance for the use of climate data in future analyses of the connections between meteorology and infectious diseases in Central Africa. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  3. Auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health.

    PubMed

    Basner, Mathias; Babisch, Wolfgang; Davis, Adrian; Brink, Mark; Clark, Charlotte; Janssen, Sabine; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2014-04-12

    Noise is pervasive in everyday life and can cause both auditory and non-auditory health effects. Noise-induced hearing loss remains highly prevalent in occupational settings, and is increasingly caused by social noise exposure (eg, through personal music players). Our understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in noise-induced hair-cell and nerve damage has substantially increased, and preventive and therapeutic drugs will probably become available within 10 years. Evidence of the non-auditory effects of environmental noise exposure on public health is growing. Observational and experimental studies have shown that noise exposure leads to annoyance, disturbs sleep and causes daytime sleepiness, affects patient outcomes and staff performance in hospitals, increases the occurrence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease, and impairs cognitive performance in schoolchildren. In this Review, we stress the importance of adequate noise prevention and mitigation strategies for public health.

  4. Auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health

    PubMed Central

    Basner, Mathias; Babisch, Wolfgang; Davis, Adrian; Brink, Mark; Clark, Charlotte; Janssen, Sabine; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Noise is pervasive in everyday life and can cause both auditory and non-auditory health effects. Noise-induced hearing loss remains highly prevalent in occupational settings, and is increasingly caused by social noise exposure (eg, through personal music players). Our understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in noise-induced hair-cell and nerve damage has substantially increased, and preventive and therapeutic drugs will probably become available within 10 years. Evidence of the non-auditory effects of environmental noise exposure on public health is growing. Observational and experimental studies have shown that noise exposure leads to annoyance, disturbs sleep and causes daytime sleepiness, affects patient outcomes and staff performance in hospitals, increases the occurrence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease, and impairs cognitive performance in schoolchildren. In this Review, we stress the importance of adequate noise prevention and mitigation strategies for public health. PMID:24183105

  5. Hippocampal P3-like auditory event-related potentials are disrupted in a rat model of cholinergic degeneration in Alzheimer's disease: reversal by donepezil treatment.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Bettina; Mørk, Arne; Kristiansen, Uffe; Bastlund, Jesper Frank

    2014-01-01

    P300 (P3) event-related potentials (ERPs) have been suggested to be an endogenous marker of cognitive function and auditory oddball paradigms are frequently used to evaluate P3 ERPs in clinical settings. Deficits in P3 amplitude and latency reflect some of the neurological dysfunctions related to several psychiatric and neurological diseases, e.g., Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, only a very limited number of rodent studies have addressed the back-translational validity of the P3-like ERPs as suitable markers of cognition. Thus, the potential of rodent P3-like ERPs to predict pro-cognitive effects in humans remains to be fully validated. The current study characterizes P3-like ERPs in the 192-IgG-SAP (SAP) rat model of the cholinergic degeneration associated with AD. Following training in a combined auditory oddball and lever-press setup, rats were subjected to bilateral intracerebroventricular infusion of 1.25 μg SAP or PBS (sham lesion) and recording electrodes were implanted in hippocampal CA1. Relative to sham-lesioned rats, SAP-lesioned rats had significantly reduced amplitude of P3-like ERPs. P3 amplitude was significantly increased in SAP-treated rats following pre-treatment with 1 mg/kg donepezil. Infusion of SAP reduced the hippocampal choline acetyltransferase activity by 75%. Behaviorally defined cognitive performance was comparable between treatment groups. The present study suggests that AD-like deficits in P3-like ERPs may be mimicked by the basal forebrain cholinergic degeneration induced by SAP. SAP-lesioned rats may constitute a suitable model to test the efficacy of pro-cognitive substances in an applied experimental setup.

  6. [Inflammatory spinal diseases: axial spondyloarthritis : Central importance of imaging].

    PubMed

    Baraliakos, X; Fruth, M; Kiltz, U; Braun, J

    2017-03-01

    The diagnosis of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) includes classical ankylosing spondylitis (AS) as well as earlier stages and abortive courses of the disease, in which structural alterations have not yet occurred. These are classified as non-radiographic axSpA (nr-axSpa). Inflammatory changes in the entire axial skeleton are characteristic for axSpA and can be visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), while in most patients structural alterations, such as new bone formation with syndesmophytes and ankylosis develop in the later course of the disease. These bony alterations can best be visualized by conventional radiography and by computed tomography. Certain MRI sequences are nowadays considered as the standard method for depiction of inflammatory changes in axSpA. The introduction of MRI has led to a paradigm shift for this disease because the inflammatory lesions characteristic for the disease can be visualized at an early stage using appropriate MRI sequences.

  7. A Case of Neuro-Behcet’s Disease Presenting with Central Neurogenic Hyperventilation

    PubMed Central

    Alkhachroum, Ayham M.; Saeed, Saba; Kaur, Jaspreet; Shams, Tanzila; De Georgia, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 46 Final Diagnosis: Central hyperventilation Symptoms: Hyperventilation Medication: — Clinical Procedure: None Specialty: Neurology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Behcet’s disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder usually characterized by the triad of oral ulcers, genital ulcers, and uveitis. Central to the pathogenesis of Behcet’s disease is an autoimmune vasculitis. Neurological involvement, so called “Neuro-Behcet’s disease”, occurs in 10–20% of patients, usually from a meningoencephalitis or venous thrombosis. Case Report: We report the case of a 46-year-old patient with Neuro-Behcet’s disease who presented with central neurogenic hyperventilation as a result of brainstem involvement from venulitis. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, central neurogenic hyperventilation has not previously been described in a patient with Neuro-Behcet’s disease. PMID:26965646

  8. The function of NOD-like receptors in central nervous system diseases.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangxi; Yuan, Zengqiang; Cheng, Jinbo

    2016-12-28

    NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are critical cytoplasmic pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) that play an important role in the host innate immune response and immunity homeostasis. There is a growing body of evidence that NLRs are involved in a wide range of inflammatory diseases, including cancer, metabolic diseases, and autoimmune disorders. Recent studies have indicated that the proteins of the NLR family are linked with the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and multiple sclerosis (MS), and psychological diseases. In this review, we mainly focus on the role of NLRs and the underlying signaling pathways in central nervous system (CNS) diseases. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Management of disease-modifying treatments in neurological autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Salmen, A; Gold, R; Chan, A

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic armamentarium for autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system, specifically multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica, is steadily increasing, with a large spectrum of immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive agents targeting different mechanisms of the immune system. However, increasingly efficacious treatment options also entail higher potential for severe adverse drug reactions. Especially in cases failing first-line treatment, thorough evaluation of the risk–benefit profile of treatment alternatives is necessary. This argues for the need of algorithms to identify patients more likely to benefit from a specific treatment. Moreover, paradigms to stratify the risk for severe adverse drug reactions need to be established. In addition to clinical/paraclinical measures, biomarkers may aid in individualized risk–benefit assessment. A recent example is the routine testing for anti-John Cunningham virus antibodies in natalizumab-treated multiple sclerosis patients to assess the risk for the development of progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy. Refined algorithms for individualized risk assessment may also facilitate early initiation of induction treatment schemes in patient groups with high disease activity rather than classical escalation concepts. In this review, we will discuss approaches for individiualized risk–benefit assessment both for newly introduced agents as well as medications with established side-effect profiles. In addition to clinical parameters, we will also focus on biomarkers that may assist in patient selection. Other Articles published in this series Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 2014, 175: 336–48. Disease-modifying therapy in multiple sclerosis and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: common and divergent current and future strategies. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 2014, 175: 359–72. Monoclonal antibodies in treatment of multiple

  10. A central role for calcineurin in protein misfolding neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Shah, Syed Zahid Ali; Hussain, Tariq; Zhao, Deming; Yang, Lifeng

    2017-03-01

    Accumulation of misfolded/unfolded aggregated proteins in the brain is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases affecting humans and animals. Dysregulation of calcium (Ca(2+)) and disruption of fast axonal transport (FAT) are early pathological events that lead to loss of synaptic integrity and axonal degeneration in early stages of neurodegenerative diseases. Dysregulated Ca(2+) in the brain is triggered by accumulation of misfolded/unfolded aggregated proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a major Ca(2+) storing organelle, ultimately leading to neuronal dysfunction and apoptosis. Calcineurin (CaN), a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine phosphatase, has been implicated in T cells activation through the induction of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT). In addition to the involvement of several other signaling cascades, CaN has been shown to play a role in early synaptic dysfunction and neuronal death. Therefore, inhibiting hyperactivated CaN in early stages of disease might be a promising therapeutic strategy for treating patients with protein misfolding diseases. In this review, we briefly summarize the structure of CaN, inhibition mechanisms by which immunosuppressants inhibit CaN, role of CaN in maintaining neuronal and synaptic integrity and homeostasis and the role played by CaN in protein unfolding/misfolding neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. Network Analysis of Functional Brain Connectivity Driven by Gamma-Band Auditory Steady-State Response in Auditory Hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Ying, Jun; Zhou, Dan; Lin, Ke; Gao, Xiaorong

    The auditory steady-state response (ASSR) may reflect activity from different regions of the brain. Particularly, it was reported that the gamma-band ASSR plays an important role in working memory, speech understanding, and recognition. Traditionally, the ASSR has been determined by power spectral density analysis, which cannot detect the exact overall distributed properties of the ASSR. Functional network analysis has recently been applied in electroencephalography studies. Previous studies on resting or working state found a small-world organization of the brain network. Some researchers have studied dysfunctional networks caused by diseases. The present study investigates the brain connection networks of schizophrenia patients with auditory hallucinations during an ASSR task. A directed transfer function is utilized to estimate the brain connectivity patterns. Moreover, the structures of brain networks are analyzed by converting the connectivity matrices into graphs. It is found that for normal subjects, network connections are mainly distributed at the central and frontal-temporal regions. This indicates that the central regions act as transmission hubs of information under ASSR stimulation. For patients, network connections seem unordered. The finding that the path length was larger in patients compared to that in normal subjects under most thresholds provides insight into the structures of connectivity patterns. The results suggest that there are more synchronous oscillations that cover a long distance on the cortex but a less efficient network for patients with auditory hallucinations.

  12. Reconsidering Tonotopic Maps in the Auditory Cortex and Lemniscal Auditory Thalamus in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tsukano, Hiroaki; Horie, Masao; Ohga, Shinpei; Takahashi, Kuniyuki; Kubota, Yamato; Hishida, Ryuichi; Takebayashi, Hirohide; Shibuki, Katsuei

    2017-01-01

    The auditory thalamus and auditory cortex (AC) are pivotal structures in the central auditory system. However, the thalamocortical mechanisms of processing sounds are largely unknown. Investigation of this process benefits greatly from the use of mice because the mouse is a powerful animal model in which various experimental techniques, especially genetic tools, can be applied. However, the use of mice has been limited in auditory research, and thus even basic anatomical knowledge of the mouse central auditory system has not been sufficiently collected. Recently, optical imaging combined with morphological analyses has enabled the elucidation of detailed anatomical properties of the mouse auditory system. These techniques have uncovered fine AC maps with multiple frequency-organized regions, each of which receives point-to-point thalamocortical projections from different origins inside the lemniscal auditory thalamus, the ventral division of the medial geniculate body (MGv). This precise anatomy now provides a platform for physiological research. In this mini review article, we summarize these recent achievements that will facilitate physiological investigations in the mouse auditory system. PMID:28293178

  13. IL-15: a central regulator of celiac disease immunopathology

    PubMed Central

    Abadie, Valérie; Jabri, Bana

    2014-01-01

    Summary Interleukin-15 (IL-15) exerts many biological functions essential for the maintenance and function of multiple cell types. Although its expression is tightly regulated, IL-15 upregulation has been reported in many organ-specific autoimmune disorders. In celiac disease, an intestinal inflammatory disorder driven by gluten exposure, the upregulation of IL-15 expression in the intestinal mucosa has become a hallmark of the disease. Interestingly, because it is overexpressed both in the gut epithelium and in the lamina propria, IL-15 acts on distinct cell types and impacts distinct immune components and pathways to disrupt intestinal immune homeostasis. In this article, we review our current knowledge of the multifaceted roles of IL-15 with regards to the main immunological processes involved in the pathogenesis of celiac disease. PMID:24942692

  14. Aging of the auditory system.

    PubMed

    Roth, Thomas Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Presbycusis or age-related hearing loss (ARHL) affects most elderly people. It is characterized by reduced hearing thresholds and speech understanding with the well-known negative consequences for communication and quality of social life. The hearing loss is connected to age-related histologic changes, as described and classified by Schuknecht. Aging itself is a multifactorial, genetically driven process that is influenced by oxidative stress that gradually leads to reduced endocochlear potential and cell loss of key players in sound transmission and supporting structures. Oxidative stress is caused by damaging factors like noise, infection, and other systemic factors. All reparative mechanisms in acute and chronic cochlear damage attempt to reduce oxidative stress and to balance inner-ear homeostasis. Accurate clinical assessment of ARHL starts with the differentiation between peripheral and central components. Treatment of the peripheral hearing loss often involves hearing aids, whereas auditory and psychologic training seems to be important in central auditory disturbance.

  15. Sensorineural hearing loss and auditory perceptual organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Joseph W.; Grose, John H.; Buss, Emily

    2004-05-01

    This talk will consider the implications of sensorineural hearing loss for auditory perceptual organization. In everyday environments, the listener is often faced with the difficulty of processing a target sound that intermingles acoustically with one or more extraneous sounds. Under such circumstances, several auditory processes enable the complex waveforms reaching the two ears to be interpreted in terms of putative auditory objects giving rise to the target and extraneous sounds. Such processes of perceptual organization depend upon the central analysis of cues that allow distributed spectral information to be either linked together or split apart on the basis of details related to such variables as synchrony of onset/modulation, harmonic relation, rhythm, and interaural differences. Efficient perceptual organization must depend not only upon such central auditory analyses but also upon the fidelity with which the peripheral auditory system encodes the spectral and temporal characteristics of sound. We will consider the implications of sensorineural hearing loss for perceptual organization in terms of both peripheral and central auditory processes.

  16. Glial Biomarkers in Human Central Nervous System Disease

    PubMed Central

    Garden, Gwenn A.; Campbell, Brian M.

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing understanding that aberrant GLIA function is an underlying factor in psychiatric and neurological disorders. As drug discovery efforts begin to focus on glia-related targets, a key gap in knowledge includes the availability of validated biomarkers to help determine which patients suffer from dysfunction of glial cells or who may best respond by targeting glia-related drug mechanisms. Biomarkers are biological variables with a significant relationship to parameters of disease states and can be used as surrogate markers of disease pathology, progression, and/or responses to drug treatment. For example, imaging studies of the CNS enable localization and characterization of anatomical lesions without the need to isolate tissue for biopsy. Many biomarkers of disease pathology in the CNS involve assays of glial cell function and/or response to injury. Each major glia subtype (oligodendroglia, astroglia and microglia) are connected to a number of important and useful biomarkers. Here, we describe current and emerging glial based biomarker approaches for acute CNS injury and the major categories of chronic nervous system dysfunction including neurodegenerative, neuropsychiatric, neoplastic, and autoimmune disorders of the CNS. These descriptions are highlighted in the context of how biomarkers are employed to better understand the role of glia in human CNS disease and in the development of novel therapeutic treatments. PMID:27228454

  17. The role of auditory feedback in vocal learning and maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Tschida, Katherine; Mooney, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Auditory experience is critical for the acquisition and maintenance of learned vocalizations in both humans and songbirds. Despite the central role of auditory feedback in vocal learning and maintenance, where and how auditory feedback affects neural circuits important to vocal control remain poorly understood. Recent studies of singing birds have uncovered neural mechanisms by which feedback perturbations affect vocal plasticity and also have identified feedback-sensitive neurons at or near sites of auditory and vocal motor interaction. Additionally, recent studies in marmosets have underscored that even in the absence of vocal learning, vocalization remains flexible in the face of changing acoustical environments, pointing to rapid interactions between auditory and vocal motor systems. Finally, recent studies show that a juvenile songbird’s initial auditory experience of a song model has long-lasting effects on sensorimotor neurons important to vocalization, shedding light on how auditory memories and feedback interact to guide vocal learning. PMID:22137567

  18. American Society of Hypertension position paper: central blood pressure waveforms in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Raymond R; Rosendorff, Clive; Nichols, Wilmer W; Edwards, David G; Chirinos, Julio A; Fernhall, Bo; Cushman, William C

    2016-01-01

    A number of devices are available which noninvasively estimate central aortic blood pressure using a variety of approaches such as tonometry or oscillometry. In this position paper, we discuss how the central pressure waveform is generated and measured, how central pressure waveforms appear in health and disease, the predictive value of central blood pressure measurements, the effects of interventions on waveforms, and areas of future need in this field of clinical and research endeavor. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Central Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism: Genetic Complexity of a Complex Disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Central hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) is an emerging pathological condition frequently associated with overweight, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and midline defects. The genetic mechanisms involve mutations in at least twenty-four genes regulating GnRH neuronal migration, secretion, and activity. So far, the mechanisms underlying CHH, both in prepubertal and in adulthood onset forms, remain unknown in most of the cases. Indeed, all detected gene variants may explain a small proportion of the affected patients (43%), indicating that other genes or epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the onset of CHH. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on genetic background of CHH, organizing the large amount of data present in the literature in a clear and concise manner, to produce a useful guide available for researchers and clinicians. PMID:25254043

  20. Helminths and helminthoses in Central Europe: diseases caused by cestodes (tapeworms).

    PubMed

    Auer, Herbert; Aspöck, Horst

    2014-10-01

    The second part of the overview "Helminths and helminthoses in Central Europe" is dedicated to the cestodes (tapeworms) and the diseases caused by cestodes. The overview comprises the spectrum of the most relevant species, describes their incidence, geographic distribution and the most important clinical symptoms and highlights the possibilities of diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of cestode-caused diseases.

  1. Diseases of intensively cultured hybrid poplars: a summary of recent research in the north central region

    Treesearch

    M. E. Ostry; H. S. McNabb

    1983-01-01

    Several potentially damaging diseases of hybrid poplars hue been identified in the north-central United States. Among the most serious are leaf and stem diseases caused by Melampsora, Marssonina, and Septoria. Short-term chemical controls are of limited usefulness. The most practical control strategy appears to be the use of resistant clones obtained through local...

  2. Spatial prediction of wheat Septoria leaf blotch (Septoria tritici) disease severity in central Ethiopia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wakie, Tewodros; Kumar, Sunil; Senay, Gabriel; Takele, Abera; Lencho, Alemu

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have reported the presence of wheat septoria leaf blotch (Septoria tritici; SLB) disease in Ethiopia. However, the environmental factors associated with SLB disease, and areas under risk of SLB disease, have not been studied. Here, we tested the hypothesis that environmental variables can adequately explain observed SLB disease severity levels in West Shewa, Central Ethiopia. Specifically, we identified 50 environmental variables and assessed their relationships with SLB disease severity. Geographically referenced disease severity data were obtained from the field, and linear regression and Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) modeling approaches were used for developing spatial models. Moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived vegetation indices and land surface temperature (LST) variables highly influenced SLB model predictions. Soil and topographic variables did not sufficiently explain observed SLB disease severity variation in this study. Our results show that wheat growing areas in Central Ethiopia, including highly productive districts, are at risk of SLB disease. The study demonstrates the integration of field data with modeling approaches such as BRT for predicting the spatial patterns of severity of a pathogenic wheat disease in Central Ethiopia. Our results can aid Ethiopia's wheat disease monitoring efforts, while our methods can be replicated for testing related hypotheses elsewhere.

  3. A Central Processing Sensory Deficit with Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Sungjae; Agada, Peter; Grill, Stephen; Kiemel, Tim; Jeka, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive degenerative disease manifested by tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural instability. Deficits in proprioceptive integration are prevalent in individuals with PD, even at early stages of the disease. These deficits have been demonstrated primarily during investigations of reaching. Here we investigated how PD affects sensory fusion of multiple modalities during upright standing. We simultaneously perturbed upright stance with visual, vestibular and proprioceptive stimulation, to understand how these modalities are re-weighted so that overall feedback remains suited to stabilizing upright stance in individuals with PD. Eight individuals with PD stood in a visual cave with a moving visual scene at 0.2 Hz while an 80 Hz vibratory stimulus was applied bilaterally to their Achilles tendons (stimulus turns on-off at 0.28 Hz) and a ±1mA bilateral monopolar galvanic stimulus was applied at 0.36 Hz. The visual stimulus was presented at different amplitudes (0.2, 0.8 deg rotation about ankle axis) to measure: the change in gain (weighting) to vision, an intra-modal effect; and a simultaneous change in gain to vibration and galvanic stimulation, both intermodal effects. Trunk/leg gain relative to vision decreased when visual amplitude was increased, reflecting an intramodal visual effect. In contrast, when vibration was turned on/off, leg gain relative to vision was equivalent in individuals with PD, indicating no reweighting of visual information when proprioception was disrupted through vibration (i.e., no intermodal effect). Trunk and leg angle gain relative to GVS also showed no reweighting in individuals with PD. These results are in contrast to previous results with healthy adults, who showed clear intermodal effects in the same paradigm, suggesting that individuals with PD not only have a proprioceptive deficit during standing, but also have a cross-modal sensory fusion deficit that is crucial for upright stance

  4. Central nervous system pericytes in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Zlokovic, Berislav V

    2014-01-01

    Pericytes are uniquely positioned within the neurovascular unit to serve as vital integrators, coordinators and effectors of many neurovascular functions, including angiogenesis, blood-brain barrier (BBB) formation and maintenance, vascular stability and angioarchitecture, regulation of capillary blood flow and clearance of toxic cellular byproducts necessary for proper CNS homeostasis and neuronal function. New studies have revealed that pericyte deficiency in the CNS leads to BBB breakdown and brain hypoperfusion resulting in secondary neurodegenerative changes. Here we review recent progress in understanding the biology of CNS pericytes and their role in health and disease. PMID:22030551

  5. The Equine Neonatal Central Nervous System: Development and Diseases.

    PubMed

    Tennent-Brown, Brett S; Morrice, Ashleigh V; Reed, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    Neonatal encephalopathy is the most common neurologic condition affecting newborn foals and shares similarities with perinatal asphyxia syndrome of human infants. In many cases of neonatal encephalopathy there is no obvious episode of acute or chronic hypoxia and other mechanisms likely play a role in the pathogenesis. Increased concentrations of neuroactive progestagens are found in affected foals; whether these molecules are protective, as has been suggested, or play a role in the pathogenesis is unknown. Neurologic diseases other than neonatal encephalopathy affect foals occasionally and should be considered when evaluating sick foals with clinical signs of neurologic dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Stem cell-based therapy in central nervous system diseases].

    PubMed

    Paczkowska, Edyta; Dabkowska, Elzbieta; Nowacki, Przemysław; Machaliński, Bogusław

    2009-01-01

    Much of the current research into stem cell biology is focused on its potential for regeneration of various tissues and organs. Stem cell-based therapy with autologous bone marrow stem cells could provide an attractive alternative to the classical therapeutic approach in the foreseeable future. The possibility of nervous tissue regeneration in neurodegenerative disorders of the central nervous system generates a special challenge for researchers and clinicians involved in that field of medicine. Very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSEL SCs), recently discovered in murine bone marrow and human umbilical cord blood, arouse great hope. VSEL SCs display several features typical for embryonic stem cells, such as a large nucleus surrounded by a narrow rim of cytoplasm, euchromatin, and expression of pluripotent markers (Oct-4, Nanog, SSEA-4). Application of these cells in regenerative medicine could have considerable advantages over strategies using embryonic stem cells, since ethical concerns might be naturally solved. Thus, these cells can become a recommended source of stem cells for cell therapy as compared to those isolated from developing embryos.

  7. Auditory Imagery: Empirical Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Timothy L.

    2010-01-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d)…

  8. Auditory Imagery: Empirical Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Timothy L.

    2010-01-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d)…

  9. Auditory midbrain processing is differentially modulated by auditory and visual cortices: An auditory fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Gao, Patrick P; Zhang, Jevin W; Fan, Shu-Juan; Sanes, Dan H; Wu, Ed X

    2015-12-01

    The cortex contains extensive descending projections, yet the impact of cortical input on brainstem processing remains poorly understood. In the central auditory system, the auditory cortex contains direct and indirect pathways (via brainstem cholinergic cells) to nuclei of the auditory midbrain, called the inferior colliculus (IC). While these projections modulate auditory processing throughout the IC, single neuron recordings have samples from only a small fraction of cells during stimulation of the corticofugal pathway. Furthermore, assessments of cortical feedback have not been extended to sensory modalities other than audition. To address these issues, we devised blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigms to measure the sound-evoked responses throughout the rat IC and investigated the effects of bilateral ablation of either auditory or visual cortices. Auditory cortex ablation increased the gain of IC responses to noise stimuli (primarily in the central nucleus of the IC) and decreased response selectivity to forward species-specific vocalizations (versus temporally reversed ones, most prominently in the external cortex of the IC). In contrast, visual cortex ablation decreased the gain and induced a much smaller effect on response selectivity. The results suggest that auditory cortical projections normally exert a large-scale and net suppressive influence on specific IC subnuclei, while visual cortical projections provide a facilitatory influence. Meanwhile, auditory cortical projections enhance the midbrain response selectivity to species-specific vocalizations. We also probed the role of the indirect cholinergic projections in the auditory system in the descending modulation process by pharmacologically blocking muscarinic cholinergic receptors. This manipulation did not affect the gain of IC responses but significantly reduced the response selectivity to vocalizations. The results imply that auditory cortical

  10. Human auditory evoked potentials in the assessment of brain function during major cardiovascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Rosendo A

    2004-06-01

    Focal neurologic and intellectual deficits or memory problems are relatively frequent after cardiac surgery. These complications have been associated with cerebral hypoperfusion, embolization, and inflammation that occur during or after surgery. Auditory evoked potentials, a neurophysiologic technique that evaluates the function of neural structures from the auditory nerve to the cortex, provide useful information about the functional status of the brain during major cardiovascular procedures. Skepticism regarding the presence of artifacts or difficulty in their interpretation has outweighed considerations of its potential utility and noninvasiveness. This paper reviews the evidence of their potential applications in several aspects of the management of cardiac surgery patients. The sensitivity of auditory evoked potentials to the effects of changes in brain temperature makes them useful for monitoring cerebral hypothermia and rewarming during cardiopulmonary bypass. The close relationship between evoked potential waveforms and specific anatomic structures facilitates the assessment of the functional integrity of the central nervous system in cardiac surgery patients. This feature may also be relevant in the management of critical patients under sedation and coma or in the evaluation of their prognosis during critical care. Their objectivity, reproducibility, and relative insensitivity to learning effects make auditory evoked potentials attractive for the cognitive assessment of cardiac surgery patients. From a clinical perspective, auditory evoked potentials represent an additional window for the study of underlying cerebral processes in healthy and diseased patients. From a research standpoint, this technology offers opportunities for a better understanding of the particular cerebral deficits associated with patients who are undergoing major cardiovascular procedures.

  11. Speech Evoked Auditory Brainstem Response in Stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Tahaei, Ali Akbar; Ashayeri, Hassan; Pourbakht, Akram; Kamali, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Auditory processing deficits have been hypothesized as an underlying mechanism for stuttering. Previous studies have demonstrated abnormal responses in subjects with persistent developmental stuttering (PDS) at the higher level of the central auditory system using speech stimuli. Recently, the potential usefulness of speech evoked auditory brainstem responses in central auditory processing disorders has been emphasized. The current study used the speech evoked ABR to investigate the hypothesis that subjects with PDS have specific auditory perceptual dysfunction. Objectives. To determine whether brainstem responses to speech stimuli differ between PDS subjects and normal fluent speakers. Methods. Twenty-five subjects with PDS participated in this study. The speech-ABRs were elicited by the 5-formant synthesized syllable/da/, with duration of 40 ms. Results. There were significant group differences for the onset and offset transient peaks. Subjects with PDS had longer latencies for the onset and offset peaks relative to the control group. Conclusions. Subjects with PDS showed a deficient neural timing in the early stages of the auditory pathway consistent with temporal processing deficits and their abnormal timing may underlie to their disfluency. PMID:25215262

  12. Speech evoked auditory brainstem response in stuttering.

    PubMed

    Tahaei, Ali Akbar; Ashayeri, Hassan; Pourbakht, Akram; Kamali, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Auditory processing deficits have been hypothesized as an underlying mechanism for stuttering. Previous studies have demonstrated abnormal responses in subjects with persistent developmental stuttering (PDS) at the higher level of the central auditory system using speech stimuli. Recently, the potential usefulness of speech evoked auditory brainstem responses in central auditory processing disorders has been emphasized. The current study used the speech evoked ABR to investigate the hypothesis that subjects with PDS have specific auditory perceptual dysfunction. Objectives. To determine whether brainstem responses to speech stimuli differ between PDS subjects and normal fluent speakers. Methods. Twenty-five subjects with PDS participated in this study. The speech-ABRs were elicited by the 5-formant synthesized syllable/da/, with duration of 40 ms. Results. There were significant group differences for the onset and offset transient peaks. Subjects with PDS had longer latencies for the onset and offset peaks relative to the control group. Conclusions. Subjects with PDS showed a deficient neural timing in the early stages of the auditory pathway consistent with temporal processing deficits and their abnormal timing may underlie to their disfluency.

  13. Auditory neuroplasticity, hearing loss and cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Ryugo, David

    2015-07-01

    Data from our laboratory show that the auditory brain is highly malleable by experience. We establish a base of knowledge that describes the normal structure and workings at the initial stages of the central auditory system. This research is expanded to include the associated pathology in the auditory brain stem created by hearing loss. Utilizing the congenitally deaf white cat, we demonstrate the way that cells, synapses, and circuits are pathologically affected by sound deprivation. We further show that the restoration of auditory nerve activity via electrical stimulation through cochlear implants serves to correct key features of brain pathology caused by hearing loss. The data suggest that rigorous training with cochlear implants and/or hearing aids offers the promise of heretofore unattained benefits.

  14. Central endoscopy reads in inflammatory bowel disease clinical trials: The role of the imaging core lab.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Harris; Berzin, Tyler M; Yu, Hui Jing; Huang, Christopher S; Mishkin, Daniel S

    2014-08-01

    Clinical trials in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are evolving at a rapid pace by employing central reading for endoscopic mucosal assessment in a field that was, historically, largely based on assessments by local physicians. This transition from local to central reading carries with it numerous technical, operational, and scientific challenges, many of which can be resolved by imaging core laboratories (ICLs), a concept that has a longer history in clinical trials in a number of diseases outside the realm of gastroenterology. For IBD trials, ICLs have the dual goals of providing objective, consistent assessments of endoscopic findings using central-reading paradigms whilst providing important expertise with regard to operational issues and regulatory expectations. This review focuses on current approaches to using ICLs for central endoscopic reading in IBD trials.

  15. Early and late endocrine effects in pediatric central nervous system diseases.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Ivy R; Cheung, Clement C

    2014-01-01

    Endocrinopathies are frequently linked to central nervous system disease, both as early effects prior to the disease diagnosis and/or late effects after the disease has been treated. In particular, tumors and infiltrative diseases of the brain and pituitary, such as craniopharyngioma, optic pathway and hypothalamic gliomas, intracranial germ cell tumor, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis, can present with abnormal endocrine manifestations that precede the development of neurological symptoms. Early endocrine effects include diabetes insipidus, growth failure, obesity, and precocious or delayed puberty. With improving prognosis and treatment of childhood brain tumors, many survivors experience late endocrine effects related to medical and surgical interventions. Chemotherapeutic agents and radiation therapy can affect the hypothalamic-pituitary axes governing growth, thyroid, gonadal, and adrenal function. In addition, obesity and metabolic alterations are frequent late manifestations. Diagnosing and treating both early and late endocrine manifestations can dramatically improve the growth, well-being, and quality of life of patients with childhood central nervous system diseases.

  16. PhenomeCentral: a portal for phenotypic and genotypic matchmaking of patients with rare genetic diseases.

    PubMed

    Buske, Orion J; Girdea, Marta; Dumitriu, Sergiu; Gallinger, Bailey; Hartley, Taila; Trang, Heather; Misyura, Andriy; Friedman, Tal; Beaulieu, Chandree; Bone, William P; Links, Amanda E; Washington, Nicole L; Haendel, Melissa A; Robinson, Peter N; Boerkoel, Cornelius F; Adams, David; Gahl, William A; Boycott, Kym M; Brudno, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The discovery of disease-causing mutations typically requires confirmation of the variant or gene in multiple unrelated individuals, and a large number of rare genetic diseases remain unsolved due to difficulty identifying second families. To enable the secure sharing of case records by clinicians and rare disease scientists, we have developed the PhenomeCentral portal (https://phenomecentral.org). Each record includes a phenotypic description and relevant genetic information (exome or candidate genes). PhenomeCentral identifies similar patients in the database based on semantic similarity between clinical features, automatically prioritized genes from whole-exome data, and candidate genes entered by the users, enabling both hypothesis-free and hypothesis-driven matchmaking. Users can then contact other submitters to follow up on promising matches. PhenomeCentral incorporates data for over 1,000 patients with rare genetic diseases, contributed by the FORGE and Care4Rare Canada projects, the US NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Program, the EU Neuromics and ANDDIrare projects, as well as numerous independent clinicians and scientists. Though the majority of these records have associated exome data, most lack a molecular diagnosis. PhenomeCentral has already been used to identify causative mutations for several patients, and its ability to find matching patients and diagnose these diseases will grow with each additional patient that is entered.

  17. Auditory Deprivation and Early Conductive Hearing Loss from Otitis Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnarson, Adele D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews auditory deprivation effects on anatomy, physiology, and behavior in animals and discusses the sequelae of otitis media with effusion (OME) in children. Focused on are central auditory processing disorders associated with early fluctuating hearing loss from OME. (DB)

  18. Auditory Deprivation and Early Conductive Hearing Loss from Otitis Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnarson, Adele D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews auditory deprivation effects on anatomy, physiology, and behavior in animals and discusses the sequelae of otitis media with effusion (OME) in children. Focused on are central auditory processing disorders associated with early fluctuating hearing loss from OME. (DB)

  19. Auditory Temporal Processing Deficits in Children with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Mimran, Ravit; Sapir, Shimon

    2007-01-01

    The role of central auditory processing in reading skill development and reading disorders is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine whether individuals with specific reading disabilities (SRD) have deficits in processing rapidly presented, serially ordered non-speech auditory signals. To this end, we compared 12 children with SRD and…

  20. Auditory Temporal Processing Deficits in Children with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Mimran, Ravit; Sapir, Shimon

    2007-01-01

    The role of central auditory processing in reading skill development and reading disorders is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine whether individuals with specific reading disabilities (SRD) have deficits in processing rapidly presented, serially ordered non-speech auditory signals. To this end, we compared 12 children with SRD and…

  1. [Alpha lipoic acid and its antioxidant against cancer and diseases of central sensitization].

    PubMed

    Durand, Marisa; Mach, Núria

    2013-01-01

    The alpha lipoic acid (ALA) may control and limit the production of free radicals, influencing the development of pathologies such cancer or central sensitization diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms are still not elucidated. The objective of the present review is to contrast the antioxidant properties of ALA in the prevention and development of pathologies related to the oxidative stress. In this work, more than 100 articles published during the last 20 years that relate ALA consumption and pathologies related to the oxidative stress have been analysed. The articles have been obtained from different specialized databases (PubMed central, Web of science, Elsevier Journal, Science Direct) and included experiments in animals, cells, and humans. Domains evaluated included ALA, central sensitization diseases, free radicals, and ALA. Results from in vitro and laboratory animals experiments demonstrate that ALA controls the cell apoptosis of different type of cancers through out the increase of reactive oxygen species, and decrease of cell growth. Moreover, results demonstrated that ALA presents an antioxidant capacity and the ability to regenerate other antioxidants, which is essential to treat the central sensitization diseases. The ALA plays a significant role as antioxidant and prooxidant in cancer and central sensitization diseases, although more extensive studies are required to determine the clinical significance in humans. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  2. Vestibular rehabilitation by auditory feedback in otolith disorders.

    PubMed

    Basta, Dietmar; Singbartl, Fabian; Todt, Ingo; Clarke, Andrew; Ernst, Arne

    2008-10-01

    Rehabilitation strategies have been applied successfully over the last few decades to initiate central compensation of the tonus imbalance and to facilitate substitution in different types of peripheral vestibular dysfunction. However, these vestibular rehabilitation strategies are often not successful in patients with isolated otolith disorders. The aim of the present study was therefore to evaluate a specific rehabilitation strategy for patients with an isolated otolith disorder by using an auditory feedback system. Thirteen patients, which suffered from different types of otolith disorders, but no other vestibular pathology and 13 normal controls were included in this study. Vestibular rehabilitation exercises were performed daily over a 2-week period (weekends excluded). During all exercises the patients of the test group (n=13) obtained an acoustic feedback signal when their trunk angle velocity exceeded a preset level while the patients of the control group (n=13) performed the same exercises without auditory feedback. The most effective exercise in the test group was "walking eight tandem steps on a foam support surface". Approximately 85% of the patients showed a significant decrease of trunk sway in this condition. In contrast to these results, patients of the control group showed no significant improvement of postural control after the training. The results indicate that an auditory feedback rehabilitation program with exercises related to the specific neurotological disease could significantly improve the postural control in patients with otolith disorders.

  3. The Central Biobank and Virtual Biobank of BIOMARKAPD: A Resource for Studies on Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Reijs, Babette L. R.; Teunissen, Charlotte E.; Goncharenko, Nikolai; Betsou, Fay; Blennow, Kaj; Baldeiras, Inês; Brosseron, Frederic; Cavedo, Enrica; Fladby, Tormod; Froelich, Lutz; Gabryelewicz, Tomasz; Gurvit, Hakan; Kapaki, Elisabeth; Koson, Peter; Kulic, Luka; Lehmann, Sylvain; Lewczuk, Piotr; Lleó, Alberto; Maetzler, Walter; de Mendonça, Alexandre; Miller, Anne-Marie; Molinuevo, José L.; Mollenhauer, Brit; Parnetti, Lucilla; Rot, Uros; Schneider, Anja; Simonsen, Anja Hviid; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Tsolaki, Magda; Verbeek, Marcel M.; Verhey, Frans R. J.; Zboch, Marzena; Winblad, Bengt; Scheltens, Philip; Zetterberg, Henrik; Visser, Pieter Jelle

    2015-01-01

    Biobanks are important resources for biomarker discovery and assay development. Biomarkers for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease (BIOMARKAPD) is a European multicenter study, funded by the EU Joint Programme-Neurodegenerative Disease Research, which aims to improve the clinical use of body fluid markers for the diagnosis and prognosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). The objective was to standardize the assessment of existing assays and to validate novel fluid biomarkers for AD and PD. To support the validation of novel biomarkers and assays, a central and a virtual biobank for body fluids and associated data from subjects with neurodegenerative diseases have been established. In the central biobank, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood samples were collected according to the BIOMARKAPD standardized pre-analytical procedures and stored at Integrated BioBank of Luxembourg. The virtual biobank provides an overview of available CSF, plasma, serum, and DNA samples at each site. Currently, at the central biobank of BIOMARKAPD samples are available from over 400 subjects with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), AD, frontotemporal dementia (FTD), vascular dementia, multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, PD, PD with dementia, and dementia with Lewy bodies. The virtual biobank contains information on over 8,600 subjects with varying diagnoses from 21 local biobanks. A website has been launched to enable sample requests from the central biobank and virtual biobank. PMID:26528237

  4. Central blood pressures in early chronic kidney disease: an analysis of CARTaGENE.

    PubMed

    Goupil, Rémi; Dupuis, Dominique; Agharazii, Mohsen; Hamet, Pavel; Troyanov, Stéphan; Madore, François

    2017-06-01

    Vascular stiffness and advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) are strong determinants of higher central blood pressure (BP) and are associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Whether mild-to-moderate CKD is associated with higher central BP independently of other comorbid conditions remains uncertain. We evaluated the central hemodynamic profile [central systolic BP, central pulse pressure (PP), augmentation index, PP amplification, augmented pressure] of Stage 3 CKD patients and compared it with participants with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 in the CARTaGENE populational cohort through propensity score matching and multivariate regression analyses. Of the 20 004 participants, 13 114 had valid pulse wave analysis and eGFRs >30 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , of which 515 had Stage 3 CKD. These 515 patients had significantly higher peripheral systolic BP (127 ± 16 versus 125 ± 15 mmHg, P = 0.01) and central PP (43.0 ± 11.4 versus 39.7 ± 10.0 mmHg, P <0.001) than the control group (eGFR >60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ). Propensity score matching allowed the creation of 500 pairs with similar clinical characteristics. In this matched cohort, central BPs were similar in Stage 3 CKD patients compared with controls (central PP 42.9 ± 11.3 versus 43.7 ± 11.3 mmHg, P = 0.3). Multivariate analysis using data from all patients also found that the higher central hemodynamic readings found in Stage 3 CKD patients disappeared after adjusting for comorbid conditions. In a subset of 609 participants in whom albuminuria levels were measured, urine albumin excretion was not independently associated with higher central hemodynamic indices. In this large cohort from the general population, early CKD and albuminuria was not independently associated with detrimental central hemodynamic parameters.

  5. Transfer function-derived central pressure and cardiovascular disease events: the Framingham Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Gary F; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Larson, Martin G; Hamburg, Naomi M; Benjamin, Emelia J; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Levy, Daniel; Vita, Joseph A

    2016-08-01

    Relations between central pulse pressure (PP) or pressure amplification and major cardiovascular disease (CVD) events are controversial. Estimates of central aortic pressure derived using radial artery tonometry and a generalized transfer function may better predict CVD risk beyond the predictive value of brachial SBP. Augmentation index, central SBP, central PP, and central-to-peripheral PP amplification were evaluated using radial artery tonometry and a generalized transfer function as implemented in the SphygmoCor device (AtCor Medical, Itasca, Illinois, USA). We used proportional hazards models to examine relations between central hemodynamics and first-onset major CVD events in 2183 participants (mean age 62 years, 58% women) in the Framingham Heart Study. During median follow-up of 7.8 (limits 0.2-8.9) years, 149 participants (6.8%) had an incident event. Augmentation index (P = 0.6), central aortic systolic pressure (P = 0.20), central aortic PP (P = 0.24), and PP amplification (P = 0.15) were not related to CVD events in multivariable models that adjusted for age, sex, brachial cuff systolic pressure, use of antihypertensive therapy, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, smoking, and presence of diabetes. In a model that included standard risk factors, model fit was improved (P = 0.03) when brachial systolic pressure was added after central, whereas model fit was not improved (P = 0.30) when central systolic pressure was added after brachial. After considering standard risk factors, including brachial cuff SBP, augmentation index, central PP and PP amplification derived using radial artery tonometry, and a generalized transfer function were not predictive of CVD risk.

  6. Auditory imagery: empirical findings.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Timothy L

    2010-03-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d) auditory imagery's relationship to perception and memory (detection, encoding, recall, mnemonic properties, phonological loop), and (e) individual differences in auditory imagery (in vividness, musical ability and experience, synesthesia, musical hallucinosis, schizophrenia, amusia) are considered. It is concluded that auditory imagery (a) preserves many structural and temporal properties of auditory stimuli, (b) can facilitate auditory discrimination but interfere with auditory detection, (c) involves many of the same brain areas as auditory perception, (d) is often but not necessarily influenced by subvocalization, (e) involves semantically interpreted information and expectancies, (f) involves depictive components and descriptive components, (g) can function as a mnemonic but is distinct from rehearsal, and (h) is related to musical ability and experience (although the mechanisms of that relationship are not clear).

  7. Links among glaucoma, neurodegenerative, and vascular diseases of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Nucci, Carlo; Martucci, Alessio; Cesareo, Massimo; Garaci, Francesco; Morrone, Luigi Antonio; Russo, Rossella; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana; Bagetta, Giacinto; Mancino, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Although the intraocular pressure (IOP) has been considered for long time the key point and the only treatable risk factor of the disease, there are cases in which glaucoma continues to progress despite normal IOP values. Vision loss in glaucoma is related to a selective decrease in the number of retinal ganglion cells by apoptosis that is associated to alterations of the central visual pathways. Interestingly, similar events have been also described in disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, and cerebrovascular diseases. In this review, we discuss recent evidence supporting pathological links between glaucoma and disorders of the CNS.

  8. Orthogonal acoustic dimensions define auditory field maps in human cortex.

    PubMed

    Barton, Brian; Venezia, Jonathan H; Saberi, Kourosh; Hickok, Gregory; Brewer, Alyssa A

    2012-12-11

    The functional organization of human auditory cortex has not yet been characterized beyond a rudimentary level of detail. Here, we use functional MRI to measure the microstructure of orthogonal tonotopic and periodotopic gradients forming complete auditory field maps (AFMs) in human core and belt auditory cortex. These AFMs show clear homologies to subfields of auditory cortex identified in nonhuman primates and in human cytoarchitectural studies. In addition, we present measurements of the macrostructural organization of these AFMs into "clover leaf" clusters, consistent with the macrostructural organization seen across human visual cortex. As auditory cortex is at the interface between peripheral hearing and central processes, improved understanding of the organization of this system could open the door to a better understanding of the transformation from auditory spectrotemporal signals to higher-order information such as speech categories.

  9. Acute auditory agnosia as the presenting hearing disorder in MELAS.

    PubMed

    Miceli, Gabriele; Conti, Guido; Cianfoni, Alessandro; Di Giacopo, Raffaella; Zampetti, Patrizia; Servidei, Serenella

    2008-12-01

    MELAS is commonly associated with peripheral hearing loss. Auditory agnosia is a rare cortical auditory impairment, usually due to bilateral temporal damage. We document, for the first time, auditory agnosia as the presenting hearing disorder in MELAS. A young woman with MELAS (A3243G mtDNA mutation) suffered from acute cortical hearing damage following a single stroke-like episode, in the absence of previous hearing deficits. Audiometric testing showed marked central hearing impairment and very mild sensorineural hearing loss. MRI documented bilateral, acute lesions to superior temporal regions. Neuropsychological tests demonstrated auditory agnosia without aphasia. Our data and a review of published reports show that cortical auditory disorders are relatively frequent in MELAS, probably due to the strikingly high incidence of bilateral and symmetric damage following stroke-like episodes. Acute auditory agnosia can be the presenting hearing deficit in MELAS and, conversely, MELAS should be suspected in young adults with sudden hearing loss.

  10. Molecular Analysis of Central Nervous System Disease Spectrum in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Chindo; Sitthi-Amorn, Jitsuda; Douglas, Jessica; Ramani, Ritika; Miele, Lucio; Vijayakumar, Vani; Karlson, Cynthia; Chipeta, James; Megason, Gail

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of the central nervous system (CNS) is an essential therapeutic component in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The goal of this study was to identify molecular signatures distinguishing patients with CNS disease from those without the disease in pediatric patients with ALL. We analyzed gene expression data from 207 pediatric patients with ALL. Patients without CNS were classified as CNS1, while those with mild and advanced CNS disease were classified as CNS2 and CNS3, respectively. We compared gene expression levels among the three disease classes. We identified gene signatures distinguishing the three disease classes. Pathway analysis revealed molecular networks and biological pathways dysregulated in response to CNS disease involvement. The identified pathways included the ILK, WNT, B-cell receptor, AMPK, ERK5, and JAK signaling pathways. The results demonstrate that transcription profiling could be used to stratify patients to guide therapeutic decision-making in pediatric ALL. PMID:26997880

  11. Use of Angong Niuhuang in Treating Central Nervous System Diseases and Related Research

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yu; Yan, Shaohua; Xu, Lipeng; Zhu, Gexin; Yu, Xiaotong; Tong, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    In Chinese medicine-based therapeutics, Angong Niuhuang pill (ANP) is one of the three most effective formulas for febrile diseases, and it is also used to treat other diseases. This paper reviews current knowledge regarding the clinical and pharmacological effects of ANP for treating different central nervous system (CNS) diseases to confirm its validity and efficacy. These diseases are like centric fever, coma, stroke, and viral encephalitis. This review reveals that various diseases could be treated using the same agent, which is one of the most important principles of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). According to the “Same Treatment for Different Diseases” principle, ANP might be efficacious in other CNS diseases. PMID:25587341

  12. [Auditory evoked potentials: basics and clinical applications].

    PubMed

    Radeloff, A; Cebulla, M; Shehata-Dieler, W

    2014-09-01

    Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) are elicited at various levels of the auditory system following acoustic stimulation. Electrocochleography is a technique for recording AEPs of the inner ear. The recording is performed by means of a needle electrode placed on the promontory or non-invasive with tympanic membrane or ear canal electrodes. Clinically, electrocochleography is used for the diagnosis of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) and endolymphatic hydrops. According to their latencies, AEPs of the central auditory pathway are subdivided into early, middle and late (cortical) AEPs. These AEPs are recorded via surface scalp electrodes. Normally, the larger EEG masks AEPs. For unmasking the AEP, several techniques are applied. Early AEPs or auditory brainstem responses (ABR) are the most widely used AEPs for functional evaluation of the auditory pathway. In contrast to otoacoustic emissions, early AEPs can detect ANSD. Thus, they are more suitable for hearing screening in newborns. For this purpose automated procedures are implemented. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Conducting polymer electrodes for auditory brainstem implants

    PubMed Central

    Guex, Amélie A.; Vachicouras, Nicolas; Hight, Ariel E.; Brown, M. Christian; Lee, Daniel J.; Lacour, Stéphanie P.

    2015-01-01

    The auditory brainstem implant (ABI) restores hearing in patients with damaged auditory nerves. One of the main ideas to improve the efficacy of ABIs is to increase spatial specificity of stimulation, in order to minimize extra-auditory side-effects and to maximize the tonotopy of stimulation. This study reports on the development of a microfabricated conformable electrode array with small (100 μm diameter) electrode sites. The latter are coated with a conducting polymer, PEDOT:PSS, to offer high charge injection properties and to safely stimulate the auditory system with small stimulation sites. We report on the design and fabrication of the polymer implant, and characterize the coatings in physiological conditions in vitro and under mechanical deformation. We characterize the coating electrochemically and during bending tests. We present a proof of principle experiment where the auditory system is efficiently activated by the flexible polymeric interface in a rat model. These results demonstrate the potential of using conducting polymer coatings on small electrode sites for electrochemically safe and efficient stimulation of the central auditory system. PMID:26207184

  14. Investigating bottom-up auditory attention

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Emine Merve; Elhilali, Mounya

    2014-01-01

    Bottom-up attention is a sensory-driven selection mechanism that directs perception toward a subset of the stimulus that is considered salient, or attention-grabbing. Most studies of bottom-up auditory attention have adapted frameworks similar to visual attention models whereby local or global “contrast” is a central concept in defining salient elements in a scene. In the current study, we take a more fundamental approach to modeling auditory attention; providing the first examination of the space of auditory saliency spanning pitch, intensity and timbre; and shedding light on complex interactions among these features. Informed by psychoacoustic results, we develop a computational model of auditory saliency implementing a novel attentional framework, guided by processes hypothesized to take place in the auditory pathway. In particular, the model tests the hypothesis that perception tracks the evolution of sound events in a multidimensional feature space, and flags any deviation from background statistics as salient. Predictions from the model corroborate the relationship between bottom-up auditory attention and statistical inference, and argues for a potential role of predictive coding as mechanism for saliency detection in acoustic scenes. PMID:24904367

  15. Glial Cell Contributions to Auditory Brainstem Development

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, Karina S.; Rubel, Edwin W

    2016-01-01

    Glial cells, previously thought to have generally supporting roles in the central nervous system, are emerging as essential contributors to multiple aspects of neuronal circuit function and development. This review focuses on the contributions of glial cells to the development of auditory pathways in the brainstem. These pathways display specialized synapses and an unusually high degree of precision in circuitry that enables sound source localization. The development of these pathways thus requires highly coordinated molecular and cellular mechanisms. Several classes of glial cells, including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia, have now been explored in these circuits in both avian and mammalian brainstems. Distinct populations of astrocytes are found over the course of auditory brainstem maturation. Early appearing astrocytes are associated with spatial compartments in the avian auditory brainstem. Factors from late appearing astrocytes promote synaptogenesis and dendritic maturation, and astrocytes remain integral parts of specialized auditory synapses. Oligodendrocytes play a unique role in both birds and mammals in highly regulated myelination essential for proper timing to decipher interaural cues. Microglia arise early in brainstem development and may contribute to maturation of auditory pathways. Together these studies demonstrate the importance of non-neuronal cells in the assembly of specialized auditory brainstem circuits. PMID:27818624

  16. False-Positive Error Rates for Reliable Digit Span and Auditory Verbal Learning Test Performance Validity Measures in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Loring, David W; Goldstein, Felicia C; Chen, Chuqing; Drane, Daniel L; Lah, James J; Zhao, Liping; Larrabee, Glenn J

    2016-06-01

    The objective is to examine failure on three embedded performance validity tests [Reliable Digit Span (RDS), Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) logistic regression, and AVLT recognition memory] in early Alzheimer disease (AD; n = 178), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 365), and cognitively intact age-matched controls (n = 206). Neuropsychological tests scores were obtained from subjects participating in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). RDS failure using a ≤7 RDS threshold was 60/178 (34%) for early AD, 52/365 (14%) for MCI, and 17/206 (8%) for controls. A ≤6 RDS criterion reduced this rate to 24/178 (13%) for early AD, 15/365 (4%) for MCI, and 7/206 (3%) for controls. AVLT logistic regression probability of ≥.76 yielded unacceptably high false-positive rates in both clinical groups [early AD = 149/178 (79%); MCI = 159/365 (44%)] but not cognitively intact controls (13/206, 6%). AVLT recognition criterion of ≤9/15 classified 125/178 (70%) of early AD, 155/365 (42%) of MCI, and 18/206 (9%) of control scores as invalid, which decreased to 66/178 (37%) for early AD, 46/365 (13%) for MCI, and 10/206 (5%) for controls when applying a ≤5/15 criterion. Despite high false-positive rates across individual measures and thresholds, combining RDS ≤ 6 and AVLT recognition ≤9/15 classified only 9/178 (5%) of early AD and 4/365 (1%) of MCI patients as invalid performers. Embedded validity cutoffs derived from mixed clinical groups produce unacceptably high false-positive rates in MCI and early AD. Combining embedded PVT indicators lowers the false-positive rate. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Auditory processing in children with dyslexia: electrophysiological and behavior evaluation.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Juliana Casseb; Murphy, Cristina Ferraz Borges; Schochat, Eliane

    2013-01-01

    To compare the performances of children with dyslexia and a control group in behavioral tests of (Central) Auditory Processing and Long Latency Auditory Evoked Potentials (P300). Participants were 22 individuals with dyslexia (study group) and 16 individuals with typical development (control group). All individuals underwent behavioral and electrophysiological assessment of (Central) Auditory Processing (Frequency Pattern Test, Dichotic Digit Test, Speech-in-Noise Test, and P300). Concerning the behavioral tests, there was difference between groups for the Frequency Pattern Test and for the left ear in the Dichotic Digit Test, with worse performance observed in the study group. Considering the P300, there was difference between groups regarding amplitude and latency absolute values, but this finding was not statistically significant. The findings suggest that individuals with dyslexia present temporal auditory processing and figure-ground alterations, which was evidenced by behavioral auditory processing tests. There was no difference between the performance of both groups for the P300 test.

  18. Zoonotic and infectious disease surveillance in Central America: Honduran feral cats positive for toxoplasma, trypanosoma, leishmania, rickettsia, and Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    McCown, Michael; Grzeszak, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    A recent zoonotic and infectious disease field surveillance study in Honduras resulted in the discovery of Toxoplasma, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Rickettsia, and Lyme disease with statistically high prevalence rates in a group of feral cats. All five diseases--Toxoplasmosis, Trypanosomiasis, Leishmaniasis, Rickettsiosis, and Lyme disease--were confirmed in this group of cats having close contact to local civilians and U.S. personnel. These diseases are infectious to other animals and are known to infect humans as well. In the austere Central and South American sites that Special Operations Forces (SOF) medics are deployed, the living conditions and close quarters are prime environments for the potential spread of infectious and zoonotic disease. This study?s findings, as with previous veterinary disease surveillance studies, emphasize the critical need for continual and aggressive surveillance for zoonotic and infectious disease present within animals in specific areas of operation (AO). The importance to SOF is that a variety of animals may be sentinels, hosts, or direct transmitters of disease to civilians and service members. These studies are value-added tools to the U.S. military, specifically to a deploying or already deployed unit. The SOF medic must ensure that this value-added asset is utilized and that the findings are applied to assure Operational Detachment-Alpha (SFOD-A) health and, on a bigger scale, U.S. military force health protection and local civilian health. © 2010.

  19. Mode-locking neurodynamics predict human auditory brainstem responses to musical intervals.

    PubMed

    Lerud, Karl D; Almonte, Felix V; Kim, Ji Chul; Large, Edward W

    2014-02-01

    The auditory nervous system is highly nonlinear. Some nonlinear responses arise through active processes in the cochlea, while others may arise in neural populations of the cochlear nucleus, inferior colliculus and higher auditory areas. In humans, auditory brainstem recordings reveal nonlinear population responses to combinations of pure tones, and to musical intervals composed of complex tones. Yet the biophysical origin of central auditory nonlinearities, their signal processing properties, and their relationship to auditory perception remain largely unknown. Both stimulus components and nonlinear resonances are well represented in auditory brainstem nuclei due to neural phase-locking. Recently mode-locking, a generalization of phase-locking that implies an intrinsically nonlinear processing of sound, has been observed in mammalian auditory brainstem nuclei. Here we show that a canonical model of mode-locked neural oscillation predicts the complex nonlinear population responses to musical intervals that have been observed in the human brainstem. The model makes predictions about auditory signal processing and perception that are different from traditional delay-based models, and may provide insight into the nature of auditory population responses. We anticipate that the application of dynamical systems analysis will provide the starting point for generic models of auditory population dynamics, and lead to a deeper understanding of nonlinear auditory signal processing possibly arising in excitatory-inhibitory networks of the central auditory nervous system. This approach has the potential to link neural dynamics with the perception of pitch, music, and speech, and lead to dynamical models of auditory system development.

  20. Fibromyalgia in a Patient with Cushing's Disease Accompanied by Central Hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Nobumasa; Katada, Shinichi; Yamada, Takaho; Mezaki, Naomi; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Akiko; Hanyu, Osamu; Yoneoka, Yuichiro; Kawachi, Izumi; Shimohata, Takayoshi; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Sone, Hirohito

    A 39-year-old woman with a 3-year history of a rounded face developed widespread myalgia. Detailed examinations revealed no disorders that could explain the pain other than concomitant Cushing's disease and central hypothyroidism. Both the hypercortisolemia and hypothyroidism completely resolved after the patient underwent surgery to treat Cushing's disease, but she continued to experience unresolved myalgia and met the diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia. Few studies have so far investigated patients with fibromyalgia associated with Cushing's syndrome. In our case, the hypothyroidism caused by Cushing's disease probably played an important role in triggering and exacerbating fibromyalgia. This highlights the need to examine the endocrine function in patients with muscle pain.

  1. Morbus Behçet – a rare disease in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Sysa-Jędrzejowska, Anna; Jurowski, Piotr; Jabłkowski, Maciej; Kot, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Behçet's disease (BD) is a multiorgan inflammatory disease of complex and not entirely elucidated etiology, which was originally diagnosed in patients with aphthous stomatitis, genital ulcerations and ocular manifestations. The entity is endemic in countries of Eastern and Central Asia, especially Turkey and Iran, but rarely seen in Central Europe. As there are no specific diagnostic laboratory tests or histopathologic findings which confirm the preliminary diagnosis, the final diagnosis should be based on clinical criteria. Frequently a definitive diagnosis is established within several years or months after the first manifestations appear. The increased number of cases, recently described worldwide also in the Polish population, indicates that the disease could spread out of endemic areas. The aim of this manuscript is to present the clinical picture, diagnosis criteria and therapeutic approaches of this “international disease” which currently is observed not only in emigrants from Asia but also in native Polish citizens. PMID:26788079

  2. Molecular study of patients with auditory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Guilherme Machado De; Ramos, Priscila Zonzini; Castilho, Arthur Menino; Guimarães, Alexandre Caixeta; Sartorato, Edi Lúcia

    2016-07-01

    Auditory neuropathy is a type of hearing loss that constitutes a change in the conduct of the auditory stimulus by the involvement of inner hair cells or auditory nerve synapses. It is characterized by the absence or alteration of waves in the examination of brainstem auditory evoked potentials, with otoacoustic and/or cochlear microphonic issues. At present, four loci associated with non‑syndromic auditory neuropathy have been mapped: Autosomal recessive deafness‑9 [DFNB9; the otoferlin (OTOF) gene] and autosomal recessive deafness‑59 [DFNB59; the pejvakin (PJVK) gene], associated with autosomal recessive inheritance; the autosomal dominant auditory neuropathy gene [AUNA1; the diaphanous‑3 (DIAPH3) gene]; and AUNX1, linked to chromosome X. Furthermore, mutations of connexin 26 [the gap junction β2 (GJB2) gene] have also been associated with the disease. OTOF gene mutations exert a significant role in auditory neuropathy. In excess of 80 pathogenic mutations have been identified in individuals with non‑syndromic deafness in populations of different origins, with an emphasis on the p.Q829X mutation, which was found in ~3% of cases of deafness in the Spanish population. The identification of genetic alterations responsible for auditory neuropathy is one of the challenges contributing to understand the molecular bases of the different phenotypes of hearing loss. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate molecular changes in the OTOF gene in patients with auditory neuropathy, and to develop a DNA chip for the molecular diagnosis of auditory neuropathy using mass spectrometry for genotyping. Genetic alterations were investigated in 47 patients with hearing loss and clinical diagnosis of auditory neuropathy, and the c.35delG mutation in the GJB2 gene was identified in three homozygous patients, and the heterozygous parents of one of these cases. Additionally, OTOF gene mutations were tracked by complete sequencing of 48 exons, although these results

  3. Screening for Diabetic Retinopathy in the Central Region of Portugal. Added Value of Automated 'Disease/No Disease' Grading.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Luisa; Oliveira, Carlos Manta; Neves, Catarina; Ramos, João Diogo; Ferreira, Hélder; Cunha-Vaz, José

    2014-11-26

    Purpose: To describe the procedures of a nonmydriatic diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening program in the Central Region of Portugal and the added value of the introduction of an automated disease/no disease analysis. Methods: The images from the DR screening program are analyzed in a central reading center using first an automated disease/no disease analysis followed by human grading of the disease cases. The grading scale used is as follows: R0 - no retinopathy, RL - nonproliferative DR, M - maculopathy, RP - proliferative DR and NC - not classifiable. Results: Since the introduction of automated analysis in July 2011, a total of 89,626 eyes (45,148 patients) were screened with the following distribution: R0 - 71.5%, RL - 22.7%, M - 2.2%, RP - 0.1% and NC - 3.5%. The implemented automated system showed the potential for human grading burden reduction of 48.42%. Conclusions: Screening for DR using automated analysis allied to a simplified grading scale identifies DR vision-threatening complications well while decreasing human burden. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Detection of Visual Field Loss in Pituitary Disease: Peripheral Kinetic Versus Central Static.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Fiona J; Cheyne, Christopher P; García-Fiñana, Marta; Noonan, Carmel P; Howard, Claire; Smith, Jayne; Adeoye, Joanne

    2015-06-01

    Visual field assessment is an important clinical evaluation for eye disease and neurological injury. We evaluated Octopus semi-automated kinetic peripheral perimetry (SKP) and Humphrey static automated central perimetry for detection of neurological visual field loss in patients with pituitary disease. We carried out a prospective cross-sectional diagnostic accuracy study comparing Humphrey central 30-2 SITA threshold programme with a screening protocol for SKP on Octopus perimetry. Humphrey 24-2 data were extracted from 30-2 results. Results were independently graded for presence/absence of field defect plus severity of defect. Fifty patients (100 eyes) were recruited (25 males and 25 females), with mean age of 52.4 years (SD = 15.7). Order of perimeter assessment (Humphrey/Octopus first) and order of eye tested (right/left first) were randomised. The 30-2 programme detected visual field loss in 85%, the 24-2 programme in 80%, and the Octopus combined kinetic/static strategy in 100% of eyes. Peripheral visual field loss was missed by central threshold assessment. Qualitative comparison of type of visual field defect demonstrated a match between Humphrey and Octopus results in 58%, with a match for severity of defect in 50%. Tests duration was 9.34 minutes (SD = 2.02) for Humphrey 30-2 versus 10.79 minutes (SD = 4.06) for Octopus perimetry. Octopus semi-automated kinetic perimetry was found to be superior to central static testing for detection of pituitary disease-related visual field loss. Where reliant on Humphrey central static perimetry, the 30-2 programme is recommended over the 24-2 programme. Where kinetic perimetry is available, this is preferable to central static programmes for increased detection of peripheral visual field loss.

  5. Selective Heart Rate Reduction With Ivabradine Increases Central Blood Pressure in Stable Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Rimoldi, Stefano F; Messerli, Franz H; Cerny, David; Gloekler, Steffen; Traupe, Tobias; Laurent, Stéphane; Seiler, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Heart rate (HR) lowering by β-blockade was shown to be beneficial after myocardial infarction. In contrast, HR lowering with ivabradine was found to confer no benefits in 2 prospective randomized trials in patients with coronary artery disease. We hypothesized that this inefficacy could be in part related to ivabradine's effect on central (aortic) pressure. Our study included 46 patients with chronic stable coronary artery disease who were randomly allocated to placebo (n=23) or ivabradine (n=23) in a single-blinded fashion for 6 months. Concomitant baseline medication was continued unchanged throughout the study except for β-blockers, which were stopped during the study period. Central blood pressure and stroke volume were measured directly by left heart catheterization at baseline and after 6 months. For the determination of resting HR at baseline and at follow-up, 24-hour ECG monitoring was performed. Patients on ivabradine showed an increase of 11 mm Hg in central systolic pressure from 129±22 mm Hg to 140±26 mm Hg (P=0.02) and in stroke volume by 86±21.8 to 107.2±30.0 mL (P=0.002). In the placebo group, central systolic pressure and stroke volume remained unchanged. Estimates of myocardial oxygen consumption (HR×systolic pressure and time-tension index) remained unchanged with ivabradine.The decrease in HR from baseline to follow-up correlated with the concomitant increase in central systolic pressure (r=-0.41, P=0.009) and in stroke volume (r=-0.61, P<0.001). In conclusion, the decrease in HR with ivabradine was associated with an increase in central systolic pressure, which may have antagonized possible benefits of HR lowering in coronary artery disease patients. CLINICAL TRIALSURL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier NCT01039389. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Central hemodynamics are associated with cardiovascular disease and albuminuria in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Theilade, Simone; Hansen, Tine W; Rossing, Peter

    2014-09-01

    We sought to investigate associations between central hemodynamic parameters (estimated from radial pulse wave analyses (PWAs)), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and albuminuria in type 1 diabetes. We conducted an observational study of 636 type 1 diabetes patients. Central hemodynamics were measured by PWA as central aortic systolic pressure (CASP), central aortic pulse pressure (CPP), central aortic diastolic pressure (CADP), and subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR). CVD included revascularization, myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, and stroke. Albuminuria was urinary albumin excretion rate ≥30 mg/24 hours. We computed standardized odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for sex, age, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate, height, estimated glomerular filtration rate, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) total cholesterol, antihypertensive medication, and smoking. At follow-up, development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and mortality was traced through electronic medical records. Patients were aged a mean of 54±13 years, and 289 (45%) were women. The mean ± SD was 118±17 mm Hg for CASP, 75±10 mm Hg for CADP, 43±14 mm Hg for CPP, and 150±32 for SEVR. In fully adjusted models, increased CASP and CPP and decreased CADP and SEVR were associated with presence of CVD (n = 132; P ≤ 0.02) and presence of albuminuria (n = 335; P < 0.001). During follow-up, median (range) (2.8 (0.7-3.8) years), SEVR predicted ESRD or mortality combined (n = 26) after adjustment for sex, age, and MAP (P = 0.001), whereas CASP, CPP, and CADP did not (P ≥ 0.13). In type 1 diabetes patients, increased CASP and CPP and decreased CADP and SEVR were independently associated with history of CVD and albuminuria. Furthermore, SEVR predicted mortality and ESRD during follow-up. Future studies are needed to determine whether targeting central hemodynamics improves outcome. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Overweight, obesity, central adiposity and associated chronic diseases in cuban adults.

    PubMed

    Díaz, María Elena; Jiménez, Santa; García, René Guillermo; Bonet, Mariano; Wong, Iraida

    2009-10-01

    Introduction Prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing worldwide in parallel with the growing burden of noncommunicable chronic diseases. According to the World Health Organization, in 2005 approximately 1.6 billion individuals aged ≥15 years were overweight and at least 400 million were obese; by 2015 these figures will almost double. Central distribution of adiposity has also been associated with higher rates of cardiovascular diseases and other conditions. Objective Determine the prevalence of overweight, obesity and central adiposity, and their association with noncommunicable chronic diseases and related lifestyle risk factors in Cuban adults. Methods The Second National Survey on Risk Factors and Chronic Diseases (ENFRENT II), conducted in 2000-2001, surveyed a representative sample of males and females aged ≥15 years using a stratified, multi-stage cluster sampling design. Data from a sub-sample of 19,519 individuals aged ≥20 years were analyzed and prevalence calculated for diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and for each of these variables in association with overweight, obesity and central distribution of adiposity, and with the presence of sedentary lifestyle, smoking, alcohol consumption, eating regular daily meals and daily breakfast. Results Estimated prevalence of overweight and obesity in the adult population was 30.8% (CI: 30.1-31.5) and 11.8% (CI: 11.2-12.4), respectively. Obesity prevalence was twice as high in women (15.4%; CI: 14.5-16.3) as in men (7.9%; CI: 7.3-8.6). Obesity was significantly more frequent in diabetics, hypertensives and people with heart disease, while central adiposity was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, hypertension, obesity and overweight. Smoking and alcohol consumption were low among overweight and obese subjects, who exhibited a higher prevalence of irregular and inadequate eating patterns

  8. Clinical epidemiology and phenotypic characteristics of Crohn's disease in the central region of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Aljebreen, Abdulrahman M; Alharbi, Othman R; Azzam, Nahla A; Almalki, Ahmed S; Alswat, Khalid A; Almadi, Majid A

    2014-01-01

    Despite the remarkable increase in the incidence of Crohn's disease among Saudis in recent years, data about Crohn's disease in Saudi Arabia are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical epidemiology and phenotypic characteristics of Crohn's disease in the central region of Saudi Arabia. A data registry, Inflammatory Bowel Disease Information System (IBDIS), was used to register Crohn's disease patients who presented to the gastroenterology clinics in four tertiary care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between September 2009 and February 2013. Patients' characteristics, disease location, behavior, age at diagnosis according to the Montreal classification, course of the disease, and extraintestinal manifestation were recorded. Among 497 patients with Crohn's disease, 59% were males with a mean age at diagnosis of 25 years [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 24-26, range 5-75 years]. The mean duration from the time of complaint to the day of the diagnosis was 11 months, and the mean duration of the disease from diagnosis to the day of entry to the registry was 40 months. Seventy-seven percent of our patients were aged 17-40 years at diagnosis, 16.8% were ≤16 years of age, and 6.6% were >40 years of age. According to the Montreal classification of disease location, 48.8% of patients had ileocolonic involvement, 43.5% had limited disease to the terminal ileum or cecum, 7.7% had isolated colonic involvement, and 16% had an upper gastrointestinal involvement. Forty-two percent of our patients had a non-stricturing, non-penetrating behavior, while 32.8% had stricturing disease and 25.4% had penetrating disease. Crohn's disease is frequently encountered in Saudi Arabia. The majority of patients are young people with a predilection for males, while its behavior resembled that of western societies in terms of age of onset, location, and behavior.

  9. Childhood primary angiitis of the central nervous system: identifying disease trajectories and early risk factors for persistently higher disease activity.

    PubMed

    Cellucci, Tania; Tyrrell, Pascal N; Sheikh, Shehla; Benseler, Susanne M

    2012-05-01

    To compare clinical, laboratory, and imaging characteristics of childhood primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) subtypes at diagnosis and during followup; to characterize disease activity trajectories in childhood PACNS subtypes; and to identify early risk factors for higher disease activity. We performed a single-center cohort study of consecutive children diagnosed as having childhood PACNS. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and imaging data were collected at diagnosis and during standardized clinic visits. Outcome measures included disease activity measured by physician's global assessment. Descriptive statistics were used to assess characteristics of the study cohort, and longitudinal data were analyzed using linear mixed-effects regression. The study cohort consisted of 45 patients with childhood PACNS; 26 had angiography-negative childhood PACNS and 19 had angiography-positive childhood PACNS. There were 24 females, the median age at diagnosis was 9.8 years, and the median followup period was 1.8 years. Patients with angiography-negative childhood PACNS were more likely to be female and to present with seizures, cognitive dysfunction, vision abnormalities, high levels of inflammatory markers, and bilateral findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Motor deficits and ischemic MRI lesions were more common in angiography-positive disease. Disease activity decreased significantly after treatment in all patients. Distinct trajectories of disease activity over time were identified for both childhood PACNS subtypes. Patients with angiography-negative childhood PACNS had persistently higher disease activity. Seizures at presentation also predicted higher disease activity over time. Distinct subtypes of childhood PACNS have unique disease activity trajectories. Patients with angiography-negative disease and seizures at presentation experience higher disease activity. Early recognition of this high-risk cohort may enable the treating physician to

  10. Effects of Physical Rehabilitation Integrated with Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation on Spatio-Temporal and Kinematic Parameters of Gait in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Pau, Massimiliano; Corona, Federica; Pili, Roberta; Casula, Carlo; Sors, Fabrizio; Agostini, Tiziano; Cossu, Giovanni; Guicciardi, Marco; Murgia, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Movement rehabilitation by means of physical therapy represents an essential tool in the management of gait disturbances induced by Parkinson's disease (PD). In this context, the use of rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) has been proven useful in improving several spatio-temporal parameters, but concerning its effect on gait patterns, scarce information is available from a kinematic viewpoint. In this study, we used three-dimensional gait analysis based on optoelectronic stereophotogrammetry to investigate the effects of 5 weeks of supervised rehabilitation, which included gait training integrated with RAS on 26 individuals affected by PD (age 70.4 ± 11.1, Hoehn and Yahr 1-3). Gait kinematics was assessed before and at the end of the rehabilitation period and after a 3-month follow-up, using concise measures (Gait Profile Score and Gait Variable Score, GPS and GVS, respectively), which are able to describe the deviation from a physiologic gait pattern. The results confirm the effectiveness of gait training assisted by RAS in increasing speed and stride length, in regularizing cadence and correctly reweighting swing/stance phase duration. Moreover, an overall improvement of gait quality was observed, as demonstrated by the significant reduction of the GPS value, which was created mainly through significant decreases in the GVS score associated with the hip flexion-extension movement. Future research should focus on investigating kinematic details to better understand the mechanisms underlying gait disturbances in people with PD and the effects of RAS, with the aim of finding new or improving current rehabilitative treatments.

  11. Effects of Physical Rehabilitation Integrated with Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation on Spatio-Temporal and Kinematic Parameters of Gait in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pau, Massimiliano; Corona, Federica; Pili, Roberta; Casula, Carlo; Sors, Fabrizio; Agostini, Tiziano; Cossu, Giovanni; Guicciardi, Marco; Murgia, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Movement rehabilitation by means of physical therapy represents an essential tool in the management of gait disturbances induced by Parkinson’s disease (PD). In this context, the use of rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) has been proven useful in improving several spatio-temporal parameters, but concerning its effect on gait patterns, scarce information is available from a kinematic viewpoint. In this study, we used three-dimensional gait analysis based on optoelectronic stereophotogrammetry to investigate the effects of 5 weeks of supervised rehabilitation, which included gait training integrated with RAS on 26 individuals affected by PD (age 70.4 ± 11.1, Hoehn and Yahr 1–3). Gait kinematics was assessed before and at the end of the rehabilitation period and after a 3-month follow-up, using concise measures (Gait Profile Score and Gait Variable Score, GPS and GVS, respectively), which are able to describe the deviation from a physiologic gait pattern. The results confirm the effectiveness of gait training assisted by RAS in increasing speed and stride length, in regularizing cadence and correctly reweighting swing/stance phase duration. Moreover, an overall improvement of gait quality was observed, as demonstrated by the significant reduction of the GPS value, which was created mainly through significant decreases in the GVS score associated with the hip flexion–extension movement. Future research should focus on investigating kinematic details to better understand the mechanisms underlying gait disturbances in people with PD and the effects of RAS, with the aim of finding new or improving current rehabilitative treatments. PMID:27563296

  12. Central Obesity as a Risk Factor for Non-Erosive Reflux Disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Ju; Lee, Ban Seok

    2017-07-01

    Although central obesity is a risk factor for erosive esophagitis, information regarding the association between central obesity and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) is still scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors for NERD by comparing NERD patients and healthy controls. Comprehensive clinical data from 378 patients who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy from December 2012 to May 2013 and had no visible esophageal mucosal breakage were analyzed. The Korean version of GerdQ questionnaire was used to diagnose NERD. The association between central obesity and NERD was assessed after matching subjects according to propensity scores. There were 119 NERD patients and 259 controls. In multivariate analysis, central obesity, female gender, and younger age were significantly associated with NERD [odds ratio (OR)=2.55, 1.93, and 1.80; p=0.001, 0.005, and 0.011, respectively]. After adjusting for 12 clinical variables using propensity score matching, 114 NERD patients were matched to 114 controls. All variables were well balanced between the two groups (average D before matching: 0.248, after matching: 0.066). Patients with NERD were more likely to have central obesity than healthy controls (28.1% vs. 7.9%). After adjusting for propensity scores and all covariates in multivariable logistic regression analyses, central obesity was still found to be a significant risk factor for NERD (OR=4.55, p<0.001). Central obesity appears to be an independent risk factor for NERD. This result supports the presence of an association between GERD and central obesity, even in the absence of esophageal erosion (NERD).

  13. Sensitivity and specificity of auditory steady‐state response testing

    PubMed Central

    Rabelo, Camila Maia; Schochat, Eliane

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The ASSR test is an electrophysiological test that evaluates, among other aspects, neural synchrony, based on the frequency or amplitude modulation of tones. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of auditory steady‐state response testing in detecting lesions and dysfunctions of the central auditory nervous system. METHODS: Seventy volunteers were divided into three groups: those with normal hearing; those with mesial temporal sclerosis; and those with central auditory processing disorder. All subjects underwent auditory steady‐state response testing of both ears at 500 Hz and 2000 Hz (frequency modulation, 46 Hz). The difference between auditory steady‐state response‐estimated thresholds and behavioral thresholds (audiometric evaluation) was calculated. RESULTS: Estimated thresholds were significantly higher in the mesial temporal sclerosis group than in the normal and central auditory processing disorder groups. In addition, the difference between auditory steady‐state response‐estimated and behavioral thresholds was greatest in the mesial temporal sclerosis group when compared to the normal group than in the central auditory processing disorder group compared to the normal group. DISCUSSION: Research focusing on central auditory nervous system (CANS) lesions has shown that individuals with CANS lesions present a greater difference between ASSR‐estimated thresholds and actual behavioral thresholds; ASSR‐estimated thresholds being significantly worse than behavioral thresholds in subjects with CANS insults. This is most likely because the disorder prevents the transmission of the sound stimulus from being in phase with the received stimulus, resulting in asynchronous transmitter release. Another possible cause of the greater difference between the ASSR‐estimated thresholds and the behavioral thresholds is impaired temporal resolution. CONCLUSIONS: The overall sensitivity of auditory

  14. [Advantages and disadvantages in the use of central venous catheters in children with malignant diseases].

    PubMed

    Sporisević, L; Hasanbegović, E; Hadzihasanović, E; Bajraktarević, A; Khatib, H; Hamamdzić, M

    1999-01-01

    The authors report the problem of central venous catheter appliance to the children with malignant diseases, employed for the first time in Bosnia and Herzegovina with the aim of pediatric oncologic patients treatment. During 1997 central venous catheter type Hickman was used in nine children between two and half to eleven years old (average six years and one months). The average time of catheter placement was six months, in two cases catheter were eliminated after two and three months respectively since application (spontaneous elimination and repeated septic attacks, caused bu resistant bacterial strains). Gram-positive bacteria have been isolated with eight children (Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis), and gram-negative enterobacteriaceae (Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella oxytocia and pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella group C and Enterococcus faecalis) in samples taken from the catheter and hemoculture. The central venous catheter is useful in treating oncological patients, but may cause serious consequences, like local infections or septicaemia.

  15. Helminths and helminthoses in Central Europe: general overview and diseases caused by trematodes (flukes).

    PubMed

    Auer, Herbert; Aspöck, Horst

    2014-10-01

    Parasitic helminths and helminthoses do not only occur in the tropics and subtropics but are also prevalent in Austria and other Central European countries. Their prevalence is, however, more or less rather low. In total, we know more than 20 helminth species, which are diagnosed regularly in Austria; some of them occur in Austria autochthonously, some others are acquired abroad and are transferred as souvenirs to Central Europe. The spectrum of helminths described in this overview comprises species of the trematodes (flukes), cestodes (tapeworms), and nematodes (roundworms).The topic "Helminths and helminthoses in Central Europe" is divided into three parts: The first part comprises a short introduction into the field of medical helminthology and is primarily dedicated to the description of trematodes and trematode-caused diseases.

  16. Local Nitric Oxide Production in Viral and Autoimmune Diseases of the Central Nervous System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, D. Craig; Tsuyoshi Ohnishi, S.; Kean, Rhonda; Numagami, Yoshihiro; Dietzschold, Bernhard; Koprowski, Hilary

    1995-06-01

    Because of the short half-life of NO, previous studies implicating NO in central nervous system pathology during infection had to rely on the demonstration of elevated levels of NO synthase mRNA or enzyme expression or NO metabolites such as nitrate and nitrite in the infected brain. To more definitively investigate the potential causative role of NO in lesions of the central nervous system in animals infected with neurotropic viruses or suffering from experimental allergic encephalitis, we have determined directly the levels of NO present in the central nervous system of such animals. Using spin trapping of NO and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we confirm here that copious amounts of NO (up to 30-fold more than control) are elaborated in the brains of rats infected with rabies virus or borna disease virus, as well as in the spinal cords of rats that had received myelin basic protein-specific T cells.

  17. [Relationship between prevalent features of central obesity and clustering of cardiometabolic diseases among Chinese elder people].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yong; Zhang, Mei; Li, Yi-chong; Li, Xiao-yan; Wang, Li-min; Zhao, Wen-hua

    2013-09-01

    To study the relationship between prevalence of central obesity and clustering of cardiometabolic diseases among Chinese elder people over 60 years old. A complex multistage stratified sampling survey on chronic diseases was conducted in 162 surveillance points, 31 provinces, China in 2010 by China CDC. The survey included face-to-face interview, physical measurement (body height, weight, waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure) and laboratory test (blood sugar, blood lipid and hemoglobin A1C), to collect the information about the prevalence of the risk factors as smoking, drinking, diet and physical activities and the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia. The survey selected 19 966 subjects who were over 60 years old. Central obesity was defined as WC ≥ 85 cm in males or ≥ 80 cm in females. The prevalence of central obesity among the elder people over 60 years old in different districts and populations was calculated; and the proportion of cardiometabolic diseases in groups of different WC was then analyzed. The prevalence of central obesity among elderly population over 60 years old was 48.6% (95%CI:46.1%-51.2%), including 39.7% (95%CI:37.2%-42.2%) males and 57.3% (95%CI:54.5%-60.1%) females. The proportion of females was higher than that of males (χ(2) = 474.63, P < 0.01). The higher the education level, the higher the prevalence of central obesity among elderly men. There was no significant association among females. The higher the family income, the higher the prevalence of central obesity. The prevalence of central obesity was 59.2% in urban area, which was much higher than that in rural area (43.5%) (χ(2) = 50.06, P < 0.01). The proportion of hypertension, diabetes and clustering of cardiometabolic disease was separately 18.8% (95%CI:16.1%-21.5%) , 66.2% (95%CI:63.0%-69.4%) and 47.5% (95%CI:44.1%-50.8%) among elderly men with WC between 85 and 89 cm, and separately 24.0% (95%CI:21.2%-26.8%), 78.2% (95%CI:75.6%-80.8%) and 64.0% (95

  18. Auditory-motor learning influences auditory memory for music.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2012-05-01

    In two experiments, we investigated how auditory-motor learning influences performers' memory for music. Skilled pianists learned novel melodies in four conditions: auditory only (listening), motor only (performing without sound), strongly coupled auditory-motor (normal performance), and weakly coupled auditory-motor (performing along with auditory recordings). Pianists' recognition of the learned melodies was better following auditory-only or auditory-motor (weakly coupled and strongly coupled) learning than following motor-only learning, and better following strongly coupled auditory-motor learning than following auditory-only learning. Auditory and motor imagery abilities modulated the learning effects: Pianists with high auditory imagery scores had better recognition following motor-only learning, suggesting that auditory imagery compensated for missing auditory feedback at the learning stage. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 with melodies that contained greater variation in acoustic features. Melodies that were slower and less variable in tempo and intensity were remembered better following weakly coupled auditory-motor learning. These findings suggest that motor learning can aid performers' auditory recognition of music beyond auditory learning alone, and that motor learning is influenced by individual abilities in mental imagery and by variation in acoustic features.

  19. Electrophysiologic Assessment of Auditory Training Benefits in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Samira; Jenkins, Kimberly

    2015-11-01

    Older adults often exhibit speech perception deficits in difficult listening environments. At present, hearing aids or cochlear implants are the main options for therapeutic remediation; however, they only address audibility and do not compensate for central processing changes that may accompany aging and hearing loss or declines in cognitive function. It is unknown whether long-term hearing aid or cochlear implant use can restore changes in central encoding of temporal and spectral components of speech or improve cognitive function. Therefore, consideration should be given to auditory/cognitive training that targets auditory processing and cognitive declines, taking advantage of the plastic nature of the central auditory system. The demonstration of treatment efficacy is an important component of any training strategy. Electrophysiologic measures can be used to assess training-related benefits. This article will review the evidence for neuroplasticity in the auditory system and the use of evoked potentials to document treatment efficacy.

  20. Tinnitus alters resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) in human auditory and non-auditory brain regions as measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS).

    PubMed

    San Juan, Juan; Hu, Xiao-Su; Issa, Mohamad; Bisconti, Silvia; Kovelman, Ioulia; Kileny, Paul; Basura, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Tinnitus, or phantom sound perception, leads to increased spontaneous neural firing rates and enhanced synchrony in central auditory circuits in animal models. These putative physiologic correlates of tinnitus to date have not been well translated in the brain of the human tinnitus sufferer. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) we recently showed that tinnitus in humans leads to maintained hemodynamic activity in auditory and adjacent, non-auditory cortices. Here we used fNIRS technology to investigate changes in resting state functional connectivity between human auditory and non-auditory brain regions in normal-hearing, bilateral subjective tinnitus and controls before and after auditory stimulation. Hemodynamic activity was monitored over the region of interest (primary auditory cortex) and non-region of interest (adjacent non-auditory cortices) and functional brain connectivity was measured during a 60-second baseline/period of silence before and after a passive auditory challenge consisting of alternating pure tones (750 and 8000Hz), broadband noise and silence. Functional connectivity was measured between all channel-pairs. Prior to stimulation, connectivity of the region of interest to the temporal and fronto-temporal region was decreased in tinnitus participants compared to controls. Overall, connectivity in tinnitus was differentially altered as compared to controls following sound stimulation. Enhanced connectivity was seen in both auditory and non-auditory regions in the tinnitus brain, while controls showed a decrease in connectivity following sound stimulation. In tinnitus, the strength of connectivity was increased between auditory cortex and fronto-temporal, fronto-parietal, temporal, occipito-temporal and occipital cortices. Together these data suggest that central auditory and non-auditory brain regions are modified in tinnitus and that resting functional connectivity measured by fNIRS technology may contribute to conscious phantom

  1. Gestational trophoblastic disease: does central nervous system chemoprophylaxis have a role?

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, A M; Siddiqui, N; Coleman, R E; Hancock, B W

    1999-01-01

    In the UK there are standardized surveillance procedures for gestational trophoblastic disease. However, there are differences in practice between the two treatment centres in terms of definition of persistent gestational trophoblastic disease, prognostic risk assessment and chemotherapeutic regimens. The role of prophylactic chemotherapy for cerebral micrometastatic disease in persistent gestational trophoblastic disease is unclear. We have analysed the outcome of 69 patients with lung metastases who elsewhere might have received prophylactic intrathecal chemotherapy. Of the 69 patients, 67 received intravenous chemotherapy only. The other two patients had cerebral metastases at presentation. One patient who received only intravenous chemotherapy subsequently developed a cerebral metastasis, but this patient's initial treatment was compromised by non-compliance. This experience supports our current policy of not treating patients with pulmonary metastases, without clinical evidence of central nervous system (CNS) involvement, with prophylactic intrathecal therapy. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10098770

  2. Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system: lessons for clinicians and policy makers

    PubMed Central

    Carpio, Arturo; Romo, Matthew L.; Parkhouse, R. M. E.; Short, Brooke; Dua, Tarun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system are associated with high mortality and morbidity, especially in resource-limited settings. The burden of these diseases is amplified as survivors are often left with neurologic sequelae affecting mobility, sensory organs, and cognitive functions, as well as seizures/epilepsy. These diseases inflict suffering by causing lifelong disabilities, reducing economic productivity, and causing social stigma. The complexity of parasitic life cycles and geographic specificities, as well as overlapping clinical manifestations in the host reflecting the diverse pathogenesis of parasites, can present diagnostic challenges. We herein provide an overview of these parasitic diseases and summarize clinical aspects, diagnosis, therapeutic strategies and recent milestones, and aspects related to prevention and control. PMID:26894629

  3. Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system: lessons for clinicians and policy makers.

    PubMed

    Carpio, Arturo; Romo, Matthew L; Parkhouse, R M E; Short, Brooke; Dua, Tarun

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system are associated with high mortality and morbidity, especially in resource-limited settings. The burden of these diseases is amplified as survivors are often left with neurologic sequelae affecting mobility, sensory organs, and cognitive functions, as well as seizures/epilepsy. These diseases inflict suffering by causing lifelong disabilities, reducing economic productivity, and causing social stigma. The complexity of parasitic life cycles and geographic specificities, as well as overlapping clinical manifestations in the host reflecting the diverse pathogenesis of parasites, can present diagnostic challenges. We herein provide an overview of these parasitic diseases and summarize clinical aspects, diagnosis, therapeutic strategies and recent milestones, and aspects related to prevention and control.

  4. Chronic kidney disease in Central American agricultural communities: challenges for epidemiology and public health.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luis Carlos; Ordúñez, Pedro

    2014-04-01

    This paper contextualizes the chronic kidney disease epidemic and related burden of disease affecting Central American farming communities. It summarizes the two main causal hypotheses (heat stress and agrochemicals), draws attention to the consequences of dichotomous reasoning concerning causality, and warns of potential conflicts of interest and their role in "manufacturing doubt." It describes some methodological errors that compromise past study findings and cautions against delaying public health actions until a conclusive understanding is reached about the epidemic's causes and underlying mechanisms. It makes the case for a comprehensive approach to the historical, social and epidemiological facts of the epidemic, for critically assessing existing studies and for enhanced rigor in new research.

  5. Diagnostics are central for a truly holistic approach against intestinal parasitic diseases.

    PubMed

    Harhay, Michael O; Horton, John; Olliaro, Piero L; Utzinger, Jürg

    2011-02-01

    This is a perspectives piece on the central role of diagnostics for a truly holistic approach against gastrointestinal (GI) parasitic diseases. This article was motivated by a recent review in the International Journal of Infectious Diseases, where Absar Alum and colleagues (September 2010) reviewed the global burden, key transmission pathways, current tools and strategies, and provided their vision of a holistic approach to control GI protozoan and helminthic infections in humans. We argue that, as the success of multiple rounds of national deworming campaigns are actualized in various parts of the world, diagnostics become vital to achieve successful elimination and to aid pharmacovigilance against emerging pathogen resistance to the limited deworming pharmacopoeia.

  6. Central pontine myelinolysis in advanced HIV infection with tuberculosis and multicentric Castleman's disease.

    PubMed

    Katchanov, J; Branding, G; Stocker, H

    2013-07-01

    We present a case of central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) in a patient with advanced HIV infection and miliary tuberculosis. While hospitalized the patient developed an unusual ataxic variant of CPM with full clinical recovery. Follow-up imaging revealed resolution of pontine lesions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a clinical and radiological recovery from CPM in advanced HIV disease. Our report extends our knowledge of neurological presentations in patients with advanced HIV infection. It highlights the importance of considering CPM in patients with advanced HIV disease presenting with an ataxic syndrome, even in the absence of an electrolyte derangement.

  7. Effectiveness of low-dose pregabalin in three patients with Lewy body disease and central neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Ukai, Katsuyuki; Fujishiro, Hiroshige; Ozaki, Norio

    2017-03-01

    Many patients with Lewy body disease complain of pain, and their pain may be associated with this disease. Recently, pain has become a focus of attention in Parkinson's disease, but there is little information regarding pain in patients who have dementia with Lewy bodies. We used pregabalin to treat three Lewy body disease patients with chronic pain that may have been related to degeneration of central neurons. All three patients responded well to pregabalin at 25-50 mg/day. To our knowledge, there have been no previous reports of pregabalin showing efficacy for central neuropathic pain in Parkinson's disease or Lewy body disease.

  8. Hereditary retinal eye diseases in childhood and youth affecting the central retina.

    PubMed

    Nentwich, Martin M; Rudolph, Guenther

    2013-09-01

    Hereditary dystrophies affecting the central retina represent a heterogeneous group of diseases. Mutations in different genes may be responsible for changes of the choroid (choroideremia), of the retinal pigment epithelium [RPE] (Best's disease), of the photoreceptor outer segments (Stargardt's disease) and of the bipolar and Mueller cells (x-linked retinoschisis). The correct diagnosis of hereditary retinal dystrophies is important, even though therapeutic options are limited at the moment, as every patient should get a diagnosis and be informed about the expected prognosis. Furthermore, specific gene therapy of a number of diseases such as Leber congenital amaurosis, choroideremia, Stargardt's disease, Usher Syndrome and achromatopsia is being evaluated at present. Classic examinations for patients suffering from hereditary retinal dystrophies of the central retina are funduscopy - also using red-free light - visual-field tests, electrophysiologic tests as electro-retinogram [ERG] and multifocal ERG and tests evaluating color vision. Recently, new imaging modalities have been introduced into the clinical practice. The significance of these new methods such as high-resolution spectral-domain optic coherence tomography [SD-OCT] and fundus autofluorescence will be discussed as well as "next generation sequencing" as a new method for the analysis of genetic mutations in a larger number of patients.

  9. Central and systemic IL-1 exacerbates neurodegeneration and motor symptoms in a model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, María Clara Pott; Tarelli, Rodolfo; Ferrari, Carina Cintia; Sarchi, Maria Inés

    2008-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder with uncertain aetiology and ill-defined pathophysiology. Activated microglial cells in the substantia nigra (SN) are found in all animal models of Parkinson's disease and patients with the illness. Microglia may, however, have detrimental and protective functions in this disease. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a sub-toxic dose of an inflammogen (lipopolysaccharide) can shift microglia to a pro-inflammatory state and exacerbate disease progression in an animal model of Parkinson's disease. Central lipopolysaccharide injection in a degenerating SN exacerbated neurodegeneration, accelerated and increased motor signs and shifted microglial activation towards a pro-inflammatory phenotype with increased interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion. Glucocorticoid treatment and specific IL-1 inhibition reversed these effects. Importantly, chronic systemic expression of IL-1 also exacerbated neurodegeneration and microglial activation in the SN. In vitro, IL-1 directly exacerbated 6-OHDA-triggered dopaminergic toxicity. In vivo, we found that nitric oxide was a downstream molecule of IL-1 action and partially responsible for the exacerbation of neurodegeneration observed. Thus, IL-1 exerts its exacerbating effect on degenerating dopaminergic neurons by direct and indirect mechanisms. This work demonstrates an unequivocal association between IL-1 overproduction and increased disease progression, pointing to inflammation as a risk factor for Parkinson's disease and suggesting that inflammation should be efficiently handled in patients to slow disease progression. PMID:18504291

  10. Central Pain Processing in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease: A Laser Pain fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Petschow, Christine; Scheef, Lukas; Paus, Sebastian; Zimmermann, Nadine; Schild, Hans H.; Klockgether, Thomas; Boecker, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Background & Objective Pain is a common non-motor symptom in Parkinson’s disease. As dopaminergic dysfunction is suggested to affect intrinsic nociceptive processing, this study was designed to characterize laser-induced pain processing in early-stage Parkinson’s disease patients in the dopaminergic OFF state, using a multimodal experimental approach at behavioral, autonomic, imaging levels. Methods 13 right-handed early-stage Parkinson’s disease patients without cognitive or sensory impairment were investigated OFF medication, along with 13 age-matched healthy control subjects. Measurements included warmth perception thresholds, heat pain thresholds, and central pain processing with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (erfMRI) during laser-induced pain stimulation at lower (E = 440 mJ) and higher (E = 640 mJ) target energies. Additionally, electrodermal activity was characterized during delivery of 60 randomized pain stimuli ranging from 440 mJ to 640 mJ, along with evaluation of subjective pain ratings on a visual analogue scale. Results No significant differences in warmth perception thresholds, heat pain thresholds, electrodermal activity and subjective pain ratings were found between Parkinson’s disease patients and controls, and erfMRI revealed a generally comparable activation pattern induced by laser-pain stimuli in brain areas belonging to the central pain matrix. However, relatively reduced deactivation was found in Parkinson’s disease patients in posterior regions of the default mode network, notably the precuneus and the posterior cingulate cortex. Conclusion Our data during pain processing extend previous findings suggesting default mode network dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease. On the other hand, they argue against a genuine pain-specific processing abnormality in early-stage Parkinson’s disease. Future studies are now required using similar multimodal experimental designs to examine pain processing in more advanced

  11. Central Pain Processing in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease: A Laser Pain fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Petschow, Christine; Scheef, Lukas; Paus, Sebastian; Zimmermann, Nadine; Schild, Hans H; Klockgether, Thomas; Boecker, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Pain is a common non-motor symptom in Parkinson's disease. As dopaminergic dysfunction is suggested to affect intrinsic nociceptive processing, this study was designed to characterize laser-induced pain processing in early-stage Parkinson's disease patients in the dopaminergic OFF state, using a multimodal experimental approach at behavioral, autonomic, imaging levels. 13 right-handed early-stage Parkinson's disease patients without cognitive or sensory impairment were investigated OFF medication, along with 13 age-matched healthy control subjects. Measurements included warmth perception thresholds, heat pain thresholds, and central pain processing with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (erfMRI) during laser-induced pain stimulation at lower (E = 440 mJ) and higher (E = 640 mJ) target energies. Additionally, electrodermal activity was characterized during delivery of 60 randomized pain stimuli ranging from 440 mJ to 640 mJ, along with evaluation of subjective pain ratings on a visual analogue scale. No significant differences in warmth perception thresholds, heat pain thresholds, electrodermal activity and subjective pain ratings were found between Parkinson's disease patients and controls, and erfMRI revealed a generally comparable activation pattern induced by laser-pain stimuli in brain areas belonging to the central pain matrix. However, relatively reduced deactivation was found in Parkinson's disease patients in posterior regions of the default mode network, notably the precuneus and the posterior cingulate cortex. Our data during pain processing extend previous findings suggesting default mode network dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. On the other hand, they argue against a genuine pain-specific processing abnormality in early-stage Parkinson's disease. Future studies are now required using similar multimodal experimental designs to examine pain processing in more advanced stages of Parkinson's disease.

  12. Evaluation of risk and vulnerability using a Disease Flow Centrality measure in dynamic cattle trade networks.

    PubMed

    Natale, Fabrizio; Savini, Lara; Giovannini, Armando; Calistri, Paolo; Candeloro, Luca; Fiore, Gianluca

    2011-02-01

    A new method for the calculation of a centrality measure (Disease Flow Centrality, DFC), which takes into account temporal dynamics of livestock movement networks, is proposed. The method is based on a network traversal algorithm which represents an epidemic process more realistically compared with traditional graph traversal algorithms used in the calculation of centrality measures on static networks. The new approach was tested on networks generated from all the registered movements of cattle in Italy in the years 2007, 2008 and 2009 and the results were compared to those obtained by classical centrality measures. The results show that DFC values often differ substantially from those of other centrality measures and that these DFC values tend to be more unstable in time. The DFC offers several advantages for assessing risk and vulnerability of specific holdings and of an entire network, using recent movement data from national livestock databases. Some examples also indicate how the basic approach in the DFC calculation could be expanded into a more complex epidemic model by incorporating weights and how it could be combined with a geo-spatial perspective.

  13. Nanoparticles and blood-brain barrier: the key to central nervous system diseases.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Alazne; Suárez-Merino, Blanca; Goñi-de-Cerio, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Major central nervous system disorders represent a significant and worldwide public health problem. In fact, the therapeutic success of many pharmaceuticals developed to treat central nervous system diseases is still moderate, since the blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits the access of systemically administered compounds to the brain. Therefore, they require the application of a large total dose of a drug, and cause numerous toxic effects. The development of nanotechnological systems are useful tools to deliver therapeutics and/or diagnostic probes to the brain due to nanocarriers having the potential to improve the therapeutic effect of drugs and to reduce their side effects. This review provides a brief overview of the variety of carriers employed for central nervous system drug and diagnostic probes delivery. Further, this paper focuses on the novel nanocarriers developed to enhance brain delivery across the blood-brain barrier. Special attention is paid to liposomes, micelles, polymeric and lipid-based nanoparticles, dendrimers and carbon nanotubes. The recent developments in nanocarrier implementation through size/charge optimization and surface modifications (PEGylation, targeting delivery, and coating with surfactants) have been discussed. And a detailed description of the nanoscaled pharmaceutical delivery devices employed for the treatment of central nervous system disorders have also been defined. The aim of the review is to evaluate the nanotechnology-based drug delivery strategies to treat different central nervous system disorders.

  14. ED 02-3 CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS OF CENTRAL HEMODYNAMICS ON AORTIC AND END-ORGAN DISEASES.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Junichiro

    2016-09-01

    hemodynamic abnormalities and may thus lead to systemic organ damage and dysfunction.In this session, clinical implications of central hemodynamics will be discussed in terms of aortic and end-organ diseases.

  15. The mitochondrial connection in auditory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Cacace, Anthony T; Pinheiro, Joaquim M B

    2011-01-01

    'Auditory neuropathy' (AN), the term used to codify a primary degeneration of the auditory nerve, can be linked directly or indirectly to mitochondrial dysfunction. These observations are based on the expression of AN in known mitochondrial-based neurological diseases (Friedreich's ataxia, Mohr-Tranebjærg syndrome), in conditions where defects in axonal transport, protein trafficking, and fusion processes perturb and/or disrupt mitochondrial dynamics (Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, autosomal dominant optic atrophy), in a common neonatal condition known to be toxic to mitochondria (hyperbilirubinemia), and where respiratory chain deficiencies produce reductions in oxidative phosphorylation that adversely affect peripheral auditory mechanisms. This body of evidence is solidified by data derived from temporal bone and genetic studies, biochemical, molecular biologic, behavioral, electroacoustic, and electrophysiological investigations.

  16. Measurement of extensive auditory discrimination profiles using the mismatch negativity (MMN) of the auditory event-related potential (ERP).

    PubMed

    Pakarinen, Satu; Takegata, Rika; Rinne, Teemu; Huotilainen, Minna; Näätänen, Risto

    2007-01-01

    Mismatch negativity (MMN), a change-specific component of the auditory event-related potential (ERP), is sensitive to deficits in central auditory processing associated with many clinical conditions. The aim of this study was to obtain a comprehensive multi-dimensional profile of central auditory processing by extending the recently developed fast multi-feature MMN paradigm [Näätänen R, Pakarinen S, Rinne T, Takegata R. The mismatch negativity (MMN): towards the optimal paradigm. Clin Neurophysiol 2004;115:140-144]. MMN responses to changes in sound duration, frequency, intensity, and perceived sound-source location at six different magnitudes of deviation were recorded from healthy young adults by using the multi-feature MMN paradigm. In addition, behavioural discrimination accuracy and speed were measured to examine the relationship between MMN and behavioural performance. All the 24 sound changes elicited significant MMNs. MMN amplitude increased and latency decreased with increasing magnitude of sound change. Furthermore, the MMN amplitude and latency predicted the subjects' accuracy and speed in detecting these deviations. This new paradigm provides an extensive auditory discrimination profile for several auditory attributes at different deviation magnitudes in a minimal recording time. The auditory discrimination profiles can offer a comprehensive view of the development, plasticity, and deficits of central auditory processing.

  17. Auditory gap detection in the early blind.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Kurt E; Stevens, Alexander A

    2006-01-01

    For blind individuals, audition provides critical information for interacting with the environment. Individuals blinded early in life (EB) typically show enhanced auditory abilities relative to sighted controls as measured by tasks requiring complex discrimination, attention and memory. In contrast, few deficits have been reported on tasks involving auditory sensory thresholds (e.g., Yates, J.T., Johnson, R.M., Starz, W.J., 1972. Loudness perception of the blind. Audiology 11(5), 368-376; Starlinger, I., Niemeyer, W., 1981. Do the blind hear better? Investigations on auditory processing in congenital or early acquired blindness. I. Peripheral functions. Audiology 20(6), 503-509). A study of gap detection stands at odds with this distinction [Muchnik, C., Efrati, M., Nemeth, E., Malin, M., Hildesheimer, M., 1991. Central auditory skills in blind and sighted subjects. Scand. Audiol. 20(1), 19-23]. In the current investigation we re-examined gap detection abilities in the EB using a single-interval, yes/no method. A group of younger sighted control individuals (SCy) was included in the analysis in addition to EB and sighted age matched control individuals (SCm) in order to examine the effect of age on gap detection performance. Estimates of gap detection thresholds for EB subjects were nearly identical to SCm subjects and slightly poorer relative to the SCy subjects. These results suggest some limits on the extent of auditory temporal advantages in the EB.

  18. Aetiology and clinical presentations of auditory processing disorders—a review

    PubMed Central

    Bamiou, D; Musiek, F; Luxon, L

    2001-01-01

    Auditory processing disorders may have detrimental consequences on a child's life, if undiagnosed and untreated. We review causes of auditory processing disorders in order to raise clinical awareness. Auditory processing disorders may present against a background of neurological disease or developmental disorders, as well as in isolation. Clinicians need to be aware of potential causes and implications of auditory processing disorders.

 PMID:11668093

  19. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential in HIV-Positive Adults

    PubMed Central

    Matas, Carla Gentile; Samelli, Alessandra Giannella; Angrisani, Rosanna Giaffredo; Magliaro, Fernanda Cristina Leite; Segurado, Aluísio C.

    2015-01-01

    Background To characterize the findings of brainstem auditory evoked potential in HIV-positive individuals exposed and not exposed to antiretroviral treatment. Material/Methods This research was a cross-sectional, observational, and descriptive study. Forty-five HIV-positive individuals (18 not exposed and 27 exposed to the antiretroviral treatment – research groups I and II, respectively – and 30 control group individuals) were assessed through brainstem auditory evoked potential. Results There were no significant between-group differences regarding wave latencies. A higher percentage of altered brainstem auditory evoked potential was observed in the HIV-positive groups when compared to the control group. The most common alteration was in the low brainstem. Conclusions HIV-positive individuals have a higher percentage of altered brainstem auditory evoked potential that suggests central auditory pathway impairment when compared to HIV-negative individuals. There was no significant difference between individuals exposed and not exposed to antiretroviral treatment. PMID:26485202

  20. Altered auditory function in rats exposed to hypergravic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.; Hoffman, L.; Horowitz, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of an orthodynamic hypergravic field of 6 G on the brainstem auditory projections was studied in rats. The brain temperature and EEG activity were recorded in the rats during 6 G orthodynamic acceleration and auditory brainstem responses were used to monitor auditory function. Results show that all animals exhibited auditory brainstem responses which indicated impaired conduction and transmission of brainstem auditory signals during the exposure to the 6 G acceleration field. Significant increases in central conduction time were observed for peaks 3N, 4P, 4N, and 5P (N = negative, P = positive), while the absolute latency values for these same peaks were also significantly increased. It is concluded that these results, along with those for fields below 4 G (Jones and Horowitz, 1981), indicate that impaired function proceeds in a rostro-caudal progression as field strength is increased.

  1. Interactions between β-amyloid and central cholinergic neurons: implications for Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Satyabrata; Slowikowski, Stephen P.M.; Westaway, David; Mount, Howard T.J.

    2004-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by a progressive loss of memory and deterioration of higher cognitive functions. The brain of an individual with Alzheimer's disease exhibits extracellular plaques of aggregated β-amyloid protein (Aβ), intracellular neurofibrillary tangles that contain hyperphosphorylated tau protein and a profound loss of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons that innervate the hippocampus and the neocortex. Aβ accumulation may trigger or contribute to the process of neurodegeneration. However, the mechanisms whereby Aβ induces basal forebrain cholinergic cell loss and cognitive impairment remain obscure. Physiologically relevant concentrations of Aβ-related peptides have acute, negative effects on multiple aspects of acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis and release, without inducing toxicity. These data suggest a neuromodulatory influence of the peptides on central cholinergic functions. Long-term exposure to micromolar Aβ induces cholinergic cell toxicity, possibly via hyperphosphorylation of tau protein. Conversely, activation of selected cholinergic receptors has been shown to alter the processing of the amyloid precursor protein as well as phosphorylation of tau protein. A direct interaction between Aβ and nicotinic ACh receptors has also been demonstrated. This review addresses the role of Aβ-related peptides in regulating the function and survival of central cholinergic neurons and the relevance of these effects to cholinergic deficits in Alzheimer's disease. Understanding the functional interrelations between Aβ peptides, cholinergic neurons and tau phosphorylation will unravel the biologic events that precede neurodegeneration and may lead to the development of more effective pharmacotherapies for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:15644984

  2. Associations of centrally acting ACE inhibitors with cognitive decline and survival in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Fazal, Karim; Khondoker, Mizanur; Howard, Robert; Stewart, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Background Cognitive improvement has been reported in patients receiving centrally acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (C-ACEIs). Aims To compare cognitive decline and survival after diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease between people receiving C-ACEIs, non-centrally acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (NC-ACEIs), and neither. Method Routine Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores were extracted in 5260 patients receiving acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and analysed against C-/NC-ACEI exposure at the time of Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis. Results In the 9 months after Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis, MMSE scores significantly increased by 0.72 and 0.19 points per year in patients on C-ACEIs and neither respectively, but deteriorated by 0.61 points per year in those on NC-ACEIs. There were no significant group differences in score trajectories from 9 to 36 months and no differences in survival. Conclusions In people with Alzheimer’s disease receiving acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, those also taking C-ACEIs had stronger initial improvement in cognitive function, but there was no evidence of longer-lasting influence on dementia progression. Declaration of interest R.S. has received research funding from Pfizer, Lundbeck, Roche, Janssen and GlaxoSmithKline. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:28713585

  3. Associations of centrally acting ACE inhibitors with cognitive decline and survival in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Fazal, Karim; Perera, Gayan; Khondoker, Mizanur; Howard, Robert; Stewart, Robert

    2017-07-01

    Cognitive improvement has been reported in patients receiving centrally acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (C-ACEIs). To compare cognitive decline and survival after diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease between people receiving C-ACEIs, non-centrally acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (NC-ACEIs), and neither. Routine Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores were extracted in 5260 patients receiving acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and analysed against C-/NC-ACEI exposure at the time of Alzheimer's disease diagnosis. In the 9 months after Alzheimer's disease diagnosis, MMSE scores significantly increased by 0.72 and 0.19 points per year in patients on C-ACEIs and neither respectively, but deteriorated by 0.61 points per year in those on NC-ACEIs. There were no significant group differences in score trajectories from 9 to 36 months and no differences in survival. In people with Alzheimer's disease receiving acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, those also taking C-ACEIs had stronger initial improvement in cognitive function, but there was no evidence of longer-lasting influence on dementia progression. R.S. has received research funding from Pfizer, Lundbeck, Roche, Janssen and GlaxoSmithKline. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license.

  4. Gene therapy for misfolding protein diseases of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    San Sebastian, Waldy; Samaranch, Lluis; Kells, Adrian P; Forsayeth, John; Bankiewicz, Krystof S

    2013-07-01

    Protein aggregation as a result of misfolding is a common theme underlying neurodegenerative diseases. Accordingly, most recent studies aim to prevent protein misfolding and/or aggregation as a strategy to treat these pathologies. For instance, state-of-the-art approaches, such as silencing protein overexpression by means of RNA interference, are being tested with positive outcomes in preclinical models of animals overexpressing the corresponding protein. Therapies designed to treat central nervous system diseases should provide accurate delivery of the therapeutic agent and long-term or chronic expression by means of a nontoxic delivery vehicle. After several years of technical advances and optimization, gene therapy emerges as a promising approach able to fulfill those requirements. In this review we will summarize the latest improvements achieved in gene therapy for central nervous system diseases associated with protein misfolding (e.g., amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, and prion diseases), as well as the most recent approaches in this field to treat these pathologies.

  5. 40 Hz auditory steady state response to linguistic features of stimuli during auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Ying, Jun; Yan, Zheng; Gao, Xiao-rong

    2013-10-01

    The auditory steady state response (ASSR) may reflect activity from different regions of the brain, depending on the modulation frequency used. In general, responses induced by low rates (≤40 Hz) emanate mostly from central structures of the brain, and responses from high rates (≥80 Hz) emanate mostly from the peripheral auditory nerve or brainstem structures. Besides, it was reported that the gamma band ASSR (30-90 Hz) played an important role in working memory, speech understanding and recognition. This paper investigated the 40 Hz ASSR evoked by modulated speech and reversed speech. The speech was Chinese phrase voice, and the noise-like reversed speech was obtained by temporally reversing the speech. Both auditory stimuli were modulated with a frequency of 40 Hz. Ten healthy subjects and 5 patients with hallucination symptom participated in the experiment. Results showed reduction in left auditory cortex response when healthy subjects listened to the reversed speech compared with the speech. In contrast, when the patients who experienced auditory hallucinations listened to the reversed speech, the auditory cortex of left hemispheric responded more actively. The ASSR results were consistent with the behavior results of patients. Therefore, the gamma band ASSR is expected to be helpful for rapid and objective diagnosis of hallucination in clinic.

  6. The MID1 protein is a central player during development and in disease.

    PubMed

    Winter, Jennifer; Basilicata, M Felicia; Stemmler, Marc P; Krauss, Sybille

    2016-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the MID1 gene cause a rare monogenic disorder, Opitz BBB/G syndrome (OS), which is characterized by malformations of the ventral midline. The MID1 gene encodes the MID1 protein, which assembles a large microtubule-associated protein complex. Intensive research over the past several years has shed light on the function of the MID1 protein as a ubiquitin ligase and regulator of mTOR signalling and translational activator. As a central player in the cell MID1 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various other disorders in addition to OS including cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Influencing the activity of the MID1 protein complex is a promising new strategy for the treatment of these diseases. In this review we will summarize the current knowledge about MID1, its involvement in the pathogenesis of OS and other diseases and possible strategies for therapy development.

  7. Congenic autoimmune murine models of central nervous system disease in connective tissue disorders.

    PubMed

    Alexander, E L; Murphy, E D; Roths, J B; Alexander, G E

    1983-08-01

    Congenic mice of the MRL/Mp strain spontaneously develop an autoimmune connective tissue disease that shares immunological and histopathological features with systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and Sjögren's syndrome. The autoimmune disorder in these mice is accelerated markedly by the recessive gene lpr. By 6 months of age, MRL/Mp-lpr/lpr mice developed prominent mononuclear cell infiltrates restricted to the choroid plexus and meninges, whereas congeneric MRL/Mp- +/+ mice (which lack the lpr gene) showed delayed but widespread inflammatory infiltrates involving cerebral vessels and meninges, with sparing of the choroid plexus. These distinctive patterns of cerebral inflammation, which are comparable in many respects to those seen in human connective tissue disease, provide some of the first animal models of relevant central nervous system histopathological processes associated with underlying connective tissue disease.

  8. Fibromyalgia in a Patient with Cushing's Disease Accompanied by Central Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Ohara, Nobumasa; Katada, Shinichi; Yamada, Takaho; Mezaki, Naomi; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Akiko; Hanyu, Osamu; Yoneoka, Yuichiro; Kawachi, Izumi; Shimohata, Takayoshi; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Sone, Hirohito

    2016-01-01

    A 39-year-old woman with a 3-year history of a rounded face developed widespread myalgia. Detailed examinations revealed no disorders that could explain the pain other than concomitant Cushing's disease and central hypothyroidism. Both the hypercortisolemia and hypothyroidism completely resolved after the patient underwent surgery to treat Cushing's disease, but she continued to experience unresolved myalgia and met the diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia. Few studies have so far investigated patients with fibromyalgia associated with Cushing's syndrome. In our case, the hypothyroidism caused by Cushing's disease probably played an important role in triggering and exacerbating fibromyalgia. This highlights the need to examine the endocrine function in patients with muscle pain. PMID:27803417

  9. Borna disease virus accelerates inflammation and disease associated with transgenic expression of interleukin-12 in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Freude, Susanna; Hausmann, Jürgen; Hofer, Markus; Pham-Mitchell, Ngan; Campbell, Iain L; Staeheli, Peter; Pagenstecher, Axel

    2002-12-01

    Targeted expression of biologically active interleukin-12 (IL-12) in astrocytes of the central nervous system (CNS) results in spontaneous neuroimmunological disease of aged mice. Borna disease virus (BDV) can readily multiply in the mouse CNS but does not trigger disease in most strains. Here we show that a large percentage of IL-12 transgenic mice developed severe ataxia within 5 to 10 weeks after infection with BDV. By contrast, no disease developed in mock-infected IL-12 transgenic and wild-type mice until 4 months of age. Neurological symptoms were rare in infected wild-type animals, and if they occurred, these were milder and appeared later. Histological analyses showed that the cerebellum of infected IL-12 transgenic mice, which is the brain region with strongest transgene expression, contained large numbers of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells as well as lower numbers of B cells, whereas other parts of the CNS showed only mild infiltration by lymphocytes. The cerebellum of diseased mice further showed severe astrogliosis, calcifications and signs of neurodegeneration. BDV antigen and nucleic acids were present in lower amounts in the inflamed cerebellum of infected transgenic mice than in the noninflamed cerebellum of infected wild-type littermates, suggesting that IL-12 or IL-12-induced cytokines exhibited antiviral activity. We propose that BDV infection accelerates the frequency by which immune cells such as lymphocytes and NK cells enter the CNS and then respond to IL-12 present in the local milieu causing disease. Our results illustrate that infection of the CNS with a virus that is benign in certain hosts can be harmful in such normally disease-resistant hosts if the tissue is unfavorably preconditioned by proinflammatory cytokines.

  10. Central obesity in the elderly is related to late-onset Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Luchsinger, José A; Cheng, Derek; Tang, Ming Xin; Schupf, Nicole; Mayeux, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The evidence relating obesity measured with body mass index (BMI) in the elderly to late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) is conflicting. Central obesity in middle age is related to a higher risk of LOAD, but data in the elderly are lacking. We explored whether measures of central obesity, waist circumference, and waist to hip ratio (WHR) were better predictors of LOAD compared with BMI in the elderly. Participants were 1459 persons aged 65 years and older without dementia at baseline, with follow-up, and with anthropometric data from a longitudinal study of aging in New York City. Proportional hazards regression was used for multivariable analyses relating BMI, waist circumference, and WHR to LOAD. There were 145 cases of Alzheimer disease in 5734 person-years of follow-up. Only WHR was related to higher LOAD risk (hazard ratio of the fourth quartile compared with the first=2.5; 95% confidence interval=1.3, 4.7) after adjustment for age, sex, education, ethnic group, Apolipoprotein E-ε4, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and stroke. Our results support the notion that central obesity is related to a higher risk of LOAD.

  11. Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Resolving After Orbital Decompression in Thyroid Eye Disease.

    PubMed

    Grob, Seanna R; Yoon, Michael K

    A 49-year-old male presented with proptosis and was found to have optic nerve edema with peripapillary hemorrhages. Diagnostic testing showed a suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone. CT orbits showed homogenous tendon-sparing enlargement of the medial and inferior rectus muscles, characteristic of thyroid eye disease. Intravenous methylprednisolone was administered given the concern for compressive optic neuropathy. He initially had improvement of his symptoms, so orbital decompression was deferred. Subsequently he presented with worsening diplopia and right proptosis, a new afferent pupillary defect, and a cecocentral visual field defect. Dilated examination revealed significant optic nerve head edema and diffuse retinal hemorrhages in all 4 quadrants consistent with a central retinal vein occlusion. The patient underwent an urgent 3-wall orbital decompression on the right. Close follow up postoperatively showed resolution of the central retinal vein occlusion and the associated optic disc edema, peripapillary hemorrhages, and macular edema. Orbital decompression is known to improve many manifestations of thyroid eye disease, but this is the first report of orbital decompression resulting in resolution of a central retinal vein occlusion.

  12. Prevalence of central vein stenosis following catheterization in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Naroienejad, Minoo; Saedi, Dariush; Rezvani, Asieh

    2010-09-01

    To determine prevalence of central vein stenosis following catheterization with double-lumen temporary catheters, we performed color Doppler sonography in 100 consecutive patients. We detected central vein stenosis in 18 cases; 11 patients in subclavian vein (SCV), 4 patients in internal jugular vein (IJV) and SCV, 2 patients in SCV and brachiocephalic vein, and 2 patients in IJV stenosis. There were statistical difference between groups with and without stenosis regarding time from discontinuation of catheters and use of aspirin (ASA). We could not find any statistical difference between these two groups regarding age, sex, duration of having chronic kidney disease (CKD), and duration of catheter remaining in place. We also found that there was a high proportion of stenosis in patients who still had catheter in their veins (15 from 44 patients, 34%) in comparison with patients who had already the catheters removed from their veins (3 from 56 patients, 5%). We conclude that stenosis of central veins can result from long indwelling time of central catheter used for hemodialysis. Aspirin may have a protective role against stenosis.

  13. Metabolic Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease: Bioenergetics, Redox Homeostasis and Central Carbon Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Anandhan, Annadurai; Jacome, Maria S; Lei, Shulei; Hernandez-Franco, Pablo; Pappa, Aglaia; Panayiotidis, Mihalis I; Powers, Robert; Franco, Rodrigo

    2017-07-01

    The loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and the accumulation of protein inclusions (Lewy bodies) are the pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD). PD is triggered by genetic alterations, environmental/occupational exposures and aging. However, the exact molecular mechanisms linking these PD risk factors to neuronal dysfunction are still unclear. Alterations in redox homeostasis and bioenergetics (energy failure) are thought to be central components of neurodegeneration that contribute to the impairment of important homeostatic processes in dopaminergic cells such as protein quality control mechanisms, neurotransmitter release/metabolism, axonal transport of vesicles and cell survival. Importantly, both bioenergetics and redox homeostasis are coupled to neuro-glial central carbon metabolism. We and others have recently established a link between the alterations in central carbon metabolism induced by PD risk factors, redox homeostasis and bioenergetics and their contribution to the survival/death of dopaminergic cells. In this review, we focus on the link between metabolic dysfunction, energy failure and redox imbalance in PD, making an emphasis in the contribution of central carbon (glucose) metabolism. The evidence summarized here strongly supports the consideration of PD as a disorder of cell metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Weighted brain networks in disease: centrality and entropy in HIV and aging

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jewell B.; Brier, Matthew R.; Ortega, Mario; Benzinger, Tammie L.; Ances, Beau M.

    2014-01-01

    Graph theory models can produce simple, biologically informative metrics of the topology of resting-state functional connectivity (FC) networks. However, typical graph theory approaches model FC relationships between regions (nodes) as unweighted edges, complicating their interpretability in studies of disease or aging. We extended existing techniques and constructed fully-connected weighted graphs for groups of age-matched HIV positive (n=67) and HIV negative (n=77) individuals. We compared test-retest reliability of weighted vs. unweighted metrics in an independent study of healthy individuals (n=22) and found weighted measures to be more stable. We quantified two measures of node centrality (closeness centrality and eigenvector centrality) to capture the relative importance of individual nodes. We also quantified one measure of graph entropy (diversity) to measure the variability in connection strength (edge weights) at each node. HIV was primarily associated with differences in measures of centrality, and age was primarily associated with differences in diversity. HIV and age were associated with divergent measures when evaluated at the whole-graph level, within individual functional networks, and at the level of individual nodes. Graph models may allow us to distinguish previously indistinguishable effects related to HIV and age on FC. PMID:25034343

  15. Infective Endocarditis in a Patient with Celiac Disease after Central Venous Catheter Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Suryanarayan; Arobelidze, Salome; Gundelly, Parveen; Changarath Vijayan, Anil Kumar

    2017-01-01

    There is an increasing incidence of infective endocarditis secondary to central venous catheters, which is termed as 'healthcare-associated infective endocarditis'. There is an increased risk of getting infective endocarditis in conditions with malnutrition and also if the tip of the central venous catheter is deep in the right atrium close to the tricuspid valve. We present a case of 31-year-old female who had all these risk factors. She was admitted to the hospital for the work up of the weight loss and was diagnosed with celiac disease. Central venous access was obtained because of poor peripheral intravenous access via the peripherally inserted central catheter which was complicated by thrombosis and removed after three days of insertion, and she was started on anticoagulation. Two weeks after being discharged, she presented to the emergency department with fever, shortness of breath, and had signs of congestive heart failure. A computed tomography of the chest for pulmonary embolism was taken and showed small clot burden pulmonary embolism and two cavitary lesions in the right lung. A transthoracic echocardiogram was taken and showed vegetation on the tricuspid valve and blood cultures were positive for Staphylococcus aureus. Hence, a diagnosis of infective endocarditis was made, and she was treated with intravenous antibiotics for a total of six weeks after a long and complicated hospital stay. PMID:28348945

  16. Disease burden of enterovirus 71 in rural central China: A community-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Zheng-kai; Jin, Hui; Li, Jing-xin; Yao, Xue-jun; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Xue-feng; Zhu, Feng-cai

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the epidemics of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) centered in the Asian-Pacific region have been characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections were responsible for the majority of the infections leading to severe cases of HFMD and death. This is a community-based survey aimed to estimate the disease burden of EV71 in rural central China, especially for HFMD. From 2011 to 2013, demographic and socio-economic data were gathered from 343 ill children and their parents using a structured questionnaire. We quantified the health burden of disease resulting from EV71 infection in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Among 343 cases, 303 had confirmed HFMD, 6 presented with herpangina, 25 presented with respiratory symptoms, and 9 presented with non-specific symptoms. The number of severe cases was 47 (including 1 death) and all of these presented with HFMD. The total cost per patient for severe HFMD, mild HFMD, herpangina, respiratory disease, and non-specific disease was $2149.47, $513.22, $53.28, $31.95, and $39.25, respectively. The overall cost of EV71-related diseases as a proportion of local farmers' per capita net income ranged from 0.18% for those with non-specific disease to 187.12% for those with severe HFMD. The loss of DALYs for the 5 forms of disease were 3.47, 1.76, 1.07, 1.44, 1.22 person-years per 1000 persons, respectively. This study provides data on cost of treatment and health burden for diseases caused by EV71, which can be used in the evaluation of EV71 vaccine cost-effectiveness. PMID:26158689

  17. Central nervous system involvement in pediatric rheumatic diseases: current concepts in treatment.

    PubMed

    Duzova, Ali; Bakkaloglu, Aysin

    2008-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) manifestations are not rare in pediatric rheumatic diseases. They may be a relatively common feature of the disease, as in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Behçet's disease. Direct CNS involvement of a systemic rheumatic disease, primary CNS vasculitis, indirect involvement secondary to hypertension, hypoxia and metabolic changes, and drug associated adverse events may all result in CNS involvement. We have reviewed the CNS manifestations of SLE, Behçet's disease, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, polyarteritis nodosa, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, juvenile ankylosing spondylitis, familial Mediterranean fever, scleroderma, sarcoidosis, Wegener's granulomatosis, Takayasu's arteritis, CINCA syndrome, Kawasaki disease, and primary CNS vasculitis; and adverse CNS effects of anti-rheumatic drugs in pediatric patients. The manifestations are diverse; ranging from headache, seizures, chorea, changes in personality, depression, memory and concentration problems, cognitive impairment, cerebrovascular accidents to coma, and death. The value of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination (pleocytosis, high level of protein), auto-antibodies in serum and CSF, electroencephalography, neuroimaging with computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, SPECT, PET, and angiography depends on the disease. Brain biopsy is gold standard for the diagnosis of CNS vasculitis, however it may be inconclusive in 25% of cases. A thorough knowledge of the rheumatic diseases and therapy-related adverse events is mandatory for the management of a patient with rheumatic disease and CNS involvement. Severe CNS involvement is associated with poor prognosis, and high mortality rate. High dose steroid and cyclophosphamide (oral or intravenous) are first choice drugs in the treatment; plasmapheresis, IVIG, thalidomide, and intratechal treatment may be valuable in treatment-resistant, and serious cases.

  18. Subcortical Modulation in Auditory Processing and Auditory Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Ikuta, Toshikazu; DeRosse, Pamela; Argyelan, Miklos; Karlsgodt, Katherine H.; Kingsley, Peter B.; Szeszko, Philip R.; Malhotra, Anil K.

    2015-01-01

    Hearing perception in individuals with auditory hallucinations has not been well studied. Auditory hallucinations have previously been shown to involve primary auditory cortex activation. This activation suggests that auditory hallucinations activate the terminal of the auditory pathway as if auditory signals are submitted from the cochlea, and that a hallucinatory event is therefore perceived as hearing. The primary auditory cortex is stimulated by some unknown source that is outside of the auditory pathway. The current study aimed to assess the outcomes of stimulating the primary auditory cortex through the auditory pathway in individuals who have experienced auditory hallucinations. Sixteen patients with schizophrenia underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions, as well as hallucination assessments. During the fMRI session, auditory stimuli were presented in one-second intervals at times when scanner noise was absent. Participants listened to auditory stimuli of sine waves (SW) (4 kHz-5.5 kHz), English words (EW), and acoustically reversed English words (arEW) in a block design fashion. The arEW were employed to deliver the sound of a human voice with minimal linguistic components. Patients’ auditory hallucination severity was assessed by the auditory hallucination item of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). During perception of arEW when compared with perception of SW, bilateral activation of the globus pallidus correlated with severity of auditory hallucinations. EW when compared with arEW did not correlate with auditory hallucination severity. Our findings suggest that the sensitivity of the globus pallidus to the human voice is associated with the severity of auditory hallucination. PMID:26275927

  19. Auditory Spatial Layout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wightman, Frederic L.; Jenison, Rick

    1995-01-01

    All auditory sensory information is packaged in a pair of acoustical pressure waveforms, one at each ear. While there is obvious structure in these waveforms, that structure (temporal and spectral patterns) bears no simple relationship to the structure of the environmental objects that produced them. The properties of auditory objects and their layout in space must be derived completely from higher level processing of the peripheral input. This chapter begins with a discussion of the peculiarities of acoustical stimuli and how they are received by the human auditory system. A distinction is made between the ambient sound field and the effective stimulus to differentiate the perceptual distinctions among various simple classes of sound sources (ambient field) from the known perceptual consequences of the linear transformations of the sound wave from source to receiver (effective stimulus). Next, the definition of an auditory object is dealt with, specifically the question of how the various components of a sound stream become segregated into distinct auditory objects. The remainder of the chapter focuses on issues related to the spatial layout of auditory objects, both stationary and moving.

  20. Prevalence of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) disease in dogs of central Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Ana Luísa; Vieira, Maria João; Oliveira, João Manuel; Simões, Ana Rita; Diez-Baños, Pablo; Gestal, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors concerning Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs from Figueira da Foz, located in the central region of Portugal. In the period between November 2009 and January 2011, 304 blood samples were obtained from dogs over 1 year of age, with no previous history of heartworm prevention or diagnosis. Every blood sample was analyzed using varied laboratory techniques (direct microscopic evaluation of a fresh blood sample, the modified Knott technique, and the ELISA antigen detection test - IDEXX Snapp®). In the samples in which microfilaremia was detected, a histochemical technique using acid phosphatase staining was applied to identify the species of microfilariae. A total prevalence of 27.3% (83 out of 304) was found. We also found that 73.5% of all positive cases (61 out of 83) were microfilaremic, and 26.5% were occult infections (22 out of 83). By means of a histochemical technique Dirofilaria immitis was identified in 96.7% of microfilaremic samples. A multivariate model allowed us to identify the following risk factors for the presence of heartworm disease: age between 4 and 9 years, dogs living in a rural environment, large breed dogs, and living outdoors. This study shows for the first time the high prevalence of heartworm disease in a central area of Portugal and emphasizes the importance of systematic screening for this disease, as well as the need to prevent it in dogs in this area.

  1. Prevalence of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) disease in dogs of central Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Ana Luísa; Vieira, Maria João; Oliveira, João Manuel; Simões, Ana Rita; Diez-Baños, Pablo; Gestal, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors concerning Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs from Figueira da Foz, located in the central region of Portugal. In the period between November 2009 and January 2011, 304 blood samples were obtained from dogs over 1 year of age, with no previous history of heartworm prevention or diagnosis. Every blood sample was analyzed using varied laboratory techniques (direct microscopic evaluation of a fresh blood sample, the modified Knott technique, and the ELISA antigen detection test – IDEXX Snapp®). In the samples in which microfilaremia was detected, a histochemical technique using acid phosphatase staining was applied to identify the species of microfilariae. A total prevalence of 27.3% (83 out of 304) was found. We also found that 73.5% of all positive cases (61 out of 83) were microfilaremic, and 26.5% were occult infections (22 out of 83). By means of a histochemical technique Dirofilaria immitis was identified in 96.7% of microfilaremic samples. A multivariate model allowed us to identify the following risk factors for the presence of heartworm disease: age between 4 and 9 years, dogs living in a rural environment, large breed dogs, and living outdoors. This study shows for the first time the high prevalence of heartworm disease in a central area of Portugal and emphasizes the importance of systematic screening for this disease, as well as the need to prevent it in dogs in this area. PMID:24534524

  2. Auditory map plasticity: Diversity in causes and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Schreiner, Christoph E.; Polley, Daniel B.

    2014-01-01

    Auditory cortical maps have been a long-standing focus of studies that assess the expression, mechanisms, and consequences of sensory plasticity. Here we discuss recent progress in understanding how auditory experience transforms spatially organized sound representations at higher levels of the central auditory pathways. New insights into the mechanisms underlying map changes have been achieved and more refined interpretations of various map plasticity effects and their consequences in terms of behavioral corollaries and learning as well as other cognitive aspects have been offered. The systematic organizational principles of cortical sound processing remains a key-aspect in studying and interpreting the role of plasticity in hearing. PMID:24492090

  3. Auditory dysfunction in Ramsay Hunt syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Iragui, V J

    1986-01-01

    A 48-year-old woman with a Ramsay Hunt syndrome due to herpes zoster had a hearing deficit. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) localised the site of dysfunction to the ipsilateral eighth nerve. Clinical improvement was associated with improvement of the BAEP. Conventional audiological studies and BAEPs provided no evidence of involvement of the cochlea or the brainstem. In Ramsay Hunt syndrome, BAEPs may help to localise the site of involvement within the auditory pathway and follow the course of the disease. PMID:3746312

  4. Clinical features and ryanodine receptor type 1 gene mutation analysis in a Chinese family with central core disease.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xingzhi; Jin, Yiwen; Zhao, Haijuan; Huang, Qionghui; Wang, Jingmin; Yuan, Yun; Han, Ying; Qin, Jiong

    2013-03-01

    Central core disease is a rare inherited neuromuscular disorder caused by mutations in ryanodine receptor type 1 gene. The clinical phenotype of the disease is highly variable. We report a Chinese pedigree with central core disease confirmed by the gene sequencing. All 3 patients in the family presented with mild proximal limb weakness. The serum level of creatine kinase was normal, and electromyography suggested myogenic changes. The histologic analysis of muscle biopsy showed identical central core lesions in almost all of the muscle fibers in the index case. Exon 90-106 in the C-terminal domain of the ryanodine receptor type 1 gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction. One heterozygous missense mutation G14678A (Arg4893Gln) in exon 102 was identified in all 3 patients. This is the first report of a familial case of central core disease confirmed by molecular study in mainland China.

  5. Concise Review: Modeling Central Nervous System Diseases Using Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hunsberger, Joshua G.; Simeonov, Anton; Malik, Nasir; Pei, Ying; Rao, Mahendra

    2014-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer an opportunity to delve into the mechanisms underlying development while also affording the potential to take advantage of a number of naturally occurring mutations that contribute to either disease susceptibility or resistance. Just as with any new field, several models of screening are being explored, and innovators are working on the most efficient methods to overcome the inherent limitations of primary cell screens using iPSCs. In the present review, we provide a background regarding why iPSCs represent a paradigm shift for central nervous system (CNS) disease modeling. We describe the efforts in the field to develop more biologically relevant CNS disease models, which should provide screening assays useful for the pharmaceutical industry. We also provide some examples of successful uses for iPSC-based screens and suggest that additional development could revolutionize the field of drug discovery. The development and implementation of these advanced iPSC-based screens will create a more efficient disease-specific process underpinned by the biological mechanism in a patient- and disease-specific manner rather than by trial-and-error. Moreover, with careful and strategic planning, shared resources can be developed that will enable exponential advances in the field. This will undoubtedly lead to more sensitive and accurate screens for early diagnosis and allow the identification of patient-specific therapies, thus, paving the way to personalized medicine. PMID:25368377

  6. Central core disease. A correlated genetic, histochemical, ultramicroscopic, and biochemical study.

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, H; Heffron, J J; Badenhorst, M

    1975-01-01

    Two patients suffering from central core disease are presented. The condition is associated with musculoskeletal abnormalities which have been traced back over five generations. In addition to the typical histochemical findings, electronmicroscopic study has revealed the presence of both structured and non-structured cores in adjacent areas. The calcium uptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum was reduced to one-third of normal. Phosphorylase activity was normal in the one case and reduced to 63% in the other. Actomyosin Mg2+-activated ATPase activity was decreased, as was the Ca2+-dependent ATPase of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Images PMID:130467

  7. Noncoding RNA Regulation of Dopamine Signaling in Diseases of the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Carrick, William T.; Burks, Brandi; Cairns, Murray J.; Kocerha, Jannet

    2016-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurotransmission mediates a majority of the vital central nervous system functions. Disruption of these synaptic events provokes a multitude of neurological pathologies, including Parkinson's, schizophrenia, depression, and addiction. Growing evidence supports a key role for noncoding RNA (ncRNA) regulation in the synapse. This review will discuss the role of both short and long ncRNAs in dopamine signaling, including bioinformatic examination of the pathways they target. Specifically, we focus on the contribution of ncRNAs to dopaminergic dysfunction in neurodegenerative as well as psychiatric disease. PMID:27826551

  8. Nicotinic systems in central nervous systems disease: degenerative disorders and beyond.

    PubMed

    Newhouse, P A; Kelton, M

    2000-03-01

    Advances in the understanding of the structure, function, and distribution of central nervous system (CNS) nicotinic receptors has provided the impetus for new studies examining the role(s) that these receptors and associated processes may play in CNS functions. Further motivation has come from the realization that such receptors are changed in degenerative neurologic diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Ongoing investigations of the molecular substructure of CNS nicotinic receptors and their pharmacology have begun to open up new possibilities for novel CNS therapeutics with nicotinic agents. Exploiting these possibilities will require understanding of the role(s) that these receptor systems play in human cognitive, behavioral, motor, and sensory functioning. Clues from careful studies of human cognition and behavior are beginning to emerge and will provide direction for studies of potentially therapeutic novel nicotinic agents. Modulation of these receptors with the ultimate goal of producing therapeutic benefits is the goal of these investigations and drug development. This paper will review studies from our laboratory and others that point to the importance of CNS nicotinic mechanisms in normal human cognitive and behavioral functioning as well as their role in disease states. In addition, this paper will examine potential clinical applications of nicotine and/or nicotinic agonists in a variety of CNS disorders with particular emphasis on structural brain disease including: movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Tourette's syndrome, cognitive/behavioral disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia, and other more speculative applications. Important results from early therapeutic studies of nicotine and/or nicotinic agonists in these disease states are presented. For example, recent studies with nicotine and novel nicotinic agonists such as ABT-418 by our group

  9. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of central catecholamine deficiency in Parkinson's disease and other synucleinopathies.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, David S; Holmes, Courtney; Sharabi, Yehonatan

    2012-06-01

    Central catecholamine deficiency characterizes α-synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease. We hypothesized that cerebrospinal fluid levels of neuronal metabolites of catecholamines provide neurochemical biomarkers of these disorders. To test this hypothesis we measured cerebrospinal fluid levels of catechols including dopamine, norepinephrine and their main respective neuronal metabolites dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and dihydroxyphenylglycol in Parkinson's disease and two other synucleinopathies, multiple system atrophy and pure autonomic failure. Cerebrospinal fluid catechols were assayed in 146 subjects-108 synucleinopathy patients (34 Parkinson's disease, 54 multiple system atrophy, 20 pure autonomic failure) and 38 controls. In 14 patients cerebrospinal fluid was obtained before or within 2 years after the onset of parkinsonism. The Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and pure autonomic failure groups all had lower cerebrospinal fluid dihydroxyphenylacetic acid [0.86 ± 0.09 (SEM), 1.00 ± 0.09, 1.32 ± 0.12 nmol/l] than controls (2.15 ± 0.18 nmol/l; P < 0.0001; P < 0.0001; P = 0.0002). Dihydroxyphenylglycol was also lower in the three synucleinopathies (8.82 ± 0.44, 7.75 ± 0.42, 5.82 ± 0.65 nmol/l) than controls (11.0 ± 0.62 nmol/l; P = 0.009, P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001). Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid was lower and dihydroxyphenylglycol higher in Parkinson's disease than in pure autonomic failure. Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid was 100% sensitive at 89% specificity in separating patients with recent onset of parkinsonism from controls but was of no value in differentiating Parkinson's disease from multiple system atrophy. Synucleinopathies feature cerebrospinal fluid neurochemical evidence for central dopamine and norepinephrine deficiency. Parkinson's disease and pure autonomic failure involve differential dopaminergic versus noradrenergic lesions. Cerebrospinal fluid

  10. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of central catecholamine deficiency in Parkinson’s disease and other synucleinopathies

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Courtney; Sharabi, Yehonatan

    2012-01-01

    Central catecholamine deficiency characterizes α-synucleinopathies such as Parkinson’s disease. We hypothesized that cerebrospinal fluid levels of neuronal metabolites of catecholamines provide neurochemical biomarkers of these disorders. To test this hypothesis we measured cerebrospinal fluid levels of catechols including dopamine, norepinephrine and their main respective neuronal metabolites dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and dihydroxyphenylglycol in Parkinson’s disease and two other synucleinopathies, multiple system atrophy and pure autonomic failure. Cerebrospinal fluid catechols were assayed in 146 subjects—108 synucleinopathy patients (34 Parkinson’s disease, 54 multiple system atrophy, 20 pure autonomic failure) and 38 controls. In 14 patients cerebrospinal fluid was obtained before or within 2 years after the onset of parkinsonism. The Parkinson’s disease, multiple system atrophy and pure autonomic failure groups all had lower cerebrospinal fluid dihydroxyphenylacetic acid [0.86 ± 0.09 (SEM), 1.00 ± 0.09, 1.32 ± 0.12 nmol/l] than controls (2.15 ± 0.18 nmol/l; P < 0.0001; P < 0.0001; P = 0.0002). Dihydroxyphenylglycol was also lower in the three synucleinopathies (8.82 ± 0.44, 7.75 ± 0.42, 5.82 ± 0.65 nmol/l) than controls (11.0 ± 0.62 nmol/l; P = 0.009, P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001). Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid was lower and dihydroxyphenylglycol higher in Parkinson’s disease than in pure autonomic failure. Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid was 100% sensitive at 89% specificity in separating patients with recent onset of parkinsonism from controls but was of no value in differentiating Parkinson’s disease from multiple system atrophy. Synucleinopathies feature cerebrospinal fluid neurochemical evidence for central dopamine and norepinephrine deficiency. Parkinson’s disease and pure autonomic failure involve differential dopaminergic versus noradrenergic lesions. Cerebrospinal fluid

  11. Developmental hearing loss disrupts synaptic inhibition: implications for auditory processing

    PubMed Central

    Takesian, Anne E; Kotak, Vibhakar C; Sanes, Dan H

    2009-01-01

    Hearing loss during development leads to central deficits that persist even after the restoration of peripheral function. One key class of deficits is due to changes in central inhibitory synapses, which play a fundamental role in all aspects of auditory processing. This review focuses on the anatomical and physiological alterations of inhibitory connections at several regions within the central auditory pathway following hearing loss. Such aberrant inhibitory synaptic function may be linked to deficits in encoding binaural and spectral cues. Understanding the cellular changes that occur at inhibitory synapses following hearing loss may provide specific loci that can be targeted to improve function. PMID:20161214

  12. Malignant Melanoma of the External Auditory Canal

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prasanna; Ravikumar, A; Joseph, Leena Dennis; Rajendiran, Swaminathan

    2014-01-01

    Primary malignant melanoma of the external auditory canal is rarely reported. Malignant melanoma of the ear is estimated to occur in 1-4% of all skin melanomas and about 7-20% of melanomas of the head and neck region. The pathophysiology of these tumours is different from other skin lesions because of their anatomical and functional characteristics. The case presented is of a 11 year old female child with malignant melanoma of the external auditory canal confined to the right side, who initially presented with right ear pain, bleeding, post auricular swelling and also a mass in the external auditory canal which was thought to be an aural polyp in the right ear. Excision of the tumour was accomplished by a radical mastoidectomy. It was confirmed to be malignant melanoma after histopathological examination and Immunohistochemistry. Despite all efforts, the patient succumbed to the disease after receiving three cycles of chemotherapy. Even though this malignancy is rarely found in the external auditory canal, it should be expanded into the differential diagnosis of an aural polyp and a post aural abscess. The incidence, symptoms, investigations, treatment and prognosis of malignant melanoma of the external auditory canal is discussed in this article. PMID:25302202

  13. Functional Characterization of C-terminal Ryanodine Receptor 1 Variants Associated with Central Core Disease or Malignant Hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Parker, Remai; Schiemann, Anja H; Langton, Elaine; Bulger, Terasa; Pollock, Neil; Bjorksten, Andrew; Gillies, Robyn; Hutchinson, David; Roxburgh, Richard; Stowell, Kathryn M

    2017-01-01

    Central core disease and malignant hyperthermia are human disorders of skeletal muscle resulting from aberrant Ca2+ handling. Most malignant hyperthermia and central core disease cases are associated with amino acid changes in the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1), the skeletal muscle Ca2+-release channel. Malignant hyperthermia exhibits a gain-of-function phenotype, and central core disease results from loss of channel function. For a variant to be classified as pathogenic, functional studies must demonstrate a correlation with the pathophysiology of malignant hyperthermia or central core disease. We assessed the pathogenicity of four C-terminal variants of the ryanodine receptor using functional analysis. The variants were identified in families affected by either malignant hyperthermia or central core disease. Four variants were introduced separately into human cDNA encoding the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor. Following transient expression in HEK-293T cells, functional studies were carried out using calcium release assays in response to an agonist. Two previously characterized variants and wild-type skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor were used as controls. The p.Met4640Ile variant associated with central core disease showed no difference in calcium release compared to wild-type. The p.Val4849Ile variant associated with malignant hyperthermia was more sensitive to agonist than wild-type but did not reach statistical significance and two variants (p.Phe4857Ser and p.Asp4918Asn) associated with central core disease were completely inactive. The p.Val4849Ile variant should be considered a risk factor for malignant hyperthermia, while the p.Phe4857Ser and p.Asp4918Asn variants should be classified as pathogenic for central core disease.

  14. Auditory models for speech analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maybury, Mark T.

    This paper reviews the psychophysical basis for auditory models and discusses their application to automatic speech recognition. First an overview of the human auditory system is presented, followed by a review of current knowledge gleaned from neurological and psychoacoustic experimentation. Next, a general framework describes established peripheral auditory models which are based on well-understood properties of the peripheral auditory system. This is followed by a discussion of current enhancements to that models to include nonlinearities and synchrony information as well as other higher auditory functions. Finally, the initial performance of auditory models in the task of speech recognition is examined and additional applications are mentioned.

  15. Auditory hallucinations induced by trazodone

    PubMed Central

    Shiotsuki, Ippei; Terao, Takeshi; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Hatano, Koji

    2014-01-01

    A 26-year-old female outpatient presenting with a depressive state suffered from auditory hallucinations at night. Her auditory hallucinations did not respond to blonanserin or paliperidone, but partially responded to risperidone. In view of the possibility that her auditory hallucinations began after starting trazodone, trazodone was discontinued, leading to a complete resolution of her auditory hallucinations. Furthermore, even after risperidone was decreased and discontinued, her auditory hallucinations did not recur. These findings suggest that trazodone may induce auditory hallucinations in some susceptible patients. PMID:24700048

  16. Auditory hallucinations induced by trazodone.

    PubMed

    Shiotsuki, Ippei; Terao, Takeshi; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Hatano, Koji

    2014-04-03

    A 26-year-old female outpatient presenting with a depressive state suffered from auditory hallucinations at night. Her auditory hallucinations did not respond to blonanserin or paliperidone, but partially responded to risperidone. In view of the possibility that her auditory hallucinations began after starting trazodone, trazodone was discontinued, leading to a complete resolution of her auditory hallucinations. Furthermore, even after risperidone was decreased and discontinued, her auditory hallucinations did not recur. These findings suggest that trazodone may induce auditory hallucinations in some susceptible patients.

  17. BCG vaccination confers poor protection against M. tuberculosis HN878-induced central nervous system disease.

    PubMed

    Tsenova, Liana; Harbacheuski, Ryhor; Sung, Nackmoon; Ellison, Evette; Fallows, Dorothy; Kaplan, Gilla

    2007-07-09

    Using a rabbit model of tuberculous meningitis (TBM), we compared the protective efficacy of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination against central nervous system infection with the virulent M. tuberculosis clinical isolate HN878 and the laboratory strain H37Rv. Although BCG clearly provided protection against infection with either challenge strain, protection against disease manifestations was significantly poorer in rabbits infected with HN878. BCG was less efficient in protecting against HN878 dissemination to the liver and spleen and against HN878-induced inflammation, loss of body weight, lung and brain pathology, and signs of disease. We suggest that the efficacy of newly developed vaccines should be tested in animal models not only against challenge with M. tuberculosis H37Rv but also with different clinical isolates including the highly virulent strains of the W-Beijing family.

  18. Complete nucleotide sequence of a potyvirus causing maize dwarf mosaic disease in central China.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Wang, X; Zhao, Y; Zheng, C; Zhou, G

    2003-01-01

    The full-length nucleotide sequence of a potyvirus causing the maize dwarf mosaic (MDM) disease in Henan province, central China, was obtained by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of the cDNA 5'-end (5'-RACE). The viral genome comprised of 9596 nucleotides except the polyA tail and encoded a putative polyprotein of 3603 amino acids. The entire genomic sequence of this isolate shared identities of 94.2% and 98.3% with Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) HZ isolate at the nucleotide and deduced amino acid levels, respectively, but only a 69.1% identity with MDM virus (MDMV) Bulgarian isolate (MDMV-Bg) at the nucleotide level. Phylogenetical tree analysis of the complete nucleotide sequences indicated that the Henan isolate of a potyvirus causing MDM disease is in fact a Henan strain of SCMV (SCMV-HN).

  19. BCG Vaccination Confers Poor Protection Against M. tuberculosis HN878-induced Central Nervous System Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tsenova, Liana; Harbacheuski, Ryhor; Sung, Nackmoon; Ellison, Evette; Fallows, Dorothy; Kaplan, Gilla

    2007-01-01

    Using a rabbit model of tuberculous meningitis (TBM), we compared the protective efficacy of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination against central nervous system infection with the virulent M. tuberculosis clinical isolate HN878 and the laboratory strain H37Rv. Although BCG clearly provided protection against infection with either challenge strain, protection against disease manifestations was significantly poorer in rabbits infected with HN878. BCG was less efficient in protecting against HN878 dissemination to the liver and spleen and against HN878-induced inflammation, loss of body weight, lung and brain pathology, and signs of disease. We suggest that the efficacy of newly developed vaccines should be tested in animal models not only against challenge with M. tuberculosis H37Rv but also with different clinical isolates including the highly virulent strains of the W-Beijing family. PMID:17241704

  20. Dcc Mediates Functional Assembly of Peripheral Auditory Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young J.; Wang, Sheng-zhi; Tymanskyj, Stephen; Ma, Le; Tao, Huizhong W.; Zhang, Li I.

    2016-01-01

    Proper structural organization of spiral ganglion (SG) innervation is crucial for normal hearing function. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the developmental formation of this precise organization remain not well understood. Here, we report in the developing mouse cochlea that deleted in colorectal cancer (Dcc) contributes to the proper organization of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) within the Rosenthal’s canal and of SGN projections toward both the peripheral and central auditory targets. In Dcc mutant embryos, mispositioning of SGNs occurred along the peripheral auditory pathway with misrouted afferent fibers and reduced synaptic contacts with hair cells. The central auditory pathway simultaneously exhibited similar defective phenotypes as in the periphery with abnormal exit of SGNs from the Rosenthal’s canal towards central nuclei. Furthermore, the axons of SGNs ascending into the cochlear nucleus had disrupted bifurcation patterns. Thus, Dcc is necessary for establishing the proper spatial organization of SGNs and their fibers in both peripheral and central auditory pathways, through controlling axon targeting and cell migration. Our results suggest that Dcc plays an important role in the developmental formation of peripheral and central auditory circuits, and its mutation may contribute to sensorineural hearing loss. PMID:27040640

  1. Peripheral and Central Mechanisms of Fatigue in Inflammatory and Non-Inflammatory Rheumatic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Staud, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue is a common symptom in a large number of medical and psychological disorders including many rheumatologic illnesses. A frequent question for health care providers is related to whether reported fatigue is “in the mind” or “in the body” i.e. central or peripheral. If fatigue occurs at rest without any exertion this suggests psychological or central origins. If patients relate their fatigue mostly to physical activities including exercise then their symptoms can be considered peripheral. However, most fatiguing syndromes seem to depend on both peripheral and central mechanisms. Sometimes muscle biopsy with histochemistry may be necessary for the appropriate tissue diagnosis whereas serological tests generally provide little reliable information about the origin of muscle fatigue. Muscle function and peripheral fatigue can be quantified by contractile force and action potential measurements whereas validated questionnaires are frequently used for assessment of mental fatigue. Fatigue is a hallmark of many rheumatologic conditions including fibromyalgia, myalgic encephalitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus, Sjogren’s syndrome and ankylosing spondylitis. Whereas many studies have focused on disease activity as a correlate to these patients’ fatigue it has become apparent that other factors including negative affect and pain are some of the most powerful predictors for fatigue. Conversely sleep problems, including insomnia seem to be less important for fatigue. There are several effective treatment strategies available for fatigued patients with rheumatologic disorders including pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies PMID:22802155

  2. Peripheral and central mechanisms of fatigue in inflammatory and noninflammatory rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Staud, Roland

    2012-12-01

    Fatigue is a common symptom in a large number of medical and psychological disorders, including many rheumatologic illnesses. A frequent question for health care providers is related to whether reported fatigue is "in the mind" or "in the body"-that is, central or peripheral. If fatigue occurs at rest without any exertion, this suggests psychological or central origins. If patients relate their fatigue mostly to physical activities, including exercise, their symptoms can be considered peripheral. However, most syndromes of fatigue seem to depend on both peripheral and central mechanisms. Sometimes, muscle biopsy with histochemistry may be necessary for the appropriate tissue diagnosis, whereas serological tests generally provide little reliable information about the origin of muscle fatigue. Muscle function and peripheral fatigue can be quantified by contractile force and action potential measurements, whereas validated questionnaires are frequently used for assessment of mental fatigue. Fatigue is a hallmark of many rheumatologic conditions, including fibromyalgia, myalgic encephalitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus, Sjogren's syndrome, and ankylosing spondylitis. Whereas many studies have focused on disease activity as a correlate to these patients' fatigue, it has become apparent that other factors, including negative affect and pain, are some of the most powerful predictors for fatigue. Conversely, sleep problems, including insomnia, seem to be less important for fatigue. There are several effective treatment strategies available for fatigued patients with rheumatologic disorders, including pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapies.

  3. Staged marginal contoured and central excision technique in the surgical management of perianal Paget's disease.

    PubMed

    Möller, Mecker G; Lugo-Baruqui, Jose Alejandro; Milikowski, Clara; Salgado, Christopher J

    2014-04-01

    Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is an adenocarcinoma of the apocrine glands with unknown exact prevalence and obscure etiology. It has been divided into primary EMPD and secondary EMPD, in which an internal malignancy is usually associated. Treatment for primary EMPD usually consists of wide lesion excision with negative margins. Multiple methods have been proposed to obtain free-margin status of the disease. These include visible border lesion excision, punch biopsies, and micrographic and frozen-section surgery, with different results but still high recurrence rates. The investigators propose a method consisting of a staged contoured marginal excision using "en face" permanent pathologic analysis preceding the steps of central excision of the lesion and the final reconstruction of the surgical defect. Advantages of this method include adequate margin control allowing final reconstruction and tissue preservation, while minimizing patient discomfort. The staged contoured marginal and central excision technique offers a new alternative to the armamentarium for surgical oncologists for the management of EMPD in which margin control is imperative for control of recurrence rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Anterior hypopituitarism is rare and autoimmune disease is common in adults with idiopathic central diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Hannon, M J; Orr, C; Moran, C; Behan, L A; Agha, A; Ball, S G; Thompson, C J

    2012-05-01

    Central diabetes insipidus is a rare clinical condition with a heterogenous aetiology. Up to 40% of cases are classified as idiopathic, although many of these are thought to have an autoimmune basis. Published data have suggested that anterior hypopituitarism is common in childhood-onset idiopathic diabetes insipidus. We aimed to assess the incidence of anterior hypopituitarism in a cohort of adult patients with idiopathic diabetes insipidus. We performed a retrospective review of the databases of two pituitary investigation units. This identified 39 patients with idiopathic diabetes insipidus. All had undergone magnetic resonance imaging scanning and dynamic pituitary testing (either insulin tolerance testing or GHRH/arginine and short synacthen testing) to assess anterior pituitary function. One patient had partial growth hormone deficiency; no other anterior pituitary hormonal deficits were found. Thirty-three percent had at least one autoimmune disease in addition to central diabetes insipidus. Our data suggest that anterior hypopituitarism is rare in adult idiopathic diabetes insipidus. Routine screening of these patients for anterior hypopituitarism may not, therefore, be indicated. The significant prevalence of autoimmune disease in this cohort supports the hypothesis that idiopathic diabetes insipidus may have an autoimmune aetiology. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Cytokine expression in the rat central nervous system following perinatal Borna disease virus infection.

    PubMed

    Sauder, C; de la Torre, J C

    1999-04-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) causes central nervous system (CNS) disease in several vertebrate species, which is frequently accompanied by behavioral abnormalities. In the adult rat, intracerebral (i.c.) BDV infection leads to immunomediated meningoencephalitis. In contrast, i.c. infection of neonates causes a persistent infection in the absence of overt signs of brain inflammation. These rats (designated PTI-NB) display distinct behavioral and neurodevelopmental abnormalities. However, the molecular mechanisms for these virally induced CNS disturbances are unknown. Cytokines play an important role in CNS function, both under normal physiological and pathological conditions. Astrocytes and microglia are the primary resident cells of the central nervous system with the capacity to produce cytokines. Strong reactive astrocytosis is observed in the PTI-NB rat brain. We have used a ribonuclease protection assay to investigate the mRNA expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines in different brain regions of PTI-NB and control rats. We show here evidence of a chronic upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukins-1alpha, and -1beta in the hippocampus and cerebellum of the PTI-NB rat brain. These brain regions exhibited only a very mild and transient immune infiltration. In contrast, in addition to reactive astrocytes, a strong and sustained microgliosis was observed in the PTI-NB rat brains. Our data suggest that CNS resident cells, namely astrocytes and microglia, are the major source of cytokine expression in the PTI-NB rat brain. The possible implications of these findings are discussed.

  6. Prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms and diseases in general population samples of North and Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Viegi, G; Pedreschi, M; Baldacci, S; Chiaffi, L; Pistelli, F; Modena, P; Vellutini, M; Di Pede, F; Carrozzi, L

    1999-11-01

    Four cross-sectional general population surveys in Italy: northern rural Po Delta area (1980-1982, n = 3284; 1988-1991, n = 2841), and central urban Pisa area (1985-1988, n = 3865; 1991-1993, n = 2841). To analyse changes in prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms and diseases. Prospective epidemiological studies by standardised interviewer-administered questionnaire. Prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms and diseases tended to be higher in males (except for dyspnea and pleuritis), in the urban area (more polluted), and in the second surveys; moreover, they increased with age. Asthma peaked in those aged under 25 years and over 64 years. The highest prevalence rates were shown by current smokers of both sexes for all respiratory symptoms and by ex-smoker males for all respiratory diseases, while female current smokers reported chronic bronchitis, emphysema and asthma more frequently. The most clear-cut trend towards increase between the two surveys within each area was exhibited by wheeze and asthma. These findings highlight the relevance of sex, age and smoking habit, as well as the possible effects of air pollution, in relation to respiratory symptoms. They also indicate a trend towards an increase in asthma symptoms in Italian general population samples in the 1990s, and an under-estimate of medically diagnosed chronic respiratory diseases.

  7. Pulmonary, gonadal, and central nervous system status after bone marrow transplantation for sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Walters, Mark C; Hardy, Karen; Edwards, Sandie; Adamkiewicz, Thomas; Barkovich, James; Bernaudin, Francoise; Buchanan, George R; Bunin, Nancy; Dickerhoff, Roswitha; Giller, Roger; Haut, Paul R; Horan, John; Hsu, Lewis L; Kamani, Naynesh; Levine, John E; Margolis, David; Ohene-Frempong, Kwaku; Patience, Melinda; Redding-Lallinger, Rupa; Roberts, Irene A G; Rogers, Zora R; Sanders, Jean E; Scott, J Paul; Sullivan, Keith M

    2010-02-01

    We conducted a prospective, multicenter investigation of human-leukocyte antigen (HLA) identical sibling bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in children with severe sickle cell disease (SCD) between 1991 and 2000. To determine if children were protected from complications of SCD after successful BMT, we extended our initial study of BMT for SCD to conduct assessments of the central nervous system (CNS) and of pulmonary function 2 or more years after transplantation. In addition, the impact on gonadal function was studied. After BMT, patients with stroke who had stable engraftment of donor cells experienced no subsequent stroke events after BMT, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exams demonstrated stable or improved appearance. However, 2 patients with graft rejection had a second stroke after BMT. After transplantation, most patients also had unchanged or improved pulmonary function. Among the 11 patients who had restrictive lung changes at baseline, 5 were improved and 6 had persistent restrictive disease after BMT. Of the 2 patients who had obstructive changes at baseline, 1 improved and 1 had worsened obstructive disease after BMT. There was, however, significant gonadal toxicity after BMT, particularly among female recipients. In summary, individuals who had stable donor engraftment did not experience sickle-related complications after BMT, and were protected from progressive CNS and pulmonary disease.

  8. Heat Shock Proteins: Old and Novel Roles in Neurodegenerative Diseases in the Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    van Noort, Johannes M; Bugiani, Marianna; Amor, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are families of molecular chaperones that play important homeostatic functions in the central nervous system (CNS) by preventing protein misfolding, promoting degradation of improperly folded proteins, and protecting against apoptosis and inflammatory damage especially during hyperthermia, hypoxia, or oxidative stress. Under stress conditions, HSPs are upregulated to protect cells from damage that accumulates during ageing as well as pathological conditions. An important, yet frequently overlooked function of some HSPs is their ability to function as extracellular messengers (also termed chaperokines) that modulate immune responses within the CNS. Given the strong association between protein aggregation, innate immune cell activation and neurodegeneration, the expression and roles of HSPs in the CNS is attracting attention in many neurodegenerative disorders including inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis, protein folding diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and genetic white matter diseases. This is especially so since several studies show that HSPs act therapeutically by modulating innate immune activation and may thus serve as neuroprotective agents. Here we review the evidence linking HSPs with neurodegenerative disorders in humans and the experimental animal models of these disorders. We discuss the mechanisms by which HSPs protect cells, and how the knowledge of their endogenous functions can be exploited to treat disorders of the CNS. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Peripheral inflammatory disease associated with centrally activated IL-1 system in humans and mice.

    PubMed

    Lampa, Jon; Westman, Marie; Kadetoff, Diana; Agréus, Anna Nordenstedt; Le Maître, Erwan; Gillis-Haegerstrand, Caroline; Andersson, Magnus; Khademi, Mohsen; Corr, Maripat; Christianson, Christina A; Delaney, Ada; Yaksh, Tony L; Kosek, Eva; Svensson, Camilla I

    2012-07-31

    During peripheral immune activation caused by an infection or an inflammatory condition, the innate immune response signals to the brain and causes an up-regulation of central nervous system (CNS) cytokine production. Central actions of proinflammatory cytokines, in particular IL-1β, are pivotal for the induction of fever and fatigue. In the present study, the influence of peripheral chronic joint inflammatory disease in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on CNS inflammation was investigated. Intrathecal interleukin (IL)-1β concentrations were markedly elevated in RA patients compared with controls or with patients with multiple sclerosis. Conversely, the anti-inflammatory IL-1 receptor antagonist and IL-4 were decreased in RA cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Tumor necrosis factor and IL-6 levels in the CSF did not differ between patients and controls. Concerning IL-1β, CSF concentrations in RA patients were higher than in serum, indicating local production in the CNS, and there was a positive correlation between CSF IL-1β and fatigue assessments. Next, spinal inflammation in experimental arthritis was investigated. A marked increase of IL-1β, IL-18, and tumor necrosis factor, but not IL-6 mRNA production, in the spinal cord was observed, coinciding with increased arthritis scores in the KBxN serum transfer model. These data provide evidence that peripheral inflammation such as arthritis is associated with an immunological activation in the CNS in both humans and mice, suggesting a possible therapeutic target for centrally affecting conditions as fatigue in chronic inflammatory diseases, for which to date there are no specific treatments.

  10. [MDCT features and anatomic-pathological basis of the diseases in central thoracic-abdominal junctional region].

    PubMed

    Ye, Yilan; Yang, Zhigang; Li, Hua; Deng, Wen; Li, Yuan; Guo, Yingkun

    2012-02-01

    This paper is to determine relationship between MDCT features and anatomic-pathology of the diseases in central thoracic-abdominal junctional region. 3 cadavers were cut transversely and another 3 vertically to observe the anatomy of thoracic-abdominal junctional zone. 93 patients with diseases in central thoracic-abdominal junctional zone were scanned with MDCT. The correlation between MDCT features of the diseases in central thoracic-abdominal junctional region and the anatomic-pathology of the diseases in this region was evaluated. On cadaver sections, central thoracic-abdominal junctional region was an area between anterior chest wall and dorsal spine in vertical direction. The region was separated into upper and lower sections by diaphragm. The upper section mainly contains heart and pericardium, while the lower contains broad ligament and left lobe of liver. The hiatus of diaphragm are vena caval foramen, esophageal foramen and aortic foramen in anterior-posterior turn. In the present study, 23 patients had portal hypertension, 18 had dissection of aorta, 8 got diseases in inferior vena cava, 9 had lymphoma, 12 got diseases in multiple vertebrae, 7 had lower thoracic esophageal carcinoma accompanied with metastasis in upper abdominal lymph nodes, 9 had carcinoma of abdominal esophagus and/or gastric cardia, 4 had esophageal hiatal hernia and 3 patients had neurogenic tumor in posterior mediastinum and/or superior spatium retroperitoneale. The MDCT features and distribution of the diseases in central thoracic-abdominal junctional region influence the anatomic-pathology characteristics in this region.

  11. Impact of foot-and-mouth disease on pork and chicken prices in Central Luzon, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Abao, Lary Nel B; Kono, Hiroichi; Gunarathne, Anoma; Promentilla, Rolando R; Gaerlan, Manolita Z

    2014-03-01

    Central Luzon is the number one pig-producing region in the Philippines and was affected by Foot-and-Mouth disease (FMD) in 1995. In this paper, the impact of FMD on the Central Luzon meat market from 1995 to 1999 was examined. Employing the error correction model (ECM) and historical decomposition, the impact of FMD on the Central Luzon pork and chicken meat market was quantified. The following findings were observed: (a) pig farm and pork wholesale prices dropped 11.8% and 15.7%, respectively, after the initial FMD outbreaks in January, 1995; (b) in February, 1995, chicken farm and wholesale prices declined by 21.1% and 14.2%, respectively (while chicken retail prices also went down by 10.5%); (c) the margins of pig and chicken traders were also adversely affected at some point; and (d) FMD caused changes of dynamic interdependence among prices by meat type at different levels of the meat supply chain. This study makes several contributions to the literature on the impact of FMD outbreaks. This study is the first that simultaneously investigates the impact of FMD outbreaks on meat prices, price margins along the supply chain, and price interdependence in the meat system in Central Luzon, Philippines. Also, the Philippine pork industry is dominated by backyard farmers rather than the predominantly large commercial pig farmers existing in developed countries. Secondly, it yielded the novel finding of price decline in both pig and chicken prices as a result of the FMD outbreaks. And lastly, the study showed that the profit margins of the pig traders, pork traders, chicken traders and chicken meat traders were also negatively affected by the FMD outbreaks in January 1995. However, over the long term, the price margins of pork traders were more severely affected in contrast to that of the other traders' profits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Formal auditory training in adult hearing aid users

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Daniela; Iorio, Maria Cecília Martinelli

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Individuals with sensorineural hearing loss are often able to regain some lost auditory function with the help of hearing aids. However, hearing aids are not able to overcome auditory distortions such as impaired frequency resolution and speech understanding in noisy environments. The coexistence of peripheral hearing loss and a central auditory deficit may contribute to patient dissatisfaction with amplification, even when audiological tests indicate nearly normal hearing thresholds. OBJECTIVE This study was designed to validate the effects of a formal auditory training program in adult hearing aid users with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. METHODS Fourteen bilateral hearing aid users were divided into two groups: seven who received auditory training and seven who did not. The training program was designed to improve auditory closure, figure-to-ground for verbal and nonverbal sounds and temporal processing (frequency and duration of sounds). Pre- and post-training evaluations included measuring electrophysiological and behavioral auditory processing and administration of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) self-report scale. RESULTS The post-training evaluation of the experimental group demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in P3 latency, improved performance in some of the behavioral auditory processing tests and higher hearing aid benefit in noisy situations (p-value < 0,05). No changes were noted for the control group (p-value <0,05). CONCLUSION The results demonstrated that auditory training in adult hearing aid users can lead to a reduction in P3 latency, improvements in sound localization, memory for nonverbal sounds in sequence, auditory closure, figure-to-ground for verbal sounds and greater benefits in reverberant and noisy environments. PMID:20186300

  13. I148M variant in PNPLA3 reduces central adiposity and metabolic disease risks while increasing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Ho; Cho, BeLong; Kwon, Hyuktae; Prilutsky, Daria; Yun, Jae Moon; Choi, Ho Chun; Hwang, Kyu-Baek; Lee, In-Hee; Kim, Jong-Il; Kong, Sek Won

    2015-12-01

    The I148M variant because of the substitution of C to G in PNPLA3 (rs738409) is associated with the increased risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In liver, I148M variant reduces hydrolytic function of PNPLA3, which results in hepatic steatosis; however, its association with the other clinical phenotype such as adiposity and metabolic diseases is not well established. To identify the impact of I148M variant on clinical risk factors of NAFLD, we recruited 1363 generally healthy Korean males after excluding alcoholic and secondary causes of hepatic steatosis. Central adiposity was assessed by computed tomography, and hepatic steatosis was evaluated by abdominal ultrasonography. The participants were predominantly middle-aged (49.0 ± 7.1 years; range 30-60 years), and the frequency of NAFLD was 44.2%. The rs738409-G allele carriers had a 1.19-fold increased risk for NAFLD (minor allele frequency 0.43; allelic odds ratio 1.38; P = 4.3 × 10(-5) ). Interestingly, the rs738409 GG carriers showed significantly lower levels of visceral and subcutaneous adiposity (P < 0.001 and = 0.015, respectively), BMI (P < 0.001), triglycerides (P < 0.001) and insulin resistance (P = 0.002) compared to CC carriers. These negative associations between clinical risk factors and rs738409-G dosage were more prominent in non-NAFLD group compared to those in NAFLD group. The I148M variant, although increasing the risk of NAFLD, was associated with reduced levels of central adiposity, BMI, serum triglycerides and insulin resistance, suggesting differential roles in fat storage and distribution according to cell types and metabolic status. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The Drosophila Auditory System

    PubMed Central

    Boekhoff-Falk, Grace; Eberl, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    Development of a functional auditory system in Drosophila requires specification and differentiation of the chordotonal sensilla of Johnston’s organ (JO) in the antenna, correct axonal targeting to the antennal mechanosensory and motor center (AMMC) in the brain, and synaptic connections to neurons in the downstream circuit. Chordotonal development in JO is functionally complicated by structural, molecular and functional diversity that is not yet fully understood, and construction of the auditory neural circuitry is only beginning to unfold. Here we describe our current understanding of developmental and molecular mechanisms that generate the exquisite functions of the Drosophila auditory system, emphasizing recent progress and highlighting important new questions arising from research on this remarkable sensory system. PMID:24719289

  15. Neonatal Screening and the Clinical Outcome in Children with Sickle Cell Disease in Central India

    PubMed Central

    Upadhye, Dipti S.; Jain, Dipty L.; Trivedi, Yogesh L.; Nadkarni, Anita H.; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Colah, Roshan B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a major health burden in India. The objective of the study was to establish a neonatal screening program and to understand the clinical course of children with SCD in central India. Methods and Findings Pregnant mothers were screened for sickle hemoglobin using the solubility test. Babies were screened by high performance liquid chromatography if the mother was positive for sickle hemoglobin. The diagnosis was confirmed by molecular analysis. They received early prophylactic treatment and vaccination. Of 2134 newborns screened, 104 were sickle homozygous (SS), seven had sickle β-thalassemia (S-β thal) and 978 were sickle heterozygous (AS). The other hemoglobin abnormalities detected included HbS -δβ thalassemia-1, HbSD disease-2, HbE traits-5, β-thalassemia traits-4, alpha chain variants-3 and HbH disease-1.These babies were followed up regularly for hematological and clinical evaluation. Pain, severe anemia requiring blood transfusions and acute febrile illness were the major complications with 59.7, 45.1 and 42.6 cases per 100 person years. Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels were inversely associated with vaso-oclussive crisis (VOC) and severe anemia while presence of alpha thalassemia increased the rate of painful events and sepsis. Six early deaths occurred among the SS babies. Conclusion A systematic follow up of this first newborn SCD cohort in central India showed that 47% of babies presented within 1 year of age. In spite of the presence of the Arab-Indian haplotype many babies had severe manifestations. PMID:26785407

  16. Hyperactive auditory processing in Williams syndrome: Evidence from auditory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Zarchi, Omer; Avni, Chen; Attias, Josef; Frisch, Amos; Carmel, Miri; Michaelovsky, Elena; Green, Tamar; Weizman, Abraham; Gothelf, Doron

    2015-06-01

    The neurophysiologic aberrations underlying the auditory hypersensitivity in Williams syndrome (WS) are not well defined. The P1-N1-P2 obligatory complex and mismatch negativity (MMN) response were investigated in 18 participants with WS, and the results were compared with those of 18 age- and gender-matched typically developing (TD) controls. Results revealed significantly higher amplitudes of both the P1-N1-P2 obligatory complex and the MMN response in the WS participants than in the TD controls. The P1-N1-P2 complex showed an age-dependent reduction in the TD but not in the WS participants. Moreover, high P1-N1-P2 complex was associated with low verbal comprehension scores in WS. This investigation demonstrates that central auditory processing is hyperactive in WS. The increase in auditory brain responses of both the obligatory complex and MMN response suggests aberrant processes of auditory encoding and discrimination in WS. Results also imply that auditory processing may be subjected to a delayed or diverse maturation and may affect the development of high cognitive functioning in WS. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  17. Investigation of auditory processing disorder and language impairment using the speech-evoked auditory brainstem response.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Muniz, Caroline N; Befi-Lopes, Debora M; Schochat, Eliane

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated whether there are differences in the Speech-Evoked Auditory Brainstem Response among children with Typical Development (TD), (Central) Auditory Processing Disorder (C)APD, and Language Impairment (LI). The speech-evoked Auditory Brainstem Response was tested in 57 children (ages 6-12). The children were placed into three groups: TD (n = 18), (C)APD (n = 18) and LI (n = 21). Speech-evoked ABR were elicited using the five-formant syllable/da/. Three dimensions were defined for analysis, including timing, harmonics, and pitch. A comparative analysis of the responses between the typical development children and children with (C)APD and LI revealed abnormal encoding of the speech acoustic features that are characteristics of speech perception in children with (C)APD and LI, although the two groups differed in their abnormalities. While the children with (C)APD might had a greater difficulty distinguishing stimuli based on timing cues, the children with LI had the additional difficulty of distinguishing speech harmonics, which are important to the identification of speech sounds. These data suggested that an inefficient representation of crucial components of speech sounds may contribute to the difficulties with language processing found in children with LI. Furthermore, these findings may indicate that the neural processes mediated by the auditory brainstem differ among children with auditory processing and speech-language disorders.

  18. Widespread correction of central nervous system disease after intracranial gene therapy in a feline model of Sandhoff disease.

    PubMed

    McCurdy, V J; Rockwell, H E; Arthur, J R; Bradbury, A M; Johnson, A K; Randle, A N; Brunson, B L; Hwang, M; Gray-Edwards, H L; Morrison, N E; Johnson, J A; Baker, H J; Cox, N R; Seyfried, T N; Sena-Esteves, M; Martin, D R

    2015-02-01

    Sandhoff disease (SD) is caused by deficiency of N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase (Hex) resulting in pathological accumulation of GM2 ganglioside in lysosomes of the central nervous system (CNS) and progressive neurodegeneration. Currently, there is no treatment for SD, which often results in death by the age of five years. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy achieved global CNS Hex restoration and widespread normalization of storage in the SD mouse model. Using a similar treatment approach, we sought to translate the outcome in mice to the feline SD model as an important step toward human clinical trials. Sixteen weeks after four intracranial injections of AAVrh8 vectors, Hex activity was restored to above normal levels throughout the entire CNS and in cerebrospinal fluid, despite a humoral immune response to the vector. In accordance with significant normalization of a secondary lysosomal biomarker, ganglioside storage was substantially improved, but not completely cleared. At the study endpoint, 5-month-old AAV-treated SD cats had preserved neurological function and gait compared with untreated animals (humane endpoint, 4.4±0.6 months) demonstrating clinical benefit from AAV treatment. Translation of widespread biochemical disease correction from the mouse to the feline SD model provides optimism for treatment of the larger human CNS with minimal modification of approach.

  19. The Prevalence of Chagas Heart Disease in a Central Bolivian Community Endemic for Trypanosoma Cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Yager, Jessica E.; Lozano Beltran, Daniel F.; Torrico, Faustino; Gilman, Robert H.; Bern, Caryn

    2015-01-01

    Background Though the incidence of new Trypanosoma cruzi infections has decreased significantly in endemic regions in the Americas, medical professionals continue to encounter a high burden of resulting Chagas disease among infected adults. The current prevalence of Chagas heart disease in a community setting is not known; nor is it known how recent insecticide vector control measures may have impacted the progression of cardiac disease in an infected population. Objectives and Methods Nested within a community serosurvey in rural and periurban communities in central Bolivia, we performed a cross-sectional cardiac substudy to evaluate adults for historical, clinical, and electrocardiographic evidence of cardiac disease. All adults between the ages of 20 and 60 years old with T. cruzi infection and those with a clinical history, physical exam, or ECG consistent with cardiac abnormalities were also scheduled for echocardiography. Results and conclusions Of the 604 cardiac substudy participants with definitive serology results, 183 were seropositive for infection with T. cruzi (30.3%). Participants who were seropositive for T. cruzi infection were more likely to have conduction system defects (1.6% versus 0 for complete right bundle branch block and 10.4% versus 1.9% for any bundle branch block; p=0.008 and p<0.001, respectively). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of bradycardia among seropositive versus seronegative participants. Echocardiogram findings were not consistent with a high burden of Chagas cardiomyopathy: valvulopathies were the most common abnormality, and few participants were found to have low ejection fraction or left ventricular dilatation. No participants had significant heart failure. Though almost one third of adults in the community were seropositive for T. cruzi infection, few had evidence of Chagas heart disease. PMID:26407509

  20. [Optimization of registry of deaths from chronic kidney disease in agricultural communities in Central America].

    PubMed

    Escamilla-Cejudo, José Antonio; Báez, Jorge Lara; Peña, Rodolfo; Luna, Patricia Lorena Ruiz; Ordunez, Pedro

    2016-11-01

    Several Central American countries are seeing continued growth in the number of deaths from chronic kidney disease of nontraditional causes (CKDnT) among farm workers and there is underreporting. This report presents the results of a consensus process coordinated by the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO), the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Hypertension (SLANH). This consensus seeks to increase the probability of detecting and recording deaths from these causes. There has been recognition of the negative impact of the lack of a standardized instrument and the lack of training in the medical profession for adequate registration of the cause or causes of death. As a result of the consensus, the following has been proposed: temporarily use a code from the Codes for Special Purposes in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10); continue to promote use of the WHO international standardized instrument for recording causes and preceding events related to death; increase training of physicians responsible for filling out death certificates; take action to increase the coverage and quality of information on mortality; and create a decision tree to facilitate selection of CKDnT as a specific cause of death, while presenting the role that different regional and subregional mechanisms in the Region of the Americas should play in order to improve CKD and CKDnT mortality records.

  1. Disseminated Hemangioblastoma of the Central Nervous System without Von Hippel-Lindau Disease.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sun-Yoon; Jeun, Sin-Soo; Park, Jae-Hyun

    2014-10-01

    Hemangioblastoma (HB) of the central nervous system may occur sporadically or in association with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. Disseminated HB means malignant spread of the original primary HB without local recurrence at surgically resected site. It has been rarely reported previously, and rarer especially without VHL gene mutation. We report a case of disseminated HB without VHL disease. A 59-year-old man underwent a surgery for total removal of a cerebellar HB. From five years after the surgery, multiple dissemination of HB was identified intracranially and he subsequently underwent cyberknife radiosurgery. The lesions got smaller temporarily, but they soon grew larger. Nine years after the initial surgery for cerebellar HB, he showed severe back pain. His magnetic resonance image of spine revealed intradural extramedullary mass at T6-7 level. Complete surgical removal of the mass was performed and the pathological diagnosis was identical to the previous one. He had no evidence of VHL disease. And there was no recurrence of the tumor at the site of the original operation. The exact mechanism of dissemination is unknown, but the surgeon should be cautious of tumor cell spillage during surgery and prudently consider the decision to perform ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. In addition, continuous follow-up for recurrence or dissemination is necessary for patients even who underwent complete removal of cerebellar HB.

  2. Serum antibodies against central nervous system proteins in human demyelinating disease.

    PubMed Central

    Newcombe, J; Gahan, S; Cuzner, M L

    1985-01-01

    An immunoblotting technique has been used to screen serum samples from patients with demyelinating disease for antibody directed against central nervous system proteins. Antibodies of the IgM, IgG and IgA class directed against one or more of the particulate fraction proteins tubulin, myelin basic protein, 69 K neurofilament protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein, myelin associated glycoprotein or Wolfgram protein were present in 94, 54 and 47%, respectively, of multiple sclerosis sera examined. IgM antibodies against tubulin and myelin basic protein predominated. A similar antibody spectrum was seen in a significant proportion of sera from patients with optic neuritis, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and motor neurone disease, in which primary or secondary demyelination occurs. Antibodies of all three classes directed against the 169 K and 220 K neurofilament proteins and against some unidentified proteins of human peripheral nerve, kidney, liver, spleen and skeletal muscle were detected in sera from healthy subjects and patients with neurological disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:2579754

  3. MicroRNAs: Key Regulators in the Central Nervous System and Their Implication in Neurological Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dan-Dan; Li, Lu; Chan, Wai-Yee

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, well-conserved noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. They have been demonstrated to regulate a lot of biological pathways and cellular functions. Many miRNAs are dynamically regulated during central nervous system (CNS) development and are spatially expressed in adult brain indicating their essential roles in neural development and function. In addition, accumulating evidence strongly suggests that dysfunction of miRNAs contributes to neurological diseases. These observations, together with their gene regulation property, implicated miRNAs to be the key regulators in the complex genetic network of the CNS. In this review, we first focus on the ways through which miRNAs exert the regulatory function and how miRNAs are regulated in the CNS. We then summarize recent findings that highlight the versatile roles of miRNAs in normal CNS physiology and their association with several types of neurological diseases. Subsequently we discuss the limitations of miRNAs research based on current studies as well as the potential therapeutic applications and challenges of miRNAs in neurological disorders. We endeavor to provide an updated description of the regulatory roles of miRNAs in normal CNS functions and pathogenesis of neurological diseases. PMID:27240359

  4. Cushing disease revealed by bilateral atypical central serous chorioretinopathy: case report.

    PubMed

    Giovansili, Iama; Belange, Georeges; Affortit, Aude

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a patient with Cushing disease revealed by bilateral central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR). We present the clinical history, physical findings, laboratory results, and imaging studies of a 53-year-old Chinese woman with a Cushing disease revealed by bilateral CSCR. The association with CSCR and the pertinent literature are reviewed. A 53-year-old patient initially presented to the Department of Ophthalmology with a 4-week history of decreased vision in the left eye. Standard ophthalmologic examination and fluorescein angiography established the diagnosis of bilateral CSCR. Systemic clinical signs and biochemical analysis indicated hypercortisolism. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary gland showed a left-side lesion compatible with a microadenoma. The diagnosis of Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing syndrome secondary to a pituitary microadenoma was selected. Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery was performed and the pituitary adenoma was successfully removed. The histology confirmed the presence of ACTH-immunopositive pituitary adenoma. Early postoperative morning cortisol levels indicated early remission. At 6 weeks postoperatively, the patient's morning cortisol remains undetectable, and serous retinal detachments had regressed. CSCR is an uncommon manifestation of endogenous Cushing syndrome. It can be the first presentation of hypercortisolism caused by Cushing disease. CSCR should be considered when assessing patients with Cushing syndrome complaining of visual disorders. On the other hand, it is useful in patients with an atypical form of CSCR to exclude Cushing's syndrome.

  5. The prevalence of Behçet's disease in a city in Central Anatolia in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Çölgeçen, Emine; Özyurt, Kemal; Ferahbaş, Ayten; Borlu, Murat; Kulluk, Pınar; Öztürk, Ahmet; Öner, Ayşe Öztürk; Gün, İskender; Aşçıoğlu, Özcan

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of Behçet's disease (BD) is much higher in countries along the ancient Silk Route, extending from Japan to Mediterranean countries including Turkey, than in northern Europe and the USA. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of BD in Kayseri, a city in Central Anatolia in Turkey. This study investigated cross-sectional prevalences of BD in individuals aged >10 years in Kayseri, Turkey, in two stages. The first stage aimed to identify individuals with recurrent oral ulcers (ROUs) through home visits, and the second stage aimed to further examine those with ROUs for the presence of other BD-related manifestations under hospital conditions. The study was conducted using the criteria defined by the International Study Group for Behçet's Disease. The sample size was determined to be 4697 with an expected sampling error of 5.5 per 10,000, with a 95% confidence interval. A standard questionnaire was administered to a total of 5218 individuals. A history of ROU was recorded in 470 (9.0%) of the 5218 residents, and a previous diagnosis of BD was recorded in nine individuals. The prevalence rate of BD was estimated as 17 cases per 10,000 population in Kayseri, Turkey. The present study contributes towards estimations of prevalences of BD in Turkey and towards raising public awareness about the disease. It also supports previous studies that have reported the world's highest prevalences of BD in Turkey. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  6. Localized Cell and Drug Delivery for Auditory Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Jeffrey L.; Chikar, Jennifer A.; Crumling, Mark A.; Raphael, Yehoash; Martin, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Localized cell and drug delivery to the cochlea and central auditory pathway can improve the safety and performance of implanted auditory prostheses (APs). While generally successful, these devices have a number of limitations and adverse effects including limited tonal and dynamic ranges, channel interactions, unwanted stimulation of non-auditory nerves, immune rejection, and infections including meningitis. Many of these limitations are associated with the tissue reactions to implanted auditory prosthetic devices and the gradual degeneration of the auditory system following deafness. Strategies to reduce the insertion trauma, degeneration of target neurons, fibrous and bony tissue encapsulation, and immune activation can improve the viability of tissue required for AP function as well as improve the resolution of stimulation for reduced channel interaction and improved place-pitch and level discrimination. Many pharmaceutical compounds have been identified that promote the viability of auditory tissue and prevent inflammation and infection. Cell delivery and gene therapy have provided promising results for treating hearing loss and reversing degeneration. Currently, many clinical and experimental methods can produce extremely localized and sustained drug delivery to address AP limitations. These methods provide better control over drug concentrations while eliminating the adverse effects of systemic delivery. Many of these drug delivery techniques can be integrated into modern auditory prosthetic devices to optimize the tissue response to the implanted device and reduce the risk of infection or rejection. Together, these methods and pharmaceutical agents can be used to optimize the tissue-device interface for improved AP safety and effectiveness. PMID:18573323

  7. A corollary discharge maintains auditory sensitivity during sound production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulet, James F. A.; Hedwig, Berthold

    2002-08-01

    Speaking and singing present the auditory system of the caller with two fundamental problems: discriminating between self-generated and external auditory signals and preventing desensitization. In humans and many other vertebrates, auditory neurons in the brain are inhibited during vocalization but little is known about the nature of the inhibition. Here we show, using intracellular recordings of auditory neurons in the singing cricket, that presynaptic inhibition of auditory afferents and postsynaptic inhibition of an identified auditory interneuron occur in phase with the song pattern. Presynaptic and postsynaptic inhibition persist in a fictively singing, isolated cricket central nervous system and are therefore the result of a corollary discharge from the singing motor network. Mimicking inhibition in the interneuron by injecting hyperpolarizing current suppresses its spiking response to a 100-dB sound pressure level (SPL) acoustic stimulus and maintains its response to subsequent, quieter stimuli. Inhibition by the corollary discharge reduces the neural response to self-generated sound and protects the cricket's auditory pathway from self-induced desensitization.

  8. Hearing it right: Evidence of hemispheric lateralization in auditory imagery.

    PubMed

    Prete, Giulia; Marzoli, Daniele; Brancucci, Alfredo; Tommasi, Luca

    2016-02-01

    An advantage of the right ear (REA) in auditory processing (especially for verbal content) has been firmly established in decades of behavioral, electrophysiological and neuroimaging research. The laterality of auditory imagery, however, has received little attention, despite its potential relevance for the understanding of auditory hallucinations and related phenomena. In Experiments 1-4 we find that right-handed participants required to imagine hearing a voice or a sound unilaterally show a strong population bias to localize the self-generated auditory image at their right ear, likely the result of left-hemispheric dominance in auditory processing. In Experiments 5-8 - by means of the same paradigm - it was also ascertained that the right-ear bias for hearing imagined voices depends just on auditory attention mechanisms, as biases due to other factors (i.e., lateralized movements) were controlled. These results, suggesting a central role of the left hemisphere in auditory imagery, demonstrate that brain asymmetries can drive strong lateral biases in mental imagery.

  9. Data on medicinal plants used in Central America to manage diabetes and its sequelae (skin conditions, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, urinary problems and vision loss).

    PubMed

    Giovannini, Peter; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R; Edwards, Sarah E

    2016-06-01

    The data described in this article is related to the review article "Medicinal plants used in the traditional management of diabetes and its sequelae in Central America: a review" (Giovannini et al., 2016) [1]. We searched publications on the useful plants of Central America in databases and journals by using selected relevant keywords. We then extracted reported uses of medicinal plants within the disease categories: diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, urinary problems, skin diseases and infections, cardiovascular disease, sexual dysfunction, vision loss, and nerve damage. The following countries were included in our definition of Central America: Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. Data were compiled in a bespoke Access database. Plant names from the published sources were validated against The Plant List (TPL, (The Plant List, 2013) [2]) and accepted names and synonyms were extracted. In total, the database includes 607 plant names obtained from the published sources which correspond to 537 plant taxa, 9271 synonyms and 1055 use reports.

  10. Mother-daughter correlation of central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Zahra; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Barzin, Maryam; Safarkhani, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the mother-daughter correlation for central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors. The authors used metabolic and anthropometric data from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, enrolling 1041 mother-daughter pairs for the current study. Three age strata were defined: 3 to 9 years for childhood (146 mother-daughter pairs), 10 to 17 years for adolescence (395 mother-daughter pairs), and 18 to 25 years for early adulthood (500 mother-daughter pairs). Familial associations for central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors were assessed. The prevalence of central obesity was 44.7% in mothers and 11.2% in daughters (6.2% in the 3-9, 19.2% in the 10-17, and 6.4% in the 18-25 years groups). Mothers with central obesity were more likely than nonobese mothers to have daughters with central obesity (10.5% and 1.7%, respectively; P = .0001). Central obesity indices among daughters were positively correlated with those of their mothers in all 3 age strata. Correlations for other noncommunicable disease risk factors were analyzed before and after adjusting the risk factor levels for mothers' and daughters' waist circumferences (WCs) within each group to determine whether risk factor correlations were, in part, a result of the central obesity correlations. After the non-communicable disease risk factor levels of participants were adjusted for their WCs, the mother-daughter correlations remained significant. The consistent association of central obesity between mothers and daughters may indicate the key role that could be played by the mother in the primary prevention of central obesity, particularly in high-risk families.

  11. Central cholinergic dysfunction could be associated with oropharyngeal dysphagia in early Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Duck; Koo, Jung Hoi; Song, Sun Hong; Jo, Kwang Deog; Lee, Moon Kyu; Jang, Wooyoung

    2015-11-01

    Dysphagia is an important issue in the prognosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although several studies have reported that oropharyngeal dysphagia may be associated with cognitive dysfunction, the exact relationship between cortical function and swallowing function in PD patients is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the association between an electrophysiological marker of central cholinergic function, which reflected cognitive function, and swallowing function, as measured by videofluoroscopic studies (VFSS). We enrolled 29 early PD patients. Using the Swallowing Disturbance Questionnaire (SDQ), we divided the enrolled patients into two groups: PD with dysphagia and PD without dysphagia. The videofluoroscopic dysphagia scale (VDS) was applied to explore the nature of the dysphagia. To assess central cholinergic dysfunction, short latency afferent inhibition (SAI) was evaluated. We analyzed the relationship between central cholinergic dysfunction and oropharyngeal dysphagia and investigated the characteristics of the dysphagia. The SAI values were significantly different between the two groups. The comparison of each VFSS component between the PD with dysphagia group and the PD without dysphagia group showed statistical significance for most of the oral phase components and for a single pharyngeal phase component. The total score on the VDS was higher in the PD with dysphagia group than in the PD without dysphagia group. The Mini-Mental State Examination and SAI values showed significant correlations with the total score of the oral phase components. According to binary logistic regression analysis, SAI value independently contributed to the presence of dysphagia in PD patients. Our findings suggest that cholinergic dysfunction is associated with dysphagia in early PD and that an abnormal SAI value is a good biomarker for predicting the risk of dysphagia in PD patients.

  12. Normal-Weight Central Obesity and Mortality Risk in Older Adults With Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Saurabh; Batsis, John A; Coutinho, Thais; Somers, Virend K; Hodge, David O; Carter, Rickey E; Sochor, Ondrej; Kragelund, Charlotte; Kanaya, Alka M; Zeller, Marianne; Park, Jong-Seon; Køber, Lars; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2016-03-01

    To study the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and central obesity and mortality in elderly patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We identified 7057 patients 65 years or older from 5 cohort studies assessing mortality risk using either waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio (WHR) in patients with CAD from January 1, 1980, to December 31, 2008. Normal weight, overweight, and obesity were defined using standard BMI cutoffs. High WHR was defined as 0.85 or more for women and 0.90 or more for men. High WC was defined as 88 cm or more for women and 102 cm or more for men. Separate models examined WC or WHR in combination with BMI (6 categories each) as the primary predictor (referent = normal BMI and normal WC or WHR). Cox proportional hazards models investigated the relationship between these obesity categories and mortality. Patients' mean age was 73.0±6.0 years (3741 [53%] women). The median censor time was 7.1 years. A normal BMI with central obesity (high WHR or high WC) demonstrated highest mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR], 1.29; 95% CI, 1.14-1.46; HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.12-1.50, respectively). High WHR was also predictive of mortality in the overall (HR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.93-2.38) as well as in the sex-specific cohort. In the overall cohort, high WC was not predictive of mortality (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.97-1.12); however, it predicted higher risk in men (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.01-1.24). In older adults with CAD, normal-weight central obesity defined using either WHR or WC is associated with high mortality risk, highlighting a need to combine measures in adiposity-related risk assessment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Central Retinal Vein Occlusion in a Patient with Retinal Vasculitis and Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Lígia; Rothwell, Renata; Brandão, Arnaldo

    2014-01-01

    The authors report a rare case of a 47-year-old woman with Crohn's disease (CD) who presented with retinal vasculitis and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) during remission. The patient complained of sudden painless visual loss in her left eye (OS). Ophthalmologic evaluation revealed a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 20/20 in the right eye and hand movements in OS. Ophthalmoscopy and fluorescein angiography of OS showed signs of nonischemic CRVO and extensive vasculitis. She was treated with oral prednisolone, mercaptopurine, and intravitreal bevacizumab in OS. After 1 month of treatment, VA of OS improved to 5/10 and after 1 year it was 10/10 with complete resolution of retinal vasculitis and nonischemic CRVO. PMID:25506451

  14. [Immunology in medical practice. XIV. Central nervous system complications in systemic autoimmune diseases].

    PubMed

    Markusse, H M; van den Bent, M J; Vecht, C J

    1998-03-07

    Complications of the central nervous system (CNS) are common in systemic autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and primary Sjögren's syndrome. Specific diagnostic tests are lacking and early intervention with immunosuppressive therapy is frequently necessary. Therefore knowledge of these CNS complications is essential for early diagnosis and treatment. Residual cognitive effects were observed in some but not in all tests after prolonged heavy cannabis use. The effects were mostly mild. The relationship of cannabis use, psychotic effects and schizophrenia was unclear; the cannabis conceivably gave relief, but it also appeared that cannabis caused schizophrenia in young people and (or) enhanced the symptoms, especially in young people poorly able to cope with stress or in whom the antipsychotic therapy was unsuccessful.

  15. On the central role of brain connectivity in neurodegenerative disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Iturria-Medina, Yasser; Evans, Alan C.

    2015-01-01

    Increased brain connectivity, in all its variants, is often considered an evolutionary advantage by mediating complex sensorimotor function and higher cognitive faculties. Interaction among components at all spatial scales, including genes, proteins, neurons, local neuronal circuits and macroscopic brain regions, are indispensable for such vital functions. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that, from the microscopic to the macroscopic levels, such connections might also be a conduit for in intra-brain disease spreading. For instance, cell-to-cell misfolded proteins (MP) transmission and neuronal toxicity are prominent connectivity-mediated factors in aging and neurodegeneration. This article offers an overview of connectivity dysfunctions associated with neurodegeneration, with a specific focus on how these may be central to both normal aging and the neuropathologic degenerative progression. PMID:26052284

  16. Acid-Sensing Ion Channels as Potential Pharmacological Targets in Peripheral and Central Nervous System Diseases.

    PubMed

    Radu, Beatrice Mihaela; Banciu, Adela; Banciu, Daniel Dumitru; Radu, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are widely expressed in the body and represent good sensors for detecting protons. The pH drop in the nervous system is equivalent to ischemia and acidosis, and ASICs are very good detectors in discriminating slight changes in acidity. ASICs are important pharmacological targets being involved in a variety of pathophysiological processes affecting both the peripheral nervous system (e.g., peripheral pain, diabetic neuropathy) and the central nervous system (e.g., stroke, epilepsy, migraine, anxiety, fear, depression, neurodegenerative diseases, etc.). This review discusses the role played by ASICs in different pathologies and the pharmacological agents acting on ASICs that might represent promising drugs. As the majority of above-mentioned pathologies involve not only neuronal dysfunctions but also microvascular alterations, in the next future, ASICs may be also considered as potential pharmacological targets at the vasculature level. Perspectives and limitations in the use of ASICs antagonists and modulators as pharmaceutical agents are also discussed.

  17. Clonal distribution of Streptococcus suis isolated from diseased pigs in the central region of Chile

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Bárbara; Ruiz, Álvaro; Lacouture, Sonia; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of 29 Chilean field strains of Streptococcus suis recovered between 2007 and 2011 from pigs with clinical signs at different farms were studied. Serotyping with use of the coagglutination test revealed that all but 1 strain belonged to serotype 6; the remaining strain was serotype 22. All the serotype-6 strains were suilysin (hemolysin)-negative; in addition, they were found to be genotypically homogeneous by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) and sensitive to ampicillin, ceftiofur, penicillin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The results indicate that, in contrast to what is generally observed in other countries, a single clone of S. suis was isolated from diseased pigs in the central region of Chile. PMID:26424917

  18. A framework for integrating heterogeneous clinical data for a disease area into a central data warehouse.

    PubMed

    Karmen, Christian; Ganzinger, Matthias; Kohl, Christian D; Firnkorn, Daniel; Knaup-Gregori, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Structured collection of clinical facts is a common approach in clinical research. Especially in the analysis of rare diseases it is often necessary to aggregate study data from several sites in order to achieve a statistically significant cohort size. In this paper we describe a framework how to approach an integration of heterogeneous clinical data into a central register. This enables site-spanning queries for the occurrence of specific clinical facts and thus supports clinical research. The framework consists of three sequential steps, starting from a formal data harmonization process, to the data transformation methods and finally the integration into a proper data warehouse. We implemented reusable software templates that are based on our best practices in several projects in integrating heterogeneous clinical data. Our methods potentially increase the efficiency and quality for future data integration projects by reducing the implementation effort as well as the project management effort by usage of our approaches as a guideline.

  19. A case of Erdheim Chester disease with central nervous system involvement

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Anil Kumar; Muthusamy, Karthik; Aaron, Sanjith; Alexander, Mathew; Kachare, Nanda; Mani, Sunithi; Sniya, Sudhakar

    2015-01-01

    Erdheim Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis, commonly involving the musculoskeletal system. Other tissue can also be involved, including the central nervous system with wide spectrum of clinical features, at times being nonspecific. This can cause diagnostic dilemmas with delay in diagnosis and initiation of therapy. Here we describe a 63-year-old man who had presented with ataxia and behavioral changes, bony pains, weight loss, and fatigue. His computed tomography (CT), 99Tc scintigraphy and histopathological features on bone biopsy were consistent with ECD. Thus, ECD should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with bony pain and nonspecific features of multiorgan involvement. PMID:26425015

  20. Role of Nuclear Receptors in Central Nervous System Development and Associated Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, Ana Maria; Moreno-Ramos, Oscar Andrés; Haider, Neena B.

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear hormone receptor (NHR) superfamily is composed of a wide range of receptors involved in a myriad of important biological processes, including development, growth, metabolism, and maintenance. Regulation of such wide variety of functions requires a complex system of gene regulation that includes interaction with transcription factors, chromatin-modifying complex, and the proper recognition of ligands. NHRs are able to coordinate the expression of genes in numerous pathways simultaneously. This review focuses on the role of nuclear receptors in the central nervous system and, in particular, their role in regulating the proper development and function of the brain and the eye. In addition, the review highlights the impact of mutations in NHRs on a spectrum of human diseases from autism to retinal degeneration. PMID:27168725

  1. Alterations of cortical excitability and central motor conduction time in Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Jhunjhunwala, Ketan; Prashanth, D K; Netravathi, M; Nagaraju, B C; Pal, Pramod Kr

    2013-10-11

    Wilson's disease (WD) leads to widespread structural alterations of central nervous system and our objectives were to determine the cortical excitability changes in WD by using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Thirteen patients with WD, diagnosed by the presence of Kayser-Fleischer ring and biochemical tests, were studied. TMS was performed using a figure-of-eight coil attached to Magstim 200 stimulator. Motor evoked potentials (MEP) were recorded from right first dorsal interosseous at rest. Resting motor threshold (RMT) was determined using standard techniques and central motor conduction time (CMCT) by 'F' wave method. Comparison was made with control data of our laboratory. Dysarthria was the presenting symptom in 5 patients (38.5%) and chorea, tremors, dystonia and abnormal gait in 2 patients each (15.4%). RMT was recordable in 10 patients and not recordable in 3. Compared to controls, patients in whom RMT was recordable, had significantly higher mean RMT (80.9 ± 14.8 vs. 41.1 ± 7, p<0.0001) and CMCT (6.7 ± 0.5 ms vs. 4.8 ± 0.6 ms; p<0.0001). In 2 of the 3 patients with non-recordable RMT, MEP could be obtained with active contraction. CMCT in these 2 patients was also prolonged. Patients with WD have reduced cortical excitability and prolonged CMCT which may be due to the intracortical presynaptic motor dysfunction.

  2. [The Map of Auditory Function].

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, So; Komura, Yutaka

    2017-04-01

    Brodmann areas 41 and 42 are located in the superior temporal gyrus and regarded as auditory cortices. The fundamental function in audition is frequency analysis; however, the findings on tonotopy maps of the human auditory cortex were not unified until recently when they were compared to the findings on inputs and outputs of the monkey auditory cortex. The auditory cortex shows plasticity after conditioned learning and surgery of cochlear implant. It is also involved in speech perception, music appreciation, and auditory hallucination in schizophrenia through interactions with other brain areas, such as the thalamus, frontal cortex, and limbic systems.

  3. Role of the virology laboratory in diagnosis and management of patients with central nervous system disease.

    PubMed Central

    Chonmaitree, T; Baldwin, C D; Lucia, H L

    1989-01-01

    A number of viruses cause acute central nervous system disease. The two major clinical presentations are aseptic meningitis and the less common meningoencephalitis. Clinical virology laboratories are now more widely available than a decade ago; they can be operated on a modest scale and can be tailored to the needs of the patients they serve. Most laboratories can provide diagnostic information on diseases caused by enteroviruses, herpesviruses, and human immunodeficiency virus. Antiviral therapy for herpes simplex virus is now available. By providing a rapid diagnostic test or isolation of the virus or both, the virology laboratory plays a direct role in guiding antiviral therapy for patients with herpes simplex encephalitis. Although there is no specific drug available for enteroviruses, attention needs to be paid to these viruses since they are the most common cause of nonbacterial meningitis and the most common pathogens causing hospitalization for suspected sepsis in young infants in the United States during the warm months of the year. When the virology laboratory maximizes the speed of viral detection or isolation, it can make a significant impact on management of these patients. Early viral diagnosis benefits patients with enteroviral meningitis, most of whom are hospitalized and treated for bacterial sepsis or meningitis or both; these patients have the advantage of early withdrawal of antibiotics and intravenous therapy, early hospital discharge, and avoidance of the risks and costs of unnecessary tests and treatment. Enteroviral infection in young infants also is a risk factor for possible long-term sequelae. For compromised patients, the diagnostic information helps in selecting specific immunoglobulin therapy. Good communication between the physician and the laboratory will result in the most benefit to patients with central nervous system viral infection. PMID:2644021

  4. View-centralized multi-atlas classification for Alzheimer's disease diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingxia; Zhang, Daoqiang; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-05-01

    Multi-atlas based methods have been recently used for classification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its prodromal stage, that is, mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Compared with traditional single-atlas based methods, multiatlas based methods adopt multiple predefined atlases and thus are less biased by a certain atlas. However, most existing multiatlas based methods simply average or concatenate the features from multiple atlases, which may ignore the potentially important diagnosis information related to the anatomical differences among different atlases. In this paper, we propose a novel view (i.e., atlas) centralized multi-atlas classification method, which can better exploit useful information in multiple feature representations from different atlases. Specifically, all brain images are registered onto multiple atlases individually, to extract feature representations in each atlas space. Then, the proposed view-centralized multi-atlas feature selection method is used to select the most discriminative features from each atlas with extra guidance from other atlases. Next, we design a support vector machine (SVM) classifier using the selected features in each atlas space. Finally, we combine multiple SVM classifiers for multiple atlases through a classifier ensemble strategy for making a final decision. We have evaluated our method on 459 subjects [including 97 AD, 117 progressive MCI (p-MCI), 117 stable MCI (s-MCI), and 128 normal controls (NC)] from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database, and achieved an accuracy of 92.51% for AD versus NC classification and an accuracy of 78.88% for p-MCI versus s-MCI classification. These results demonstrate that the proposed method can significantly outperform the previous multi-atlas based classification methods.

  5. T2 hyperintense signal of the central tegmental tracts in children: disease or normal maturational process?

    PubMed

    Aguilera-Albesa, Sergio; Poretti, Andrea; Honnef, Dagmar; Aktas, Meral; Yoldi-Petri, Maria Eugenia; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Häusler, Martin

    2012-08-01

    Cerebral central tegmental tract hyperintense signal on T2-weighted MRI (CTTH) is known from various clinical conditions, including children treated with vigabatrin (VGB) for West syndrome (WS), with hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, and metabolic diseases. Considering this clinical diversity, we hypothesized that CTTH might primarily mirror a physiologic process. We retrospectively analysed brain MRI data of the central tegmental tracts deriving from four different groups: (1) children with WS and VGB therapy (WS+VGB+), (2) children with WS but without VGB therapy (WS+VGB-), (3) children with different neurological diseases (WS-VGB-; maximum age 15 years), and (4) controls younger than 25 months of age (this age includes the peak age of WS). CTTH were detected in 4/17 WS+VGB+ children (24%), 4/34 WS+VGB- children (12%), 18/296 WS-VGB- children (6%), and 8/112 controls (7%). Independently from the underlying diagnosis, CTTH showed a peak age during early infancy and were not found before 4 months and after 7 years of life. The rate of CTTH among WS children ± VGB therapy was similar so that VGB therapy seems of minor etiological impact. However, comparison of WS patients younger than 25 months of age (CTTH present in 7/40) with age-matched controls (CTTH present in 8/112) revealed that CTTH tend to be more frequent among WS patients in general. Our study suggests that CTTH represents a physiological maturation-related process. The high prevalence of CTTH among patients with WS indicates that this physiological process may be modified by additional endo- or exogeneous factors.

  6. Anti-endothelial cell antibodies and central nervous system involvement in Behçet's disease.

    PubMed

    Souza, Romy Christmann; Lage, Laís; Goldesntein-Schainberg, Cláudia; Macedo, André Regis; Carrasco, Solange; Gonçalves, Célio Roberto

    2007-12-01

    Previous studies have detected the presence of anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) in patients with Behçet's disease (BD). However, no real evidence exists whether these antibodies exert any influence on clinical presentation and/or activity of this disease. To determine the frequency of AECA in patients with BD and analyze possible clinical associations. 50 patients with BD who fulfilled diagnostic criteria were selected. Thirty-seven patients were females, and 13 were males; the mean age was 44 +/- 9 years with a mean follow-up time of 10 +/- 7.5 years. AECA were assayed by ELISA using ECV-304 cells as the antigenic substrate. The prevalence of AECA was determined, and their possible relationships with present and past clinical features were investigated. AECA were detected in the sera of 38% of the patients (IgG in 13, IgM in four, and IgG plus IgM in two). An association was observed between AECA and a previous history of central nervous system involvement (OR= 5.4, p= 0.03). This association was more evident for IgG-AECA (OR= 6.0, p= 0.02). A trend of an increased risk of aneurysms was also observed in patients with IgG-AECA (OR= 2.58, p= 0.77). None of the other clinical characteristics showed a relevant association with these antibodies. Our data suggest that IgG-AECA may be a marker of more severe lesions in patients with BD based on the higher frequency of previous central nervous system manifestations in patients who presently display circulating AECA.

  7. Auditory Fusion in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sylvia M.; McCroskey, Robert L.

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on auditory fusion (defined in terms of a listerner's ability to distinguish paired acoustic events from single acoustic events) in 3- to 12-year-old children. The subjects listened to 270 pairs of tones controlled for frequency, intensity, and duration. (CM)

  8. Modelling auditory attention.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Emine Merve; Elhilali, Mounya

    2017-02-19

    Sounds in everyday life seldom appear in isolation. Both humans and machines are constantly flooded with a cacophony of sounds that need to be sorted through and scoured for relevant information-a phenomenon referred to as the 'cocktail party problem'. A key component in parsing acoustic scenes is the role of attention, which mediates perception and behaviour by focusing both sensory and cognitive resources on pertinent information in the stimulus space. The current article provides a review of modelling studies of auditory attention. The review highlights how the term attention refers to a multitude of behavioural and cognitive processes that can shape sensory processing. Attention can be modulated by 'bottom-up' sensory-driven factors, as well as 'top-down' task-specific goals, expectations and learned schemas. Essentially, it acts as a selection process or processes that focus both sensory and cognitive resources on the most relevant events in the soundscape; with relevance being dictated by the stimulus itself (e.g. a loud explosion) or by a task at hand (e.g. listen to announcements in a busy airport). Recent computational models of auditory attention provide key insights into its role in facilitating perception in cluttered auditory scenes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Auditory and visual scene analysis'.

  9. Modelling auditory attention

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Emine Merve

    2017-01-01

    Sounds in everyday life seldom appear in isolation. Both humans and machines are constantly flooded with a cacophony of sounds that need to be sorted through and scoured for relevant information—a phenomenon referred to as the ‘cocktail party problem’. A key component in parsing acoustic scenes is the role of attention, which mediates perception and behaviour by focusing both sensory and cognitive resources on pertinent information in the stimulus space. The current article provides a review of modelling studies of auditory attention. The review highlights how the term attention refers to a multitude of behavioural and cognitive processes that can shape sensory processing. Attention can be modulated by ‘bottom-up’ sensory-driven factors, as well as ‘top-down’ task-specific goals, expectations and learned schemas. Essentially, it acts as a selection process or processes that focus both sensory and cognitive resources on the most relevant events in the soundscape; with relevance being dictated by the stimulus itself (e.g. a loud explosion) or by a task at hand (e.g. listen to announcements in a busy airport). Recent computational models of auditory attention provide key insights into its role in facilitating perception in cluttered auditory scenes. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Auditory and visual scene analysis’. PMID:28044012

  10. Incidental Auditory Category Learning

    PubMed Central

    Gabay, Yafit; Dick, Frederic K.; Zevin, Jason D.; Holt, Lori L.

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about how auditory categories are learned incidentally, without instructions to search for category-diagnostic dimensions, overt category decisions, or experimenter-provided feedback. This is an important gap because learning in the natural environment does not arise from explicit feedback and there is evidence that the learning systems engaged by traditional tasks are distinct from those recruited by incidental category learning. We examined incidental auditory category learning with a novel paradigm, the Systematic Multimodal Associations Reaction Time (S