Science.gov

Sample records for disease ct findings

  1. CT findings in complications of acquired renal cystic disease.

    PubMed

    Soffer, O; Miller, L R; Lichtman, J B

    1987-01-01

    A 42-year-old man with end-stage renal disease developed acquired renal cystic disease. The left kidney underwent tumorous degeneration necessitating nephrectomy. Eight months later acute hemorrhagic renal cyst rupture culminated in right nephrectomy.

  2. CT and orbital ultrasound findings in a case of Castleman disease.

    PubMed

    Brubaker, Jacob W; Harrie, Roger P; Patel, Bhupendra C; Davis, Don K; Mamalis, Nick

    2011-01-01

    A 53-year-old man with a 2-month history of left periorbital swelling was found to have a large solid intraconal mass on CT scan. Orbital ultrasound showed that the lesion had a cavernous pattern of internal reflectivity. Histopathology revealed hyaline-vascular type Castleman disease (CD). This article represents the first reported orbital ultrasound findings in CD. The findings of CT scan and ultrasound may be useful in the preoperative evaluation of orbital hyaline-vascular type CD.

  3. Ethmoid sinus disease: CT evaluation in 400 cases. Part II: Postoperative findings

    SciTech Connect

    Som, P.M.; Lawson, W.; Biller, H.F.; Lanzieri, C.F.

    1986-06-01

    Clinical, pathological, and computed tomographic (CT) findings were reviewed in 400 patients with ethmoid sinus disease, including 272 who had undergone surgery. The postoperative appearance of ethmoid sinuses on CT scans is a highly neglected subject in radiologic literature. The unique ethmoid anatomy permits a variety of surgical approaches, and radiologists must be familiar with the postoperative appearances if they are to recognize the effects of prior surgery and detect, when possible, the recurrence of disease. It is often difficult to evaluate the clinical significance of soft-tissue disease, despite good clinical correlation.

  4. TRUS, CT and MRI findings of hydatid disease of seminal vesicles.

    PubMed

    Sağlam, M; Taşar, M; Bulakbaşi, N; Tayfun, C; Somuncu, I

    1998-01-01

    Hydatid disease of the urogenital system, especially seminal vesicles and prostate, or retroperitoneum is a very rare condition. Secondary dissemination of seminal vesicles has not been described before. We describe the transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS), CT and MRI findings of a secondary solitary hydatid cyst of the left seminal vesicle, in a patient with disseminated hydatid disease involving all abdominal organs except for right kidney. We obtained typical findings of hydatid cyst at all modalities. PMID:9683695

  5. Coronary CT findings of coronary to bronchial arterial communication in chronic pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Byun, Sung Su; Park, Jae Hyung; Kim, Jeong Ho; Sung, Yon Mi; Kim, Yoon Kyung; Kim, Eun Young; Park, Eun Ah

    2015-06-01

    To describe the coronary CT findings of coronary-to-bronchial artery communication (CBAC) in chronic pulmonary disease. Coronary CT was performed in 15 patients with chronic pulmonary disease using 64-channel or greater multidetector CT. Among those patients, one or two CBACs were identified. A retrospective analysis of the CT findings was done to determine the originating artery, arterial course of the communications and other associated results. The main underlying pulmonary disease was bronchiectasis (n = 12). The origin of the CBAC was from the left atrial (n = 7) or sinoatrial (SA) nodal (n = 3) branch of the left circumflex artery in nine patients and the SA nodal branch of the right coronary artery in six patients. The CBAC was connected to the left bronchial artery in 11 patients and the right bronchial artery in five patients. The course of the CBAC passed through the interpulmonary venous bare area between reflections of the serous pericardium of the transverse and oblique sinuses in 13 patients. In three patients, it passed through the perivascular space around the left upper or lower pulmonary vein. In one patient, there were two communications-one through the interpulmonary venous bare area and the other through the perivascular space around the left lower pulmonary vein. There was no significant coronary arterial stenosis except in two patients. Bronchial arterial hypertrophy was found in all 15 patients. Detailed analysis of coronary CT can be a helpful guide for hemodynamic significance and clinical management including embolotherapy for CBAC in patients of chronic pulmonary disease with hemoptysis.

  6. Multidetector CT Findings and Differential Diagnoses of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma and Metastatic Pleural Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoon Kyung; Lee, Kyung Won; Yi, Chin A; Koo, Jin Mo; Jung, Soon-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the multidetector CT (MDCT) features of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and metastatic pleural disease (MPD). Materials and Methods The authors reviewed the MDCT images of 167 patients, 103 patients with MPM and 64 patients with MPD. All 167 cases were pathologically confirmed by sonography-guided needle biopsy of pleura, thoracoscopic pleural biopsy, or open thoracotomy. CT features were evaluated with respect to pleural effusion, pleural thickening, invasion of other organs, lung abnormality, lymphadenopathy, mediastinal shifting, thoracic volume decrease, asbestosis, and the presence of pleural plaque. Results Pleural thickening was the most common CT finding in MPM (96.1%) and MPD (93.8%). Circumferential pleural thickening (31.1% vs. 10.9%, odds ratio [OR] 3.670), thickening of fissural pleura (83.5% vs. 67.2%, OR 2.471), thickening of diaphragmatic pleura (90.3% vs. 73.4%, OR 3.364), pleural mass (38.8% vs. 23.4%, OR 2.074), pericardial involvement (56.3% vs. 20.3%, OR 5.056), and pleural plaque (66.0% vs. 21.9%, OR 6.939) were more frequently seen in MPM than in MPD. On the other hand, nodular pleural thickening (59.2% vs. 76.6%, OR 0.445), hilar lymph node metastasis (5.8% vs. 20.3%, OR 0.243), mediastinal lymph node metastasis (10.7% vs. 37.5%, OR 0.199), and hematogenous lung metastasis (9.7% vs. 29.2%, OR 0.261) were less frequent in MPM than in MPD. When we analyzed MPD from extrathoracic malignancy (EMPD) separately and compared them to MPM, circumferential pleural thickening, thickening of interlobar fissure, pericardial involvement and presence of pleural plaque were significant findings indicating MPM than EMPD. MPM had significantly lower occurrence of hematogenous lung metastasis, as compared with EMPD. Conclusion Awareness of frequent and infrequent CT findings could aid in distinguishing MPM from MPD. PMID:27390546

  7. Multislice CT pulmonary findings in Behçet's disease (report of 16 cases).

    PubMed

    Emad, Y; Abdel-Razek, N; Gheita, T; el-Wakd, M; el-Gohary, T; Samadoni, A

    2007-06-01

    Pulmonary artery aneurysm is the best-defined type of pulmonary disease in Behçet's disease (BD) with an important morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to assess the contribution of high-resolution dynamic chest CT imaging for one of the most serious aspects of BD: pulmonary artery aneurysm and other pulmonary parenchymal involvement. Sixteen BD patients were recruited for this study, (14 men, 87.5%, and 2 women, 12.5%). All patients fulfilled the 1990 American College of Rheumatology criteria for classification of BD [International Study Group for Behçet's Disease, Lancet 335:1078-1080, (1990)]. All patients underwent thorough history taking, full clinical examination, and routine laboratory investigations. Plain chest X-rays and pulmonary CT angiography were performed on all patients in an attempt to assess the pulmonary vasculature and lung parenchyma. Pulmonary vascular abnormalities were as follows: pulmonary artery aneurysms of varying sizes in nine patients (56.3%), main pulmonary artery ectasia in two patients (12.5%), pulmonary artery embolism in two patients (12.5%), venacaval thrombosis in seven patients (43.8%), and pulmonary venous varices in four patients (25%). Pulmonary parenchymal abnormalities were as follows: three patients (18.8%) with mild central bronchiectasis, one patient (6.3%) with atelectasis, one patient (6.3%) with subpleural nodule, and four patients (25%) with interstitial lung disease. Eight of the male patients were smokers. Multislice CT is useful in demonstrating the entire spectrum of thoracic manifestations of BD. Multislice CT is noninvasive and provides excellent delineation of the vessel lumen and wall and perivascular tissues, as well as detailed information concerning the lung parenchyma, pleura, and mediastinal structures.

  8. Thoracic textilomas: CT findings*

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Dianne Melo; Zanetti, Gláucia; Araujo, Cesar Augusto; Nobre, Luiz Felipe; Meirelles, Gustavo de Souza Portes; Pereira e Silva, Jorge Luiz; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Souza, Arthur Soares; Hochhegger, Bruno; Marchiori, Edson

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze chest CT scans of patients with thoracic textiloma. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 16 patients (11 men and 5 women) with surgically confirmed thoracic textiloma. The chest CT scans of those patients were evaluated by two independent observers, and discordant results were resolved by consensus. RESULTS: The majority (62.5%) of the textilomas were caused by previous heart surgery. The most common symptoms were chest pain (in 68.75%) and cough (in 56.25%). In all cases, the main tomographic finding was a mass with regular contours and borders that were well-defined or partially defined. Half of the textilomas occurred in the right hemithorax and half occurred in the left. The majority (56.25%) were located in the lower third of the lung. The diameter of the mass was ≤ 10 cm in 10 cases (62.5%) and > 10 cm in the remaining 6 cases (37.5%). Most (81.25%) of the textilomas were heterogeneous in density, with signs of calcification, gas, radiopaque marker, or sponge-like material. Peripheral expansion of the mass was observed in 12 (92.3%) of the 13 patients in whom a contrast agent was used. Intraoperatively, pleural involvement was observed in 14 cases (87.5%) and pericardial involvement was observed in 2 (12.5%). CONCLUSIONS: It is important to recognize the main tomographic aspects of thoracic textilomas in order to include this possibility in the differential diagnosis of chest pain and cough in patients with a history of heart or thoracic surgery, thus promoting the early identification and treatment of this postoperative complication. PMID:25410842

  9. Esophageal carcinoma: CT findings

    SciTech Connect

    Quint, L.E.; Glazer, G.M.; Orringer, M.B.; Gross, B.H.

    1985-04-01

    Preoperative CT scans of 33 patients with esophageal cancer were reviewed to assess staging accuracy and define the role of CT in patients being considered for transhiatal blunt esophagectomy. Surgical and pathological verification was obtained in all cases. Only 13 tumors were staged correctly according to the TNM classification. In addition, CT was not useful in assessing resectability because of its low accuracy in evaluating aortic invasion and the fact that few patients had tracheobronchial or aortic invasion or hepatic metastases at presentation.

  10. 99mTc(V)-DMSA SPECT-CT findings in a case of Gorham-Stout disease.

    PubMed

    Alves, Victor M; Vieira, Tiago S; Amorim, Nelson S; Oliveira, Ana; Rodrigues, André; Pereira, Jorge G

    2015-01-01

    The Gorham-Stout disease is a very rare condition, characterized by lymphovascular proliferation and massive bone resorption. We present a 48-year-old male patient with osteolysis involving the left femoral head and neck, as well as to the ipsilateral acetabulum. Besides the morphological imaging, he underwent bone scintigraphy, technetium-99m-V-dimercaptosuccinic acid [99mTc(V)-DMSA] single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) and histological examination. Together these findings gave the definitive diagnosis. This is the first case ever published with 99mTc(V)-DMSA SPECT-CT. Advances on the knowledge of disease suggests that this imaging procedure could have utility in diagnosis and evaluation of the disease activity and therapy response.

  11. CT findings of atrial myxoma

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchiya, F.; Kohno, A.; Saitoh, R.; Shigeta, A.

    1984-04-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) appearance of six atrial myxomas was analyzed. Five of the myxomas were located in the left atrium and one was in the right atrium. The margin of the myxoma was at least slightly lobulated in five cases and the content was inhomogeneous in all. Calcification was demonstrated in three cases. The site of attachment of the myxoma was demonstrated by CT to be the arial septum in all cases. The CT finding correlated well with the operative findings. It is concluded that it is possible with CT to diagnose atrial myxoma by the location and nature of the intracardiac mass and to differentiate it from thrombus.

  12. Adrenal cortex dysfunction: CT findings

    SciTech Connect

    Huebener, K.H.; Treugut, H.

    1984-01-01

    The computed tomographic appearance of the adrenal gland was studied in 302 patients with possible endocrinologic disease and 107 patients undergoing CT for nonendocrinologic reasons. Measurements of adrenal size were also made in 100 adults with no known adrenal pathology. CT proved to be a sensitive diagnostic tool in combination with clinical studies. When blood hormone levels are increased, CT can differentiate among homogeneous organic hyperplasia, nodular hyperplasia, benign adenoma, and malignant cortical adenoma. When blood hormone levels are decreased, CT can demonstrate hypoplasia or metastatic tumorous destruction. Calcifications can be demonstrated earlier than on plain radiographs. When hormone elimination is increased, the morphologic substrate can be identified; tumorous changes can be localized and infiltration of surrounding organs recognized.

  13. Cytomegalovirus pneumonia in transplant patients: CT findings

    SciTech Connect

    Eun-Young Kang; Patz, E.F. Jr.; Mueller, N.L.

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to assess the CT findings of cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia in transplant patients. The study included 10 transplant patients who had chest CT scan and pathologically proven isolated pulmonary CMV infection. Five patients had bone marrow transplant and five had solid organ transplant. The CT scans were retrospectively reviewed for pattern and distribution of disease and the CT findings compared with the findings on open lung biopsy (n = 9) and autopsy (n = 1). Nine of 10 patients had parenchymal abnormalities apparent at CT and I had normal CT scans. The findings in the nine patients included small nodules (n = 6), consolidation (n = 4), ground-glass attenuation (n = 4), and irregular lines (n = 1). The nodules had a bilateral and symmetric distribution and involved all lung zones. The consolidation was most marked in the lower lung zones. The CT findings of CMV pneumonia in transplant patients are heterogeneous. The most common patterns include small nodules and areas of consolidation. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Acute intestinal anisakiasis: CT findings.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, H N; Avcu, S; Pauwels, W; Mortelé, K J; De Backer, A I

    2012-09-01

    Small bowel anisakiasis is a relatively uncommon disease that results from consumption of raw or insufficiently pickled, salted, smoked, or cooked wild marine fish infected with Anisakis larvae. We report a case of intestinal anisakiasis in a 63-year-old woman presenting with acute onset of abdominal complaints one day after ingestion of raw wild-caught herring from the Northsea. Computed tomography (CT) scanning demonstrated thickening of the distal small bowel wall, mucosa with hyperenhancement, mural stratification, fluid accumulation within dilated small-bowel loops and hyperemia of mesenteric vessels. In patients with a recent history of eating raw marine fish presenting with acute onset of abdominal complaints and CT features of acute small bowel inflammation the possibility of anisakiasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal syndromes.

  15. Lumbar spine: pretest predictability of CT findings

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, D.J.; Thomas, R.J.; Osborn, A.G.; Clayton, P.D.; Miller, M.H.; Bahr, A.L.; Frederick, P.R.; O'Connor, G.D.; Ostler, D.

    1984-03-01

    Demographic and symptomatic data gathered from 460 patients referred for lumbosacral CT examinations were analyzed to determine if the prescan probability of normal or abnormal findings could be predicted accurately. The authors were unable to predict the presence of herniated disk on the basis of patient-supplied data alone. Age was the single most significant predictor of an abnormality and was sharply related to degenerative disease and spinal stenosis.

  16. Acute pancreatitis: clinical vs. CT findings

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, M.C.; Barkin, J.; Isikoff, M.B.; Silver stein, W.; Kalser, M.

    1982-08-01

    In a prospective study of 91 patients with acute pancreatitis, computed tomographic (CT) findings were correlated with the clinical type of acute pancreatitis. In acute edematous pancreatitis (63 patients; 16 with repeat CT), CT was normal (28%) or showed inflammation limited to the pancreas (61%). Phlegmonous changes were present in 11%, including one patient with focal pancreatic hemorrhage, indicating that clinically unsuspected hemorrhagic pancreatitis can occur. In acute necrotizing (hemorrhagic, suppurative) pancreatitis (nine patients; eight with repeat CT), no patient had a normal CT scan and 89% had phlegmonous changes. One patient had hemorrhagic pancreatitis and three had abscesses. In acute exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis (10 patients; three with repeat CT), there were pancreatic calcifications (70%), a focal mass (40%), and pancreatic ductal dilation (30%). On follow-up CT, the findings of acute pancreatitis did not always disappear with resolution of the clinical symptons. This was especialy true of phlegmonous pancreatitis, where the CT findings could persist for months.

  17. Actinomycosis involving the chest wall: CT findings

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, W.R.; Sagel, S.S.

    1982-11-01

    Two cases of pulmonary actinomycosis with extension to involve the chest wall that were evaluated using computerized tomography are reported. In both cases, the relation of pulmonary and chest wall disease was best shown using CT. (KRM)

  18. [The chest CT findings and pathologic findings of pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Ogata, Hideo

    2009-08-01

    The past research of the radiologic manifestations of pulmonary tuberculosis in Japan was based on morphological pathology of the untreated patient autopsy. I would like to show the chest CT scan of tuberculosis diseases with caseous granuloma at its exudative reaction, proliferative reaction, productive reaction, cirrhotic reaction until self cure. This progress reflects the normal cell mediated immunological responses. Also I would like to show the cavitation of granuloma, which results from liquefaction of caseous materials during the course and results in the formation of the source of infection. And finally I would like to show the morphological differences of acinous lesion, acino-nodular lesion and caseous lobular pneumonia. These differences reflect the amount of bacilli disseminated in the peripheral parts under the lobules. In this study, I do not show old age cases and HIV positive cases, who do not form typical granuloma due to the decreased cell mediated immnunity and whose X ray findings are atypical.

  19. Membranous lipodystrophy: skeletal findings on CT and MRI.

    PubMed

    Nwawka, O Kenechi; Schneider, Robert; Bansal, Manjula; Mintz, Douglas N; Lane, Joseph

    2014-10-01

    Membranous lipodystrophy, also known as Nasu-Hakola disease, is a rare hereditary condition with manifestations in the nervous and skeletal systems. The radiographic appearance of skeletal lesions has been well described in the literature. However, CT and MRI findings of lesions in the bone have not been documented to date. This report describes the radiographic, CT, MRI, and histopathologic skeletal findings in a case of membranous lipodystrophy. With corroborative pathologic findings, a diagnosis of membranous lipodystrophy on imaging allows for appropriate clinical management of disease manifestations.

  20. CT findings in ulcerative, granulomatous, and indeterminate colitis

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, R.M.; Marn, C.S.; Kirby, D.F.; Vogelzang, R.L.; Neiman, H.L.

    1984-08-01

    Eight patients with ulcerative colitis, three with colitis indeterminate, and 15 patients with Crohn disease were studied by computed tomography (CT) to establish CT criteria for each disorder in hopes of providing a new diagnostic perspective useful in the radiographic evaluation of inflammatory colitis. The CT findings in ulcerative colitis included thickening of the colon wall, which was characterized by inhomogeneous attenuation and a target appearance of the rectum, and proliferation of perirectal fat. Bowel wall thickening with homogeneous attenuation, fistula and abscess formation, and mesenteric abnormalities were observed in patients with Crohn colitis. Patients with colitis indeterminate showed colonic changes on CT observed in both disorders. Initial experience suggests that CT can differentiate patients with well established ulcerative and Crohn colitis.

  1. Intracerebral pneumatoceles following facial trauma: CT findings

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, D.B.; Hertzanu, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Three patients with delayed frontal intracerebral pneumatoceles following facial injury are presented. In one patient an unusual appearance of bilateral and symmetrical frontal lobe pneumatoceles was demonstrated. While diagnosis is not difficult on routine radiographs, CT is valuable for determining effects on the brain and clearly delineating the fracture site; CT shows the location of the pneumatocele and may show an associated air-fluid level, mass effect or surrounding edema, or rim enhancement following administration of contrast material. The radiological appearances in conjunction with the clinical findings are highly characteristic and should not be mistaken for gas-forming cerebral abscesses.

  2. [CT findings in "fresh" cerebral paragonimiasis].

    PubMed

    Li, H Z; Xie, F W; Sun, S C

    1992-01-01

    There are few reports on CT findings in "fresh" cerebral paragonimiasis. We have experienced four cases of "fresh" cerebral paragonimiasis examined by CT scan. Three patients were children aged 7, 9, and 14 years, and one was an adult aged 25 years. Three patients were examined by CT scan 2 to 6 months after the onset of high grade fever, convulsion and focal deficit signs, and a patient was examined one month after his progressive visual disturbance. The unique CT findings are multilocular cystic lesions in temporo-occipital or in temporo-parietal lobes with extensive brain edema. Two cases were also associated with "soap-bubble" calcifications. The cysts were more dense than CSF and enhanced by contrast media. The histopathological specimen showed that the eggs of paragonimus were in the abscess cavity, of which the wall was composed with highly vascular gliomesenchymal capsule and numerous cell infiltration. Three patients underwent craniotomy for removal of abscess and decompression. Bitionol were administered and all patients recovered well. We also discussed the differential diagnosis of cerebral parasitic granulomas.

  3. PET/CT imaging in lung cancer: indications and findings*

    PubMed Central

    Hochhegger, Bruno; Alves, Giordano Rafael Tronco; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Fritscher, Carlos Cezar; Fritscher, Leandro Genehr; Concatto, Natália Henz; Marchiori, Edson

    2015-01-01

    The use of PET/CT imaging in the work-up and management of patients with lung cancer has greatly increased in recent decades. The ability to combine functional and anatomical information has equipped PET/CT to look into various aspects of lung cancer, allowing more precise disease staging and providing useful data during the characterization of indeterminate pulmonary nodules. In addition, the accuracy of PET/CT has been shown to be greater than is that of conventional modalities in some scenarios, making PET/CT a valuable noninvasive method for the investigation of lung cancer. However, the interpretation of PET/CT findings presents numerous pitfalls and potential confounders. Therefore, it is imperative for pulmonologists and radiologists to familiarize themselves with the most relevant indications for and limitations of PET/CT, seeking to protect their patients from unnecessary radiation exposure and inappropriate treatment. This review article aimed to summarize the basic principles, indications, cancer staging considerations, and future applications related to the use of PET/CT in lung cancer. PMID:26176525

  4. PET/CT imaging in lung cancer: indications and findings.

    PubMed

    Hochhegger, Bruno; Alves, Giordano Rafael Tronco; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Fritscher, Carlos Cezar; Fritscher, Leandro Genehr; Concatto, Natália Henz; Marchiori, Edson

    2015-01-01

    The use of PET/CT imaging in the work-up and management of patients with lung cancer has greatly increased in recent decades. The ability to combine functional and anatomical information has equipped PET/CT to look into various aspects of lung cancer, allowing more precise disease staging and providing useful data during the characterization of indeterminate pulmonary nodules. In addition, the accuracy of PET/CT has been shown to be greater than is that of conventional modalities in some scenarios, making PET/CT a valuable noninvasive method for the investigation of lung cancer. However, the interpretation of PET/CT findings presents numerous pitfalls and potential confounders. Therefore, it is imperative for pulmonologists and radiologists to familiarize themselves with the most relevant indications for and limitations of PET/CT, seeking to protect their patients from unnecessary radiation exposure and inappropriate treatment. This review article aimed to summarize the basic principles, indications, cancer staging considerations, and future applications related to the use of PET/CT in lung cancer. PMID:26176525

  5. CT evaluation of the colon: inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Horton, K M; Corl, F M; Fishman, E K

    2000-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is valuable for detection and characterization of many inflammatory conditions of the colon. At CT, a dilated, thickened appendix is suggestive of appendicitis. A 1-4-cm, oval, fatty pericolic lesion with surrounding mesenteric inflammation is diagnostic of epiploic appendagitis. The key to distinguishing diverticulitis from other inflammatory conditions of the colon is the presence of diverticula in the involved segment. In typhlitis, CT demonstrates cecal distention and circumferential thickening of the cecal wall, which may have low attenuation secondary to edema. In radiation colitis, the clinical history is the key to suggesting the diagnosis because the CT findings can be nonspecific. The location of the involved segment and the extent and appearance of wall thickening may help distinguish Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. In ischemic colitis, CT typically demonstrates circumferential, symmetric wall thickening with fold enlargement. CT findings of graft-versus-host disease include small bowel and colonic wall thickening, which may result in luminal narrowing and separation of bowel loops. In infectious colitis, the site and thickness of colon affected may suggest a specific organism. The amount of wall thickening in pseudomembranous colitis is typically greater than in any other inflammatory disease of the colon except Crohn disease. PMID:10715339

  6. Coats' disease: CT-pathologic correlation in two cases

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, J.L.; McLean, I.W.; Brallier, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    Computerized axial tomography (CT) of the orbit in two children with Coats' disease demonstrated increased density in the globe. This finding was attributed to the subretinal accumulation of exudate that is a characteristic of this disease. The CT appearance of Coats' disease cannot yet be differentiated from retinoblastoma or other diseases with retinal telangiectasis.

  7. Brain CT and MRI: differential diagnosis of imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Masdeu, Joseph C; Gadhia, Rajan; Faridar, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Following a traditional approach, in Chapters 5 and 14-29 in the previous volume, diverse brain diseases are listed and their imaging findings described in detail. In this chapter the approach is from the imaging finding to the disease: for instance, what list of diseases can give rise to a contrast-enhancing mass in the cerebellopontine angle? Imaging findings that are reviewed in succession include the location of the lesion, its multiplicity and symmetry, its volume, ranging from atrophy to mass effect, its homogeneity, its density, measurable by computed tomography (CT), its appearance on T1, T2, and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and, finally, its characteristics after the infusion of intravenous contrast. A differential diagnosis for each finding is provided. While the approach adopted in this chapter is unconventional, we hope that it will be most helpful to anyone reading images. Furthermore, it could serve as the basis to create or complete image databases to guide in the interpretation of brain CT and MRI. PMID:27430457

  8. Eosinophilic Otitis Media: CT and MRI Findings and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Won Jung; Lim, Hyun Kyung; Yoon, Tae Hyun; Cho, Kyung Ja; Baek, Jung Hwan

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) is a relatively rare, intractable, middle ear disease with extremely viscous mucoid effusion containing eosinophils. EOM is associated with adult bronchial asthma and nasal allergies. Conventional treatments for otitis media with effusion (OME) or for chronic otitis media (COM), like tympanoplasty or mastoidectomy, when performed for the treatment of EOM, can induce severe complications such as deafness. Therefore, it should be differentiated from the usual type of OME or COM. To our knowledge, the clinical and imaging findings of EOM of temporal bone are not well-known to radiologists. We report here the CT and MRI findings of two EOM cases and review the clinical and histopathologic findings of this recently described disease entity. PMID:22563277

  9. CT findings of cerebral paragonimiasis in the chronic state.

    PubMed

    Udaka, F; Okuda, B; Okada, M; Tsuji, T; Kameyama, M

    1988-01-01

    The CT findings in 5 patients with cerebral paragonimiasis in the chronic state are presented. The findings were: 1) multiple, densely calcified areas with a variety of round or nodular shapes in the brain, 2) a large low density area surrounding or connecting with the calcified areas, and 3) cortical atrophy and ventricular dilatation. The relation between the CT findings and the previously reported plain skull X-ray findings or neuropathological findings are discussed.

  10. Hemiplegic cerebral palsy: correlation between CT morphology and clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Wiklund, L M; Uvebrant, P

    1991-06-01

    Morphological findings on CT were compared with clinical features of 111 children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Periventricular atrophy, interpreted as periventricular leukomalacia, was the most prevalent CT finding, although this type of lesion did not indicate severity of neurological impairment. Maldevelopments were associated with arm-dominated hemiplegia and with a wider range of clinical impairments than previously described. Cortical/subcortical atrophy, less common than presumed, indicated arm-dominated hemiplegia and was associated with more severe impairment than were other CT findings. A normal CT scan indicated leg-dominated hemiplegia and mild impairment. The morphological information obtained by CT was found to be useful for predicting clinical outcome, and was considered an important adjunct to clinical history and findings in these children. PMID:1864477

  11. CNS involvement in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: CT and MR findings.

    PubMed

    Chung, Tae Woong

    2007-01-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare disorder that is characterized by proliferation of benign histiocytes, and this commonly involves the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow and central nervous system (CNS). We report here on the CT and MR imaging findings in a case of CNS HLH that showed multiple ring enhancing masses mimicking abscess or another mass on the CT and MR imaging.

  12. Inflammatory pseudotumors of the spleen: CT and MRI findings

    SciTech Connect

    Irie, Hiroyuki; Honda, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Kuniyuki; Kuroiwa, Toshiro

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to etucidate the CT and MRI findings of inflammatory pseudotumors of the spleen. The CT and MRI findings of three patients with inflammatory pseudotumors of the spleen were reviewed and compared with the pathologic findings. On the early phase of CT, the masses were hypodense to the normal spleen, and on the delayed phase, they demonstrated delayed enhancement. On T1-weighted MR images, the masses were isointense to the normal spleen, and on T2-weighted images, the masses had heterogeneous low signal intensities. After administration of Gd-DTPA, the masses showed delayed enhancement. Inflammatory pseudotumors of the spleen were characterized by low signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images and delayed enhancement after contrast material administration on CT and MRI. The fibrous stroma may contribute to these unusual findings. 23 refs., 3 figs.

  13. [CT colonography: techniques of visualization and findings].

    PubMed

    Wessling, J; Heindel, W

    2008-02-01

    Evaluation and interpretation of CT colonography is based on both 2D and 3D techniques. The 2D techniques are popular mainly because the time needed for evaluation is short. The 3D techniques allow better definition than the 2D techniques, especially of polyps close to folds or at the base of a fold. The evaluation strategies generally accepted so far (primarily 2D, with 3D for problem cases, or vice versa) demand knowledge of both 2D and 3D techniques. Newer 3D visualization techniques help make it possible to acquire more complete and faster recording particularly of areas that are not easily accessible to endoscopic examination. These user-friendly developments are thus well suited to improving the detection and the security of detection of polyps. It must be remembered that experience and the knowledge of associated artifacts and the limitations they can impose on diagnosis are prime requirements for the implementation of such visualization techniques. PMID:18210054

  14. Pleuropulmonary and abdominal paragonimiasis: CT and ultrasound findings

    PubMed Central

    Shim, S S; Kim, Y; Lee, J K; Lee, J H; Song, D E

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to review radiological images of patients with Paragonimus westermani (PW) that simultaneously involved the chest and abdomen. Methods Our study included four patients with serologically and histopathologically confirmed paragonimiasis. Abdomen CT (n=3) and chest CT (n=3) scans were available, and abdominal wall ultrasonography was performed in all patients. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical, radiological and histopathological findings of these patients. Results The most common abdominal CT findings were ascites and intraperitoneal or abdominal wall nodules. Low-attenuated serpentine lesions of the liver were another common and relatively specific feature. Conclusion Radiologists should consider the possibility of PW when these abdominal CT findings are noted, especially with pleural effusion or subpleural nodules in patients with initial abdominal symptoms. PMID:22457403

  15. Misty mesentery: a pictorial review of multidetector-row CT findings.

    PubMed

    Filippone, A; Cianci, R; Di Fabio, F; Storto, M L

    2011-04-01

    The term "misty mesentery" indicates a pathological increase in mesenteric fat attenuation at computed tomography (CT). It is frequently observed on multidetector CT (MDCT) scans performed during daily clinical practice and may be caused by various pathological conditions, including oedema, inflammation, haemorrhage, neoplastic infiltration or sclerosing mesenteritis. In patients suffering from acute abdominal disease, misty mesentery may be considered a feature of the underlying disease. Otherwise, it may represent an incidental finding on MDCT performed for other reasons. This article describes the MDCT features of misty mesentery in different diseases in order to provide a rational approach to the differential diagnosis. PMID:21311992

  16. CT of Hepatic Sarcoidosis: Small Nodular Lesions Simulating Metastatic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ufuk, Furkan; Herek, Duygu

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic inflammatory disease of unknown origin. The lymphoid system and the lungs are the most commonly involved organs. The frequency of signs or symptoms of hepatic involvement is very low. Case Report We present a case of symptomatic granulomatous liver disease secondary to sarcoidosis, mimicking a metastatic disease on ultrasonography and CT. Conclusions Hepatic involvement in sarcoidosis might be a perplexing diagnostic problem. The decisive CT finding with respect to the differential diagnosis was the absence of a mass effect and intact vascular architecture around the lesions. PMID:25908950

  17. Neurological findings of Lyme disease.

    PubMed Central

    Pachner, A. R.; Steere, A. C.

    1984-01-01

    Neurologic involvement of Lyme disease typically consists of meningitis, cranial neuropathy, and radiculoneuritis, alone or in combination, lasting for months. From 1976 to 1983, we studied 38 patients with Lyme meningitis. Headache and mild neck stiffness, which fluctuated in intensity, and lymphocytic pleocytosis were the common findings. Half of the patients also had facial palsies, which were unilateral in 12 and bilateral in seven. In addition, 12 patients had motor and/or sensory radiculoneuropathies; asymmetric weakness of extremities was the most common finding. Although incomplete presentations of neurologic involvement of Lyme disease may be confused with other entities, the typical constellation of neurologic symptoms represents a unique clinical picture. PMID:6516450

  18. CT and MRI findings in a case of pelvic schwannoma.

    PubMed

    Nasu, K; Arima, K; Yoshimatsu, J; Miyakawa, I

    1998-08-01

    We compared the diagnostic utility of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a patient with a pelvic schwannoma. This 46-year-old woman was admitted for evaluation of a retroperitoneal pelvic mass and myoma uteri. The retroperitoneal pelvic mass had been detected by a CT scan at a routine health examination. A CT scan revealed a well-circumscribed cystic tumor (4 x 3 cm) at the right internal obturator muscle portion. The CT number of the inner part of the tumor was 21. Only the cyst wall was enhanced by injection of a contrast medium. MRI showed a 4 x 3 x 3-cm retroperitoneal cystic tumor that demonstrated low-intensity signals on T1-weighted images and high-intensity signals on T2-weighted images. Small areas of low intensity inside the tumor were observed on T2-weighted images. Histological examination revealed a typical schwannoma of mixed Antoni type A and type B. These findings indicate that both MRI and CT are useful for diagnosis of retroperitoneal schwannomas.

  19. IgG4-Related Kidney Disease in a Patient With History of Breast Cancer: Findings on 18F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Simone; Monti, Serena; Seshan, Surya; Fox, Josef; Mannelli, Lorenzo

    2016-08-01

    A 64-year-old African American woman with history of stage III breast carcinoma, 3 years after complete response to therapy, presents with progressive fatigue, increasing arthralgia, and unintentional weight loss of 15 lb in 3 months. An F-FDG PET demonstrated new diffuse FDG avidity of the renal parenchyma, new FDG-avid foci in pancreas and lungs, and new FDG-avid lymph nodes above and below the diaphragm. While a retroperitoneal lymph node biopsy was inconclusive, a kidney biopsy resulted in diagnosis of diffuse, severe, IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis. Treatment with corticosteroid led to complete resolution of the symptoms and PET findings.

  20. IgG4-Related Kidney Disease in a Patient With History of Breast Cancer: Findings on 18F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Simone; Monti, Serena; Seshan, Surya; Fox, Josef; Mannelli, Lorenzo

    2016-08-01

    A 64-year-old African American woman with history of stage III breast carcinoma, 3 years after complete response to therapy, presents with progressive fatigue, increasing arthralgia, and unintentional weight loss of 15 lb in 3 months. An F-FDG PET demonstrated new diffuse FDG avidity of the renal parenchyma, new FDG-avid foci in pancreas and lungs, and new FDG-avid lymph nodes above and below the diaphragm. While a retroperitoneal lymph node biopsy was inconclusive, a kidney biopsy resulted in diagnosis of diffuse, severe, IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis. Treatment with corticosteroid led to complete resolution of the symptoms and PET findings. PMID:27187735

  1. Metastatic meningioma: positron emission tomography CT imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, C; O'Connor, O J; O'Regan, K N; Keohane, C; Dineen, J; Hinchion, J; Sweeney, B; Maher, M M

    2010-01-01

    The imaging findings of a case of metastasing meningioma are described. The case illustrates a number of rare and interesting features. The patient presented with haemoptysis 22 years after the initial resection of an intracranial meningioma. CT demonstrated heterogeneous masses with avid peripheral enhancement without central enhancement. Blood supply to the larger lesion was partially from small feeding vessels from the inferior pulmonary vein. These findings correlate with a previously published case in which there was avid uptake of fluoro-18-deoxyglucose peripherally with lesser uptake centrally. The diagnosis of metastasing meningioma was confirmed on percutaneous lung tissue biopsy. PMID:21088084

  2. Renal infarction: CT diagnosis and correlation between CT findings and etiologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, W.S.; Moss, A.A.; Federle, M.P.; Cochran, S.T.; London, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    The CT scans and the clinical records of 12 patients who had renal infarction were reviewed. The renal infarcts were classified as either focal or global. The CT findings were correlated with the etiologies of renal infarction. Embolism was the most common cause of renal infarcts that were multifocal with involvement of both kidneys. Trauma caused a unilateral global type of infract. A case of sickle cell anemia presented with multiple ''slit-like'' focal infarcts and enlarged kidneys. Forty-seven per cent of infarcts demonstrated the cortical rim sign, 11% were acapsular fluid collection, and 6% had an abnormally thickened renal fascia.

  3. (18)F-FDG PET/CT findings in a case with HIV (-) Kaposi sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, E; Poyraz, N Y; Keskin, M; Kandemir, Z; Turkolmez, S

    2014-01-01

    Although mucocutaneous sites are the most frequently encountered sites of involvement, Kaposi Sarcoma (KS) may also occasionally involve the breast and the skeletal, endocrine, urinary and nervous systems.. Various imaging modalities may be used to delineate the extent of the disease by detecting unexpected sites of involvement. Herein, we report a case of classical type KS, in whom staging with (18)F-FDG PET/CT imaging disclosed widespread disease and unexpected findings of bone and salivary gland involvement.

  4. CT and intracranial manifestations of otorhinologic disease.

    PubMed

    Keller, M A; Holgate, R C; McClarty, B M

    1982-12-01

    Most inflammatory and neoplastic diseases of the ear, nose, nasopharynx, and paranasal sinuses have the capability of intracranial extension. CT is extremely important in defining such lesions, and surpasses complex motion tomography in delineating the extracranial soft tissue involvement and intracranial spread. Trauma can simultaneously affect both intracranial and extracranial compartments but because of its scope, is not dealt with in this submission.

  5. Acute interstitial pneumonia: radiographic and CT findings in nine patients.

    PubMed

    Primack, S L; Hartman, T E; Ikezoe, J; Akira, M; Sakatani, M; Müller, N L

    1993-09-01

    The radiologic findings were reviewed in nine patients with biopsy- or autopsy-proved acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP). All patients had bilateral air-space opacification on radiographs and bilateral, symmetric areas of ground-glass attenuation on computed tomographic (CT) scans. The areas of ground-glass attenuation had a patchy distribution in six patients (67%) and were diffuse in three patients. Air-space consolidation was seen at CT in six patients (67%) and involved mainly the lower lung zones in three patients and upper lung zones in one patient and was diffuse in two patients. A predominantly subpleural distribution of the consolidation was present in two patients. Eight of the nine patients died within 3 months of presentation. The authors conclude that the radiographic and CT features of AIP are similar to those of adult respiratory distress syndrome and represent acute alveolar damage. AIP differs from the more chronic forms of interstitial pneumonia in clinical presentation and in pathologic and radiologic findings.

  6. The autonomic orienting response and CT scan findings in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Schnur, D B; Bernstein, A S; Mukherjee, S; Loh, J; Degreef, G; Reidel, J

    1989-01-01

    CT scan measures of prefrontal sulcal prominence, parieto-occipital sulcal prominence, ventricle-brain ratio (VBR), and third ventricle width (TVW) were examined in 24 schizophrenic patients who were grouped on the basis of their autonomic orienting response (OR) status. A two-component definition of the OR was used that required concordance across both electrodermal and finger pulse volume components for response status assignment. The nine OR responders had significantly greater TVW than the 15 OR nonresponders. Although OR responders had higher values also on the other CT scan measures, these differences were not significant. These findings are consistent with the possibility that OR responsiveness and nonresponsiveness are related to different pathological dimensions of schizophrenia. PMID:2487186

  7. Uterine cervical carcinoma after therapy: CT and MR imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Chung, Tae Woong; Seo, Jeong Jin; Park, Jin Gyoon

    2003-01-01

    Cervical carcinoma is one of the most frequent causes of death in women. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are the primary modalities for follow-up of treated cervical carcinoma. A normal vaginal cuff after hysterectomy appears as a smooth, low-signal-intensity muscular wall on T2-weighted MR images. Early (2-3 months after treatment) and significant decreases in the signal intensity and volume of the tumor at MR imaging indicate a good response to radiation therapy. Sites of recurrence are the pelvis, lymph nodes, and distant sites. Pelvic recurrence appears as a heterogeneously enhancing mass at contrast material-enhanced CT and often appears as a heterogeneous, high-signal-intensity mass at T2-weighted MR imaging. Lymph node recurrence ranges from scattered, minimally enlarged nodes to large, conglomerate nodal masses. Determination of neoplastic infiltration of lymph nodes is based on size; most researchers consider nodes greater than 1 cm in short-axis diameter to be metastatic. Distant metastases are usually due to recurrent disease and occur in the abdomen, thorax, and bone. Knowledge of the normal therapeutic changes and the spectrum of recurrent tumor in patients with cervical carcinoma is important for accurate interpretation of follow-up CT and MR images.

  8. Comparison of Preoperative Temporal Bone CT with Intraoperative Findings in Patients with Cholesteatoma

    PubMed Central

    Rogha, Mehrdad; Hashemi, Sayyed Mostafa; Mokhtarinejad, Farhad; Eshaghian, Afrooz; Dadgostar, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cholesteatoma is traditionally diagnosed by otoscopic examination and treated by surgery. The necessity for imaging in an uncomplicated case is controversial. This study was planned to investigate the usefulness of a preoperative high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scan in depicting the status of middle ear structures in the presence of cholesteatoma and also to compare the correspondence between pre- and intraoperative CT findings in patients with cholesteatoma. Materials and Methods: This prospective descriptive study was performed from January 2009 to May 2011 in 36 patients with cholesteatoma who were referred to the Kashani and Al-Zahra Clinics of Otolaryngology. Preoperative high-resolution temporal bone CT scans (axial and coronal views) were carried out and compared with intraoperative findings. Results: Evaluation of 36 patients and their CT scans revealed excellent correlation for sigmoid plate erosion, widening of aditus, and erosion of scutum; good correlation for erosion of malleus and tegmen; moderate correlation for lateral canal fistula (LCF) and erosion of mastoid air cells; and poor correlation for facial nerve dehiscence (FND), incus, and stapes erosion. Conclusion: A preoperative CT scan may be helpful in relation to diagnosis and decision making for surgery in cases of cholesteatoma and ossicular erosion. The CT scan can accurately predict the extent of disease and is helpful for detection of lateral canal fistula, erosions of dural plate, and ossicular erosions. However it is not able to distinguish between cholesteatoma and mucosal disease, facial nerve dehiscency, incus, and stapes erosion. PMID:24505568

  9. Vertebral involvement in Paget's disease: morphological classification of CT and MR appearances.

    PubMed

    Dohan, Anthony; Parlier-Cuau, Caroline; Kaci, Rachid; Touraine, Sebastien; Bousson, Valérie; Larédo, Jean-Denis

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral Paget's disease produces a large panel of radiologic appearances sometimes atypical and pseudotumoral. Classical classifications of bone alterations based on pathophysiological hypotheses do not always match the imaging findings. This article will review the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of Paget's disease of the spine with special emphasis on morphological findings that differentiate Paget's disease from tumors. Combined CT and MRI analyses usually provide the diagnosis of Paget's disease. PMID:25245640

  10. Dual-phase CT findings of groove pancreatitis☆

    PubMed Central

    Zaheer, Atif; Haider, Maera; Kawamoto, Satomi; Hruban, Ralph H.; Fishman, Elliot K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Groove pancreatitis is a rare focal form of chronic pancreatitis that occurs in the pancreaticoduodenal groove between the major and minor papillae, duodenum and pancreatic head. Radiologic appearance and clinical presentation can result in suspicion of malignancy rendering pancreaticoduodenectomy inevitable. This study reports dual phase CT findings in a series of 12 patients with pathology proven groove pancreatitis. Materials and methods Retrospective review of preoperative CT findings in 12 patients with histologically proven groove pancreatitis after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Size, location, attenuation, presence of mass or cystic components in the pancreas, groove and duodenum, calcifications, duodenal stenosis and ductal changes were recorded. Clinical data, laboratory values, endoscopic ultrasonographic and histopathological findings were collected. Results Soft tissue thickening in the groove was seen in all patients. Pancreatic head, groove and duodenum were all involved in 75% patients. A discrete lesion in the pancreatic head was seen in half of the patients, most of which appeared hypodense on both arterial and venous phases. Cystic changes in pancreatic head were seen in 75% patients. Duodenal involvement was seen in 92% patients including wall thickening and cyst formation. The main pancreatic duct was dilated in 7 patients, with an abrupt cut off in 3 and a smooth tapering stricture in 4. Five patients had evidence of chronic pancreatitis with parenchymal calcifications. Conclusion Presence of mass or soft tissue thickening in the groove with cystic duodenal thickening is highly suggestive of groove pancreatitis. Recognizing common radiological features may help in diagnosis and reduce suspicion of malignancy. PMID:24935140

  11. Prevalence of normal head CT and positive CT findings in a large cohort of patients with chronic headaches

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, N; Prabhakar, Anuj; Satish Kumar, A; Ahuja, Chirag K; Singh, Paramjeet

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to ascertain the frequency of normal head computed tomography (CT) scans and positive CT scan findings in patients having chronic headache as chief complaint. Head CT scans done over a period of two years were retrospectively evaluated. On the basis of CT reports, the patients were divided into two groups: Group A, having headache as the only complaint, and Group B, having headache and additional neurological signs or symptoms. A total of 2498 patient reports were evaluated. There were 1772 patients in Group A and 726 patients in Group B. In Group A, 82% (n = 1453) patients had normal head CT, whereas in Group B 74.5% (n = 541) patients had a normal CT scan. There were 13.22% head CT scans showing significant findings in Group B, as compared to 6.2% in Group A. Both these differences were found to be statistically significant. CT findings such as infections, neoplasm, hydrocephalus, and extra-axial collections were higher in Group B when compared to Group A. CT examination in patients with isolated chronic headache is normal in high percentage of patients. The frequency and distribution of various CT findings over different age groups in a large cohort of patients presenting with chronic headache are discussed. PMID:26342061

  12. Wassel's Type V Polydactyly with Plain Radiographic and CT Findings

    PubMed Central

    Mete, Berna Dirim; Altay, Canan; Gursoy, Merve; Oyar, Orhan

    2015-01-01

    Duplication of the thumb is the most common polydactyly of the hand. Wassel's classification is frequently used to classify the polydactyly of the hand. His classification was based on the level of duplication and the number of bones in the thumb, and has seven groups (Types I–VII) according to the level of the bifurcation, except for his Type VII. The most common type is the bifurcation at the metacarpophalangeal joint (Type IV). In this paper, we report a very rare case of Type V thumb polydactyly in a 42-year-old man, who presented with swan neck deformity of the radial thumb and discuss the plain radiography and computed tomography (CT) findings. Kumar recently reported plain radiography findings in a case of bifid first metacarpal in a 13-year-old girl, who presented with swan neck deformity of the left thumb. To our knowledge, our case is the second presented case that has a swan neck deformity with bifid metacarpal. PMID:25861550

  13. Wassel's Type V Polydactyly with Plain Radiographic and CT Findings.

    PubMed

    Mete, Berna Dirim; Altay, Canan; Gursoy, Merve; Oyar, Orhan

    2015-01-01

    Duplication of the thumb is the most common polydactyly of the hand. Wassel's classification is frequently used to classify the polydactyly of the hand. His classification was based on the level of duplication and the number of bones in the thumb, and has seven groups (Types I-VII) according to the level of the bifurcation, except for his Type VII. The most common type is the bifurcation at the metacarpophalangeal joint (Type IV). In this paper, we report a very rare case of Type V thumb polydactyly in a 42-year-old man, who presented with swan neck deformity of the radial thumb and discuss the plain radiography and computed tomography (CT) findings. Kumar recently reported plain radiography findings in a case of bifid first metacarpal in a 13-year-old girl, who presented with swan neck deformity of the left thumb. To our knowledge, our case is the second presented case that has a swan neck deformity with bifid metacarpal. PMID:25861550

  14. A Putative Case of Methotrexate-Related Lymphoma: Clinical Course and PET/CT Findings

    PubMed Central

    Jankowitz, Rachel C.; Ganon, James; Blodgett, Todd; Garcia, Christine; Jacobs, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    Patients with autoimmune conditions develop lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) at a higher frequency than normal both in association with and independent of Methotrexate (MTX). We describe a case of MTX-associated lymphoma in a patient with psoriasis on long-standing MTX. The case is notable for the initial tumor burden, the dramatic disappearance of the PET-CT findings on discontinuation of MTX, and the subsequent early regrowth of disease. Our case report is illustrative of an MTX-related NHL in an autoimmune patient. Conclusion. Withdrawal of MTX in a patient with lymphoma is reasonable before initiating chemotherapy, but observation for early regrowth of disease is necessary. PMID:20069057

  15. Automatically pairing measured findings across narrative abdomen CT reports.

    PubMed

    Sevenster, Merlijn; Bozeman, Jeffrey; Cowhy, Andrea; Trost, William

    2013-01-01

    Radiological measurements are one of the key variables in widely adopted guidelines (WHO, RECIST) that standardize and objectivize response assessment in oncology care. Measurements are typically described in free-text, narrative radiology reports. We present a natural language processing pipeline that extracts measurements from radiology reports and pairs them with extracted measurements from prior reports of the same clinical finding, e.g., lymph node or mass. A ground truth was created by manually pairing measurements in the abdomen CT reports of 50 patients. A Random Forest classifier trained on 15 features achieved superior results in an end-to-end evaluation of the pipeline on the extraction and pairing task: precision 0.910, recall 0.878, F-measure 0.894, AUC 0.988. Representing the narrative content in terms of UMLS concepts did not improve results. Applications of the proposed technology include data mining, advanced search and workflow support for healthcare professionals managing radiological measurements. PMID:24551406

  16. CT in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bergin, C.J.; Mueller, N.L.

    1985-09-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) appearance of interstitial lung disease was assessed in 23 patients with known interstitial disease. These included seven patients with fibrosing alveolitis, six with silicosis, two with hypersensitivity pneumonitis, three with lymphangitic spread of tumor, two with sarcoidosis, one with rheumatoid lung disease, and two with neurofibromatosis. The CT appearance of the interstitial changes in the different disease entities was assessed. Nodules were a prominent CT feature in silicosis, sarcoidosis, and lymphangitic spread of malignancy. Distribution of nodules and associated interlobular septal thickening provided further distinguishing features in these diseases. Reticular densities were the predominant CT change in fibrosing alveolitis, rheumatoid lung disease, and extrinsic allergic alveolitis. CT can be useful in the investigation of selected instances of interstitial pulmonary disease.

  17. Cervical Castleman disease: CT study with angiographic correlation.

    PubMed

    Koslin, D B; Berland, L L; Sekar, B C

    1986-07-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) appearance, angiographic appearance, and clinical features of a patient with cervical Castleman disease, an uncommon disease of benign lymph node hyperplasia, are reported. CT scans showed a densely enhancing cervical mass. On external carotid angiography, the mass was seen as hypervascular with a capillary blush. Differential diagnosis included carotid body chemodectoma, vagal neuroma, tumor of the salivary gland, tuberculous adenitis and other granulomatous diseases, inflammatory lymph nodes, metastatic disease, and lymphoma.

  18. Primary Cardiac Lymphoma: Helical CT Findings and Radiopathologic Correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Marco de Lucas, Enrique Pagola, Miguel Angel; Fernandez, Fidel; Lastra, Pedro; Delgado, M. Luisa Ruiz; Sadaba, Pablo; Pinto, Jesus; Ballesteros, Ma Angeles; Ortiz, Antonio

    2004-03-15

    Primary tumors of the heart are extremely rare.Clinical manifestations are nondiagnostic and the patients are often misdiagnosed. Magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography are standard in this diagnostic workup. We report a case of a man with acromegaly, dysphagia, chest pain and weight loss. An invasive cardiac mass was diagnosed by helical-CT. Autopsy demonstrated a B-cell aggressive lymphoma.

  19. Intracranial extramedullary hematopoiesis. CT and bone marrow scan findings

    SciTech Connect

    Urman, M.; O'Sullivan, R.A.; Nugent, R.A.; Lentle, B.C. )

    1991-06-01

    This case concerns a patient with intracranial extramedullary hematopoiesis (EH) suspected on a CT scan and subsequently confirmed with In-111 chloride and Tc-99m SC bone marrow scans. The bone marrow scans also provided additional information by demonstrating other sites of EH in the paravertebral tissues and bone marrow expansion into the distal extremities.

  20. Impact of FDG-PET/CT on Radiotherapy Volume Delineation in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Correlation of Imaging Stage With Pathologic Findings

    SciTech Connect

    Faria, Sergio L. Menard, Sonia; Devic, Slobodan; Sirois, Christian; Souhami, Luis; Lisbona, Robert; Freeman, Carolyn R.

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/computed tomography (CT) is more accurate than CT in determining the extent of non-small-cell lung cancer. We performed a study to evaluate the impact of FDG-PET/CT on the radiotherapy volume delineation compared with CT without using any mathematical algorithm and to correlate the findings with the pathologic examination findings. Methods and Materials: A total of 32 patients with proven non-small-cell lung cancer, pathologic specimens from the mediastinum and lung primary, and pretreatment chest CT and FDG-PET/CT scans were studied. For each patient, two data sets of theoretical gross tumor volumes were contoured. One set was determined using the chest CT only, and the second, done separately, was based on the co-registered FDG-PET/CT data. The disease stage of each patient was determined using the TNM staging system for three data sets: the CT scan only, FDG-PET/CT scan, and pathologic findings. Results: Pathologic examination altered the CT-determined stage in 22 (69%) of 32 patients and the PET-determined stage in 16 (50%) of 32 patients. The most significant alterations were related to the N stage. PET altered the TNM stage in 15 (44%) of 32 patients compared with CT alone, but only 7 of these 15 alterations were confirmed by the pathologic findings. With respect to contouring the tumor volume for radiotherapy, PET altered the contour in 18 (56%) of 32 cases compared with CT alone. Conclusion: The contour of the tumor volume of non-small-cell lung cancer patients with co-registered FDG-PET/CT resulted in >50% alterations compared with CT targeting, findings similar to those of other publications. However, the significance of this change is unknown. Furthermore, pathologic examination showed that PET is not always accurate and histologic examination should be obtained to confirm the findings of PET whenever possible.

  1. Lung adenocarcinoma as a solitary pulmonary nodule: prognostic determinants of CT, PET, and histopathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho Yun; Han, Joungho; Lee, Kyung Soo; Koo, Ji Hyun; Jeong, Sun Young; Kim, Byung-Tae; Cho, Young-Seok; Shim, Young Mog; Kim, Jhingook; Kim, Kwanmien; Choi, Yong Soo

    2009-12-01

    We aimed to retrospectively compare CT, PET, and histopathologic (the extent of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma [BAC] components) findings of solitary pulmonary nodular (SPN) adenocarcinomas of the lung to determine their value as prognostic determinants. We reviewed CT and PET characteristics of tumors and pathologic specimens from 65 consecutive patients who underwent surgical resection for SPN adenocarcinomas. Nodule size and TDR (tumor shadow disappearance rate) were assessed from CT scans, and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of tumors was measured at PET. On pathologic examination, BAC, non-BAC, and central fibrous scar ratios were quantified. Prognosis was evaluated by noting disease recurrence during a minimum 12-month follow-up period after curative resection. The interrelationships between TDR, SUVmax, BAC, and non-BAC ratio were studied, and relationships between recurrence and various variables were analyzed. The median follow-up time was 33 months, and seven patients (11%) developed disease recurrence after surgical resection. TDR at CT and SUVmax at PET correlated well with pathologic BAC and non-BAC ratios. Between subgroups with and without recurrence, there were significant differences in SUVmax and BAC and non-BAC ratios. Based on univariate survival analyses, pathologic BAC and non-BAC ratios were risk factors significantly related to recurrence, but only high non-BAC ratio remained as an independent factor associated with recurrence in the multivariate analysis (hazard ratio [HR]=0.956, P=0.013). Among the factors examined, pathologic non-BAC ratio is the only independent risk factor for poor prognosis in patients with SPN adenocarcinomas.

  2. Postmortem computed tomography in victims of military air mishaps: radiological-pathological correlation of CT findings.

    PubMed

    Levy, Gad; Goldstein, Liav; Blachar, Arye; Apter, Sara; Barenboim, Erez; Bar-Dayan, Yaron; Shamis, Ari; Atar, Eli

    2007-10-01

    A thorough medical inquiry is included in every aviation mishap investigation. While the gold standard of this investigation is a forensic pathology examination, numerous reports stress the important role of computed tomography in the postmortem evaluation of trauma victims. To characterize the findings identified by postmortem CT and compare its performance to conventional autopsy in victims of military aviation mishaps, we analyzed seven postmortem CT examinations. Musculoskeletal injuries accounted for 57.8% of the traumatic findings identified by postmortem CT. The most frequent findings were fractures of the rib (47%), skull (9.6%) and facial bones (8.6%). Abnormally located air accounted for 24% of findings, for which CT was superior (3.5% detected by autopsy, 100% by postmortem CT, P < 0.001). The performance of autopsy in detecting injuries was superior (autopsy detected 85.8% of all injuries, postmortem CT detected 53.9%, P < 0.001), especially in the detection of superficial lesions (100% detected by autopsy, 10.5% by postmortem CT, P < 0.001) and solid organ injuries (100% by autopsy, 18.5% by postmortem CT, P < 0.001). Performance in the detection of musculoskeletal injuries was similar (91.3% for autopsy, 90.3% for postmortem CT, P = not significant). Postmortem CT and autopsy have distinct performance profiles, and although the first cannot replace the latter it is a useful complementary examination. PMID:17987755

  3. Disease activity in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: CT and pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Müller, N L; Staples, C A; Miller, R R; Vedal, S; Thurlbeck, W M; Ostrow, D N

    1987-12-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scans were compared with pathologic determinants of disease activity in 12 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The theory was that intraalveolar and interstitial cellularity would result in areas of opacification of air spaces on CT scans. All patients underwent open lung biopsy, and disease activity was assessed with a pathologic grading system. Seven patients had mild disease activity, five had moderate to marked disease activity. Opacification of air spaces was patchy in distribution, predominantly peripheral, and seen better on 1.5-mm rather than 10-mm collimation scans. Disease activity on CT scans was graded independently from 0 to 3 based on the presence and relative density of the areas of air space consolidation compared with the surrounding parenchyma. The pathologic score was significantly greater in the patients with high CT scores than in those with low CT scores (P = .001). Five patients with marked disease activity and five of seven patients with mild disease activity were correctly identified. CT may be useful in the assessment of disease activity in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

  4. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis: CT assessment in exposed workers and correlation with radiographic findings

    SciTech Connect

    Remy-Jardin, M.; Degreef, J.M.; Beuscart, R.; Voisin, C.; Remy, J. )

    1990-11-01

    To study the signs of coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) at computed tomography (CT), the authors obtained thoracic CT scans in 170 coal-dust-exposed workers who were concomitantly evaluated with conventional posteroanterior and lateral radiography. The profusion and extent of disease was assessed by means of CT in two groups of miners: group 1 (n = 86), miners with worker's compensation and radiographic evidence of CWP, and group 2(n = 84), miners who had applied for compensation without radiographic evidence of CWP. The CT signs of CWP consisted of micronodules, nodules, and progressive massive fibrosis. The comparative analysis demonstrates the superiority of an optimal CT technique over chest radiography in the evaluation of simple silicosis, with improved sensitivity in the detection of small parenchymal opacities. CT provides additional information on the stage of the disease but also clarifies some ambiguities of the ILO classification of small opacities. CT was equivalent to radiography for complicated silicosis, except in the identification of necrosis. CT evaluations are complementary to plain radiography in the assessment of CWP, and the addition of high-resolution CT is useful in achieving a more accurate evaluation of the small parenchymal opacities.

  5. CT pulmonary densitovolumetry in patients with acromegaly: a comparison between active disease and controlled disease

    PubMed Central

    Camilo, Gustavo B; Carvalho, Alysson R S; Machado, Dequitier C; Mogami, Roberto; Melo, Pedro L

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Our purpose was to compare the findings of CT pulmonary densitovolumetry and pulmonary function in patients with active acromegaly and controlled acromegaly and, secondarily, to correlate these findings. Methods: 11 patients with active acromegaly, 18 patients with controlled acromegaly and 17 control subjects, all non-smokers, underwent quantification of lung volume using multidetector CT (Q-MDCT) and pulmonary function tests. Results: Patients with active acromegaly had larger total lung mass (TLM) values than the controls and larger amounts of non-aerated compartments than the other two groups. Patients with active acromegaly also had larger amounts of poorly aerated compartments than the other two groups, a difference that was observed in both total lung volume (TLV) and TLM. TLV as measured by inspiratory Q-MDCT correlated significantly with total lung capacity, whereas TLV measured using expiratory Q-MDCT correlated significantly with functional residual capacity. Conclusion: Patients with active acromegaly have more lung mass and larger amounts of non-aerated and poorly aerated compartments. There is a relationship between the findings of CT pulmonary densitovolumetry and pulmonary function test parameters. Advances in knowledge: Although the nature of our results demands further investigation, our data suggest that both CT pulmonary densitovolumetry and pulmonary function tests can be used as useful tools for patients with acromegaly by assisting in the prediction of disease activity. PMID:26246281

  6. CT-SPECT fusion to correlate radiolabeled monoclonal antibody uptake with abdominal CT findings

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, E.L.; Noz, M.E.; Sanger, J.J.; Megibow, A.J.; Maguire, G.Q. )

    1989-09-01

    To enhance the information provided by computed tomography (CT) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) performed with radiolabeled, anti-carcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody (MoAb), the authors performed fusion of these types of images from eight subjects with suspected colorectal adenocarcinoma. Section thickness and pixel size of the two studies were matched, coordinates of corresponding points from each study were identified, and CT sections were translated, rotated, and reprojected to match the corresponding SPECT scans. The CT-SPECT fusion enabled identification of anatomic sites of tumor-specific MoAb accumulation in four cases, showed non-specific MoAb accumulation in two, and helped confirm information only suggested by the two studies separately in one.

  7. CT Findings of Patients Treated with Irreversible Electroporation for Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Akinwande, Olaguoke; Ahmad, Shakeeb S.; Van Meter, Tracy; Schulz, Brittany; Martin, Robert C. G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. In patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC), IRE has been shown to be safe for local disease control and palliation. As IRE continues to gain acceptance it is important to characterize the expected imaging findings. Materials and Methods. A review of our prospective soft tissue ablation registry from July 2010 to June 2013 was performed on patients who had undergone IRE for LAPC. Five masses treated with intraoperative IRE ablation for pancreatic tumors that underwent CT imaging before and after ablation were reviewed. Results and Discussion. Following IRE, the postablation bed is larger than the original ablated tumor. This ablation zone may get smaller in size (due to decreased edema and hyperemia) in the following months and more importantly remains stable provided there is no recurrence. In cases of recurrent disease there is increased size of the ablation bed, mass effect, and new or worsening vascular encasement or occlusion. Conclusion. CT imaging remains the best current imaging modality to assess post-IRE ablation changes. Serial imaging over at least 2–6 months must be employed to detect recurrence by comparing with prior studies in conjunction with clinical and serum studies. Larger imaging studies are underway to evaluate a more ideal imaging modality for this unique patient population. PMID:26649039

  8. Nontraumatic orbital subperiosteal hematoma in a scuba diver: CT and MR findings.

    PubMed

    Chen, J C; Kucharczyk, W

    1988-01-01

    We report a case of nontraumatic orbital subperiosteal hematoma occurring in a young adult scuba diver. The clinical presentation, imaging findings (CT and magnetic resonance), and pathogenesis are discussed.

  9. CT dose optimisation and reduction in osteoarticular disease.

    PubMed

    Gervaise, A; Teixeira, P; Villani, N; Lecocq, S; Louis, M; Blum, A

    2013-04-01

    With an improvement in the temporal and spatial resolution, computed tomography (CT) is indicated in the evaluation of a great many osteoarticular diseases. New exploration techniques such as the dynamic CT and CT bone perfusion also provide new indications. However, CT is still an irradiating imaging technique and dose optimisation and reduction remains primordial. In this paper, the authors first present the typical doses delivered during CT in osteoarticular disease. They then discuss the different ways to optimise and reduce these doses by distinguishing the behavioural factors from the technical factors. Among the latter, the optimisation of the milliamps and kilovoltage is indispensable and should be adapted to the type of exploration and the morphotype of each individual. These technical factors also benefit from recent technological evolutions with the distribution of iterative reconstructions. In this way, the dose may be divided by two and provide an image of equal quality. With these dose optimisation and reduction techniques, it is now possible, while maintaining an excellent quality of the image, to obtain low-dose or even very low-dose acquisitions with a dose sometimes similar that of a standard X-ray assessment. Nevertheless, although these technical factors provide a major reduction in the dose delivered, behavioural factors, such as compliance with the indications, remain fundamental. Finally, the authors describe how to optimise and reduce the dose with specific applications in musculoskeletal imaging such as the dynamic CT, CT bone perfusion and dual energy CT.

  10. FDG-PET/CT and CT Findings of a Benign Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Kidney; Correlation with Pathology.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Reiko; Abe, Koichiro; Kondo, Tsunenori; Nagashima, Yoji; Kimura, Ken; Fukushima, Kenji; Momose, Mitsuru; Kondo, Chisato; Tanabe, Kazunari; Sakai, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report the F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) findings of a benign solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the kidney. The patient was a 63-year-old woman with a mass in the right kidney (10×9.7 cm), incidentally found on CT images. The CT scan showed a lobulated tumor arising from the hilum of the right kidney. The tumor consisted of two components with different patterns of enhancement. Most of the tumor demonstrated moderate enhancement from the corticomedullary to nephrographic phase. A small nodular component at the caudal portion of the tumor showed avid enhancement in the corticomedullary phase and rapid washout in the nephrographic phase in contrast-enhanced CT. FDG-PET/CT was performed and showed weak FDG accumulation (SUVmax=2.30 and 1.91 in the main and small caudal components). Although renal cell carcinoma was preoperatively diagnosed, histopathological examination revealed renal SFT, with no malignant potential. Therefore, when a renal tumor with contrast-medium enhancement and low FDG accumulation is demonstrated, SFT should be considered as a differential diagnosis in addition to renal cell carcinoma. PMID:27408891

  11. FDG-PET/CT and CT Findings of a Benign Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Kidney; Correlation with Pathology.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Reiko; Abe, Koichiro; Kondo, Tsunenori; Nagashima, Yoji; Kimura, Ken; Fukushima, Kenji; Momose, Mitsuru; Kondo, Chisato; Tanabe, Kazunari; Sakai, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report the F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) findings of a benign solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the kidney. The patient was a 63-year-old woman with a mass in the right kidney (10×9.7 cm), incidentally found on CT images. The CT scan showed a lobulated tumor arising from the hilum of the right kidney. The tumor consisted of two components with different patterns of enhancement. Most of the tumor demonstrated moderate enhancement from the corticomedullary to nephrographic phase. A small nodular component at the caudal portion of the tumor showed avid enhancement in the corticomedullary phase and rapid washout in the nephrographic phase in contrast-enhanced CT. FDG-PET/CT was performed and showed weak FDG accumulation (SUVmax=2.30 and 1.91 in the main and small caudal components). Although renal cell carcinoma was preoperatively diagnosed, histopathological examination revealed renal SFT, with no malignant potential. Therefore, when a renal tumor with contrast-medium enhancement and low FDG accumulation is demonstrated, SFT should be considered as a differential diagnosis in addition to renal cell carcinoma.

  12. FDG-PET/CT and CT Findings of a Benign Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Kidney; Correlation with Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Reiko; Abe, Koichiro; Kondo, Tsunenori; Nagashima, Yoji; Kimura, Ken; Fukushima, Kenji; Momose, Mitsuru; Kondo, Chisato; Tanabe, Kazunari; Sakai, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report the F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) findings of a benign solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the kidney. The patient was a 63-year-old woman with a mass in the right kidney (10×9.7 cm), incidentally found on CT images. The CT scan showed a lobulated tumor arising from the hilum of the right kidney. The tumor consisted of two components with different patterns of enhancement. Most of the tumor demonstrated moderate enhancement from the corticomedullary to nephrographic phase. A small nodular component at the caudal portion of the tumor showed avid enhancement in the corticomedullary phase and rapid washout in the nephrographic phase in contrast-enhanced CT. FDG-PET/CT was performed and showed weak FDG accumulation (SUVmax=2.30 and 1.91 in the main and small caudal components). Although renal cell carcinoma was preoperatively diagnosed, histopathological examination revealed renal SFT, with no malignant potential. Therefore, when a renal tumor with contrast-medium enhancement and low FDG accumulation is demonstrated, SFT should be considered as a differential diagnosis in addition to renal cell carcinoma. PMID:27408891

  13. An Incidental Finding of Skull Hemangioma During 18F-FP CIT Brain PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Chun, Kyung-Ah; Kong, EunJung; Cho, IhnHo

    2015-10-01

    F-FP CIT has been well established and used for the differential diagnosis of atypical parkinsonian disorders, including idiopathic Parkinson disease. A 54-year-old woman with a history of left hand and leg tremor underwent F-FP CIT PET/CT for the differentiation of parkinsonism. The F-FP CIT PET/CT incidentally showed focal dopamine transporter uptake in the right frontal bone. Brain MRI scan showed heterogeneous high signal intensity with enhancement in right frontal bone diploic space without cortical disruption, suggestive of cavernous hemangioma. Besides the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system, F-FP CIT PET/CT showed a skull tumor.

  14. High-resolution CT findings of patients with pulmonary nocardiosis

    PubMed Central

    Tsujimoto, Naoki; Saraya, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Ken; Takata, Saori; Kurihara, Yasuyuki; Hiraoka, Sayuki; Makino, Hiroshi; Yonetani, Shota; Araki, Koji; Ishii, Haruyuki; Takizawa, Hajime

    2012-01-01

    Background Opportunistic pulmonary infection with Nocardia species is rare in humans, and only a few studies have radiologically analyzed patients with pulmonary nocardiosis using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with pulmonary nocardiosis at our hospital between April 2006 and December 2011 to assess HRCT and clinical findings. We also searched the medical literature for pulmonary nocardiosis reported in Japan between 2002 and 2011 for comparison. Results We identified seven patients at our institution and 33 reported infections in Japan. Four of our patients were immunocompetent, whereas the other three had impaired cellular immunity due to type 2 diabetes mellitus or having been inappropriately treated with steroid. Thoracic HRCT revealed no zonal predominance, but tropism for distribution from the middle to the peripheral area, and radiological findings of nodules, cavitation, mass, consolidations, bronchial wall thickening, septal line thickening and ground glass opacity (GGO) were evident. The main HRCT finding in our study comprised nodules (n=5, 71.4%) <30 mm and four patients had multiple nodules as described in other reports. Furthermore, we discovered a crazy paving appearance (CPA) around nodules, cavities, masses or consolidations in five patients (71.4%). Conclusions Multiple nodules distributed from the middle to the peripheral area on HRCT might reflect pulmonary nocardiosis, and CPA seemed to be a worth paying attention to the diagnosis. PMID:23205281

  15. Trapping volumetric measurement by multidetector CT in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Effect of CT threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaohua; Yuan, Huishu; Duan, Jianghui; Du, Yipeng; Shen, Ning; He, Bei

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of various computed tomography (CT) thresholds on trapping volumetric measurements by multidetector CT in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Methods: Twenty-three COPD patients were scanned with a 64-slice CT scanner in both the inspiratory and expiratory phase. CT thresholds of −950 Hu in inspiration and −950 to −890 Hu in expiration were used, after which trapping volumetric measurements were made using computer software. Trapping volume percentage (Vtrap%) under the different CT thresholds in the expiratory phase and below −950 Hu in the inspiratory phase was compared and correlated with lung function.Results: Mean Vtrap% was similar under −930 Hu in the expiratory phase and below −950 Hu in the inspiratory phase, being 13.18 ± 9.66 and 13.95 ± 6.72 (both lungs), respectively; this difference was not significant (P= 0.240). Vtrap% under −950 Hu in the inspiratory phase and below the −950 to −890 Hu threshold in the expiratory phase was moderately negatively correlated with the ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity and the measured value of forced expiratory volume in one second as a percentage of the predicted value.Conclusions: Trapping volumetric measurement with multidetector CT is a promising method for the quantification of COPD. It is important to know the effect of various CT thresholds on trapping volumetric measurements.

  16. Functional Evaluation of Coronary Disease by CT Angiography.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Pedro de Araújo; Rodríguez-Granillo, Gastón A; Spitzer, Ernest; Suwannasom, Pannipa; Loewe, Christian; Nieman, Koen; Garcia-Garcia, Hector M

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, several technical developments in the field of cardiac computed tomography (CT) have made possible the extraction of functional information from an anatomy-based examination. Several different lines have been explored and will be reviewed in the present paper, namely: 1) myocardial perfusion imaging; 2) transluminal attenuation gradients and corrected coronary opacification indexes; 3) fractional flow reserve computed from CT; and 4) extrapolation from atherosclerotic plaque characteristics. In view of these developments, cardiac CT has the potential to become in the near future a truly 2-in-1 noninvasive evaluation for coronary artery disease. PMID:26563862

  17. Hepatic Involvement of Histiocytic Sarcoma: CT and MRI Findings.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Takatoshi; Kiryu, Shigeru; Akai, Hiroyuki; Ota, Yasunori; Tojo, Arinobu; Yoshida, Hideo; Kato, Naoya; Nakano, Yoshiyasu; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2016-01-01

    Histiocytic sarcoma in the liver is an extremely rare hematological malignancy. Herein, we reported the case of a 68-year-old woman who presented with characteristic wedge-shaped abnormality bounded by hepatic veins on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the liver. In the wedge-shaped area, decreased portal flow and the deposition of iron were observed. These imaging findings are consistent with intrasinusoidal tumor cell infiltration. A liver biopsy was performed, and histiocytic sarcoma was confirmed histopathologically. PMID:27587965

  18. Hepatic Involvement of Histiocytic Sarcoma: CT and MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Takatoshi; Akai, Hiroyuki; Ota, Yasunori; Tojo, Arinobu; Yoshida, Hideo; Kato, Naoya; Nakano, Yoshiyasu; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2016-01-01

    Histiocytic sarcoma in the liver is an extremely rare hematological malignancy. Herein, we reported the case of a 68-year-old woman who presented with characteristic wedge-shaped abnormality bounded by hepatic veins on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the liver. In the wedge-shaped area, decreased portal flow and the deposition of iron were observed. These imaging findings are consistent with intrasinusoidal tumor cell infiltration. A liver biopsy was performed, and histiocytic sarcoma was confirmed histopathologically. PMID:27587965

  19. Correlation of CT perfusion and CT volumetry in patients with Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Czarnecka, Anna; Zimny, Anna; Sąsiadek, Marek

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background: Both brain atrophy and decrease of perfusion are observed in dementive diseases. The aim of the study was to correlate the results of brain perfusion CT (pCT) and CT volumetry in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Material/Methods: Forty-eight patients with AD (mean age of 71.3 years) underwent brain pCT and CT volumetry. The pCT was performed at the level of basal ganglia after the injection of contrast medium (50 ml, 4 ml/sec.) with serial scanning (delay 7 sec, 50 scans, 1 scan/sec). Volumetric measurements were carried out on the basis of source images, with the use of a dedicated CT software combined with manual outlining of the regions of interest in extracerebral and intraventricular CSF spaces. Perfusion parameters of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) from the grey matter of frontal and temporal as well as basal ganglia were compared statistically with the volumetric measurements of frontal and temporal cortical atrophy as well as subcortical atrophy. Results: A statistically significant positive correlation was found between the values of CBF and CBV in the basal ganglia and the volumes of the lateral and third ventricles. The comparison of CBF and CBV results with the volumetric measurements in the areas of the frontal and temporal lobes showed mostly negative correlations, but none of them was of statistical significance. Conclusions: In patients with AD, the degree of cortical atrophy is not correlated with the decrease of perfusion in the grey matter and subcortical atrophy is not correlated with the decrease of perfusion in the basal ganglia region. It suggests that functional and structural changes in AD are not related to each other. PMID:22802771

  20. [Update: standardized CT/HRCT classification of occupational and environmental thoracic diseases in Germany].

    PubMed

    Hering, K G; Hofmann-Preiß, K; Kraus, T

    2014-04-01

    The high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) coding scheme of the international classification of occupational and environmental respiratory diseases (ICOERD) presented here is an instrument for a standardized semiquantitative description of occupation and environment-linked as well as other pulmonary and pleural diseases. Analogous to the International Labour Organization (ILO) classification, the ICOERD coding scheme should always be used when the CT/HRCT examination is employed for occupational medical investigations or expert opinions. After publication of the guidelines and recommendations on diagnostics and expert assessment of asbestos-linked diseases and silicosis, the application of a standardized investigation program and assessment with the ICOERD classification form are obligatory, at least for the initial assessment. Furthermore, its use in the field of follow-up assessments of occupational diseases should be encouraged in order to guarantee comparability between individual reports (interreader variability) and at least a semiquantitative assessment of disease progression in isolated cases. Because the anatomical structures in projection radiography and CT are not presented identically, a 1:1 transfer of the results of the ILO classification to the CT/HRCT coding scheme is not possible. An overview image of the thorax does not allow overlap-free reproduction of structures, in contrast to CT. These methodological differences can in cases of isolated assessment result in different opinions of projection and CT images mostly by different investigators. In cases of discrepant opinions an integrated report of findings by combination of all information from both procedures is necessary. PMID:24737105

  1. CT brain findings in a patient with elevated brain cesium levels.

    PubMed

    Khangure, Simon R; Williams, Eric S; Welman, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    We describe the CT findings in the brain of a woman with pathologically proven elevated levels of blood and tissue cesium. The 42-year-old woman had been receiving cesium chloride as a non-mainstream treatment for metastatic breast carcinoma. She presented to hospital following a seizure, and died 48 hours after admission. A brain CT performed on hospital admission showed a diffuse increase in attenuation of brain parenchyma. Autopsy revealed elevated levels of cesium in blood and solid organs including the brain. We hypothesize that the imaging findings are attributable to the abnormally elevated level of brain cesium at the time of the CT scan. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of this imaging finding.

  2. Less commonly used and emerging clinical applications of SPECT-CT in benign and malignant disease.

    PubMed

    Yap, Ki S; Patel, Chirag N; Chowdhury, Fahmid U; Scarsbrook, Andrew F

    2012-08-01

    The emergence of hybrid imaging, combining anatomical computed tomography (CT) and functional single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), has greatly expanded the armoury available to image disease. Integrated SPECT-CT is a dual-modality technique, which improves the sensitivity and specificity of existing radionuclide studies and enables characterization of equivocal findings detected by conventional imaging. There is a wide range of established and emerging clinical applications for SPECT-CT, which were reviewed in detail at a symposium organized by the British Institute of Radiology in March 2012. A series of articles were commissioned as an adjunct to the symposium and to raise awareness of the clinical utility of this technique. The focus of this article is on less commonly used and emerging clinical applications of hybrid SPECT-CT in a spectrum of benign and malignant conditions. The article will illustrate the incremental value of the technique in a variety of clinical applications.

  3. Diagnostic Yield of Recommendations for Chest CT Examination Prompted by Outpatient Chest Radiographic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, H. Benjamin; Gilman, Matthew D.; Wu, Carol C.; Cushing, Matthew S.; Halpern, Elkan F.; Zhao, Jing; Pandharipande, Pari V.; Shepard, Jo-Anne O.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic yield of recommended chest computed tomography (CT) prompted by abnormalities detected on outpatient chest radiographic images. Materials and Methods This HIPAA-compliant study had institutional review board approval; informed consent was waived. Reports of all outpatient chest radiographic examinations performed at a large academic center during 2008 (n = 29 138) were queried to identify studies that included a recommendation for a chest CT imaging. The radiology information system was queried for these patients to determine if a chest CT examination was obtained within 1 year of the index radiographic examination that contained the recommendation. For chest CT examinations obtained within 1 year of the index chest radiographic examination and that met inclusion criteria, chest CT images were reviewed to determine if there was an abnormality that corresponded to the chest radiographic finding that prompted the recommendation. All corresponding abnormalities were categorized as clinically relevant or not clinically relevant, based on whether further work-up or treatment was warranted. Groups were compared by using t test and Fisher exact test with a Bonferroni correction applied for multiple comparisons. Results There were 4.5% (1316 of 29138 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 4.3%, 4.8%]) of outpatient chest radiographic examinations that contained a recommendation for chest CT examination, and increasing patient age (P < .001) and positive smoking history (P = .001) were associated with increased likelihood of a recommendation for chest CT examination. Of patients within this subset who met inclusion criteria, 65.4% (691 of 1057 [95% CI: 62.4%, 68.2%) underwent a chest CT examination within the year after the index chest radiographic examination. Clinically relevant corresponding abnormalities were present on chest CT images in 41.4% (286 of 691 [95% CI: 37.7%, 45.2%]) of cases, nonclinically relevant corresponding abnormalities in

  4. Role of FDG PET/CT in Baastrup's disease

    PubMed Central

    Subramanyam, Padma; Palaniswamy, Shanmuga Sundaram

    2016-01-01

    Baastrup's disease is a benign condition, which presents as chronic low back pain. It is also known as “kissing spine syndrome” and refers to close approximation of adjacent spinous processes producing inflammation and back pain. This condition is often misdiagnosed, resulting in incorrect treatment and persistence of symptoms. Diagnosis of Baastrup's disease is verified with clinical examination and imaging studies. Conventionally, clinicians resort to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of spine rather than X-ray or computed tomography (CT) in the evaluation of back pain. MRI can additionally identify flattening, sclerosis, enlargement, cystic lesions, and bone edema at the articulating surfaces of the two affected spinous processes. Studies have reported that 18Fluorine fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/CT (FDG-PET/CT) can detect a bursitis or an inflammation as a form of stress reaction despite a negative MRI and 99mTc Methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scan. PET/CT is usually not a recommended investigation for this condition. However, this case report highlights the benefit of FDG-PET/CT in identifying the site of inflammatory pathology. It is also known to identify the exact site of inflammation where steroid or local anesthetic injection can be administered to alleviate pain, especially in patients with multilevel vertebral involvement. PMID:27385901

  5. Soft-tissue abnormalities of the external auditory canal: Subject review of CT findings

    SciTech Connect

    Chakeres, D.W.; Kapila, A.; LaMasters, D.

    1985-07-01

    The authors review the normal anatomy and discuss characteristic findings of soft-tissue abnormalities of the external auditory canal (EAC). The indications for computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone have been significantly expanded with the inclusion of soft-tissue abnormalities of the external ear and the auditory canal. CT scans of 25 patients who had soft-tissue abnormalities of the EAC were reviewed. The clinical data were correlated with the radiographic findings. They conclude that CT is the best overall radiographic modality for evaluating the extent and character of soft-tissue abnormalities of the EAC. Significant clinical information that is helpful in patient management decisions is added by this technique.

  6. CT findings associated with blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung W; Jeong, Katherine; Sokol, Lubomir

    2016-01-01

    Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare hematologic malignancy that is frequently misdiagnosed. We present a case of a 53-year-old man diagnosed with blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm with extensive computed tomography (CT) findings and provide an imaging focused review of this uncommon malignancy. PMID:27504192

  7. CT Findings of Axillary Tuberculosis Lymphadenitis: A Case Detected by Breast Cancer Screening Examination

    PubMed Central

    Tanada, Yasuko; Yoshida, Kouichi; Adachi, Yasuko; Matsui, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    We report the first description of CT findings of axillary tuberculous lymphadenitis confirmed by the pathological specimen. The breast cancer screening examination is one of the prime methods of detection of axillary tuberculous lymphadenitis. The most common site of axillary tuberculous lymphadenitis is the deep axilla. Screening mammography often fails to cover the whole axilla. The presence on the contrast-enhanced CT of unilateral multiple circumscribed dense nodes, some of which have large and dotted calcifications, might suggest tuberculous lymphadenitis in axillary region. PMID:27379192

  8. Basal cell adenoma in the parotid gland: CT and MR findings.

    PubMed

    Jang, Mijung; Park, Dongwoo; Lee, Seung Ro; Hahm, Chang Kok; Kim, Youngsun; Kim, Yongsoo; Park, Choong Ki; Tae, Kyung; Park, Moon Hyang; Park, Yong Wook

    2004-04-01

    Basal cell adenoma is a rare benign salivary gland epithelial tumor, usually involving the parotid gland. We report CT and MR findings of three cases with basal cell adenoma occurring in the parotid gland. The three cases presented here demonstrate a well-circumscribed tumor, which showed a cystic and solid, or the pure solid mass. They were well enhanced after contrast matter injection. The solid portion of the mass was isoattenuated at CT, with intermediate signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted MR images. Its cystic portion was hyperintense on both T1- and T2-weighted MR images. It had a hypointense rim on T2-weighted image.

  9. Parkinson's disease pharmacogenomics: new findings and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Schumacher-Schuh, Artur F; Rieder, Carlos R M; Hutz, Mara H

    2014-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is unique among neurodegenerative disorders because a highly effective pharmacological symptomatic treatment is available. The marked variability in drug response and in adverse profiles associated with this treatment led to the search of genetic markers associated with these features. We present a review of the literature on PD pharmacogenetics to provide a critical discussion of the current findings, new approaches, limitations and recommendations for future research. Pharmacogenetics studies in this field have assessed several outcomes and genes, with special focus on dopaminergic genes, mainly DRD2, which is the most important receptor in nigrostriatal pathway. The heterogeneity in methodological strategies employed by different studies is impressive. The question of whether PD pharmacogenetics studies will improve clinical management by causing a shift from a trial-and-error approach to a pharmacological regimen that takes into account the individual variability remains an open question. Collaborative longitudinal studies with larger sample sizes, better outcome definitions and replication studies are required.

  10. Treatment of Alzheimer Disease With CT Scans

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Eugene R.; Hosfeld, Victor D.; Nadolski, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) primarily affects older adults. This neurodegenerative disorder is the most common cause of dementia and is a leading source of their morbidity and mortality. Patient care costs in the United States are about 200 billion dollars and will more than double by 2040. This case report describes the remarkable improvement in a patient with advanced AD in hospice who received 5 computed tomography scans of the brain, about 40 mGy each, over a period of 3 months. The mechanism appears to be radiation-induced upregulation of the patient’s adaptive protection systems against AD, which partially restored cognition, memory, speech, movement, and appetite. PMID:27103883

  11. Multidetector CT of expected findings and complications after contemporary inguinal hernia repair surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tonolini, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Inguinal hernia repair (IHR) with prosthetic mesh implantation is the most common procedure in general surgery, and may be performed using either an open or laparoscopic approach. This paper provides an overview of contemporary tension-free IHR techniques and materials, and illustrates the expected postoperative imaging findings and iatrogenic injuries. Emphasis is placed on multidetector CT, which represents the ideal modality to comprehensively visualize the operated groin region and deeper intra-abdominal structures. CT consistently depicts seroma, mesh infections, hemorrhages, bowel complications and urinary bladder injuries, and thus generally provides a consistent basis for therapeutic choice. Since radiologists are increasingly requested to investigate suspected iatrogenic complications, this paper aims to provide an increased familiarity with early CT studies after IHR, including complications and normal postoperative appearances such as focal pseudolesions, in order to avoid misinterpretation and inappropriate management. PMID:27460285

  12. Samonella-and Shigella-induced ileitis: CT findings in four patients

    SciTech Connect

    Balthazar, E.J.; Charles, H.W.; Megibow, A.J.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe and illustrate the CT appearance of four cases of acute terminal ileitis induced by nontyphoidal Salmonella and Shigella infection and to review the radiographic and endoscopic findings of these entities. The medical records, CT examinations, and small bowel examinations of three patients with Salmonella ileitis and one patient with Shigella ileitis were retrospectively reviewed. CT examinations were done in four patients, colonoscopy in three patients, and small bowel examinations in two patients. Stool cultures established the diagnosis of nontyphoidal Salmonella enteritis in three patients and Shigella enteritis in one patient. The patients symptoms and clinical findings resolved promptly following supportive therapy and appropriate antibiotic therapy. CT showed slight circumferential and homogeneous thickening of the terminal ileum over a segment of 10-15 cm in patients with Salmonella ileitis. Associated mild thickening of the wall of the colon was present in addition. Small bowel examination performed in one patient revealed a spastic terminal ileum with thickened mucosal folds. Colonoscopy revealed acute colitis involving the colon diffusely in one case, but sparing the distal 50 cm of the colon in one case. CT showed more pronounced thickening of the terminal ileum and a target configuration in the patient with Shigella ileitis. Small bowel examination revealed narrowing, irregular contour, several large nodular defects, and a severely ulcerated mucosa affecting the terminal ileum. Colonoscopy revealed a normal colon and large ulcerations with fibro-purulent exudate in the terminal ileum. In patients with severe Salmonella or Shigella infections or persistent and/or confusing clinical presentations, CT can play a complementary but important role in the initial diagnostic evaluation. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  13. CT of chronic infiltrative lung disease: Prevalence of mediastinal lymphadenopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Niimi, Hiroshi; Kang, Eun-Young; Kwong, S.

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to determine the prevalence of mediastinal lymph node enlargement at CT in patients with diffuse infiltrative lung disease. The study was retrospective and included 175 consecutive patients with diffuse infiltrative lung diseases. Diagnoses included idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n = 61), usual interstitial pneumonia associated with collagen vascular disease (CVD) (n = 20), idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) (n = 22), extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) (n = 17), and sarcoidosis (n = 55). Fifty-eight age-matched patients with CT of the chest performed for unrelated conditions served as controls. The presence, number, and sites of enlarged nodes (short axis {ge}10 mm in diameter) were recorded. Enlarged mediastinal nodes were present in 118 of 175 patients (67%) with infiltrative lung disease and 3 of 58 controls (5%) (p < 0.001). The prevalence of enlarged nodes was 84% (46 of 55) in sarcoidosis, 67% (41 of 61) in IPF, 70% (14 of 20) in CVD, 53% (9 of 17) in EAA, and 36% (8 of 22) in BOOP. The mean number of enlarged nodes was higher in sarcoidosis (mean 3.2) than in the other infiltrative diseases (mean 1.2) (p < 0.001). Enlarged nodes were most commonly present in station 10R, followed by 7, 4R, and 5. Patients with infiltrative lung disease frequently have enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. However, in diseases other than sarcoid, usually only one or two nodes are enlarged and their maximal short axis diameter is <15 mm. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. [MRI and CT in the evaluation of congenital heart diseases].

    PubMed

    Secchi, F; Giardino, A; Nardella, V G; Sardanelli, F

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows a static and cinetic study of congenital heart diseases avoiding patient exposure to ionizing radiation. It allows for evaluating cardiac morphology, heart function with accurate ventricular volume estimation, flow quantification with gradient and regurgitant fraction estimation, and vascular anatomy (aortic, pulmonary and proximal coronary vessels). Computed tomography (CT), with greater spatial resolution, allows for evaluating proximal and distal coronary arteries, vascular and pericardial calcifications, metal structures such as stents and prosthetic valves. The use of MRI or CT in young and adult patients with congenital heart diseases should be assessed case by case through a close collaboration between cardiologists and radiologists, aiming at an optimal tradeoff between expected diagnostic gain and biological cost in terms of ionizing radiation exposure and contrast material administration.

  15. CT features and pathologic characteristics of IgG4-related systemic disease of submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiwei; Feng, Ruie; Chen, Yu; Duan, Miao; Wang, Man; Jin, Zhengyu; Rumboldt, Zoran; Zhang, Zhuhua

    2015-01-01

    The submandibular gland is one of the most frequently affected salivary gland in IgG4-related systemic disease, usually demonstrate homogeneous attenuation on CT imaging as reported, but without much pathological comparison of many cases. This article is to investigate and analyze the typical CT findings and pathologic characteristics of IgG4-related systemic disease (IgG4-RSD) of submandibular gland. A retrospective analysis of the preoperative CT findings in patients with IgG4-RSD of submandibular glands who underwent surgical resection between January 2010 and February 2014 was performed. Twenty patients (16 women) were identified, with a mean age of 58.1±10.2 years. All patients presented with painless submandibular gland swelling. Diffuse gland enlargement, with clear margins and homogeneous density, was found on non-enhanced CT scans in all cases. There were no calcifications or stones within the involved glands. Based on contrast-enhanced CT appearance the patients could be divided into two groups: 11 cases showed homogeneous gland enhancement; and multiple hyperenhancing foci, with a crazy-paving pattern, were detected in 9 cases, which were in consistent with the pathologic findings. The maximum submandibular gland diameter on transverse images was significantly larger (P=0.008) in patients with crazy-paving appearance (32±4 mm) compared to patients with homogeneous enhancement (28±3 mm). It is concluded that the submandibular glands with IgG4-RSD can be characterized by either homogenous appearance or crazy-paving pattern on contrast-enhanced CT imaging.

  16. CT features and pathologic characteristics of IgG4-related systemic disease of submandibular gland

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiwei; Feng, Ruie; Chen, Yu; Duan, Miao; Wang, Man; Jin, Zhengyu; Rumboldt, Zoran; Zhang, Zhuhua

    2015-01-01

    The submandibular gland is one of the most frequently affected salivary gland in IgG4-related systemic disease, usually demonstrate homogeneous attenuation on CT imaging as reported, but without much pathological comparison of many cases. This article is to investigate and analyze the typical CT findings and pathologic characteristics of IgG4-related systemic disease (IgG4-RSD) of submandibular gland. A retrospective analysis of the preoperative CT findings in patients with IgG4-RSD of submandibular glands who underwent surgical resection between January 2010 and February 2014 was performed. Twenty patients (16 women) were identified, with a mean age of 58.1±10.2 years. All patients presented with painless submandibular gland swelling. Diffuse gland enlargement, with clear margins and homogeneous density, was found on non-enhanced CT scans in all cases. There were no calcifications or stones within the involved glands. Based on contrast-enhanced CT appearance the patients could be divided into two groups: 11 cases showed homogeneous gland enhancement; and multiple hyperenhancing foci, with a crazy-paving pattern, were detected in 9 cases, which were in consistent with the pathologic findings. The maximum submandibular gland diameter on transverse images was significantly larger (P=0.008) in patients with crazy-paving appearance (32±4 mm) compared to patients with homogeneous enhancement (28±3 mm). It is concluded that the submandibular glands with IgG4-RSD can be characterized by either homogenous appearance or crazy-paving pattern on contrast-enhanced CT imaging. PMID:26884889

  17. CT Metrics of Airway Disease and Emphysema in Severe COPD

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woo Jin; Silverman, Edwin K.; Hoffman, Eric; Criner, Gerard J.; Mosenifar, Zab; Sciurba, Frank C.; Make, Barry J.; Carey, Vincent; Estépar, Raúl San José; Diaz, Alejandro; Reilly, John J.; Martinez, Fernando J.; Washko, George R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: CT scan measures of emphysema and airway disease have been correlated with lung function in cohorts of subjects with a range of COPD severity. The contribution of CT scan-assessed airway disease to objective measures of lung function and respiratory symptoms such as dyspnea in severe emphysema is less clear. Methods: Using data from 338 subjects in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) Genetics Ancillary Study, densitometric measures of emphysema using a threshold of −950 Hounsfield units (%LAA-950) and airway wall phenotypes of the wall thickness (WT) and the square root of wall area (SRWA) of a 10-mm luminal perimeter airway were calculated for each subject. Linear regression analysis was performed for outcome variables FEV1 and percent predicted value of FEV1 with CT scan measures of emphysema and airway disease. Results: In univariate analysis, there were significant negative correlations between %LAA-950 and both the WT (r = −0.28, p = 0.0001) and SRWA (r = −0.19, p = 0.0008). Airway wall thickness was weakly but significantly correlated with postbronchodilator FEV1% predicted (R = −0.12, p = 0.02). Multivariate analysis showed significant associations between either WT or SRWA (β = −5.2, p = 0.009; β = −2.6, p = 0.008, respectively) and %LAA-950 (β = −10.6, p = 0.03) with the postbronchodilator FEV1% predicted. Male subjects exhibited significantly thicker airway wall phenotypes (p = 0.007 for WT and p = 0.0006 for SRWA). Conclusions: Airway disease and emphysema detected by CT scanning are inversely related in patients with severe COPD. Airway wall phenotypes were influenced by gender and associated with lung function in subjects with severe emphysema. PMID:19411295

  18. [Subclinical hypothyroidism - laboratory finding or disease?].

    PubMed

    Voigtländer, Richard; Führer, Dagmar

    2016-08-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism first of all is a laboratory finding, defined by elevated TSH and normal peripheral thyroxine concentrations. The first steps are to verify the condition and to clarify whether the patient has underlying thyroid disease or other comorbidities. Results of recent studies on subclinical hypothyroidism are reassuring. No consistent association has been demonstrated between mildly elevated TSH levels (5-10 mIU / l) and cardiovascular events, mortality, fracture risk or cognitive impairment. In contrast TSH levels between 5-10 mIU / l may even confer lower mortality in the elderly and may hence be protective. These data strongly suggest that the long-time controversy on definition of normal upper TSH levels should take a more conservative turn. Thus, diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism should be handled cautiously. Individualized treatment decision is recommended if TSH levels are only mildly elevated and less than 8-10 mIU / l. In case of autoimmune thyroiditis or previous thyroid therapy (surgery, radioiodine treatment) the risk of progression to overt hypothyroidism has to be considered and there is no doubt that the latter should be avoided. PMID:27509338

  19. Cellular immune findings in Lyme disease.

    PubMed Central

    Sigal, L. H.; Moffat, C. M.; Steere, A. C.; Dwyer, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    From 1981 through 1983, we did the first testing of cellular immunity in Lyme disease. Active established Lyme disease was often associated with lymphopenia, less spontaneous suppressor cell activity than normal, and a heightened response of lymphocytes to phytohemagglutinin and Lyme spirochetal antigens. Thus, a major feature of the immune response during active disease seems to be a lessening of suppression, but it is not yet known whether this response plays a role in the pathophysiology of the disease. PMID:6240164

  20. Blind-ending branch of a bifid ureter: multidetector CT imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Chang, E; Santillan, C; O'Boyle, M K

    2011-01-01

    A bifid ureter with a blind-ending branch is a rare congenital anomaly. Although typically found incidentally, this anomaly can be symptomatic and radiologists should be aware of this important variant. To our knowledge, there has been no previous report of this anomaly as seen on multidetector CT urography. We present a patient with haematuria and review the clinical significance, radiological findings and embryological aetiology of this anomaly. PMID:21257834

  1. Severe adenovirus community-acquired pneumonia in immunocompetent adults: chest radiographic and CT findings

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Dingyu; Fu, Yangyang; Wang, Zhiwei; Cao, Jian; Walline, Joseph; Zhu, Huadong

    2016-01-01

    Background Severe adenovirus pneumonia and its associated imaging features are well-described in immunocompromised patients but are rare and poorly understood in immunocompetent adults. We sought to describe the radiographic and CT findings of severe adenovirus community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in eight immunocompetent adults. Methods We reviewed systematically chest imaging manifestations of laboratory-confirmed severe adenovirus pneumonia in eight immunocompetent adults from April 2012 to April 2014. Results All patients showed abnormal results on initial chest radiograph and CT, with the exception of one normal initial chest radiograph. The abnormalities of the initial chest radiographs were unilateral (n=4) or bilateral (n=3), including consolidation (n=4), dense patchy opacity (n=3), ground glass opacity (GGO) (n=1), and pleural effusion (n=1). The initial CT findings consisted of unilateral (n=5) and bilateral (n=3) abnormalities, including consolidation (n=8), GGO (n=2), pleural effusion (n=3) and small nodules (n=1). Focal consolidation was the predominant finding in six patients whose initial CT scans were examined within one week after illness onset. Follow-up radiologic findings showed rapid development of bilateral consolidation within ten days after illness onset, usually accompanied by adjacent ground-glass opacity and pleural effusion. The parenchymal abnormalities began to absorb around two weeks after illness onset, with no appearances of fibrosis. Conclusions Severe adenovirus CAP in immunocompetent adults mainly appears as focal consolidation followed by rapid progression to bilateral consolidation, usually accompanied by adjacent GGO and pleural effusion, which may resemble bacterial pneumonia. Adenovirus should be considered in severe pneumonia cases with negative cultures and failure to respond to antibiotics. PMID:27162658

  2. The role of FDG-PET/CT in the evaluation of residual disease in paediatric non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Bhojwani, Deepa; McCarville, Mary B; Choi, John K; Sawyer, Jennifer; Metzger, Monika L; Inaba, Hiroto; Davidoff, Andrew M; Gold, Robert; Shulkin, Barry L; Sandlund, John T

    2015-03-01

    (18) F-labelled-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) findings are challenging to interpret for residual disease versus complete response in paediatric patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). A biopsy is often warranted to confirm the presence or absence of viable tumour if there is clinical or radiographic evidence of residual disease. In this study, we compared conventional imaging and FDG-PET/computerized tomography (CT) findings with biopsy results in 18 children with NHL. Our goal was to provide additional data to establish more reliable criteria for response evaluation. Residual disease was suspected after conventional imaging alone in eight patients, after FDG-PET/CT alone in three and after both modalities in seven patients. Biopsy confirmed the presence of viable tumour in two patients. Two additional patients experienced progressive disease or relapse. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of FDG-PET/CT using the London criteria to indicate residual tumour detectable by biopsy were 100%, but specificity was low (60%), as was the positive predictive value (25%). Thus, in this study, a negative FDG-PET/CT finding was a good indicator of complete remission. However, because false-positive FDG-PET/CT findings are common, biopsy and close monitoring are required for accurate determination of residual disease in individual patients.

  3. Retroperitoneal cystic masses: CT, clinical, and pathologic findings and literature review.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dal Mo; Jung, Dong Hae; Kim, Hana; Kang, Jee Hee; Kim, Sun Ho; Kim, Ji Hye; Hwang, Hee Young

    2004-01-01

    Cystic lesions of the retroperitoneum can be classified as either neoplastic or nonneoplastic. Neoplastic lesions include cystic lymphangioma, mucinous cystadenoma, cystic teratoma, cystic mesothelioma, müllerian cyst, epidermoid cyst, tailgut cyst, bronchogenic cyst, cystic change in solid neoplasms, pseudomyxoma retroperitonei, and perianal mucinous carcinoma. Nonneoplastic lesions include pancreatic pseudocyst, nonpancreatic pseudocyst, lymphocele, urinoma, and hematoma. Because the clinical implications of and therapeutic strategies for retroperitoneal cystic masses vary depending on the cause, the ability to noninvasively differentiate between masses is important. Although there is substantial overlap of computed tomographic (CT) findings in various retroperitoneal cysts, some CT features, along with clinical characteristics, may suggest a specific diagnosis. CT may provide important information regarding lesion location, size, and shape; the presence and thickness of a wall; the presence of septa, calcifications, or fat; and involvement of adjacent structures. The most important clinical parameters include patient gender, age, symptoms, and clinical history. Familiarity with the CT and clinical features of various retroperitoneal cystic masses facilitates accurate diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Neuroimaging findings in human prion disease

    PubMed Central

    Macfarlane, R G; Wroe, S J; Collinge, J; Yousry, T A; Jäger, H R

    2007-01-01

    Imaging occupies an important role in the investigation of dementia and neurodegenerative disease. The role of imaging in prion disease used to be one of exclusion of other conditions. Over the past decade, the non‐invasive nature of MRI, the improved range of magnetic resonance sequences and the availability of clinical and neuropathological correlation have led to a more prominent position of MRI and its inclusion in the diagnostic criteria for variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. As experience of imaging in human prion disease increases, patterns of change related to strain and genotype may improve the diagnostic potential of imaging in the future, may reduce the need for more invasive testing and prove useful in future therapeutic trials. This paper reviews the current knowledge of imaging appearances in human prion disease. PMID:17135459

  5. CT Perfusion in Spinal Disease: an Adjunct Tool to Vertebral Body Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Shankar, J J S; Jayakumar, P N; Vasudev, M K; Ravishankar, S

    2007-02-28

    Routine diagnostic techniques are inadequate for diagnosis of spinal diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine whether CT perfusion can differentiate inflammatory diseases like tuberculosis from neoplastic diseases of spine. Thirty-two patients with vertebral body lesions associated with paraspinal mass underwent CT guided bone biopsy and histopathological evaluation. CT perfusion was done in all patients before doing biopsy. Perfusion parameters like blood volume (BV), blood flow (BF) and time to peak (TTP) were calculated and correlated with histopathology. Statistical analysis was done using Mann-Whitney test. p value <0.05 was considered significant. Of 32 cases, 20 had tuberculous osteomyelitis and 12 neoplastic disease (seven metastasis, three plasmacytoma, one each lymphoma and chordoma). Mean rBF was [inflammatory lesions, 1.459 and neoplastic lesions, 18.080 (p<0.000). Mean rBV was (inflammatory disease, 2.8589 and neoplastic lesions, 12.2133 (p<0 .000)). Mean rTTP was [inflammatory pathology, 1.041 and neoplastic pathology, 0.703(p<0.079)]. This shows the deconvolution-based CTP technique's potential for noninvasive diagnosis of at least all inflammatory lesions affecting the spine that are associated with paraspinal mass. Validation of the use of deconvolution CTP parameters for differentiation of inflammatory from neoplastic pathology may permit this technique to be used as an adjunct tool when biopsy when routine imaging findings are inconclusive.

  6. [CT-findings in penetrating captive bolt injuries to the head and brain: analysis of the trauma-related CT-findings and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Bula-Sternberg, J; Laniado, M; Kittner, T; Bonnaire, F; Lein, T; Bula, P

    2011-11-01

    Penetrating gunshot injuries to the head and brain are rare in Germany and the rest of Western Europe. Due to the small number of cases over here no consistent diagnostic and therapeutic standards exist in this respect. Thus these kinds of injuries present a great challenge to the attending physicians. Most of these violations are a result of a suicidal attempt or an accident. Beside violations by firearms also penetrating injuries to the head and brain due to captive bolt devices, as used in slaughtery business for the "humane" killing of animals, occur from time to time. The impact on the head differs from that caused by firearms because no projectile is leaving the barrel and the used bolt, as a fix part of the device, does not remain in the affected tissue. That implies characteristic results within the radiological imaging that might be pathbreaking for the further treatment, because the origin of such a head injury is often unknown during primary care. Consequently the knowledge of these specific findings is central to the radiologist to make the appropriate diagnosis. Based on some clinical examples the trauma-related CT-findings are introduced and a short overview of the relevant literature is also given.

  7. Fat-forming variant of solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura: CT findings.

    PubMed

    Park, C Y; Rho, J Y; Yoo, S M; Jung, H K

    2011-11-01

    The fat-forming variant of solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) was previously called lipomatous haemangiopericytoma and is a rare variant of solitary fibrous tumour. It predominantly occurs in the deep soft tissues of the retroperitoneum and thigh. Only a handful of cases involving the perineum, spine, thoracic wall and pelvic cavity have been reported in the radiological literature and the fat-forming variant of SFT involving the pleura has not been previously reported. Herein, we report the CT findings of a case of the fat-forming variant of SFT involving the pleura that was treated by excision. Chest CT showed a large lobulated heterogeneous fatty mass with a multifocal enhancing soft-tissue component in the left lower hemithorax. Although rare, the fat-forming variant of SFT of the pleura should be added to the differential diagnosis of fat-containing pleural soft-tissue tumours.

  8. Finding the missing heritability of complex diseases

    PubMed Central

    Manolio, Teri A.; Collins, Francis S.; Cox, Nancy J.; Goldstein, David B.; Hindorff, Lucia A.; Hunter, David J.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Ramos, Erin M.; Cardon, Lon R.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Cho, Judy H.; Guttmacher, Alan E.; Kong, Augustine; Kruglyak, Leonid; Mardis, Elaine; Rotimi, Charles N.; Slatkin, Montgomery; Valle, David; Whittemore, Alice S.; Boehnke, Michael; Clark, Andrew G.; Eichler, Evan E.; Gibson, Greg; Haines, Jonathan L.; Mackay, Trudy F. C.; McCarroll, Steven A.; Visscher, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified hundreds of genetic variants associated with complex human diseases and traits, and have provided valuable insights into their genetic architecture. Most variants identified so far confer relatively small increments in risk, and explain only a small proportion of familial clustering, leading many to question how the remaining, ‘missing’ heritability can be explained. Here we examine potential sources of missing heritability and propose research strategies, including and extending beyond current genome-wide association approaches, to illuminate the genetics of complex diseases and enhance its potential to enable effective disease prevention or treatment. PMID:19812666

  9. CORAL DISEASE & HEALTH CONSORTIUM: FINDING SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Department of Interior (DOI) developed the framework for a Coral Disease and Health Consortium (CDHC) for the United States Coral Reef Task Force (USCRTF) through an interag...

  10. Treatment for Krabbe's disease: Finding the combination.

    PubMed

    Mikulka, Christina R; Sands, Mark S

    2016-11-01

    Globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme galactocerebrosidase (GALC). GALC is responsible for catabolism of certain glycolipids, including the toxic compound galactosylsphingosine (psychosine). Histological signs of disease include the widespread loss of myelin in the central and peripheral nervous systems, profound neruroinflammation, and axonal degeneration. Patients suffering from GLD also display neurological deterioration. Many different individual therapies have been investigated in the murine model of the GLD, the Twitcher mouse, with minimal success. The current standard of care for GLD patients, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, serves only to delay disease progression and is not an effective cure. However, combination therapies that target different pathogenic mechanisms/pathways have been more effective at reducing histological signs of disease, delaying disease onset, prolonging life span, and improving behavioral/cognitive functions in rodent models of Krabbe's disease. In some cases, dramatic synergy between the various therapies has been observed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27638598

  11. Radiographic superimposition and mandibular peripheral osteoma: the importance of clinical and CT findings.

    PubMed

    Boffano, Paolo; Gallesio, Cesare; Roccia, Fabio; Berrone, Sid

    2013-03-01

    Peripheral osteomas are benign, slow-growing osteogenic tumors that are caused by centrifugal growth of the periosteum and develop as masses attached to the cortical plates.The pathogenesis of osteomas is unclear, and embryologic, traumatic, inflammatory, metaplastic, and genetic causes have been proposed. A solitary peripheral osteoma of the jaws is uncommon.The purpose of this paper is to present a peculiar case of mandibular peripheral osteoma with a particular radiographic superimposition that stress the importance of clinical and CT findings.

  12. CT and MRI Findings in a Rare Case of Renal Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Akkaya, Zehra; Peker, Elif; Gulpinar, Basak; Karadag, Hale; Erden, Ayse

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Primary renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor/extraskeletal Ewing’s sarcoma (PNET/EES) is a very rare renal tumor. Case Report We report a case of primary renal PNET/EES of the kidney in an adult patient and describe its computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings, including diffusion weighted images along with a review of the current medical literature. Conclusions Although very rare, a relatively large renal mass which shows very infiltrative growth pattern on CT and MR imaging and striking diffusion restriction should raise the suspicion of a renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor, in a young adult. PMID:27635170

  13. 3D documentation and visualization of external injury findings by integration of simple photography in CT/MRI data sets (IprojeCT).

    PubMed

    Campana, Lorenzo; Breitbeck, Robert; Bauer-Kreuz, Regula; Buck, Ursula

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of documenting patterned injury using three dimensions and true colour photography without complex 3D surface documentation methods. This method is based on a generated 3D surface model using radiologic slice images (CT) while the colour information is derived from photographs taken with commercially available cameras. The external patterned injuries were documented in 16 cases using digital photography as well as highly precise photogrammetry-supported 3D structured light scanning. The internal findings of these deceased were recorded using CT and MRI. For registration of the internal with the external data, two different types of radiographic markers were used and compared. The 3D surface model generated from CT slice images was linked with the photographs, and thereby digital true-colour 3D models of the patterned injuries could be created (Image projection onto CT/IprojeCT). In addition, these external models were merged with the models of the somatic interior. We demonstrated that 3D documentation and visualization of external injury findings by integration of digital photography in CT/MRI data sets is suitable for the 3D documentation of individual patterned injuries to a body. Nevertheless, this documentation method is not a substitution for photogrammetry and surface scanning, especially when the entire bodily surface is to be recorded in three dimensions including all external findings, and when precise data is required for comparing highly detailed injury features with the injury-inflicting tool.

  14. 3D documentation and visualization of external injury findings by integration of simple photography in CT/MRI data sets (IprojeCT).

    PubMed

    Campana, Lorenzo; Breitbeck, Robert; Bauer-Kreuz, Regula; Buck, Ursula

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of documenting patterned injury using three dimensions and true colour photography without complex 3D surface documentation methods. This method is based on a generated 3D surface model using radiologic slice images (CT) while the colour information is derived from photographs taken with commercially available cameras. The external patterned injuries were documented in 16 cases using digital photography as well as highly precise photogrammetry-supported 3D structured light scanning. The internal findings of these deceased were recorded using CT and MRI. For registration of the internal with the external data, two different types of radiographic markers were used and compared. The 3D surface model generated from CT slice images was linked with the photographs, and thereby digital true-colour 3D models of the patterned injuries could be created (Image projection onto CT/IprojeCT). In addition, these external models were merged with the models of the somatic interior. We demonstrated that 3D documentation and visualization of external injury findings by integration of digital photography in CT/MRI data sets is suitable for the 3D documentation of individual patterned injuries to a body. Nevertheless, this documentation method is not a substitution for photogrammetry and surface scanning, especially when the entire bodily surface is to be recorded in three dimensions including all external findings, and when precise data is required for comparing highly detailed injury features with the injury-inflicting tool. PMID:26496803

  15. Processing of CT images for analysis of diffuse lung disease in the lung tissue research consortium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karwoski, Ronald A.; Bartholmai, Brian; Zavaletta, Vanessa A.; Holmes, David; Robb, Richard A.

    2008-03-01

    2200 patients with 1800 CT scans in the repository for the 5-year effort. Ongoing analysis of the results in the LTRC database by the LTRC participating institutions and outside investigators are underway to look at the clinical and physiological significance of the imaging features of these diseases and correlate these findings with quality of life and other important prognostic indicators of severity. In the future, the quantitative measures of disease may have greater utility by showing correlation with prognosis, disease severity and other physiological parameters. These imaging features may provide non-invasive alternative endpoints or surrogate markers to alleviate the need for tissue biopsy or provide an accurate means to monitor rate of disease progression or response to therapy.

  16. CT in ovarian cancer staging: how to review and report with emphasis on abdominal and pelvic disease for surgical planning.

    PubMed

    Sahdev, Anju

    2016-01-01

    CT of the abdomen and pelvis is the first line imaging modality for staging, selecting treatment options and assessing disease response in ovarian cancer. The staging CT provides disease distribution, disease burden and is the imaging surrogate for surgico-pathological FIGO staging. Optimal cyto-reductive surgery offers patients' the best chance for disease control or cure, but sub-optimal resection confers no advantage over chemotherapy and adversely increases the risk of post surgical complications. Although there is extensive literature comparing performance of CT against laparoscopy and surgery, for the staging abdominal and pelvic CT, there are currently no accepted guidelines for interpretation or routinely used minimum data set templates for reporting these complex CT scans often with extensive radiological findings. This review provides a systematic approach for identifying the important radiological findings and highlighting important sites of disease within the abdomen and pelvis, which may alter or preclude surgery at presentation or after adjuvant chemotherapy. The distribution of sites and volume of disease can be used to categorize patients as suitable, probably suitable or not suitable for optimal cyto-reductive surgery. This categorization can potentially assist oncological surgeons and oncologists as a semi objective assessment tool useful for selecting patient treatment, streamlining multi disciplinary discussion and improving the reproducibility and correlation of CT with surgical findings. The review also highlights sites of disease and complications of ovarian cancer which should be included as part of the radiological report as these may require additional surgical input from non gynaecological surgeons or influence treatment selection. PMID:27484100

  17. ECG gated NMR-CT for cardiovascular diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Nishikawa, J.; Ohtake, T.; Machida, K.; Iio, M.; Yoshimoto, N.; Sugimoto, T.

    1985-05-01

    The authors have been applying ECG gated NMR-CT to mainly patients with myocardial infarction (MI), and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Thirteen patients with MI, 8 with HCM and 5 without any heart diseases were studied by ECG gated NMR imaging (spin-echo technique, TR: depends on patient heart rate, TE: 35 and 70 msec.) with 0.35 T superconducting magnet. On NMR images (MRI), the authors examined the wall thickness, wall motion and T/sub 2/ relaxation time in the area of diseased myocardium. The lesions of old MI were depicted as the area of thin wall and T/sub 2/ relaxation time of those lesions were similar to the area of non-infarcted myocardium. The lesions of recent MI (up to 3.5 months from the recent attack) were shown as the same wall thickness as the non-infarcted myocardium and the area of prolonged T/sub 2/ relaxation time compared with that of non-infarcted myocardium. MRI demonstrated diffusely thick myocardium in all patients with HCM. T/sub 2/ relaxation time of the areas of HCM was almost the same as that of normal myocardium, and it's difference among each ventricular wall in patients with HCM was not statistically significant. The authors conclude that ECG gated NMR-CT offers 3-D morphological information of the heart without any contrast material nor radioisotopes. ECG gated MRI provides the useful informations to diagnose MI, especially in the differential diagnosis between old and recent MI.

  18. Diagnostic Applications of Cone-Beam CT for Periodontal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    AlJehani, Yousef A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This paper aims to review the diagnostic application of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in the field of periodontology. Data. Original articles that reported on the use of CBCT for periodontal disease diagnosis were included. Sources. MEDLINE (1990 to January 2014), PubMed (using medical subject headings), and Google Scholar were searched using the following terms in different combinations: “CBCT,” “volumetric CT,” “periodontal disease ,” and “periodontitis.” This was supplemented by hand-searching in peer-reviewed journals and cross-referenced with the articles accessed. Conclusions. Bony defects, caters, and furcation involvements seem to be better depicted on CBCT, whereas bone quality and periodontal ligament space scored better on conventional intraoral radiography. CBCT does not offer a significant advantage over conventional radiography for assessing the periodontal bone levels. PMID:24803932

  19. Coronary artery bypass graft flow: qualitative evaluation with cine single-detector row CT and comparison with findings at angiography.

    PubMed

    Tello, Richard; Hartnell, George G; Costello, Philip; Ecker, Christian P

    2002-09-01

    A four-point ordinal-scale qualitative flow index was used for assessment of patency of 75 coronary artery bypass grafts in 26 patients examined with spiral computed tomography (CT). CT findings were compared with selective graft angiographic findings. Of 54 open grafts, 52 were patent at initial selective graft angiography and 50 were patent at spiral CT; accuracy rates were 97% (73 of 75) and 95% (71 of 75), respectively. Spiral CT flow index agreed with angiographically determined flow in 85% (95% CI: 0.77, 0.93) of grafts. The kappa statistic demonstrated very good to excellent intermodality (0.75) and interobserver (0.89) agreement. Spiral CT may be a feasible means of assessing quality of flow in bypass grafts. PMID:12202732

  20. Audiological findings in Infantile Refsum disease.

    PubMed

    Vandana, V P; Bindu, Parayil Sankaran; Nagappa, Madhu; Sinha, Sanjib; Taly, Arun B

    2015-08-01

    Audiological manifestations in a four-year-old child with Infantile Refsum disease are reported. He was born to non-consanguineous parents and had normal birth history and mildly delayed milestones prior to presentation. Clinical features were characterized by neuroregression, retinitis pigmentosa, hearing loss, peripheral neuropathy and white matter signal changes on magnetic resonance imaging. Biochemical evaluation showed elevated serum levels of long chain fatty acid and phytanic acid confirming the diagnosis. The audiological profile was characterized by absent auditory brainstem responses with robust otocoustic emissions, which indicated auditory neuropathy as the possible cause of hearing loss.

  1. Comparison of CT and fiberoptic bronchoscopy in the evaluation of bronchial disease.

    PubMed

    Naidich, D P; Lee, J J; Garay, S M; McCauley, D I; Aranda, C P; Boyd, A D

    1987-01-01

    CT was compared to fiberoptic bronchoscopy in a large series of patients to study the value of CT for visualizing bronchial disease. CT scans were available for review in 64 cases in which focal airway disease was identified with fiberoptic bronchoscopy and in 38 patients in whom the airways appeared normal at bronchoscopy. CT was positive in 59 of 64 cases in which lesions were detected endoscopically. If the results are analyzed according to the extent of involvement of individual bronchi, CT successfully identified 88 (90%) of 98 lesions. CT correctly excluded disease in 35 (92%) of 38 cases that were subsequently verified to be normal by fiberoptic bronchoscopy. In no case was the diagnosis of malignancy missed by CT. While extremely accurate in detecting focal lesions, CT was inaccurate in predicting whether a given abnormality was endobronchial, submucosal, or extrinsic (peribronchial). In three cases CT failed to detect submucosal extension into the left mainstream bronchus, which has important implications concerning the value of CT in staging bronchial malignancy. It is concluded that CT is helpful when bronchoscopy is contraindicated or refused. CT may also be used in selected cases when there is low clinical suspicion of endobronchial disease and as a complementary procedure to fiberoptic bronchoscopy for outlining the exact location of major mediastinal and hilar vessels, lymph nodes, and tumor in relation to adjacent airways. PMID:3491497

  2. Incidental radiologic findings at breast cancer diagnosis and likelihood of disease recurrence.

    PubMed

    Brothers, Joel M; Kidwell, Kelley M; Brown, Richard K J; Henry, N Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Despite guidelines recommending against its routine use, perioperative imaging for distant metastases is frequently performed in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients, uncovering incidental findings of uncertain significance. We assessed the clinical significance of incidental findings by determining if their presence is associated with disease recurrence. A retrospective review of staging imaging was performed in patients with stage II or III invasive breast cancer diagnosed during 2008-2009 at a large academic medical center. Data related to perioperative imaging and disease recurrence were abstracted from the medical record. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between incidental findings and time to disease recurrence. A total of 169 of 340 patients (49.7 %) underwent staging evaluation for distant metastases (CT chest, abdomen, pelvis, bone scan, and/or PET-CT). Of these, 146 (86.4 %) had at least one suspicious or indeterminate finding. Follow-up studies were performed in 73 (43.2 %) patients. Nineteen patients were diagnosed with metastatic disease at diagnosis, 18 of whom had stage III disease. In patients without metastatic disease at diagnosis, 32 later developed recurrence. Non-calcified pulmonary nodules were associated with shorter time to disease recurrence (hazard ratio 2.51, 95 % CI 1.13-5.57, p = 0.02). Imaging for distant metastases frequently reveals indeterminate findings, most of which are not associated with disease recurrence. The association between pulmonary nodules and recurrence warrants validation in an independent cohort. Overall, these findings support current guidelines recommending against routine extent of disease evaluation in patients with newly diagnosed stage II breast cancer. PMID:26797222

  3. Early Head CT Findings Are Associated With Outcomes After Pediatric Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Starling, Rebecca M.; Shekdar, Karuna; Licht, Dan; Nadkarni, Vinay M.; Berg, Robert A.; Topjian, Alexis A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Head CT after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is often obtained to evaluate intracranial pathology. Among children admitted to the PICU following pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, we hypothesized that loss of gray-white matter differentiation and basilar cistern and sulcal effacement are associated with mortality and unfavorable neurologic outcome. Design Retrospective, cohort study. Setting Single, tertiary-care center PICU. Patients Seventy-eight patients less than 18 years old who survived out-of-hospital cardiac arrest to PICU admission and had a head CT within 24 hours of return of spontaneous circulation were evaluated from July 2005 through May 2012. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Median time to head CT from return of spontaneous circulation was 3.3 hours (1.0, 6.0). Median patient age was 2.3 years (0.4, 9.5). Thirty-nine patients (50%) survived, of whom 29 (74%) had favorable neurologic outcome. Nonsurvivors were more likely than survivors to have 1) loss of gray-white matter differentiation (Hounsfield unit ratios, 0.96 [0.88, 1.07] vs 1.1 [1.07, 1.2]; p < 0.001), 2) basilar cistern effacement (93% vs 7%; p = 0.001; positive predictive value, 94%; negative predictive value, 59%), and 3) sulcal effacement (100% vs 0%; p ≤ 0.001; positive predictive value, 100%; negative predictive value, 68%). All patients with poor gray-white matter differentiation or sulcal effacement had unfavorable neurologic outcomes. Only one patient with basilar cistern effacement had favorable outcome. Conclusions Loss of gray-white matter differentiation and basilar cistern effacement and sulcal effacement are associated with poor outcome after pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Select patients may have favorable outcomes despite these findings. PMID:25844694

  4. Non-familial degenerative disease and atrophy of brainstem and cerebellum. Clinical and CT data in 47 patients.

    PubMed

    Staal, A; Meerwaldt, J D; van Dongen, K J; Mulder, P G; Busch, H F

    1990-03-01

    We studied the clinical features of 47 patients with a non-hereditary degenerative disease and with atrophy of brainstem or cerebellum or both in CT scanning. There was no relation between the CT findings and duration or severity of the disease, nor with the kind of the neurological signs which comprised ataxia, a hypokinetic rigid syndrome, oculomotor abnormalities, upper and lower motor neuron signs, orthostatic hypotension and dementia. The 2 main diagnoses were olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA), or a combination of OPCA and striatonigral degeneration (SND). The differential diagnosis with Parkinson's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy was discussed. We concluded, that a CT scan is warranted in all cases of suspected Parkinson's disease, especially in those without tremor, and in cases of motoneuron disease with broad-based gait. In our patients with mainly hypokinesia and rigidity, levodopa treatment had no or brief beneficial effects. If ataxia predominated, OPCA appeared the most sensible diagnosis; if a hypokinetic-rigid syndrome predominated, the diagnoses SND plus OPCA appeared the most suitable. We assessed the degree of atrophy on CT subjectively, because an interobserver study of 60 normal CT scans, did not produce reliable measurements. PMID:2358820

  5. Non-familial degenerative disease and atrophy of brainstem and cerebellum. Clinical and CT data in 47 patients.

    PubMed

    Staal, A; Meerwaldt, J D; van Dongen, K J; Mulder, P G; Busch, H F

    1990-03-01

    We studied the clinical features of 47 patients with a non-hereditary degenerative disease and with atrophy of brainstem or cerebellum or both in CT scanning. There was no relation between the CT findings and duration or severity of the disease, nor with the kind of the neurological signs which comprised ataxia, a hypokinetic rigid syndrome, oculomotor abnormalities, upper and lower motor neuron signs, orthostatic hypotension and dementia. The 2 main diagnoses were olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA), or a combination of OPCA and striatonigral degeneration (SND). The differential diagnosis with Parkinson's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy was discussed. We concluded, that a CT scan is warranted in all cases of suspected Parkinson's disease, especially in those without tremor, and in cases of motoneuron disease with broad-based gait. In our patients with mainly hypokinesia and rigidity, levodopa treatment had no or brief beneficial effects. If ataxia predominated, OPCA appeared the most sensible diagnosis; if a hypokinetic-rigid syndrome predominated, the diagnoses SND plus OPCA appeared the most suitable. We assessed the degree of atrophy on CT subjectively, because an interobserver study of 60 normal CT scans, did not produce reliable measurements.

  6. Scientists adopt new strategy to find Huntington's disease therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2017 President's Budget Calendar of Events Proceedings Funding Information Research Programs Training & Career Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS Scientists adopt new strategy to find Huntington’s disease therapies Follow NINDSnews For ...

  7. Cervix carcinoma and incidental finding of medullary thyroid carcinoma by 18F-FDG PET/CT--clinical case.

    PubMed

    Chaushev, Borislav; Bochev, Pavel; Klisarova, Anelia; Yordanov, Kaloyan; Encheva, Elitsa; Dancheva, Jivka; Yordanova, Cvetelina; Hristozov, Kiril; Krasnaliev, Ivan; Radev, Radoslav; Nenkov, Rumen

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are encountered in clinical practice during the diagnostic procedures or patients' follow-up due to other diseases quite far from the thyroid gland with prevalence 4-50% in general population, depending on age, diagnostic method and race. The prevalence of thyroid nodules increases with age and their clarification should be done for their adequate treatment. An 18F-FDG PET/CT was done with a PET/CT scanner (Philips Gemini TF), consisting of dedicated lutetium orthosilicate full ring PET scanner and 16 slice CT. The PET/CT scan of the whole-body revealed on the CT portion a hypodense nodular lesion in the left lobe of the thyroid gland with increased uptake of 18F-FDG on the PET with SUVmax 10.3 and demonstrated a complete response to the induction therapy of the main oncological disease of the patient--squamous cell carcinoma. This clinical case demonstrates that whole-body 18F-FDG-PET/CT has an increasingly important role in the early evaluation of thyroid cancer as a second independent malignant localization. Focal thyroid lesion with high risk of thyroid malignancy was incidentally found on 18F-FDG PET/CT. PMID:25088110

  8. Renal Allograft Torsion: US and CT Imaging Findings of a Rare Posttransplant Complication.

    PubMed

    Dewan, Rohit; Dasyam, Anil K; Tan, Henke; Furlan, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Vascular torsion is a rare renal transplant complication which requires prompt diagnosis and surgery to salvage allograft function. We report here a case of renal allograft torsion with interesting imaging findings on unenhanced CT and color Doppler ultrasound. A 60-year-old woman with a history of pancreas and kidney transplant presented to the emergency room with nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and minimal urine output. Unenhanced CT of the abdomen demonstrated an enlarged and malrotated renal allograft with moderate hydronephrosis. Color Doppler ultrasound demonstrated lack of vascularity within the allograft. The patient was taken urgently to the operating room where the renal allograft was found twisted 360 degrees around the vascular pedicle. After the allograft was detorsed, the color of the kidney returned and the Doppler signals for arterial flow improved. Intraoperative biopsy showed no evidence of infarct or acute cellular rejection. The detorsed kidney was surgically fixed in position in its upper and lower poles. Follow-up ultrasound 1 day later demonstrated normal blood flow to the renal allograft and the serum level of creatinine returned to normal.

  9. 18F-FDG PET/CT Findings in Acute Epstein-Barr Virus Infection Mimicking Malignant Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Ørbæk, Mathilde; Graff, Jesper; Markova, Elena; Kronborg, Gitte; Lebech, Anne-Mette

    2016-01-01

    We present a case demonstrating the diagnostic work-up and follow-up of a patient with acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in which the clinical picture and imaging on 18F-FDG PET/CT mimicked malignant lymphoma. Follow-up 18F-FDG PET/CT scan in the patient performed 7 weeks after the abnormal scan revealed complete resolution of the metabolically active disease in the neck, axillas, lung hili, and spleen. This case highlights inflammation as one of the most well established false positives when interpreting 18F-FDG PET/CT scans. PMID:27187482

  10. (18)F-FDG PET/CT Findings in Acute Epstein-Barr Virus Infection Mimicking Malignant Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ørbæk, Mathilde; Graff, Jesper; Markova, Elena; Kronborg, Gitte; Lebech, Anne-Mette

    2016-01-01

    We present a case demonstrating the diagnostic work-up and follow-up of a patient with acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in which the clinical picture and imaging on (18)F-FDG PET/CT mimicked malignant lymphoma. Follow-up (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan in the patient performed 7 weeks after the abnormal scan revealed complete resolution of the metabolically active disease in the neck, axillas, lung hili, and spleen. This case highlights inflammation as one of the most well established false positives when interpreting (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans. PMID:27187482

  11. CT findings in viral lower respiratory tract infections caused by parainfluenza virus, influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Chul; Kim, Mi Young; Lee, Hyun Joo; Lee, Sang-Oh; Choi, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yang Soo; Woo, Jun Hee; Kim, Sung-Han

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Viral lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) can present with a variety of computed tomography (CT) findings. However, identifying the contribution of a particular virus to CT findings is challenging due to concomitant infections and the limited data on the CT findings in viral LRTIs. We therefore investigate the CT findings in different pure viral LRTIs. All patients who underwent bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and were diagnosed with LRTIs caused by parainfluenza virus (PIV), influenza virus, or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) between 1998 and 2014 were enrolled in a tertiary hospital in Seoul, South Korea. A pure viral LRTI was defined as a positive viral culture from BAL without any positive evidence from respiratory or blood cultures, or from polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or from serologic tests for bacteria, fungi, mycobacteria, or other viruses. CT images of 40 patients with viral LRTIs were analyzed: 14 with PIV, 14 with influenza virus, and 12 with RSV. Patch consolidation (≥1 cm or more than 1 segmental level) was found only in PIV (29%) (P = 0.03), by which CT findings caused by PIV could resemble those seen in bacterial LRTIs. Ground-glass opacities were seen in all cases of influenza virus and were more frequent than in PIV (71%) and RSV (67%) (P = 0.05). Bronchial wall thickening was more common in influenza virus (71%) and RSV (67%) LRTIs than PIV LRTIs (21%) (P = 0.02). With respect to anatomical distribution, PIV infections generally affected the lower lobes (69%), while influenza virus mostly caused diffuse changes throughout the lungs (57%), and RSV frequently formed localized patterns in the upper and mid lobes (44%). The CT findings in LRTIs of PIV, influenza virus, and RSV can be distinguished by certain characteristics. These differences could be useful for early differentiation of these viral LRTIs, and empirical use of appropriate antiviral agents. PMID:27368011

  12. CT findings in viral lower respiratory tract infections caused by parainfluenza virus, influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Chul; Kim, Mi Young; Lee, Hyun Joo; Lee, Sang-Oh; Choi, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yang Soo; Woo, Jun Hee; Kim, Sung-Han

    2016-06-01

    Viral lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) can present with a variety of computed tomography (CT) findings. However, identifying the contribution of a particular virus to CT findings is challenging due to concomitant infections and the limited data on the CT findings in viral LRTIs. We therefore investigate the CT findings in different pure viral LRTIs.All patients who underwent bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and were diagnosed with LRTIs caused by parainfluenza virus (PIV), influenza virus, or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) between 1998 and 2014 were enrolled in a tertiary hospital in Seoul, South Korea. A pure viral LRTI was defined as a positive viral culture from BAL without any positive evidence from respiratory or blood cultures, or from polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or from serologic tests for bacteria, fungi, mycobacteria, or other viruses.CT images of 40 patients with viral LRTIs were analyzed: 14 with PIV, 14 with influenza virus, and 12 with RSV. Patch consolidation (≥1 cm or more than 1 segmental level) was found only in PIV (29%) (P = 0.03), by which CT findings caused by PIV could resemble those seen in bacterial LRTIs. Ground-glass opacities were seen in all cases of influenza virus and were more frequent than in PIV (71%) and RSV (67%) (P = 0.05). Bronchial wall thickening was more common in influenza virus (71%) and RSV (67%) LRTIs than PIV LRTIs (21%) (P = 0.02). With respect to anatomical distribution, PIV infections generally affected the lower lobes (69%), while influenza virus mostly caused diffuse changes throughout the lungs (57%), and RSV frequently formed localized patterns in the upper and mid lobes (44%).The CT findings in LRTIs of PIV, influenza virus, and RSV can be distinguished by certain characteristics. These differences could be useful for early differentiation of these viral LRTIs, and empirical use of appropriate antiviral agents. PMID:27368011

  13. Cranial CT in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: spectrum of diseases and optimal contrast enhancement technique.

    PubMed

    Post, M J; Kursunoglu, S J; Hensley, G T; Chan, J C; Moskowitz, L B; Hoffman, T A

    1985-11-01

    A retrospective review of cranial CT scans obtained over a 4 year period in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and documented central nervous system (CNS) pathology is presented. The spectrum of diseases and the value of CT in detecting new, recurrent, and superimposed disease processes were determined. Fifty-one AIDS patients with confirmed CNS pathology were identified. Six of them had two coexistent diseases. Opportunistic infections predominated, especially Toxoplasma encephalitis and cryptococcal meningitis, while tumor was seen infrequently. Initial CT was positive in 76% of cases. In contrast to meningeal processes, where it was not very effective, CT was very sensitive in detecting most parenchymal disease processes. Characteristic although not pathognomonic CT patterns were found for certain diseases. Improvement or resolution of CT abnormalities in patients on medical therapy for Toxoplasma encephalitis correlated well with clinical improvement. Recurrence of CT abnormalities correlated well with medical noncompliance. The optimal contrast enhancement technique for detecting CNS pathology and for monitoring the effectiveness of medical therapy was also evaluated by a prospective study in which both immediate (IDD) and 1 hr delayed (DDD) double-dose contrast CT scans were compared. The examination found to be diagnostically superior in 30 of the 41 IDD/DDD studies was the delayed scan. It is recommended that CT be used routinely and with the 1 hr DDD scan to evaluate and follow AIDS patients with neurologic symptoms and/or signs.

  14. F-18 FDG PET/CT Findings of a Patient with Takayasu Arteritis Before and After Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sağer, Sait; Yılmaz, Sabire; Özhan, Meftune; Halaç, Metin; Ergül, Nurhan; Çiftci, Hediye; Çermik, T. Fikret

    2012-01-01

    Vasculitis is defined as inflammation and necrosis with leukocytic infiltration of the blood vessel wall. Takayasu arteritis is a chronic inflammatory arteritis that primarily involves the aorta and its main branches. A 64-year-old female patient with a 2-month history of fever of unknown origin was presented to our clinic for F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging. Baseline PET/CT images demonstrated intense F-18 FDG uptake in the aorta, bilateral subclavian and brachiocephalic arteries consistent with Takayasu arteritis. After 2 months of immunosuppressive therapy, she was asymptomatic and follow-up FDG PET/CT scan showed almost complete disappearance of large vessels’ F-18 FDG uptake. FDG PET/CT is a sensitive technique for assessing presence of large-vessel vasculitis such as Takayasu arteritis, extent of large-vessel inflammation and disease activity after therapy. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23486556

  15. Imaging diagnosis-ultrasonographic and CT findings in a gray seal (Halichoerus grypus) with hepatic cirrhosis, pyelonephritis, and nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    de Swarte, Marie; Bryan, Jill; Zarelli, Micaela; Huuskonen, Vihelmiina; Schneeweiss, Wilfried; McAllister, Hester

    2013-01-01

    An immature gray seal was presented with lethargy, weight loss, vomiting and hematuria. Hepatic disease and urinary tract infection were suspected. Abdominal ultrasound showed hyperechoic structures with marked acoustic shadowing spread throughout both kidneys, but incomplete visualization of the liver. Abdominal CT showed mineral densities scattered throughout both kidneys and poor delineation of the liver. Due to the poor quality of life, the seal was euthanized. Postmortem examination showed ammonium urate nephroliths, pyelonephritis, and hepatic cirrhosis. This case report emphasizes the difficulty of characterizing liver disease with conventional 2D-ultrasound and CT in a deep-chested animal with minimal intra-abdominal fat. PMID:23578275

  16. Findings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue All Issues Explore Findings by Topic Cell Biology Cellular Structures, Functions, Processes, Imaging, Stress Response Chemistry ... Glycobiology, Synthesis, Natural Products, Chemical Reactions Computers in Biology Bioinformatics, Modeling, Systems Biology, Data Visualization Diseases Cancer, ...

  17. Clinical application of Patlak plot CT-GFR in animals with upper urinary tract disease.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Kate; Dunn, Marilyn; Carmel, Eric Norman; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre; Del Castillo, Jérôme R E

    2010-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), an important parameter of renal function, is difficult to assess clinically. Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen measurements lack sensitivity, whereas radionuclide determination of GFR is not always available and requires postinjection patient isolation. GFR can be determined using computed tomography (CT), most commonly via Patlak plot analysis. Four adult cats, two adult dogs, and a foal underwent abdominal CT under general anesthesia for various diseases of the upper urinary tract. CT-GFR was measured with a single-slice dynamic acquisition and Patlak plot analysis. In five animals, the total CT-GFR appeared to be below normal, corresponding with mild (two animals) and moderate (two animals) increases of serum creatinine in four. In the two animals with normal or increased CT-GFR, serum creatinine was within the reference values. A significant negative logarithmic relationship was found between CT-GFR and serum creatinine values (P = 0.008; r2 = 0.75). No complications occurred during or following CT-GFR. CT examination provided clinically relevant information in 3/5 patients with possible ureteral obstruction and in 3/3 patients with suspected ureteral calculi. Single-slice dynamic CT-GFR was practical and provided clinically useful information in this small series of patients undergoing CT of the upper urinary tract. There was a significant relationship between CT-GFR and serum creatinine values, which supports the clinical potential of CT-GFR and justifies further investigation of this technique. PMID:20806874

  18. Intracranial hydatid cyst: imaging findings of a rare disease.

    PubMed

    Taslakian, Bedros; Darwish, Houssein

    2016-09-12

    Hydatid disease (echinococcosis) is a worldwide zoonosis produced by the larval stage of the Echinococcus tapeworm. The disease is endemic in many parts of the world, particularly in the Middle East, Australia, New Zealand, South America and central and south Europe. Intracranial hydatid disease is considered a rare disease and may be sometimes very difficult to diagnose based on the clinical and laboratory findings. Therefore, it is important to be aware of the condition and the imaging findings even in the non-endemic parts of the world. We report the case of a 12-year-old boy who presented with headache and vomiting for a few months. The mass was totally excised, with no postoperative complications. We present MR spectroscopy (MRS) findings in this operatively proven case of hydatid cyst of the brain. We discuss imaging findings, in particular the findings on MRS, which is rarely reported in the literature.

  19. Intracranial hydatid cyst: imaging findings of a rare disease.

    PubMed

    Taslakian, Bedros; Darwish, Houssein

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid disease (echinococcosis) is a worldwide zoonosis produced by the larval stage of the Echinococcus tapeworm. The disease is endemic in many parts of the world, particularly in the Middle East, Australia, New Zealand, South America and central and south Europe. Intracranial hydatid disease is considered a rare disease and may be sometimes very difficult to diagnose based on the clinical and laboratory findings. Therefore, it is important to be aware of the condition and the imaging findings even in the non-endemic parts of the world. We report the case of a 12-year-old boy who presented with headache and vomiting for a few months. The mass was totally excised, with no postoperative complications. We present MR spectroscopy (MRS) findings in this operatively proven case of hydatid cyst of the brain. We discuss imaging findings, in particular the findings on MRS, which is rarely reported in the literature. PMID:27620198

  20. A challenging diagnosis of late-onset tumefactive multiple sclerosis associated to cervicodorsal syringomyelia: doubtful CT, MRI, and bioptic findings

    PubMed Central

    Conforti, Renata; Capasso, Raffaella; Galasso, Rosario; Cirillo, Mario; Taglialatela, Gemma; Galasso, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Tumefactive multiple sclerosis (MS) is an unusual variant of demyelinating disease characterized by lesions with pseudotumoral appearance on radiological imaging mimicking other space-occupying lesions, such as neoplasms, infections, and infarction. Especially when the patient's medical history is incompatible with MS, the differential diagnosis between these lesions constitutes a diagnostic challenge often requiring histological investigation. An older age at onset makes distinguishing tumefactive demyelinating lesion (TDL) from tumors even more challenging. Methods: We report a case of brain TDL as the initial manifestation of late-onset MS associated with cervico-dorsal syringomyelia. A 66-year-old Caucasian woman with a 15-day history headache was referred to our hospital because of the acute onset of paraphasia. She suffered from noncommunicating syringomyelia associated to basilar impression and she reported a 10-year history of burning dysesthesia of the left side of the chest extended to the internipple line level. Results: Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations revealed a left frontal lesion with features suspicious for a tumor. Given the degree of overlap with other pathologic processes, CT and MRI findings failed to provide an unambiguous diagnosis; furthermore, because of the negative cerebrospinal fluid analysis for oligoclonal bands, the absence of other lesions, and the heightened suspicion of neoplasia, the clinicians opted to perform a stereotactic biopsy. Brain specimen analysis did not exclude the possibility of perilesional reactive gliosis and the patient, receiving anitiedemigen therapy, was monthly followed up. In the meanwhile, the second histological opinion of the brain specimen described the absence of pleomorphic glial cells indicating a tumor. These findings were interpreted as destructive inflammatory demyelinating disease and according to the evolution of MRI lesion burden, MS

  1. CT enteroclysis/enterography findings in drug-induced small-bowel damage

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, K; Hashimoto, S; Onoda, H; Washida, Y; Sakaida, I; Matsunaga, N

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the CT enteroclysis (CTE)/enterography findings of patients with small-bowel mucosal damage induced by aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and to compare these findings with the duration of drug use and endoscopic findings. Methods: CTE findings of 11 patients (22 lesions) with drug-induced small-bowel damage were reviewed, including 8 NSAID users and 3 aspirin users. Three patients were short-term users (6 months or shorter) and eight were long-term users (3 years or longer). Nine patients also underwent videocapsule endoscopy (VCE) or double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE). Results: Small-bowel abnormalities were visible in 8 of 11 patients (73%) on CTE. Multiple lesions were seen in five patients, including all short-term users. Lesions were classified into three types. Type 1 (mucosal patchy enhancement) was found in four of eight patients (50%, 12 lesions) all were short-term users. Small erosions with mild oedema/redness were shown by DBE. Type 2 (homogeneous hyperenhancement) was found in two of eight patients (25%, four lesions) who were long-term users. Large ulcers with marked oedema/redness were shown by DBE. Type 3 (stratification enhancement) was found in four of eight patients (50%, six lesions), both short-term and long-term users. Annular or large ulcers with strictures were shown by VCE or DBE. Conclusion: On CTE, Type 1 lesions in patients with mostly short-term aspirin or NSAID use, Type 2 lesions in patients with long-term use and Type 3 lesions in both types of patients were detected. CTE may have usefulness for the detection of mild damage. Advances in knowledge: Small-bowel abnormalities owing to aspirin or NSAID present with three different patterns on CTE. PMID:25348282

  2. Non-coronary abnormalities of the left heart: CT angiography findings.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Ersin; Kafadar, Cahit; Tutar, Süleyman; Bozlar, Uğur; Hagspiel, Klaus D

    2016-09-01

    Cardiac computed tomography (CT) is most commonly performed for the evaluation of the coronary arteries; however, non-coronary cardiac pathologies are frequently detected on these scans. In cases where magnetic resonance imaging cannot be used, cardiac CT can serve as the first-line imaging modality to evaluate many non-coronary cardiac pathologies. In this article, we discuss congenital non-coronary abnormalities of the left heart and their cardiac CT imaging features. PMID:27609435

  3. Thoracic computerized tomographic (CT) findings in 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rostami, Mojtaba; Javadi, Abbas-Ali; Khorvash, Farzin; Mostafavizadeh, Kamyar; Adibi, Atoosa; Babak, Anahita; Ataei, Behrooz; Meidani, Mohsen; Naeini, Alireza Emami; Salehi, Hasan; Avijgan, Majid; Yazdani, Mohammad Reza; Rezaei, Farshid

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus arrived at Isfahan in August 2009. The virus is still circulating in the world. The abnormal thoracic computerized tomographic (CT) scan findings vary widely among the studies of 2009 H1N1 influenza. We evaluated the thoracic CT findings in patients with 2009 H1N1 virus infection to describe findings compared to previously reported findings, and to suggest patterns that may be suggestive for 2009 influenza A (H1N1) in an appropriate clinical setting. METHODS: Retrospectively, the archive of all patients with a diagnosis of 2009 H1N1 influenza A were reviewed, in Al-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan, central Iran, between September 23rd 2009 to February 20th 2010. Out of 216 patients with confirmed 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus, 26 cases with abnormal CT were enrolled in the study. Radiologic findings were characterized by the type and pattern of opacities and zonal distribution. RESULTS: Patchy infiltration (34.6%), lobar consolidation (30.8%), and interstitial infiltration (26.9%) with airbronchogram (38.5%) were the predominant findings in our patients. Bilateral distribution was seen in 80.8% of the patients. Only one patient (3.8%) showed ground-glass opacity, predominant radiographic finding in the previous reports and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). CONCLUSIONS: The most common thoracic CT findings in pandemic H1N1 were patchy infiltration, lobar consolidation, and interstitial infiltration with airbronchogram and bilateral distribution. While these findings can be associated with other infections; they may be suggestive to 2009 influenza A (H1N1) in the appropriate clinical setting. Various radiographic patterns can be seen in thoracic CT scans of the influenza patients. Imaging findings are nonspecific. PMID:22091280

  4. Natural history of atherosclerotic disease progression as assessed by (18)F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Hetterich, Holger; Rominger, Axel; Walter, Lisa; Habs, Maximilian; Volpers, Sarah; Hacker, Marcus; Reiser, Maximilian F; Bartenstein, Peter; Saam, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of cardiovascular risk factors and plaque inflammation on the progression of atherosclerosis as assessed by positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging with (18)F-radiolabled fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG). This study was designed as a retrospective cohort study. Patients who received a (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan and follow-up scan 9-24 months later without systemic inflammation or steroid medication were eligible for the study. (18)F-FDG PET/CT included a full diagnostic contrast enhanced CT scan. Cardiovascular risk factors and medication were documented. Calcified plaque volume, lumen area and (18)F-FDG uptake, quantified by the target-to-background ratio (TBR), were measured in the carotid arteries, aorta and iliac arteries. Influence of cardiovascular risk factors and vessel wall inflammation on atherosclerotic disease progression was analyzed. Ninety-four patients underwent baseline and follow-up whole body (18)F-FDG PET/CT (mean follow-up time 14.5 ± 3.5 months). Annualized calcified plaque volume increased by 15.4 % (p < 0.0001), carotid and aortic lumen area decreased by 10.5 % (p < 0.0001) and 1.7 % (p = 0.045). There was no significant difference in (18)F-FDG uptake at baseline and follow-up (mean TBR 1.44 ± 0.18 vs. 1.42 ± 0.19, p = 0.18). Multiple linear regression analysis identified hypertension as an independent predictor for total, aortic and iliac calcified plaque volume progression (all p < 0.04). Carotid lumen reduction was predicted by hypercholesterolemia (p = 0.008) while aortic lumen reduction was associated with BMI and mean (18)F-FDG uptake (p ≤ 0.005). Furthermore we observed a dose response relationship between the number of cardiovascular risk factors and calcified plaque volume progression in the aorta (p = 0.03). Findings from this study provide data on the natural history of atherosclerotic disease burden in multiple vascular beds and emphasize the value of

  5. Research Finds Link Between Statin Use and Progressive Muscle Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Finds Link Between Statin Use and Progressive Muscle Disease Each year, millions of Americans take statins, ... people these benefits come at a cost: widespread muscle pain that persists as long as the drugs ...

  6. Multidetector CT findings of complications of surgical and endovascular treatment of aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Valente, Tullio; Rossi, Giovanni; Rea, Gaetano; Pinto, Antonio; Romano, Luigia; Davies, Joseph; Scaglione, Mariano

    2014-09-01

    Aortic aneurysms remain a significant problem in the population, and there is a concerted effort to identify, define, image, and treat these conditions to ultimately improve outcomes. The rapid development of diagnostic modalities, operative strategies, and endovascular techniques within the realm of this aortic disease has transformed the field and broadened the spectrum of patients that can be treated with minimally invasive techniques. This investigation has a broad spectrum of normal expected findings that must be differentiated from early or late complications in which intervention is required. In this article, normal and abnormal postoperative and post-TEVAR/EVAR MDCT findings are described. PMID:25173654

  7. Study on Neurological Manifestations of Eclampsia & Findings of CT scan of Brain.

    PubMed

    Begum, F; Nahar, K; Ahmed, M U; Ferdousi, R A; Akter, F A; Rahman, M M

    2015-10-01

    This cross sectional study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology in Mymensingh Medical College Hospital during the period of January 2011 to December 2012 to evaluate neurological manifestations in eclampsia by CT scan of brain. A total 35 patients with eclampsia were studied, who underwent CT scan of brain in Radiology & Imaging Department of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital. The study patients were divided into two groups, those who had changes in brain on CT scan (Group A) & those who had no changes in brain on CT scan (Group B). Finally the study variables were compared between these two groups. Each selected patient fulfilling the criteria was sent to the department of Radiology & Imaging for CT scanning of brain. In antepartum cases of eclampsia CT scan of brain were done after delivery/ termination of pregnancy. In all cases, CT scan of brain was done within 72 hours of admission. Out of 35 patients total 85.72% had changes in brain on CT scan & 14.28% had no changes in brain on CT scan. Among them 45.72% patients had cerebral oedema, 37.14% had cerebral infarct & 2.86% patients had intracerebral haemorrhage. Comparison of neurological parameters were done & showed that there were statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding headache, visual disturbance, hypereflexia & depression of consciousness. There was no statistically significant difference regarding aphasia & hemiplegia between the two groups. So the CT scan of brain has been useful in demonstrating the lesion of brain in patients with eclampsia & also helpful to evaluate the neurological manifestations in eclampsia.

  8. Left vein of Labbé thrombosis associated with ipsilateral dural sinus thrombosis: non-enhanced CT and contrast-enhanced CT (CTV) findings.

    PubMed

    Stýblo-Sramek, D I; De Temmerman, G; Verbist, B M

    2012-01-01

    A rare case of aseptic thrombosis of the left vein of Labbé in a young woman is reported. Cerebral venous thrombosis was suggested by computed tomography and confirmed after intravenous administration of contrast by computed tomography venography. The combination of the clinical setting with the findings on the non-enhanced CT may favour the diagnosis of vein of Labbé thrombosis. The diagnosis can be confirmed on computed tomography venography. PMID:23019987

  9. Gastrointestinal cancers in inflammatory bowel disease: An update with emphasis on imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Barral, Matthias; Dohan, Anthony; Allez, Matthieu; Boudiaf, Mourad; Camus, Marine; Laurent, Valérie; Hoeffel, Christine; Soyer, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal cancers depending on the specific type of IBD, the extent of the disease and its location. Patients with IBD and extensive colonic involvement are at increased risk of colorectal cancer whereas patients with Crohn disease have an increased risk for small-bowel and anal carcinoma. These cancers preferentially develop on sites of longstanding inflammation. In regards to colon cancer, several key pathogenic events are involved, including chromosomal instability, microsatellite instability and hypermethylation. The risk for colon cancer in IBD patients correlates with longer disease duration, presence of sclerosing cholangitis, pancolitis, family history of colorectal cancer, early onset of the disease and severity of bowel inflammation. Identification of increased colorectal cancer risk in individual IBD patients has led to formal surveillance guidelines. Conversely, although an increased risk for other types of cancer has been well identified, no specific formal screening recommendations exist. Consequently, the role of the radiologist is crucial to alert the referring gastroenterologist when a patient with IBD presents with unusual imaging findings at either computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. This review provides an update on demographics, molecular, clinical and histopathological features of gastrointestinal cancers in IBD patients including colorectal carcinoma, small bowel adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine tumors and anal carcinoma, along with a special emphasis on the current role of CT and MR imaging. PMID:26315381

  10. Benign osseous and articular abnormalities of the pelvis: a review of CT imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Belfi, Lily M; Bartolotta, Roger J; Loftus, Michael L; Wladyka, Christopher; Hentel, Keith D

    2015-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has become the standard of care for evaluation and follow-up for a wide range of abdominal and pelvic pathology. Many incidental osseous and articular abnormalities of the pelvis are detected on these studies, most of which have a benign etiology. However, most of these studies are interpreted by nonmusculoskeletal radiologists, who may not be familiar with the CT appearances of these benign musculoskeletal abnormalities. Uncertainty often leads to mischaracterization or unnecessary follow-up, resulting in increased health care costs and patient anxiety. This article reviews the CT appearance of the benign musculoskeletal entities that occur in pelvis.

  11. FDG PET/CT Findings in Abdominal Fat Necrosis After Treatment for Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Dubreuil, Julien; Moreau, Aurélie; Sarkozy, Clémentine; Traverse-Glehen, Alexandra; Skanjeti, Andrea; Salles, Gilles; Giammarile, Francesco

    2016-05-01

    FDG PET/CT is now validated in non-Hodgkin lymphoma for response assessment in interim and posttreatment lymphoma. We report the case of a 62-year-old man followed by FDG PET/CT for a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, with initial stage III. The interim FDG PET/CT examination concluded in complete metabolic and morphological response of subdiaphragmatic lymphadenopathy but a persistent abnormal subdiaphragmatic uptake (SUVmax at 9 and Deauville 5-point scale at 5). Therefore, an abdominal biopsy of the corresponding nodules was conducted with a final diagnosis of diffuse fat necrosis. PMID:26825213

  12. Benign osseous and articular abnormalities of the pelvis: a review of CT imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Belfi, Lily M; Bartolotta, Roger J; Loftus, Michael L; Wladyka, Christopher; Hentel, Keith D

    2015-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has become the standard of care for evaluation and follow-up for a wide range of abdominal and pelvic pathology. Many incidental osseous and articular abnormalities of the pelvis are detected on these studies, most of which have a benign etiology. However, most of these studies are interpreted by nonmusculoskeletal radiologists, who may not be familiar with the CT appearances of these benign musculoskeletal abnormalities. Uncertainty often leads to mischaracterization or unnecessary follow-up, resulting in increased health care costs and patient anxiety. This article reviews the CT appearance of the benign musculoskeletal entities that occur in pelvis. PMID:25433854

  13. Clinical, pathological and (18)F-FDG PET/CT findings in synchronous primary vaginal and endometrial cancers.

    PubMed

    Gunes, Burcak Yilmaz; Akbayır, Ozgur; Demirci, Emre; Ozaydin, Ipek

    2016-01-01

    Synchronous primary gynecologic malignancies are infrequently seen. In this report, we describe the clinical, pathological and fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) findings of a patient with synchronous primary vaginal and endometrial cancers. To our knowledge, this is the first such case described in the literature. PMID:27331214

  14. CT and MR imaging findings of systemic complications occurring during pregnancy and puerperal period, adversely affected by natural changes

    PubMed Central

    Himoto, Yuki; Kido, Aki; Moribata, Yusaku; Yamaoka, Toshihide; Okumura, Ryosuke; Togashi, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic physiological and anatomical changes for delivery may adversely induce various specific non-obstetric complications during pregnancy and puerperal period. These complications can be fatal to both the mother and the fetus, thus a precise and early diagnosis ensued by an early treatment is essential. Along with ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have assumed an increasing role in the diagnosis. This article aims to discuss the pathophysiology of these complications, the indications for CT and MRI, and the imaging findings. PMID:26937442

  15. Naeglaeria infection of the central nervous system, CT scan findings: a case series.

    PubMed

    Naqi, Rohana; Azeemuddin, Muhammad

    2013-03-01

    The imaging findings in four cases of a rare infection of the central nervous system caused by amoebae, Naeglaeria fowleri are presented. Naeglaeria fowleri are pathogenic free-living amoebae. They cause primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), a rapidly fatal disease of the central nervous system. The computed tomography brain findings in 3 (75%) of our cases of pan amoebic meningoencephalitis showed non-specific brain oedema; 2 (66%) of these cases also had moderate hydrocephalus and among that 1 (50%) case showed an old lacunar infarction in peri-ventricular region. In the remaining 1 (25%) case the scan was normal with no evidence of oedema or abnormal lesion. Out of three cases with diffuse brain oedema, postcontrast images showed abnormal meningeal enhancement throughout the brain parenchyma in 1 (33%) case. However, no definite focal enhancing lesion was noted. In the rest of the cases, no abnormal parenchymal or meningeal enhancement was seen on post-contrast images. PMID:23914650

  16. Day of Injury CT and Late MRI Findings: Cognitive Outcome in a Pediatric Sample with Complicated Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jantz, Paul B; Farrer, Thomas J.; Abildskov, Tracy J.; Dennis, Maureen; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H. Gerry; Vannatta, Kathryn; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Complicated mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or cmTBI is based on the presence of visibly identifiable brain pathology on the day-of-injury computed tomography (CT) scan. In a pediatric sample the relation of DOI CT to late MRI findings and neuropsychological outcome was examined. Methods MRI (> 12 months) was obtained in pediatric cmTBI patients and a sample of orthopedically injured (OI) children. Those children with positive imaging findings (MRI+) were quantitatively compared to those without (MRI-) or with the OI sample. Groups were also compared in neurocognitive outcome from WASI subtests and the WISC-IV Processing Speed Index (PSI), along with the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch) and a parent-rated behavioral functioning measure (ABAS-II). Results Despite the MRI+ group having significantly more DOI CT findings than the MRI-group, no quantitative differences were found. WASI Vocabulary and Matrix Reasoning scores were significantly lower, but not PSI, TEA-Ch or ABAS-II scores. MRI+ and MRI-groups did not differ on these measures. Conclusions Heterogeneity in the occurrence of MRI-identified focal pathology was not associated with uniform changes in quantitative analyses of brain structure in cmTBI. Increased number of DOI CT abnormalities was associated with lowered neuropsychological performance. PMID:26186038

  17. Serial 18F-FDG PET/CT Findings in a Patient With IgLON5 Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Niu, Na; Cui, Ruixue

    2016-10-01

    We presented the serial FDG PET/CT brain scans of a 64-year-old woman with IgLON5 encephalopathy, which is a novel syndrome in association with antibodies to a neuronal cell adhesion protein named IgLON5, and FDG PET findings have not been characterized previously. For our case, the relatively hypermetabolism in primary sensorimotor cortices, basal ganglia, and cerebrum comparing to other cortical regions on the pretreatment FDG PET/CT was partially recovered on the follow-up FDG PET/CT scan after immunotherapy, corresponding with the alleviation of clinical syndromes. The metabolic change pattern was not similar as other types of autoimmune encephalitis. PMID:27556794

  18. Broncho-Pleural Fistula with Hydropneumothorax at CT: Diagnostic Implications in Mycobacterium avium Complex Lung Disease with Pleural Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hyun Jung; Chung, Myung Jin; Lee, Kyung Soo; Kim, Jung Soo; Park, Hye Yun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the patho-mechanism of pleural effusion or hydropneumothorax in Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease through the computed tomographic (CT) findings. Materials and Methods We retrospectively collected data from 5 patients who had pleural fluid samples that were culture-positive for MAC between January 2001 and December 2013. The clinical findings were investigated and the radiological findings on chest CT were reviewed by 2 radiologists. Results The 5 patients were all male with a median age of 77 and all had underlying comorbid conditions. Pleural fluid analysis revealed a wide range of white blood cell counts (410–100690/µL). The causative microorganisms were determined as Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare in 1 and 4 patients, respectively. Radiologically, the peripheral portion of the involved lung demonstrated fibro-bullous changes or cavitary lesions causing lung destruction, reflecting the chronic, insidious nature of MAC lung disease. All patients had broncho-pleural fistulas (BPFs) and pneumothorax was accompanied with pleural effusion. Conclusion In patients with underlying MAC lung disease who present with pleural effusion, the presence of BPFs and pleural air on CT imaging are indicative that spread of MAC infection is the cause of the effusion. PMID:26957917

  19. Computed tomographic findings in bourneville-pringle disease.

    PubMed

    Beltle, J; Seemann, Marcus D

    2003-07-31

    Bourneville-Pringle disease (synonym: tuberous sclerosis, epiploia) is a neuroectodermal disorder. A characteristic clinical triad of adenoma sebaceum, mental retardartion, and seizures leads to early childhood diagnosis. Many patients show morphological changes of the visceral organs, vascular, and skeletal system. We review the computed tomographic findings of Bourneville-Pringle disease as relates to an oligosymptomatic 36-year-old woman with late onset of clinical symptoms. PMID:12911865

  20. Rare auditory-electophysiology finding in Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hardin, Monte F; Barker, Monty; Neis, Paul

    2005-03-01

    Wilson's disease is a rare genetic disease involving the malabsorption of copper by the body. The most common characteristic sign is the presence of Kayser-Fleischner ring surrounding the cornea. Other systemic and motor signs have been documented as well as MRI changes within the brain and brainstem. This rare case illustrates the potential importance of audiometric assessment for patients with Wilson's disease who complain of hearing loss, tinnitus and intra-aural pressure. Unilateral findings were significant for retrocochlear neural transmission delays.

  1. Clinical utility of (18)F-fluoride PET/CT in benign and malignant bone diseases.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuxin; Schiepers, Christiaan; Lake, Ralph; Dadparvar, Simin; Berenji, Gholam R

    2012-01-01

    (18)F labeled sodium fluoride is a positron-emitting, bone seeking agent with more favorable skeletal kinetics than conventional phosphate and diphosphonate compounds. With the expanding clinical usage of PET/CT, there is renewed interest in using (18)F-fluoride PET/CT for imaging bone diseases. Growing evidence indicates that (18)F fluoride PET/CT offers increased sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy in evaluating metastatic bone disease compared to (99m)Tc based bone scintigraphy. National Oncologic PET Registry (NOPR) has expanded coverage for (18)F sodium fluoride PET scans since February 2011 for the evaluation of osseous metastatic disease. In this article, we reviewed the pharmacological characteristics of sodium fluoride, as well as the clinical utility of PET/CT using (18)F-fluoride in both benign and malignant bone disorders.

  2. Normal variations and benign findings in pediatric 18F-FDG-PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Grant, Frederick D

    2014-04-01

    (18)F-FDG PET and PET/CT have a wide variety of indications in children and young adults. Oncologic indications are the most common, but others include neurology, sports medicine, cardiology, and infection imaging. Accurate interpretation of pediatric (18)F-FDG PET and PET/CT requires a technically adequate study and knowledgeable interpretation of the images. A successful pediatric (18)F-FDG PET requires age-appropriate patient preparation and consideration of patient age and developmental stage. Accurate interpretation of the study requires familiarity with normal patterns of physiologic (18)F-FDG uptake in children at all stages of development. PMID:25030282

  3. 18F-FDG PET/CT findings in voltage-gated potassium channel limbic encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppuswamy; Iyer, Rajesh Shankar; Antony, Joppy; Radhakrishnan, Edathuruthy Kalarickal; Shinto, Ajit

    2013-05-01

    Limbic encephalitis (LE) can be associated with cancer, viral infection, or be idiopathic. One such rare but treatable form is associated with voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) antibodies. Typical abnormalities are seen in FDG PET/CT. We report a 39-year-old female patient who presented with 3 months of progressive faciobrachial dystonic seizures and limbic encephalitis. Her serum and cerebrospinal fluid Lgi1 antibody titers were elevated. FDG PET/CT showed basal ganglial hypermetabolism and associated abnormalities. Serial MRI demonstrated atrophic changes predominantly involving the temporal lobes. She is on immunosuppressive therapy and shows clinical improvement with lowering of antibody titers.

  4. Neuronopathic Lysosomal Storage Diseases: Clinical and Pathologic Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prada, Carlos E.; Grabowski, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The lysosomal--autophagocytic system diseases (LASDs) affect multiple body systems including the central nervous system (CNS). The progressive CNS pathology has its onset at different ages, leading to neurodegeneration and early death. Methods: Literature review provided insight into the current clinical neurological findings,…

  5. Study Finds Small Increase in Cancer Risk after Childhood CT Scans

    Cancer.gov

    A study published in the June 6, 2012, issue of The Lancet shows that radiation exposure from computed tomography (CT) scans in childhood results in very small but increased risks of leukemia and brain tumors in the first decade after exposure.

  6. An Unusual Case of Ascending Pancreatitis with Mediastinal Involvement: A Case Report with CT and MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Di Cesare, Ernesto; Di Sibio, Alessandra; Gennarelli, Antonio; Felli, Valentina; Vellucci, Valentina; Casazza, Ines; Masciocchi, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Fluid collections are common findings of pancreatitis and spread, more often, along preferential drainage pathways in the abdomen. In some rare cases, fluid collections may spread towards extra-abdominal sites like the mediastinum leading to the formation of mediastinal collections. We present the case of a 52-years-old man with pain in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen and mid-epigastrium lasting for some hours. Laboratory tests suggested a diagnosis of pancreatitis. CT and subsequent MRI revealed changes consistent with acute exacerbation on chronic pancreatitis spreading to the mediastinum and to the greater omentum. The patient received medical treatment and reported gradual improvement in his laboratory results and CT findings. PMID:24955277

  7. Giant Serous Cystadenoma of the Pancreas (⩾10 cm): The Clinical Features and CT Findings

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jun; Zeng, Yu-Rong; Lin, Xiao-Feng; Min, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report the clinical features and CT manifestations of giant pancreatic serous cystadenoma (≥10 cm). Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical features and CT findings of 6 cases of this entity. Results. All 6 patients were symptomatic. The tumors were 10.2 cm–16.5 cm (median value, 13.0 cm). CT imaging revealed that all 6 cases showed microcystic appearances (n = 5) or mixed microcystic and macrocystic appearances (n = 1). Five patients with tumors at the distal end of the pancreas received distal pancreatectomy. Among these 5 patients, 2 patients underwent partial transverse colon resection or omentum resection due to close adhesion. One patient whose tumor was located in the pancreatic head underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy; however, due to encasement of the portal and superior mesenteric veins, the tumor was incompletely resected. One patient had abundant draining veins on the tumor surface and suffered large blood loss (700 mL). After 6–49 months of follow-up the 6 patients showed no tumor recurrence or signs of malignant transformation. Conclusions. Giant pancreatic serous cystadenoma necessitates surgical resection due to large size, symptoms, uncertain diagnosis, and adjacent organ compression. The relationship between the tumors and the neighboring organs needs to be carefully assessed before operation on CT image.

  8. Giant Serous Cystadenoma of the Pancreas (⩾10 cm): The Clinical Features and CT Findings

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jun; Zeng, Yu-Rong; Lin, Xiao-Feng; Min, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report the clinical features and CT manifestations of giant pancreatic serous cystadenoma (≥10 cm). Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical features and CT findings of 6 cases of this entity. Results. All 6 patients were symptomatic. The tumors were 10.2 cm–16.5 cm (median value, 13.0 cm). CT imaging revealed that all 6 cases showed microcystic appearances (n = 5) or mixed microcystic and macrocystic appearances (n = 1). Five patients with tumors at the distal end of the pancreas received distal pancreatectomy. Among these 5 patients, 2 patients underwent partial transverse colon resection or omentum resection due to close adhesion. One patient whose tumor was located in the pancreatic head underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy; however, due to encasement of the portal and superior mesenteric veins, the tumor was incompletely resected. One patient had abundant draining veins on the tumor surface and suffered large blood loss (700 mL). After 6–49 months of follow-up the 6 patients showed no tumor recurrence or signs of malignant transformation. Conclusions. Giant pancreatic serous cystadenoma necessitates surgical resection due to large size, symptoms, uncertain diagnosis, and adjacent organ compression. The relationship between the tumors and the neighboring organs needs to be carefully assessed before operation on CT image. PMID:27610132

  9. Giant Serous Cystadenoma of the Pancreas (⩾10 cm): The Clinical Features and CT Findings.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing-Yu; Zhou, Jun; Zeng, Yu-Rong; Lin, Xiao-Feng; Min, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report the clinical features and CT manifestations of giant pancreatic serous cystadenoma (≥10 cm). Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical features and CT findings of 6 cases of this entity. Results. All 6 patients were symptomatic. The tumors were 10.2 cm-16.5 cm (median value, 13.0 cm). CT imaging revealed that all 6 cases showed microcystic appearances (n = 5) or mixed microcystic and macrocystic appearances (n = 1). Five patients with tumors at the distal end of the pancreas received distal pancreatectomy. Among these 5 patients, 2 patients underwent partial transverse colon resection or omentum resection due to close adhesion. One patient whose tumor was located in the pancreatic head underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy; however, due to encasement of the portal and superior mesenteric veins, the tumor was incompletely resected. One patient had abundant draining veins on the tumor surface and suffered large blood loss (700 mL). After 6-49 months of follow-up the 6 patients showed no tumor recurrence or signs of malignant transformation. Conclusions. Giant pancreatic serous cystadenoma necessitates surgical resection due to large size, symptoms, uncertain diagnosis, and adjacent organ compression. The relationship between the tumors and the neighboring organs needs to be carefully assessed before operation on CT image. PMID:27610132

  10. Weight preserving image registration for monitoring disease progression in lung CT.

    PubMed

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Lol, Pechin; Ashraf, Haseem; Dirksen, Asger; Nielsen, Mads; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2008-01-01

    We present a new image registration based method for monitoring regional disease progression in longitudinal image studies of lung disease. A free-form image registration technique is used to match a baseline 3D CT lung scan onto a following scan. Areas with lower intensity in the following scan compared with intensities in the deformed baseline image indicate local loss of lung tissue that is associated with progression of emphysema. To account for differences in lung intensity owing to differences in the inspiration level in the two scans rather than disease progression, we propose to adjust the density of lung tissue with respect to local expansion or compression such that the total weight of the lungs is preserved during deformation. Our method provides a good estimation of regional destruction of lung tissue for subjects with a significant difference in inspiration level between CT scans and may result in a more sensitive measure of disease progression than standard quantitative CT measures.

  11. FDG-PET/CT Brain Findings in a Patient With Macrophagic Myofasciitis.

    PubMed

    Van Der Gucht, Axel; Aoun-Sebaiti, Mehdi; Kauv, Paul; Guedj, Eric; Aouizerate, Jessie; Verger, Antoine; Gherardi, Romain K; Bachoud-Levi, Anne-Catherine; Authier, François-Jérôme; Itti, Emmanuel

    2016-03-01

    Brain Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG PET/CT) was performed in a 44-year-old woman with marked cognitive impairment, diffuse myalgias, sensory, memory and visual disorders, and chronic fatigue, presenting with histopathological features of macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) at deltoid muscle biopsy. Cerebromedullary Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), electromyography, ophthalmic examination, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis were normal. Visual analysis of FDG PET/CT images showed an atypical pattern of hypometabolism, involving symmetrically the occipital cortex, temporal lobes, and limbic system (including in particular amygdalo-hippocampal complexes), and the cerebellum. Posterior cingulate cortex and parietal areas were preserved. This pattern was confirmed by a voxel-based procedure using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM12) that compared a patient's images to normal reference samples from six healthy subjects with adjustment to age obtained using the same PET/CT camera. These results provide a glucose metabolism substrate for cognitive complaints in patients with long-lasting aluminium hydroxide-induced MMF. PMID:26941864

  12. ECG gated NMR-CT for cardiovascular diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Nishikawa, J.; Machida, K.; Iio, M.; Yoshimoto, N.; Sugimoto, T.; Kawaguchi, H.; Mano, H.

    1984-01-01

    The authors applied NMR-CT to cardiac study with ECG gated technique to evaluate the left ventricular (LV) function and compared it with cardiovascular nuclear medicine study (NM). The NMR-CT machine has resistive air-core magnet with 0.15 Tesla. The saturation recovery image or inversion recovery image were obtained as 256 x 256 matrix and 15 mm in thickness. The study population was ten patients who were evaluated both by NMR image and by NM performed within one week interval. The heart muscle was able to be visualized without any contrast material nor radioisotopes in inversion recovery images, whereas saturation recovery images failed to separate heart muscle from blood pool. The wall motions of LV in both methods were well correlated except for inferior wall. The values of ejection fraction in NMR image were moderately low, but two modalities showed satisfactory correlation (r=0.85). The region of myocardial infarction was revealed as wall thinning and/or wall motion abnormality. It is still preliminary to draw a conclusion, however, it can be said that in the evaluation of LV function, method by NMR might be of equal value to those of NM. It can be certain that eventually gated NMR-CT will become more effective method for various aspects of cardiovascular evaluation.

  13. Lung ischaemia–reperfusion injury in a canine model: dual-energy CT findings with pathophysiological correlation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, K; Zhang, L J; Morelli, J; Krazinski, A W; Silverman, J R; Schoepf, U J; Lu, G M

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate dual-energy CT (DECT) findings of pulmonary ischaemic–reperfusion injury (PIRI) and its pathophysiological correlation in the canine model. Methods: A PIRI model was established in 11 canines, utilizing closed pectoral balloon occlusion. Two control canines were also included. For the PIRI model, the left pulmonary artery was occluded with a balloon, which was deflated and removed after 2 h. DECT was performed before, during occlusion and at 2, 3 and 4 h thereafter and was utilized to construct pulmonary perfusion maps. Immediately after the CT scan at the fourth hour post reperfusion, the canines were sacrificed, and lung specimens were harvested for pathological analysis. CT findings, pulmonary artery pressure and blood gas results were then analysed. Results: Data at every time point were available for 10 animals (experimental group, n = 8; control group, n = 2). Quantitative measurements from DECT pulmonary perfusion maps found iodine attenuation values of the left lung to be the lowest at 2 h post embolization and the highest at 1 h post reperfusion. In the contralateral lung, perfusion values also peaked at 1 h post reperfusion. Continuous hypoxia and acid–based disorders were observed during PIRI, and comprehensive analysis showed physiological changes to be worst at 3 h post reperfusion. Conclusion: DECT pulmonary perfusion mapping demonstrated pulmonary perfusion of the bilateral lungs to be the greatest at 1 h post reperfusion. These CT findings corresponded with pathophysiological changes. Advances in knowledge: DECT pulmonary perfusion mapping can be used to evaluate lung ischaemia–reperfusion injury. PMID:24611753

  14. Evaluation of CT and MRI Findings among Patients Presented with Chief Complaint of Headache in Central India

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Tina; Jain, Leena; Vyas, Mahendra Mohan; Roshan, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Headache is one of the most common presenting complaints in day to day medical practice however the secondary causes of headache are uncommon. Thus, appropriate selection of headache patient (Pt) is important to determine those that require neuroimaging due to likely secondary cause. Red flags and Clinical warning criterion (CWC) act as a screening tool to help in identifying those who may get benefit from neuroimaging. Aim To evaluate the findings of computed tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) among patients presented with the chief complaint of headache and to compare the findings between two groups of patients. Materials and Methods This retrospective observational study was carried out in 500 selected patients, who underwent CT or MRI scan of head in Peoples College of Medical Sciences and Research centre, Bhopal, MP during the period of 2 year in between Jan 2013 to Dec 2014. Siemens Somatom sensation 40 slice MDCT and Siemens magnetom 1.5T MRI scanner were used for imaging. Five hundred patients of 10 to 70 year age were selected for the study based on our criterions of selection. Results All 500 patients were divided in to two groups A and B based on presence or absence of red flag signs and CWC signs. Group A consists of 48 patients having one or more red flag or CWC signs and group B consists of 452 patients those don’t have any above signs. 29 cases (60.4%) out of total 48 cases of group A is suffering from chronic headache as compared to 97 cases (21.5%) out of total 452 patients of group B is having positive findings (p-value<0.05). Out of 500 patients, only 29 cases (5.8%) revealed some form of brain parenchymal pathology whereas other associated findings were seen in 97 cases e.g. sinusitis in 58 (11.6%), bone related pathology in 26 (5.2%) and chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) in 13 (2.6%) patients. Conclusion CT/MRI in patients without red flag or CWC sign yields very low percentage of clinically significant

  15. A Case of Probable Mixed-Infection with Clonorchis sinensis and Fasciola sp.: CT and Parasitological Findings

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Yun; Lee, Yun-Sik; Yun, Ji Hye; Kim, Jeong Ju; Choi, Won Hyung; Oh, In Hwan; Song, Hyun Ouk

    2010-01-01

    We report here a human case probably mixed-infected with Clonorchis sinensis and Fasciola sp. who was diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) scan, serological findings, and/or fecal examination. The patient was a 43-year-old Korean female and was admitted to Kyung Hee University Hospital with the complaints of fever and abdominal pain. On admission, marked eosinophilia was noted in her peripheral blood. CT scan showed specific lesions for clonorchiasis and fascioliasis in the liver, along with lesions suggestive of amebic abscess. Micro-ELISA revealed positive results for the 2 helminthic infections. Eggs of C. sinensis and trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica were observed in the stool. Treatment with praziquantel followed by metronidazole and tinidazole reduced abnormalities in the liver and eosinophilia. This is the first case report of a possible co-infection with 2 kinds of liver flukes in the Republic of Korea. PMID:20585533

  16. A case of Wilson's disease with characteristic laparoscopic findings.

    PubMed

    Muro, Shin-Ichiro; Yasunaka, Tetsuya; Wada, Nozomu; Morimoto, Yuki; Ikeda, Fusao; Shiraha, Hidenori; Takaki, Akinobu; Noso, Kazuhiro; Iwasaki, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2014-04-01

    A 44-year-old male was pointed out liver function abnormality by medical check-up. Blood examination and computed tomography showed liver cirrhosis. Then, he was referred to our hospital for further examination. After blood test, viral markers revealed previous infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV). We estimated the etiology of his liver disease as previous HBV infection. On laparoscopic examination, his liver surface was nodular with mixed yellowish nodules and ash gray to copper-colored nodules in the diameter of 3-10 mm. There were large regenerative nodules in segments 3 and 4. Large regenerative nodules and irregular steatosis were contradictory to HBV-related liver cirrhosis, so then we supposed Wilson's disease. The amount of copper excretion in the urine was 326.6 μg (>100 μg/24 h). After D-penicillamine administration, urinary copper excretion increased to 2151.5 μg/24 h. Though hepatic copper concentration was 174.5 μg/g wet tissue (>200 μg/g wet tissue), his laboratory data fulfilled the Leipzig diagnostic criteria proposed by EASL. Laparoscopic examination with liver biopsy has advantages to survey many disease-specific findings on liver surface and to obtain adequate liver sample. Laparoscopic examination is one of the effective procedures for diagnosing relatively rare liver disease like Wilson's disease.

  17. Bone Disease in the Common Marmoset: Radiographic and Histological Findings.

    PubMed

    Olson, E J; Shaw, G C; Hutchinson, E K; Schultz-Darken, N; Bolton, I D; Parker, J B; Morrison, J M; Baxter, V K; Pate, K A Metcalf; Mankowski, J L; Carlson, C S

    2015-09-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a New World primate that is used in biomedical research due to its small size and relative ease of handling compared with larger primates. Although bone disease in common marmosets is well recognized, there are very few detailed descriptions in the literature that cover the range of lesions seen in these animals. For all animals used to model human disease, it is important to be aware of background lesions that may affect the interpretation of study findings. This retrospective study details bone diseases encountered in marmoset breeding colonies at 2 different institutions. Affected marmosets at Johns Hopkins University had lesions compatible with diagnoses of rickets, fibrous osteodystrophy and osteopenia. Affected marmosets at the Wisconsin National Primate Research Center exhibited severe lesions of osteoclastic bone resorption and remodeling that had an unusual distribution and were not easily categorized into a known disease entity. The purpose of this report is to document these naturally occurring skeletal lesions of common marmosets and suggest an approach to evaluating skeletal disease in prospective studies of these animals that will allow the most accurate diagnoses.

  18. Don't forget to report "simple" finding on CT: the hypodense eye lens.

    PubMed

    Taslakian, Bedros; Hourani, Roula

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic eye injuries are associated with significant visual impairment and are a major cause of monocular blindness. Rapid assessment and examination following trauma to the eye is crucial. A thorough knowledge of potential injuries is imperative to ensure rapid diagnosis, to prevent further damage to the eye, and to preserve visual capacity. One consequence of ocular trauma is cataract formation. We report a case and image of a 5-year-old boy who presented after sustaining a blunt head trauma. CT scan of the head revealed a markedly hypodense left eye lens.

  19. Scintigraphic and CT findings of Tietze's syndrome: Report of a case and review of the literature

    SciTech Connect

    Honda, N.; Machida, K.; Mamiya, T.; Takahashi, T.; Takishima, T.; Hasegawa, N.; Kamano, T.; Hashimoto, M.; Ohno, K.; Itoyama, S.; )

    1989-08-01

    A case of Tietze's syndrome is reported. A 43-year-old woman, who had experienced right anterior chest pain and tender swelling of the right first costosternal junction for seven months, showed increased accumulation of the right first, the right fourth, and the left first costochondral junction on bone imaging. Ga-67 imaging showed increased accumulation at the right first costosternal junction. CT showed sclerosis of the sternal manubrium, partial calcification of costal cartilage, and soft tissue swelling. Biopsy of the right first costal cartilage showed chronic inflammation with fibrosis and ossification. Increased uptake of bone gallium imaging is consistent with Tietze's syndrome.15 references.

  20. Genetic polymorphism of interleukin 1β -511C/T and susceptibility to sporadic Alzheimer's disease: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hai; Xia, Qing; Ge, Pingping; Wu, Shaowei

    2013-02-01

    A large number of epidemiological studies have been performed to investigate the association between Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk and interleukin-1β -511C/T genetic polymorphism, however, inconsistent results have been reported. The effect of the IL-1β -511C/T polymorphism on AD susceptibility was evaluated by a meta-analysis. Series of databases were researched. 14 studies involving 2640 AD case and 3493 control subjects were identified. The pooled results showed there were no statistical associations of interleukin-1β -511C/T genetic polymorphism with susceptibility to AD for five analysis models in all subjects. However, obvious heterogeneity among studies was detected. When stratifying for age at onset, ethnicity and geographic distribution of population to explore the original source of heterogeneity, the meta-analysis results based on geographic distribution of population showed the significant difference (CC vs CT, OR 1.26, 95 % CI: 1.03, 1.54, z = 2.25, P = 0.025; CC vs CT+TT, OR 1.24, 95 % CI: 1.03, 1.50, z = 2.24, P = 0.025) only in non-Europe. These findings indicate that the IL-1β -511C/T polymorphism might be associated with AD risk, and individuals with IL-1β -511C/C genotype might be at higher risk of AD in non-Europe. Further larger sample research would be warranted to confirm these conclusions.

  1. Recent Findings in Alzheimer Disease and Nutrition Focusing on Epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Athanasopoulos, Dimitrios; Karagiannis, George; Tsolaki, Magda

    2016-09-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease with no effective cure so far. The current review focuses on the epigenetic mechanisms of AD and how nutrition can influence the course of this disease through regulation of gene expression, according to the latest scientific findings. The search strategy was the use of scientific databases such as PubMed and Scopus in order to find relative research or review articles published in the years 2012-2015. By showing the latest data of various nutritional compounds, this study aims to stimulate the scientific community to recognize the value of nutrition in this subject. Epigenetics is becoming a very attractive subject for researchers because it can shed light on unknown aspects of complex diseases like AD. DNA methylation, histone modifications, and microRNAs are the principal epigenetic mechanisms involved in AD pathophysiology. Nutrition is an environmental factor that is related to AD through epigenetic pathways. Vitamin B-12, for instance, can alter the one-carbon metabolism and thus interfere in the DNA methylation process. The research results might seem ambiguous about the clinical role of nutrition, but there is strengthening evidence that proper nutrition can not only change epigenetic biomarker levels but also prevent the development of late-onset AD and attenuate cognition deficit. Nutrition might grow to become a preventive and even therapeutic alternative against AD, especially if combined with other antidementia interventions, brain exercise, physical training, etc. Epigenetic biomarkers can be a very helpful tool to help researchers find the exact nutrients needed to create specific remedies, and perhaps the same biomarkers can be used even in patient screening in the future. PMID:27633107

  2. Contrast-enhanced CT imaging in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    von Stillfried, Saskia; Apitzsch, Jonas C; Ehling, Josef; Penzkofer, Tobias; Mahnken, Andreas H; Knüchel, Ruth; Floege, Jürgen; Boor, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Renal microvascular rarefaction characterizes chronic kidney disease (CKD). In murine models of CKD, micro-CT imaging reflected capillary rarefaction using quantification of renal relative blood volume (rBV). In addition, micro-CT imaging revealed morphological alterations of the intrarenal vasculature including reduced vascular branching and lumen diameter. Here, we retrospectively quantified rBV in contrast-enhanced CT angiography in patients and found that, compared to non-CKD patients, those with CKD and renal fibrosis had significantly reduced rBV in the renal cortex. rBV values closely mirrored capillary rarefaction in the corresponding nephrectomy specimens. In patients with follow-up CT angiography, reduction of renal function was paralleled by a decline in rBV. Using virtual autopsy, i.e., postmortem CT angiography, morphometry of intrarenal arteries in 3D-rendered CT images revealed significantly reduced arterial diameter and branching in CKD compared to non-CKD cases. In conclusion, in CKD patients, contrast-enhanced CT imaging with quantification of rBV correlates with functional renal vasculature, whereas virtual autopsy allows morphometric analyses of macrovascular changes. Importantly, the observed vascular alterations in CKD patients mirror those in animals with progressive CKD, suggesting a high relevance of animal models for studying vascular alterations in CKD and renal fibrosis. PMID:27582011

  3. Common and unexpected findings in mummies from ancient Egypt and South America as revealed by CT.

    PubMed

    Jackowski, Christian; Bolliger, Stephan; Thali, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has proved to be a valuable investigative tool for mummy research and is the method of choice for examining mummies. It allows for noninvasive insight, especially with virtual endoscopy, which reveals detailed information about the mummy's sex, age, constitution, injuries, health, and mummification techniques used. CT also supplies three-dimensional information about the scanned object. Mummification processes can be summarized as "artificial," when the procedure was performed on a body with the aim of preservation, or as "natural," when the body's natural environment resulted in preservation. The purpose of artificial mummification was to preserve that person's morphologic features by delaying or arresting the decay of the body. The ancient Egyptians are most famous for this. Their use of evisceration followed by desiccation with natron (a compound of sodium salts) to halt putrefaction and prevent rehydration was so effective that their embalmed bodies have survived for nearly 4500 years. First, the body was cleaned with a natron solution; then internal organs were removed through the cribriform plate and abdomen. The most important, and probably the most lengthy, phase was desiccation. After the body was dehydrated, the body cavities were rinsed and packed to restore the body's former shape. Finally, the body was wrapped. Animals were also mummified to provide food for the deceased, to accompany the deceased as pets, because they were seen as corporal manifestations of deities, and as votive offerings. Artificial mummification was performed on every continent, especially in South and Central America.

  4. Association of Esophageal Inflammation, Obesity and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: From FDG PET/CT Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yi-Chia; Wang, Shan-Ying; Chiu, Han-Mo; Tu, Chia-Hung; Wang, Hsiu-Po; Lin, Jaw-Town; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2014-01-01

    Objective Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is associated with bothersome symptoms and neoplastic progression into Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. We aim to determine the correlation between GERD, esophageal inflammation and obesity with 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). Methods We studied 458 subjects who underwent a comprehensive health check-up, which included an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, FDG PET/CT and complete anthropometric measures. GERD symptoms were evaluated with Reflux Disease Questionnaire. Endoscopically erosive esophagitis was scored using the Los Angeles classification system. Inflammatory activity, represented by standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of FDG at pre-determined locations of esophagus, stomach and duodenum, were compared. Association between erosive esophagitis, FDG activity and anthropometric evaluation, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes were analyzed. Results Subjects with erosive esophagitis (n = 178, 38.9%) had significantly higher SUVmax at middle esophagus (2.69±0.74 vs. 2.41±0.57, P<.001) and esophagogastric junction (3.10±0.89 vs. 2.38±0.57, P<.001), marginally higher at upper esophageal sphincter (2.29±0.42 vs. 2.21±0.48, P = .062), but not in stomach or duodenum. The severity of erosive esophagitis correlated with SUVmax and subjects with Barrett's esophagus had the highest SUVmax at middle esophagus and esophagogastric junction. Heartburn positively correlated with higher SUVmax at middle oesophagus (r = .262, P = .003). Using multivariate regression analyses, age (P = .027), total cholesterol level (P = .003), alcohol drinking (P = .03), subcutaneous adipose tissue (P<.001), BMI (P<.001) and waist circumference (P<.001) were independently associated with higher SUVmax at respective esophageal locations. Conclusions Esophageal inflammation

  5. Evidence for myocardial CT perfusion imaging in the diagnosis of hemodynamically significant coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This editorial discusses a recent paper published in the August issue of Radiology about the diagnostic value of myocardial computer tomography (CT) perfusion imaging in the detection of hemodynamically significant coronary stenosis when compared to single-photon emission CT (SPECT) imaging based on a secondary analysis of CORE320 study. Three aspects including high diagnostic sensitivity of CT perfusion imaging, moderate specificity of SPECT imaging and lack of use of attenuation correction in SPECT imaging have been discussed with reference to the current literature, and some suggestions have been highlighted for future studies to improve the diagnostic performance of CT perfusion and SPECT imaging in the diagnostic evaluation of coronary artery disease. PMID:25774349

  6. MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING FINDINGS IN SMALL RUMINANTS WITH BRAIN DISEASE.

    PubMed

    Ertelt, Katrin; Oevermann, Anna; Precht, Christina; Lauper, Josiane; Henke, Diana; Gorgas, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Brain disease is an important cause of neurologic deficits in small ruminants, however few MRI features have been described. The aim of this retrospective, case series study was to describe MRI characteristics in a group of small ruminants with confirmed brain disease. A total of nine small ruminants (six sheep and three goats) met inclusion criteria. All had neurologic disorders localized to the brain and histopathologic confirmation. In animals with toxic-metabolic diseases, there were bilaterally symmetric MRI lesions affecting either the gray matter (one animal with polioencephalomalacia) or the white matter (two animals with enterotoxemia). In animals with suppurative inflammation, asymmetric focal brainstem lesions were present (two animals with listeric encephalitis), or lesions typical of an intra-axial (one animal) or dural abscess (one animal), respectively. No MRI lesions were detected in one animal with suspected viral cerebellitis and one animal with parasitic migration tracts. No neoplastic or vascular lesions were identified in this case series. Findings from the current study supported the use of MRI for diagnosing brain diseases in small ruminants.

  7. Paired inspiratory-expiratory chest CT scans to assess for small airways disease in COPD

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gas trapping quantified on chest CT scans has been proposed as a surrogate for small airway disease in COPD. We sought to determine if measurements using paired inspiratory and expiratory CT scans may be better able to separate gas trapping due to emphysema from gas trapping due to small airway disease. Methods Smokers with and without COPD from the COPDGene Study underwent inspiratory and expiratory chest CT scans. Emphysema was quantified by the percent of lung with attenuation < −950HU on inspiratory CT. Four gas trapping measures were defined: (1) Exp−856, the percent of lung < −856HU on expiratory imaging; (2) E/I MLA, the ratio of expiratory to inspiratory mean lung attenuation; (3) RVC856-950, the difference between expiratory and inspiratory lung volumes with attenuation between −856 and −950 HU; and (4) Residuals from the regression of Exp−856 on percent emphysema. Results In 8517 subjects with complete data, Exp−856 was highly correlated with emphysema. The measures based on paired inspiratory and expiratory CT scans were less strongly correlated with emphysema. Exp−856, E/I MLA and RVC856-950 were predictive of spirometry, exercise capacity and quality of life in all subjects and in subjects without emphysema. In subjects with severe emphysema, E/I MLA and RVC856-950 showed the highest correlations with clinical variables. Conclusions Quantitative measures based on paired inspiratory and expiratory chest CT scans can be used as markers of small airway disease in smokers with and without COPD, but this will require that future studies acquire both inspiratory and expiratory CT scans. PMID:23566024

  8. CT-Guided Transthoracic Core Biopsy for Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Diagnostic Value of the Histopathological Findings in the Specimen

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, Hozumi Ibukuro, Kenji; Tsukiyama, Toshitaka; Ishii, Rei

    2004-09-15

    We evaluated the value of CT-guided transthoracic core biopsy for the diagnosis of mycobacterial pulmonary nodules. The 30 subjects in this study had pulmonary nodules that had been either diagnosed histopathologically as tuberculosis or were suspected as tuberculosis based on a specimen obtained by CT-guided transthoracic core biopsy. The histopathological findings, the existence of acid-fast bacilli in the biopsy specimens, and the clinical course of the patients after the biopsy were reviewed retrospectively. Two of the three histological findings for tuberculosis that included epithelioid cells, multinucleated giant cells and caseous necrosis were observed in 21 of the nodules which were therefore diagnosed as histological tuberculosis. Six of these 21 nodules were positive for acid-fast bacilli, confirming the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Thirteen of the 21 nodules did not contain acid-fast bacilli but decreased in size in response to antituberculous treatment and were therefore diagnosed as clinical tuberculosis. Seven nodules with only caseous necrosis were diagnosed as suspected tuberculosis, with a final diagnosis of tuberculosis being made in 4 of the nodules and a diagnosis of old tuberculosis in 2 nodules. Two nodules with only multinucleated giant cells were diagnosed as suspected tuberculosis with 1 of these nodules being diagnosed finally as tuberculosis and the other nodule as a nonspecific granuloma. When any two of the three following histopathological findings - epithelioid cells, multinucleated giant cells or caseous necrosis - are observed in a specimen obtained by CT-guided transthoracic core biopsy, the diagnosis of tuberculosis can be established without the detection of acid-fast bacilli or Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  9. DIAGNOSTIC ACCURACY OF BARIUM ENEMA FINDINGS IN HIRSCHSPRUNG'S DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    PEYVASTEH, Mehran; ASKARPOUR, Shahnam; OSTADIAN, Nasrollah; MOGHIMI, Mohammad-Reza; JAVAHERIZADEH, Hazhir

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Hirschsprung's disease is the most common cause of pediatric intestinal obstruction. Contrast enema is used for evaluation of the patients with its diagnosis. Aim: To evaluate sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of radiologic findings for diagnosis of Hirschsprung in patients underwent barium enema. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in Imam Khomeini Hospital for one year starting from 2012, April. Sixty patients were enrolled. Inclusion criteria were: neonates with failure to pass meconium, abdominal distention, and refractory constipation who failed to respond with medical treatment. Transitional zone, delay in barium evacuation after 24 h, rectosigmoid index (maximum with of the rectum divided by maximum with of the sigmoid; abnormal if <1), and irregularity of mucosa (jejunization) were evaluated in barium enema. Biopsy was obtained at three locations apart above dentate line. PPV, NPV, specificity , and sensitivity was calculated for each finding. Results: Mean age of the cases with Hirschsprung's disease and without was 17.90±18.29 months and 17.8±18.34 months respectively (p=0.983). It was confirmed in 30 (M=20, F=10) of cases. Failure to pass meconium was found in 21(70%) cases. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 90%, 80%, 81.8% and 88.8% respectively for transitional zone in barium enema. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 76.7%, 83.3%, 78.1% and 82.1% respectively for rectosigmoid index .Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 46.7%, 100%, 100% and 65.2% respectively for irregular contraction detected in barium enema. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 23.3%, 100%, 100% and 56.6% respectively for mucosal irregularity in barium enema. Conclusion: The most sensitive finding was transitional zone. The most specific findings were irregular contraction, mucosal irregularity, and followed by cobblestone appearance. PMID:27759777

  10. Classification of patterns for diffuse lung diseases in thoracic CT images by AdaBoost algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Masayuki; Kido, Shoji; Shouno, Hayaru

    2009-02-01

    CT images are considered as effective for differential diagnosis of diffuse lung diseases. However, the diagnosis of diffuse lung diseases is a difficult problem for the radiologists, because they show a variety of patterns on CT images. So, our purpose is to construct a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for classification of patterns for diffuse lung diseases in thoracic CT images, which gives both quantitative and objective information as a second opinion, to decrease the burdens of radiologists. In this article, we propose a CAD system based on the conventional pattern recognition framework, which consists of two sub-systems; one is feature extraction part and the other is classification part. In the feature extraction part, we adopted a Gabor filter, which can extract patterns such like local edges and segments from input textures, as a feature extraction of CT images. In the recognition part, we used a boosting method. Boosting is a kind of voting method by several classifiers to improve decision precision. We applied AdaBoost algorithm for boosting method. At first, we evaluated each boosting component classifier, and we confirmed they had not enough performances in classification of patterns for diffuse lung diseases. Next, we evaluated the performance of boosting method. As a result, by use of our system, we could improve the classification rate of patterns for diffuse lung diseases.

  11. Neurological findings in Alzheimer's disease and normal aging.

    PubMed

    Galasko, D; Kwo-on-Yuen, P F; Klauber, M R; Thal, L J

    1990-06-01

    To determine the potential value of abnormal neurological findings as markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their relationship to the stage of AD, we compared standardized neurological examinations in 135 community-dwelling patients with AD and 91 nondemented elderly individuals. After correcting for differences in age and education between the two groups, we found that rigidity, stooped posture, graphesthesia, neglect of simultaneous tactile stimuli (face-hand test), and snout, grasp, and glabella reflexes were present significantly more often in patients with AD than in control subjects. These findings increased in prevalence in patients with AD according to the severity of dementia. However, in a multivariate logistic regression model only the grasp reflex, graphesthesia, and the face-hand test were statistically significantly associated with the degree of cognitive impairment. Although abnormal neurological findings occur regularly in AD, they are too infrequent early in the course of AD to serve as diagnostic markers. Prospective studies are needed to determine whether patients with the early onset of extrapyramidal or other findings form a distinct subgroup of AD.

  12. False positivity of FDG-PET/CT in a child with Hodgkin disease.

    PubMed

    Beker, Dildar Bahar; Berrak, Su Gulsun; Canpolat, Cengiz; Tugtepe, Halil; Ones, Tunc; Tecimer, Tulay

    2008-04-01

    Role of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with F-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) in staging of Hodgkin disease is well established despite several controversies. We report a Stage III Hodgkin lymphoma patient with false positive FDG-PET/CT results. Seven-year-old male with Hodgkin lymphoma was in remission at end of chemotherapy. At third and fourth month of postchemotherapy follow-up, increased Gallium uptake and positive FDG-PET/CT in right lower quadrant of abdomen was observed. Open biopsy revealed lymphoid hyperplasia. He has been followed for 21 months without any evidence of disease. Despite its documented benefit, we believe that results of FDG-PET/CT should be interpreted with great caution in order to avoid unnecessary interventions. PMID:17417791

  13. Comparison of CT and MR in 400 patients with suspected disease of the brain and cervical spinal cord

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, W.G. Jr.; Waluch, V.; Yadley, R.A.; Wycoff, R.R.

    1984-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MR) (0.35T) and computed tomography (CT) were compared in 400 consecutive patients with suspected disease of the brain and cervical spinal cord. Of 325 positive diagnoses, MR detected abnormality while CT was normal in 93; MR was more specific in 68; MR and CT gave equivalent information in 129; CT was more specific in 32; and CT was positive while MR was normal in 3. MR was superior to CT in detection of multiple sclerosis, subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy, posterior fossa infarcts and tumors, small extra-axial fluid collections, and cervical syringomyelia. CT was preferable in evaluation of meningiomas and separation of tumor from edema. CT takes less time and may be preferable in patients with acute trauma as well as very young or elderly individuals. Thus the two studies should be considered complementary.

  14. PET/CT in nononcological lung diseases: current applications and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Capitanio, Selene; Nordin, Abdul Jalil; Noraini, Abdul Rahim; Rossetti, Claudio

    2016-09-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) combined with computed tomography (CT) is an established diagnostic modality that has become an essential imaging tool in oncological practice. However, thanks to its noninvasive nature and its capability to provide physiological information, the main applications of this technique have significantly expanded.(18)F-labelled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical for PET scanning and demonstrates metabolic activity in various tissues. Since activated inflammatory cells, like malignant cells, predominantly metabolise glucose as a source of energy and increase expression of glucose transporters when activated, FDG-PET/CT can be successfully used to detect and monitor a variety of lung diseases, such as infections and several inflammatory conditions.The added value of FDG-PET/CT as a molecular imaging technique relies on its capability to identify disease in very early stages, long before the appearance of structural changes detectable by conventional imaging. Furthermore, by detecting the active phase of infectious or inflammatory processes, disease progression and treatment efficacy can be monitored.This review will focus on the clinical use of FDG-PET/CT in nonmalignant pulmonary diseases. PMID:27581824

  15. Clinical experience with infliximab biosimilar Remsima (CT-P13) in inflammatory bowel disease patients.

    PubMed

    Jahnsen, Jørgen

    2016-05-01

    Many reference biological therapies have now reached or are near to patent expiry, and therefore a number of biosimilars have been or will be developed. The term biosimilar can be defined as a biotherapeutic product that is similar in efficacy, safety and quality to the licensed reference product. Biosimilars may lead to a reduced price and significant cost savings for the health community and hopefully more patients globally will have easier access to biological therapy when indicated. CT-P13, which is a TNF-alfa inhibitor, is the first monoclonal antibody biosimilar being used in clinical practice. The drug is approved for all indications as an innovator product although clinical efficacy has only been demonstrated in rheumatic diseases. Until now the number of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) treated with CT-P13 is confined, but experience is continuously growing. Based on current data, CT-P13 seems to be efficacious and generally well tolerated in IBD especially in patients who are naïve to biological therapy. Knowledge with regard to interchangeability between CT-P13 and the originator infliximab is however, still rather sparse and more data are desired. Immunogenicity and long-term safety related to CT-P13 are other areas of great importance and good and reliable postmarketing pharmacovigilance is therefore required in the coming years. PMID:27134662

  16. 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients with adult-onset Still's disease.

    PubMed

    Dong, Meng-Jie; Wang, Cai-Qin; Zhao, Kui; Wang, Guo-Lin; Sun, Mei-Ling; Liu, Zhen-Feng; Xu, Liqin

    2015-12-01

    (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) has become useful for the detection and diagnosis of inflammatory conditions, including rheumatic diseases, immunoglobulin (Ig) G4-related disease and giant cell arteritis. However, few articles based on small sample sizes (n = 7) diagnosed as adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) have been published. The study aim was to observe the reliable characteristics and usefulness of (18)F-FDG PET/CT for the evaluation of consecutive patients with AOSD. Eligible patients were selected from among those who had undergone (18)F-FDG PET/CT between May 2007 and June 2014. Twenty-six consecutive AOSD patients were recruited retrospectively according to criteria set by Yamaguchi et al. All patients underwent evaluation by (18)F-FDG PET/CT. The characteristics and usefulness of (18)F-FDG PET/CT for evaluation of consecutive patients with AOSD were evaluated. All 26 patients had (18)F-FDG-avid lesion(s) related to their particular disease. Diffuse and homogeneous accumulation of (18)F-FDG was seen in the bone marrow (26/26; 100 %; maximum standardized uptake (SUVmax), 2.10-6.73) and spleen (25/26; 96.15 %). The SUVmax of affected lymph nodes was 1.3-9.53 (mean ± SD, 4.12 ± 2.24). The SUVmax and size factors (maximum diameter and areas) of affected lymph nodes were significantly different (P = 0.033 and P = 0.012, respectively). (18)F-FDG PET/CT showed the general distribution of (18)F-FDG accumulation. This factor helped to exclude malignant disease and aided the diagnosis of AOSD (42.3 %) in 11 cases when combined with clinical features and aided decisions regarding appropriate biopsy sites, such as the lymph nodes (n = 9) and bone marrow (n = 13). (18)F-FDG PET/CT is a unique imaging method for the assessment of metabolic activity throughout the body in subjects with AOSD. Characteristics or patterns of AOSD observed on (18)F-FDG PET/CT can be used for the

  17. Pelvis: normal variants and benign findings in FDG-PET/CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Kohan, Andres; Avril, Norbert E

    2014-04-01

    With the widespread use of whole-body fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET/computed tomography as a diagnostic tool in patients with cancer, incidental findings are of increasing importance. This is particularly true within the pelvis, where several benign findings might present with increased FDG uptake. In addition, physiologic excretion of radiotracer by way of the urinary tract can complicate image analysis. This article reviews potential incidental benign findings in the pelvis that one should be aware of when interpreting FDG-PET/computed tomography scans.

  18. Allergies and Disease Severity in Childhood Narcolepsy: Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    Aydinoz, Secil; Huang, Yu-Shu; Gozal, David; Inocente, Clara O.; Franco, Patricia; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Narcolepsy frequently begins in childhood, and is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, with the presence of cataplexy reflecting a more severe phenotype. Narcolepsy may result from genetic predisposition involving deregulation of immune pathways, particularly involving T helper 2 cells (Th2). Increased activation of Th2 cells is usually manifested as allergic conditions such as rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and asthma. We hypothesized that the presence of allergic conditions indicative of increased Th2 balance may dampen the severity of the phenotype in children with narcolepsy. Methods: A retrospective chart review of childhood narcolepsy patients was conducted at three major pediatric sleep centers. Patients were divided into those with narcolepsy without cataplexy (NC−) and narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC+). Demographics, polysomnographic and multiple sleep latency test data, and extraction of information on the presence of allergic diseases such allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and asthma was performed. Results: There were 468 children identified, with 193 children in NC− group and 275 patients in the NC+ group. Overall, NC+ children were significantly younger, had higher body mass index, and had shorter mean sleep latencies and increased sleep onset rapid eye movement events. The frequency of allergic conditions, particularly asthma and allergic rhinitis, was markedly lower in NC+ (58/275) compared to NC− patients (94/193; P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Involvement of the immune system plays an important role in the pathophysiology of narcolepsy. Current findings further suggest that an increased shift toward T helper 2 cells, as indicated by the presence of allergic conditions, may modulate the severity of the phenotype in childhood narcolepsy, and reduce the prevalence of cataplexy in these patients. Citation: Aydinoz S, Huang YS, Gozal D, Inocente CO, Franco P, Kheirandish-Gozal L. Allergies and disease severity in childhood

  19. Anterior mediastinal fat in Behçet's disease: qualitative and quantitative CT analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Yub; Lee, Jongmin; Lee, Hui Joong; Choi, Sun Ju; Hahm, Myong Hun; Yoon, Sung Won

    2013-12-01

    The fat-rich anterior mediastinum could be a sensitive window for monitoring minute changes in vascularity induced by systemic vasculitis. To evaluate this hypothesis, an analysis of anterior mediastinal fat in patients with Behçet's disease and a control group was conducted. This study included 43 patients diagnosed with Behçet's disease within the last 11 years who underwent CT scan; 55 patients were selected as a control population. Mediastinal fat was classified according to CT morphology. Comparison of serum inflammatory markers was performed for evaluation of disease activity according to morphologic types, and average Hounsfield unit of the anterior mediastinum was measured. Significantly higher mean CT attenuation was observed in the Behçet's disease group, compared with the control group (-48.5 ± 33.5 vs. -67.7 ± 18.7, respectively, P < 0.05). Mediastinal fat types were classified as follows: pure fatty tissue (2 vs. 31 % [Behçet's disease vs. control group]), diffuse soft tissue infiltration (16 vs. 29 %), tubular structures (21 vs. 4 %), mixed infiltration with tubular structures (42 vs. 15 %), and evident thymic tissue (19 vs. 22 %). The value for mean mediastinal attenuation was significantly higher in the group with a high level of C-reactive protein than in the normal level group. The mean CT attenuation of anterior mediastinal fat is significantly higher in the Behçet's disease group, compared with the normal group. Although pathologic confirmation is needed, the cause is postulated to be either inflammatory neovascularization or minimal thymic hyperplasia induced by Behçet's disease.

  20. Adenocarcinoma arising in colonic duplication cysts with calcification: CT findings of two cases.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Y; Nakamura, H

    1998-01-01

    We report the computed tomographic findings of mucinous adenocarcinoma with calcification arising from duplication cyst of the colon in two adult cases. In both cases, serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were high. Differential diagnosis of intraperitoneal or retroperitoneal cystic tumors with mucinous density includes duplication cyst, and its malignant change should be considered when serum level of CEA is high.

  1. IgG4-related lung disease with atypical CT imaging: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiaxuan; Li, Xian

    2014-01-01

    IgG4-related lung disease is a rare disease, diagnosed when typical pathologic features are seen in the context of increased serum levels of IgG4 and the elevated tissue’s IgG4-positive plasma cells. Here we reported the case of a 24-year-old woman with IgG4-related lung disease. This patient presented with fever, cough and shortness of breath. Thoracic computed tomography (CT) images demonstrated multiple nodules or masses with high density in both lungs, and thickened interlobular septa. The ‘halo sign’ was observed around the high-density lesions of the upper lobes. This range of CT images’ characteristics is atypical, which differs from previous reports of this condition. PMID:25590008

  2. Ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced CT findings of tularemia in the neck

    PubMed Central

    Doğan, Serap; Ekinci, Afra; Demiraslan, Hayati; Kılıç, Ayşegül Ulu; Mavili, Ertuğrul; Öztürk, Mustafa; İmamoğlu, Hakan; Doğanay, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to evaluate the ultrasonography (US) and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) findings of tularemia in the neck. METHODS US and CECT findings of 58 patients with serologically proven tularemia were retrospectively evaluated. Forty-eight patients underwent US and 42 patients underwent CECT. Lymph node characteristics and parotid preauricular region involvement were analyzed using US and CECT. In addition, involvement of larynx, oropharynx, and retropharynx; presence of periorbital edema; and neck abscess formation were evaluated using CECT. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) results of enlarged lymph nodes were analyzed in 29 patients. RESULTS Hypoechoic pattern, round shape, absence of hilum, and cystic necrosis were seen in most of the lymph nodes especially at level 2 and 3 on US and CECT. Matting was more commonly observed than irregular nodal border on US and CECT. Parotid preauricular region involvement was seen in 20.8% of patients on US. Oropharyngeal, retropharyngeal, laryngeal and parotid preauricular region involvement and periorbital edema were seen in 52.4%, 19.1%, 4.8%, 31%, and 9.5% of tularemia patients, respectively. Neck abscess was found in 59.5% of patients on CECT. Suppurative inflammation was the most common finding of FNAC. CONCLUSION Tularemia should be considered in the presence of level 2 and 3 lymph nodes with cystic necrosis, matting, absence of calcification, oropharyngeal and retropharyngeal region involvement, and neck abscess, particularly in endemic areas. PMID:27498683

  3. Pre-critical MRI findings of an Alzheimer's disease patient with pathologically proven cerebral amyloid angiopathy related lobar hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Toshihiro; Yakushiji, Yusuke; Ide, Toshihiro; Ito, Hiroshi; Kawamoto, Kazuhiro; Hara, Hideo

    2016-05-31

    An 85-year-old woman with untreated hypertension was admitted with a disturbance of consciousness. On admission, brain CT revealed a lobar intracerebral hemorrhage with a midline shift. An intracranial hematoma was evacuated via a life-saving craniotomy. Definite pathological findings of amyloid-β deposition in the excised hematoma (strong in anti-amyloid β40 immunostain, but weak in anti- amyloid β42) indicated cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). She had been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease at a regional memory clinic one month before symptom onset based on MRI findings of medial temporal lobe atrophy as well as CAA-related features of multiple strictly lobar cerebral microbleeds in the occipital lobe, cortical superficial siderosis and >20 enlarged perivascular spaces in the centrum semiovale. This experience suggests that comprehensive interpretation of such CAA-related findings on MRI might help to improve the management of cardiovascular risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27151228

  4. The role of high-resolution chest CT in the diagnosis of neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy - A rare form of pediatric interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Julia; Sanchez, Thomas Ray; Zhang, Yanhong; Jhawar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is rare in infancy or early childhood. Differentiating between the different types of ILD is important for reasons of treatment, monitoring of clinical course and prognosis. We present a case of a 5-month old female with tachypnea and hypoxemia. The clinical suspicion of neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI) was confirmed by high-resolution chest CT and subsequent lung biopsy. We conclude that high-resolution chest CT has characteristics findings that can be used as a non-invasive test to support the clinical diagnosis of neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy.

  5. Correlating Photoreceptor Mosaic Structure to Clinical Findings in Stargardt Disease

    PubMed Central

    Razeen, Moataz M.; Cooper, Robert F.; Langlo, Christopher S.; Goldberg, Mara R.; Wilk, Melissa A.; Han, Dennis P.; Connor, Thomas B.; Fishman, Gerald A.; Collison, Frederick T.; Sulai, Yusufu N.; Dubra, Alfredo; Carroll, Joseph; Stepien, Kimberly E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate a method for correlating photoreceptor mosaic structure with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and microperimetry findings in patients with Stargardt disease. Methods A total of 14 patients with clinically diagnosed Stargardt disease were imaged using confocal and split-detection adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy. Cone photoreceptors were identified manually in a band along the temporal meridian. Resulting values were compared to a normative database (n = 9) to generate cone density deviation (CDD) maps. Manual measurement of outer nuclear layer plus Henle fiber layer (ONL+HFL) thickness was performed, in addition to determination of the presence of ellipsoid zone (EZ) and interdigitation zone (IZ) bands on OCT. These results, along with microperimetry data, were overlaid with the CDD maps. Results Wide variation in foveal structure and CDD maps was seen within this small group. Disruption of ONL+HFL and/or IZ band was seen in all patients, with EZ band preservation in regions with low cone density in 38% of locations analyzed. Normality of retinal lamellar structure on OCT corresponded with cone density and visual function at 50/78 locations analyzed. Outer retinal tubulations containing photoreceptor-like structures were observed in 3 patients. Conclusions The use of CDD color-coded maps enables direct comparison of cone mosaic local density with other measures of retinal structure and function. Larger normative datasets and improved tools for automation of image alignment are needed. Translational Relevance The approach described facilitates comparison of complex multimodal data sets from patients with inherited retinal degeneration, and can be expanded to incorporate other structural imaging or functional testing. PMID:26981328

  6. The response to sodium valproate of patients with sinus headaches with normal endoscopic and CT findings.

    PubMed

    Dadgarnia, Mohammad Hossein; Atighechi, Saeed; Baradaranfar, Mohammad Hossein

    2010-03-01

    The objectives of this study are to evaluate the patients who have sinus headaches, either self-ascribed or physician-diagnosed, and to determinate the response to sodium valproate in a prophylactic treatment of the patients without positive sino-nasal findings. "Sinus headache" is a patient's complaint or physician-diagnosis that can have a variety of underlying causes. The patients are often treated with multiple courses of antibiotics and occasionally undergo a sinus surgery, often with little or no relief of their symptoms. One hundred and four patients with "sinus headaches" were evaluated prospectively. The patients with a normal rigid nasal endoscopy and a paranasal sinus computed tomography scan were treated with sodium valproate as a prophylactic treatment. After a 3-month follow-up, the patients' response to the treatment was evaluated. Seventy-two patients (69.2%) did not have any positive sino-nasal findings in the nasal endoscopy and the computed tomography scanning. The response rate to the treatment for these patients was as follows: significant improvement in 44 patients (61.1%), partial response (9.7%), no response (15.3%), and ten patients (13.9%) withdrew or failed to follow-up. According to Wilcoxon test, the patients' response rate to sodium valproate was statistically significant (P = 0.001). In conclusion, a majority of "sinus headache" patients do not show any positive sino-nasal pathologic finding. Therefore, we have to consider migraine headache as a considerable cause and sodium valproate as an effective conservative treatment.

  7. Congenital malformations of the external and middle ear: high-resolution CT findings of surgical import

    SciTech Connect

    Swartz, J.D.; Faerber, E.N.

    1985-03-01

    The external auditory canal, middle ear, and bulk of the ossicular chain develop from the first branchial groove, first and second branchial arches, and first pharyngeal pouch. Embryologic development of these structures is complex and only rarely are two anomalies identical. This study includes 11 cases of unilateral external auditory canal atresia and two cases of bilateral atresia. Eight cases (four bilateral) of isolated congenital ossicular anomalies are also included. Emphasis is placed on findings of surgical import. All patients were studied with computed tomography only, because it was believed that the bony and soft-tissue detail achieved is superior to that with conventional multidirectional tomography.

  8. Finding the Gatekeeper to the Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory: Coronary CT Angiography or Stress Testing?

    PubMed

    Marwick, Thomas H; Cho, Iksung; Ó Hartaigh, Bríain; Min, James K

    2015-06-30

    Functional capacity is a robust predictor of clinical outcomes, and stress testing is used in current practice paradigms to guide referral to invasive coronary angiography. However, invasive coronary angiography is driven by ongoing symptoms, as well as risk of adverse outcomes. The limitations of current functional testing-based paradigms might be avoided by using coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) for exclusion of obstructive coronary artery disease. The growth of CCTA has been supported by comparative prognostic evidence with CCTA and functional testing, as well as radiation dose reduction. Use of CCTA for physiological evaluation of coronary lesion-specific ischemia may facilitate evaluation of moderate stenoses, designation of the culprit lesion, and prediction of benefit from revascularization. The potential of CCTA to serve as an effective gatekeeper to invasive coronary angiography will depend, in part, on the adoption of these new developments, as well as definition of the benefit of detecting high-risk plaque for guiding the management of selected patients.

  9. CT appearance of acute inflammatory disease of the renal interstitium

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, R.P.; McClennan, B.L.; Rottenberg, R.R.

    1983-08-01

    Today, infection remains the most common disease of the urinary tract and constitutes almost 75% of patient problems requiring urologic evaluation. There have been several major factors responsible for our better understanding of the nature and pathophysiology of urinary tract infection. One has been quantitated urine bacteriology and another, the discovery that a significant part of the apparently healthy adult female population has asymptomatic bacteriuria. Abnormal conditions such as neurogenic bladder, bladder malignancy, prolonged catheter drainage and reflux, altered host resistance, diabetes mellitus, and urinary tract obstruction, as well as pregnancy, may either predispose to or be implicated in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection. There is a wide range of conditions that result in acute renal inflammation and those under discussion affect primarily the interstitium. This term refers to the connective tissue elements separating the tubules in the cortex and medulla. Hence, the interstitial nephritides are to be distinguished from the glomerulonephritides and fall into two general etiologic categories: infectious and noninfectious.

  10. Predominant diffuse ground glass opacity in both lung fields: A case of sarcoidosis with atypical CT findings

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chunmei; Zhao, Yadong; Wu, Taihua

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis can cause fatal diffuse lung fibrosis in the end stage, so its early diagnosis and treatment can prevent the progression of fibrosis. Predominant ground glass opacity on high-resolution CT (HRCT) scans is a rare presentation of sarcoidosis. We report the case of a patient who presented with very few symptoms and signs of sarcoidosis; HRCT revealed large-scale ground glass opacity and minor lymphadenopathy. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid contained turbid liquid. Sarcoidosis could be confirmed only based on pathological examination of the resected tissue. The patient was administrated prednisone at 40 mg/d orally with tapering of the dose. Lung HRCT scans taken 6 months after the prednisone treatment showed ablation of the ground glass opacity. This case report sheds light on an atypical HRCT presentation of sarcoidosis; the findings here will be useful for the early diagnosis of sarcoidosis and prevention of fatal complications. PMID:27222788

  11. Dual-Energy CT Angiography in Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Brockmann, Carolin Jochum, Susanne; Sadick, Maliha; Huck, Kurt; Ziegler, Peter; Fink, Christian; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Diehl, Steffen J.

    2009-07-15

    We sought to study the accuracy of dual-energy computed tomographic angiography (DE-CTA) for the assessment of symptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease of the lower extremity by using the dual-energy bone removal technique compared with a commercially available conventional bone removal tool. Twenty patients underwent selective digital subtraction angiography and DE-CTA of the pelvis and lower extremities. CTA data were postprocessed with two different applications: conventional bone removal and dual-energy bone removal. All data were reconstructed and evaluated as 3D maximum-intensity projections. Time requirements for reconstruction were documented. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and concordance of DE-CTA regarding degree of stenosis and vessel wall calcification were calculated. A total of 359 vascular segments were analyzed. Compared with digital subtraction angiography, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, respectively, of CTA was 97.2%, 94.1%, and 94.7% by the dual-energy bone removal technique. The conventional bone removal tool delivered a sensitivity of 77.1%, a specificity of 70.7%, and an accuracy of 72.0%. Best results for both postprocessing methods were achieved in the vascular segments of the upper leg. In severely calcified segments, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy stayed above 90% by the dual-energy bone removal technique, whereas the conventional bone removal technique showed a substantial decrease of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. DE-CTA is a feasible and accurate diagnostic method in the assessment of symptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Results obtained by DE-CTA are superior to the conventional bone removal technique and less dependent on vessel wall calcifications.

  12. Autopsy findings in two siblings with infantile Refsum disease.

    PubMed

    Chow, C W; Poulos, A; Fellenberg, A J; Christodoulou, J; Danks, D M

    1992-01-01

    Recognition of adrenal atrophy during a review of autopsy findings in two sisters who died at 8 months and 3 1/2 years prompted estimation of very long chain fatty acids, phytanic acid and pristanic acid on wet liver fixed in formalin for 12 years. These were shown to be markedly increased and defects in multiple peroxisomal functions and decrease in particulate catalase were shown in cultured fibroblasts, confirming an abnormality of peroxisomal biogenesis. The patients had presented with failure to thrive, recurrent diarrhoea and vomiting, poor mental development, retinal pigmentation, blindness and in the older patient deafness, with only mild dysmorphic features. Autopsy in the older patient showed adrenal atrophy, cirrhosis, and foamy histiocytes in multiple organs. The brain showed no demyelination, little cytoarchitectural abnormality, occasional perivascular histiocytes in the grey matter and meninges and prominent Purkinje cells in the molecular layer of the cerebellum. In the younger patient the changes were very subtle in spite of the marked clinical similarity. Despite the young age at death the clinicopathological features are most suggestive of infantile Refsum disease. In many situations anatomical pathology can be very useful in the recognition and study of peroxisomal disorders.

  13. The added value of hybrid ventilation/perfusion SPECT/CT in patients with stable COPD or apparently healthy smokers. Cancer-suspected CT findings in the lungs are common when hybrid imaging is used.

    PubMed

    Jögi, Jonas; Markstad, Hanna; Tufvesson, Ellen; Bjermer, Leif; Bajc, Marika

    2015-01-01

    Ventilation/perfusion (V/P) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is recognized as a diagnostic method with potential beyond the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. V/P SPECT identifies functional impairment in diseases such as heart failure (HF), pneumonia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The development of hybrid SPECT/computed tomography (CT) systems, combining functional with morphological imaging through the addition of low-dose CT (LDCT), may be useful in COPD, as these patients are prone to lung cancer and other comorbidities. The aim of this study was to investigate the added value of LDCT among healthy smokers and patients with stable COPD, when examined with V/P SPECT/CT hybrid imaging. Sixty-nine subjects, 55 with COPD (GOLD I-IV) and 14 apparently healthy smokers, were examined with V/P SPECT and LDCT hybrid imaging. Spirometry was used to verify COPD grade. Only one apparently healthy smoker and three COPD patients had a normal or nearly normal V/P SPECT. All other patients showed various degrees of airway obstruction, even when spirometry was normal. The same interpretation was reached on both modalities in 39% of the patients. LDCT made V/P SPECT interpretation more certain in 9% of the patients and, in 52%, LDCT provided additional diagnoses. LDCT better characterized the type of emphysema in 12 patients. In 19 cases, tumor-suspected changes were reported. Three of these 19 patients (ie, 4.3% of all subjects) were in the end confirmed to have lung cancer. The majority of LDCT findings were not regarded as clinically significant. V/P SPECT identified perfusion patterns consistent with decompensated left ventricular HF in 14 COPD patients. In 16 patients (23%), perfusion defects were observed. HF and perfusion defects were not recognized with LDCT. In COPD patients and long-time smokers, hybrid imaging had added value compared to V/P SPECT alone, by identifying patients with lung malignancy and more clearly identifying

  14. The added value of hybrid ventilation/perfusion SPECT/CT in patients with stable COPD or apparently healthy smokers. Cancer-suspected CT findings in the lungs are common when hybrid imaging is used.

    PubMed

    Jögi, Jonas; Markstad, Hanna; Tufvesson, Ellen; Bjermer, Leif; Bajc, Marika

    2015-01-01

    Ventilation/perfusion (V/P) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is recognized as a diagnostic method with potential beyond the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. V/P SPECT identifies functional impairment in diseases such as heart failure (HF), pneumonia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The development of hybrid SPECT/computed tomography (CT) systems, combining functional with morphological imaging through the addition of low-dose CT (LDCT), may be useful in COPD, as these patients are prone to lung cancer and other comorbidities. The aim of this study was to investigate the added value of LDCT among healthy smokers and patients with stable COPD, when examined with V/P SPECT/CT hybrid imaging. Sixty-nine subjects, 55 with COPD (GOLD I-IV) and 14 apparently healthy smokers, were examined with V/P SPECT and LDCT hybrid imaging. Spirometry was used to verify COPD grade. Only one apparently healthy smoker and three COPD patients had a normal or nearly normal V/P SPECT. All other patients showed various degrees of airway obstruction, even when spirometry was normal. The same interpretation was reached on both modalities in 39% of the patients. LDCT made V/P SPECT interpretation more certain in 9% of the patients and, in 52%, LDCT provided additional diagnoses. LDCT better characterized the type of emphysema in 12 patients. In 19 cases, tumor-suspected changes were reported. Three of these 19 patients (ie, 4.3% of all subjects) were in the end confirmed to have lung cancer. The majority of LDCT findings were not regarded as clinically significant. V/P SPECT identified perfusion patterns consistent with decompensated left ventricular HF in 14 COPD patients. In 16 patients (23%), perfusion defects were observed. HF and perfusion defects were not recognized with LDCT. In COPD patients and long-time smokers, hybrid imaging had added value compared to V/P SPECT alone, by identifying patients with lung malignancy and more clearly identifying

  15. CT findings of thoracic manifestations of primary Sjögren syndrome: radiologic-pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Egashira, Ryoko; Kondo, Tetsuya; Hirai, Tetsuyoshi; Kamochi, Noriyuki; Yakushiji, Mai; Yamasaki, Fumio; Irie, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Primary Sjögren syndrome is an immune-mediated exocrinopathy characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the salivary and lacrimal glands. Various systemic extraglandular disorders are associated with primary Sjögren syndrome, and the thorax is commonly affected. The pulmonary manifestations of primary Sjögren syndrome may be categorized as airway abnormalities, interstitial pneumonias, and lymphoproliferative disorders; in each category, bronchiectasis or centrilobular nodules, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, and lymphoid interstitial pneumonia are common. These manifestations do not usually occur in isolation; they are concomitantly seen with other types of lesions. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and amyloidosis are key components of lymphoproliferative disorders, and MALT lymphoma should always be considered because its morphologic characteristics are similar to those of benign lymphoproliferative disorders. Amyloidosis is rare but important because it carries a risk for underlying MALT lymphoma or plasmacytoma, and it may lead to hemoptysis during biopsy. In addition, thin-walled air cysts are characteristic of primary Sjögren syndrome, irrespective of the main pulmonary manifestations. Lymphadenopathy and multilocular thymic cysts may be seen in the mediastinum. During the follow-up period, there is a risk for acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia and development of malignant lymphoma. Often, primary Sjögren syndrome is subclinical, but there are various underlying risks. Thus, imaging findings are important. In addition to the various types of interstitial pneumonia and airway abnormalities, air cysts and mediastinal manifestations may help diagnose primary Sjögren syndrome.

  16. Lung function in silica-exposed workers. A relationship to disease severity assessed by CT scan.

    PubMed

    Bégin, R; Ostiguy, G; Cantin, A; Bergeron, D

    1988-09-01

    To investigate the relationship of lung function, airflow limitation, and lung injury in silica-exposed workers, we analyzed the clinical, functional, and radiologic data of 94 long-term workers exposed in the granite industry or in foundries. The subjects were divided into four subsets based on chest roentgenogram and CT scan of the thorax: group 1 consisted of 21 subjects with category 0 chest roentgenogram and category 0 CT scan; group 2, 28 subjects with category E 1 on both chest roentgenogram and CT scan; group 3, 18 subjects with category E 1 on chest roentgenogram but with coalescence or conglomeration or both seen only on CT scan; and group 4, 27 subjects with category E 1 and coalescence or conglomeration or both on roentgenogram and CT scan. The groups did not differ in terms of age, height, cigarette smoking, or years of exposure. Lung volumes were significantly reduced only in group 4 (p less than 0.05). Lung compliance, diffusion capacity, and the rest-exercise P(A-a)O2 gradient were reduced in groups 3 and 4 (p less than 0.05). Expiratory flow rates were significantly reduced in groups 2, 3, and 4, with the lowest values in group 4. The expiratory flow rates in group 3 were significantly lower in group 3 than in group 2. These results support the concept that airflow in silica-exposed workers is significantly reduced when the disease is detectable on simple chest roentgenogram; coalescence or conglomeration or both on chest roentgenogram or CT scan is associated with significant loss of lung volumes, gas exchange function, and increased airflow obstruction.

  17. Inferior mesenteric vein thrombosis in Crohn`s disease: CT diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Coralnick, J.R.; Budin, J.A.; Sedarat, A.

    1996-01-01

    Mesenteric vein thrombosis has been described in association with such risk factors as coagulation disorders, postoperative dehydration, sepsis, and trauma. CT and ultrasound have greatly facilitated early diagnosis, and the features of superior mesenteric and portal vein thrombosis are well recognized. We present a case of inferior mesenteric vein thrombosis in a patient with Crohn`s disease. To our knowledge, this entity has not been reported in the radiologic literature. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  18. The role of 18FDG, 18FDOPA PET/CT and 99mTc bone scintigraphy imaging in Erdheim-Chester disease.

    PubMed

    García-Gómez, F J; Acevedo-Báñez, I; Martínez-Castillo, R; Tirado-Hospital, J L; Cuenca-Cuenca, J I; Pachón-Garrudo, V M; Álvarez-Pérez, R M; García-Jiménez, R; Rivas-Infante, E; García-Morillo, J S; Borrego-Dorado, I

    2015-08-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocitosis, characterized by multisystemic xanthogranulomatous infiltration by foamy histiocytes that stain positively for CD68 marker but not express CD1a and S100 proteins. Etiology and pathogenesis are still unknown and only about 500 cases are related in the literature. Multisystemic involvement leads to a wide variety of clinical manifestations that results in a poor prognosis although recent advances in treatment. We present the clinical, nuclear medicine findings and therapeutic aspects of a serie of 6 patients with histopathological diagnosis of ECD, who have undergone both bone scintigraphy (BS) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG)-PET/CT scans in our institution. A complementary 18F-fluorodopa (18FDOPA)-PET/CT was performed in one case. Three different presentations of the disease were observed in our casuistic: most indolent form was a cutaneous confined disease, presented in only one patient. Multifocal involvement with central nervous system (CNS) preservation was observed in two patients. Most aggressive form consisted in a systemic involvement with CNS infiltration, presented in three patients. In our experience neurological involvement, among one case with isolate pituitary infiltration, was associated with mortality in all cases. 18FDG-PET/CT and BS were particularly useful in despite systemic involvement; locate the site for biopsy and the treatment response evaluation. By our knowledge, 18FDOPA-PET/CT not seems useful in the initial staging of ECD. A baseline 18FDG-PET/CT and BS may help in monitoring the disease and could be considered when patients were incidentally diagnosed and periodically 18FDG-PET/CT must be performed in the follow up to evaluate treatment response.

  19. ECG findings after myocardial infarction in children after Kawasaki disease

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, T.; Takao, A.; Kondoh, C.; Nakazawa, M.; Hiroe, M.; Matsumoto, Y.

    1988-10-01

    Standard 12-lead ECGs were evaluated in 17 children with myocardial infarction and 78 children without myocardial infarction after Kawasaki disease; sensitivity and specificity of the ECG infarction criteria were determined. The presence or absence of myocardial infarction was determined from either clinical examination results (coronary angiography, ventriculography, and thallium-201 myocardial imaging) or autopsy findings. Of seven patients with inferior infarction, abnormally deep Q waves in lead II, III, or aVF were observed in six, but the duration was greater than 0.04 second in only one (14%). The sensitivity and specificity of inferior infarction criteria based on Q wave amplitude were 86% and 97%, respectively. Of eight patients with anterior infarction, seven (88%) had abnormally deep and wide (greater than or equal to 0.04 second) Q waves in anterior chest leads. The sensitivity and specificity of the infarction criteria based on the amplitude and duration of the Q wave were 75% and 99%, respectively. Of seven patients with lateral infarction, Q waves were observed in lead I, aVL, or both in four patients, and in all of these patients Q waves were wider than 0.04 second. In two patients with both inferior and anterior infarction, Q waves were observed only in leads II, III, and aVF; in only one patient were the Q waves wider than 0.04 second. Thus deep Q waves in lead II, III, or aVF that are not wider than 0.04 second may indicate inferior infarction in children. Q waves in lead I, aVL, and chest leads associated with anterolateral infarction are in most instances deep and wide.

  20. The fibrinogen gamma 10034C>T polymorphism is not associated with Peripheral Arterial Disease.

    PubMed

    Bahadori, Babak; Uitz, Elisabeth; Dehchamani, Dadbeh; Pilger, Ernst; Renner, Wilfried

    2010-10-01

    Conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin plays an essential role in hemostasis and results in stabilization of the fibrin clot. Fibrinogen consists of three pairs of non-identical polypeptide chains, encoded by different genes (fibrinogen alpha [FGA], fibrinogen beta [FGB] and fibrinogen gamma [FGG]). A functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the 3' untranslated region of the FGG gene (FGG 10034C>T, rs2066865) has been associated with deep venous thrombosis and myocardial infarction. Aim of the present study was to analyze the role of this polymorphism in peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The study was designed as case-control study including 891 patients with documented PAD and 777 control subjects. FGG genotypes were determined by exonuclease (TaqMan) assays. FGG genotype frequencies were not significantly different between PAD patients (CC: 57.3%, CT: 36.7%, TT: 5.8%) and control subjects (CC: 60.9%, CT: 33.5%, TT 5.6%; p=0.35). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis including age, sex, smoking, diabetes, arterial hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, the FGG 10034 T variant was not significantly associated with the presence of PAD (Odds ratio 1.07, 95% confidence interval 0.84 - 1.37; p = 0.60). The FGG 10034C>T polymorphism was furthermore not associated with age at onset of PAD. We conclude that the thrombophilic FGG 10034 T gene variant does not contribute to the genetic susceptibility to PAD.

  1. 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT False-Positive Tracer Uptake in Paget Disease.

    PubMed

    Sasikumar, Arun; Joy, Ajith; Nanabala, Raviteja; Pillai, M R A; T A, Hari

    2016-10-01

    65-year-old man with left-sided pelvic pain on evaluation was found to have features suggestive of either Paget disease or prostatic bone metastasis of the left hemipelvis based on Tc-MDP bone scan and MRI. Ga-PSMA PET/CT to assess the possibility of primary prostate cancer and if present to stage it helped to rule out prostate cancer because of absence of focal abnormal increased tracer uptake in the prostate gland. However, false-positive tracer uptake was noted in the left hemipelvis, which was subject to biopsy and histopathologically proven to be Paget disease involvement. PMID:27556797

  2. 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT False-Positive Tracer Uptake in Paget Disease.

    PubMed

    Sasikumar, Arun; Joy, Ajith; Nanabala, Raviteja; Pillai, M R A; T A, Hari

    2016-10-01

    65-year-old man with left-sided pelvic pain on evaluation was found to have features suggestive of either Paget disease or prostatic bone metastasis of the left hemipelvis based on Tc-MDP bone scan and MRI. Ga-PSMA PET/CT to assess the possibility of primary prostate cancer and if present to stage it helped to rule out prostate cancer because of absence of focal abnormal increased tracer uptake in the prostate gland. However, false-positive tracer uptake was noted in the left hemipelvis, which was subject to biopsy and histopathologically proven to be Paget disease involvement.

  3. 18F-FDG and 18F-NaF PET/CT Findings of a Multiple Myeloma Patient With Thyroid Cartilage Involvement.

    PubMed

    Oral, Aylin; Yazici, Bulent; Ömür, Özgür; Comert, Melda; Saydam, Guray

    2015-11-01

    Thyroid cartilage is a very rare extramedullary involvement location in multiple myeloma. We present both F-NaF and F-FDG PET/CT findings of a multiple myeloma patient with thyroid cartilage involvement. In this patient, increased FDG and more intensely increased NaF uptake were seen on thyroid cartilage. In addition, some bone lesions had more intense NaF than FDG uptake, and some were only NaF avid. Although F-FDG PET/CT has an important role in plasma cell neoplasms, we considered that F-NaF PET/CT is also very useful to detect small lytic lesions that might be overlooked on F-FDG PET/CT.

  4. Cardiovascular Disease and Diet: Research Findings for Classroom Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roush, Robert E.

    1980-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major public health problem in the U.S. today. Health education teachers should take the initiative to teach others about the relationships of diet, personal attributes, metabolic disorders, and lifestyle characteristics to CVD. (JN)

  5. Immunologic findings, thrombocytopenia and disease activity in lupus nephritis.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, W. F.; Linton, A. L.; Cordy, P. E.; Keown, P. E.; Lohmann, R. C.; Lindsay, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    Twenty patients with nephritis due to systemic lupus erythematosus were followed up for a mean of 34 months after renal biopsy with serial determinations of total serum complement and C3 and C4 concentrations, binding of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), antinuclear antibody pattern and platelet count. There were 25 episodes of nonhematologic observed disease activity in 16 of the 20 patients; elevated DNA binding and thrombocytopenia correlated well with these episodes. The mean platelet count during episodes of observed disease activity was 96 +/- 42 X 10(9)/L, which was significantly different from the mean count of 248 +/- 90 X 10(9)/L during disease quiescence. The proportion of false-positive results with the immunologic tests varied from 25% to 67% and with platelet counts it was 11%. It is suggested that thrombocytopenia may be a simple and accurate index of disease activity in lupus nephritis. PMID:350367

  6. Peripleural lung disease detection based on multi-slice CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuhiro, M.; Suzuki, H.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Nakano, Y.; Ohmatsu, H.; Kusumoto, M.; Tsuchida, T.; Eguchi, K.; Kaneko, M.

    2015-03-01

    With the development of multi-slice CT technology, obtaining accurate 3D images of lung field in a short time become possible. To support that, a lot of image processing methods need to be developed. Detection peripleural lung disease is difficult due to its existence out of lung region, because lung extraction is often performed based on threshold processing. The proposed method uses thoracic inner region extracted by inner cavity of bone as well as air region, covers peripleural lung diseased cases such as lung nodule, calcification, pleural effusion and pleural plaque. We applied this method to 50 cases including 39 peripleural lung diseased cases. This method was able to detect 39 peripleural lung disease with 2.9 false positive per case.

  7. Bone marrow metastases from alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma with impressive FDG PET/CT finding but less-revealing bone scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jigang; Zhen, Lishi; Zhuang, Hongming

    2013-12-01

    An 18F-FDG PET/CT scan was performed in a 26-year-old man with a known alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma for staging. The PET/CT scan showed abnormally increased FDG activity involving almost all bones in the imaged regions. In contrast, 99mTc-MDP whole-body bone scan demonstrated only very limited bone metastases.

  8. A case of acute interstitial pneumonia indistinguishable from bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia/cryptogenic organizing pneumonia: high-resolution CT findings and pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Ichikado, K; Johkoh, T; Ikezoe, J; Yoshida, S; Honda, O; Mihara, N; Nakamura, H; Tsujimura, T; Suga, M; Ando, M

    1998-01-01

    We report a case of histologically proved acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) with subacute onset whose high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings were indistinguishable from those of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP)/cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP). The HRCT findings were air-space consolidation with air-bronchiologram associated with little ground-glass attenuation, and nodules. Some cases of AIP present HRCT findings indistinguishable from those of BOOP/COP.

  9. Mesenteric and splenic contributions to portal venous CT perfusion in hepatic diffuse disease

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hongzan; Lu, Zaiming; Liang, Hongyuan; Xin, Jun; Gao, Yuying; Guo, Qiyong

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the changes and contributions of superior mesenteric venous perfusion (SMVP) and splenic venous perfusion (SpVP) to portal venous CT perfusion in canine model of hepatic diffuse disease. Materials and methods: By selective catheterization in superior mesenteric and splenic arteries respectively after CT perfusion scanning, SMVP and SpVP became available. Sixteen dogs were adopted and induced by carbon tetrachloride after data under normal conditions were collected. After 3, 6, 9 and 12 months from carbon tetrachloride intervention, liver biopsies by puncture or operation were performed after CT perfusion scanning. SMVP and SpVP under different pathologic conditions were compared and analyzed. Results: Three stages of hepatic diffuse lesions were defined according to pathologic changes, namely hepatitis, hepatic fibrosis, and cirrhosis. The number of dogs which survived from each stage was: 16 from normal, 12 from hepatitis, 10 from hepatic fibrosis and 4 from cirrhosis. During this progressive period, SpVP ml/(min·100 ml) declined slightly, but there were no significant differences between different stages (P > 0.05). SMVP ml/(min·100 ml) in stage of normal (64.1 ± 8.1) and hepatic fibrosis (44.4 ± 4.5), normal and cirrhosis (42.6 ± 5.4), hepatitis (61.3 ± 6.4) and hepatic fibrosis, hepatitis and cirrhosis was significantly different, but there was no significant difference of SMVP between normal and hepatitis (P = 0.326) or hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis (P = 0.668). Conclusions: With our evidence of interventional CT perfusion, it is mesenteric, not splenic, perfusion that might coincide with hepatic portal venous perfusion during the progressive period of hepatic diffuse disease. PMID:25550855

  10. Finding novel molecular connections between developmental processes and disease.

    PubMed

    Park, Jisoo; Wick, Heather C; Kee, Daniel E; Noto, Keith; Maron, Jill L; Slonim, Donna K

    2014-05-01

    Identifying molecular connections between developmental processes and disease can lead to new hypotheses about health risks at all stages of life. Here we introduce a new approach to identifying significant connections between gene sets and disease genes, and apply it to several gene sets related to human development. To overcome the limits of incomplete and imperfect information linking genes to disease, we pool genes within disease subtrees in the MeSH taxonomy, and we demonstrate that such pooling improves the power and accuracy of our approach. Significance is assessed through permutation. We created a web-based visualization tool to facilitate multi-scale exploration of this large collection of significant connections (http://gda.cs.tufts.edu/development). High-level analysis of the results reveals expected connections between tissue-specific developmental processes and diseases linked to those tissues, and widespread connections to developmental disorders and cancers. Yet interesting new hypotheses may be derived from examining the unexpected connections. We highlight and discuss the implications of three such connections, linking dementia with bone development, polycystic ovary syndrome with cardiovascular development, and retinopathy of prematurity with lung development. Our results provide additional evidence that TGFB lays a key role in the early pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome. Our evidence also suggests that the VEGF pathway and downstream NFKB signaling may explain the complex relationship between bronchopulmonary dysplasia and retinopathy of prematurity, and may form a bridge between two currently-competing hypotheses about the molecular origins of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Further data exploration and similar queries about other gene sets may generate a variety of new information about the molecular relationships between additional diseases.

  11. Ledderhose Disease: Clinical, Radiological (Ultrasound and MRI), and Anatomopathological Findings

    PubMed Central

    Omor, Y.; Dhaene, B.; Grijseels, S.; Alard, S.

    2015-01-01

    Plantar fibromatosis, or Ledderhose disease, is a rare hyperproliferative disorder of the plantar aponeurosis. It may occur at any age, with the greatest prevalence at middle age and beyond. This disorder is more common in men than woman and it is sometimes associated with other forms of fibromatosis. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination. Ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be useful to confirm the diagnosis. A 44-year-old man with Ledderhose disease who underwent ultrasound and MR is described in this paper. PMID:26425380

  12. Cannabis finds its way into treatment of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Schicho, Rudolf; Storr, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In ancient medicine, cannabis has been widely used to cure disturbances and inflammation of the bowel. A recent clinical study now shows that the medicinal plant Cannabis sativa has lived up to expectations and proved to be highly efficient in cases of inflammatory bowel diseases. In a prospective placebo-controlled study, it has been shown what has been largely anticipated from anecdotal reports, i.e. that cannabis produces significant clinical benefits in patients with Crohn's disease. The mechanisms involved are not yet clear but most likely include peripheral actions on cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2, and may also include central actions.

  13. Computed Tomographic Findings of Syphilitic Aortitis: A Case Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Fumiko; Satoh, Hideyuki; Sakai, Fumikazu; Nishii, Noriko; Tohda, Joe; Fujimura, Mikihiko; Haruta, Shoji; Yamazaki, Kenji; Endo, Masahiro; Sakomura, Yasunari; Kurosama, Hiromi; Kasanuki, Hiroshi

    2004-03-15

    We describe the computerized tomographic (CT) findings of the aortic wall in a case of acute-phase syphilitic arteritis. The delayed phase of the contrast-enhanced CT shows a double-ring configuration of the thick thoracic aortic wall, which is similar to CT findings previously reported for Takayasu arteritis. We speculate that the resemblance of the CT findings for these two diseases accounts for their similar histopathological features.

  14. Aspirin and coronary heart disease: findings of a prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, E C; Garfinkel, L

    1975-01-01

    Over 1 000 000 men and women answered a confidential questionnaire and were traced for up to six years afterwards. Among other questions each person was asked how often he or she took aspirin-"never", "seldom," or "often." Coronary heart disease death rates were no lower among people who took aspirin often than among those who did not do so. PMID:1131582

  15. Academic Attainment Findings in Children with Sickle Cell Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epping, Amanda S.; Myrvik, Matthew P.; Newby, Robert F.; Panepinto, Julie A.; Brandow, Amanda M.; Scott, J. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) demonstrate deficits in cognitive and academic functioning. This study compared the academic attainment of children with SCD relative to national, state, and local school district rates for African American students. Methods: A retrospective chart review of children with SCD was completed and…

  16. The more you look, the more you find: challenging results on FDG-PET CT in a patient with neurofibromatosis type I

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background FDG-PET/CT is part of the standard diagnostic management of a patients with a large variety of common and less common malignant tumors, based on the increased glucose metabolism within tumors. Case presentation A hybrid fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) was performed in a neurofibromatosis patient to rule out relapse of malignant peripheral nerve sheet tumor. The scan revealed non-malignant neurofibromas, a testis seminoma and hypermetabolic syphilitic granulomata. Conclusion This case stresses the need to rule out infectious diseases when atypical hypermetabolic lesions are present. PMID:24885974

  17. Automated detection and classification of interstitial lung diseases from low-dose CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Bin; Leader, Joseph K.; Fuhrman, Carl R.; Sciurba, Frank C.; Gur, David

    2004-05-01

    We developed a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme to detect and quantitatively assess interstitial lung diseases (ILD) depicted on low-dose and multi-slice helical high-resolution computed tomography (CT) examinations. Eighteen CT cases acquired from patients who underwent routine low-dose whole-lung screening examinations for the detection of lung cancer were used to test the scheme. ILD was identified in all of these cases. The CAD scheme involves multiple steps to segment lung areas, identify suspicious ILD regions depicted on each CT slice, and generate volumetric ILD lesions by grouping and matching ILD regions detected on multiple adjacent slices. The scheme computes five "global" features for each identified ILD region, which include size (or volume), contrast, average local pixel value fluctuation, mean of stochastic fractal dimension, and geometric fractal dimension. Two sets of classification rules are applied to remove false-positive detections. The severity of ILD in each case was rated by one experienced chest radiologist into one of the three categories (mild, moderate, and severe). A distance-weighted k-nearest neighbor algorithm and round-robin validation method was applied to classify each testing case into one of the three categories of severity. In this experiment, the CAD scheme classified 78% (14 out of 18) cases into the same categories as rated by the radiologist.

  18. Computer-aided detection of early interstitial lung diseases using low-dose CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang Cheol; Tan, Jun; Wang, Xingwei; Lederman, Dror; Leader, Joseph K.; Kim, Soo Hyung; Zheng, Bin

    2011-02-01

    This study aims to develop a new computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to detect early interstitial lung disease (ILD) using low-dose computed tomography (CT) examinations. The CAD scheme classifies each pixel depicted on the segmented lung areas into positive or negative groups for ILD using a mesh-grid-based region growth method and a multi-feature-based artificial neural network (ANN). A genetic algorithm was applied to select optimal image features and the ANN structure. In testing each CT examination, only pixels selected by the mesh-grid region growth method were analyzed and classified by the ANN to improve computational efficiency. All unselected pixels were classified as negative for ILD. After classifying all pixels into the positive and negative groups, CAD computed a detection score based on the ratio of the number of positive pixels to all pixels in the segmented lung areas, which indicates the likelihood of the test case being positive for ILD. When applying to an independent testing dataset of 15 positive and 15 negative cases, the CAD scheme yielded the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.884 ± 0.064) and 80.0% sensitivity at 85.7% specificity. The results demonstrated the feasibility of applying the CAD scheme to automatically detect early ILD using low-dose CT examinations.

  19. Hydroxyapatite deposition disease around the hip: outcomes of CT-guided treatment

    PubMed Central

    Klontzas, Michail E.; Vassalou, Evangelia E.; Zibis, Aristeidis H.; Karantanas, Apostolos H.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Hydroxyapatite deposition disease (HADD) around the hip joint is a self-limiting condition usually treated conservatively. The aim of the present study is to directly compare the outcomes of CT-guided and conservative treatments in cases of refractory hip HADD. METHODS Two groups of patients with refractory hip HADD were prospectively constructed from a pool of 484 patients referred for greater trochanter pain syndrome, based on the presence of calcifications around the hip and the failure of conservative treatment. Study group included 22 hips, which underwent CT-guided barbotage and steroid injection treatment, whereas control group consisted of 28 hips that were treated conservatively. Evaluation of the outcome of both groups was performed over a one-year follow-up period with the use of a score measuring clinical improvement in terms of pain and functional impairment. RESULTS Three weeks after the initiation of treatment, study group exhibited significantly higher scores compared with the control group (P < 0.001). Improvement scores of the control group were similar to the study group after three months of treatment (P > 0.1). CONCLUSION CT-guided treatment provides relief of debilitating symptoms in the acute phase. PMID:27537854

  20. Quantitative EEG findings in different stages of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Yong Tae

    2006-10-01

    Although quantitative EEG (q-EEG) has been used in Alzheimer's disease (AD), q-EEG changes in AD are complex because of the progressive nature of this disease. The topographical spectral power and occipital peak frequency (OPF) were compared among elderly controls, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and patients with four stages of AD. In AD patients, except those with a Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR) score of 0.5, OPF was lower than that of elderly controls. Compared with elderly controls, the left anterior alpha spectral power was reduced in CDR 0.5; both posterior theta spectral powers were increased and all alpha spectral powers were reduced in CDR 1; all alpha and beta spectral powers were reduced and theta spectral power was increased in CDR 2; and all alpha and beta spectral powers were reduced and all delta and theta spectral powers were increased in CDR 3. Patients with MCI exhibited a reduction in both centrotemporal, posterior delta and left anterior, centrotemporal theta fields. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score was related to left OPF, right posterior delta and left anterior theta spectral power, in that order. This study suggests that q-EEG in MCI shows nonoverlapping features between controls and AD patients, and AD patients show dynamic changes as the disease progresses. Finally, the left OPF is the parameter most significantly correlated with MMSE score.

  1. Ethmoid sinus disease: CT evaluation in 400 cases. Part I: Nonsurgical patients

    SciTech Connect

    Som, P.M.; Lawson, W.; Biller, H.F.; Lanzieri, C.F.

    1986-06-01

    The unique anatomy of the ethmoid sinuses makes it difficult to interpret ''soft-tissue clouding,'' especially on plain films. The clinical significance of isolated or generalized soft-tissue disease within ethmoid cells is unclear, and the patterns of bone erosion or remodeling must be relied on in establishing a specific differential diagnosis. Of 400 patients studied, 186 had inflammatory disease and 214 had tumors. Squamous cell carcinomas, metastases, and a few aggressive sarcomas were found almost exclusively to have bone destruction, while 94% of the remaining neoplasms were characterized by cavity remodeling. Further differentiation was sometimes possible because of the pattern and degree of tumor enhancement. Of the neoplasms, only the minor salivary gland lesions and neuromas had nonhomogeneous enhancement. Malignant lesions cannot be diagnosed with computed tomography (CT) unless bone destruction is present. Similarly, although the significance of persistent, benign-appearing soft-tissue disease during chemotherapy is unclear, tumor must always be suspected, even after many months of a stable CT appearance.

  2. Planned FDG PET-CT Scan in Follow-Up Detects Disease Progression in Patients With Locally Advanced NSCLC Receiving Curative Chemoradiotherapy Earlier Than Standard CT

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yi; Brink, Carsten; Schytte, Tine; Petersen, Henrik; Wu, Yi-long; Hansen, Olfred

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The role of positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) in surveillance of patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with curatively intended chemoradiotherapy remains controversial. However, conventional chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT) are of limited value in discriminating postradiotherapy changes from tumor relapse. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical value of PET-CT scan in the follow-up for patients with locally advanced (LA) NSCLC receiving concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Between 2009 and 2013, eligible patients with stages IIB–IIIB NSCLC were enrolled in the clinical trial NARLAL and treated in Odense University Hospital (OUH). All patients had a PET-CT scan scheduled 9 months (PET-CT9) after the start of the radiation treatment in addition to standard follow-up (group A). Patients who presented with same clinical stage of NSCLC and received similar treatment, but outside protocol in OUH during this period were selected as control group (group B). Patients in group B were followed in a conventional way without PET-CT9. All patients were treated with induction chemotherapy followed by CCRT. Group A included 37 and group B 55 patients. The median follow-up was 16 months. Sixty-six (72%) patients were diagnosed with progression after treatment. At the time of tumor progression, patients in group A had better performance status (PS) than those in group B (P = 0.02). Because of death (2 patients), poor PS (3) or retreatment of relapse (9), only 23 patients had PET-CT9 in group A. Eleven (48%) patients were firstly diagnosed with progression by PET-CT9 without any clinical symptoms of progression. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 8.8 months in group A and 12.5 months in group B (P = 0.04). Hazard function PFS showed that patients in group A had higher risk of relapse than in group B. Additional FDG PET-CT scan at 9 months in surveillance increases probability of early

  3. Primary central nervous system lymphoma with lymphomatosis cerebri in an immunocompetent child: MRI and 18F-FDG PET-CT findings.

    PubMed

    Jain, Tarun K; Sharma, Punit; Suman, Sudhir K C; Faizi, Nauroze A; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is extremely rare in immunocompetent children. We present the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) findings of such a case in a 14-year old immunocompetent boy. In this patient, PCNSL was associated with lymphomatosis cerebri. Familiarity with the findings of this rare condition will improve the diagnostic confidence of the nuclear radiologist and avoid misdiagnosis.

  4. Added Value of SPECT/CT in the Evaluation of Benign Bone Diseases of the Appendicular Skeleton.

    PubMed

    Abikhzer, Gad; Srour, Saher; Keidar, Zohar; Bar-Shalom, Rachel; Kagna, Olga; Israel, Ora; Militianu, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    Bone scintigraphy is a sensitive technique to detect altered bone mineralization but has limited specificity. The use of SPECT/CT has improved significantly the diagnostic accuracy of bone scintigraphy, in patients with cancer as well as in evaluation of benign bone disease. It provides precise localization and characterization of tracer-avid foci, shortens the diagnostic workup, and decreases patient anxiety. Through both the SPECT and the CT components, SPECT/CT has an incremental value in characterizing benign bone lesions, specifically in the appendicular skeleton, as illustrated by present case series.

  5. Degenerative spine disease : pathologic findings in 985 surgical specimens.

    PubMed

    Pytel, Peter; Wollmann, Robert L; Fessler, Richard G; Krausz, Thomas N; Montag, Anthony G

    2006-02-01

    A number of pathologic changes have been reported in spinal surgery specimens. The frequency of many of these is not well defined. We retrospectively reviewed the histologic features of 985 extradural spinal surgery specimens. Of the cases, 1.6% were identified clinically as synovial cysts. In addition, synovial tissue was seen in another 5.3% of cases, often embedded within disk material. Neovascularization of disk tissue was present in 8.1% of cases, chondrocyte clusters in 18.3%, and calcium pyrophosphate crystals in 2.8%, predominantly within disk material. With the exception of crystal deposits, all of these changes were significantly more common in the lumbar spine. A better understanding of cell-based degenerative changes will become essential with increasing research into cell-based therapies for spinal disk disease. We report data on the frequency of different pathologic changes and describe synovial metaplasia as a reactive change not previously reported.

  6. Sensorineural hearing loss and celiac disease: A coincidental finding

    PubMed Central

    Volta, Umberto; Ferri, Gian Gaetano; De Giorgio, Roberto; Fabbri, Angela; Parisi, Claudia; Sciajno, Laura; Castellari, Alessandra; Fiorini, Erica; Piscaglia, Maria; Barbara, Giovanni; Granito, Alessandro; Pirodda, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Celiac disease (CD) can be associated with a variety of extraintestinal manifestations, including neurological diseases. A new neurological correlation has been found between CD and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). OBJECTIVE To verify the association between SNHL and CD, and to establish whether the neurological hearing impairment in CD is related to nonorgan-specific and antineuronal antibodies, as well as the presence of autoimmune disorders. METHODS A sample of 59 consecutive biopsy- and serologically proven CD patients were studied. Among CD patients, 11 were newly diagnosed and 48 were on a gluten-free diet. Hearing function was assessed by audiometric analysis in all CD patients as well as in 59 age- and sex-matched controls. Patients were tested for a panel of immune markers including nonorgan-specific autoantibodies and antineuronal antibodies. RESULTS SNHL was detected in five CD patients (8.5%) and in two controls (3.4%). In one patient, the SNHL was bilateral, whereas the remaining four had a monolateral impairment. The prevalence of SNHL was not significantly different between CD patients and controls. At least one of the antibodies tested for was positive in two of the five CD patients with SNHL and in 12 of the 54 CD patients without SNHL. Antineuronal antibodies to central nervous system antigens were consistently negative in the five CD patients with SNHL. Only one of the five CD patients with SNHL had Hashimoto thyroiditis. CONCLUSIONS SNHL and CD occur coincidentally. Hearing function should be assessed only in CD patients with clinical signs of hearing deficiency. PMID:19668795

  7. Diagnosing coronary artery disease with hybrid PET/CT: it takes two to tango.

    PubMed

    Danad, Ibrahim; Raijmakers, Pieter G; Knaapen, Paul

    2013-10-01

    The noninvasive diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) is a challenging task. Although a large armamentarium of imaging modalities is available to evaluate the functional consequences of the extent and severity of CAD, cardiac perfusion positron emission tomography (PET) is considered the gold standard for this purpose. Alternatively, noninvasive anatomical imaging of coronary atherosclerosis with coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) has recently been successfully implemented in clinical practice. Although each of these diagnostic approaches has its own merits and caveats, functional and morphological imaging techniques provide fundamentally different insights into the disease process and should be considered to be complementary rather than overlapping. Hybrid imaging with PET/CT offers the possibility to evaluate both aspects nearly simultaneously, and studies have demonstrated that such a comprehensive assessment results in superior diagnostic accuracy, better prognostication, and helps in guiding clinical patient management. The aim of this review is to discuss the value of stand-alone CCTA and PET in CAD, and to summarize the available data on the surplus value of hybrid PET/CT including its strengths and limitations. PMID:23842709

  8. Magnetic resonance and CT of the normal and diseased pancreas: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Stark, D D; Moss, A A; Goldberg, H I; Davis, P L; Federle, M P

    1984-01-01

    Nineteen patients with proven pancreatic disease and 50 control subjects were examined by magnetic resonance (MR) using a variety of spin echo and inversion recovery techniques. The MR results were then compared with CT scans. The normal pancreatic head, body, and tail were identified by MR in approximately 60% of patients. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma and retroperitoneal lymphoma were detected using morphologic criteria similar to those used in CT. Differentiating bowel from pancreas was difficult on MR in patients with little retroperitoneal fat, and tissue relaxation times were usually not helpful in differentiating adenocarcinoma or lymphoma from normal pancreatic tissue. However, MR intensity, T1, and T2 were useful in differentiating pancreatic islet cell tumors from normal pancreatic tissue. MR accurately identified retroperitoneal invasion, vascular involvement, and liver metastases. In pancreatitis, tissue T1 and T2 relaxation times were prolonged and complications such as ductal dilatation, pseudocyst, phlegmon, and ascites were identified. Small pancreatic calcifications were not detected by MR. Pancreatic iron overload was seen in patients with hemochromatosis. Although respiratory motion and spatial resolution are currently limiting factors, MR is a versatile and unique modality for the evaluation of pancreatic disease.

  9. Lyme disease in Wisconsin: epidemiologic, clinical, serologic, and entomologic findings.

    PubMed

    Davis, J P; Schell, W L; Amundson, T E; Godsey, M S; Spielman, A; Burgdorfer, W; Barbour, A G; LaVenture, M; Kaslow, R A

    1984-01-01

    In 1980-82, 80 individuals (71 Wisconsin residents) had confirmed Lyme disease (LD-c) reported; 39 additional patients had probable or possible LD. All cases of LD-c occurred during May-November; 73 percent occurred during June-July; 54 (68 percent) occurred in males. The mean age was 38.7 years (range, 7-77 years). Among LD-c patients, likely exposure to the presumed vector Ixodes dammini (ID) occurred in 22 different Wisconsin counties. Antibodies to the ID spirochete that causes LD occurred in 33 of 49 LD-c cases versus 0 of 18 in ill controls (p less than .001) and in 13 of 26 LD-c cases treated with penicillin or tetracycline versus 16 of 19 LD-c cases not treated. Early antibiotic therapy appears to blunt the antibody response to the ID spirochete. Regional tick surveys conducted in Wisconsin during each November in 1979-82 have demonstrated regions of greater density of ID. Utilizing comparable tick collection in these surveys, increases were noted in the percentage of deer with ID from 24 percent (31/128) in 1979 to 38 percent (58/152) in 1981, in the standardized mean value of ID/deer from 1.0 in 1979 to 2.2 in 1981, in the percentage of ID of the total ticks collected from 13 percent in 1979 to 71 percent in 1981, or in the ratio of ID to Dermacentor albipictus ticks from 0.14 in 1979 to 2.44 in 1981. However, a reduction in the density of ID/deer was noted generally throughout Wisconsin in 1982 when compared to 1981. LD is widespread in Wisconsin, with ecologic and clinical features similar to those occurring along the eastern seaboard. PMID:6334942

  10. Contrast-enhanced CT- and MRI-based perfusion assessment for pulmonary diseases: basics and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Yoshiharu; Koyama, Hisanobu; Lee, Ho Yun; Miura, Sachiko; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of regional pulmonary perfusion as well as nodule and tumor perfusions in various pulmonary diseases are currently performed by means of nuclear medicine studies requiring radioactive macroaggregates, dual-energy computed tomography (CT), and dynamic first-pass contrast-enhanced perfusion CT techniques and unenhanced and dynamic first-pass contrast enhanced perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as time-resolved three-dimensional or four-dimensional contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Perfusion scintigraphy, single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) and SPECT fused with CT have been established as clinically available scintigraphic methods; however, they are limited by perfusion information with poor spatial resolution and other shortcomings. Although positron emission tomography with 15O water can measure absolute pulmonary perfusion, it requires a cyclotron for generation of a tracer with an extremely short half-life (2 min), and can only be performed for academic purposes. Therefore, clinicians are concentrating their efforts on the application of CT-based and MRI-based quantitative and qualitative perfusion assessment to various pulmonary diseases. This review article covers 1) the basics of dual-energy CT and dynamic first-pass contrast-enhanced perfusion CT techniques, 2) the basics of time-resolved contrast-enhanced MRA and dynamic first-pass contrast-enhanced perfusion MRI, and 3) clinical applications of contrast-enhanced CT- and MRI-based perfusion assessment for patients with pulmonary nodule, lung cancer, and pulmonary vascular diseases. We believe that these new techniques can be useful in routine clinical practice for not only thoracic oncology patients, but also patients with different pulmonary vascular diseases. PMID:27523813

  11. Contrast-enhanced CT- and MRI-based perfusion assessment for pulmonary diseases: basics and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yoshiharu; Koyama, Hisanobu; Lee, Ho Yun; Miura, Sachiko; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of regional pulmonary perfusion as well as nodule and tumor perfusions in various pulmonary diseases are currently performed by means of nuclear medicine studies requiring radioactive macroaggregates, dual-energy computed tomography (CT), and dynamic first-pass contrast-enhanced perfusion CT techniques and unenhanced and dynamic first-pass contrast enhanced perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as time-resolved three-dimensional or four-dimensional contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Perfusion scintigraphy, single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) and SPECT fused with CT have been established as clinically available scintigraphic methods; however, they are limited by perfusion information with poor spatial resolution and other shortcomings. Although positron emission tomography with 15O water can measure absolute pulmonary perfusion, it requires a cyclotron for generation of a tracer with an extremely short half-life (2 min), and can only be performed for academic purposes. Therefore, clinicians are concentrating their efforts on the application of CT-based and MRI-based quantitative and qualitative perfusion assessment to various pulmonary diseases. This review article covers 1) the basics of dual-energy CT and dynamic first-pass contrast-enhanced perfusion CT techniques, 2) the basics of time-resolved contrast-enhanced MRA and dynamic first-pass contrast-enhanced perfusion MRI, and 3) clinical applications of contrast-enhanced CT- and MRI-based perfusion assessment for patients with pulmonary nodule, lung cancer, and pulmonary vascular diseases. We believe that these new techniques can be useful in routine clinical practice for not only thoracic oncology patients, but also patients with different pulmonary vascular diseases.

  12. Contrast-enhanced CT- and MRI-based perfusion assessment for pulmonary diseases: basics and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yoshiharu; Koyama, Hisanobu; Lee, Ho Yun; Miura, Sachiko; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of regional pulmonary perfusion as well as nodule and tumor perfusions in various pulmonary diseases are currently performed by means of nuclear medicine studies requiring radioactive macroaggregates, dual-energy computed tomography (CT), and dynamic first-pass contrast-enhanced perfusion CT techniques and unenhanced and dynamic first-pass contrast enhanced perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as time-resolved three-dimensional or four-dimensional contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Perfusion scintigraphy, single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) and SPECT fused with CT have been established as clinically available scintigraphic methods; however, they are limited by perfusion information with poor spatial resolution and other shortcomings. Although positron emission tomography with 15O water can measure absolute pulmonary perfusion, it requires a cyclotron for generation of a tracer with an extremely short half-life (2 min), and can only be performed for academic purposes. Therefore, clinicians are concentrating their efforts on the application of CT-based and MRI-based quantitative and qualitative perfusion assessment to various pulmonary diseases. This review article covers 1) the basics of dual-energy CT and dynamic first-pass contrast-enhanced perfusion CT techniques, 2) the basics of time-resolved contrast-enhanced MRA and dynamic first-pass contrast-enhanced perfusion MRI, and 3) clinical applications of contrast-enhanced CT- and MRI-based perfusion assessment for patients with pulmonary nodule, lung cancer, and pulmonary vascular diseases. We believe that these new techniques can be useful in routine clinical practice for not only thoracic oncology patients, but also patients with different pulmonary vascular diseases. PMID:27523813

  13. DNA hypomethylation-mediated activation of Cancer/Testis Antigen 45 (CT45) genes is associated with disease progression and reduced survival in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wa; Barger, Carter J; Link, Petra A; Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette; Miller, Austin; Akers, Stacey N; Odunsi, Kunle; Karpf, Adam R

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a highly lethal malignancy due to a lack of early detection approaches coupled with poor outcomes for patients with clinically advanced disease. Cancer-testis (CT) or cancer-germline genes encode antigens known to generate spontaneous anti-tumor immunity in cancer patients. CT45 genes are a recently discovered 6-member family of X-linked CT genes with oncogenic function. Here, we determined CT45 expression in EOC and fully defined its epigenetic regulation by DNA methylation. CT45 was silent and hypermethylated in normal control tissues, but a large subset of EOC samples showed increased CT45 expression in conjunction with promoter DNA hypomethylation. In contrast, copy number status did not correlate with CT45 expression in the TCGA database for EOC. CT45 promoter methylation inversely correlated with both CT45 mRNA and protein expression, the latter determined using IHC staining of an EOC TMA. CT45 expression was increased and CT45 promoter methylation was decreased in late-stage and high-grade EOC, and both measures were associated with poor survival. CT45 hypomethylation was directly associated with LINE-1 hypomethylation, and CT45 was frequently co-expressed with other CT antigen genes in EOC. Decitabine treatment induced CT45 mRNA and protein expression in EOC cells, and promoter transgene analyses indicated that DNA methylation directly represses CT45 promoter activity. These data verify CT45 expression and promoter hypomethylation as possible prognostic biomarkers, and suggest CT45 as an immunological or therapeutic target in EOC. Treatment with decitabine or other epigenetic modulators could provide a means for more effective immunological targeting of CT45.

  14. DNA hypomethylation-mediated activation of Cancer/Testis Antigen 45 (CT45) genes is associated with disease progression and reduced survival in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wa; Barger, Carter J; Link, Petra A; Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette; Miller, Austin; Akers, Stacey N; Odunsi, Kunle; Karpf, Adam R

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a highly lethal malignancy due to a lack of early detection approaches coupled with poor outcomes for patients with clinically advanced disease. Cancer-testis (CT) or cancer-germline genes encode antigens known to generate spontaneous anti-tumor immunity in cancer patients. CT45 genes are a recently discovered 6-member family of X-linked CT genes with oncogenic function. Here, we determined CT45 expression in EOC and fully defined its epigenetic regulation by DNA methylation. CT45 was silent and hypermethylated in normal control tissues, but a large subset of EOC samples showed increased CT45 expression in conjunction with promoter DNA hypomethylation. In contrast, copy number status did not correlate with CT45 expression in the TCGA database for EOC. CT45 promoter methylation inversely correlated with both CT45 mRNA and protein expression, the latter determined using IHC staining of an EOC TMA. CT45 expression was increased and CT45 promoter methylation was decreased in late-stage and high-grade EOC, and both measures were associated with poor survival. CT45 hypomethylation was directly associated with LINE-1 hypomethylation, and CT45 was frequently co-expressed with other CT antigen genes in EOC. Decitabine treatment induced CT45 mRNA and protein expression in EOC cells, and promoter transgene analyses indicated that DNA methylation directly represses CT45 promoter activity. These data verify CT45 expression and promoter hypomethylation as possible prognostic biomarkers, and suggest CT45 as an immunological or therapeutic target in EOC. Treatment with decitabine or other epigenetic modulators could provide a means for more effective immunological targeting of CT45. PMID:26098711

  15. Primary hydatid cyst in the retroperitoneal space: role of CT.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Sevda; Baydar, Senol; Guney, Sefik; Hoser, Abdurrahman; Celik, Betül

    2002-09-01

    Localization of hydatid disease in the retroperitoneal space is extremely rare. We present the CT findings in a patient with echinococcal disease (E. Granulosus) in whom the cyst was localized to the retroperitoneum.

  16. On the Utility of MIBG SPECT/CT in Evaluating Cardiac Sympathetic Dysfunction in Lewy Body Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Odagiri, Hayato; Baba, Toru; Nishio, Yoshiyuki; Iizuka, Osamu; Matsuda, Minoru; Inoue, Kentaro; Kikuchi, Akio; Hasegawa, Takafumi; Aoki, Masashi; Takeda, Atsushi; Taki, Yasuyuki; Mori, Etsuro

    2016-01-01

    Background Abnormal cardiac uptake of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) is a diagnostic marker of Lewy body diseases (LBDs), e.g., Parkinson’s disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Planar imaging is generally used to assess cardiac sympathetic dysfunction in 123I-MIBG scintigraphy; however, its clinical utility requires further improvement. We hypothesized that the co-registration of single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) and computed tomography (CT) images would improve the diagnostic accuracy of 123I-MIBG cardiac scintigraphy for LBDs. This study sought to evaluate the effects of SPECT/CT imaging on 123I-MIBG cardiac scintigraphy for diagnosing LBDs. Methods We retrospectively investigated data of 54 patients (consecutive 18 patients in each PD, DLB, and idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus [iNPH] groups) who underwent 123I-MIBG cardiac scintigraphy (planar and SPECT/CT) because of suspected LBDs at the Tohoku University hospital from June 2012 to June 2015. We compared the diagnostic accuracies of the conventional planar 123I-MIBG method and SPECT/CT methods (manual and semi-automatic). Results In the conventional planar analysis, 123I-MIBG uptake decreased only in the DLB group compared with the iNPH group. In contrast, the SPECT/CT analysis revealed significantly lower 123I-MIBG uptake in both the PD and DLB groups compared with the iNPH group. Furthermore, a receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that both the manual and semi-automatic SPECT/CT methods were superior to the conventional planar method in differentiating the 3 disorders. Conclusions SPECT/CT 123I-MIBG cardiac scintigraphy can detect mild cardiac sympathetic dysfunction in LDBs. Our results suggest that the SPECT/CT technique improves diagnostic accuracy for LBDs. PMID:27055151

  17. Dual Energy CT Angiography of Peripheral Arterial Disease: Feasibility of Using Lower Contrast Medium Volume

    PubMed Central

    Almutairi, Abdulrahman; Sun, Zhonghua; Poovathumkadavi, Abduljaleel; Assar, Tarek

    2015-01-01

    Objective One of the main drawbacks associated with Dual Energy Computed Tomography Angiography (DECTA) is the risk of developing contrast medium-induced nephropathy (CIN). The aim of the present study was firstly, to design an optimal CT imaging protocol by determining the feasibility of using a reduced contrast medium volume in peripheral arterial DECTA, and secondly, to compare the results with those obtained from using routine contrast medium volume. Methods Thirty four patients underwent DECTA for the diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease. They were randomly divided into two groups: Group 1 (routine contrast volume group) with n = 17, injection rate 4–5 ml/s, and 1.5 ml/kg of contrast medium, and Group 2 ((low contrast volume group), with n = 17, injection rate 4–5ml/s, and contrast medium volume 0.75 ml/kg. A fast kilovoltage—switching 64-slice CT scanner in the dual-energy mode was employed for the study. A total of 6 datasets of monochromatic images at 50, 55, 60, 65, 70 and 75 keV levels were reconstructed with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) at 50%. A 4-point scale was the tool for qualitative analysis of results. The two groups were compared and assessed quantitatively for image quality on the basis of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR). Radiation and contrast medium doses were also compared. Results The overall mean CT attenuation and mean noise for all lower extremity body parts was significantly lower for the low volume contrast group (p<0.001), and varied significantly between groups (p = 0.001), body parts (p<0.001) and keVs (p<0.001). The interaction between group body parts was significant with CT attenuation and CNR (p = 0.002 and 0.003 respectively), and marginally significant with SNR (p = 0.047), with minimal changes noticed between the two groups. Group 2 (low contrast volume group) displayed the lowest image noise between 65 and 70 keV, recorded the highest SNR and CNR at 65 keV, and

  18. Sonographic Findings of Common Musculoskeletal Diseases in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Minho; Ahn, Sung Eun; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Park, So Young; Jin, Wook

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) can accompany many musculoskeletal (MSK) diseases. It is difficult to distinguish the DM-related MSK diseases based on clinical symptoms alone. Sonography is frequently used as a first imaging study for these MSK symptoms and is helpful to differentiate the various DM-related MSK diseases. This pictorial essay focuses on sonographic findings of various MSK diseases that can occur in diabetic patients. PMID:26957910

  19. Automatic lobar segmentation for diseased lungs using an anatomy-based priority knowledge in low-dose CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang Joon; Kim, Jung Im; Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Doohee

    2014-03-01

    Lung lobar segmentation in CT images is a challenging tasks because of the limitations in image quality inherent to CT image acquisition, especially low-dose CT for clinical routine environment. Besides, complex anatomy and abnormal lesions in the lung parenchyma makes segmentation difficult because contrast in CT images are determined by the differential absorption of X-rays by neighboring structures, such as tissue, vessel or several pathological conditions. Thus, we attempted to develop a robust segmentation technique for normal and diseased lung parenchyma. The images were obtained with low-dose chest CT using soft reconstruction kernel (Sensation 16, Siemens, Germany). Our PC-based in-house software segmented bronchial trees and lungs with intensity adaptive region-growing technique. Then the horizontal and oblique fissures were detected by using eigenvalues-ratio of the Hessian matrix in the lung regions which were excluded from airways and vessels. To enhance and recover the faithful 3-D fissure plane, our proposed fissure enhancing scheme were applied to the images. After finishing above steps, for careful smoothening of fissure planes, 3-D rolling-ball algorithm in xyz planes were performed. Results show that success rate of our proposed scheme was achieved up to 89.5% in the diseased lung parenchyma.

  20. Mining a clinical data warehouse to discover disease-finding associations using co-occurrence statistics.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hui; Markatou, Marianthi; Melton, Genevieve B; Chiang, Michael F; Hripcsak, George

    2005-01-01

    This paper applies co-occurrence statistics to discover disease-finding associations in a clinical data warehouse. We used two methods, chi2 statistics and the proportion confidence interval (PCI) method, to measure the dependence of pairs of diseases and findings, and then used heuristic cutoff values for association selection. An intrinsic evaluation showed that 94 percent of disease-finding associations obtained by chi2 statistics and 76.8 percent obtained by the PCI method were true associations. The selected associations were used to construct knowledge bases of disease-finding relations (KB-chi2, KB-PCI). An extrinsic evaluation showed that both KB-chi2 and KB-PCI could assist in eliminating clinically non-informative and redundant findings from problem lists generated by our automated problem list summarization system.

  1. Mining a clinical data warehouse to discover disease-finding associations using co-occurrence statistics

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Hui; Markatou, Marianthi; Melton, Genevieve B.; Chiang, Michael F.; Hripcsak, George

    2005-01-01

    This paper applies co-occurrence statistics to discover disease-finding associations in a clinical data warehouse. We used two methods, χ2 statistics and the proportion confidence interval (PCI) method, to measure the dependence of pairs of diseases and findings, and then used heuristic cutoff values for association selection. An intrinsic evaluation showed that 94 percent of disease-finding associations obtained by χ2 statistics and 76.8 percent obtained by the PCI method were true associations. The selected associations were used to construct knowledge bases of disease-finding relations (KB-χ2, KB-PCI). An extrinsic evaluation showed that both KB-χ2 and KB-PCI could assist in eliminating clinically non-informative and redundant findings from problem lists generated by our automated problem list summarization system. PMID:16779011

  2. CT Findings of Intrarenal Yolk Sac Tumor with Tumor Thrombus Extending into the Inferior Vena Cava: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lin, ShaoChun; Li, XueHua; Feng, ShiTing; Peng, ZhenPeng; Huang, SiYun; Li, ZiPing

    2014-01-01

    Yolk sac tumor (YST) is a rare germ cell neoplasm of childhood that usually arises from the testis or ovary. The rare cases of YST in various extragonadal locations have been reported, but the primary intrarenal YST is even more uncommon. Here, we report a case of a primary intrarenal YST with tumor thrombus of the inferior vena cava and left renal vein in a 2-year-old boy, with an emphasis on the CT features. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an intrarenal YST with intravascular involvement. PMID:25246826

  3. Panner's disease: X-ray, MR imaging findings and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Stoane, J M; Poplausky, M R; Haller, J O; Berdon, W E

    1995-01-01

    Panner's disease, avascular necrosis of the capitellum, was first described on X-ray examination of the elbow. It represents a major threat to the elbow joint integrity, and it is important to diagnose early. Panner's disease occurs most commonly in young children who play baseball, and in competitive gymnasts. Although considered a rare entity, it probably is underdiagnosed. We present the X-ray and MR imaging findings in a young boy with Panner's disease. The MR imaging findings in Panner's disease have not been previously reported.

  4. Genetic association of NOS1 exon18, NOS1 exon29, ABCB1 1236C/T, and ABCB1 3435C/T polymorphisms with the risk of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hongbin; Peng, Cong; Liu, Yong; Liu, Xu; Chen, Qicong; Huang, Zunnan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disorder. Previous publications have investigated the association of NOS1 and ABCB1 polymorphisms with PD risk. However, those studies have provided some contradictory results. Methods: Literature searches were performed using PubMed, Embase, PDgene, China National Knowledge Infrastructure database, and Google Scholar. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were applied to evaluate the strength of association. Results: The analysis results indicated that NOS1 exon18 polymorphism was associated with developing PD in 4 genetic models (allelic: OR = 1.25, 95%CI 1.09–1.44, P = 0.001; homozygous: OR = 1.79, 95%CI 1.32–2.45, P < 0.001; recessive: OR = 1.70, 95%CI 1.26–2.28, P < 0.001; dominant: OR = 1.22, 95%CI 1.02–1.46, P = 0.03), whereas exon29 polymorphism was not correlated to PD susceptibility. In addition, ABCB1 1236C/T polymorphism was related to PD in the recessive (OR = 0.80, 95%CI 0.66–0.97, P = 0.025) and overdominant (OR = 1.21, 95%CI 1.03–1.43, P = 0.02) models, which might indicate the opposite effects of 2 minor variants of this locus on Parkinson's disease. However, this associated result was not robust enough to withstand statistically significant correction. On the other hand, no association was found between ABCB1 3435C/T polymorphism and the predisposition to PD in 5 genetic models, and such an absence of relationship was further confirmed by subgroup analysis in Caucasians and Asians. Whether the polymorphisms of these 4 loci were linked to PD or not, our study provided some interesting findings that differ from the previous results with regard to their genetic susceptibility. Conclusion: The NOS1 exon18 and ABCB1 1236C/T variants might play a role in the risk of Parkinson's disease, whereas NOS1 exon29 and ABCB1 3435C/T polymorphisms might not contribute to PD susceptibility. PMID

  5. Adult congenital heart disease imaging with second-generation dual-source computed tomography: initial experiences and findings.

    PubMed

    Ghoshhajra, Brian B; Sidhu, Manavjot S; El-Sherief, Ahmed; Rojas, Carlos; Yeh, Doreen Defaria; Engel, Leif-Christopher; Liberthson, Richard; Abbara, Suhny; Bhatt, Ami

    2012-01-01

    Adult congenital heart disease patients present a unique challenge to the cardiac imager. Patients may present with both acute and chronic manifestations of their complex congenital heart disease and also require surveillance for sequelae of their medical and surgical interventions. Multimodality imaging is often required to clarify their anatomy and physiology. Radiation dose is of particular concern in these patients with lifelong imaging needs for their chronic disease. The second-generation dual-source scanner is a recently available advanced clinical cardiac computed tomography (CT) scanner. It offers a combination of the high-spatial resolution of modern CT, the high-temporal resolution of dual-source technology, and the wide z-axis coverage of modern cone-beam geometry CT scanners. These advances in technology allow novel protocols that markedly reduce scan time, significantly reduce radiation exposure, and expand the physiologic imaging capabilities of cardiac CT. We present a case series of complicated adult congenital heart disease patients imaged by the second-generation dual-source CT scanner with extremely low-radiation doses and excellent image quality.

  6. Computed tomographic findings in penetrating peptic ulcer

    SciTech Connect

    Madrazo, B.L.; Halpert, R.D.; Sandler, M.A.; Pearlberg, J.L.

    1984-12-01

    Four cases of peptic ulcer penetrating the head of the pancreas were diagnosed by computed tomography (CT). Findings common to 3 cases included (a) an ulcer crater, (b) a sinus tract, and (c) enlargement of the head of the pancreas. Unlike other modalities, the inherent spatial resolution of CT allows a convenient diagnosis of this important complication of peptic ulcer disease.

  7. Respiratory disease (rhinotracheitis) in turkeys in Brittany, France, 1981-1982. II. Laboratory findings.

    PubMed

    Andral, B; Louzis, C; Edlinger, E; Newman, J A; Toquin, D; Bennejean, G

    1985-01-01

    After discovering that numerous turkey flocks experiencing rhinotracheitis in Brittany, France, had antibodies against chlamydia, laboratory studies were conducted to determine whether chlamydia and/or viruses would explain the respiratory disease observed. Although both lentogenic paramyxoviruses of type 1 (Newcastle disease virus) and Chlamydia psittaci were isolated, it was concluded, based on epidemiologic and other laboratory findings, that C. psittaci was the primary cause of the disease. PMID:3985882

  8. Is FFR-CT a "game changer" in the diagnostic management of stable coronary artery disease?

    PubMed

    Leber, W A

    2016-08-01

    The introduction of fractional flow reserve computed tomography (FFR-CT) that is performed from static coronary CT angiography datasets may open new horizons in the diagnostic management of patients with suspected coronary artery disease. FFR-CT has a high sensitivity and moderate specificity in identifying ischemia in intermediate coronary stenoses. It has been demonstrated that this technology has the potential to significantly reduce the number of invasive coronary angiograms and the rate of normal coronary angiograms that are not followed by an intervention. Furthermore, initial data indicate that FFR-CT may predict the hemodynamic effect of stenting and even of bypass surgery. Thus, FFR-CT, with its capacity to serve as an effective gatekeeper before invasive angiography and the option to virtually predict the success of revascularization, constitutes a completely new concept in managing patients with stable angina pectoris. Before this exciting technology can enter clinical practice, however, some evident limitations need to be overcome and significantly more data concerning accuracy and influence on clinical and economic outcome parameters need to be generated. PMID:27393032

  9. Clinical features and neuroimaging (CT and MRI) findings in presumed Zika virus related congenital infection and microcephaly: retrospective case series study

    PubMed Central

    van der Linden, Vanessa; Brainer-Lima, Alessandra Mertens; Coeli, Regina Ramos; Rocha, Maria Angela; Sobral da Silva, Paula; Durce Costa Gomes de Carvalho, Maria; van der Linden, Ana; Cesario de Holanda, Arthur; Valenca, Marcelo Moraes

    2016-01-01

    Objective To report radiological findings observed in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the first cases of congenital infection and microcephaly presumably associated with the Zika virus in the current Brazilian epidemic. Design Retrospective study with a case series. Setting Association for Assistance of Disabled Children (AACD), Pernambuco state, Brazil. Participants 23 children with a diagnosis of congenital infection presumably associated with the Zika virus during the Brazilian microcephaly epidemic. Main outcome measures Types of abnormalities and the radiological pattern of lesions identified on CT and MRI brain scans. Results Six of the 23 children tested positive for IgM antibodies to Zika virus in cerebrospinal fluid. The other 17 children met the protocol criteria for congenital infection presumably associated with the Zika virus, even without being tested for IgM antibodies to the virus—the test was not yet available on a routine basis. Of the 23 children, 15 underwent CT, seven underwent both CT and MRI, and one underwent MRI. Of the 22 children who underwent CT, all had calcifications in the junction between cortical and subcortical white matter, 21 (95%) had malformations of cortical development, 20 (91%) had a decreased brain volume, 19 (86%) had ventriculomegaly, and 11 (50%) had hypoplasia of the cerebellum or brainstem. Of the eight children who underwent MRI, all had calcifications in the junction between cortical and subcortical white matter, malformations of cortical development occurring predominantly in the frontal lobes, and ventriculomegaly. Seven of the eight (88%) children had enlarged cisterna magna, seven (88%) delayed myelination, and six each (75%) a moderate to severe decrease in brain volume, simplified gyral pattern, and abnormalities of the corpus callosum (38% hypogenesis and 38% hypoplasia). Malformations were symmetrical in 75% of the cases. Conclusion Severe cerebral damage was

  10. Dual-phase CT for the assessment of acute vascular injuries in high-energy blunt trauma: the imaging findings and management implications.

    PubMed

    Iacobellis, Francesca; Ierardi, Anna M; Mazzei, Maria A; Magenta Biasina, Alberto; Carrafiello, Gianpaolo; Nicola, Refky; Scaglione, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    Acute vascular injuries are the second most common cause of fatalities in patients with multiple traumatic injuries; thus, prompt identification and management is essential for patient survival. Over the past few years, multidetector CT (MDCT) using dual-phase scanning protocol has become the imaging modality of choice in high-energy deceleration traumas. The objective of this article was to review the role of dual-phase MDCT in the identification and management of acute vascular injuries, particularly in the chest and abdomen following multiple traumatic injuries. In addition, this article will provide examples of MDCT features of acute vascular injuries with correlative surgical and interventional findings.

  11. A novel m.7539C>T point mutation in the mt-tRNA(Asp) gene associated with multisystemic mitochondrial disease.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Diana; Schubert, Kathrin; Joshi, Pushpa R; Baty, Karen; Blakely, Emma L; Zierz, Stephan; Taylor, Robert W; Deschauer, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial transfer RNA (mt-tRNA) mutations are the commonest sub-type of mitochondrial (mtDNA) mutations associated with human disease. We report a patient with multisytemic disease characterised by myopathy, spinal ataxia, sensorineural hearing loss, cataract and cognitive impairment in whom a novel m.7539C>T mt-tRNA(Asp) transition was identified. Muscle biopsy revealed extensive histopathological findings including cytochrome c oxidase (COX)-deficient fibres. Pyrosequencing confirmed mtDNA heteroplasmy for the mutation whilst single muscle fibre segregation studies revealed statistically significant higher mutation loads in COX-deficient fibres than in COX-positive fibres. Absence from control databases, hierarchical mt-tRNA mutation segregation within tissues, and occurrence at conserved sequence positions, further confirm this novel mt-tRNA mutation to be pathogenic. To date only three mt-tRNA(Asp) gene mutations have been described with clear evidence of pathogenicity. The novel m.7539C>T mt-tRNA(Asp) gene mutation extends the spectrum of pathogenic mutations in this gene, further supporting the notion that mt-tRNA(Asp) gene mutations are associated with multisystemic disease presentations.

  12. Age, Predisposing Diseases, and Ultrasonographic Findings in Determining Clinical Outcome of Acute Acalculous Inflammatory Gallbladder Diseases in Children

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated clinical factors such as age, gender, predisposing diseases and ultrasonographic findings that determine clinical outcome of acute acalculous inflammatory gallbladder diseases in children. The patients were divided into the four age groups. From March 2004 through February 2014, clinical data from 131 children diagnosed as acute acalculous inflammatory gallbladder disease by ultrasonography were retrospectively reviewed. Systemic infectious diseases were the most common etiology of acute inflammatory gallbladder disease in children and were identified in 50 patients (38.2%). Kawasaki disease was the most common predisposing disease (28 patients, 21.4%). The incidence was highest in infancy and lowest in adolescence. The age groups were associated with different predisposing diseases; noninfectious systemic disease was the most common etiology in infancy and early childhood, whereas systemic infectious disease was the most common in middle childhood and adolescence (P = 0.001). Gallbladder wall thickening was more commonly found in malignancy (100%) and systemic infection (94.0%) (P = 0.002), whereas gallbladder distension was more frequent in noninfectious systemic diseases (60%) (P = 0.000). Ascites seen on ultrasonography was associated with a worse clinical course compared with no ascites (77.9% vs. 37.7%, P = 0.030), and the duration of hospitalization was longer in patients with ascites (11.6 ± 10.7 vs. 8.0 ± 6.6 days, P = 0.020). In conclusion, consideration of age and predisposing disease in addition to ultrasonographic gallbladder findings in children suspected of acute acalculous inflammatory gallbladder disease might result in better outcomes. PMID:27550491

  13. Age, Predisposing Diseases, and Ultrasonographic Findings in Determining Clinical Outcome of Acute Acalculous Inflammatory Gallbladder Diseases in Children.

    PubMed

    Yi, Dae Yong; Chang, Eun Jae; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Eun Hye; Yang, Hye Ran

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated clinical factors such as age, gender, predisposing diseases and ultrasonographic findings that determine clinical outcome of acute acalculous inflammatory gallbladder diseases in children. The patients were divided into the four age groups. From March 2004 through February 2014, clinical data from 131 children diagnosed as acute acalculous inflammatory gallbladder disease by ultrasonography were retrospectively reviewed. Systemic infectious diseases were the most common etiology of acute inflammatory gallbladder disease in children and were identified in 50 patients (38.2%). Kawasaki disease was the most common predisposing disease (28 patients, 21.4%). The incidence was highest in infancy and lowest in adolescence. The age groups were associated with different predisposing diseases; noninfectious systemic disease was the most common etiology in infancy and early childhood, whereas systemic infectious disease was the most common in middle childhood and adolescence (P = 0.001). Gallbladder wall thickening was more commonly found in malignancy (100%) and systemic infection (94.0%) (P = 0.002), whereas gallbladder distension was more frequent in noninfectious systemic diseases (60%) (P = 0.000). Ascites seen on ultrasonography was associated with a worse clinical course compared with no ascites (77.9% vs. 37.7%, P = 0.030), and the duration of hospitalization was longer in patients with ascites (11.6 ± 10.7 vs. 8.0 ± 6.6 days, P = 0.020). In conclusion, consideration of age and predisposing disease in addition to ultrasonographic gallbladder findings in children suspected of acute acalculous inflammatory gallbladder disease might result in better outcomes. PMID:27550491

  14. Proteome Analysis of Disease Resistance against Ralstonia solanacearum in Potato Cultivar CT206-10.

    PubMed

    Park, Sangryeol; Gupta, Ravi; Krishna, R; Kim, Sun Tae; Lee, Dong Yeol; Hwang, Duk-Ju; Bae, Shin-Chul; Ahn, Il-Pyung

    2016-02-01

    Potato is one of the most important crops worldwide. Its commercial cultivars are highly susceptible to many fungal and bacterial diseases. Among these, bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum causes significant yield loss. In the present study, integrated proteomics and genomics approaches were used in order to identify bacterial wilt resistant genes from Rs resistance potato cultivar CT-206-10. 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS analysis identified eight differentially abundant proteins including glycine-rich RNA binding protein (GRP), tomato stress induced-1 (TSI-1) protein, pathogenesis-related (STH-2) protein and pentatricopeptide repeat containing (PPR) protein in response to Rs infection. Further, semi-quantitative RT-PCR identified up-regulation in transcript levels of all these genes upon Rs infection. Taken together, our results showed the involvement of the identified proteins in the Rs stress tolerance in potato. In the future, it would be interesting to raise the transgenic plants to further validate their involvement in resistance against Rs in potato. PMID:26889112

  15. Proteome Analysis of Disease Resistance against Ralstonia solanacearum in Potato Cultivar CT206-10.

    PubMed

    Park, Sangryeol; Gupta, Ravi; Krishna, R; Kim, Sun Tae; Lee, Dong Yeol; Hwang, Duk-Ju; Bae, Shin-Chul; Ahn, Il-Pyung

    2016-02-01

    Potato is one of the most important crops worldwide. Its commercial cultivars are highly susceptible to many fungal and bacterial diseases. Among these, bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum causes significant yield loss. In the present study, integrated proteomics and genomics approaches were used in order to identify bacterial wilt resistant genes from Rs resistance potato cultivar CT-206-10. 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS analysis identified eight differentially abundant proteins including glycine-rich RNA binding protein (GRP), tomato stress induced-1 (TSI-1) protein, pathogenesis-related (STH-2) protein and pentatricopeptide repeat containing (PPR) protein in response to Rs infection. Further, semi-quantitative RT-PCR identified up-regulation in transcript levels of all these genes upon Rs infection. Taken together, our results showed the involvement of the identified proteins in the Rs stress tolerance in potato. In the future, it would be interesting to raise the transgenic plants to further validate their involvement in resistance against Rs in potato.

  16. CT-P13 (Inflectra™, Remsima™) monitoring in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Kornelius; Koppka, Nadine; Lutter, Frederik; Brandhorst, Gunnar; Schreiber, Stefan; Helwig, Ulf

    2016-09-01

    The approval of infliximab biosimilars Remsima™ and Inflectra™ (CT-P13) for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a promising step to reduce treatment costs. Since monitoring of Remicade™ serum trough levels and anti-Remicade™ immunogenicity hold an important significance in treatment modalities, no data about monitoring of drug serum trough levels or anti-drug antibody levels in IBD patients treated with Remsima™ or Inflectra™ are present to date. Therefore, in this study we applied a Remicade™-validated ELISA to determine drug serum levels of Remsima™ or Inflectra™. Serum concentrations were measured at identical levels compared to Remicade™ at multiple time points over 38 weeks, suggesting that the monitoring of serum trough levels is equally feasible for patients receiving Remsima™ or Inflectra™ and Remicade™. Additionally, anti-drug antibody levels were not significantly different in patients treated with Remsima™ or Inflectra™ compared to patients treated with Remicade™. To our knowledge this is the first real-life experience demonstrating the feasibility of drug monitoring in IBD patients treated with the infliximab biosimilars Remsima™ and Inflectra™. PMID:27435444

  17. Proteome Analysis of Disease Resistance against Ralstonia solanacearum in Potato Cultivar CT206-10

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sangryeol; Gupta, Ravi; Krishna, R.; Kim, Sun Tae; Lee, Dong Yeol; Hwang, Duk-ju; Bae, Shin-Chul; Ahn, Il-Pyung

    2016-01-01

    Potato is one of the most important crops worldwide. Its commercial cultivars are highly susceptible to many fungal and bacterial diseases. Among these, bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum causes significant yield loss. In the present study, integrated proteomics and genomics approaches were used in order to identify bacterial wilt resistant genes from Rs resistance potato cultivar CT-206-10. 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS analysis identified eight differentially abundant proteins including glycine-rich RNA binding protein (GRP), tomato stress induced-1 (TSI-1) protein, pathogenesis-related (STH-2) protein and pentatricopeptide repeat containing (PPR) protein in response to Rs infection. Further, semi-quantitative RT-PCR identified up-regulation in transcript levels of all these genes upon Rs infection. Taken together, our results showed the involvement of the identified proteins in the Rs stress tolerance in potato. In the future, it would be interesting to raise the transgenic plants to further validate their involvement in resistance against Rs in potato. PMID:26889112

  18. Clinicopathologic findings associated with chronic renal disease in cats: 74 cases (1973-1984).

    PubMed

    DiBartola, S P; Rutgers, H C; Zack, P M; Tarr, M J

    1987-05-01

    The historic, physical, laboratory, and histologic findings for 74 cats with chronic renal disease were reviewed. Most cats were older, and no breed or sex predilection was detected. This most common clinical signs detected by owners were lethargy, anorexia, and weight loss. Dehydration and emaciation were common physical examination findings. Common laboratory findings were nonregenerative anemia, lymphopenia, azotemia, hypercholesterolemia, metabolic acidosis, hyperphosphatemia, and isosthenuria. The most common morphologic diagnosis was chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis of unknown cause. The other pathologic diagnoses were renal lymphosarcoma, renal amyloidosis, chronic pyelonephritis, chronic glomerulonephritis, polycystic renal disease, and pyogranulomatous nephritis secondary to feline infectious peritonitis. PMID:3583899

  19. Association of nailfold capillary changes with disease activity, clinical and laboratory findings in patients with dermatomyositis

    PubMed Central

    Shenavandeh, Saeedeh; Zarei Nezhad, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study aimed to investigate the Nailfold Capillaroscopy (NC) features of the patients with dermatomyositis (DM) and its correlation with their disease activity indices, physical findings, and laboratory results. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 27 DM patients above 16 years old who had referred to an(there are 3 clinics not one) outpatient rheumatology clinics from 2012 to 2013. Nailfold capillaroscopy and calculation of disease activity indices were performed separately for all the patients by two rheumatologists who were blinded to each other's results. Statistical analyses were performed using chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: The mean age of the patients was 39.2±14.1 years with the mean disease duration of 13.1±15.2 months (range: 1-72 months). Myopathic electromyography (EMG) findings showed a strong association with scleroderma pattern (p=0.015). However, disease activity in each organ system and global disease activity showed no significant association between scleroderma pattern and other NC findings. (Disease activity in each organ system and also global disease activity were both assessed to see if they are associated with scleroderma pattern and other NC findings so if we use between it means we are looking for an association between scleroderma pattern and other NC findings and this is not what we have done and is wrong.) Conclusion: This study revealed no significant relationship between disease activity indices and NC features. Thus, it may be more precise to interpret the results of NC in conjunction with other physical and laboratory findings. PMID:26793626

  20. Primary Pulmonary Synovial Sarcoma in a Tertiary Referral Center: Clinical Characteristics, CT, and 18F-FDG PET Findings, With Pathologic Correlations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gun Ha; Kim, Mi Young; Koo, Hyun Jung; Song, Joon Seon; Choi, Chang-Min

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the patient characteristics, computed tomography (CT) and F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) findings, and clinical outcomes of primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma (PPSS), together with their pathologic correlations. The medical records of 14 patients with pathologically proven PPSS in a tertiary hospital from January 1997 to December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The CT findings were evaluated. The maximum standardized uptake value (maxSUV) of the tumors was obtained, and clinical outcomes with respect to tumor recurrence and mortality were assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. The median tumor size was 10.2 cm and the most common anatomic location was the lung followed by the pleura/chest wall and mediastinum. Most of the tumors appeared as single lesions and had circumscribed margins. All the cases showed heterogeneous enhancement with necrotic or cystic portions, and intratumoral vessels were frequently seen. Half of the tumors had intratumoral calcifications, and tumor rupture, pleural/chest wall extension, and pleural effusion occurred frequently. However, lymph node enlargement was rare. The median maxSUV of the tumors was 4.35. Patient outcomes with respect to tumor recurrence (n = 8, 57.1%) and death (n = 3, 21.4%) were poor despite their young age, and the mean follow-up period was 28.5 months.In conclusion, PPSS usually occurs in young adults, generally in the lung, presents as a large, circumscribed mass, and tumor rupture or extension of the pleura/chest wall may occur. The tumors often contain calcifications and vessels; they may exhibit triple attenuation on enhanced CT images, and clinical outcomes are poor. PMID:26313782

  1. Airway segmentation and analysis for the study of mouse models of lung disease using micro-CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaechevarria, X.; Pérez-Martín, D.; Ceresa, M.; de Biurrun, G.; Blanco, D.; Montuenga, L. M.; van Ginneken, B.; Ortiz-de-Solorzano, C.; Muñoz-Barrutia, A.

    2009-11-01

    Animal models of lung disease are gaining importance in understanding the underlying mechanisms of diseases such as emphysema and lung cancer. Micro-CT allows in vivo imaging of these models, thus permitting the study of the progression of the disease or the effect of therapeutic drugs in longitudinal studies. Automated analysis of micro-CT images can be helpful to understand the physiology of diseased lungs, especially when combined with measurements of respiratory system input impedance. In this work, we present a fast and robust murine airway segmentation and reconstruction algorithm. The algorithm is based on a propagating fast marching wavefront that, as it grows, divides the tree into segments. We devised a number of specific rules to guarantee that the front propagates only inside the airways and to avoid leaking into the parenchyma. The algorithm was tested on normal mice, a mouse model of chronic inflammation and a mouse model of emphysema. A comparison with manual segmentations of two independent observers shows that the specificity and sensitivity values of our method are comparable to the inter-observer variability, and radius measurements of the mainstem bronchi reveal significant differences between healthy and diseased mice. Combining measurements of the automatically segmented airways with the parameters of the constant phase model provides extra information on how disease affects lung function.

  2. CT Imaging Findings and Their Relevance to the Clinical Outcomes After Stent Graft Repair of Penetrating Aortic Ulcers: Six-year, Single-center Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Ji Hoon; Angle, John F.; Park, Auh Whan; Anderson, Curtis; Sabri, Saher S.; Turba, Ulku C.; Kern, John A.; Cherry, Kenneth J.; Matsumoto, Alan H.

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To present the computed tomographic (CT) imaging findings and their relevance to clinical outcomes related to stent graft placement in patients with penetrating aortic ulcers (PAUs). Methods: Medical and imaging records and imaging studies were reviewed for consecutive patients who underwent stent graft repair of a PAU. The distribution and characteristics of the PAU, technical success of stent graft repair, procedure-related complications, associated aortic wall abnormalities, and outcomes of the PAUs at follow-up CT scans were evaluated. Results: Fifteen patients underwent endovascular treatment for PAU. A total of 87% of the PAUs were in the proximal (n = 8) or distal (n = 5) descending thoracic aorta. There was a broad spectrum of PAU depth (mean, 7.9 {+-} 5.6 mm; range 1.5-25.0 mm) and diameter (mean, 13.5 {+-} 9.7 mm; range 2.2-41.0 mm). Atherosclerosis of the thoracic aorta and intramural hematoma were associated in 53 and 93% of the patients, respectively. Technical success was achieved in 100%. Two or more stent grafts were used in five patients. Endoleaks were observed in two patients within 2 weeks of the procedure, both of which resolved spontaneously. At follow-up CT scanning, regression and thrombosis of the PAUs were observed in all patients. The average patient survival was 61.8 months, with an overall mortality of 13% (2 of 15) at follow-up. Neither death was related to the endograft device or the PAU. Conclusion: Endovascular stent graft placement was safe and effective in causing regression and thrombosis of PAUs in this small series of patients. Two or more stent grafts were used in five patients (33%) with associated long-segmental atherosclerotic changes of the thoracic aorta or intramural hematoma.

  3. Multi-modal CT scanning in the evaluation of cerebrovascular disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Anzidei, Michele; Piga, Mario; Ciolina, Federica; Mannelli, Lorenzo; Catalano, Carlo; Suri, Jasjit S.; Raz, Eytan

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic stroke currently represents one of the leading causes of severe disability and mortality in the Western World. Until now, angiography was the most used imaging technique for the detection of the extra-cranial and intracranial vessel pathology. Currently, however, non-invasive imaging tool like ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) have proven capable of offering a detailed analysis of the vascular system. CT in particular represents an advanced system to explore the pathology of carotid arteries and intracranial vessels and also offers tools like CT perfusion (CTP) that provides valuable information of the brain’s vascular physiology by increasing the stroke diagnostic. In this review, our purpose is to discuss stroke risk prediction and detection using CT. PMID:25009794

  4. [What is not searched, it is difficult to find: Chagas' disease].

    PubMed

    Briceno, Luis; Mosca, Walter

    2016-05-01

    A conservative estimation indicates that more than 400 000 Latin American immigrants are living in Italy. Several studies have shown that among these, the prevalence of Chagas disease is between 3.9% and 17%, so it is not unlikely to find a patient with this disease during a cardiology visit. How many patients from Latin America are diagnosed with heart failure in Italy and no one has ever thought about a possible Chagas disease? This brief review describes the situation of the disease in Italy, its characteristics, the etiology of this disease and its treatment. The latter aspect will be discussed considering the recent published results of the BENEFIT study, where it was found that treatment with benznidazole in patients with Chagas' cardiomyopathy is able to reduce significantly the detection of parasites in the blood, but it is not able to prevent clinical deterioration during 5 years of follow-up. The possible implications of these results will be discussed.

  5. [What is not searched, it is difficult to find: Chagas' disease].

    PubMed

    Briceno, Luis; Mosca, Walter

    2016-05-01

    A conservative estimation indicates that more than 400 000 Latin American immigrants are living in Italy. Several studies have shown that among these, the prevalence of Chagas disease is between 3.9% and 17%, so it is not unlikely to find a patient with this disease during a cardiology visit. How many patients from Latin America are diagnosed with heart failure in Italy and no one has ever thought about a possible Chagas disease? This brief review describes the situation of the disease in Italy, its characteristics, the etiology of this disease and its treatment. The latter aspect will be discussed considering the recent published results of the BENEFIT study, where it was found that treatment with benznidazole in patients with Chagas' cardiomyopathy is able to reduce significantly the detection of parasites in the blood, but it is not able to prevent clinical deterioration during 5 years of follow-up. The possible implications of these results will be discussed. PMID:27310907

  6. An unusual case of disseminated toxoplasmosis in a previously healthy pregnant patient: radiographic, CT, and MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Paruthikunnan, Samir; Shankar, Balasubramanyam; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Prabhu, Mukhyaprana; Narayanan, Ramakrishna; Jain, Harshwardhan

    2014-11-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a ubiquitous protozoal infection that during pregnancy commonly affects the fetus severely, with maternal infection usually being mild self-limiting. Disseminated toxoplasmosis in a healthy pregnant woman has, to the best of our knowledge, not been reported before. We present a case of disseminated toxoplasmosis involving pulmonary, central nervous system, and lymph nodes in a pregnant woman and imaging findings on radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  7. Clinically-Important Brain Injury and CT Findings in Pediatric Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries: A Prospective Study in a Chinese Reference Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Huiping; Gao, Qi; Xia, Xin; Xiang, Joe; Yao, Hongli; Shao, Jianbo

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated injury patterns and the use of computed tomography (CT) among Chinese children with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). We enrolled children with MTBI who were treated within 24 hours of head trauma in the emergency department of Wuhan Medical Care Center for Women and Children in Wuhan, China. Characteristics of MTBIs were analyzed by age and gender. Results of cranial CT scan and clinically-important brain injury (ciTBI) for children were obtained. The definition of ciTBI was: death from TBI, intubation for more than 24 h for TBI, neurosurgery, or hospital admission of 2 nights or more. Of 455 eligible patients with MTBI, ciTBI occurred in two, and no one underwent neurosurgical intervention. CT scans were performed for 441 TBI patients (96.9%), and abnormal findings were reported for 147 patients (33.3%, 95% CI 29.0–37.8). Falls were the leading cause of MTBI (61.5%), followed by blows (18.9%) and traffic collisions (14.1%) for children in the 0–2 group and 10–14 group. For children aged between 3 and 9, the top three causes of TBI were falls, traffic collisions and blows. Leisure activity was the most reported activity when injuries occurred for all age groups. Sleeping/resting and walking ranked in the second and third place for children between 0 and 2 years of age, and walking and riding for the other two groups. The places where the majority injuries occurred were the home for the 0–2 and 3–9 years of age groups, and school for the 10–14 years of age group. There was no statistical difference between boys and girls with regard to the activity that caused the MTBI. This study highlights the important roles that parents and school administrators in the development of preventive measures to reduce the risk of traumatic brain injury in children. Also, identifying children who had a head trauma at very low risk of clinically important TBI for whom CT might be unnecessary is a priority area of research in China. PMID:24675642

  8. Prognostic indicators of laparotomy findings in clinical stage I-II supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed

    Leibenhaut, M H; Hoppe, R T; Efron, B; Halpern, J; Nelsen, T; Rosenberg, S A

    1989-01-01

    Between July 1968 and July 1986, 915 patients with clinical stage (CS) I and II Hodgkin's disease limited to sites above the diaphragm underwent laparotomy and splenectomy at Stanford University. Fifteen percent were CS I, of whom 76% had cervical/supraclavicular disease, 13% axillary disease, and 9% mediastinal presentations. CS I patients were more likely to be male, were significantly older, and were significantly less likely to have nodular sclerosis (NS) histology than CS II patients. Twenty percent of CS I patients and 30% of CS II patients were pathologically upstaged. No CS I patients were upstaged to pathological stage (PS) IV. Univariate and multivariate analyses of presenting clinical characteristics were performed to predict staging laparotomy findings. CS I women, CS I patients with mediastinal-only disease, and CS I men with either lymphocyte predominance or interfollicular histologies were at low risk for having disease below the diaphragm (5%) or requiring chemotherapy (0%). CS II women who were less than 27 years old and had only two or three sites of disease were also at low risk for upstaging (9%) or requiring chemotherapy (2%). Mixed cellularity histology and male gender were associated with increased risk for subdiaphragmatic disease and require laparotomy; the presence of systemic symptoms was not correlated with laparotomy findings. These results confirm the importance of performing staging laparotomy for the majority of patients who present with supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin's disease if treatment programs are based on the presence and extent of subdiaphragmatic disease. Selected subgroups are at low risk for subdiaphragmatic disease and might be spared laparotomy if they are treated with mantle, paraaortic, and splenic irradiation.

  9. Ethmoid sinus disease: CT evaluation in 400 cases. Part III: Craniofacial resection

    SciTech Connect

    Som, P.M.; Lawson, W.; Biller, H.F.; Lanzieri, C.F.; Sachdev, V.P.; Rigamonti, D.

    1986-06-01

    Of 400 patients with ethmoid sinus disease, 18 had undergone craniofacial resection. This operation is an aggressive surgical procedure directed at total en block extirpation of tumors that extend through the floor of the anterior cranial fossa. Recent advances in surgical technique have made it the procedure of choice for sinonasal tumors that extend through the cribiform plate, fovea ethmoidalis, and orbital roof. Specifically, this operation has had excellent results in patients with esthesioneuroblastomas. Radiologists must be aware of the possible pitfalls in interpreting the postoperative computed tomographic scans and the findings that suggest tumor recurrence.

  10. Observations on two cases of apparent submandibular gland cysts in HIV positive patients: MR and CT findings

    SciTech Connect

    Gottesman, R.I.; Som, P.M.; Mester, J.; Silvers, A.R.

    1996-05-01

    To present two cases of probable lymphoepithelial cysts of the submandibular glands in patients who were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive and who also had lymphoepithelial cysts of the parotid glands. Computed tomography and MRI of two HIV positive patients with lymphoepithelial cysts of the parotid glands and cysts in tile submandibular glands were correlated with the histories and the possible presence of other known causes of submandibular gland multiple cysts. Because of the present treatment philosophy regarding HIV positive patients with major salivary gland cysts, surgical resection of these glands was not performed. All other known causes of multiple submandibular gland cysts were excluded by either history or laboratory data. Computed tomography and MRI on two patients with known HIV infection and bilateral parotid lymphoepithelial cysts are presented. Both patients also had bilateral multiple submandibular gland cysts and no evidence of obstructive glandular diseases autoimmune disease, or other organ system cysts. These cases of presumed submandibular gland lymphoepithelial cysts are rare in the literature. They are presented in the hope that other radiologists will be stimulated to document the occurrence of this entity. 22 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Comparison of 128-Slice Low-Dose Prospective ECG-Gated CT Scanning and Trans-Thoracic Echocardiography for the Diagnosis of Complex Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Guilin; Miao, Ying; Bin, Jingwen; Deng, Sheng; Liu, Taowen; Jiang, Hongchun; Chen, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare prospective ECG-gated multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) and trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE) in the diagnosis of complex congenital heart disease (CHD). Methods This was a prospective study of consecutive patients with complex CHD (age <7 years) treated at a tertiary hospital between May 2013 and May 2015. All patients were imaged with TTE and prospective ECG-gated 128-slice spiral CT in the week before surgery. Effective radiation dose (ED) was calculated from volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP). Image quality (5-point scale) was assessed independently by two radiologists. Using surgical findings as the reference, the diagnostic capabilities of MSCT and TTE were compared. Results Thirty-five patients (19 males) aged 1.59±1.58 years (range, 3 days to 74 months) were included. CTDIvol, DLP and ED were 0.90±0.24 mGy, 12.9±4.7 mGy∙cm and 0.64±0.21 mSv (range, 0.358–1.196 mSv), respectively. Image quality score was 4.3±0.5, and all images met the diagnostic requirements. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for diagnosing CHD were 97.2%, 99.8%, 99.0%, and 99.5%, respectively, for MSCT, and 90.6%, 99.8%, 99.0%, and 98.4%, respectively, for TTE. MSCT not only had a higher sensitivity than TTE overall (97.2% vs. 90.6%; P<0.05), but was much more sensitive for the diagnosis of extracardiac vascular abnormalities (92.0% vs. 68.0%; P<0.05). Conclusion 128-slice low-dose prospective ECG-gated CT scanning has important clinical value in the diagnosis of complex CHD in children, complementing and extending the findings of TTE. PMID:27788237

  12. Noninvasive FFR derived from coronary CT angiography in the management of coronary artery disease: technology and clinical update

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Rine; Budoff, Mathew J

    2016-01-01

    After a decade of clinical use of coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) to evaluate the anatomic severity of coronary artery disease, new methods of deriving functional information from CCTA have been developed. These methods utilize the anatomic information provided by CCTA in conjunction with computational fluid dynamics to calculate fractional flow reserve (FFR) values from CCTA image data sets. Computed tomography-derived FFR (CT-FFR) enables the identification of lesion-specific drop noninvasively. A three-dimensional CT-FFR modeling technique, which provides FFR values throughout the coronary tree (HeartFlow FFRCT analysis), has been validated against measured FFR and is now approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for clinical use. This technique requires off-site supercomputer analysis. More recently, a one-dimensional computational analysis technique (Siemens cFFR), which can be performed on on-site workstations, has been developed and is currently under investigation. This article reviews CT-FFR technology and clinical evidence for its use in stable patients with suspected coronary artery disease. PMID:27382296

  13. CD14 gene-159C/T polymorphism and coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis involving 4467 subjects

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan-Yan; Wang, Xiang-Ming; Zhou, Chuan-Wei; Xu, Jian; Qian, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Background: The cluster of differentiation antigen 14 (CD14) gene-159C/T polymorphism has been implied to be associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) susceptibility. However, the separate studies results are still conflicting between each other. Objective and methods: To investigate the relationship between CD14 gene-159C/T polymorphism and CAD, a meta-analysis including 4467 subjects from 7 individual studies was performed. The random or fixed effect models were used to evaluate the pooled odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Results: There was a significant association between CD14 gene -159C/T polymorphism and CAD in the whole population under allelic (OR: 1.280, 95% CI: 1.000-1.630, P=0.05), recessive (OR: 1.760, 95% CI: 1.120-2.750, P=0.01), homozygous (OR: 1.693, 95% CI: 1.008-2.843, P=0.046), and additive genetic models (OR: 1.278, 95% CI: 1.000-1.633, P=0.050). No significant association was found between them under dominant (OR: 0.580, 95% CI: 0.310-1.110, P=0.10) and heterozygous genetic models (OR: 1.334, 95% CI: 0.870-2.045, P=0.186). In the subgroup analysis, a significant association was detected in Chinese population (P<0.05), while there was no significant association in the Caucasian subgroup (P>0.05). Conclusions: CD14 gene -159C/T polymorphism was significantly associated with CAD susceptibility, particularly in the Chinese population. The person with T allele of CD14 gene -159C/T polymorphism might predispose to CAD. There was no distinct association between them in the Caucasian subgroup. PMID:26550125

  14. Prevalence of extracardiac findings in the evaluation of ischemic heart disease by multidetector computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jeong-Hwan; Park, Jong-Seon; Shin, Dong-Gu; Kim, Young-Jo; Lee, Sang-Hee; Choi, Yoon-Jung; Cho, Ihn-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Objective Multidector computed tomography (MDCT) is now commonly used for the evaluation of coronary artery disease. Because MDCT images include many non-cardiac organs and the patient population evaluated is highly susceptible to extracardiac diseases, this study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of extracardiac findings in the MDCT evaluation of ischemic heart disease. Methods From March 2007 to March 2008, a total of six-hundred twenty patients, who underwent 64-slice MDCT evaluations for chest pain, or dyspnea, were enrolled in this study. Cardiac and non-cardiac findings were comprehensively evaluated by a radiologist. Results Enrolled patients included 306 men (49.4%), with a mean age of 66 years. Significant coronary artery stenosis was found in 41.6% of the patients. A total of 158 extracardiac findings were observed in 110 (17.7%) patients. Commonly involved extracardiac organs were lung (36.7%), hepatobiliary system (21.5%), thyroid (19.6%), kidney (10.8%), spine (9.7%) and breast (0.6%). Of those 110 patients, 50 (45.5%) patients underwent further diagnostic investigations. Malignant disease was detected in three (2.7%) patients (lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, and thyroid cancer). Conclusions Extracardiac findings are frequently present and should be a concern in the MDCT evaluation of chest pain syndrome. PMID:24133511

  15. Structural brain MRI studies in eye diseases: are they clinically relevant? A review of current findings.

    PubMed

    Prins, Doety; Hanekamp, Sandra; Cornelissen, Frans W

    2016-03-01

    Many eye diseases reduce visual acuity or are associated with visual field defects. Because of the well-defined retinotopic organization of the connections of the visual pathways, this may affect specific parts of the visual pathways and cortex, as a result of either deprivation or transsynaptic degeneration. For this reason, over the past several years, numerous structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have examined the association of eye diseases with pathway and brain changes. Here, we review structural MRI studies performed in human patients with the eye diseases albinism, amblyopia, hereditary retinal dystrophies, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and glaucoma. We focus on two main questions. First, what have these studies revealed? Second, what is the potential clinical relevance of their findings? We find that all the aforementioned eye diseases are indeed associated with structural changes in the visual pathways and brain. As such changes have been described in very different eye diseases, in our view the most parsimonious explanation is that these are caused by the loss of visual input and the subsequent deprivation of the visual pathways and brain regions, rather than by transsynaptic degeneration. Moreover, and of clinical relevance, for some of the diseases - in particular glaucoma and AMD - present results are compatible with the view that the eye disease is part of a more general neurological or neurodegenerative disorder that also affects the brain. Finally, establishing structural changes of the visual pathways has been relevant in the context of new therapeutic strategies to restore retinal function: it implies that restoring retinal function may not suffice to also effectively restore vision. Future structural MRI studies can contribute to (i) further establish relationships between ocular and neurological neurodegenerative disorders, (ii) investigate whether brain degeneration in eye diseases is reversible, (iii) evaluate the use

  16. Infantile Type Sandhoff Disease with Striking Brain MRI Findings and a Novel Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Beker-Acay, Mehtap; Elmas, Muhsin; Koken, Resit; Unlu, Ebru; Bukulmez, Aysegul

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Sandhoff disease is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by β-hexosaminidase deficiency in which the ganglioside GM2 and other glycolipids accumulate intracellularly within lysosomes. This process results in progressive motor neuron manifestations, death from respiratory failure and infections in infantiles. Case Report This report presents a 22-month-old girl with infantile type Sandhoff disease that was hospitalized for generalized seizures and psychomotor retardation. She was diagnosed with a genetically proven novel mutation and by demonstrating it’s specific imaging findings. Conclusions Determination of spesific changes in neuroimaging which are initial findings for GM2 gangliosidosis is important from the point of diagnosis and follow-up in infants suspected of having a neurodegenerative disease. PMID:26985245

  17. Genetic prion disease with codon 196 PRNP mutation: clinical and pathological findings.

    PubMed

    Schelzke, Gabi; Eigenbrod, Sabina; Romero, Carlos; Varges, Daniela; Breithaupt, Maren; Taratuto, Ana L; Kretzschmar, Hans A; Zerr, Inga

    2011-04-01

    Ten percent to 15% of all human transmissible spongiform encephalopathy are characterized by a mutation in prion protein gene (PRNP). They are distinct with respect to clinical signs, disease onset, disease duration, and diagnostic findings. During our surveillance activities in Germany, we identified 7 patients with the rare mutation E196K in PRNP gene, thereof 4 patients belonging to 2 families. The clinical syndromes were characterized by nonspecific and psychiatric symptoms at disease onset and progressed to predominant motor signs. These patients showed a late median disease onset of 71 years and short disease duration of 6.5 months. In absence of family history, they mimicked sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). In clinical tests they were 100% positive for 14-3-3 protein detection in cerebrospinal fluid and less sensitive for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities. As a secondary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormality, we have seen conspicuous common involvement of the subcortical white matter in 57%. Four patients underwent autopsy-pathological lesions revealed striking similarity to sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease but also involvement of the white matter. PMID:21232818

  18. How do partners find out about the risk of Huntington's disease in couple relationships?

    PubMed

    Forrest Keenan, Karen; Simpson, Sheila A; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Alexander, David A; Semper, June

    2013-06-01

    Whilst a growing body of work has explored family communication about Huntington's disease and how at-risk individuals learn about their risk, the experience of telling a partner and partners' experiences of finding out about this potentially devastating hereditary illness have received little attention. This study describes the experiences of partners in finding out about Huntington's disease and any impact on couple's relationships/marriages. We undertook a thematic analysis of qualitative interviews which explored the dynamics of partners' marriages after predictive testing and partners' views of genetic counseling. A main theme from partners' accounts was how they found out about their spouse's risk of Huntington's disease and the impact this had on marital relations. The analysis revealed four types of disclosure experiences: (1) marital secrets; (2) alerting, but not telling; (3) knowing and seeing; (4) marital ignorance. Our findings demonstrate that partners' experiences of (non)disclosure about the risk of HD within marriages is an important factor which contributes to couples' coping or marital problems. Exploring how spouses found out about their partner's risk of HD will illuminate issues about a couple's past and future patterns of communication and their coping strategies. A practical and ethical implication is the extent to which genetic counselors should inform partners about the course and nature of Huntington's disease when a partner is the support person for the individual being tested. PMID:23297124

  19. Paget disease of the breast: mammographic, US, and MR imaging findings with pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyo Soon; Jeong, Su Jin; Lee, Ji Shin; Park, Min Ho; Kim, Jin Woong; Shin, Sang Soo; Park, Jin Gyoon; Kang, Heoung Keun

    2011-01-01

    Paget disease is a rare malignancy of the breast characterized by infiltration of the nipple epidermis by adenocarcinoma cells. The clinical features of Paget disease are characteristic and should increase the likelihood of the diagnosis being made. An important point is that more than 90% of cases of Paget disease are associated with an additional underlying breast malignancy. Paget disease is frequently associated with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in the underlying lactiferous ducts of the nipple-areolar complex; it may even be associated with DCIS or invasive breast cancer elsewhere in the breast, at least 2 cm from the nipple-areolar complex. Nevertheless, mammographic findings may be negative in up to 50% of cases. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can be useful in patients with Paget disease for evaluation of the nipple-areolar complex and identification of an additional underlying malignancy in the breast. The appropriate surgical treatment must be carefully selected and individualized on the basis of radiologic findings, especially those obtained with breast MR imaging.

  20. Cerebral small vessel disease: cognition, mood, daily functioning, and imaging findings from a small pilot sample.

    PubMed

    Baker, John G; Williams, Amy J; Ionita, Catalina C; Lee-Kwen, Peterkin; Ching, Marilou; Miletich, Robert S

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease, a leading cause of cognitive decline, is considered a relatively homogeneous disease process, and it can co-occur with Alzheimer's disease. Clinical reports of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/computed tomography and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and neuropsychology testing for a small pilot sample of 14 patients are presented to illustrate disease characteristics through findings from structural and functional imaging and cognitive assessment. Participants showed some decreases in executive functioning, attention, processing speed, and memory retrieval, consistent with previous literature. An older subgroup showed lower age-corrected scores at a single time point compared to younger participants. Performance on a computer-administered cognitive measure showed a slight overall decline over a period of 8-28 months. For a case study with mild neuropsychology findings, the MRI report was normal while the SPECT report identified perfusion abnormalities. Future research can test whether advances in imaging analysis allow for identification of cerebral small vessel disease before changes are detected in cognition.

  1. Specific Shrinkage of Carotid Forks in Moyamoya Disease: A Novel Key Finding for Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    KURODA, Satoshi; KASHIWAZAKI, Daina; AKIOKA, Naoki; KOH, Masaki; HORI, Emiko; NISHIKATA, Manabu; UMEMURA, Kimiko; HORIE, Yukio; NOGUCHI, Kyo; KUWAYAMA, Naoya

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to analyze the outer diameter of the involved arteries in moyamoya disease, using three-dimensional (3D) constructive interference in steady state (CISS) and direct surgical inspection. Radiological evaluation was performed in 64 patients with moyamoya disease. As the controls, six patients with severe middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis and 17 healthy subjects were also recruited. On 3D-CISS, the outer diameter was quantified in the supraclinoid portion of internal carotid artery (C1), the horizontal portions of MCA (M1) and anterior cerebral artery (A1), and basilar artery. The involved carotid fork was directly observed during surgery in another series of three adult patients with moyamoya disease. In 53 adult patients with moyamoya disease, the outer diameters of C1, M1, and A1 segments were 2.3 ± 0.7 mm, 1.3 ± 0.5 mm, and 1.0 ± 0.4 mm in the involved side (n = 91), being significantly smaller than the control (n = 17), severe M1 stenosis (n = 6), and non-involved side in moyamoya disease (n = 15, P < 0.01). There were significant correlations between Suzuki’s angiographical stage and the outer diameters of C1, M1, and A1 (P < 0.001). The laterality ratio of C1 and M1 was significantly smaller in unilateral moyamoya disease (n = 20) than the controls and severe MCA stenosis (P < 0.01). Direct observations revealed a marked decrease in the outer diameter of the carotid fork (n = 3). These findings strongly suggest specific shrinkage of the involved arteries in moyamoya disease, which may provide essential information to distinguish moyamoya disease from other intracranial arterial stenosis and shed light on the etiology and novel diagnosis cue of moyamoya disease. PMID:26369872

  2. Initial prostate cancer diagnosis and disease staging--the role of choline-PET-CT.

    PubMed

    Mapelli, Paola; Picchio, Maria

    2015-09-01

    An early and correct diagnosis together with accurate staging of prostate cancer is necessary in order to plan the most appropriate treatment strategy. Morphological imaging modalities such as transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS), CT, and MRI can have some limitations regarding their accuracy for primary diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer; for instance, they have limited specificity in differentiating cancer from benign prostatic conditions and, by using size as the only criterion to characterize lymph node metastases, they might not be accurate enough for tumour characterization. In this scenario, PET-CT with (11)C-labelled or (18)F-labelled choline derivatives provides morphological and functional characterization and could overcome the limitations of the conventional imaging techniques. PET-CT is one of the most investigated molecular imaging modalities for prostate cancer diagnosis and staging. Currently, the main investigations on the role of PET-CT in the diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer have been performed on a retrospective basis and this type of analysis might be one of the main reasons why different results regarding its diagnostic accuracy have been reported.

  3. Epididymal Cystadenomas in von Hippel-Lindau Disease Showing Increased Activity on 68Ga DOTATATE PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Georgios Z; Millo, Corina; Sadowski, Samira M; Bagci, Ulas; Patronas, Nicholas J

    2016-10-01

    von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a familial cancer syndrome characterized by the development of a variety of malignant and benign tumors, including epididymal cystadenomas. We report a case of a VHL patient with bilateral epididymal cystadenomas who was evaluated with Ga DOTATATE PET/CT, showing intensely increased activity (SUVmax, 21.6) associated with the epididymal cystadenomas, indicating cell-surface overexpression of somatostatin receptors. The presented case supports the usefulness of somatostatin receptor imaging using Ga DOTA-conjugated peptides for detection and follow-up of VHL manifestations, as well as surveillance of asymptomatic gene carriers. PMID:27454594

  4. Couples Counseling in Alzheimer's Disease: Additional Clinical Findings from a Novel Intervention Study.

    PubMed

    Auclair, Ursula; Epstein, Cynthia; Mittelman, Mary

    2009-04-01

    This article describes the clinical findings of a study designed to assess the benefit of counseling for couples, one of whom is in the early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We previously reported our findings based on the first 12 couples that enrolled in the study. Based on the treatment of 30 additional couples, we have refined our treatment strategy to include concepts of Gestalt Therapy and Transactional Analysis and identified prevalent issues of concern to this cohort. The study design has remained as described in the earlier article (Epstein et al., 2006), and has proven to be appropriate to meet the goals of this intervention as indicated by our clinical experience and feedback from the participating couples. Case vignettes demonstrate how to conduct the sessions so that the experience of each member of the dyad is validated, while acknowledging the differential impact of the disease on them. PMID:19865591

  5. Liver Stem Cells: Experimental Findings and Implications for Human Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Michalopoulos, George K; Khan, Zahida

    2015-10-01

    Evidence from human histopathology and experimental studies with rodents and zebrafish has shown that hepatocytes and cholangiocytes may function as facultative stem cells for each other in conditions of impaired regeneration. The interpretation of the findings derived from these studies has generated considerable discussion and some controversies. This review examines the evidence obtained from the different experimental models and considers implications that these studies may have for human liver disease.

  6. Dental findings in a child with glycogen storage disease type IA.

    PubMed

    Avsar, Aysun

    2007-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease type I, also known von Gierke's disease, is a rare, severe autosomal recessive disorder due to a defect in liver, kidney, and intestinal mucosa. The existence of delayed development of the dentition, increased incidence of dental caries, taurodontism, and prolonged bleeding following dental procedures should lead clinicians to consider type I glycogen storage disease. A 10-year-old boy with glycogen storage disease type I whose condition was first diagnosed when he was 4 years of age, was referred to the clinic for multiple caries and evaluation of delayed tooth eruption. On physical examination, the patient was cooperative, with short stature, protuberant abdomen, and growth retardation. Laboratory findings indicated that blood levels of pyruvate, triglycerate, uric acid, and cholesterol were elevated. Intraorally delayed mixed dentition was evident, and approximal caries were found in teeth 55, 54, 52, 51, 61, 62, 65, 74, 84, and 85. The most significant radiographic finding was consistent with taurodontism of the molar teeth. Lateral and posteroanterior cephalometric films showed that dimensions of the craniofacial complex were strongly reduced. Evaluation of the patient's dental age was approximately 6 years. PMID:17508073

  7. Transcranial sonography findings in welding-related Parkinsonism in comparison to Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Walter, Uwe; Dressler, Dirk; Lindemann, Christian; Slachevsky, Andrea; Miranda, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    The pathogenetic relationship of welding-related Parkinsonism (WP) and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) is a matter of debate. In the present study, we compared transcranial sonography (TCS) findings in patients with WP and PD. Two male patients with WP, who had developed levodopa-resistant akinetic-rigid Parkinsonism without ongoing progression after having worked as welders for many years in Chilean mines in confined spaces without adequate ventilation, and three age-matched male patients with clinically definite akinetic-rigid PD were studied with TCS in a random order by two investigators blind to clinical diagnoses. In both WP patients, normal echogenicity of substantia nigra was found whereas all PD patients exhibited marked substantia nigra hyperechogenicity, previously reported as a characteristic TCS finding in idiopathic PD. In contrast, lenticular nucleus was hyperechogenic in both WP patients but only in one of the PD patients. TCS findings suggest a different pathophysiology of Parkinsonism in WP and PD patients.

  8. Finding a place for interleukin-1 inhibitors in the treatment of rheumatologic diseases.

    PubMed

    Finch, Donna; Sleeman, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-1 inhibitors were tested in large arthritis trials with less than impressive results, despite having convincing disease expression data and pre-clinical animal model supporting the potential pathogenic role of this cytokine in these settings. Despite disappointing beginnings, some IL-1 pathway blocking drugs are now beginning to find a place in the pharmacopoeia of rheumatologists. Drug developers utilised rapidly growing understanding of the molecular pathway and the genetic basis of key diseases to seek out conditions in which IL-1 pathway activation was much more likely to have a pivotal role in disease pathogenesis compared to the major arthritides. This review details the crucial advances in understanding of the IL-1 pathway activation which enabled this progress, particularly the advent of inflammasome biology. The drug development of IL-1 biologics in rheumatological diseases makes a fascinating case study illustrating major changes in drug development strategy encompassing closer synergies between translational biology, underlying molecular pathophysiology of disease, and novel clinical development pathways of biologic therapeutics. PMID:25760298

  9. Non-sclerotic bone involvement in Erdheim-Chester: PET/CT and MRI findings in a 15-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    White, Theresa V; Silvester, Nicholas C; Otero, Hansel J

    2016-08-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease is a rare form of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis with multi-organ infiltration that occurs mainly in adults. Pediatric cases are extremely rare. Here we report a case of multisystemic Erdheim-Chester disease in a 15-year-old boy with central nervous system involvement and skeletal findings. Positron emission tomography (PET) and MRI were used to demonstrate characteristic bilateral, symmetrical medullary involvement of the metadiaphyses of long bones in the absence of the classic sclerotic radiographic appearance. This illustrates the potential for earlier diagnosis and visualization of therapeutic response in children.

  10. Non-sclerotic bone involvement in Erdheim-Chester: PET/CT and MRI findings in a 15-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    White, Theresa V; Silvester, Nicholas C; Otero, Hansel J

    2016-08-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease is a rare form of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis with multi-organ infiltration that occurs mainly in adults. Pediatric cases are extremely rare. Here we report a case of multisystemic Erdheim-Chester disease in a 15-year-old boy with central nervous system involvement and skeletal findings. Positron emission tomography (PET) and MRI were used to demonstrate characteristic bilateral, symmetrical medullary involvement of the metadiaphyses of long bones in the absence of the classic sclerotic radiographic appearance. This illustrates the potential for earlier diagnosis and visualization of therapeutic response in children. PMID:27028532

  11. Distribution of Major Health Risks: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Most analyses of risks to health focus on the total burden of their aggregate effects. The distribution of risk-factor-attributable disease burden, for example by age or exposure level, can inform the selection and targeting of specific interventions and programs, and increase cost-effectiveness. Methods and Findings For 26 selected risk factors, expert working groups conducted comprehensive reviews of data on risk-factor exposure and hazard for 14 epidemiological subregions of the world, by age and sex. Age-sex-subregion-population attributable fractions were estimated and applied to the mortality and burden of disease estimates from the World Health Organization Global Burden of Disease database. Where possible, exposure levels were assessed as continuous measures, or as multiple categories. The proportion of risk-factor-attributable burden in different population subgroups, defined by age, sex, and exposure level, was estimated. For major cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, cholesterol, tobacco use, fruit and vegetable intake, body mass index, and physical inactivity) 43%–61% of attributable disease burden occurred between the ages of 15 and 59 y, and 87% of alcohol-attributable burden occurred in this age group. Most of the disease burden for continuous risks occurred in those with only moderately raised levels, not among those with levels above commonly used cut-points, such as those with hypertension or obesity. Of all disease burden attributable to being underweight during childhood, 55% occurred among children 1–3 standard deviations below the reference population median, and the remainder occurred among severely malnourished children, who were three or more standard deviations below median. Conclusions Many major global risks are widely spread in a population, rather than restricted to a minority. Population-based strategies that seek to shift the whole distribution of risk factors often have the potential to produce

  12. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in 20-year Survivors of Mediastinal Radiotherapy for Hodgkin's Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Machann, Wolfram; Beer, Meinrad; Breunig, Margret; Stoerk, Stefan; Angermann, Christiane; Seufert, Ines; Schwab, Franz; Koelbl, Oliver; Flentje, Michael; Vordermark, Dirk

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: The recognition of the true prevalence of cardiac toxicity after mediastinal radiotherapy requires very long follow-up and a precise diagnostic procedure. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) permits excellent quantification of cardiac function and identification of localized myocardial defects and has now been applied to a group of 20-year Hodgkin's disease survivors. Methods and materials: Of 143 patients treated with anterior mediastinal radiotherapy (cobalt-60, median prescribed dose 40 Gy) for Hodgkin's disease between 1978 and 1985, all 53 survivors were invited for cardiac MRI. Of those, 36 patients (68%) presented for MRI, and in 31 patients (58%) MRI could be performed 20-28 years (median, 24) after radiotherapy. The following sequences were acquired on a 1.5-T MRI: transversal T1-weighted TSE and T2-weighted half-fourier acquisition single-shot turbo-spin-echo sequences, a steady-state free precession (SSFP) cine sequence in the short heart axis and in the four-chamber view, SSFP perfusion sequences under rest and adenosine stress, and a SSFP inversion recovery sequence for late enhancement. The MRI findings were correlated with previously reconstructed doses to cardiac structures. Results: Clinical characteristics and reconstructed doses were not significantly different between survivors undergoing and not undergoing MRI. Pathologic findings were reduced left ventricular function (ejection fraction <55%) in 7 (23%) patients, hemodynamically relevant valvular dysfunction in 13 (42%), late myocardial enhancement in 9 (29%), and any perfusion deficit in 21 (68%). An association of regional pathologic changes and reconstructed dose to cardiac structures could not be established. Conclusions: In 20-year survivors of Hodgkin's disease, cardiac MRI detects pathologic findings in approximately 70% of patients. Cardiac MRI has a potential role in cardiac imaging of Hodgkin's disease patients after mediastinal radiotherapy.

  13. Frequency of the 677 C-->T mutation of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene among Kuwaiti sickle cell disease patients.

    PubMed

    Adekile, A D; Kutlar, F; Haider, M Z; Kutlar, A

    2001-04-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is relatively mild among Kuwaiti Arabs. However, an atypical subset of patients exists with frequent, severe vaso-occlusive crisis and osteonecrosis. The thermolabile variant of MTHFR, resulting from a C-->T mutation at nucleotide 677, has been shown to be associated with hyperhomocysteinemia, which is an important risk factor for premature vascular disease. We have screened an unselected group of 41 Kuwaiti SCD patients (33 SS and 8 Sbeta(0)-thal) attending the Hematology Clinic of Kuwait University Teaching Hospital for the MTHFR mutation, using a PCR-RFLP method. The patients were aged 2-41 years (mean of 12.8 +/- 8.6). One (2.4%) individual was homozygous for the mutation while 15 (36.6%) were heterozygous, giving an allele frequency of 20.7%. Twenty-one patients (14 SS and 7 Sbeta(0)-thal) were screened for osteonecrosis using MRI of the hip (spin-echo T1- and T2-weighted images). Seven (33.3%) had varying degrees of osteonecrosis, among whom the frequency of the 677 C-->T allele was 21.4%. The frequency was identical among those without osteonecrosis. Although the allele frequency is higher among our patients compared to American SS patients, our results do not suggest an association with osteonecrosis. PMID:11279637

  14. Assessments of Coronary Artery Visibility and Radiation Dose in Infants with Congenital Heart Disease on Cardiac 128-slice CT and on Cardiac 64-slice CT.

    PubMed

    Cui, Y; Huang, M; Zheng, J; Li, J; Liu, H; Liang, C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the coronary artery visibility and radiation dose in infants with CHD on cardiac 128-slice CT and on cardiac 64-slice CT. The images of 200 patients were analyzed in this study, 100 patients were selected randomly from a group of 789 infants (<1 years old) with CHD undergoing 128-slice CT prospective ECG-triggered axial scan, and 100 were selected randomly from 911 infants with CHD undergoing 64-slice CT retrospective ECG-gated spiral scan. The visibility of coronary artery segments was graded on a four-point scale. The coronary arteries were considered to be detected or visible when grade was 2 or higher. The visibility of the coronary artery segments and the radiation dose was compared between the two groups. Except for the rate of LM (96 vs. 99%), the detection rates of the total, LAD, LCX, RCA, and the proximal segment of the RCA in the 256-slice CT group were significantly higher than those in the 64-slice CT group (51.7, 53.33, 33.67, 53.33, and 99 vs. 34.8, 34.33, 18, 30.67, and 75%, respectively). The counts of visibility score (4/3/2/1) for the LM and the proximal segment of the RCA were 62/22/12/4 and 56/20/17/7, respectively, in the 128-slice CT group and 17/42/30/1 and 9/30/38/25, respectively, in the 64-slice CT group. There were significant differences, especially for score 4 and 3, between the two groups. The radiation dose in the 128-slice CT group was significantly decreased than those in the 64-slice CT group (CTDIvol 1.88 ± 0.51 vs. 5.61 ± 0.63 mGy; SSDE 4.48 ± 1.15 vs. 13.97 ± 1.52 mGy; effective radiation dose 1.36 ± 0.44 vs. 4.06 ± 0.7 mSv). With reduced radiation dose, the visibility of the coronary artery in infants with CHD via prospective ECG-triggered mode on a 128-slice CT is superior to that of the 64-slice CT using retrospective ECG-gated spiral mode.

  15. Longitudinal micro-CT provides biomarkers of lung disease that can be used to assess the effect of therapy in preclinical mouse models, and reveal compensatory changes in lung volume.

    PubMed

    Vande Velde, Greetje; Poelmans, Jennifer; De Langhe, Ellen; Hillen, Amy; Vanoirbeek, Jeroen; Himmelreich, Uwe; Lories, Rik J

    2016-01-01

    In vivo lung micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is being increasingly embraced in pulmonary research because it provides longitudinal information on dynamic disease processes in a field in which ex vivo assessment of experimental disease models is still the gold standard. To optimize the quantitative monitoring of progression and therapy of lung diseases, we evaluated longitudinal changes in four different micro-CT-derived biomarkers [aerated lung volume, lung tissue (including lesions) volume, total lung volume and mean lung density], describing normal development, lung infections, inflammation, fibrosis and therapy. Free-breathing mice underwent micro-CT before and repeatedly after induction of lung disease (bleomycin-induced fibrosis, invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, pulmonary cryptococcosis) and therapy (imatinib). The four lung biomarkers were quantified. After the last time point, we performed pulmonary function tests and isolated the lungs for histology. None of the biomarkers remained stable during longitudinal follow-up of adult healthy mouse lungs, implying that biomarkers should be compared with age-matched controls upon intervention. Early inflammation and progressive fibrosis led to a substantial increase in total lung volume, which affects the interpretation of aerated lung volume, tissue volume and mean lung density measures. Upon treatment of fibrotic lung disease, the improvement in aerated lung volume and function was not accompanied by a normalization of the increased total lung volume. Significantly enlarged lungs were also present in models of rapidly and slowly progressing lung infections. The data suggest that total lung volume changes could partly reflect a compensatory mechanism that occurs during disease progression in mice. Our findings underscore the importance of quantifying total lung volume in addition to aerated lung or lesion volumes to accurately document growth and potential compensatory mechanisms in mouse models of lung

  16. Longitudinal micro-CT provides biomarkers of lung disease that can be used to assess the effect of therapy in preclinical mouse models, and reveal compensatory changes in lung volume

    PubMed Central

    Vande Velde, Greetje; Poelmans, Jennifer; De Langhe, Ellen; Hillen, Amy; Vanoirbeek, Jeroen; Himmelreich, Uwe; Lories, Rik J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In vivo lung micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is being increasingly embraced in pulmonary research because it provides longitudinal information on dynamic disease processes in a field in which ex vivo assessment of experimental disease models is still the gold standard. To optimize the quantitative monitoring of progression and therapy of lung diseases, we evaluated longitudinal changes in four different micro-CT-derived biomarkers [aerated lung volume, lung tissue (including lesions) volume, total lung volume and mean lung density], describing normal development, lung infections, inflammation, fibrosis and therapy. Free-breathing mice underwent micro-CT before and repeatedly after induction of lung disease (bleomycin-induced fibrosis, invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, pulmonary cryptococcosis) and therapy (imatinib). The four lung biomarkers were quantified. After the last time point, we performed pulmonary function tests and isolated the lungs for histology. None of the biomarkers remained stable during longitudinal follow-up of adult healthy mouse lungs, implying that biomarkers should be compared with age-matched controls upon intervention. Early inflammation and progressive fibrosis led to a substantial increase in total lung volume, which affects the interpretation of aerated lung volume, tissue volume and mean lung density measures. Upon treatment of fibrotic lung disease, the improvement in aerated lung volume and function was not accompanied by a normalization of the increased total lung volume. Significantly enlarged lungs were also present in models of rapidly and slowly progressing lung infections. The data suggest that total lung volume changes could partly reflect a compensatory mechanism that occurs during disease progression in mice. Our findings underscore the importance of quantifying total lung volume in addition to aerated lung or lesion volumes to accurately document growth and potential compensatory mechanisms in mouse models of

  17. Longitudinal micro-CT provides biomarkers of lung disease that can be used to assess the effect of therapy in preclinical mouse models, and reveal compensatory changes in lung volume.

    PubMed

    Vande Velde, Greetje; Poelmans, Jennifer; De Langhe, Ellen; Hillen, Amy; Vanoirbeek, Jeroen; Himmelreich, Uwe; Lories, Rik J

    2016-01-01

    In vivo lung micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is being increasingly embraced in pulmonary research because it provides longitudinal information on dynamic disease processes in a field in which ex vivo assessment of experimental disease models is still the gold standard. To optimize the quantitative monitoring of progression and therapy of lung diseases, we evaluated longitudinal changes in four different micro-CT-derived biomarkers [aerated lung volume, lung tissue (including lesions) volume, total lung volume and mean lung density], describing normal development, lung infections, inflammation, fibrosis and therapy. Free-breathing mice underwent micro-CT before and repeatedly after induction of lung disease (bleomycin-induced fibrosis, invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, pulmonary cryptococcosis) and therapy (imatinib). The four lung biomarkers were quantified. After the last time point, we performed pulmonary function tests and isolated the lungs for histology. None of the biomarkers remained stable during longitudinal follow-up of adult healthy mouse lungs, implying that biomarkers should be compared with age-matched controls upon intervention. Early inflammation and progressive fibrosis led to a substantial increase in total lung volume, which affects the interpretation of aerated lung volume, tissue volume and mean lung density measures. Upon treatment of fibrotic lung disease, the improvement in aerated lung volume and function was not accompanied by a normalization of the increased total lung volume. Significantly enlarged lungs were also present in models of rapidly and slowly progressing lung infections. The data suggest that total lung volume changes could partly reflect a compensatory mechanism that occurs during disease progression in mice. Our findings underscore the importance of quantifying total lung volume in addition to aerated lung or lesion volumes to accurately document growth and potential compensatory mechanisms in mouse models of lung

  18. Neuroradiological, neurophysiological and molecular findings in infantile Krabbe disease: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Vargiami, E; Papathanasiou, E; Batzios, S; Kyriazi, M; Dimitriou, E; Anastasiou, A; Michelakakis, H; Giese, A-K

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Krabbe disease is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder due to a defect of the lysosomal enzyme β-galactocerebrosidase (β-GALC). Depending on the age of onset, the disease is classified into infantile and later-onset forms. We report neuroradiological, neurophysiological and molecular findings in two Greek patients with the infantile form of Krabbe disease. The index patients presented at the age of 3.5 and 6 months, respectively, due to developmental delay. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the first patient’s brain demonstrated signs of leukodystrophy, while nerve conduction velocities (NCVs) were significantly decreased. The second patient’s MRI at the age of 4 months was initially normal, but at 18 months demonstrated leukodystrophic alterations as well, whereas NCVs were also significantly delayed. In both patients, a severe decrease in β-GALC, activity supported the diagnosis of Krabbe disease, while the final diagnosis was confirmed by molecular genetic testing. Two homozygous mutations of the GALC gene, the c.411_413delTAA [p.K139del] mutation in the first patient, and the c.749T>C [p.I250T] mutation in the second patient, were identified. At their last follow-up visit at the age of 4 and 6 years, respectively, both patients were bedridden and quadri-plegic, suffering from frequent respiratory tract infections and fed through a gastrostomy. Both mutations found in homozygosity in these two unrelated patients of Greek ancestry, could pinpoint a common origin. Genotyping of patients with Krabbe disease is important, in order to contribute to the creation of a European mutation database and to further study possible genotype-phenotype correlations of the disease. PMID:27785412

  19. Cardiac PET/CT for the Evaluation of Known or Suspected Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Venkatesh L.

    2011-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is increasingly being applied in the evaluation of myocardial perfusion. Cardiac PET can be performed with an increasing variety of cyclotron- and generator-produced radiotracers. Compared with single photon emission computed tomography, PET offers lower radiation exposure, fewer artifacts, improved spatial resolution, and, most important, improved diagnostic performance. With its capacity to quantify rest–peak stress left ventricular systolic function as well as coronary flow reserve, PET is superior to other methods for the detection of multivessel coronary artery disease and, potentially, for risk stratification. Coronary artery calcium scoring may be included for further risk stratification in patients with normal perfusion imaging findings. Furthermore, PET allows quantification of absolute myocardial perfusion, which also carries substantial prognostic value. Hybrid PET–computed tomography scanners allow functional evaluation of myocardial perfusion combined with anatomic characterization of the epicardial coronary arteries, thereby offering great potential for both diagnosis and management. Additional studies to further validate the prognostic value and cost effectiveness of PET are warranted. © RSNA, 2011 PMID:21918042

  20. CT in the diagnosis of enterovesical fistulae

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, S.M.; Fishman, E.K.; Gatewood, O.M.B.; Jones, B.; Siegelman, S.S.

    1985-06-01

    Enterovesical fistulae are difficult to demonstrate by conventional radiographic methods. Computed tomography (CT), a sensitive, noninvasive method of documenting the presence of such fistulae, is unique in its ability to outline the extravesical component of the primary disease process. Twenty enterovesical fistulae identified by CT were caused by diverticulitis (nine), carcinoma of the rectosigmoid (two), Crohn disease (three), gynecologic tumors (two), bladder cancer (one), cecal carcinoma (one), prostatic neoplasia (one), and appendiceal abscess (one). The CT findings included intravesical air (90%), passage of orally or rectally administered contrast medium into the bladder (20%), focal bladder-wall thickening (90%), thickening of adjacent bowel wall (85%), and an extraluminal mass that often contained air (75%). CT proved to be an important new method in the diagnosis of enterovesical fistulae.

  1. Lumbar Disc Degenerative Disease: Disc Degeneration Symptoms and Magnetic Resonance Image Findings

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Shafaq; Rehmani, Muhammad Asim Khan; Raees, Aisha; Alvi, Arsalan Ahmad; Ashraf, Junaid

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Cross sectional and observational. Purpose To evaluate the different aspects of lumbar disc degenerative disc disease and relate them with magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings and symptoms. Overview of Literature Lumbar disc degenerative disease has now been proven as the most common cause of low back pain throughout the world. It may present as disc herniation, lumbar spinal stenosis, facet joint arthropathy or any combination. Presenting symptoms of lumbar disc degeneration are lower back pain and sciatica which may be aggravated by standing, walking, bending, straining and coughing. Methods This study was conducted from January 2012 to June 2012. Study was conducted on the diagnosed patients of lumbar disc degeneration. Diagnostic criteria were based upon abnormal findings in MRI. Patients with prior back surgery, spine fractures, sacroiliac arthritis, metabolic bone disease, spinal infection, rheumatoid arthritis, active malignancy, and pregnancy were excluded. Results During the targeted months, 163 patients of lumbar disc degeneration with mean age of 43.92±11.76 years, came into Neurosurgery department. Disc degeneration was most commonly present at the level of L4/L5 105 (64.4%).Commonest types of disc degeneration were disc herniation 109 (66.9%) and lumbar spinal stenosis 37 (22.7%). Spondylolisthesis was commonly present at L5/S1 10 (6.1%) and associated mostly with lumbar spinal stenosis 7 (18.9%). Conclusions Results reported the frequent occurrence of lumbar disc degenerative disease in advance age. Research efforts should endeavor to reduce risk factors and improve the quality of life. PMID:24353850

  2. Factors affecting uncertainty in lung nodule volume estimation with CT: comparisons of findings from two estimation methods in a phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qin; Gavrielides, Marios A.; Zeng, Rongping; Myers, Kyle J.; Sahiner, Berkman; Petrick, Nicholas

    2015-03-01

    This work aimed to compare two different types of volume estimation methods (a model-based and a segmentationbased method) in terms of identifying factors affecting measurement uncertainty. Twenty-nine synthetic nodules with varying size, radiodensity, and shape were placed in an anthropomorphic thoracic phantom and scanned with a 16- detector row CT scanner. Ten repeat scans were acquired using three exposures and two slice collimations, and were reconstructed with varying slice thicknesses. Nodule volumes were estimated from the reconstructed data using a matched-filter and a segmentation approach. Log transformed volumes were used to obtain measurement error with truth obtained through micro-CT. ANOVA and multiple linear regression were applied to measurement error to identify significant factors affecting volume estimation for each method. Root mean square of measurement errors (RMSE) for meaningful subgroups, repeatability coefficients (RC) for different imaging protocols, and reproducibility coefficients (RDC) for thin and thick collimation conditions were evaluated. Results showed that for both methods, nodule size, shape and slice thickness were significant factors. Collimation was significant for the matched-filter method. RMSEs for matched-filter measurements were in general smaller than segmentation. To achieve RMSE on the order of 15% or less for {5, 8, 9, 10mm} nodules, the corresponding maximum allowable slice thicknesses were {3, 5, 5, 5mm} for the matched-filter and {0.8, 3, 3, 3mm} for the segmentation method. RCs showed similar patterns for both methods, increasing with slice thickness. For 8-10mm nodules, the measurements were highly repeatable provided the slice thickness was ≤3mm, regardless of method and across varying acquisition conditions. RDCs were lower for thin collimation than thick collimation protocols. While RDC of matched filter volume estimation results was always lower than segmentation results, for 8-10mm nodules with thin

  3. Fireworks-induced chest wall granulomatous disease: 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Le, Stephanie T; Nguyen, Ba Duong

    2014-04-01

    The authors present a case of 18F-FDG-avid granulomatous reaction induced by fireworks injury of the chest wall in a patient with esophageal adenocarcinoma. This hypermetabolic lesion, involving the right pectoralis muscles, appeared slightly more prominent on restaging PET/CT imaging following chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Excisional biopsy of the lesion established the diagnosis of foreign-body granulomatous-type inflammation with surrounding foci of non-polarizable black foreign material and ruled out malignancy. The patient recalled accidentally shooting himself in the chest with a Roman candle at the age of 3.

  4. Fireworks-induced chest wall granulomatous disease: 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Le, Stephanie T; Nguyen, Ba Duong

    2014-04-01

    The authors present a case of 18F-FDG-avid granulomatous reaction induced by fireworks injury of the chest wall in a patient with esophageal adenocarcinoma. This hypermetabolic lesion, involving the right pectoralis muscles, appeared slightly more prominent on restaging PET/CT imaging following chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Excisional biopsy of the lesion established the diagnosis of foreign-body granulomatous-type inflammation with surrounding foci of non-polarizable black foreign material and ruled out malignancy. The patient recalled accidentally shooting himself in the chest with a Roman candle at the age of 3. PMID:23877517

  5. Acute pancreatitis: prognostic value of CT

    SciTech Connect

    Balthazar, E.J.; Ranson, J.H.C.; Naidich, D.P.; Megibow, A.J.; Caccavale, R.; Cooper, M.M.

    1985-09-01

    In 83 patients with acute pancreatitis, the initial computed tomographic (CT) examinations were classified by degree of disease severity (grades A-E) and were correlated with the clinical follow-up, objective prognostic signs, and complications and death. The length of hospitalization correlated well with the severity of the initial CT findings. Abscesses occurred in 21.6% of the entire group, compared with 60.0% of grade E patients. Pleural effusions were also more common in grade E patients. Abscesses were seen in 80.0% of patients with six to eight prognostic signs, compared with 12.5% of those with zero to two. The use of prognostic signs with initial CT findings results in improved prognostic accuracy. Early CT examination of patients with acute pancreatitis is a useful prognostic indicator of morbidity and mortality.

  6. REM Sleep Behavior and Motor Findings in Parkinson's Disease: A Cross-sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Abhimanyu; Rosenthal, Liana S.; Gamaldo, Charlene; Salas, Rachel E.; Pontone, Gregory M.; McCoy, Arita; Umeh, Chizoba; Mari, Zoltan

    2014-01-01

    Background Parkinson's disease (PD) represents a major public health challenge that will only grow in our aging population. Understanding the connection between PD and associated prodromal conditions, such as rapid eye movement sleep behavioral disorder (RBD), is critical to identifying prevention strategies. However, the relationship between RBD and severity of motor findings in early PD is unknown. This study aims to examine this relationship. Methods The study population consisted of 418 PD patients who completed the Movement Disorders Society-United Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) and rapid eye movement sleep (REM) disorder questionnaires at the baseline visit of the Michael J. Fox's Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI). Cross-sectional analysis was carried out to assess the association between REM Sleep Behavior Screening Questionnaire score and MDS UPDRS-3 (motor) score categories. Correlation with a higher score category was described as “worse motor findings”. A score of 5 on the REM disorder questionnaire was defined as predictive of RBD. Results Out of the 418 PD patients, 113 (27.0%) had RBD. With univariate logistic regression analysis, individuals with scores predictive of RBD were 1.66 times more likely to have worse motor findings (p = 0.028). Even with age, gender, and Geriatric Depression Scale scores taken into account, individuals with scores predictive of RBD were 1.69 times more likely to have worse motor findings (p = 0.025). Discussion PD patients with RBD symptoms had worse motor findings than those unlikely to have RBD. This association provides further evidence for the relationship between RBD and PD. PMID:25009765

  7. Prediction of Large Joint Destruction in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis Using 18F-FDG PET/CT and Disease Activity Score.

    PubMed

    Suto, Takahito; Okamura, Koichi; Yonemoto, Yukio; Okura, Chisa; Tsushima, Yoshito; Takagishi, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    The assessments of joint damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are mainly restricted to small joints in the hands and feet. However, the development of arthritis in RA patients often involves the large joints, such as the shoulder, elbow, hip, knee, and ankle. Few studies have been reported regarding the degree of large joint destruction in RA patients. F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) visualizes the disease activity in large joints affected by RA. In this study, the associations between destruction of the large joints and the findings of FDG-PET/CT as well as laboratory parameters were investigated, and factors associated with large joint destruction after the administration of biological therapy were identified in RA patients. A total of 264 large joints in 23 RA patients (6 men and 17 women; mean age of 66.9 ± 7.9 years) were assessed in this study. FDG-PET/CT was performed at baseline and 6 months after the initiation of biological therapy. The extent of FDG uptake in large joints (shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee, and ankle) was analyzed using the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax). Radiographs of the 12 large joints per patient obtained at baseline and after 2 years were assessed according to Larsen's method. A logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the factors most significantly contributing to the progression of joint destruction within 2 years. Radiographic progression of joint destruction was detected in 33 joints. The SUVmax at baseline and 6 months, and the disease activity score (DAS) 28-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) at 6, 12, and 24 months were significantly higher in the group with progressive joint destruction. The SUVmax at baseline and DAS28-ESR at 6 months were found to be factors associated with joint destruction at 2 years (P < 0.05). The FDG uptake in the joints with destruction was higher than that observed in the joints

  8. Prediction of Large Joint Destruction in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis Using 18F-FDG PET/CT and Disease Activity Score

    PubMed Central

    Suto, Takahito; Okamura, Koichi; Yonemoto, Yukio; Okura, Chisa; Tsushima, Yoshito; Takagishi, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The assessments of joint damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are mainly restricted to small joints in the hands and feet. However, the development of arthritis in RA patients often involves the large joints, such as the shoulder, elbow, hip, knee, and ankle. Few studies have been reported regarding the degree of large joint destruction in RA patients. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) visualizes the disease activity in large joints affected by RA. In this study, the associations between destruction of the large joints and the findings of FDG-PET/CT as well as laboratory parameters were investigated, and factors associated with large joint destruction after the administration of biological therapy were identified in RA patients. A total of 264 large joints in 23 RA patients (6 men and 17 women; mean age of 66.9 ± 7.9 years) were assessed in this study. FDG-PET/CT was performed at baseline and 6 months after the initiation of biological therapy. The extent of FDG uptake in large joints (shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee, and ankle) was analyzed using the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax). Radiographs of the 12 large joints per patient obtained at baseline and after 2 years were assessed according to Larsen's method. A logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the factors most significantly contributing to the progression of joint destruction within 2 years. Radiographic progression of joint destruction was detected in 33 joints. The SUVmax at baseline and 6 months, and the disease activity score (DAS) 28-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) at 6, 12, and 24 months were significantly higher in the group with progressive joint destruction. The SUVmax at baseline and DAS28-ESR at 6 months were found to be factors associated with joint destruction at 2 years (P < 0.05). The FDG uptake in the joints with destruction was higher than that observed in the

  9. Scanning electron microscope and micro-CT evaluation of cranial sutures in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter J; Netherway, David J; David, David J; Self, Peter

    2006-09-01

    Current knowledge of suture biology has been ascertained as a result of morphological studies of normal cranial sutures (and rarely those undergoing craniosynostosis). These were initially undertaken often using histological investigations, or more recently using CT scans, as investigative tools, but have often used animal models. However, recent technological advances have provided the potential to refine our understanding of the ultrastructure by the use of new advanced scanning technology, which offers the possibility of more detailed resolution. Our aim was to undertake detailed scans of normal, fusing and fused sutures from patients with craniosynosotosis affecting different sutures, to study the detailed structure at different stages of the fusion process using a modern micro-CT scanner and a microanalytical scanning electron microscope. We wished to include in our study all the human sutures because previous studies have mostly been undertaken using the sagittal suture. Ten sutures from seven patients have revealed a complex ultra-structural arrangement. The different patterns of bone ridging seen on the ectocranial and endocranial surfaces of the fused sagittal suture were not repeated on closer inspection of either fused coronal or lambdoid sutures. Elemental analysis confirmed that the amount of calcium increased and the amount of carbon decreased as sampled areas moved away from the suture margin. We conclude that scanning allowed detailed assessment and revealed the complex arrangement of the structure of the human cranial sutures and those undergoing the process of craniosynostosis, with some differences in final structure depending on the affected suture.

  10. Survey finds public support for legal interventions directed at health behavior to fight noncommunicable disease.

    PubMed

    Morain, Stephanie; Mello, Michelle M

    2013-03-01

    The high prevalence of chronic diseases in the United States with lifestyle-related risk factors, such as obesity and tobacco use, has sparked interest in legal strategies to influence health behavior. However, little is known about the public's willingness to accept these policies as legitimate, which in turn may affect compliance. We present results from a national survey of 1,817 US adults concerning the acceptability of different public health legal interventions that address noncommunicable, or chronic, diseases. We found that support for these new interventions is high overall; substantially greater among African Americans and Hispanics than among whites; and tied to perceptions of democratic representation in policy making. There was much support for strategies that enable people to exercise healthful choices--for example, menu labeling and improving access to nicotine patches--but considerably less for more coercive measures, such as insurance premium surcharges. These findings suggest that the least coercive path will be the smoothest and that support for interventions may be widespread among different social groups. In addition, the findings underscore the need for policy makers to involve the public in decision making, understand the public's values, and communicate how policy decisions reflect this understanding.

  11. Polysomnographic Findings and Clinical Correlates in Huntington Disease: A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Piano, Carla; Losurdo, Anna; Della Marca, Giacomo; Solito, Marcella; Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Provini, Federica; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Cortelli, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    , Calandra-Buonaura G, Provini F, Bentivoglio AR, Cortelli P. Polysomnographic findings and clinical correlates in Huntington disease: a cross-sectional cohort study. SLEEP 2015;38(9):1489–1495. PMID:25845698

  12. The prevalence of chondrocalcinosis of the symphysis pubis on CT scan and correlation with calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease.

    PubMed

    Patel, Trusha; Ryan, Lawrence; Dubois, Melissa; Carrera, Guillermo; Baynes, Keith; Mannem, Rajeev; Mulkerin, Jennifer; Visotcky, Alexis

    2016-03-01

    Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPP) crystal deposition in the articular cartilage can often be seen radiographically as chondrocalcinosis (CC). CPP crystals preferentially deposit in fibrocartilages such as the knee menisci and symphysis pubis (SP). We sought to determine the prevalence of CC in the SP on computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis. This retrospective study involved readings on 1070 consecutive CTs of the abdomen and pelvis performed over 3 months in patients over 65 years of age. Medical records of 226 patients found to have CC were reviewed to determine age, gender, documentation of CPPD on problem lists or in medical histories, and whether radiology readings of the CTs mentioned CC. SP CC was identified in 21.1 % (226/1070) of consecutive CT scans with the mean age of CT+ patients being 78.6. Of the 226 patients with SP CC, the observation of CC was documented in only 5.3 % (12/226) of the radiology reports. Of the 12 instances in which the radiology reports mentioned CC, this observation was never (0/12) transmitted to the medical history or problem list. The prevalence of SP CC in patients older than 65 was 21.1 %. Since the majority of CTs of the abdomen and pelvis are not ordered for evaluation of musculoskeletal conditions, this is likely a true prevalence without selection bias. When CC of the SP was present on images, radiologists routinely overlooked or chose not to report CC. Even in the rare instances when it was reported, that information was not added to the medical history or problem list. There are several clinical situations (e.g., acute monoarthritis or atypical osteoarthritis) in which recognizing that a patient has CPP deposition would be useful. Taking the time to review images may yield clinically important findings that are not mentioned anywhere on the patient chart.

  13. Incidental finding of silent appendicitis on (18)F-FDG PET/CT in a patient with small cell lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, Sophie; Van Den Berghe, Ivo; De Geeter, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We report the incidental diagnosis of acute asymptomatic appendicitis on a fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) performed for staging of a non small cell lung carcinoma. The patient was asymptomatic and laboratory tests were normal. The case illustrates: a) the possibility to diagnose appendicitis on (18)F-FDG PET/CT and b) the possibility of silent acute appendicitis, although this is a rare occurrence. PMID:27331212

  14. Incidental finding of silent appendicitis on (18)F-FDG PET/CT in a patient with small cell lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, Sophie; Van Den Berghe, Ivo; De Geeter, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We report the incidental diagnosis of acute asymptomatic appendicitis on a fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) performed for staging of a non small cell lung carcinoma. The patient was asymptomatic and laboratory tests were normal. The case illustrates: a) the possibility to diagnose appendicitis on (18)F-FDG PET/CT and b) the possibility of silent acute appendicitis, although this is a rare occurrence.

  15. Chest CT with iterative reconstruction algorithms for airway stent evaluation in patients with malignant obstructive tracheobronchial diseases.

    PubMed

    Li, Tingting; Zhang, Yonggao; Wang, Yadong; Gao, Jianbo; Jiang, Yan

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the image quality of low-dose CT images with different reconstruction algorithms including filtered back projection (FBP), hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR), and iterative model reconstruction (IMR) algorithms by comparison of routine dose images with FBP reconstruction, in patients with malignant obstructive tracheobronchial diseases.In total, 60 patients (59 ± 9.3 years, 37 males) with airway stent who are randomly assigned into 2 groups (routine-dose [RD] and low-dose [LD] group, 30 for each) underwent chest CT on a 256-slice CT (RD-group 120 kV, 250 mAs, LD-group 120 kV, 120 mAs). Images were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm in the RD group, whereas with FBP, HIR and IMR algorithms in the LD group. Effective radiation dose of both groups was recorded. Image-quality assessment was performed by 2 radiologists according to structure demarcation near stents, artifacts, noise, and diagnostic confidence using a 5-point scale (1 [poor] to 5 [excellent]). Image noise and CNR were measured.The effective radiation dose of LD group was reduced 52.7% compared with the RD group (10.8 mSv ± 0.58 vs 5.1 mSv ± 0.26, P = 0.00). LD-IMR images enabled lowest image noise and best subjective image quality scores of all 4 indices, when compared with RD images reconstructed with FBP (RD-FBP) images (all P < 0.05). LD images reconstructed with and with HIR (LD-HIR) images enabled higher score in subjective image quality of artifacts (P < 0.05), whereas it showed no difference in the other subjective image-quality indices and image noise. Significant higher image noise and lower score of subjective image quality were observed in LD-FBP images (all P < 0.05).Both IMR and HIR improved image quality of low-dose chest CT by comparison of routine dose images reconstructed with FBP. Meanwhile, IMR allows further image quality improvement than HIR. PMID:27684818

  16. Stage-dependent agreement between cerebrospinal fluid proteins and FDG-PET findings in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Yakushev, Igor; Muller, Matthias J; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Lang, Ulrike; Rossmann, Heidi; Hampel, Harald; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Fellgiebel, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    Cerebral hypometabolism and abnormal levels of amyloid beta (Aβ), total (t-tau) and phosphorylated tau (ptau) proteins in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are established biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We examined the agreement between these biomarkers in a single center study of patients with AD of severity extending over a wide range. Forty seven patients (MMSE 21.4 ± 3.6, range 13-28 points) with incipient and probable AD underwent positron emission tomography with [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) and lumbar puncture for CSF assays of Aβ1-42, p-tau181, and t-tau. All findings were classified as either positive or negative for AD. Statistical analyses were performed for the whole sample (n=47) and for the subgroups stratified as mild (MMSE > 20 points, n=30) and moderate (MMSE < 21 points, n=17) AD. In the whole patient sample, the agreement with the FDG-PET finding was 77% (chance-corrected kappa [κ]=0.34, p=0.016) for t-tau, 68% (κ=0.10, n.s.) for p-tau181, and 68% (κ=0.04, n.s.) for Aβ1-42. No significant agreement was found in the mild AD subgroup, while there was a strong agreement for t-tau (94%, κ=0.77, p=0.001) and p-tau181 (88%, κ=0.60, p=0.014) in the moderate AD group. A significant agreement between the FDG-PET and CSF tau findings in patients with AD supports the view that both are markers of neurodegeneration. CSF tau proteins and FDG-PET might substitute each other as supportive diagnostic tools in patients with suspected moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's dementia, while this is not the case in subjects at an earlier disease stage. PMID:22044023

  17. The implications of familial incidental findings from exome sequencing: The NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Program experience

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Lauren; Sincan, Murat; Markello, Thomas; Adams, David R; Gill, Fred; Godfrey, Rena; Golas, Gretchen; Groden, Catherine; Landis, Dennis; Nehrebecky, Michele; Park, Grace; Soldatos, Ariane; Tifft, Cynthia; Toro, Camilo; Wahl, Colleen; Wolfe, Lynne; Gahl, William A.; Boerkoel, Cornelius F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Using exome sequence data from 159 families participating in the NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Program, we evaluated the number and inheritance of reportable incidental sequence variants. Methods Following the ACMG recommendations for reporting of incidental next generation sequencing findings, we extracted variants in 56 genes from the exome sequence data of 543 subjects and determined the reportable incidental findings for each participant. We also defined variant status as inherited or de novo for those with available parental sequence data. Results We identified 14 independent reportable variants in 159 (8.8%) families. For 9 families with parental sequence data in our cohort, a parent transmitted the variant to one or more children (9 minor children and 4 adult children). The remaining 5 variants occurred in adults for whom parental sequences were unavailable. Conclusion Our results are consistent with the expectation that a small percentage of exomes will result in identification of an incidental finding under the ACMG recommendations. Additionally, our analysis of family sequence data highlights that genome and exome sequencing of families has unavoidable implications for immediate family members and therefore requires appropriate counseling of the family. PMID:24784157

  18. Computer-aided assessment of pulmonary disease in novel swine-origin H1N1 influenza on CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jianhua; Dwyer, Andrew J.; Summers, Ronald M.; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2011-03-01

    The 2009 pandemic is a global outbreak of novel H1N1 influenza. Radiologic images can be used to assess the presence and severity of pulmonary infection. We develop a computer-aided assessment system to analyze the CT images from Swine-Origin Influenza A virus (S-OIV) novel H1N1 cases. The technique is based on the analysis of lung texture patterns and classification using a support vector machine (SVM). Pixel-wise tissue classification is computed from the SVM value. The method was validated on four H1N1 cases and ten normal cases. We demonstrated that the technique can detect regions of pulmonary abnormality in novel H1N1 patients and differentiate these regions from visually normal lung (area under the ROC curve is 0.993). This technique can also be applied to differentiate regions infected by different pulmonary diseases.

  19. The Polymorphism rs3024505 (C/T) Downstream of the IL10 Gene Is Associated with Crohn's Disease in Serbian Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Mijac, Dragana; Petrovic, Irena Vukovic; Djuranovic, Srdjan; Perovic, Vladimir; Bojic, Daniela; Culafic, Djordje; Popovic, Dragan; Krstic, Miodrag; Jankovic, Goran; Djoric, Milica; Pravica, Vera; Markovic, Milos

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), manifesting as Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is characterized by recurring episodes of inflammation in gastrointestinal tract, in which aberrant production of regulatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) presumably plays important role. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that affect IL-10 production, such as rs1800896 (G/A) at position -1082 and rs1800871 (C/T) at position -819 in the promoter region of the IL10 gene, have been associated with CD and/or UC, but the results were inconsistent. Another SNP that may alter IL-10 production, rs3024505 (C/T) located immediately downstream of the IL10 gene has been recently identified. T allele of rs3024505 was associated with both UC and CD in Western populations, but the studies from East European countries are lacking. Therefore, our aim was to assess the association of rs3024505, rs1800896 and rs1800871 with Serbian IBD patients. To this end, 107 CD and 99 UC patients and 255 healthy controls were genotyped. As a result, T allele of rs3024505 was associated with CD at allelic, genotypic (GT genotype) and haplotypic (GCCT haplotype) level, suggesting potential role of this variant in susceptibility to CD. In contrast, CD patients carrying C allele of rs3024505 had significantly increased risk of anemia and stricturing/penetrating behavior. No association was observed between rs3024505 and UC or SNPs in IL10 promoter region and any form of IBD. In conclusion, rs3024505 SNP flanking the IL10 gene is associated with susceptibility and severity of disease in Serbian CD patients, further validating its role as a potential biomarker in IBD. PMID:27558476

  20. Giant colon polyp in a child with suspected inflammatory bowel disease: US findings.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Valerio; Di Serafino, Marco; Mercogliano, Carmela; Vallone, Gianfranco

    2016-03-01

    A 6-year-old boy with a history of diarrhea and rectal bleeding was referred to our department where he underwent ultrasound (US) examination for suspected inflammatory bowel disease. US showed the presence of an echoic oval mass measuring about 30 × 24 mm located at the transition between the transverse and descending colon. It moved with the peristaltic waves and was attached to the intestinal wall through a pedicle. Color Doppler showed intralesional blood flow. On the basis of these findings, the patient was suspected of having a colon polyp. This diagnosis was confirmed at subsequent colonoscopy. The mass was removed using a diathermy snare, and histologic examination revealed hamartomatous polyp measuring 32 mm. PMID:26941874

  1. Imaging findings of anaplastic astrocytoma in a child with maple syrup urine disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Aw-Zoretic, Jessie; Wadhwani, Nitin R; Lulla, Rishi R; Rishi, Lulla R; Ryan, Maura E

    2015-09-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of branched-chain amino acid metabolism, which usually presents in childhood with encephalopathy due to cerebral edema and dysmyelination. Even with treatment, metabolic stressors may precipitate later episodes of acute decompensation. Changes related to cerebral and white matter edema have been described by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and imaging can aid in both initial diagnosis and evaluation of decompensation. To date, there are no published known reports of cancer in patients with MSUD. Here, we present the first case report of an anaplastic astrocytoma in a teenager with MSUD, with a discussion of imaging findings and the use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to help distinguish between tumor and metabolic changes. PMID:26084772

  2. Clinical and Laboratory Findings That Differentiate Herpes Simplex Virus Central Nervous System Disease from Enteroviral Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Sanaee, Layli; Karnauchow, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Background. It can be difficult for clinicians to distinguish between the relatively benign enteroviral (EnV) meningitis and potentially lethal herpes simplex virus (HSV) central nervous system (CNS) disease. Very limited evidence currently exists to guide them. Objective. This study sought to identify clinical features and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings associated with HSV CNS disease. Methods. Given that PCR testing often is not immediately available, this chart review study sought to identify clinical and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings associated with HSV meningitis over a 6-year period. In cases where PCR was not performed, HSV and EnV were assigned based on clinical criteria. Results. We enrolled 166 consecutive patients: 40 HSV and 126 EnV patients. HSV patients had a mean 40.4 versus 31.3 years for EnV, p = 0.005, seizures 21.1% versus 1.6% for EnV, p < 0.001, altered mental status 46.2% versus 3.2% for EnV, p < 0.001, or neurological deficits 44.7% versus 3.9% for EnV, p < 0.001. CSF neutrophils were lower in HSV (median 3.0% versus 9.5%, p = 0.0002); median lymphocytes (87.0% versus 67.0%, p = 0.0004) and protein (0.9 g/L versus 0.6 g/L, p = 0.0005) were elevated. Conclusion. Our study found that HSV patients were older and more likely to have seizure, altered mental status, or neurological deficits than patients with benign EnV meningitis. HSV cases had lower CSF neutrophils, higher lymphocytes, and higher protein levels. PMID:27563314

  3. Clinical and Laboratory Findings That Differentiate Herpes Simplex Virus Central Nervous System Disease from Enteroviral Meningitis.

    PubMed

    Sanaee, Layli; Taljaard, Monica; Karnauchow, Tim; Perry, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-01

    Background. It can be difficult for clinicians to distinguish between the relatively benign enteroviral (EnV) meningitis and potentially lethal herpes simplex virus (HSV) central nervous system (CNS) disease. Very limited evidence currently exists to guide them. Objective. This study sought to identify clinical features and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings associated with HSV CNS disease. Methods. Given that PCR testing often is not immediately available, this chart review study sought to identify clinical and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings associated with HSV meningitis over a 6-year period. In cases where PCR was not performed, HSV and EnV were assigned based on clinical criteria. Results. We enrolled 166 consecutive patients: 40 HSV and 126 EnV patients. HSV patients had a mean 40.4 versus 31.3 years for EnV, p = 0.005, seizures 21.1% versus 1.6% for EnV, p < 0.001, altered mental status 46.2% versus 3.2% for EnV, p < 0.001, or neurological deficits 44.7% versus 3.9% for EnV, p < 0.001. CSF neutrophils were lower in HSV (median 3.0% versus 9.5%, p = 0.0002); median lymphocytes (87.0% versus 67.0%, p = 0.0004) and protein (0.9 g/L versus 0.6 g/L, p = 0.0005) were elevated. Conclusion. Our study found that HSV patients were older and more likely to have seizure, altered mental status, or neurological deficits than patients with benign EnV meningitis. HSV cases had lower CSF neutrophils, higher lymphocytes, and higher protein levels. PMID:27563314

  4. [PET-CT documented remission of multicentric Castleman disease after treatment with rituximab: case report and review].

    PubMed

    Adam, Zdeněk; Szturz, Petr; Koukalová, Renata; Řehák, Zdeněk; Pour, Luděk; Krejčí, Marta; Šmardová, Lenka; Eid, Michal; Volfová, Pavlína; Čermáková, Zdeňka; Křen, Leoš; Sokol, Filip; Hanke, Ivo; Michalková, Eva; Král, Zdeněk; Mayer, Jiří

    2015-03-01

    We describe a case of multicentric Castleman disease with generalized lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly, accompanied by typical B symptoms - loss of 15 kg, fever of non-infectious origin, night sweats, symptoms of anemia. Histological examination of the nodes with the highest accumulation of fluorodeoxyglucose, taken from mediastinum by thoracoscopy, revealed plasmocellular type of Castleman disease. Tests for HIV and human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) were negative. Three recurrences of herpes zoster indicating an alteration of immunity preceded the dia-gnosis of disease. Treatment was initiated with combination of thalidomide, dexamethasone, and cyclophosphamide. The response after 2 months therapy was not clear and patient doesn't tolerated the therapy well. Therefore, this treatment was terminated and R-CHOP (Mabthera - rituximab, cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, and prednisone) was selected as a second-line therapy. Lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly were reduced during the 2 cycles of treatment, however, serious infectious complications accompanied the therapy. Therefore, only use of Mabthera monotherapy 375 mg /m2 was administered in 28-day intervals. This treatment has shown efficacy and tolerability. PET-CT scan has demonstrated disappearance of lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly, in addition, normalized accumulation of fluorodeoxyglucose. Monotherapy with Mabthera has proved to be effective and well tolerated drug in this case. Currently, there are more effective therapeutic alternatives in multicentric Castleman disease: treatment with monotherapy of rituximab or in combination therapy with immunomodulatory drugs (thalidomide or lenalidomide, treatment with anti-IL-6 (siltuximab) or against its receptor (tocilizumab). In the case of ineffectiveness of one treatment option must be tested other alternative. In this case the therapy based on thalidomide wasn't successful, whereas the treatment with Mabthera has achieved disappearance of disease symptoms. PMID

  5. Cardiac CT vs. Stress Testing in Patients with Suspected Coronary Artery Disease: Review and Expert Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Rahsepar, Amir Ali; Arbab-Zadeh, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis and management of coronary artery disease represent a major challenge to our health care systems affecting millions of patients each year. Until recently, the diagnosis of coronary artery disease could be conclusively determined only by invasive coronary angiography. To avoid risks from cardiac catheterization, many healthcare systems relied on stress testing as gatekeeper for coronary angiography. Advancements in cardiac computed tomography angiography technology now allows to noninvasively visualize coronary artery disease, challenging the role of stress testing as the default noninvasive imaging tool for evaluating patients with chest pain. In this review, we summarize current data on the clinical utility of cardiac computed tomography and stress testing in stable patients with suspected coronary artery disease. PMID:26500716

  6. Muscle MRI Findings in Childhood/Adult Onset Pompe Disease Correlate with Muscle Function

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa-Bonaparte, Sebastián; Segovia, Sonia; Llauger, Jaume; Belmonte, Izaskun; Pedrosa, Irene; Alejaldre, Aída; Mayos, Mercè; Suárez-Cuartín, Guillermo; Gallardo, Eduard; Illa, Isabel; Díaz-Manera, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Enzyme replacement therapy has shown to be effective for childhood/adult onset Pompe disease (AOPD). The discovery of biomarkers useful for monitoring disease progression is one of the priority research topics in Pompe disease. Muscle MRI could be one possible test but the correlation between muscle MRI and muscle strength and function has been only partially addressed so far. Methods We studied 34 AOPD patients using functional scales (Manual Research Council scale, hand held myometry, 6 minutes walking test, timed to up and go test, time to climb up and down 4 steps, time to walk 10 meters and Motor Function Measure 20 Scale), respiratory tests (Forced Vital Capacity seated and lying, Maximun Inspiratory Pressure and Maximum Expiratory Pressure), daily live activities scales (Activlim) and quality of life scales (Short Form-36 and Individualized Neuromuscular Quality of Life questionnaire). We performed a whole body muscle MRI using T1w and 3-point Dixon imaging centered on thighs and lower trunk region. Results T1w whole body muscle MRI showed a homogeneous pattern of muscle involvement that could also be found in pre-symptomatic individuals. We found a strong correlation between muscle strength, muscle functional scales and the degree of muscle fatty replacement in muscle MRI analyzed using T1w and 3-point Dixon imaging studies. Moreover, muscle MRI detected mild degree of fatty replacement in paraspinal muscles in pre-symptomatic patients. Conclusion Based on our findings, we consider that muscle MRI correlates with muscle function in patients with AOPD and could be useful for diagnosis and follow-up in pre-symptomatic and symptomatic patients under treatment. Take home message Muscle MRI correlates with muscle function in patients with AOPD and could be useful to follow-up patients in daily clinic. PMID:27711114

  7. 18F-FDG PET/CT focal, but not osteolytic, lesions predict the progression of smoldering myeloma to active disease.

    PubMed

    Zamagni, E; Nanni, C; Gay, F; Pezzi, A; Patriarca, F; Bellò, M; Rambaldi, I; Tacchetti, P; Hillengass, J; Gamberi, B; Pantani, L; Magarotto, V; Versari, A; Offidani, M; Zannetti, B; Carobolante, F; Balma, M; Musto, P; Rensi, M; Mancuso, K; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, A; Chauviè, S; Rocchi, S; Fard, N; Marzocchi, G; Storto, G; Ghedini, P; Palumbo, A; Fanti, S; Cavo, M

    2016-02-01

    Identification of patient sub-groups with smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) at high risk of progression to active disease (MM) is an important goal. 18F-FDG PET/CT (positron emission tomography (PET) integrated with computed tomography (PET/CT) using glucose labelled with the positron-emitting radionuclide (18)F) allows for assessing early skeletal involvement. Identification of osteolytic lesions by this technique has recently been incorporated into the updated International Myeloma Working Group criteria for MM diagnosis. However, no data are available regarding the impact of focal lesions (FLs) without underlying osteolysis on time to progression (TTP) to MM. We hence prospectively studied a cohort of 120 SMM patients with PET/CT. PET/CT was positive in 16% of patients (1 FL: 8, 2 FLs: 3, >3 FLs: 6, diffuse bone marrow involvement: 2). With a median follow-up of 2.2 years, 38% of patients progressed to MM, in a median time of 4 years, including 21% with skeletal involvement. The risk of progression of those with positive PET/CT was 3.00 (95% confidence interval 1.58-5.69, P=0.001), with a median TTP of 1.1 versus 4.5 years for PET/CT-negative patients. The probability of progression within 2 years was 58% for positive versus 33% for negative patients. In conclusion, PET/CT positivity significantly increased the risk of progression of SMM to MM. PET/CT could become a new tool to define high-risk SMM. PMID:26490489

  8. CT of Gastric Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Guniganti, Preethi; Bradenham, Courtney H; Raptis, Constantine; Menias, Christine O; Mellnick, Vincent M

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting are common presenting symptoms among adult patients seeking care in the emergency department, and, with the increased use of computed tomography (CT) to image patients with these complaints, radiologists will more frequently encounter a variety of emergent gastric pathologic conditions on CT studies. Familiarity with the CT appearance of emergent gastric conditions is important, as the clinical presentation is often nonspecific and the radiologist may be the first to recognize gastric disease as the cause of a patient's symptoms. Although endoscopy and barium fluoroscopy remain important tools for evaluating patients with suspected gastric disease in the outpatient setting, compared with CT these modalities enable less comprehensive evaluation of patients with nonspecific complaints and are less readily available in the acute setting. Endoscopy is also more invasive than CT and has greater potential risks. Although the mucosal detail of CT is relatively poor compared with barium fluoroscopy or endoscopy, CT can be used with the appropriate imaging protocols to identify inflammatory conditions of the stomach ranging from gastritis to peptic ulcer disease. In addition, CT can readily demonstrate the various complications of gastric disease, including perforation, obstruction, and hemorrhage, which may direct further clinical, endoscopic, or surgical management. We will review the normal anatomy of the stomach and discuss emergent gastric disease with a focus on the usual clinical presentation, typical imaging appearance, and differentiating features, as well as potential imaging pitfalls.

  9. Renal histopathological findings in relation to ambulatory blood pressure in chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Haruhara, Kotaro; Tsuboi, Nobuo; Koike, Kentaro; Fukui, Akira; Miyazaki, Yoichi; Kawamura, Tetsuya; Ogura, Makoto; Yokoo, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is useful for predicting the long-term renal prognosis and future cardiovascular events in chronic kidney disease patients. Currently, however, information is limited regarding the relationships between individual renal histopathological findings and abnormalities in ambulatory blood pressure. This retrospective cross-sectional study included a total of 138 patients, in whom both renal biopsies and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring were performed during the same admission period. Renal histopathological findings, including global glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy and the presence of arterial lesions and arteriole lesions, were scored and analyzed in relation to the ambulatory blood pressure values. Among these histopathological characteristics, only the severity of interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy exhibited a significant association with an increased mean value of daytime and nighttime blood pressure. However, the remaining histopathological features showed only trends or weak relationships with these values. In addition, a moderately advanced grade of interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy was found to be significantly associated with both daytime and nighttime hypertension, independent of the kidney function, overt proteinuria and the use of antihypertensive medications, according to multivariate analyses. Furthermore, the night-to-day ratio of the mean blood pressure displayed a significant increasing trend according to the grade of interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy. These results suggest that interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy is the most relevant renal histopathological parameter associated with abnormalities in ambulatory blood pressure, including nocturnal hypertension, in this population.

  10. Macular findings on optical coherence tomography in cat-scratch disease neuroretinitis

    PubMed Central

    Habot-Wilner, Z; Zur, D; Goldstein, M; Goldenberg, D; Shulman, S; Kesler, A; Giladi, M; Neudorfer, M

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To describe the macular findings on optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with cat-scratch disease (CSD) neuroretinitis. Methods Medical records of all patients diagnosed with CSD neuroretinitis at the Tel Aviv Medical Center between April 2006 and May 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent Stratus OCT macular examination. Results Eight eyes of seven patients with confirmed CSD neuroretinitis, (mean age 33±9.9 years, range 6–48 years) were included in the study. All patients presented clinically with optic nerve swelling and macular edema or macular exudates. OCT demonstrated flattening of the foveal contour, thickening of the neurosensory retina, and accumulation of subretinal fluid (SRF) in all studied eyes. Retinal exudates appeared as multiple hyper-reflective foci in the outer plexiform layer. The average central macular thickness was 460 μm (range 170–906 μm) and the average maximal retinal thickness was 613 μm (range 387–1103 μm), at presentation. The macula appeared normal on repeated exams during follow-up. Conclusion Similar OCT findings were demonstrated in patients with CSD neuroretinitis. SRF was found in all eyes, although was not visible on clinical examination or fluorescein angiography. OCT may be used as an adjunct imaging tool in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with CSD neuroretinitis. PMID:21660065

  11. The sunflower cataract in Wilson's disease: pathognomonic sign or rare finding?

    PubMed

    Langwińska-Wośko, Ewa; Litwin, Tomasz; Dzieżyc, Karolina; Członkowska, Anna

    2016-09-01

    The presence of Kayser-Fleischer ring in patients with Wilson's disease (WD) is well documented and included in diagnostic algorithms; however, data about the occurrence of the second postulated ophthalmological sign of WD, sunflower cataract (SC), are limited and even conflicting. The aim of our study was to verify the occurrence of SC in WD. From January 2010 to May 2015, 81 consecutive, newly diagnosed WD patients underwent detailed ophthalmological examinations, including slit lamp examination with special attention to lens transparency, to verify the presence of SC in WD-naive patients. SC was detected in only one (1.2 %) of the examined WD patients, did not impact visual acuity; moreover, completely disappeared following a year of treatment for WD. SC may be a very rare and reversible ophthalmological manifestation of WD that is observed seldom and only at the time of WD diagnosis. We postulate that a finding of SC in WD patients is an interesting finding that may occur in the course of WD, but it is not a pathognomonic sign of WD.

  12. The sunflower cataract in Wilson's disease: pathognomonic sign or rare finding?

    PubMed

    Langwińska-Wośko, Ewa; Litwin, Tomasz; Dzieżyc, Karolina; Członkowska, Anna

    2016-09-01

    The presence of Kayser-Fleischer ring in patients with Wilson's disease (WD) is well documented and included in diagnostic algorithms; however, data about the occurrence of the second postulated ophthalmological sign of WD, sunflower cataract (SC), are limited and even conflicting. The aim of our study was to verify the occurrence of SC in WD. From January 2010 to May 2015, 81 consecutive, newly diagnosed WD patients underwent detailed ophthalmological examinations, including slit lamp examination with special attention to lens transparency, to verify the presence of SC in WD-naive patients. SC was detected in only one (1.2 %) of the examined WD patients, did not impact visual acuity; moreover, completely disappeared following a year of treatment for WD. SC may be a very rare and reversible ophthalmological manifestation of WD that is observed seldom and only at the time of WD diagnosis. We postulate that a finding of SC in WD patients is an interesting finding that may occur in the course of WD, but it is not a pathognomonic sign of WD. PMID:26577266

  13. Differential diagnosis between Crohn’s disease and intestinal tuberculosis using integrated parameters including clinical manifestations, T-SPOT, endoscopy and CT enterography

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tianyu; Fan, Rong; Wang, Zhengting; Hu, Shurong; Zhang, Maochen; Lin, Yun; Tang, Yonghua; Zhong, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate clinical manifestations, T-SPOT, endoscopy and CT enterography to differentiate Crohn’s disease (CD) from intestinal tuberculosis (ITB). Methods: 128 in patients with suspected CD and ITB were prospectively enrolled in the study. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, endoscopic and CT enterographic data were collected. After treatment for 6 months, when a definite diagnosis was reached, the differential diagnostic value of each parameter was analyzed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze further, parameters of statistical significance to establish a mathematical regression equation. Receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted. Results: Clinical parameters helpful in differentiating CD from ITB included diarrhea, night sweat and perianal disease. Endoscopic parameters were useful in differentiating CD from ITB including transverse ulcers, longitudinal ulcers, rodent-like ulcers and patulous ileocecal valve. CT enterographic parameters aided the identification of the two conditions. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of a mathematical regression model established for 6 parameters of clinical endoscopy and CT enterography were 97.8%, 96.8%, 97.6%, 98.9% and 93.7% respectively, whereas those for T-SPOT were 96.8%, 91.3%, 92.7%, 78.9% and 98.8% respectively. Conclusions: T-SPOT is useful to exclude a diagnosis of ITB. Differentiating CD from ITB is a difficult clinical problem that requires a consideration of clinical, T-SPOT, endoscopic and CT enterographic parameters for accurate diagnosis. PMID:26770348

  14. Precision of SPECT/CT Allows the Diagnosis of a Hidden Brodie's Abscess of the Talus in a Patient with Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    Al-Jafar, Hassan; Al-Shemmeri, Eman; Al-Shemmeri, Jehan; Aytglu, Leena; Afzal, Uzma; Al-Enizi, Saud

    2015-06-01

    Brodie's abscess is a rare subacute osteomyelitis that can be found in sickle cell disease along with other bone complications. A 21-year-old female with sickle cell disease was presenting frequently to the medical casualty department for painful vasoocclusive crises and for persistent ankle pain and swelling. Hybrid imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT) incidentally revealed Brodie's abscess in the talus bone of the ankle, causing persisting long-standing pain. SPECT-CT is a modern technology used to scan bone to detect both anatomical and functional abnormalities with high specificity. Brodie's abscess is a rare bone inflammation that could be a hidden cause of pain and infection in sickle cell disease. Although rare, this lesion requires more attention in patients with sickle cell disease because their immunocompromised status renders them prone to this infection.

  15. Multi-detector thoracic CT findings in cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome: rib gaps and failure of costo-vertebral separation.

    PubMed

    Watson, Tom Anthony; Arthurs, Owen John; Muthialu, Nagarajan; Calder, Alistair Duncan

    2014-02-01

    Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome (CCMS) describes a triad of mandibular hypoplasia, brain dysfunction and posterior rib defects ("rib gaps"). We present the CT imaging for a 2-year-old girl with CCMS that highlights the rib gap defects and shows absent transverse processes with abnormal fusion of the ribs directly to the vertebral bodies. We argue that this is likely to relate to abnormal lateral sclerotome development in embryology, with the failure of normal costo-vertebral junctions compounding impaired thoracic function. The case also highlights the use of CT for specific indications in skeletal dysplasia.

  16. Association between two common polymorphisms (single nucleotide polymorphism -250G/A and -514C/T) of the hepatic lipase gene and coronary artery disease in type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadzadeh, Ghorban; Ghaffari, Mohammad-Ali; Bazyar, Mohammad; Kheirollah, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Variations in the hepatic lipase (HL) gene are the potential candidate for coronary artery disease (CAD) especially in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in diverse populations. We assessed the association of -514C/T and -250G/A polymorphisms in HL (LIPC) gene with CAD risk in Iranian population with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 322 type 2 diabetic patients, 166 patients with normal angiograms as controls and 156 patients those identified with CAD undergoing their first coronary angiography as CAD cases. Genotyping of -514C/T and -250G/A polymorphisms in the promoter of the LIPC gene were studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Results: Genotype distributions in CAD cases (73.7%, 20.5%, and 5.8% for −250G/A) and (62.2%, 32.7%, and 5.1% for -514C/T) were significantly different from those in controls (60.8%, 37.4%, and 1.8% for -250G/A) and (51.2%, 48.2%, and 0.6% for -514C/T). CAD cases had lower A-allele frequency than controls (0.131 vs. 0.196, P = 0.028). The odds ratio for the presence of -250 (GG + GA) genotype and A allele in CAD cases were 2.206 (95% confidence interval [CI] =1.33–3.65, P = 0.002) and 1.609 (95% CI = 1.051 −2.463, P = 0.029) respectively. Haplotype analysis demonstrated a significant association between especially LIPC double mutant (−250 A/-514 T) haplotype and presence of CAD. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that -250 G/A polymorphism rather than -514 C/T polymorphism of LIPC gene is more associated with the increased risk of CAD particularly in women with T2DM. PMID:27014654

  17. The BioFIND study: Characteristics of a clinically typical Parkinson's disease biomarker cohort

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Jennifer G.; Alcalay, Roy N.; Xie, Tao; Tuite, Paul; Henchcliffe, Claire; Hogarth, Penelope; Amara, Amy W.; Frank, Samuel; Rudolph, Alice; Casaceli, Cynthia; Andrews, Howard; Gwinn, Katrina; Sutherland, Margaret; Kopil, Catherine; Vincent, Lona; Frasier, Mark

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Identifying PD‐specific biomarkers in biofluids will greatly aid in diagnosis, monitoring progression, and therapeutic interventions. PD biomarkers have been limited by poor discriminatory power, partly driven by heterogeneity of the disease, variability of collection protocols, and focus on de novo, unmedicated patients. Thus, a platform for biomarker discovery and validation in well‐characterized, clinically typical, moderate to advanced PD cohorts is critically needed. Methods BioFIND (Fox Investigation for New Discovery of Biomarkers in Parkinson's Disease) is a cross‐sectional, multicenter biomarker study that established a repository of clinical data, blood, DNA, RNA, CSF, saliva, and urine samples from 118 moderate to advanced PD and 88 healthy control subjects. Inclusion criteria were designed to maximize diagnostic specificity by selecting participants with clinically typical PD symptoms, and clinical data and biospecimen collection utilized standardized procedures to minimize variability across sites. Results We present the study methodology and data on the cohort's clinical characteristics. Motor scores and biospecimen samples including plasma are available for practically defined off and on states and thus enable testing the effects of PD medications on biomarkers. Other biospecimens are available from off state PD assessments and from controls. Conclusion Our cohort provides a valuable resource for biomarker discovery and validation in PD. Clinical data and biospecimens, available through The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, can serve as a platform for discovering biomarkers in clinically typical PD and comparisons across PD's broad and heterogeneous spectrum. © 2016 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society PMID:27113479

  18. Serum adipokines might predict liver histology findings in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Jamali, Raika; Razavizade, Mohsen; Arj, Abbas; Aarabi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess significance of serum adipokines to determine the histological severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. METHODS: Patients with persistent elevation in serum aminotransferase levels and well-defined characteristics of fatty liver at ultrasound were enrolled. Individuals with a history of alcohol consumption, hepatotoxic medication, viral hepatitis or known liver disease were excluded. Liver biopsy was performed to confirm non-alcoholic liver disease (NAFLD). The degrees of liver steatosis, lobular inflammation and fibrosis were determined based on the non-alcoholic fatty liver activity score (NAS) by a single expert pathologist. Patients with a NAS of five or higher were considered to have steatohepatitis. Those with a NAS of two or lower were defined as simple fatty liver. Binary logistic regression was used to determine the independent association of adipokines with histological findings. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was employed to determine cut-off values of serum adipokines to discriminate the grades of liver steatosis, lobular inflammation and fibrosis. RESULTS: Fifty-four participants aged 37.02 ± 9.82 were enrolled in the study. Higher serum levels of visfatin, IL-8, TNF-α levels were associated independently with steatosis grade of more than 33% [β = 1.08 (95%CI: 1.03-1.14), 1.04 (95%CI: 1.008-1.07), 1.04 (95%CI: 1.004-1.08), P < 0.05]. Elevated serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels were associated independently with advanced lobular inflammation [β = 1.4 (95%CI: 1.09-1.8), 1.07 (95%CI: 1.003-1.15), P < 0.05]. Similarly, higher TNF-α, resistin, and hepcidin levels were associated independently with advanced fibrosis stage [β = 1.06 (95%CI: 1.002-1.12), 19.86 (95%CI: 2.79-141.19), 560.72 (95%CI: 5.98-5255.33), P < 0.05]. Serum IL-8 and TNF-α values were associated independently with the NAS score, considering a NAS score of 5 as the reference value [β = 1.05 (95%CI: 1.01-1.1), 1.13 (95%CI: 1.04-1.22), P < 0

  19. Behçet's Disease Presenting with Acute Transverse Myelitis: MRI Findings and Review of the Nosology. A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sanal, H T; Bulakbasi, N; Kocaoglu, M; Tayfun, C

    2007-04-30

    Spinal cord involvement, either isolated or together with brain, in Behçet's disease (BD) has been reported. In these cases the existence of the disease was previously known or the classical triad of disease such as oral and genital ulcers with uveitis/iritis was present. Here we describe a 22-year-old man in whom acute transverse myelitis diagnosed with MRI was the first finding of BD. PMID:24299651

  20. Experience with biosimilar infliximab (CT-P13) in paediatric patients with inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Sieczkowska, Joanna; Jarzębicka, Dorota; Meglicka, Monika; Oracz, Grzegorz; Kierkus, Jaroslaw

    2016-09-01

    Infliximab was the first monoclonal antibody used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Over several years, this antitumour necrosis factor (TNF) treatment proved its efficacy in both induction and maintenance therapy. In many cases this biological treatment stopped the progression of the disease, probably also decreasing morbidity and hospitalization rates, and improving patients' comfort. When the patent on infliximab started to expire, the first biosimilar of a monoclonal antibody was introduced onto the pharmacological market. Biosimilar infliximab was studied in rheumatology and proved a high similarity to the reference drug. Based on extrapolation, biosimilars were approved to treat adult and paediatric IBD patients. Biosimilar infliximab, mainly because of its lower cost, has started to be in common use in Europe. The first studies have shown a similar efficacy and safety profile in comparison with reference drug. Biosimilar infliximab is raising hopes for improving the availability of this effective treatment. PMID:27582886

  1. A case of a giant mucocoele of the appendiceal stump presented with a palpable mass in the right thigh: pre-operative diagnosis based on characteristic multidetector CT findings.

    PubMed

    Kim, M K; Lee, H Y; Song, I S; Lee, J B; Kim, G H; Yoo, S M; Rho, J Y; White, C S

    2010-10-01

    The pre-operative diagnosis of a mucocoele of the appendiceal stump (MAS) may be difficult owing to rarity and non-specific clinical presentation. However, a pre-operative diagnosis of a MAS is important to prevent widespread dissemination by inadvertent spillage of mucous contents. We describe a case of a MAS presenting with a palpable mass in the right thigh in which a pre-operative diagnosis was made by characteristic multidetector CT (MDCT) findings.

  2. TU-C-12A-12: Differentiating Bone Lesions and Degenerative Joint Disease in NaF PET/CT Scans Using Machine Learning

    SciTech Connect

    Perk, T; Bradshaw, T; Muzahir, S; Jeraj, R; Meyer, E

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: [F-18]NaF PET can be used to image bone metastases; however, tracer uptake in degenerative joint disease (DJD) often appears similar to metastases. This study aims to develop and compare different machine learning algorithms to automatically identify regions of [F-18]NaF scans that correspond to DJD. Methods: 10 metastatic prostate cancer patients received whole body [F-18]NaF PET/CT scans prior to treatment. Image segmentation resulted in 852 ROIs, 69 of which were identified by a nuclear medicine physician as DJD. For all ROIs, various PET and CT textural features were computed. ROIs were divided into training and testing sets used to train eight different machine learning classifiers. Classifiers were evaluated based on receiver operating characteristics area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV). We also assessed the added value of including CT features in addition to PET features for training classifiers. Results: The training set consisted of 37 DJD ROIs with 475 non-DJD ROIs, and the testing set consisted of 32 DJD ROIs with 308 non-DJD ROIs. Of all classifiers, generalized linear models (GLM), decision forests (DF), and support vector machines (SVM) had the best performance. AUCs of GLM (0.929), DF (0.921), and SVM (0.889) were significantly higher than the other models (p<0.001). GLM and DF, overall, had the best sensitivity, specificity, and PPV, and gave a significantly better performance (p<0.01) than all other models. PET/CT GLM classifiers had higher AUC than just PET or just CT. GLMs built using PET/CT information had superior or comparable sensitivities, specificities and PPVs to just PET or just CT. Conclusion: Machine learning algorithms trained with PET/CT features were able to identify some cases of DJD. GLM outperformed the other classification algorithms. Using PET and CT information together was shown to be superior to using PET or CT features alone. Research supported by the Prostate

  3. Scientists find link between allergic and autoimmune diseases in mouse study

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists at the National Institutes of Health, and their colleagues, have discovered that a gene called BACH2 may play a central role in the development of diverse allergic and autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, asthma, Crohn's disease, ce

  4. The Non-Communicable Disease Burden in Korea: Findings from the 2012 Korean Burden of Disease Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In recognition of Korea's rising burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), we investigated the nation's NCD status and extracted detailed information from the 2012 Korean Burden of Disease study. Consistent with that study, we used disability-adjusted life year (DALY) as a metric. Using national data sources and disability weights specific to the Korean population, we analyzed 116 disaggregated NCDs from the study's four-level disease and injury hierarchy for both sexes and nine age groups. Per 100,000 population, 21,019 DALYs were lost to 116 NCDs. Of those, 13.97% were due to premature death (death prior to the standard life expectancy for a subject's age) and 86.03% to non-fatal health outcomes. Based on traditional statistics, the main causes of health loss were mortality of neoplasms; cardiovascular and circulatory diseases; diabetes, urogenital, blood, and endocrine diseases; and chronic respiratory diseases. When combined with analyses of premature death and non-fatal outcomes, however, a substantially different view emerged: the main causes of health loss were diabetes mellitus, low back pain, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, cirrhosis of the liver, osteoarthritis, asthma, gastritis and duodenitis, and periodontal disease (in that order), collectively causing 49.20% of DALYs. Thus, burden of disease data using DALYs rather than traditional statistics brings a new perspective to characterization of the population's health that provides practical information useful for developing and targeting national NCD control programs to better meet national needs. PMID:27775253

  5. CT imaging in congenital heart disease: an approach to imaging and interpreting complex lesions after surgical intervention for tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great arteries, and single ventricle heart disease.

    PubMed

    Han, B Kelly; Lesser, John R

    2013-01-01

    Echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging are the most commonly performed diagnostic studies in patients with congenital heart disease. A small percentage of patients with congenital heart disease will be referred to cardiac CT subsequent to echocardiography when magnetic resonance imaging is insufficient, contraindicated, or considered high risk. The most common complex lesions referred for CT at our institution are tetralogy of Fallot, transposition complexes, and single ventricle heart disease. This review discusses the most common surgical procedures performed in these patients and the technical considerations for optimal image acquisition on the basis of the prior procedure and the individual patient history. Cardiac CT can provide the functional and anatomic information required for decision making in complex congenital heart disease. Image interpretation is aided by knowledge of the common approaches to operative repair and the residual hemodynamic abnormalities. Acquisition and interpretation that is both individualized to the patient's underlying disease and the specific clinical question is likely to maintain diagnostic accuracy while decreasing the potential risk of cardiac CT.

  6. CT of acquired cystic kidney disease and renal tumors in long-term dialysis patients

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, E.; Grantham, J.J.; Slusher, S.L.; Greathouse, J.L.; Krohn, B.P.

    1984-01-01

    The kidneys of long term dialysis patients frequently demonstrate multiple small acquired cysts and renal cell tumors on pathologic examination. The original kidneys of 30 long-term dialysis patients and six renal transplant patients were evaluated by computed tomography to determine the incidence of these abnormalities. Among dialysis patients, 43.3% had diffuse bilateral cysts, while 16.7% had occasional cysts (fewer than five per kidney), and 40% showed no renal cysts. Seven solid renal tumors were detected in four dialysis patients with renal cysts. Acquired cystic kidney disease tends to result in renal enlargement, is more common in patients who have been maintained on dialysis for prolonged periods, and may lead to spontaneous renal hemorrhage. The six transplant patients showed no evidence of renal cysts, and all had markedly shrunken kidneys. Acquired cystic disease and renal cell tumors in the original kidneys of dialysis patients may be due to biologically active substances that are not cleared effectively by dialysis but that are removed by normally functioning transplant kidneys.

  7. Preoperative FDG-PET/CT Is an Important Tool in the Management of Patients with Thick (T4) Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Arrangoiz, Rodrigo; Papavasiliou, Pavlos; Stransky, Carrie A; Yu, Jian Q; Tianyu, Li; Sigurdson, Elin R; Berger, Adam C; Farma, Jeffrey M

    2012-01-01

    The yield of preoperative PET/CT (PET/CT) for regional and distant metastases for thin/intermediate thickness melanoma is low. Objective of this study is to determine if PET/CT performed for T4 melanomas helps guide management and alter treatment plans. Methods. Retrospective cohort of 216 patients with T4 melanomas treated at two tertiary institutions. Fifty-six patients met our inclusion criteria (T4 lesion, PET/CT and no clinical evidence of metastatic disease). Results. Fifty-six patients (M: 32, F: 24) with median tumor thickness of 6 mm were identified. PET/CT recognized twelve with regional and four patients with metastatic disease. Melanoma-related treatment plan was altered in 11% of the cases based on PET/CT findings. PET/CT was negative 60% of the time, in 35% of the cases; it identified incidental findings that required further evaluation. Conclusion. Patients with T4 lesions, PET/CT changed the treatment plan 18% of the time. Regional findings changed the surgical treatment plan in 11% and the adjuvant plan in 7% of our cases due to the finding of metastatic disease. Additionally 20 patients had incidental findings that required further workup. In this subset of patients, we feel there is a benefit to PET/CT, and further studies should be performed to validate our findings.

  8. Low-Dose PET/CT and Full-Dose Contrast-Enhanced CT at the Initial Staging of Localized Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Sabaté-Llobera, Aida; Cortés-Romera, Montserrat; Mercadal, Santiago; Hernández-Gañán, Javier; Pomares, Helena; González-Barca, Eva; Gámez-Cenzano, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has been used as the reference imaging technique for the initial staging of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma until recent days, when the introduction of positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging as a hybrid technique has become of routine use. However, the performance of both examinations is still common. The aim of this work was to compare the findings between low-dose 2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-d-glucose (18F-FDG) PET/CT and full-dose contrast-enhanced CT (ceCT) in 28 patients with localized diffuse large B-cell lymphoma according to PET/CT findings, in order to avoid the performance of ceCT. For each technique, a comparison in the number of nodal and extranodal involved regions was performed. PET/CT showed more lesions than ceCT in both nodal (41 vs. 36) and extranodal localizations (16 vs. 15). Disease staging according to both techniques was concordant in 22 patients (79%) and discordant in 6 patients (21%), changing treatment management in 3 patients (11%). PET/CT determined a better staging and therapeutic approach, making the performance of an additional ceCT unnecessary. PMID:27559300

  9. Low-Dose PET/CT and Full-Dose Contrast-Enhanced CT at the Initial Staging of Localized Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Sabaté-Llobera, Aida; Cortés-Romera, Montserrat; Mercadal, Santiago; Hernández-Gañán, Javier; Pomares, Helena; González-Barca, Eva; Gámez-Cenzano, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has been used as the reference imaging technique for the initial staging of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma until recent days, when the introduction of positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging as a hybrid technique has become of routine use. However, the performance of both examinations is still common. The aim of this work was to compare the findings between low-dose 2-deoxy-2-((18)F)fluoro-d-glucose ((18)F-FDG) PET/CT and full-dose contrast-enhanced CT (ceCT) in 28 patients with localized diffuse large B-cell lymphoma according to PET/CT findings, in order to avoid the performance of ceCT. For each technique, a comparison in the number of nodal and extranodal involved regions was performed. PET/CT showed more lesions than ceCT in both nodal (41 vs. 36) and extranodal localizations (16 vs. 15). Disease staging according to both techniques was concordant in 22 patients (79%) and discordant in 6 patients (21%), changing treatment management in 3 patients (11%). PET/CT determined a better staging and therapeutic approach, making the performance of an additional ceCT unnecessary.

  10. Correlation of coronary plaque characteristics and obstructive stenosis with chronic kidney disease by coronary CT angiography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengming; Duanmu, Yibo; Zhu, Yi; Xu, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events. We evaluated the correlation of coronary plaque characteristics and obstructive stenosis with CKD by coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA). Methods We enrolled 491 subjects who were suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing CCTA. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated by the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) equation. Patients were subdivided into four groups based on their eGFR: normal GFR (n=213, eGFR ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2), mild renal insufficiency (n=191, eGFR 60-89 mL/min/1.73 m2), moderate renal insufficiency(n=78, eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, ≥30 mL/min/1.73 m2), and severe renal insufficiency (n=9, eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m2, ≥15 mL/min/1.73 m2). Results Spearman correlation regression analysis showed that the prevalence of any plaque, calcified plaque (CP), mixed plaque (MP) were positively correlate with CKD (r=0.173, P<0.001; r=0.127, P=0.005; r=0.171, P<0.001), after adjustment for traditional risk factors the prevalence of any plaque and MP were still positively correlate with CKD (r=0.106, P=002; r=0.178, P<0.001). And the prevalence of any stenosis and severe stenosis were positively correlate with CKD (r=0.13, P<0.001; r=0.149, P<0.001), after adjustment for traditional risk factors were still positively correlate with CKD (r=0.134, P=0.003; r=0.174, P<0.001). Conclusions CKD is closely related with occurrence of CAD. CKD patients from mild renal insufficiency to severe renal insufficiency are the risk factors for CAD. More serious renal function impairment will indicates higher risk of coronary plaque, MP and obstructive stenosis. PMID:26676159

  11. Cardiopulmonary Function, Exercise Capacity, and Echocardiography Finding of Pediatric Patients With Kawasaki Disease: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Tuan, Sheng-Hui; Li, Min-Hui; Hsu, Miao-Ju; Tsai, Yun-Jeng; Chen, Yin-Han; Liao, Tin-Yun; Lin, Ko-Long

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery (CA) abnormalities influence exercise capacity (EC) of patients with Kawasaki disease (KD), and Z-score of CA is a well established method for detecting CA aneurysm. We studied the influence of KD on cardiopulmonary function and EC; meanwhile we analyzed echocardiographic findings of KD patients. We also assessed the correlation between CA Z-score and EC of KD patients to see if CA Z-score of KD patients could reflect EC during exercise.Sixty-three KD patients were recruited as KD group 1 from children (aged 5-18 y) who received transthoracic echocardiographic examinations and symptom-limited treadmill exercise test for regular follow-up of KD from January 2010 to October 2014 in 1 medical center. We then divided KD group 1 into KD group 2 (<5 y, n = 12) and KD group 3 (≥5 y, n = 51) according to time interval between KD onset to when patients received test. Control groups were matched by age, sex, and body mass index. Max-Z of CA was defined as the maximal Z-score of the proximal LCA or RCA by Dalliarre equation or Fuse calculator.All routine parameters measured during standard exercise test were similar between KD and control groups, except that peak rate pressure products (PRPPs) in KD group 1 to 3 were all lower than corresponding control groups significantly (P = 0.010, 0.020, and 0.049, respectively). PRPPs correlated with Max-Z of CA by both equations modest inversely (by Dallaire, P = 0.017, Spearman rho = -0.301; by Fuse, P = 0.014, Spearman rho = -0.309).Our study recruited larger number of KD patients and provided a newer data of EC of KD patients. Our finding suggests that after acute stage of KD, patients could maintain normal cardiorespiratory fitness. Therefore, we believe that it is important to promote cardiovascular health to KD patients and KD patients should exercise as normal peers. However, since KD patients might still have compromised coronary perfusion during exercise, it remains crucial to

  12. Development of new risk score for pre-test probability of obstructive coronary artery disease based on coronary CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Shinichiro; Kondo, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Hideya; Yokoyama, Naoyuki; Tarutani, Yasuhiro; Takamura, Kazuhisa; Urabe, Yoji; Konno, Kumiko; Nishizaki, Yuji; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Kihara, Yasuki; Daida, Hiroyuki; Isshiki, Takaaki; Takase, Shinichi

    2015-09-01

    Existing methods to calculate pre-test probability of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) have been established using selected high-risk patients who were referred to conventional coronary angiography. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate our new method for pre-test probability of obstructive CAD using patients who underwent coronary CT angiography (CTA), which could be applicable to a wider range of patient population. Using consecutive 4137 patients with suspected CAD who underwent coronary CTA at our institution, a multivariate logistic regression model including clinical factors as covariates calculated the pre-test probability (K-score) of obstructive CAD determined by coronary CTA. The K-score was compared with the Duke clinical score using the area under the curve (AUC) for the receiver-operating characteristic curve. External validation was performed by an independent sample of 319 patients. The final model included eight significant predictors: age, gender, coronary risk factor (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking), history of cerebral infarction, and chest symptom. The AUC of the K-score was significantly greater than that of the Duke clinical score for both derivation (0.736 vs. 0.699) and validation (0.714 vs. 0.688) data sets. Among patients who underwent coronary CTA, newly developed K-score had better pre-test prediction ability of obstructive CAD compared to Duke clinical score in Japanese population.

  13. Myeloma bone and extra-medullary disease: Role of PET/CT and other whole-body imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Rubini, Giuseppe; Niccoli-Asabella, Artor; Ferrari, Cristina; Racanelli, Vito; Maggialetti, Nicola; Dammacco, Francesco

    2016-05-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematological malignancy. Although it can affect different organs, the bone compartment stands out both in terms of prevalence and clinical impact. Despite the striking advances in MM therapy, bone disease can remarkably affect the patient's quality of life. The occurrence and extension of bone marrow and extra-medullary involvement should be carefully assessed to confirm the diagnosis, to locate and whenever possible prevent dreadful complications such as pathological fractures and spinal cord compression, and to establish suitable therapeutic measures. Many imaging techniques have been proposed for the detection of MM skeletal involvement. With the development of more sophisticated imaging tools, it is time to use the right technique at the right time. Based on the review of the literature and our own experience, this article discusses advantages and disadvantages of the different imaging methods in the work-up of MM patients, with particular emphasis on the role that PET/CT can play. It is emphasized that whole body low-dose computed tomography should be the preferred imaging technique at baseline. However, bone marrow infiltration and extra-medullary manifestations are better detected by whole body magnetic resonance imaging. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography, on the other hand, combines the benefits of the two mentioned imaging procedures and is particularly useful not only for the detection of osteolytic lesions unrevealed by conventional X-ray, but also in the assessment of prognosis and therapeutic response. PMID:26997302

  14. Computerized left ventricular regional ejection fraction analysis for detection of ischemic coronary artery disease with multidetector CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Zeb, Irfan; Li, Dong; Nasir, Khurram; Gupta, Mohit; Kadakia, Jigar; Gao, Yanlin; Ma, Eva; Mao, Song Shou; Budoff, Matthew

    2013-03-01

    Regional ejection fraction (REF) provides important functional information of the left ventricular regional myocardium. We aimed to test the diagnostic accuracy of computerized REF analysis for detecting the ischemia and significant stenosis with multidetector CT angiography (MDCT). This is a retrospective study including 155 patients who underwent MDCT scans for evaluation of coronary artery disease. Among them, 83 patients also underwent SPECT imaging and invasive coronary angiography (ICA). Two groups of patients were defined: Control group with 0 coronary artery calcium and normal global and regional ventricular function, and comparison group. REF measurement was performed on all patients using computerized software. Control group REF measurements will be used as reference standard (mean-2SD REF/mean global ejection fraction) to define abnormal REF. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of REF in detecting perfusion defects (fixed and reversible) was 73, 80, 75 and 79 % respectively, in a patient based analysis of comparison group. The diagnostic accuracy of REF in predicting significant stenosis (>50 %) on ICA compared with SPECT was 72 versus 61 % and 85 versus 79 % in patient and vessel based analysis of comparison group, respectively. ROC curve analysis showed REF to be a better predictor of perfusion defects on SPECT compared with significant stenosis (>50 %) alone or stenosis combined with REF (P < 0.05). The computerized assessment of REF analysis is comparable to SPECT in predicting ischemia and a better predictor of significant stenosis than SPECT. This study also provides reference standard to define abnormal values.

  15. Coregistration of Prechemotherapy PET-CT for Planning Pediatric Hodgkin's Disease Radiotherapy Significantly Diminishes Interobserver Variability of Clinical Target Volume Definition

    SciTech Connect

    Metwally, Hussein; Courbon, Frederic; David, Isabelle; Filleron, Thomas; Blouet, Aurelien; Rives, Michel; Izar, Francoise; Zerdoud, Slimane; Plat, Genevieve; Vial, Julie; Robert, Alain; Laprie, Anne

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: To assess the interobserver variability in clinical target volume (CTV) definitions when using registered {sup 18}F-labeled deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET-CT) versus side-by-side image sets in pediatric Hodgkin's disease (HD). Methods and Materials: Prechemotherapy FDG-PET-CT scans performed in the treatment position were acquired from 20 children (median age, 14 years old) with HD (stages 2A to 4B) and registered with postchemotherapy planning CT scans. The patients had a median age of 14 years and stages of disease ranging between 2A and 4B. Image sets were coregistered using a semiautomatic coregistration system. The biological target volume was defined on all the coregistered images as a guide to defining the initial site of involvement and to avoid false-positive or negative results. Five radiation oncologists independently defined the CTV for all 20 patients: once using separate FDG-PET-CT images as a guide (not registered) to define CTVa and once using the registered FDG-PET-CT data to define CTVb. The total volumes were compared, as well as their coefficients of variation (COV). To assess the interobserver variability, the percentages of intersection between contours drawn by all observers for each patient were calculated for CTVa and for CTVb. Results: The registration of a prechemotherapy FDG-PET-CT scan caused a change in the CTV for all patients. Comparing CTVa with CTVb showed that the mean CTVb increased in 14 patients (range, 0.61%-101.96%) and decreased in 6 patients (range, 2.97%-37.26%). The COV for CTVb significantly decreased for each patient; the mean COVs for CTVa and CTVb were 45% (21%-65%) and 32% (13%-57%), respectively (p = 0.0004). The percentage of intersection among all CTVbs for the five observers increased significantly by 89.77% (1.99%-256.41%) compared to that of CTVa (p = 0.0001). Conclusions: High observer variability can occur during CT-based definition of CTVs for children diagnosed with HD

  16. CT -- Body

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Body Computed tomography (CT) of the body uses special x-ray ... Body? What is CT Scanning of the Body? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  17. Multiplanar and three-dimensional reconstruction techniques in CT: impact on chest diseases.

    PubMed

    Remy, J; Remy-Jardin, M; Artaud, D; Fribourg, M

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to capture the current state-of-the art of the technical aspects of multiplanar and three-dimensional (3D) images and their thoracic applications. Planimetric and volumetric analysis resulting from volumetric data acquisitions obviates the limitations of segmented transverse images. Among the 3D reconstruction techniques currently available, the most recently introduced technique, i. e., volume rendering, has to be evaluated in comparison with 3D shaded surface display and maximum or minimum intensity projection. Slabs are useful in detecting and localizing micronodular or microtubular patterns and in analyzing mild forms of uneven attenuation of the lungs. Three-dimensional angiography is helpful in the pretherapeutic evaluation and posttreatment follow-up of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, in the comprehension of the postoperative reorientation of the pulmonary vessels, in the surgical planning of pulmonary tumors, and in the diagnosis of marginated thrombi. The systemic supply to the lung and superior vena cava syndromes are also relevant to these techniques. In acquired or congenital tracheobronchial diseases including stenosis, extraluminal air and complex airway anatomy, multiplanar and 3D reformations have a complementary role to both transaxial images and endoscopy. New developments are also expected in various topics such as 3D conformal radiation therapy, planning of intraluminal bronchoscopic therapy, virtual endoscopy, and functional imaging of the bronchial tree. Miscellaneous clinical applications are promising in the analysis of diaphragmatic morphology and pathophysiology, in the volumetric quantification of the lung parenchyma, and in the vascular components of the thoracic outlet syndromes.

  18. Myocardial CT Perfusion Imaging and SPECT for the Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease: A Head-to-Head Comparison from the CORE320 Multicenter Diagnostic Performance Study

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Vishal C.; Chen, Marcus Y.; Kitagawa, Kakuya; Arbab-Zadeh, Armin; Miller, Julie M.; Matheson, Matthew B.; Vavere, Andrea L.; Kofoed, Klaus F.; Rochitte, Carlos E.; Dewey, Marc; Yaw, Tan S.; Niinuma, Hiroyuki; Brenner, Winfried; Cox, Christopher; Clouse, Melvin E.; Lima, João A. C.; Di Carli, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare the diagnostic performance of myocardial computed tomographic (CT) perfusion imaging and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) perfusion imaging in the diagnosis of anatomically significant coronary artery disease (CAD) as depicted at invasive coronary angiography. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board. Written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Sixteen centers enrolled 381 patients from November 2009 to July 2011. Patients underwent rest and adenosine stress CT perfusion imaging and rest and either exercise or pharmacologic stress SPECT before and within 60 days of coronary angiography. Images from CT perfusion imaging, SPECT, and coronary angiography were interpreted at blinded, independent core laboratories. The primary diagnostic parameter was the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az). Sensitivity and specificity were calculated with use of prespecified cutoffs. The reference standard was a stenosis of at least 50% at coronary angiography as determined with quantitative methods. Results CAD was diagnosed in 229 of the 381 patients (60%). The per-patient sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of CAD (stenosis ≥50%) were 88% (202 of 229 patients) and 55% (83 of 152 patients), respectively, for CT perfusion imaging and 62% (143 of 229 patients) and 67% (102 of 152 patients) for SPECT, with Az values of 0.78 (95% confidence interval: 0.74, 0.82) and 0.69 (95% confidence interval: 0.64, 0.74) (P = .001). The sensitivity of CT perfusion imaging for single- and multivessel CAD was higher than that of SPECT, with sensitivities for left main, three-vessel, two-vessel, and one-vessel disease of 92%, 92%, 89%, and 83%, respectively, for CT perfusion imaging and 75%, 79%, 68%, and 41%, respectively, for SPECT. Conclusion The overall performance of myocardial CT perfusion imaging in the diagnosis of anatomic CAD (stenosis ≥50%), as demonstrated with the

  19. Comparison between Angiographic Findings of Coronary Artery Disease in STEMI and NSTEMI Patients of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khan, M H; Islam, M N; Ahmed, M U; Shafique, A M; Bari, M S; Islam, M Z; Ahamed, N U; Masud, M R; Bhowmick, K; Begum, M; Akhter, S M; Siddique, S R

    2016-04-01

    Coronary Angiogram (CAG) has been used to detect coronary artery disease in myocardial infarction (both STEMI and NSTEMI) patients. The purpose of this study was to compare the degree of coronary artery disease among STEMI and NSTEMI patients. Among acute coronary syndrome in NSTEMI we found more widespread coronary artery disease other than STEMI. Lack of documentations encouraged us to perform this study in our center. In this retrospective observational study we summarized all myocardial infarction (MI) patients who underwent coronary angiography (CAG) from August 2013 to August 2014 at Enam Medical College Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh and data of degree of coronary artery disease were recorded. Data of 100 consecutive MI patients who underwent CAG during that period were recorded. Among them 50 patients having STEMI as Group I (male 45, female 5) & other 50 patients sustained NSTEMI as Group II (male 38, female 12). Among NSTEMI patient group 80% were having multi-vessel disease and in STEMI patient group 80% having single vessel disease and remaining having multi-vessel disease. The degree of coronary artery disease is extensive in NSTEMI patients than in STEMI group. Coronary angiogram can visualize the degree of coronary artery involvement and is a useful screening modality to compare disease extent in MI patients.

  20. Comparison between Angiographic Findings of Coronary Artery Disease in STEMI and NSTEMI Patients of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khan, M H; Islam, M N; Ahmed, M U; Shafique, A M; Bari, M S; Islam, M Z; Ahamed, N U; Masud, M R; Bhowmick, K; Begum, M; Akhter, S M; Siddique, S R

    2016-04-01

    Coronary Angiogram (CAG) has been used to detect coronary artery disease in myocardial infarction (both STEMI and NSTEMI) patients. The purpose of this study was to compare the degree of coronary artery disease among STEMI and NSTEMI patients. Among acute coronary syndrome in NSTEMI we found more widespread coronary artery disease other than STEMI. Lack of documentations encouraged us to perform this study in our center. In this retrospective observational study we summarized all myocardial infarction (MI) patients who underwent coronary angiography (CAG) from August 2013 to August 2014 at Enam Medical College Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh and data of degree of coronary artery disease were recorded. Data of 100 consecutive MI patients who underwent CAG during that period were recorded. Among them 50 patients having STEMI as Group I (male 45, female 5) & other 50 patients sustained NSTEMI as Group II (male 38, female 12). Among NSTEMI patient group 80% were having multi-vessel disease and in STEMI patient group 80% having single vessel disease and remaining having multi-vessel disease. The degree of coronary artery disease is extensive in NSTEMI patients than in STEMI group. Coronary angiogram can visualize the degree of coronary artery involvement and is a useful screening modality to compare disease extent in MI patients. PMID:27277351

  1. 18F-FDG PET/CT Reveals Disease Remission in a Patient With Ipilimumab-Refractory Advanced Melanoma Treated With Pembrolizumab.

    PubMed

    Sachpekidis, Christos; Hassel, Jessica C; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Antonia

    2016-02-01

    Pembrolizumab is an anti-programmed cell death receptor 1 (anti-PD-1) antibody, recently approved for the treatment of ipilimumab-refractory metastatic melanoma. We report on a 49-year-old patient with unresectable metastatic melanoma initially treated with 4 cycles of ipilimumab. Because of demonstration of progressive disease on PET/CT, the patient was enrolled into a clinical trial of pembrolizumab. After completion of 4 cycles of pembrolizumab, the follow-up PET/CT scans performed early after and 7 months after the end of treatment exhibited complete disease remission, reflecting the potential role of the modality in treatment response evaluation of melanoma patients receiving anti-PD-1 therapy.

  2. Three dimensional CT angiography for patients with congenital heart disease: scanning protocol for pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Jelnin, Vladimir; Co, Jennifer; Muneer, Basharat; Swaminathan, Balasubramanian; Toska, Suzanna; Ruiz, Carlos E

    2006-01-01

    The objective of our study was to determine the contrast attenuation level that yields high quality cardiac three-dimensional (3-D) images and to predict the contrast injection rate (IR), from body weight, to reach this attenuation level. Enhanced electron beam computerized tomography (EBCT) with 3-D reconstruction is useful in delineating cardiac anatomy in complex congenital heart disease (CHD). The current experience of using electron beam angiography (EBA) in pediatric CHD is limited. Well-defined contrast injection protocols, specifically the contrast IR, have not been standardized when compared to those for adults. Establishing the contrast IR is essential in obtaining high quality 3-D images. We retrospectively analyzed the studies of 115 pediatric patients with CHD. EBA images were divided into group 1 with good quality 3-D images and group 2 with poor quality. The mean of measured enhancement level, expressed in Hounsfield units (HU), and contrast IR were analyzed in both groups. Spearman correlation was used to examine the relationship between weight and IR. The IR was predicted from weight using simple linear regression analysis. The mean level of enhancement was 344 +/- 91 and 174 +/- 31 HU for group 1 and group 2, respectively. Group 1 consisted of 103 patients (90%) and the IR strongly correlated with weight (rho = 0.861, P < 0.01). The IR was estimated from the linear regression equation IR = 0.59 + 0.056 x weight. Necessary contrast enhancement level for quality 3-D reconstruction should be greater than 250 HU, and the IR can be estimated from patient's weight. PMID:16342271

  3. National Study of Chronic Disease Self-Management: Age Comparison of Outcome Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ory, Marcia G.; Smith, Matthew Lee; Ahn, SangNam; Jiang, Luohua; Lorig, Kate; Whitelaw, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The adult population is increasingly experiencing one or more chronic illnesses and living with such conditions longer. The Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) helps participants cope with chronic disease-related symptomatology and improve their health-related quality of life. Nevertheless, the long-term effectiveness of…

  4. Dystonia an unusual presentation in pediatric moyamoya disease: Imaging findings of a case.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Suresh; Sharma, Sudhir; Jhobta, Anupam; Sood, Ram Gopal

    2016-01-01

    Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a rare cerebrovascular disease characterized by idiopathic occlusion of bilateral internal carotid arteries and the development of characteristic leptomeningeal collateral vessels along anterior or posterior circulation. We present an unusual case of MMD presenting with generalized dystonia as the predominant manifestation. PMID:27606018

  5. Neurocognitive Outcomes in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease: Current Findings and Contemporary Endeavors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerson, Arlene C.; Butler, Robert; Moxey-Mims, Marva; Wentz, Alicia; Shinnar, Shlomo; Lande, Marc B.; Mendley, Susan R.; Warady, Bradley A.; Furth, Susan L.; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    Given the rise in chronic kidney disease (CKD) in both children and adults, CKD has recently been targeted as a public health priority. Childhood onset kidney disease is generally a noncurable and progressive condition that leads to kidney failure by early adulthood. Fortunately, improved identification of kidney problems allows for early…

  6. Leisure Time Physical Activity and Mortality in Chronic Kidney Disease: Preliminary findings from the MDRD study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. In the general population, physical activity is associated with reduced mortality. We examined physical activity status in CKD patients and its relation to all-cause mortality. The Modified...

  7. Confirming QTLs and finding additional loci responsible for resistance to rice sheath blight disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice sheath blight disease (Rhizoctonia solani AG1-1AKühn) is one of the most destructive rice diseases worldwide. Utilization of host resistance is the most economical and environmentally sound strategy in managing sheath blight (ShB). Ten ShB-QTLs were previously mapped in a LJRIL population using...

  8. Dystonia an unusual presentation in pediatric moyamoya disease: Imaging findings of a case

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Suresh; Sharma, Sudhir; Jhobta, Anupam; Sood, Ram Gopal

    2016-01-01

    Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a rare cerebrovascular disease characterized by idiopathic occlusion of bilateral internal carotid arteries and the development of characteristic leptomeningeal collateral vessels along anterior or posterior circulation. We present an unusual case of MMD presenting with generalized dystonia as the predominant manifestation. PMID:27606018

  9. Ustekinumab for the treatment of Crohn’s disease: can it find its niche?

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Ebby G.; Ghosh, Subrata; Iacucci, Marietta; Moran, Gordon W.

    2016-01-01

    Crohn’s disease is an immune-mediated disease that results in panenteric chronic inflammation in genetically predisposed individuals exposed to an appropriate environment. The past two decades have witnessed the emergence of an important class of drugs known as anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) agents in the treatment of Crohn’s disease. Unfortunately, the utility of these agents have been hampered by primary and secondary nonresponse in a significant proportion of patients. Ustekinumab, a monoclonal antibody to the p40 subunit of interleukin (IL) 12 and 23, is a novel pharmacotherapy for this patient cohort that offers an out-of-class option. It is approved for use in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, and has now been evaluated in phase II trials for moderate-to-severe Crohn’s disease. We here review the published literature and describe a potential clinical role for its use in this disease cohort. PMID:26770265

  10. Plasma lipidomics analysis finds long chain cholesteryl esters to be associated with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Proitsi, P; Kim, M; Whiley, L; Pritchard, M; Leung, R; Soininen, H; Kloszewska, I; Mecocci, P; Tsolaki, M; Vellas, B; Sham, P; Lovestone, S; Powell, J F; Dobson, R J B; Legido-Quigley, C

    2015-01-13

    There is an urgent need for the identification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers. Studies have now suggested the promising use of associations with blood metabolites as functional intermediate phenotypes in biomedical and pharmaceutical research. The aim of this study was to use lipidomics to identify a battery of plasma metabolite molecules that could predict AD patients from controls. We performed a comprehensive untargeted lipidomic analysis, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry on plasma samples from 35 AD patients, 40 elderly controls and 48 individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and used multivariate analysis methods to identify metabolites associated with AD status. A combination of 10 metabolites could discriminate AD patients from controls with 79.2% accuracy (81.8% sensitivity, 76.9% specificity and an area under curve of 0.792) in a novel test set. Six of the metabolites were identified as long chain cholesteryl esters (ChEs) and were reduced in AD (ChE 32:0, odds ratio (OR)=0.237, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.10-0.48, P=4.19E-04; ChE 34:0, OR=0.152, 95% CI=0.05-0.37, P=2.90E-04; ChE 34:6, OR=0.126, 95% CI=0.03-0.35, P=5.40E-04; ChE 32:4, OR=0.056, 95% CI=0.01-0.24, P=6.56E-04 and ChE 33:6, OR=0.205, 95% CI=0.06-0.50, P=2.21E-03, per (log2) metabolite unit). The levels of these metabolites followed the trend control>MCI>AD. We, additionally, found no association between cholesterol, the precursor of ChE and AD. This study identified new ChE molecules, involved in cholesterol metabolism, implicated in AD, which may help identify new therapeutic targets; although, these findings need to be replicated in larger well-phenotyped cohorts.

  11. Plasma lipidomics analysis finds long chain cholesteryl esters to be associated with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Proitsi, P; Kim, M; Whiley, L; Pritchard, M; Leung, R; Soininen, H; Kloszewska, I; Mecocci, P; Tsolaki, M; Vellas, B; Sham, P; Lovestone, S; Powell, J F; Dobson, R J B; Legido-Quigley, C

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need for the identification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers. Studies have now suggested the promising use of associations with blood metabolites as functional intermediate phenotypes in biomedical and pharmaceutical research. The aim of this study was to use lipidomics to identify a battery of plasma metabolite molecules that could predict AD patients from controls. We performed a comprehensive untargeted lipidomic analysis, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry on plasma samples from 35 AD patients, 40 elderly controls and 48 individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and used multivariate analysis methods to identify metabolites associated with AD status. A combination of 10 metabolites could discriminate AD patients from controls with 79.2% accuracy (81.8% sensitivity, 76.9% specificity and an area under curve of 0.792) in a novel test set. Six of the metabolites were identified as long chain cholesteryl esters (ChEs) and were reduced in AD (ChE 32:0, odds ratio (OR)=0.237, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.10-0.48, P=4.19E-04; ChE 34:0, OR=0.152, 95% CI=0.05-0.37, P=2.90E-04; ChE 34:6, OR=0.126, 95% CI=0.03-0.35, P=5.40E-04; ChE 32:4, OR=0.056, 95% CI=0.01-0.24, P=6.56E-04 and ChE 33:6, OR=0.205, 95% CI=0.06-0.50, P=2.21E-03, per (log2) metabolite unit). The levels of these metabolites followed the trend control>MCI>AD. We, additionally, found no association between cholesterol, the precursor of ChE and AD. This study identified new ChE molecules, involved in cholesterol metabolism, implicated in AD, which may help identify new therapeutic targets; although, these findings need to be replicated in larger well-phenotyped cohorts. PMID:25585166

  12. [Investigations on the present status of infections with Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct), Mycoplasma hominis (Mh) and Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu) in patients with venereal diseases, sexual abusers and healthy people in Da Lian].

    PubMed

    Jiang, R; Yu, A; Zhang, Z

    1994-04-01

    From January to June 1992, we conducted the detection of serum antibodies against Ct, Mh and Uu in patients with venereal diseases, sexual abusers and healthy people. The results showed that the positive rates of antibodies against Ct, Mh and Uu in patients were the highest, while in healthy people those of antibodies against Ct and Uu were the lowest. The positive rates between the antibody against Uu and that against Mh have no obvious difference between male and female. All samples have dual infection of Ct and Mh.

  13. Spongy degeneration of the brain, Canavan disease: biochemical and molecular findings.

    PubMed

    Matalon, R M; Michals-Matalon, K

    2000-03-01

    Canavan disease is a severe progressive leukodystrophy characterized by swelling and spongy degeneration of the white matter of the brain. It is an autosomal recessive disease found more frequently among Ashkenazi Jews. The clinical features are those of severe mental retardation with inability to gain developmental milestones. Hypotonia, head lag and macrocephaly are characteristic of Canavan disease and become apparent after 5-6 months of age. Massive excretion in the urine of N-acetylaspartic acid is the biochemical marker for Canavan disease, which is caused by deficiency of the enzyme aspartoacylase. This discovery allowed for accurate diagnosis of Canavan disease, while prior to that, a brain biopsy was needed. The gene for aspartoacylase has been cloned and two mutations predominate among Ashkenazi Jewish individuals with Canavan disease and account for more than 98% of the Ashkenazi Jewish patients. The mutations among other ethnic groups are more diverse. The carrier frequency for the two common mutations among Ashkenazi Jews was found to be surprisingly high, 1:37. Screening for carriers is now common practice for this population. A knock-out mouse for Canavan disease is being genetically engineered in our laboratory. The mouse model will allow for development of strategies for gene therapy.

  14. Newcastle disease in captive falcons in the Middle East: a review of clinical and pathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Samour, Jaime

    2014-03-01

    Newcastle disease is an important viral disease of falcons in the Middle East. Two different clinical presentations producing distinct clinical symptoms and pathologic lesions have been identified in affected falcons, denoted as neurotropic velogenic and viscerotropic velogenic forms. Humoral response after vaccination with commercially available oil-emulsion inactivated poultry vaccines has been observed for up to 9 months in vaccinated falcons. Public awareness programs at falcon medical facilities in the region are needed to promote annual vaccinations to prevent Newcastle disease in falcons.

  15. Inclusion body disease of cranes: comparison of pathologic findings in cranes with acquired vs. experimentally induced disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuh, J.C.; Sileo, L.; Siegfried, L.M.; Yuill, Thomas M.

    1986-01-01

    Inclusion body disease of cranes was the cause of death in 17 immature and mature cranes of 5 different species in Wisconsin. A herpesvirus of unknown origin was the apparent cause. An isolate of this herpesvirus was used to experimentally infect 3 species of cranes. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions associated with naturally acquired and experimentally induced disease were essentially identical. Multifocal hepatic and splenic necrosis was found in all cranes evaluated. Necrosis of the gastrointestinal tract, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius also was seen in some of the cranes. Eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies often were commonly associated with hepatic lesions, sometimes with the splenic lesions, and rarely with the thymic or gastrointestinal tract lesions. The lesions of this inclusion body disease were similar to those reported for cranes in Austria from which a crane herpesvirus was isolated.

  16. Prognostic Value of Coronary Computed Tomography (CT) Angiography and Coronary Artery Calcium Score Performed Before Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Shinichiro; Kondo, Takeshi; Kumamaru, Kanako K; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Takamura, Kazuhisa; Kawaguchi, Yuko; Matsumori, Rie; Hiki, Makoto; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Daida, Hiroyuki; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiac events after revascularization are equally attributable to recurrence at site of culprit lesions and development of nonculprit lesions. We evaluated the hypothesis that coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography and coronary artery calcium score (CACS) performed before revascularization predicts cardiac events after treatment. Methods and Results Among 2238 consecutive patients without known coronary artery disease who underwent coronary CT angiography and CACS, 359 patients underwent revascularization within 30 days after CT; in 337 of 359 (93.9%) follow-up clinical information was available. In addition to known cardiac risk factors, CT findings were evaluated as predictors of cardiac events after revascularization: CACS and the presence of CT-verified high-risk plaque (CT-HRP). Improvement of predictive accuracy by including CT findings was evaluated from a discrimination (Harrell’s C-statistics) standpoint. During the follow-up period (median: 673, interquartile range: 47 to 1529 days), a total of 98 cardiac events occurred. Cox proportional hazard model revealed that age, diabetes, triglyceride, CACS, and nonculprit CT-HRP were significant predictors of overall cardiac events. Although not statistically significant, discriminatory power was greater for the model with CACS (C-stat: 63.2%) and the model with both CACS and CT-HRP (65.8%) compared to the model including neither CACS nor CT-HRP (60.7%). Conclusions High CACS and the presence of nonculprit CT-HRP performed before revascularization are significant predictors of cardiac events after revascularization. PMID:26296858

  17. Urinary balantidiasis: A rare incidental finding in a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sukhpreet; Gupta, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Balantidiasis is a rare zoonotic disease in humans. Balantidium coli is the causative ciliated protozoan. We present a case of urinary balantidiasis in a patient having chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who was on steroids for a long time. He has no symptoms of bowel or urinary involvement. We are reporting this case because of its rarity in human urine and also for future references. PMID:27756993

  18. Returning incidental findings from genetic research to children: views of parents of children affected by rare diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kleiderman, Erika; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Fernandez, Conrad V; Boycott, Kym M; Ouellette, Gail; Wong-Rieger, Durhane; Adam, Shelin; Richer, Julie; Avard, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To explore parental perceptions and experiences regarding the return of genomic incidental research findings in children with rare diseases. Methods Parents of children affected by various rare diseases were invited to participate in focus groups or individual telephone interviews in Montreal and Ottawa. Fifteen participants were interviewed and transcriptions were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Four emergent themes underscored parental enthusiasm for receiving incidental findings concerning their child's health: (1) right to information; (2) perceived benefits and risks; (3) communication practicalities: who, when, and how; and (4) service needs to promote the communication of incidental findings. Parents believed they should be made aware of all results pertaining to their child's health status, and that they are responsible for transmitting this information to their child, irrespective of disease severity. Despite potential negative consequences, respondents generally perceived a favourable risk-benefit ratio in receiving all incidental findings. Conclusions Understanding how parents assess the risks and benefits of returning incidental findings is essential to genomic research applications in paediatric medicine. The authors believe the study findings will contribute to establishing future best practices, although further research is needed to evaluate the impact of parental decisions on themselves and their child. PMID:24356209

  19. Finding Text-Supported Gene-to-Disease Co-appearances with MOPED-Digger.

    PubMed

    Kolker, Eugene; Janko, Imre; Montague, Elizabeth; Higdon, Roger; Stewart, Elizabeth; Choiniere, John; Lai, Aaron; Eckert, Mary; Broomall, William; Kolker, Natali

    2015-12-01

    Gene/disease associations are a critical part of exploring disease causes and ultimately cures, yet the publications that might provide such information are too numerous to be manually reviewed. We present a software utility, MOPED-Digger, that enables focused human assessment of literature by applying natural language processing (NLP) to search for customized lists of genes and diseases in titles and abstracts from biomedical publications. The results are ranked lists of gene/disease co-appearances and the publications that support them. Analysis of 18,159,237 PubMed title/abstracts yielded 1,796,799 gene/disease co-appearances that can be used to focus attention on the most promising publications for a possible gene/disease association. An integrated score is provided to enable assessment of broadly presented published evidence to capture more tenuous connections. MOPED-Digger is written in Java and uses Apache Lucene 5.0 library. The utility runs as a command-line program with a variety of user-options and is freely available for download from the MOPED 3.0 website (moped.proteinspire.org).

  20. Finding Text-Supported Gene-to-Disease Co-appearances with MOPED-Digger.

    PubMed

    Kolker, Eugene; Janko, Imre; Montague, Elizabeth; Higdon, Roger; Stewart, Elizabeth; Choiniere, John; Lai, Aaron; Eckert, Mary; Broomall, William; Kolker, Natali

    2015-12-01

    Gene/disease associations are a critical part of exploring disease causes and ultimately cures, yet the publications that might provide such information are too numerous to be manually reviewed. We present a software utility, MOPED-Digger, that enables focused human assessment of literature by applying natural language processing (NLP) to search for customized lists of genes and diseases in titles and abstracts from biomedical publications. The results are ranked lists of gene/disease co-appearances and the publications that support them. Analysis of 18,159,237 PubMed title/abstracts yielded 1,796,799 gene/disease co-appearances that can be used to focus attention on the most promising publications for a possible gene/disease association. An integrated score is provided to enable assessment of broadly presented published evidence to capture more tenuous connections. MOPED-Digger is written in Java and uses Apache Lucene 5.0 library. The utility runs as a command-line program with a variety of user-options and is freely available for download from the MOPED 3.0 website (moped.proteinspire.org). PMID:26575978

  1. Fish oil metabolites: translating promising findings from bench to bedside to reduce cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Calderon Artero, P; Champagne, C; Garigen, S; Mousa, SA; Block, RC

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is an inflammatory process and the leading cause of death in the United States. Novel omega-3 derived potent lipid mediators, termed resolvins and protectins, have been identified as major pathophysiologic players in the resolution phase of the inflammatory response. Potent lipid mediators offer tremendous metabolic and pathophysiologic insights in regard to the risk and treatment of cardiovascular disease. In this review, resolvins and protectins are described and analyzed as accelerators of discovery via their potential role as biomarkers for research and clinical decision making in cardiovascular disease. Specific barriers relating to biomarker validation, laboratory methods, and improvement of risk models are introduced and discussed. Potential therapeutic impacts in cardiovascular disease are also mentioned with special consideration for cost-saving implications with respect to dietary fish oil as an alternative to resolvin and protectin treatment. Given the high tolerability of fish oil supplements and previously described benefits of omega-3 fatty acid intake in cardiovascular disease, we conclude that resolvins and protectins are set to soon take center stage as future biomarkers and well-tolerated therapies for cardiovascular disease. PMID:22708071

  2. Liver stem cells: Experimental findings and implications for human liver disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from human histopathology and experimental studies with rodents and zebrafish has shown that hepatocytes and cholangiocytes may function as facultative stem cells for each other in conditions of impaired regeneration. The interpretation of the findings derived from these studies has generated considerable discussion and some controversies. This review examines the evidence obtained from the different experimental models and considers implications that these studies may have for human liver disease. Few topics of liver tissue biology have attracted as much attention as the existence of liver-specific tissue stem cells. Routine liver histology reveals two types of epithelial cells, hepatocytes and cholangiocytes (also known as biliary epithelial cells). Endothelial cells line the hepatic capillaries (sinusoids), with macrophages (Kupffer cells) interspersed along the sinusoid lumen. Stellate cells exist under the sinusoids and in close proximity to hepatocytes. None of these cells appears to have functions of a fully committed tissue specific stem cell, analogous to the cells of the intestinal crypts, the basal layer of the epidermis, bone marrow stem cells, etc. Hepatocytes and cholangiocytes can be easily identified based on their morphology and cell-specific biomarkers. Hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, however, often have mutually mixed expression of biomarkers in pathologic conditions. In patients with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), there is rampant proliferation of cholangiocytes organized in ductular structures (“ductular reaction”1, 2). Many of these cholangiocytes (known as ductular hepatocytes) express biomarkers associated with hepatocytes, (HNF4, albumin, HEPPAR3, etc.). They are seen surrounding cells ranging in size from small to typical hepatocytes, and with a gradient of expression of cholangiocyte-associated biomarkers (e.g. EpCAM) decreasing from the periphery to the center (Regenerative Clusters: see Figure 1). It is not clear in FHF

  3. National Burden of Eye Diseases in Iran, 1990–2010; Findings from the Global Burden of Diseases Study 2010

    PubMed Central

    Hatef, Elham; Mohammadi, Seyed-Farzad; Alinia, Cyrus; Ashrafi, Elham; Mohammadi, S-Mehrdad; Lashay, Alireza; Sadeghi-Tari, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost due to eye diseases and trends in DALYs in Iran has not been previously reported. The object of this study is to report the burden of eye diseases in Iran and to compare changes from 1990 to 2010 based on age and gender. Methods: Data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 (GBD 2010) are used to report DALYs for cataract, refraction/accommodation (functional) disorders, macular degeneration, and glaucoma. Results: Cataract, refraction/accommodation (functional) disorders, macular degeneration, and glaucoma were the 84th, 87th, 138th, and 151st causes of DALY in 1990 and the 89th, 72nd, 99th, and 137th in 2010, respectively. Cataract accounted for 0.085% of national DALY in 1990 and 0.09% in 2010, refraction/accommodation (functional) disorders accounted for 0.42% in 1990 and 0.47% in 2010, macular degeneration accounted for 0.017% in 1990 and 0.071% in 2010 and glaucoma accounted for 0.0099% in 1990 and 0.025% in 2010. There was a steady increase in DALY with age for each eye disease for both genders and dichotomized for males and females from 1990 to 2010. Conclusions: Epidemiologic transition is reflected in major ophthalmic and blinding diseases in the GBD data for Iran. The burden of macular degeneration is rising, followed by glaucoma. The burden of presbyopia affected individuals past their middle age. The burden of cataract manifested as a slower increase that could be attributable to better access to treatment. PMID:26957846

  4. Evaluation of haematological findings in 50 Bahraini patients with sickle cell disease and in some of their parents.

    PubMed

    Buhazza, M A; Bikhazi, A B; Khouri, F P

    1985-08-01

    The haematological findings in 50 Bahrainis with sickle cell disease are reported. This establishes the existence of the Hb S gene in Bahrain. The mean Hb F level in the Bahraini patients was 13.8%, a value lower than that encountered in sickle cell homozygotes from Kuwait and Saudi Arabia.

  5. Evaluation of haematological findings in 50 Bahraini patients with sickle cell disease and in some of their parents.

    PubMed Central

    Buhazza, M A; Bikhazi, A B; Khouri, F P

    1985-01-01

    The haematological findings in 50 Bahrainis with sickle cell disease are reported. This establishes the existence of the Hb S gene in Bahrain. The mean Hb F level in the Bahraini patients was 13.8%, a value lower than that encountered in sickle cell homozygotes from Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. PMID:4045957

  6. Computerized analysis of coronary artery disease: Performance evaluation of segmentation and tracking of coronary arteries in CT angiograms

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Chuan Chan, Heang-Ping; Chughtai, Aamer; Kuriakose, Jean; Agarwal, Prachi; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Patel, Smita; Wei, Jun

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: The authors are developing a computer-aided detection system to assist radiologists in analysis of coronary artery disease in coronary CT angiograms (cCTA). This study evaluated the accuracy of the authors’ coronary artery segmentation and tracking method which are the essential steps to define the search space for the detection of atherosclerotic plaques. Methods: The heart region in cCTA is segmented and the vascular structures are enhanced using the authors’ multiscale coronary artery response (MSCAR) method that performed 3D multiscale filtering and analysis of the eigenvalues of Hessian matrices. Starting from seed points at the origins of the left and right coronary arteries, a 3D rolling balloon region growing (RBG) method that adapts to the local vessel size segmented and tracked each of the coronary arteries and identifies the branches along the tracked vessels. The branches are queued and subsequently tracked until the queue is exhausted. With Institutional Review Board approval, 62 cCTA were collected retrospectively from the authors’ patient files. Three experienced cardiothoracic radiologists manually tracked and marked center points of the coronary arteries as reference standard following the 17-segment model that includes clinically significant coronary arteries. Two radiologists visually examined the computer-segmented vessels and marked the mistakenly tracked veins and noisy structures as false positives (FPs). For the 62 cases, the radiologists marked a total of 10191 center points on 865 visible coronary artery segments. Results: The computer-segmented vessels overlapped with 83.6% (8520/10191) of the center points. Relative to the 865 radiologist-marked segments, the sensitivity reached 91.9% (795/865) if a true positive is defined as a computer-segmented vessel that overlapped with at least 10% of the reference center points marked on the segment. When the overlap threshold is increased to 50% and 100%, the sensitivities were 86

  7. Burden of ischemic heart diseases in Iran, 1990-2010: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease study 2010

    PubMed Central

    Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Isfahani, Motahareh Tabar; Kelishadi, Roya; Ghasemian, Anoosheh; Sharifi, Farshad; Shabani, Reihaneh; Djalalinia, Shirin; Majidi, Somayye; Ansari, Hossein; Asayesh, Hamid; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases are viewed worldwide as one of the main causes of death. This study aims to report the burden of ischemic heart diseases (IHDs) in Iran by using data of the global burden of disease (GBD) study, 1990-2010. Materials and Methods: The GBD study 2010 was a systematic effort to provide comprehensive data to calculate disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for diseases and injuries in the world. Years of life lost (YLLs) due to premature mortality were computed on the basis of cause-of-death estimates, using Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm). Years lived with disability (YLDs) were assessed by the multiplication of prevalence, the disability weight for a sequel, and the duration of symptoms. A systematic review of published and unpublished data was performed to evaluate the distribution of diseases, and consequently prevalence estimates were calculated with a Bayesian meta-regression method (DisMod-MR). Data from population-based surveys were used for producing disability weights. Uncertainty from all inputs into the calculations of DALYs was disseminated by Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Results: The age-standardized IHDs DALY specified rate decreased 31.25% over 20 years from 1990 to 2010 [from 4720 (95% uncertainty interval (UI): 4,341-5,099) to 3,245 (95% UI: 2,810-3,529) person-years per 100,000]. The decrease were 38.14% among women and 26.87% among men. The age-standardized IHDs death specefied rate decreased by 21.17% [from 222) 95% UI: 207-243 (to 175 (95% UI:152-190) person-years per 100,000] in both the sexes. The age-standardized YLL and YLD rates decreased 32.05% and 4.28%, respectively, in the above period. Conclusion: Despite decreasing age-standardized IHD of mortality, YLL, YLD, and DALY rates from 1990 to 2010, population growth and aging increased the global burden of IHD. YLL has decreased more than IHD deaths and YLD since 1990 but IHD mortality remains the greatest contributor to disease burden. PMID

  8. Cerebellar Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (ctDCS): A Novel Approach to Understanding Cerebellar Function in Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Giuliana; Argyropoulos, Georgios P; Bastian, Amy; Cortes, Mar; Davis, Nicholas J; Edwards, Dylan J; Ferrucci, Roberta; Fregni, Felipe; Galea, Joseph M; Hamada, Masahi; Manto, Mario; Miall, R Chris; Morales-Quezada, Leon; Pope, Paul A; Priori, Alberto; Rothwell, John; Tomlinson, S Paul; Celnik, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    The cerebellum is critical for both motor and cognitive control. Dysfunction of the cerebellum is a component of multiple neurological disorders. In recent years, interventions have been developed that aim to excite or inhibit the activity and function of the human cerebellum. Transcranial direct current stimulation of the cerebellum (ctDCS) promises to be a powerful tool for the modulation of cerebellar excitability. This technique has gained popularity in recent years as it can be used to investigate human cerebellar function, is easily delivered, is well tolerated, and has not shown serious adverse effects. Importantly, the ability of ctDCS to modify behavior makes it an interesting approach with a potential therapeutic role for neurological patients. Through both electrical and non-electrical effects (vascular, metabolic) ctDCS is thought to modify the activity of the cerebellum and alter the output from cerebellar nuclei. Physiological studies have shown a polarity-specific effect on the modulation of cerebellar-motor cortex connectivity, likely via cerebellar-thalamocortical pathways. Modeling studies that have assessed commonly used electrode montages have shown that the ctDCS-generated electric field reaches the human cerebellum with little diffusion to neighboring structures. The posterior and inferior parts of the cerebellum (i.e., lobules VI-VIII) seem particularly susceptible to modulation by ctDCS. Numerous studies have shown to date that ctDCS can modulate motor learning, and affect cognitive and emotional processes. Importantly, this intervention has a good safety profile; similar to when applied over cerebral areas. Thus, investigations have begun exploring ctDCS as a viable intervention for patients with neurological conditions. PMID:25406224

  9. How Relevant Are Imaging Findings in Animal Models of Movement Disorders to Human Disease?

    PubMed

    Bannon, Darryl; Landau, Anne M; Doudet, Doris J

    2015-08-01

    The combination of novel imaging techniques with the use of small animal models of disease is often used in attempt to understand disease mechanisms, design potential clinical biomarkers and therapeutic interventions, and develop novel methods with translatability to human clinical conditions. However, it is clear that most animal models are deficient when compared to the complexity of human diseases: they cannot sufficiently replicate all the features of multisystem disorders. Furthermore, some practical differences may affect the use or interpretation of animal imaging to model human conditions such as the use of anesthesia, various species differences, and limitations of methodological tools. Nevertheless, imaging animal models allows us to dissect, in interpretable bits, the effects of one system upon another, the consequences of variable neuronal losses or overactive systems, the results of experimental treatments, and we can develop and validate new methods. In this review, we focus on imaging modalities that are easily used in both human subjects and animal models such as positron emission and magnetic resonance imaging and discuss aging and Parkinson's disease as prototypical examples of preclinical imaging studies.

  10. Epigenetic studies in Alzheimer's disease: current findings, caveats, and considerations for future studies.

    PubMed

    Lunnon, Katie; Mill, Jonathan

    2013-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a sporadic, chronic neurodegenerative disease, usually occurring late in life. The last decade has witnessed tremendous advances in our understanding about the genetic basis of AD, but a large amount of the variance in disease risk remains to be explained. Epigenetic mechanisms, which developmentally regulate gene expression via modifications to DNA, histone proteins, and chromatin, have been hypothesized to play a role in other complex neurobiological diseases, and studies to identify genome-wide epigenetic changes in AD are currently under way. However, the simple brute-force approach that has been successfully employed in genome-wide association studies is unlikely to be successful in epigenome-wide association studies of neurodegeneration. A more academic approach to understanding the role of epigenetic variation in AD is required, with careful consideration of study design, methodological approaches, tissue-specificity, and causal inference. In this article, we review the empirical literature supporting a role for epigenetic processes in AD, and discuss important considerations and future directions for this new and emerging field of research.

  11. Nutrition and Cardiovascular Disease: Finding the Perfect Recipe for Cardiovascular Health.

    PubMed

    Ravera, Alice; Carubelli, Valentina; Sciatti, Edoardo; Bonadei, Ivano; Gorga, Elio; Cani, Dario; Vizzardi, Enrico; Metra, Marco; Lombardi, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) despite the progress in management entails the need of more effective preventive and curative strategies. As dietary-associated risk is the most important behavioral factor influencing global health, it appears the best target in the challenge against CVD. Although for many years, since the formulation of the cholesterol hypothesis, a nutrient-based approach was attempted for CVD prevention and treatment, in recent years a dietary-based approach resulted more effective in reducing cardiovascular risk worldwide. After the publication of randomized trials on the remarkable effects of the Mediterranean diet and the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on CVD, new efforts were put on research about the effects of complex dietary interventions on CVD. The purpose of this paper is to review the evidence on dietary interventions in the prevention and disease modification of CVD, focusing on coronary artery disease and heart failure, the main disease responsible for the enormous toll taken by CVD worldwide. PMID:27314382

  12. Diffusion-weighted MRI findings and clinical correlations in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ting; Lyu, Jin-Hao; Zhang, Jia-Tang; Lou, Xin; Zhao, Wei; Xing, Xiao-Wei; Yang, Ming; Yao, Yan; Tan, Qing-Che; Tian, Cheng-Lin; Huang, Xu-Sheng; Ma, Lin; Yu, Sheng-Yuan

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the hyperintense lesions on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) and its clinical correlation in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). Patients who suffered from sCJD and followed up at the Department of Neurology at the General Hospital of the People's Liberation Army during the period of June 1, 2007 to July 1, 2014 were reviewed. The location of the hyperintense lesions on DWI, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the hyperintense lesions were correlated with symptoms and clinical course. A total of 58 sCJD patients and ten healthy controls were included. Hyperintense lesions on DWI were observed in all the patients. The patients with basal ganglia (BG) hyperintense lesions on DWI had shorter disease duration and higher incidence of myoclonus (92 versus 44 %) than those without BG hyperintense lesions. The patients with occipital cortex hyperintense lesions on DWI had shorter disease duration between symptom onset and akinetic mutism than those without these lesions. The lower of the BG ADC value the faster presence of akinetic mutism and the shorter disease duration the patients will have. The presence of BG and occipital cortex hyperintense lesions on DWI and BG ADC values is correlated with the clinical course and clinical symptoms. PMID:25860342

  13. Nutrition and Cardiovascular Disease: Finding the Perfect Recipe for Cardiovascular Health

    PubMed Central

    Ravera, Alice; Carubelli, Valentina; Sciatti, Edoardo; Bonadei, Ivano; Gorga, Elio; Cani, Dario; Vizzardi, Enrico; Metra, Marco; Lombardi, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) despite the progress in management entails the need of more effective preventive and curative strategies. As dietary-associated risk is the most important behavioral factor influencing global health, it appears the best target in the challenge against CVD. Although for many years, since the formulation of the cholesterol hypothesis, a nutrient-based approach was attempted for CVD prevention and treatment, in recent years a dietary-based approach resulted more effective in reducing cardiovascular risk worldwide. After the publication of randomized trials on the remarkable effects of the Mediterranean diet and the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on CVD, new efforts were put on research about the effects of complex dietary interventions on CVD. The purpose of this paper is to review the evidence on dietary interventions in the prevention and disease modification of CVD, focusing on coronary artery disease and heart failure, the main disease responsible for the enormous toll taken by CVD worldwide. PMID:27314382

  14. Comparation of clinical and paraclinical findings among patient with Kawasaki disease in Bandar abbas Koodakan Hospital in 2011-14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borjali, Davood

    Title: Comparation of clinical and paraclinical findings among patient with Kawasaki disease in Bandar abbas Koodakan Hospital in 2011-14 Kawasaki disease(KD) is a kind of vasculitis diagnosed by clinical manifestation and it caused acquired heart disease in children because of coronary arteries involvement. Method: patient divided to three group of American Japanese and incomplete and also study in two group according to fever days and then clinical features and laboratory data were checked. Result: A total of 150 patients were enrolled during the study period. number of patients with incomplete Kawasaki disease was 128 american group was 28 and Japanese was 4 patients, the most prevalent symptom was scaling of extremities(61 bladder most seen in group with fever more than five days. Keyword: Kawasaki , epidemiology , criteria

  15. Relationship of the 1793G-A and 677C-T polymorphisms of the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene to coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kebert, Cory B; Eichner, June E; Moore, William E; Schechter, Eliot; Yaoi, Takuro; Vogel, Steve; Allen, Richard A; Dunn, S Terence

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the relationship between polymorphisms, in particular 677C-T and 1298A-C, of the methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and coronary artery disease (CAD) with conflicting results. This study investigates the potential association of two point mutations in MTHFR, 677C-T and 1793G-A, along with other risk factors, with CAD. This is the first hospital-based study to investigate 1793G-A in this context. Genotype analysis was performed on 729 Caucasians and 66 African Americans undergoing coronary angiography using a novel PCR-based assay involving formation of Holliday junctions. Allelic frequencies for 677C-T were 66.2% C and 33.8% T for Caucasians and 90.9% C and 9.1% T for African Americans. With respect to the 1793G-A polymorphism, allelic frequencies were 94.7% G and 5.3% A for Caucasians and 99.2% G and 0.8% A for African Americans. Disease associations were examined in the Caucasian patients due to their greater genotype variability and larger number in the patient cohort. Results suggest that neither 677CT heterozygotes (OR-1.36; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.96) nor mutant homozygotes (OR-0.73; 95% CI 0.44 to 1.20) have either an increased or decreased risk for CAD compared to the 677CC genotype. Likewise, the 1793GA genotype did not demonstrate a statistically significant association with CAD compared to 1793GG patients (OR-0.79; 95% CI 0.47 to 1.33). Mean homocysteine levels (mumol/L) increased from normal to mutant for 677C-T (677CC: 10.2; 677CT: 11.0; 677TT: 11.6) and normal to heterozygous in 1793G-A (1793GG: 10.7; 1793GA: 11.5). These MTHFR polymorphisms did not contribute to the prediction of clinically defined CAD in Caucasians. PMID:17264399

  16. Relationship of the 1793G-A and 677C-T Polymorphisms of the 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene to Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kebert, Cory B.; Eichner, June E.; Moore, William E.; Schechter, Eliot; Yaoi, Takuro; Vogel, Steve; Allen, Richard A.; Dunn, S. Terence

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the relationship between polymorphisms, in particular 677C-T and 1298A-C, of the methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and coronary artery disease (CAD) with conflicting results. This study investigates the potential association of two point mutations in MTHFR, 677C-T and 1793G-A, along with other risk factors, with CAD. This is the first hospital-based study to investigate 1793G-A in this context. Genotype analysis was performed on 729 Caucasians and 66 African Americans undergoing coronary angiography using a novel PCR-based assay involving formation of Holliday junctions. Allelic frequencies for 677C-T were 66.2% C and 33.8% T for Caucasians and 90.9% C and 9.1% T for African Americans. With respect to the 1793G-A polymorphism, allelic frequencies were 94.7% G and 5.3% A for Caucasians and 99.2% G and 0.8% A for African Americans. Disease associations were examined in the Caucasian patients due to their greater genotype variability and larger number in the patient cohort. Results suggest that neither 677CT heterozygotes (OR-1.36; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.96) nor mutant homozygotes (OR-0.73; 95% CI 0.44 to 1.20) have either an increased or decreased risk for CAD compared to the 677CC genotype. Likewise, the 1793GA genotype did not demonstrate a statistically significant association with CAD compared to 1793GG patients (OR-0.79; 95% CI 0.47 to 1.33). Mean homocysteine levels (μmol/L) increased from normal to mutant for 677C-T (677CC: 10.2; 677CT: 11.0; 677TT: 11.6) and normal to heterozygous in 1793G-A (1793GG: 10.7; 1793GA: 11.5). These MTHFR polymorphisms did not contribute to the prediction of clinically defined CAD in Caucasians. PMID:17264399

  17. Current evidence base of FDG-PET/CT imaging in the clinical management of malignant pleural mesothelioma: emerging significance of image segmentation and global disease assessment.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sandip; Saboury, Babak; Torigian, Drew A; Alavi, Abass

    2011-10-01

    Increasingly, integrated positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging is playing a crucial role in the assessment of patients with known or suspected malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Based on the data reported in the literature, this combined modality is likely to become the instrument of choice for examining patients of MPM. The research on this subject has focused on the following five domains: (1) differentiation of MPM from other benign pleural diseases, (2) preoperative staging for the selection of appropriate candidates for surgery, (3) evaluation for therapy response and post-treatment surveillance for recurrence, (4) prognostication based upon the intensity of 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) uptake, and (5) planning of radiotherapy. These represent the bases for critical decision making in the management of mesothelioma, and FDG-PET/CT offers potential advantages over conventional CT imaging and thus can play a pivotal role in this regard. Optimal characterization of this potentially fatal disease with a high negative predictive value for MPM, superior capability for cancer staging initially and at the later course of disease, and ability for measuring therapeutic response and the precise determination of the target volume for radiotherapy planning represent distinct advantages of this promising molecular imaging tool. In this communication, we have explored the promising role of integrated FDG-PET/CT in the overall management of this serious malignancy. From the available data, the major role of PET-CT at present appears to be in the preoperative disease staging, response to treatment assessment, and post-treatment disease surveillance of MPM. In all these three areas, PET-CT convincingly shows better results than conventional anatomical imaging alone and thereby can aid in exploring novel therapeutic approaches. Disease prognosis and radiotherapy planning are evolving areas where this modality has demonstrated significant

  18. Finding genetic contributions to sporadic disease: a recessive locus at 12q24 commonly contributes to patent ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Mani, Arya; Meraji, Seyed-Mahmoud; Houshyar, Roozbeh; Radhakrishnan, Jayaram; Mani, Alaleh; Ahangar, Mehrabeh; Rezaie, Tayebeh M; Taghavinejad, Mohammad-Ali; Broumand, Behrooz; Zhao, Hongyu; Nelson-Williams, Carol; Lifton, Richard P

    2002-11-12

    The causes of many sporadic diseases are unexplained; the contribution of recessive loci with reduced penetrance is one possibility that has been difficult to explore. We describe an approach to this problem by first searching for diseases with higher prevalence in populations with high rates of consanguinity, then determining whether disease cases are more commonly the product of consanguinous union than controls in such populations, followed by analysis of genetic linkage in consanguinous cases. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by investigation of congenital heart disease in Iran. We found that patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), a common congenital heart disease, accounts for a higher fraction of congenital heart disease in Iran (15%) than in the United States (2-7%). Moreover, Iranian PDA cases demonstrated a marked increase of parental consanguinity (63%), compared with the general Iranian population (25%) or control cases with tetralogy of Fallot (30%). The recurrence of PDA among siblings was 5%. A genomewide analysis of linkage in 21 unrelated consanguinous PDA cases demonstrated a multipoint logarithm of odds score of 6.27 in favor of linkage of PDA to a 3-centimorgan interval of chromosome 12q24, with 53% of kindreds linked. These findings together establish a recessive component to PDA and implicate a single locus, PDA1, in one third or more of all PDA cases in Iran; they further suggest a role for this locus in PDA worldwide. Finally, these results suggest a general approach to the identification of recessive contributions to sporadic diseases.

  19. Early growth and coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes: findings from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (HBCS).

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Johan G

    2011-12-01

    A slow rate of intrauterine growth is a major risk factor for several common noncommunicable diseases, which include the following: coronary heart disease (CHD), hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. Likewise, growth patterns in infancy and childhood have been identified as important factors linked to the pathogenesis of these disorders. In this overview, patterns of growth associated with CHD, type 2 diabetes, and related metabolic traits in adult life are presented on the basis of findings from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (HBCS) 1934-1944. Later risk of CHD was associated with small body size at birth and during infancy, followed by an increase in body size later in childhood. This pattern of growth has been associated with dyslipidemia in later life, which offers an explanation for the observed findings. Type 2 diabetes and CHD share several risk factors. The early growth of persons who later develop type 2 diabetes includes a small body size at birth as well as a small body size during infancy. An early age at adiposity rebound was associated with a markedly increased risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. The patterns of growth associated with type 2 diabetes are also associated with alterations in body composition, which predisposes to insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. The presented findings suggest that to be able to understand the pathogenesis of several noncommunicable diseases, the diseases need to be studied from a life-course perspective, and prenatal and childhood growth as well as adult characteristics need to be taken into account.

  20. Medical-dental findings and management of a child with infantile Refsum disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Bhavini S; Ritwik, Priyanshi; Velasquez, Gisela M; Fenton, Sanford J

    2012-06-01

    Infantile Refsum disease (IRD) is a peroxisome biogenesis disorder (PBD), and is part of a larger group of diseases called leukodystrophies, which are inherited conditions that damage the white matter of the brain and affect motor movements. Multiple signs and symptoms of IRD begin in infancy and progress through early childhood, including hearing and visual impairment, intellectual and growth impairment, seizures, liver involvement, and orofacial and dental abnormalities. This paper presents a case history of a 12-year-old female patient with IRD who underwent dental rehabilitation in the operating room under general anesthesia and includes a 2-year follow-up. Medical, dental, and management considerations in the care of this child's condition are presented. This paper also discusses the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in the management of children with special needs.

  1. Periodontal disease: an oral manifestation of psoriasis or an occasional finding?

    PubMed

    Ganzetti, Giulia; Campanati, Anna; Santarelli, Andrea; Pozzi, Valentina; Molinelli, Elisa; Minnetti, Ilaria; Brisigotti, Valerio; Procaccini, Maurizio; Emanuelli, Monica; Offidani, Annamaria

    2014-11-01

    Even if the existence of oral psoriasis has been suggested, it is still a debated issue. Indeed, oral inflammatory diseases may histologically resemble psoriasis-related oral lesions. However, an increased prevalence of fissured tongue and geographic tongue has been associated with psoriatic patients, being a transitory and permanent lesion, respectively. Recently, it was hypothesized that gingivitis and periodontitis share the same underlying inflammatory pathogenetic process of psoriasis. Thus, in the present study, psoriatic patients were investigated for oral mucosa lesions prevalence as well as gum disease. Results displayed an increased association between gingivitis/periodontitis and psoriasis, which may suggest common underlying pathogenic risk factors. However, large-scale studies are needed to evaluate the real prevalence of gingivitis and periodontitis in these patients, to consider them a comorbidity of psoriasis.

  2. Lifelong bilingualism and neural reserve against Alzheimer's disease: a review of findings and potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Gold, Brian T

    2015-03-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive brain disorder that initially affects medial temporal lobe circuitry and memory functions. Current drug treatments have only modest effects on the symptomatic course of the disease. In contrast, a growing body of evidence suggests that lifelong bilingualism may delay the onset of clinical AD symptoms by several years. The purpose of the present review is to summarize evidence for bilingualism as a reserve variable against AD and discuss potential underlying neurocognitive mechanisms. Evidence is reviewed suggesting that bilingualism may delay clinical AD symptoms by protecting frontostriatal and frontoparietal executive control circuitry rather than medial temporal lobe memory circuitry. Cellular and molecular mechanisms that may contribute to bilingual cognitive reserve effects are discussed, including those that may affect neuronal metabolic functions, dynamic neuronal-glial interactions, vascular factors, myelin structure and neurochemical signaling. Future studies that may test some of these potential mechanisms of bilingual CR effects are proposed.

  3. Finding new ways to prevent disease in food-producing animals.

    PubMed

    2016-01-23

    Increasing concern about antimicrobial resistance and moves to restrict the use of antibiotics in food-producing animals mean that farmers will need new ways of preventing and controlling disease in their animals. With its focus on addressing the needs of the farming industry, the Moredun Research Institute sees this as an opportunity to be at the forefront of developing new solutions. Kristy Ebanks reports from an event organised to showcase some of the institute's latest research. PMID:26795855

  4. [Bilateral exophthalmos diabetes insipidus: Erdheim-Chester disease. Clinical and radiological findings].

    PubMed

    Le Goff, L; Berros, P; Denis, D; Ridings, B

    2002-01-01

    The authors report a case of a 61-year-old man presenting bilateral exophthalmos and diabetes insipidus. A retro-orbital biopsy revealed nonspecific fibrocollagenic infiltration. The diagnosis of Erdheim-Chester disease was evoked when a multivisceral affection (retroperitoneal and mediastinal periaortic fibrosis) with specific bone localization became evident. The histopatholgical study of a bone biopsy showed xanthogranulomatous infiltration. The patient died a few months later of an intercurrent infection.

  5. Hazards of disease transfer from marine mammals to land mammals: review and recent findings.

    PubMed

    Smith, A W; Vedros, N A; Akers, T G; Gilmartin, W G

    1978-11-01

    In a 5-year study (1972-1977) of microbial agents isolated from both clinically normal and diseased marine mammals, it was shown that certain disease agents are widespread in a diversity of ocean populations and that some are also transmissible to a number of terrestrial mammal species. Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona has been isolated repeatedly from 2 species of pinnipeds (Zalophus californianus califonianus and Callorhinus ursinus). Some of the more important bacterial pathogens for land mammals that were isolated from wild marine mammals are Pseudomonas mallei, Clostridium chauvoei, C novyi, Neisseria mucosa var heidelbergensis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella spp, and Pasteurella multocida. Numerous serotypes of viruses classified as caliciviruses were isolated from a variety of marine mammals. Some of these are known to infect several land mammal species including swine horses, and primates. For this reason., precautions should be taken to ensure that disease agents shed by captive marine mammals are not transmitted to susceptible terrestrial mammals, including animal handlers and other human beings. PMID:738931

  6. Finding models to detect Alzheimer's disease by fusing structural and neuropsychological information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldo, Diana L.; García-Arteaga, Juan D.; Velasco, Nelson; Romero, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that affects higher brain functions. Initial diagnosis of AD is based on the patient's clinical history and a battery of neuropsychological tests. The accuracy of the diagnosis is highly dependent on the examiner's skills and on the evolution of a variable clinical frame. This work presents an automatic strategy that learns probabilistic brain models for different stages of the disease, reducing the complexity, parameter adjustment and computational costs. The proposed method starts by setting a probabilistic class description using the information stored in the neuropsychological test, followed by constructing the different structural class models using membership values from the learned probabilistic functions. These models are then used as a reference frame for the classification problem: a new case is assigned to a particular class simply by projecting to the different models. The validation was performed using a leave-one-out cross-validation, two classes were used: Normal Control (NC) subjects and patients diagnosed with mild AD. In this experiment it is possible to achieve a sensibility and specificity of 80% and 79% respectively.

  7. Prevalence of high risk Tl-201 scintigraphic findings in patients with coronary artery disease: Relation to coronary anatomy and ECG stress test findings

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, J.M.; Nygaard, T.W.; Gibson, R.S.; Gascho, J.A.; Watson, D.D.; Beller, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    The prevalence of a high risk exercise (Ex) Tl-201 (Tl) scintigram (scint) was determined in 295 consecutive patients (pts) with angiographic (angio) (>50% stenosis) coronary artery disease (CAD) and correlated with extent of CAD and Ex stress test findings. A high risk scint by quantitative criteria was defined as either: 1) a typical left main (LM) CAD pattern showing greater than or equal to 25% homogenous disease in Tl activity in septal and posterolateral walls; 2) a multivessel disease (MVD) pattern showing abnormal Tl uptake and/or washout in multiple vascular scan segments; 3) increased lung Tl uptake. The typical LMCAD pattern was observed in 6 of 43 pts (14%) with LMCAD compared to 2% of 53 pts with 3VD (p=0.03), 3% of 99 pts with 2VD (p=0.02) and 2% of 100 pts with 1VD (p-0.01). The MVD scint pattern was seen in 67% of pts with LMCAD compared to 49% (p=0.05) in 3VD pts, 41% (p=0.004) in 2VD pts and 24% (p=<0.0001) in 1VD pts. Prevalence of abnormal lung Tl was comparable in LMCAD (42%), 3VD (38%) and 2VD (34%) pts, but greater than observed in 1VD pts (26%; p=0.05). High risk ECG stress test was defined as 2 or more of: 1) >2.0 mm of ST decreasing; 2) greater than or equal to1.0 mm ST decreasing persisting >5 min post-EX; 3) ST decreasing at less than or equal to5 METS; 4) greater than or equal to10 mm Hg decreasing in Ex blood pressure. A high risk ECG stress test was observed in 58% of LMCAD pts compared to 32% of 3VD pts (p=0.009), 31% of 2VD pts (p=0.003) and 16% of 1VD pts (p<0.0001). Eighty-six % of LMCAD and 70% of 2 and 3VD pts had either a high risk Ex scint or stress test. Thus, EX Tl-201 scint appears useful in identifying high risk CAD pts.

  8. SPECT imaging of Moyamoya disease using /sup 99m/Tc-HM-PAO. Comparison with computed tomography findings

    SciTech Connect

    Mountz, J.M.; Foster, N.L.; Ackermann, R.J.; Bluemlein, L.; Petry, N.A.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1988-10-01

    /sup 99m/Tc-HM-PAO was used to evaluate regional cerebral blood flow in a 26-year-old woman with Moyamoya disease. This patient had an 18-month history of recurrent neurologic deficits and had angiographic evidence of Moyamoya disease. She had used oral contraceptives and cigarettes, but had no other risk factors for stroke. Single photon emission computed tomographic images showed bilateral and asymmetric reductions in blood flow to anterior and lateral brain regions. These findings correlated better with clinical symptomatology and suggested more extensive brain involvement than did computed tomography.

  9. Dose-finding Study of Peginesatide for Anemia Correction in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wiecek, Andrzej; Tucker, Beatriz; Yaqoob, Magdi; Mikhail, Ashraf; Nowicki, Michal; MacPhee, Iain; Mysliwiec, Michal; Smolenski, Olgierd; Sułowicz, Władysław; Mayo, Martha; Francisco, Carol; Polu, Krishna R.; Schatz, Peter J.; Duliege, Anne-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Peginesatide is a synthetic, PEGylated, investigational, peptide-based erythropoiesis-stimulating agent. We report the first assessment of its efficacy and safety in correcting renal anemia in a population of 139 nondialysis chronic kidney disease patients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Chronic kidney disease patients who were not on dialysis and not receiving treatment with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in the 12 weeks before study drug administration were sequentially assigned to one of 10 cohorts; cohorts differed in starting peginesatide dose (different body weight-based or absolute doses), route of administration (intravenous or subcutaneous), and frequency of administration (every 4 or 2 weeks). Results Across all cohorts, 96% of patients achieved a hemoglobin response. A dose-response relationship was evident for hemoglobin increase. Comparable subcutaneous and intravenous peginesatide doses produced similar hemoglobin responses. Rapid rates of hemoglobin rise and hemoglobin excursions >13 g/dl tended to occur more frequently with every-2-weeks dosing than they did with every-4-weeks dosing. The range of final median doses in the every-4-weeks dosing groups was 0.019 to 0.043 mg/kg. Across all cohorts, 20% of patients reported serious adverse events (one patient had a possibly drug-related serious event) and 81% reported adverse events (11.5% reported possibly drug-related events); these events were consistent with those routinely observed in this patient population. Conclusions This study suggests that peginesatide administered every 4 weeks can increase and maintain hemoglobin in nondialysis chronic kidney disease patients. Additional long-term data in larger groups of patients are required to further elucidate the efficacy and safety of this peptide-based erythropoiesis-stimulating agent. PMID:21940838

  10. Cardiac involvement in Erdheim- Chester disease: MRI findings and literature revision

    PubMed Central

    Puglia, Marta; Barbuto, Luigi; Solla, Raffaele; Altiero, Michele; Lubrano, Valentina; Imbriaco, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare form of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis, characterized by the involvement of several organs. The lesions may be skeletal or extra-skeletal: in particular, long bones, skin, lungs, and the cardiovascular and the central nervous systems can be affected. In this report, we describe a case of a 34-year-old man, who came to our observation with symptomatic ECD, for a correct assessment of the degree of cardiac involvement through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PMID:26405559

  11. Germplasm Modification and Its Potential for Finding New Sources of Resistance to Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Litz, Richard E.

    1986-01-01

    In vitro procedures are playing a major role in plant breeding. Embryo rescue, either through the culture of excised embryos derived from incompatible crosses or by means of ovule culture, has been a standard procedure for the introgression of genes conferring disease resistance into economically important plants. Somatic hybridization (i.e., protoplast fusion) has also been demonstrated to have some potential in obtaining hybrids that result from very wide interspecific and intergeneric crosses. Wide crosses have also been achieved by means of in vitro pollination of excised ovaries or ovules. Tissue culture-induced variability in regenerated plant (i.e., somaclonal variation) appears to be an effective way of obtaining undirected genetic change that can enhance disease resistance and yield and alter the growth habit of crops that are normally propagated vegetatively (e.g., potato) or by seed (e.g., tomato). In the near future, the isolation and sequencing of genes that confer resistance to specific plant pathogens will be possible, and transfer of this information between species will become a reality. PMID:19294132

  12. Muscle dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: update on causes and biological findings

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, Sergi; Casadevall, Carme; Orozco-Levi, Mauricio; Barreiro, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory and/or limb muscle dysfunction, which are frequently observed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, contribute to their disease prognosis irrespective of the lung function. Muscle dysfunction is caused by the interaction of local and systemic factors. The key deleterious etiologic factors are pulmonary hyperinflation for the respiratory muscles and deconditioning secondary to reduced physical activity for limb muscles. Nonetheless, cigarette smoke, systemic inflammation, nutritional abnormalities, exercise, exacerbations, anabolic insufficiency, drugs and comorbidities also seem to play a relevant role. All these factors modify the phenotype of the muscles, through the induction of several biological phenomena in patients with COPD. While respiratory muscles improve their aerobic phenotype (percentage of oxidative fibers, capillarization, mitochondrial density, enzyme activity in the aerobic pathways, etc.), limb muscles exhibit the opposite phenotype. In addition, both muscle groups show oxidative stress, signs of damage and epigenetic changes. However, fiber atrophy, increased number of inflammatory cells, altered regenerative capacity; signs of apoptosis and autophagy, and an imbalance between protein synthesis and breakdown are rather characteristic features of the limb muscles, mostly in patients with reduced body weight. Despite that significant progress has been achieved in the last decades, full elucidation of the specific roles of the target biological mechanisms involved in COPD muscle dysfunction is still required. Such an achievement will be crucial to adequately tackle with this relevant clinical problem of COPD patients in the near-future. PMID:26623119

  13. Muscle dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: update on causes and biological findings.

    PubMed

    Gea, Joaquim; Pascual, Sergi; Casadevall, Carme; Orozco-Levi, Mauricio; Barreiro, Esther

    2015-10-01

    Respiratory and/or limb muscle dysfunction, which are frequently observed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, contribute to their disease prognosis irrespective of the lung function. Muscle dysfunction is caused by the interaction of local and systemic factors. The key deleterious etiologic factors are pulmonary hyperinflation for the respiratory muscles and deconditioning secondary to reduced physical activity for limb muscles. Nonetheless, cigarette smoke, systemic inflammation, nutritional abnormalities, exercise, exacerbations, anabolic insufficiency, drugs and comorbidities also seem to play a relevant role. All these factors modify the phenotype of the muscles, through the induction of several biological phenomena in patients with COPD. While respiratory muscles improve their aerobic phenotype (percentage of oxidative fibers, capillarization, mitochondrial density, enzyme activity in the aerobic pathways, etc.), limb muscles exhibit the opposite phenotype. In addition, both muscle groups show oxidative stress, signs of damage and epigenetic changes. However, fiber atrophy, increased number of inflammatory cells, altered regenerative capacity; signs of apoptosis and autophagy, and an imbalance between protein synthesis and breakdown are rather characteristic features of the limb muscles, mostly in patients with reduced body weight. Despite that significant progress has been achieved in the last decades, full elucidation of the specific roles of the target biological mechanisms involved in COPD muscle dysfunction is still required. Such an achievement will be crucial to adequately tackle with this relevant clinical problem of COPD patients in the near-future.

  14. Translating the ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements Project findings to the clinic: ENCODE's implications for eye disease.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, Paul G; Hewitt, Alex W

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 10 years after the Human Genome Project unravelled the sequence of our DNA, the ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project sought to interpret it. Data from the recently completed project have shed new light on the proportion of biologically active human DNA, assigning a biochemical role to much of the sequence previously considered to be 'junk'. Many of these newly catalogued functional elements represent epigenetic mechanisms involved in regulation of gene expression. Analogous to an Ishihara plate, a gene-coding region of DNA (target dots) only comes into context when the non-coding DNA (surrounding dots) is appreciated. In this review we provide an overview of the ENCODE project, discussing the significance of these data for ophthalmic research and eye disease. The novel insights afforded by the ENCODE project will in time allow for the development of new therapeutic strategies in the management of common blinding disorders.

  15. The findings of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Medical Waste Tracking Act report.

    PubMed Central

    Lichtveld, M Y; Rodenbeck, S E; Lybarger, J A

    1992-01-01

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) report "The Public Health Implications of Medical Waste: A Report to Congress" has been finalized and submitted to Congress. The report is a comprehensive review of all available data and information on the subject. Based on the data developed in the report, ATSDR concludes that the general public is not likely to be adversely affected by medical waste generated in the traditional health setting. However, the increase of in-home health care and other sources of nonregulated medical waste (e.g., intravenous drug users) provides opportunities for the general public to contact medical waste. In addition, ATSDR concludes that public health concerns exist for selected occupations involved with medical waste. These populations include janitorial and laundry workers, nurses, emergency medical personnel, and refuse workers. The ATSDR report also defines what material should be managed as medical waste and identifies research needs related to medical waste. PMID:1486856

  16. Hypertensive vascular disease as a cause of death in blacks versus whites: autopsy findings in 587 adults.

    PubMed

    Onwuanyi, A; Hodges, D; Avancha, A; Weiss, L; Rabinowitz, D; Shea, S; Francis, C K

    1998-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of excess mortality among urban US blacks, but autopsy data comparing black-white differences in underlying pathological causes of cardiovascular death are lacking. We reviewed all 720 adult cases autopsied in 1991 in the New York City Medical Examiner's Office in which the coded cause of death was cardiovascular disease (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, codes 391, 393 to 398, 401 to 404, 410, 411, 414 to 417, 420 to 438, and 440 to 444). After exclusion of 133 cases because race was missing or coded as other than black or white, gender was not coded, or there was an unusual circumstances of death or extreme obesity, 587 cases were available for analysis. There were 314 black and 273 white subjects. Black women were younger than white women at time of death (mean age, 54.7 versus 61.5 years; P<.001), whereas black and white men did not differ in mean age at death. Hypertensive vascular disease was the autopsy cause of death in 42% of blacks compared with 23% of whites (P<.001). Conversely, atherosclerotic heart disease was the autopsy cause of death in 64% of white subjects but only 38% of blacks. These patterns were consistent in both sexes and after adjustment for age. Hypertensive vascular disease was far more common than atherosclerotic heart disease as the cause of death at autopsy among blacks compared with whites in New York City, whereas atherosclerotic heart disease was more common in whites. These findings suggest that ineffective control of hypertension is a major factor contributing to excess cardiovascular mortality among urban blacks.

  17. Findings in the pulmonary vascular bed in the remote phase after Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Masaya; Ishido, Hirotaka; Seki, Mitsuru; Masutani, Satoshi; Tamai, Akiko; Senzaki, Hideaki

    2012-04-15

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a form of systemic vasculitis that causes chronic changes in arterial walls, including pulmonary arteries. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that pulmonary arterial wall properties and hemodynamics are abnormal after the resolution of KD. Pulmonary arterial input impedance was measured during cardiac catheterization (4.8 ± 4.5 years after disease onset) in 47 consecutive patients (mean age 7.8 ± 5.7 years) with KD and coronary artery lesions (CALs) in the acute phase and 42 control patients (mean age 6.7 ± 4.6 years). Patients with KD were subdivided into 2 groups: 28 with persistent CALs and 19 with regressed CALs. There were no significant differences in characteristic impedance and peripheral vascular resistance between patients with KD and controls. Compared with controls, patients with persistent CALs had significantly lower pulmonary arterial compliance, suggesting increased wall stiffness of the peripheral pulmonary vascular bed (p <0.05, analysis of variance). Patients with persistent CALs also exhibited increased wave reflection compared with other groups (p <0.05, analysis of variance). In conclusion, unlike patients with regressed CALs, patients with persistent CALs have abnormal mechanical properties and hemodynamics of the pulmonary artery after KD. Together with previous reports of abnormal properties of coronary and systemic arteries, these data suggest that KD vasculitis causes chronic changes in arterial wall properties in the entire arterial system to varying degrees and extent. The fate of these abnormalities in the pulmonary bed and other arterial systems and their potential adverse effects must be monitored in long-term follow-up. PMID:22264592

  18. Physiopathology of Chagas' heart disease: correlations between clinical and experimental findings*

    PubMed Central

    Anselmi, Alfonso; Moleiro, Federico

    1971-01-01

    In penetrating the heart and developing in it, Trypanosoma cruzi produces an immunoallergic reaction that leads to changes in the histological structure of the myocardium; these changes alter the fundamental properties of the heart, causing fundamental dynamic disorders and morphological changes in the organ. In Chagas' cardiomyopathy, the velocity of impulse propagation diminishes in the auricular and ventricular musculature, altering the activation mechanism, this being shown by changes in the P-wave and in ventricular focal blocks. The functional refractory period (FRP) is shortened in the auricular and ventricular tissue and constitutes, together with changes in conductivity, the physiopathological basis that explains the circus movement—the fundamental factor of the arrhythmias of this stage of the disease. Localization of the inflammation in the A-V conduction system increases the duration of the FRP, producing all types of A-V block. The oedema and the cellular interstitial infiltration seen during this acute phase reduce the distensibility of the fibres; this, in turn, limits their contractility, producing a decrease in systolic volume and an increase in the final diastolic pressure in the chambers of the heart—fundamental factors in reducing kinesia and in increasing the heart's volume. In the chronic phase, destruction of the contractile tissue and fibroblastic proliferation bring into play compensatory mechanisms that maintain the strength of cardiac contractions; the elongation of the fibres and the nature of the dynamic pressure—volume curves explain the dilatation of the chambers of the heart and the dynamic changes seen in this phase of the disease. PMID:5003721

  19. Imaging features of rhinosporidiosis on contrast CT

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, Shailesh M; Irodi, Aparna; Khiangte, Hannah L; Rupa, V; Naina, P

    2013-01-01

    Context: Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic granulomatous disease endemic in certain regions of India. Computed tomography (CT) imaging appearances of rhinosporidiosis have not been previously described in the literature. Aims: To study imaging features in rhinosporidiosis with contrast-enhanced CT and elucidate its role in the evaluation of this disease. Materials and Methods: Sixteen patients with pathologically proven rhinosporidiosis were included in the study. Contrast-enhanced CT images were analyzed retrospectively and imaging findings were correlated with surgical and histopathologic findings. Results: A total of 29 lesions were found and evaluated. On contrast-enhanced CT, rhinosporidiosis was seen as moderately enhancing lobulated or irregular soft tissue mass lesions in the nasal cavity (n = 13), lesions arising in nasal cavity and extending through choana into nasopharynx (n = 5), pedunculated polypoidal lesions arising from the nasopharyngeal wall (n = 5), oropharyngeal wall (n = 2), larynx (n = 1), bronchus (n = 1), skin and subcutaneous tissue (n = 2). The inferior nasal cavity comprising nasal floor, inferior turbinate, and inferior meatus was the most common site of involvement (n = 13). Surrounding bone involvement was seen in the form of rarefaction (n = 6), partial (n = 3) or complete erosion (n = 3) of inferior turbinate, thinning of medial maxillary wall (n = 2), and septal erosion (n = 2). Nasolacrimal duct involvement was seen in four cases. Conclusions: Contrast-enhanced CT has an important role in delineating the site and extent of the disease, as well as the involvement of surrounding bone, nasolacrimal duct and tracheobronchial tree. This provides a useful roadmap prior to surgery. PMID:24347850

  20. Gastric and Duodenal Pseudomelanosis: An Extended Unusual Finding in a Patient with End Stage Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Noor Ul Ain; Younus, Muhammad Faraz; Alavi, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Gastric and duodenal pseudomelanosis is a rare endoscopic mucosal finding, characterized by the accumulation of iron in macrophages of the lamina propria of the stomach and duodenum. The clinical significance and long term sequelae have not been clarified yet. However, this benign condition is associated with a variety of clinical conditions, such as essential hypertension, chronic renal failure, diabetes mellitus, long term intake of iron supplements, and furosemide. Duodenal pseudomelanosis appears to be more common than gastric pseudomelanosis given the fact that a few cases of gastric pseudomelanosis have been reported in the literature so far. We report a case of 88-year-old lady with ESRD who is maintained on hemodialysis and presented with abdominal pain. An upper GI endoscopy showed discoloration of the antrum of the stomach and most portion of her duodenum. Histopathology report confirmed the presence of iron laden macrophages in the lamina propria of both stomach and duodenum. PMID:27042366

  1. Urinary tract disease in dogs: US findings. A mini-pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Robotti, G; Lanfranchi, D

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) is the most commonly used imaging method for studying urinary tract disorders in dogs, as it is easy to perform, inexpensive and provides excellent contrast resolution in real-time. However, US examination of dogs presents a series of technical difficulties, and the US operator must therefore have a longstanding experience and access to high-quality equipment including a range of different probes to achieve a correct diagnosis. The aim of this mini-pictorial essay is to describe US findings and patterns which permit identification of the most common pathologies of the urinary tract in dogs. The technical difficulties that may be encountered are also evaluated as well as integration with other imaging modalities (traditional X-ray, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging).

  2. Association of TGF-β1 +869C/T promoter polymorphism with susceptibility to autoimmune diseases: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Yan, Jun-wei; Wang, Ying-Xin; Wan, Ya-nan; Li, Jian-ping; Liu, Ping; Xu, Bin; Wang, Bing-xiang; Peng, Wen-jia; Pan, Fa-ming; Wang, Jing

    2013-08-01

    Many case-control studies have investigated the role of TGF-β1 gene +869C/T promoter polymorphism in autoimmune diseases, but the results are inconsistent. To clarify this point, we performed a meta-analysis based on all available studies in Pubmed, Elsevier Science Direct, Google Searching, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to estimate the strength of the association. A fixed or random effects model was used on the basis of heterogeneity. A total of 21 papers including 2,693 cases and 3,036 controls were considered in the current meta-analysis. These studies encompass two ankylosing spondylitis (AS), eight rheumatoid arthritis (RA), four systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and seven systemic sclerosis (SSc). The results showed that TGF-β1 +869C/T promoter polymorphism were associated with susceptibility to RA (CC vs. TT: OR=0.65, 95% CI=0.48-0.88, P=0.005; CC vs. CT+TT: OR=0.56, 95% CI=0.45-0.69, P=0.000; C vs. T: OR=0.81, 95% CI=0.71-0.93, P=0.003). When stratified by race, significant association was observed only in Asian population. However, we failed to reveal the association between this gene promoter polymorphism and AS, SLE, and SSc. Therefore, this meta-analysis suggests a possible association between TGF-β1 +869C/T promoter polymorphism and RA, especially in Asian population.

  3. Head CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Brain CT; Cranial CT; CT scan - skull; CT scan - head; CT scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... conditions: Birth (congenital) defect of the head or brain Brain infection Brain tumor Buildup of fluid inside ...

  4. PCSK9 inhibition to reduce cardiovascular disease risk: recent findings from the biology of PCSK9

    PubMed Central

    Tavori, Hagai; Giunzioni, Ilaria; Fazio, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Review novel insights into the biology of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9) that may explain the extreme efficiency of PCSK9 inhibition and the unexpected metabolic effects resulting from PCSK9 monoclonal antibody therapy, and may identify additional patients as target of therapy. Recent findings For over 20 years, the practical knowledge of cholesterol metabolism has centered around cellular mechanisms, and around the idea that statin therapy is the essential step to control metabolic abnormalities for cardiovascular risk management. This view has been embraced by the recent AHA/ACC guidelines, but is being challenged by recent studies including nonstatin medications and by the development of a new class of cholesterol-lowering agents that seems destined to early US Food and Drug Administration approval. The discovery of PCSK9 – a circulating protein that regulates hepatic low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and serum LDL cholesterol levels – has led to a race for its therapeutic inhibition. Recent findings on PCSK9 regulation and pleiotropic effects will help identify additional patient groups likely to benefit from the inhibitory therapy and unravel the full potential of PCSK9 inhibition therapy. Summary Injectable human monoclonal antibodies to block the interaction between PCSK9 and LDL receptor are demonstrating extraordinary efficacy (LDL reductions of up to 70%) and almost the absence of any side-effects. A more moderate effect is seen on other lipoprotein parameters, with the exception of lipoprotein(a) levels. We describe mechanisms that can explain the effect on lipoprotein(a), predict a potential effect on postprandial triglyderides, and suggest a new category of patients for anti-PCSK9 therapy. PMID:25692926

  5. Office-Based Case Finding for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Older Adults in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Lee, Linda; Patel, Tejal; Hillier, Loretta M; Milligan, James

    2016-01-01

    Background. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is underdiagnosed in primary care. Aim. To explore the utility of proactive identification of COPD in patients 75 years of age and older in a Canadian primary care setting. Methods. Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS) screening questions were administered to patients with a smoking history of 20 pack-years or more; those with a positive screen were referred for postbronchodilator spirometry. Results. A total of 107 patients (21%), of 499 screened, had a 20-pack-year smoking history; 105 patients completed the CTS screening. Forty-four (42%) patients were positive on one or more questions on the screening; significantly more patients with a previous diagnosis of COPD (64%) were positive on the CTS compared to those without a previous diagnosis of COPD (30%). Of those who were not previously diagnosed with COPD (N = 11), four (36%) were newly diagnosed with COPD. Conclusion. A systematic two-stage method of screening for COPD, using CTS screening questions followed by spirometric confirmation, is feasible in the context of a busy primary care setting. More research is needed to assess the value of restricting screening to patients with a smoking history of 20 pack-years and on the sensitivity and specificity of these measures. PMID:27445513

  6. [The diagnostic value of immunologic findings in the differentiation of chronic liver diseases].

    PubMed

    Manns, M; Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K H; Arnold, W

    1988-12-01

    Various types of virus induced and non-virus induced chronic active hepatitis (CAH) as well as chronic non-suppurative destructive cholangitis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis have to be distinguished. Classical autoimmune type "lupoid" CAH is characterized by antinuclear antibodies (ANA), liver membrane antibodies (LMA) and smooth muscle antibodies (SMA). A second subgroup of autoimmune type CAH is characterized by anti liver kidney-microsomal antibodies (LKM) which are directed against a specific cytochrome p-450 isoenzyme. A third subgroup of autoimmune type CAH is identified by auto-antibodies to a soluble cytoplasmic liver antigen (SLA). Autoimmune type CAH profits from immuno-suppressive therapy, i.e. corticosteroids alone or in combination with azathioprin. Chronic hepatitis B virus infection is nowadays treated with Interferon when HBV-DNA is detectable in serum, duration of liver disease is less than 5 years and superinfection with HDV and HIV can be excluded. PBC is diagnosed through the detection of antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) and its PBC specific subtypes anti p 62 (M2) and anti p 48. Aetiology and pathogenesis of PBC are still unknown. Liver transplantation is an established therapy for endstage PBC. This is also true for primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC).

  7. Wall Morphology, Blood Flow and Wall Shear Stress: MR Findings in Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Galizia, Mauricio S.; Barker, Alex; Liao, Yihua; Collins, Jeremy; Carr, James; McDermott, Mary; Markl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the influence of atherosclerotic plaques on femoral haemodynamics assessed by 2D phase contrast (PC) MRI with three-directional velocity encoding. Methods: During one year, patients with peripheral artery disease and an ankle brachial index <1.00 were enrolled. After IRB approval and written informed consent, 44 patients (age=70±12 years) underwent common femoral artery MRI. Patients with contraindications for MRI were excluded. Sequences included 2D time-of-flight, proton-density, T1-, and T2-weighted MRI. ECG-gated 2D PC-MRI with 3D velocity encoding was acquired. A radiologist classified images in five categories. Blood flow, velocity, and WSS along the vessel circumference were quantified from the PC-MRI data. Results: The acquired images were of good quality for interpretation. There were no image quality problems related to poor ECG-gating or slice positioning. Velocities, oscillatory shear stress, and total flow were similar between patients with normal arteries and wall thickening/plaque. Patients with plaques demonstrated regionally increased peak systolic WSS and enhanced WSS eccentricity. Conclusions: Combined multi-contrast morphological imaging of the peripheral arterial wall with PC-MRI with 3 directional velocity encoding is a feasible technique. Further study is needed to determine whether flow is an appropriate marker for altered endothelial cell function, vascular remodelling, and plaque progression. PMID:24326757

  8. Clinical findings in nondemented mutation carriers predisposed to Alzheimer's disease: a model of mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Almkvist, Ove; Axelman, Karin; Basun, Hans; Jensen, Malene; Viitanen, Matti; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Lannfelt, Lars

    2003-01-01

    Individuals carrying a mutation associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) may serve as a model of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Nondemented individuals from these families can be subdivided into asymptomatic and symptomatic groups. Four families were studied. Two families are associated with APP mutations (KN670/671ML, E693G) and two with PS1 mutation (M146V, H163Y). Clinical symptoms, level of global cognitive functioning as evaluated by Mini-Mental State Examination, neuropsychological test results, neuroradiological examinations (magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and single-photon emission tomography (SPECT)), as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) measurements of tau and beta-amyloid are reported. Nondemented mutation carriers did not report any symptoms indicating cognitive decline. In addition, no clinical signs of dementia or marked cognitive impairment in neuropsychological tests were found. A reduction of temporal blood flow with SPECT was indicated in 5/13 nondemented mutation carriers. Two of these 13 individuals had moderate hyperintensities in deep white matter as observed on MRI. CSF measurements of A beta 42/43 were inconclusive because of large biological variation. A nonsignificant elevation of tau was detected in mutation carriers. In conclusion, clinical examinations of relatively young individuals carrying an AD mutation did not reveal any marked abnormalities before the clinical onset of dementia. PMID:12603253

  9. Office-Based Case Finding for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Older Adults in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Background. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is underdiagnosed in primary care. Aim. To explore the utility of proactive identification of COPD in patients 75 years of age and older in a Canadian primary care setting. Methods. Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS) screening questions were administered to patients with a smoking history of 20 pack-years or more; those with a positive screen were referred for postbronchodilator spirometry. Results. A total of 107 patients (21%), of 499 screened, had a 20-pack-year smoking history; 105 patients completed the CTS screening. Forty-four (42%) patients were positive on one or more questions on the screening; significantly more patients with a previous diagnosis of COPD (64%) were positive on the CTS compared to those without a previous diagnosis of COPD (30%). Of those who were not previously diagnosed with COPD (N = 11), four (36%) were newly diagnosed with COPD. Conclusion. A systematic two-stage method of screening for COPD, using CTS screening questions followed by spirometric confirmation, is feasible in the context of a busy primary care setting. More research is needed to assess the value of restricting screening to patients with a smoking history of 20 pack-years and on the sensitivity and specificity of these measures. PMID:27445513

  10. Finding a Place for Systems-Based, Collaborative Research in Emerging Disease Research in Asia.

    PubMed

    Burns, Theresa E; Stephen, Craig

    2015-12-01

    The need to adequately predict, prevent and respond to infectious diseases emerging unexpectedly from human-animal-environmental systems has driven interest in multisectoral, socio-economic, systems-based, collaborative (MSC) research approaches such as EcoHealth and One Health. Our goals were to document how MSC research has been used to address EIDs in Asia, and to explore how MSC approaches align with current priorities for EID research in Asia. We gathered priorities for EID research from the peer-reviewed and grey literature, documented organizational descriptions of MCS research approaches, and analysed a series of EID MSC projects. We found that priority areas for EID research in Asia included (1) understanding host-pathogen-environment interactions; (2) improving tools and technologies; (3) changing people's behaviour; and (4) evaluating the effectiveness of interventions. We found that the unifying characteristics of MSC research were that it was action-oriented and sought to inspire change under real-world conditions at the complex interface of human and natural systems. We suggest that MSC research can be considered a type of 'pragmatic research' and might be most useful in describing change in complex human-animal-environmental systems, accelerating research-to-action, and evaluating effectiveness of interventions in 'real world' settings.

  11. Early growth and coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes: findings from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (HBCS).

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Johan G

    2011-12-01

    A slow rate of intrauterine growth is a major risk factor for several common noncommunicable diseases, which include the following: coronary heart disease (CHD), hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. Likewise, growth patterns in infancy and childhood have been identified as important factors linked to the pathogenesis of these disorders. In this overview, patterns of growth associated with CHD, type 2 diabetes, and related metabolic traits in adult life are presented on the basis of findings from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (HBCS) 1934-1944. Later risk of CHD was associated with small body size at birth and during infancy, followed by an increase in body size later in childhood. This pattern of growth has been associated with dyslipidemia in later life, which offers an explanation for the observed findings. Type 2 diabetes and CHD share several risk factors. The early growth of persons who later develop type 2 diabetes includes a small body size at birth as well as a small body size during infancy. An early age at adiposity rebound was associated with a markedly increased risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. The patterns of growth associated with type 2 diabetes are also associated with alterations in body composition, which predisposes to insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. The presented findings suggest that to be able to understand the pathogenesis of several noncommunicable diseases, the diseases need to be studied from a life-course perspective, and prenatal and childhood growth as well as adult characteristics need to be taken into account. PMID:21613556

  12. Blindness and eye diseases in Tibet: findings from a randomised, population based survey

    PubMed Central

    Dunzhu, S; Wang, F S; Courtright, P; Liu, L; Tenzing, C; Noertjojo, K; Wilkie, A; Santangelo, M; Bassett, K L

    2003-01-01

    Background: Public health officials of the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) of China requested a survey of blindness, eye diseases, and eye care service utilisation to assist the development of a 10 year blindness prevention and treatment plan. The objective of the survey was to determine the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment, as well as cataract surgical coverage and surgical outcome in the TAR. Methods: The Tibet Eye Care Assessment was a cross sectional prevalence study of three of the seven prefectures (provinces) of the TAR (Lhoka, Nakchu, and Lingzhr) selected to represent its three main environmental regions. The survey sample was selected using a random multistage cluster method. Two teams conducted the survey in a standardised fashion in each prefecture, Lhoka during May and Nakchu during June 1999, and Lingzhr during May 2000. Visual acuity, cause of vision loss, trachoma, and vitamin A deficiency were included in the clinical examination. Results: Among the 15 900 people enumerated, 12 644 were examined for an overall response rate of 79.6%. The crude prevalence of blindness (presenting better eye visual acuity of less than 6/60) was 2.3%; age and sex adjusted blindness prevalence was 1.4% (95% CI 1.3 to 1.5). Visual impairment (better eye presenting visual acuity of 6/24 to 6/60) was found in 10.9% (95% CI 10.5 to 11.2) of the population (age and sex adjusted). Cataract was the primary cause of blindness (50.7%), followed by macular degeneration (12.7%) and corneal opacity (9.7%). Conclusion: Blindness is a serious public health problem in Tibet, with prevalence higher than in similar studies in eastern China. As elsewhere in the world, women have an excess burden of blindness compared to men. About 75% of blindness in Tibet can be either prevented or treated. Eye care planning for Tibet must focus on cataract, particularly among women. PMID:14660448

  13. Alcohol Consumption and Parkinson’s Disease Risk: A Review of Recent Findings

    PubMed Central

    Bettiol, Silvana S.; Rose, Tanith C.; Hughes, Clarissa J.; Smith, Lesley A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The association between Parkinson’s disease and lifestyle exposures such as smoking, coffee and alcohol consumption have been the focus of research for several decades, with varying and often conflicting results. Objective: This paper reviews the key features of observational studies investigating the relationship between alcohol drinking and PD risk, to determine potential sources of variability between the results. Methods: Relevant literature from 2000–2014 was systematically retrieved using three databases. Primary research articles were included if they reported a measure of association between quantity and frequency of alcohol intake and PD risk, and adjusted at least for the potential confounding factors of smoking and age. Results: Sixteen articles were identified. The seven case-control studies were more likely to report a weak protective association by level of alcohol consumption compared to the studies with prospective designs. Two studies reported the relationship between heavy (harmful to health) drinking and PD. There was weak evidence that associations varied by type of alcoholic beverage. Smoking may modify the association between alcohol intake and PD risk, however, the evidence does not support the theory that a confounder (such as an addiction-avoiding personality trait) produced the inverse associations between smoking, coffee and alcohol intake and PD risk. Methodological weaknesses of the studies, including selection and recall bias, residual confounding and lack of statistical power may in part account for their differences. Conclusion: The weak association between alcohol drinking and PD risk was found in studies at greater risk of selection and recall bias. PMID:26406123

  14. A Novel Mycoplasma sp. Associated with Phallus Disease in Goose Breeders: Pathological and Bacteriological Findings.

    PubMed

    Carnaccini, S; Ferguson-Noel, N M; Chin, R P; Santoro, T; Black, P; Bland, M; Bickford, A A; Sentíes-Cué, C G

    2016-06-01

    In April 2014, poor fertility in a major commercial goose breeder operation in California triggered the submission of six live affected Toulouse ganders ( Anser anser ) to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory, Turlock branch (University of California-Davis). Toulouse were principally affected among all breeds, and their egg fertility dropped from 65.7% to less than 33.9% in the first 40 days of the 2014 breeding season. The flock consisted of 410 adult birds, 90 males and 320 females, between 2 and 5 yr of age. Inspection of the flock revealed that 44.4% of the Toulouse ganders had severe phallic deformities that prevented them from mating. At postmortem examination, severe yellowish fibrocaseous exudate disrupted the architecture of the phallus and occasionally produced fistulating tracts through the wall of the organ. Microscopically, multifocal lymphoid nodules were noted in the mucosa and submucosa of the phallus and were associated with extensive granulomatous reaction, intralesional bacteria, and spermatozoa. Mycoplasma spp. were isolated from the phallus of affected and nonaffected birds, and PCR protocols targeting the 16S-23S ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer regions and the RNA polymerase beta subunit gene were performed to identify the isolates. Three distinct species were identified on sequencing and analysis using the National Center for Biotechnology Information basic local alignment search tool: Mycoplasma cloacale , Mycoplasma anseris , and an unknown novel Mycoplasma sp. Additionally, Pasteurella multocida , in combination with other bacteria, was also isolated from the phallic lesions and identified as serotype 3 with a DNA profile of 1511 (National Veterinary Service Laboratory). This is the first report of these Mycoplasma spp. and other bacteria associated with reproductive disease in ganders in the United States. PMID:27309284

  15. Comparison of Cone-Beam CT Incidental Findings between Moderate/Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea patients and Mild/Normal patients

    PubMed Central

    Enciso, Reyes; Shigeta, Yuko; Nguyen, Manuel; Clark, Glenn T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the incidental radiographic findings in the maxillofacial structures and the pharyngeal airway between moderate/severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) subjects and mild OSA/normal subjects using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) scans. Study Design 53 moderate/severe OSA subjects (with a Respiratory Disturbance Index [RDI]≥15 events/hr) and 33 mild OSA/normal subjects, (RDI<15) based on ambulatory somnographic assessment were recruited. Supine CBCT’s were taken and sent for radiological report. The incidental findings were compared between the two groups. Results Moderate/severe subjects had larger prevalence of conchae bullosa, hypertrophic turbinates, hypertrophic tonsils, elongated or posteriorly placed soft palate, narrower airway, enlarged tongue, and focal calcifications, though no significant differences were found. Conclusions CBCT is useful in identifying maxillofacial and airway anomalies that could interfere with normal breathing. However, no significant difference was found in prevalence of incidental findings between moderate/severe OSA and mild/normal subjects. Further studies are necessary to generalize our results. PMID:22862979

  16. CT Scan of Thirteen Natural Mummies Dating Back to the XVI-XVIII Centuries: An Emerging Tool to Investigate Living Conditions and Diseases in History

    PubMed Central

    Petrella, Enrico; Piciucchi, Sara; Feletti, Francesco; Barone, Domenico; Piraccini, Antonella; Minghetti, Caterina; Gruppioni, Giorgio; Poletti, Venerino; Bertocco, Mauro; Traversari, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To correlate the radiologic findings detected with computed tomography scan with anthropological data in 13 naturally mummified bodies discovered during works of recovery of an ancient church in a crypt in Roccapelago, in the Italian Apennines. Methods From a group of about sixty not-intentionally mummified bodies, thirteen were selected to be investigated with volumetric computed tomography (CT). Once CT scan was performed, axial images were processed to gather MPR and Volume Rendering reconstructions. Elaborations of these images provided anthropometric measurements and a non-invasive analysis of the residual anatomical structures. For each body the grade of preservation and the eventual pathological changes were recorded. Furthermore, in order to identify nutritional and occupational markers, radiologic signs of bone tropism and degenerative changes were analysed and graded. Results Mummies included seven females and six males, with an estimated age ranging from 20 to 60 years. The first relevant finding identified was a general low grade of preservation, due to the lack of anatomic tissues different from bones, tendons and dehydrated skin. The low grade of preservation was related to the natural process of mummification. Analysing bone degenerative changes on CT scan, the majority of the bodies had significant occupational markers consisting of arthritis in the spine, lower limbs and shoulders even in young age. Few were the pathological findings identified. Among these, the most relevant included a severe bilateral congenital hip dysplasia and a wide osteolytic lesion involving left orbit and petrous bone that was likely the cause of death. Conclusions Although the low grade of preservation of these mummies, the multidisciplinary approach of anthropologists and radiologists allowed several important advances in knowledge for the epidemiology of Roccapelago. First of all, a profile of living conditions was delineated. It included occupational and

  17. Rare and challenging extra-axial brain lesions: CT and MRI findings with clinico-radiological differential diagnosis and pathological correlation

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Mustafa Kemal; Yapıcıer, Özlem; Onat, Elif; Toktaş, Zafer Orkun; Akakın, Akın; Urgun, Kamran; Kılıç, Türker

    2014-01-01

    There are many kinds of extra-axial brain tumors and tumor-like lesions, and definitive diagnosis is complicated in some cases. In this pictorial essay, we present rare and challenging extra-axial brain lesions including neuroenteric cyst, primary leptomeningeal melanomatosis, isolated dural neurosarcoidosis, intradiploic epidermoid cyst, ruptured dermoid cyst, intraventricular cavernoma, and cavernous hemangioma of the skull with imaging findings and clinico-radiological differential diagnosis, including the pathologic correlation. Familiarity with these entities may improve diagnostic accuracy and patient management. PMID:25010368

  18. [A computer system for the systematization of MR findings in knee joint diseases].

    PubMed

    Sparacia, G; Lo Casto, A; Mercurio, G; Brancato, M; Bartolotta, T; Lagalla, R

    1996-01-01

    An inexpensive, easy-access computer-based system is proposed, which was developed for the systematization of the clinical series of knee joint disorders studied with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). The system is based upon the integration of multimedia technology and Data Base Management Systems (DBMS). The hardware configuration for this project included an Apple Macintosh workstation based on a Motorola 68040 microprocessor and a customized application developed by the authors with the 4th Dimension software. The MR images available only on film were digitized off-line with a solid-state Charge Coupled Device (CCD) scanner with back-light cover for transparency. Otherwise, MR images were acquired on-line through an Ethernet-based local area network from the MR unit or from a SparcStation-Advantage Windows workstation connected with the MR unit. Image post-processing was performed with the Adobe PhotoShop software. The system was devoted to the systematization and analysis of a clinical series of 800 MR studies of the knee. A mean of 10 significant MR images were stored for each examination with a standard image compression algorithm--the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG). This permitted us to save the system's storage space and at the same time to preserve image quality for consultation and teaching purposes, not for diagnosis which is made on the backboard or on the MR unit's or Advantage Window's monitor. Finally, MR findings were indexed with a customized check-list specific for knee joint disorders. On the basis of stored and selected information, it was thus possible to carry out a statistical analysis and to make detailed reports which are useful for scientific purposes, such as the preparation of lectures and papers. Moreover, the system was very useful for patients' follow-up and for the preparation of hypermedia teaching applications on knee joint disorders which are available on the Internet at our World-Wide Web server (URL: http

  19. Progress in biosimilar monoclonal antibody development: the infliximab biosimilar CT-P13 in the treatment of rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Braun, Jürgen; Kudrin, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Biosimilars are biologic medical products whose active drug substance is made by a living organism or derived from it. The term is used to describe a subsequent version of an innovator biopharmaceutical product aiming at approval following patent expiry on the reference product. Biosimilars of monoclonal need to demonstrate similar but not identical quality of nonclinical and clinical attributes. Not all data of the originator product need to be recapitulated, as large numbers of patient-years of exposure data are already available. Thus, biosimilar development is largely based on the safety profiles of the originator product. The evaluation of biosimilarity includes immunogenicity attributed risks. CT-P13 (Remsima™/Inflectra™, Celltrion/Hospira), a biosimilar of the innovator drug infliximab (INF), was the first approved complex biosimilar monoclonal antibody in the EU, within the framework of WHO, EMA and US FDA biosimilar guidelines. CT-P13 has shown analytical and nonclinical features highly similar to INF including pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety and immunogenicity profiles in ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis. The objective of this article is to highlight the recent biosimilar development and to review the results from the studies PLANETRA and PLANETAS, which have supported the approval of CT-P13 for several indications. PMID:25713985

  20. CT of the normal and abnormal parametria in cervical cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Vick, C.W.; Walsh, J.W.; Wheelock, J.B.; Brewer, W.H.

    1984-09-01

    To evaluate CT criteria for differentiating a cervical cancer confined to the cervix from a lesion that invades the parametria, 16 patients with newly diagnosed, untreated cervical cancer were studied with CT. Twenty-five parameria were confined by radical hysterectomy, transvaginal parametrial fine-needle aspiration cytology, or excretory urography. In 17 tumor-positive parametria, CT findings associated with parametrial tumor invasion were: 1) irregularity or poor definition of the lateral cervical margins; 2) prominent parametrial soft-tissue strands; 3) obliteration of the periureteral fat plane; and 4) an eccentric parametrial soft-tissue mass. Irregularity of the cervical margins and prominent parametrial strands were seen most commonly with parametrial tumor invasion, but were also occasionally seen with parametrial inflammation. On the basis of the criteria developed in this report, CT may be used as an adjunct to the physical examination in differentiating stage I cervical cancer from more advanced disease in selected patients.

  1. Leading the way: finding genes for neurologic disease in dogs using genome-wide mRNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ostrander, Elaine A; Beale, Holly C

    2012-07-10

    Because of dogs' unique population structure, human-like disease biology, and advantageous genomic features, the canine system has risen dramatically in popularity as a tool for discovering disease alleles that have been difficult to find by studying human families or populations. To date, disease studies in dogs have primarily employed either linkage analysis, leveraging the typically large family size, or genome-wide association, which requires only modest-sized case and control groups in dogs. Both have been successful but, like most techniques, each requires a specific combination of time and money, and there are inherent problems associated with each. Here we review the first report of mRNA-Seq in the dog, a study that provides insights into the potential value of applying high-throughput sequencing to the study of genetic diseases in dogs. Forman and colleagues apply high-throughput sequencing to a single case of canine neonatal cerebellar cortical degeneration. This implementation of whole genome mRNA sequencing, the first reported in dog, is additionally unusual due to the analysis: the data was used not to examine transcript levels or annotate genes, but as a form of target capture that revealed the sequence of transcripts of genes associated with ataxia in humans. This approach entails risks. It would fail if, for example, the relevant transcripts were not sufficiently expressed for genotyping or were not associated with ataxia in humans. But here it pays off handsomely, identifying a single frameshift mutation that segregates with the disease. This work sets the stage for similar studies that take advantage of recent advances in genomics while exploiting the historical background of dog breeds to identify disease-causing mutations.

  2. Comparison between coronary plaque 64-slice spiral CT characteristics and risk factors of coronary artery disease patients in Chinese Han population and Mongolian

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Zhigang; Yang, Xiaoguang; Han, Xiaodong; Dong, Peide; Liu, Aishi

    2013-01-01

    Objective : To compare the coronary atherosclerotic plaque 64-slice spiral CT characteristics and the risk factors of Han (in Inner Mongolia) and Mongolian coronary artery disease patients. Metho d s: The plaques of 126 Mongolian and 269 Han patients were analyzed by 64-slice spiral CT coronary angiography. Their gender, age, height, body mass, the history of hypertension, diabetes, smoking and family diseases, the levels of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were compared. Results: The incidence of plaques (P <0.05), the proportion of plaques in the circumflex branch (P <0.05), the proportion of medium-severe lumen stenosis induced by plaques (P <0.05), and the proportion of obstructive plaque involved multi-branch (P <0.05) of the Mongolian patients were higher. The plaque compositions of the two groups did not differ significantly (P> 0.05). The body mass index of the Mongolian patients was higher (P <0.05). The hypertension, diabetes, smoking history, TG, TC, HDL-C and LDL-C of the two groups did not differ significantly (P> 0.05). Conclusion: The higher incidence of coronary atherosclerotic plaques and the more severe lesions of the Mongolian patients may be related to their higher body mass index. PMID:24353662

  3. Revisiting the Heidenhain Variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: Evidence for Prion Type Variability Influencing Clinical Course and Laboratory Findings.

    PubMed

    Baiardi, Simone; Capellari, Sabina; Ladogana, Anna; Strumia, Silvia; Santangelo, Mario; Pocchiari, Maurizio; Parchi, Piero

    2015-01-01

    The Heidenhain variant defines a peculiar clinical presentation of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) characterized by isolated visual disturbances at disease onset and reflecting the early targeting of prions to the occipital cortex. Molecular and histopathological typing, thus far performed in 23 cases, has linked the Heidenhain variant to the MM1 sCJD type. To contribute a comprehensive characterization of cases with the Heidenhain variant, we reviewed a series of 370 definite sCJD cases. Eighteen patients (4.9%) fulfilled the selection criteria. Fourteen of them belonging to sCJD types MM1 or MM1+2C had a short duration of isolated visual symptoms and overall clinical disease, a high prevalence of periodic sharp-wave complexes in EEG, and a marked increase of cerebrospinal fluid proteins t-tau and 14-3-3 levels. In contrast, three cases of the MM 2C or MM 2+1C types showed a longer duration of isolated visual symptoms and overall clinical disease, non-specific EEG findings, and cerebrospinal fluid concentration below threshold for the diagnosis of "probable" CJD of both 14-3-3 and t-tau. However, a brain DWI-MRI disclosed an occipital cortical hyperintensity in the majority of examined cases of both groups. While confirming the strong linkage with the methionine genotype at the polymorphic codon 129 of the prion protein gene, our results definitely establish that the Heidenhain variant can also be associated with the MM 2C sCJD type in addition to the more common MM1 type. Likewise, our results highlight the significant differences in clinical evolution and laboratory findings between cases according to the dominant PrPSc type (type 1 versus type 2). PMID:26682685

  4. Revisiting the Heidenhain Variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: Evidence for Prion Type Variability Influencing Clinical Course and Laboratory Findings

    PubMed Central

    Baiardi, Simone; Capellari, Sabina; Ladogana, Anna; Strumia, Silvia; Santangelo, Mario; Pocchiari, Maurizio; Parchi, Piero

    2015-01-01

    The Heidenhain variant defines a peculiar clinical presentation of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) characterized by isolated visual disturbances at disease onset and reflecting the early targeting of prions to the occipital cortex. Molecular and histopathological typing, thus far performed in 23 cases, has linked the Heidenhain variant to the MM1 sCJD type. To contribute a comprehensive characterization of cases with the Heidenhain variant, we reviewed a series of 370 definite sCJD cases. Eighteen patients (4.9%) fulfilled the selection criteria. Fourteen of them belonging to sCJD types MM1 or MM1+2C had a short duration of isolated visual symptoms and overall clinical disease, a high prevalence of periodic sharp-wave complexes in EEG, and a marked increase of cerebrospinal fluid proteins t-tau and 14-3-3 levels. In contrast, three cases of the MM 2C or MM 2+1C types showed a longer duration of isolated visual symptoms and overall clinical disease, non-specific EEG findings, and cerebrospinal fluid concentration below threshold for the diagnosis of “probable” CJD of both 14-3-3 and t-tau. However, a brain DWI-MRI disclosed an occipital cortical hyperintensity in the majority of examined cases of both groups. While confirming the strong linkage with the methionine genotype at the polymorphic codon 129 of the prion protein gene, our results definitely establish that the Heidenhain variant can also be associated with the MM 2C sCJD type in addition to the more common MM1 type. Likewise, our results highlight the significant differences in clinical evolution and laboratory findings between cases according to the dominant PrPSc type (type 1 versus type 2). PMID:26682685

  5. Effect of pre-cardiac and adult stages of Dirofilaria immitis in pulmonary disease of cats: CBC, bronchial lavage cytology, serology, radiographs, CT images, bronchial reactivity, and histopathology.

    PubMed

    Ray Dillon, A; Tillson, D M; Wooldridge, A; Cattley, R; Hathcock, J; Brawner, W R; Cole, R; Welles, B; Christopherson, P W; Lee-Fowler, T; Bordelon, S; Barney, S; Sermersheim, M; Garbarino, R; Wells, S Z; Diffie, E B; Schachner, E R

    2014-11-15

    of all pulmonary arteries and a random pattern of parenchymal disease with severe lesions immediately adjacent to normal areas. Analysis of CT 3D reconstruction and Hounsfield units demonstrated lung disease consistent with restrictive pulmonary fibrosis with an interstitial infiltrate, absence of air trapping, and decrease in total lung volume in Group IU as compared to Groups UU and PreS I. The clinical implications of this study are that cats pretreated with selamectin 1 month before D. immitis L3 infection did not become serologically positive and did not develop pulmonary arterial hypertrophy and myofibrosis.

  6. PET/CT AND RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY OF PROSTATE CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Capala, Jacek; Oehr, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review Traditional morphologically based imaging modalities are now being complemented by positron emission tomography (PET)/computerized tomography (CT) in prostate cancer. Metastatic prostate cancer is an attractive target for radioimmunotherapy (RIT) since no effective therapies are available. This review highlights the most important achievements within the last year in PET/CT and RIT of prostate cancer. Recent findings Conflicting results exist on the use of choline for detection of malignant disease in the prostate gland. The role of PET/CT in N-staging remains to be elucidated further. However, 18F-choline and 11C-choline PET/CT have been demonstrated to be useful for detection of recurrence. 18F-choline and 18F-fluoride PET/CT are useful for detection of bone metastases. Prostate tumor antigens may be used as targets for RIT. Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is currently under focus of a number of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. J591, a monoclonal antibody, that targets the extracellular domain of PSMA, shows promising results. HER2 receptors may also have a potential as target for PET/CT imaging and RIT of advanced prostate cancer. Summary PET/CT in prostate cancer has proven to play a significant role, in particular for detection of prostate cancer recurrence and bone metastases. Radioimmunotherapy of metastatic prostate cancer warrant further investigations. PMID:19535981

  7. Coronary CT angiography findings based on smoking status: Do ex-smokers and never-smokers share a low probability of developing coronary atherosclerosis?

    PubMed

    Yi, Minkyung; Chun, Eun Ju; Lee, Min Su; Lee, Jaebong; Choi, Sang Il

    2015-12-01

    The relationship of coronary artery disease (CAD) in ex-smokers has not been elucidated, although smoking is considered to be one of the major risk factors of CAD. We investigate subclinical coronary atherosclerosis (SCA) in asymptomatic subjects with coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), according to smoking status, and determine whether ex-smokers share a low probability of developing CAD with never-smokers. We retrospectively enrolled 6930 self-referred asymptomatic adults who underwent both coronary artery calcium score (CACS) and CCTA. The prevalence and characteristics of SCA were assessed according to smoking status (never-, ex- and current smokers). After adjusting for variable risk factors, we used multivariate logistic regression for adjusted odds ratios (AOR) of high CACS (>100), SCA (any plaque), significant stenosis (>50 % in luminal stenosis) and each plaque type (non-calcified, mixed and calcified plaque) among the three groups. The prevalence of SCA was highest in the ex-smokers (35.4 %) and the prevalence of significant stenosis in ex-smokers (6.9 %) was as high as in current smokers (6.4 %). However, after adjusting for variable risk factors, SCA was significantly correlated with both ex-smokers (AOR; 1.21) and current smokers (AOR; 1.25), whereas significant stenosis was correlated only with current smokers (AOR; 1.91). The association between SCA and ex-smokers is as strong as with current smokers, although significant stenosis is only correlated with current smokers; thus, not only quitting smoking but also never initiating smoking would be helpful to reduce the progression of the SCA.

  8. Diagnostic Accuracy of CT Enterography for Active Inflammatory Terminal Ileal Crohn Disease: Comparison of Full-Dose and Half-Dose Images Reconstructed with FBP and Half-Dose Images with SAFIRE.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Namita S; Baker, Mark E; Goenka, Ajit H; Bullen, Jennifer A; Obuchowski, Nancy A; Remer, Erick M; Coppa, Christopher P; Einstein, David; Feldman, Myra K; Kanmaniraja, Devaraju; Purysko, Andrei S; Vahdat, Noushin; Primak, Andrew N; Karim, Wadih; Herts, Brian R

    2016-08-01

    Purpose To compare the diagnostic accuracy and image quality of computed tomographic (CT) enterographic images obtained at half dose and reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) and sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) with those of full-dose CT enterographic images reconstructed with FBP for active inflammatory terminal or neoterminal ileal Crohn disease. Materials and Methods This retrospective study was compliant with HIPAA and approved by the institutional review board. The requirement to obtain informed consent was waived. Ninety subjects (45 with active terminal ileal Crohn disease and 45 without Crohn disease) underwent CT enterography with a dual-source CT unit. The reference standard for confirmation of active Crohn disease was active terminal ileal Crohn disease based on ileocolonoscopy or established Crohn disease and imaging features of active terminal ileal Crohn disease. Data from both tubes were reconstructed with FBP (100% exposure); data from the primary tube (50% exposure) were reconstructed with FBP and SAFIRE strengths 3 and 4, yielding four datasets per CT enterographic examination. The mean volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) at full dose were 13.1 mGy (median, 7.36 mGy) and 15.9 mGy (median, 13.06 mGy), respectively, and those at half dose were 6.55 mGy (median, 3.68 mGy) and 7.95 mGy (median, 6.5 mGy). Images were subjectively evaluated by eight radiologists for quality and diagnostic confidence for Crohn disease. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) were estimated, and the multireader, multicase analysis of variance method was used to compare reconstruction methods on the basis of a noninferiority margin of 0.05. Results The mean AUCs with half-dose scans (FBP, 0.908; SAFIRE 3, 0.935; SAFIRE 4, 0.924) were noninferior to the mean AUC with full-dose FBP scans (0.908; P < .003). The proportion of images with inferior quality was significantly higher with all

  9. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis: pulmonary and abdominal findings with pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Pallisa, Esther; Sanz, Pilar; Roman, Antonio; Majó, Joaquim; Andreu, Jordi; Cáceres, José

    2002-10-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease characterized by pulmonary cysts at computed tomography (CT) and proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle cells at lung biopsy. Almost all patients are female, and all have pulmonary cysts at high-resolution CT. Although the presence of cysts may be suggested at conventional CT or chest radiography, high-resolution CT is superior for cyst detection and is essential for diagnosis. The cysts are typically round; in most cases, the cyst wall is barely seen at thin-section CT. They are typically diffusely distributed throughout the central and peripheral lung parenchyma. The lung bases are affected in all patients. Some patients also have increased lung attenuation or a reticular pattern. Expiratory CT shows no air trapping between the cysts, and most of the cysts decrease in size. Pneumothorax, pleural effusion, and chylothorax are complications of LAM. Certain abdominal findings may provide additional corroborative evidence of the diagnosis. Renal angiomyolipomas, the most frequent abdominal lesions, usually manifest as asymptomatic, small, bilateral tumors of fat attenuation in the renal cortex. Lymphangiomas are cystic retroperitoneal masses that occur in up to 20% of patients. Other CT findings are hypo- or hyperattenuating lymph nodes, a dilated thoracic duct, and ascites.

  10. CT Angiography after 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Geoffrey D.; Leipsic, Jonathon; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Fleischmann, Dominik; Napel, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Through a marriage of spiral computed tomography (CT) and graphical volumetric image processing, CT angiography was born 20 years ago. Fueled by a series of technical innovations in CT and image processing, over the next 5–15 years, CT angiography toppled conventional angiography, the undisputed diagnostic reference standard for vascular disease for the prior 70 years, as the preferred modality for the diagnosis and characterization of most cardiovascular abnormalities. This review recounts the evolution of CT angiography from its development and early challenges to a maturing modality that has provided unique insights into cardiovascular disease characterization and management. Selected clinical challenges, which include acute aortic syndromes, peripheral vascular disease, aortic stent-graft and transcatheter aortic valve assessment, and coronary artery disease, are presented as contrasting examples of how CT angiography is changing our approach to cardiovascular disease diagnosis and management. Finally, the recently introduced capabilities for multispectral imaging, tissue perfusion imaging, and radiation dose reduction through iterative reconstruction are explored with consideration toward the continued refinement and advancement of CT angiography. PMID:24848958

  11. CT evaluation of intracholecystic bile

    SciTech Connect

    Rebner, M.; Ruggieri, P.M.; Gross, B.H.; Glazer, G.M.

    1985-08-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has been used to detect a variety of gallbladder abnormalities, but the accuracy of routine abdominal CT in evaluating intracholecystic bile has not been established. Forty-six patients were identified in whom abdominal CT and sonography were performed within 1 week of each other. Using sonographic results as the standard, sensitivity specificity, and accuracy of CT gallbladder evaluation were calculated; both initial CT interpretations and retrospective review of scans were used for this analysis. In the retrospective review, visual interpretation of gallbladder images and measurement of intracholecystic bile attenuation were analyzed. The most common cause of high-attenuation bile in the series was sludge, a cause not previously reported. It was concluded that intracholecystic bile is poorly evaluated on routine abdominal CT, particularly because of low sensitivity in disease detection.

  12. The early detection of Salla disease through second-tier tests in newborn screening: how to face incidental findings.

    PubMed

    Couce, María L; Macías-Vidal, Judit; Castiñeiras, Daisy E; Bóveda, María D; Fraga, José M; Fernández-Marmiesse, Ana; Coll, María J

    2014-09-01

    We describe here a 34 months child, practically asymptomatic which presented with high levels of free sialic acid in urine by biochemical detection in second-tier tests newborn screening and with two disease causing mutations in SLC17A5 gene. SLC17A5 mutation analysis showed p.Tyr306* previously described and the novel mutation p.Leu167Pro. This early onset diagnosis allowed us to perform a fast and accurate genetic counseling to the family, helped to better understanding the natural history of this rare disease and probably it could promote cost reduction in future diagnostic tests in the hypothetic case of starting symptoms without diagnosis established. Moreover, an early diagnosis could save family from a long period of time until achieving a definitive diagnostic and to develop an early symptomatic and supportive management of patient to attenuate, as much as possible, disease complications. But, above all, this case illustrates the huge ethical dilemma which arises from any secondary finding (second tier) in newborn screening.

  13. A probable case of Hand-Schueller-Christian's disease in an Egyptian mummy revealed by CT and MR investigation of a dry mummy.

    PubMed

    Cavka, Mislav; Petaros, Anja; Ivanac, Gordana; Aganović, Lejla; Janković, Ivor; Reiter, Gert; Speier, Peter; Nielles-Vallespin, Sonja; Brkljacić, Boris

    2012-03-01

    The challenging mission of paleopathologists is to be capable to diagnose a disease just on the basis of limited information gained by means of one or more paleodiagnostic techniques. In this study a radiologic, anthropologic and paleopathologic analysis of an ancient Egyptian mummy through X-rays, CT and MR was conducted. An Ancient Egyptian mummy ("Mistress of the house", Archeological Museum, Zagreb, Croatia) underwent digital radiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging employing 3-dimensional ultra-short-echo time (UTE) sequence, that allows to image ancient dry tissue. Morphological observations on the skull and pelvis, the stages of epiphyseal union and dental wear indicated that the remains are those of a young adult male. Multiple osseous lytic lesions were observed throughout the spine as well as on the frontal, parietal, and occipital bone, orbital wall and the sella turcica of the sphenoid. Considering the sex and age of the individual and the features of the lesions, the authors propose the diagnosis of Hand-Schueller-Christian's disease. This is the first study to have effectively used MR images in the differential diagnosis of a disease. It also confirmed the CT value in revealing central nervous system involvement just by detecting skeletal lesions. Although the mummy was previously dated to 3rd century B.C. based on the properties of the sarcophagi, the sex of the mummy suggests that it was most probably transferred into these sarcophagi in later times. The mummification techniques used and radiometric data (C14) dated it to 900-790. B.C.

  14. Semiautomatic three-dimensional CT ventricular volumetry in patients with congenital heart disease: agreement between two methods with different user interaction.

    PubMed

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang-Hyub

    2015-12-01

    To assess agreement between two semi-automatic, three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) ventricular volumetry methods with different user interactions in patients with congenital heart disease. In 30 patients with congenital heart disease (median age 8 years, range 5 days-33 years; 20 men), dual-source, multi-section, electrocardiography-synchronized cardiac CT was obtained at the end-systolic (n = 22) and/or end-diastolic (n = 28) phase. Nineteen left ventricle end-systolic (LV ESV), 28 left ventricle end-diastolic (LV EDV), 22 right ventricle end-systolic (RV ESV), and 28 right ventricle end-diastolic volumes (RV EDV) were successfully calculated using two semi-automatic, 3D segmentation methods with different user interactions (high in method 1, low in method 2). The calculated ventricular volumes of the two methods were compared and correlated. A P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. LV ESV (35.95 ± 23.49 ml), LV EDV (88.76 ± 61.83 ml), and RV ESV (46.87 ± 47.39 ml) measured by method 2 were slightly but significantly smaller than those measured by method 1 (41.25 ± 26.94 ml, 92.20 ± 62.69 ml, 53.61 ± 50.08 ml for LV ESV, LV EDV, and RV ESV, respectively; P ≤ 0.02). In contrast, no statistically significant difference in RV EDV (122.57 ± 88.57 ml in method 1, 123.83 ± 89.89 ml in method 2; P = 0.36) was found between the two methods. All ventricular volumes showed very high correlation (R = 0.978, 0.993, 0.985, 0.997 for LV ESV, LV EDV, RV ESV, and RV EDV, respectively; P < 0.001) between the two methods. In patients with congenital heart disease, 3D CT ventricular volumetry shows good agreement and high correlation between the two methods, but method 2 tends to slightly underestimate LV ESV, LV EDV, and RV ESV.

  15. Skipping Breakfast and Risk of Mortality from Cancer, Circulatory Diseases and All Causes: Findings from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Yae; Onishi, Kazunari; Hosoda, Takenobu; Amano, Hiroki; Otani, Shinji; Kurozawa, Youichi; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    Background Breakfast eating habits are a dietary pattern marker and appear to be a useful predictor of a healthy lifestyle. Many studies have reported the unhealthy effects of skipping breakfast. However, there are few studies on the association between skipping breakfast and mortality. In the present study, we examined the association between skipping breakfast and mortality from cancer, circulatory diseases and all causes using data from a large-scale cohort study, the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study (JACC) Study. Methods A cohort study of 34,128 men and 49,282 women aged 40–79 years was conducted, to explore the association between lifestyle and cancer in Japan. Participants completed a baseline survey during 1988 to 1990 and were followed until the end of 2009. We classified participants into two groups according to dietary habits with respect to eating or skipping breakfast and carried out intergroup comparisons of lifestyle. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazard regression model. Results There were 5,768 deaths from cancer and 5,133 cases of death owing to circulatory diseases and 17,112 cases for all causes of mortality during the median 19.4 years follow-up. Skipping breakfast was related to unhealthy lifestyle habits. After adjusting for confounding factors, skipping breakfast significantly increased the risk of mortality from circulatory diseases [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.42] and all causes (HR = 1.43) in men and all causes mortality (HR = 1.34) in women. Conclusion Our findings showed that skipping breakfast is associated with increasing risk of mortality from circulatory diseases and all causes among men and all causes mortality among women in Japan. PMID:27046951

  16. Leiomyosarcoma: computed tomographic findings

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, A.J.; Zornoza, J.; Shirkhoda, A.

    1984-07-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) findings in 118 patients with the diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma were reviewed. The tumor masses visualized in these patients were often quite large; extensive necrotic or cystic change was a frequent finding. Calcification was not observed in these tumors. The liver was the most common site of metastasis in these patients, with marked necrosis of the liver lesions a common finding. Other manifestations of tumor spread included pulmonary metastases, mesenteric or omental metastases, retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, soft-tissue metastases, bone metastases, splenic metastases, and ascites. Although the CT appearance of leiomyosarcoma is not specific, these findings, when present, suggest consideration of this diagnosis.

  17. The endolymphatic sac in patients with Ménière's disease: correlation between the MRI and the surgical findings.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, M; Fukaya, T; Noda, M

    2000-10-01

    The endolymphatic sac (ES) is thought to have close relations to pathogenesis of endolymphatic hydrops. Here is reported a retrospective study of 41 patients (42 ears) with Meniere's disease who underwent MRI prior to endolymphatic sac surgery. Based on proton-density weighted image (PDI) and T2-weighted image (T2), the ES including an endolymphatic duct (ED) were estimated whether it was detectable or not. Fourteen ESs were detected on both images (Group A), 14 ESs were detected only on PDI (Group B), and the remaining 14 ESs were not detected on either image (Group D). The actual shape of the sac, obtained from surgical findings, was classified into three (normoplastic, atrophic, invisible). Seventeen ears showed normoplastic ESs and 14 showed atrophic ESs. ES was not detected in 11 ears during surgery, and these findings were compared with image classification. From the study data, normoplastic ESs tend to be observed on both images whereas atrophic or invisible sacs were hardly observed on T2. This classification of ES on MRI was thought to correlate with surgical findings and this correlation was statistically significant (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. r(s) = 0.58, p < 0.01).

  18. Complex aortic arch anomaly: Right aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery, fenestrated proximal right and duplicated proximal left vertebral arteries—CT angiography findings and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Elizabeth; Hagspiel, Klaus D

    2015-01-01

    Congenital aortic arch and vertebral artery anomalies are a relatively rare finding discovered on imaging either incidentally or for evaluation of entities like dysphagia or subclavian steal. Right aortic arch is an uncommon anatomical anomaly that occurs in less than 0.1% of the population, and in half of these cases the left subclavian artery is also aberrant.1 Unilateral vertebral artery (VA) duplication is rare with an observed prevalence of 0.72% in cadavers.2 Fenestration of the VA is more common than duplication, with a prevalence of approximately 0.23%–1.95%.3,4 We describe the case of a 25-year-old female who was found to have a right aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery, duplicated left vertebral artery and a fenestrated right vertebral artery on CT angiography performed for evaluation of dysphagia. This combination of findings has not been reported before, to the best of our knowledge. We review the embryologic mechanism for the development of the normal aortic arch, right aortic arch, vertebral artery duplication and vertebral artery fenestration. The incidence of these entities, resultant symptoms and clinical implications are also reviewed. The increased associated incidence of aneurysm formation, dissection, arteriovenous malformations and thromboembolic events with fenestration is also discussed. PMID:26306929

  19. CT maxillary sinus evaluation-A retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Paula; Faria-Almeida, Ricardo; Braga, Ana-Cristina; Felino, António

    2015-01-01

    Background Proximity of the dental roots to the sinus floor makes dental disease a probable cause of maxillary sinusitis. The aim of this study was to find out if maxillary sinus pathologic changes were more prevalent in patients with dental disease and to evaluate the performance of computed tomography (CT) in analyzing and detecting apical periodontitis and other odontogenic causes on the maxillary sinusitis etiology in a Portuguese Caucasian population. Material and Methods Retrospective cohort study. The total sample of 504 patients and their CT was included in this study. The patients were from a private dental clinic, specializing in oral surgery, where the first complaint was not directly related to sinus disease, but with dental pathology. For each patient, the etiological factors of maxillary sinusitis and the imaging CT findings were analyzed. All the axial, coronal and sagittal CT slices were evaluated and general data were registered. The latter was selected based on the maxillary sinus CT published literature. Results 32.40% of patients presented normal sinus (without any etiological factor associated), 29.00% showed presence of etiological and imaging findings in the maxillary sinus, 20.60% had only imaging changes in the maxillary sinus and 18.00% of patients presented only etiological factors and no change in the maxillary sinus. Conclusions Radiological imaging is an important tool for establishing the diagnosis of maxillary sinus pathology. These results indicate that the CT scan should be an excellent tool for complement the odontogenic sinusitis diagnosis. Key words: Maxillary sinusitis/etiology, odontogenic, computed tomography, maxillary sinus. PMID:25858084

  20. Acute Brain MRI Findings in 120 Malawian Children with Cerebral Malaria: New Insights into an Ancient Disease

    PubMed Central

    Potchen, Michael J.; Kampondeni, Sam D.; Seydel, Karl B.; Birbeck, Gretchen L.; Hammond, Colleen A.; Bradley, William G.; DeMarco, J. Kevin; Glover, Simon J.; Ugorji, Joseph O.; Latourette, Matt; Siebert, James; Molyneux, Malcolm E.; Taylor, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose There have been few neuroimaging studies of pediatric cerebral malaria (CM), a common, often fatal tropical condition. We undertook a prospective study of pediatric CM to better characterize the MRI features of this syndrome, comparing findings in children meeting a stringent definition of CM to those in a control group who were infected with malaria but who were likely to have a non-malarial cause of coma. Materials and Methods Consecutive children admitted with traditionally defined CM (parasitemia, coma and no other coma etiology evident) were eligible for this study. The presence or absence of malaria retinopathy was determined. MRI findings in patients with retinopathy-positive (ret+) CM (cases) were compared to those with retinopathy-negative (ret−) CM (controls). Two radiologists blinded to retinopathy status jointly developed a scoring procedure for image interpretation and provided independent reviews. MRI findings were compared between patients with and without retinopathy, to assess the specificity of changes for patients with very strictly defined CM. Results Of 152 children with clinically defined CM, 120 were ret+, and 32 were ret −. Abnormalities were much more common in the ret + cases, and included severe edema, abnormal T2 signal, and DWI abnormalities in the cortical, deep gray and white matter structures. Focal abnormalities rarely respected vascular distributions. Most of the scans in the more clinically heterogeneous ret− group were normal, and none of the abnormalities noted were more prevalent in controls. Conclusions Distinctive MRI findings present in patients meeting a stringent definition of CM may offer insights into disease pathogenesis and treatment. PMID:22517285

  1. Preoperative Lateralization Modalities for Cushing Disease: Is Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging or Cavernous Sinus Sampling More Predictive of Intraoperative Findings?

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hai; Yedinak, Chris; Ozpinar, Alp; Anderson, Jim; Dogan, Aclan; Delashaw, Johnny; Fleseriu, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze whether cavernous sinus sampling (CSS) and dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) are consistent with intraoperative findings in Cushing disease (CD) patients. Design Retrospective outcomes study. Setting Oregon Health & Science University; 2006 and 2013. Participants A total of 37 CD patients with preoperative dMRI and CSS to confirm central adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) hypersecretion. Patients were 78% female; mean age was 41 years (at diagnosis), and all had a minimum of 6 months of follow-up. Main Outcome Measures Correlations among patient characteristics, dMRI measurements, CSS results, and intraoperative findings. Results All CSS indicated presence of CD. Eight of 37 patients had no identifiable tumor on dMRI. Three of 37 patients had no tumor at surgery. dMRI tumor size was inversely correlated with age (rs = − 0.4; p = 0.01) and directly correlated to intraoperative lateralization (rs = 0.3; p < 0.05). Preoperative dMRI was directly correlated to intraoperative lateralization (rs = 0.5; p < 0.002). CSS lateralization showed no correlation with intraoperative findings (rs = 0.145; p = 0.40) or lateralization observed on preoperative dMRI (rs = 0.17; p = 0.29). Postoperative remission rate was 68%. Conclusion dMRI localization was most consistent with intraoperative findings; CSS results were less reliable. Results suggest that small ACTH-secreting tumors continue to pose a challenge to reliable preoperative localization. PMID:26225305

  2. Pyogenic myositis: CT evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Tumeh, S.S.; Butler, G.J.; Maguire, J.H.; Nagel, J.S.

    1988-11-01

    Computed tomography and gallium scintigraphy uncovered clinically occult muscle infection in eight patients. The CT findings included enlargement of the muscle, effacement of the intramuscular fat planes, fluid density, rim enhancement, and involvement of the underlying bone. Computed tomography suggested the diagnosis in seven of eight cases. Gallium scintigraphy was positive in all seven cases in which it was performed.

  3. Cardiac findings on non-gated chest computed tomography: A clinical and pictorial review.

    PubMed

    Kanza, Rene Epunza; Allard, Christian; Berube, Michel

    2016-02-01

    The use of chest computed tomography (CT) as an imaging test for the evaluation of thoracic pathology has significantly increased during the last four decades. Although cardiopulmonary diseases often overlap in their clinical manifestation, radiologists tend to overlook the heart while interpreting routine chest CT. Recent advances in CT technology have led to significant reduction of heart motion artefacts and now allow for the identification of several cardiac findings on chest CT even without electrocardiogram (ECG) gating. These observations range from simple curiosity to both benign and malignant discoveries, to life-threatening discoveries. We here present a clinical and radiologic review of common and less common cardiac findings discovered on non-gated chest CT in order to draw the attention of radiologists and referring physicians to these possibilities.

  4. Cardiac findings on non-gated chest computed tomography: A clinical and pictorial review.

    PubMed

    Kanza, Rene Epunza; Allard, Christian; Berube, Michel

    2016-02-01

    The use of chest computed tomography (CT) as an imaging test for the evaluation of thoracic pathology has significantly increased during the last four decades. Although cardiopulmonary diseases often overlap in their clinical manifestation, radiologists tend to overlook the heart while interpreting routine chest CT. Recent advances in CT technology have led to significant reduction of heart motion artefacts and now allow for the identification of several cardiac findings on chest CT even without electrocardiogram (ECG) gating. These observations range from simple curiosity to both benign and malignant discoveries, to life-threatening discoveries. We here present a clinical and radiologic review of common and less common cardiac findings discovered on non-gated chest CT in order to draw the attention of radiologists and referring physicians to these possibilities. PMID:26781150

  5. A hospital-wide clinical findings dictionary based on an extension of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD).

    PubMed Central

    Bréant, C.; Borst, F.; Campi, D.; Griesser, V.; Momjian, S.

    1999-01-01

    The use of a controlled vocabulary set in a hospital-wide clinical information system is of crucial importance for many departmental database systems to communicate and exchange information. In the absence of an internationally recognized clinical controlled vocabulary set, a new extension of the International statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD) is proposed. It expands the scope of the standard ICD beyond diagnosis and procedures to clinical terminology. In addition, the common Clinical Findings Dictionary (CFD) further records the definition of clinical entities. The construction of the vocabulary set and the CFD is incremental and manual. Tools have been implemented to facilitate the tasks of defining/maintaining/publishing dictionary versions. The design of database applications in the integrated clinical information system is driven by the CFD which is part of the Medical Questionnaire Designer tool. Several integrated clinical database applications in the field of diabetes and neuro-surgery have been developed at the HUG. Images Figure 1 PMID:10566451

  6. Extracolonic Findings on Computed Tomography (CT) Colonography

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-25

    Solitary Pulmonary Nodules; Multiple Pulmonary Nodules; Renal Neoplasms; Adrenal Gland Neoplasms; Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal; Liver Neoplasms; Adnexal and Skin Appendage Neoplasms; Lymphadenopathy; Pancreatic Neoplasms

  7. Seronegative spondyloarthropathy-related sacroiliitis: CT, MRI features and differentials

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Daya; Prabhu, Shailesh M; Irodi, Aparna

    2014-01-01

    Seronegative spondyloarthropathy is a group of chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases that predominantly affect the axial skeleton. Involvement of sacroiliac joint is considered a hallmark for diagnosis of seronegative spondyloarthropathy and is usually the first manifestation of this condition. It is essential for the radiologist to know the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of spondyloarthropathy-related sacroiliitis as imaging plays an important role in diagnosis and evaluation of response to treatment. We present a pictorial essay of CT and MRI imaging findings in seronegative spondyloarthropathy-related sacroiliitis in various stages and highlight common differentials that need to be considered. PMID:25114391

  8. Epidemiology of Environmental Exposures and Human Autoimmune Diseases: Findings from a National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Expert Panel Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Alfredsson, Lars; Costenbader, Karen H.; Kamen, Diane L.; Nelson, Lorene; Norris, Jill M.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.

    2012-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (AID) are a collection of many complex disorders of unknown etiology resulting in immune responses to self-antigens and are thought to result from interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Here we review the epidemiologic evidence for the role of environmental factors in the development of human AID, the conclusions that can be drawn from the existing data, critical knowledge gaps, and research needed to fill these gaps and to resolve uncertainties. We specifically summarize the state of knowledge and our levels of confidence in the role of specific agents in the development of autoimmune diseases, and we define the areas of greatest impact for future investigations. Among our consensus findings we are confident that: 1) crystalline silica exposure can contribute to the development of several AID; 2) solvent exposure can contribute to the development of systemic sclerosis; 3) smoking can contribute to the development of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis; and 4) an inverse association exists between ultraviolet radiation exposure and the risk of development of multiple sclerosis. We suggest that more studies of phenotypes, genotypes, and multiple exposures are needed. Additional knowledge gaps needing investigation include: defining important windows in the timing of exposures and latencies relating to age, developmental state, and hormonal changes; understanding dose-response relationships; and elucidating mechanisms for disease development. Addressing these essential issues will require more resources to support research, particularly of rare AID, but knowledge of the risks conferred by environmental factors in specific genetic contexts could pave the way for prevention of AID in the future. PMID:22739348

  9. Epidemiology of environmental exposures and human autoimmune diseases: findings from a National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Expert Panel Workshop.

    PubMed

    Miller, Frederick W; Alfredsson, Lars; Costenbader, Karen H; Kamen, Diane L; Nelson, Lorene M; Norris, Jill M; De Roos, Anneclaire J

    2012-12-01

    Autoimmune diseases (AID) are a collection of many complex disorders of unknown etiology resulting in immune responses to self-antigens and are thought to result from interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Here we review the epidemiologic evidence for the role of environmental factors in the development of human AID, the conclusions that can be drawn from the existing data, critical knowledge gaps, and research needed to fill these gaps and to resolve uncertainties. We specifically summarize the state of knowledge and our levels of confidence in the role of specific agents in the development of autoimmune diseases, and we define the areas of greatest impact for future investigations. Among our consensus findings we are confident that: 1) crystalline silica exposure can contribute to the development of several AID; 2) solvent exposure can contribute to the development of systemic sclerosis; 3) smoking can contribute to the development of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis; and 4) an inverse association exists between ultraviolet radiation exposure and the risk of development of multiple sclerosis. We suggest that more studies of phenotypes, genotypes, and multiple exposures are needed. Additional knowledge gaps needing investigation include: defining important windows in the timing of exposures and latencies relating to age, developmental state, and hormonal changes; understanding dose-response relationships; and elucidating mechanisms for disease development. Addressing these essential issues will require more resources to support research, particularly of rare AID, but knowledge of the risks conferred by environmental factors in specific genetic contexts could pave the way for prevention of AID in the future.

  10. Low kV settings CT angiography (CTA) with low dose contrast medium volume protocol in the assessment of thoracic and abdominal aorta disease: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Talei Franzesi, C; Fior, D; Bonaffini, P A; Minutolo, O; Sironi, S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the diagnostic quality of low dose (100 kV) CT angiography (CTA), by using ultra-low contrast medium volume (30 ml), for thoracic and abdominal aorta evaluation. Methods: 67 patients with thoracic or abdominal vascular disease underwent multidetector CT study using a 256 slice scanner, with low dose radiation protocol (automated tube current modulation, 100 kV) and low contrast medium volume (30 ml; 4 ml s−1). Density measurements were performed on ascending, arch, descending thoracic aorta, anonymous branch, abdominal aorta, and renal and common iliac arteries. Radiation dose exposure [dose–length product (DLP)] was calculated. A control group of 35 patients with thoracic or abdominal vascular disease were evaluated with standard CTA protocol (automated tube current modulation, 120 kV; contrast medium, 80 ml). Results: In all patients, we correctly visualized and evaluated main branches of the thoracic and abdominal aorta. No difference in density measurements was achieved between low tube voltage protocol (mean attenuation value of thoracic aorta, 304 HU; abdominal, 343 HU; renal arteries, 331 HU) and control group (mean attenuation value of thoracic aorta, 320 HU; abdominal, 339; renal arteries, 303 HU). Radiation dose exposure in low tube voltage protocol was significantly different between thoracic and abdominal low tube voltage studies (490 and 324 DLP, respectively) and the control group (thoracic DLP, 1032; abdomen, DLP 1078). Conclusion: Low-tube-voltage protocol may provide a diagnostic performance comparable with that of the standard protocol, decreasing radiation dose exposure and contrast material volume amount. Advances in knowledge: Low-tube-voltage-setting protocol combined with ultra-low contrast agent volume (30 ml), by using new multidetector-row CT scanners, represents a feasible diagnostic tool to significantly reduce the radiation dose delivered to patients and to preserve renal function

  11. ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT for Staging and Restaging of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Groheux, David; Cochet, Alexandre; Humbert, Olivier; Alberini, Jean-Louis; Hindié, Elif; Mankoff, David

    2016-02-01

    Many studies have pointed out the role of (18)F-FDG PET/CT (or (18)F-FDG PET) in patients with clinical stage III or II breast cancer. (18)F-FDG PET/CT might advantageously replace other staging procedures, such as bone scanning and possibly contrast-enhanced CT of the thorax or abdomen-pelvis. We discuss the findings, locoregional or distant, that can be expected in different categories of breast cancer and their impact on prognosis and management. We also discuss the role of (18)F-FDG PET/CT in restaging and how (18)F-FDG PET/CT compares with conventional techniques in restaging for patients with suspected disease recurrence. We conclude with some recommendations for clinical practice and future research. PMID:26834096

  12. Segmental Comparison of Peripheral Arteries by Doppler Ultrasound and CT Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, Ram Kumar; Ganesan, Prakash; Mayavan, Manibharathi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diseases of peripheral arterial system are one of the common causes of limb pain, especially in elderly patients. Here we analyse non invasive imaging of peripheral arterial segments. Aim Aim of the study was to compare arterial diseases of extremities using Doppler ultrasound and CT angiography, and to find the better non-invasive modality of choice. Materials and Methods Fifty patients {14 patients with upper limb complaints (15 upper limbs) and 36 patients with lower limb complaints (72 lower limbs)} of peripheral arterial disease underwent Doppler ultrasound (USG) and CT Angiogram (CTA). Arterial systems divided into anatomic segments and luminal narrowing were compared using gray scale Doppler ultrasound and axial images of arterial phase of CT angiogram. Using statistical methods, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of Doppler ultrasound and CT angiography were determined. Results Six hundred and nineteen arterial segments were studied with CT angiography and Doppler ultrasound. Of which 226 diseased segments were identified in CT angiography. Doppler overestimated narrowing by one grade in 47 segments, by two grade in 11 segments, by three grades in 30 segments and by four grades in 22 segments; underestimated by one grade in 28 segments, by two grades in 9 segments, by three grades in 5 segments and by four grades in 3 segments. Significant statistical difference exists between Doppler USG and CT angiography. Doppler showed good correlation with CT angiography in 74%, but, Doppler overestimated stenosis grade in a significant percentage. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of Doppler USG compared with CT angiography was 93.36%, 82.44%, and 86.42%. Conclusion Duplex Doppler can be the first investigation in excluding peripheral arterial disease, especially for evaluation of infra inguinal region of lower limbs and from second part of the subclavian artery in upper limbs. PMID:27042556

  13. Automated Measurement of Heterogeneity in CT Images of Healthy and Diseased Rat Lungs using Variogram Analysis of an Octree Decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, Rick E.; Carson, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Elastase dosed mice, whole lung and single lobe groups. Combines octree image decomposition with variogram-based analysis Results in promising novel approach for characterizing and measuring lung disease at different stages

  14. CT "halo sign" in pulmonary tuberculoma.

    PubMed

    Gaeta, M; Volta, S; Stroscio, S; Romeo, P; Pandolfo, I

    1992-01-01

    The CT halo sign has been described as the CT finding of a low-attenuation zone surrounding a pulmonary nodule. It is an early clue to the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. We describe a case of CT halo sign associated with a pulmonary tuberculoma. Therefore, we think that a diagnosis other than invasive pulmonary aspergillosis should be considered in the presence of the CT halo sign in immunocompetent patients.

  15. PET/CT in radiation oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Tinsu; Mawlawi, Osama

    2008-11-15

    PET/CT is an effective tool for the diagnosis, staging and restaging of cancer patients. It combines the complementary information of functional PET images and anatomical CT images in one imaging session. Conventional stand-alone PET has been replaced by PET/CT for improved patient comfort, patient throughput, and most importantly the proven clinical outcome of PET/CT over that of PET and that of separate PET and CT. There are over two thousand PET/CT scanners installed worldwide since 2001. Oncology is the main application for PET/CT. Fluorine-18 deoxyglucose is the choice of radiopharmaceutical in PET for imaging the glucose uptake in tissues, correlated with an increased rate of glycolysis in many tumor cells. New molecular targeted agents are being developed to improve the accuracy of targeting different disease states and assessing therapeutic response. Over 50% of cancer patients receive radiation therapy (RT) in the course of their disease treatment. Clinical data have demonstrated that the information provided by PET/CT often changes patient management of the patient and/or modifies the RT plan from conventional CT simulation. The application of PET/CT in RT is growing and will become increasingly important. Continuing improvement of PET/CT instrumentation will also make it easier for radiation oncologists to integrate PET/CT in RT. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the current PET/CT technology, to project the future development of PET and CT for PET/CT, and to discuss some issues in adopting PET/CT in RT and potential improvements in PET/CT simulation of the thorax in radiation therapy.

  16. Fat deposition in the cavernous sinus in Cushing disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bachow, T.B.; Hesselink, J.R.; Aaron, J.O.; Davis, K.R.; Taveras, J.M.

    1984-10-01

    Fat density in the cavernous sinus on computed tomography (CT) is described in 6 out of 16 (37.5%) patients with Cushing disease. This finding may aid in making a specific diagnosis in patients with a pituitary mass. It was not seen in 30 random CT studies of the sella; however, supra seller fat was incidentally noted in the patient with acromegaly.

  17. Eltoprazine counteracts l-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson’s disease: a dose-finding study

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblad, Carl; af Edholm Arvidsson, Karolina; Wictorin, Klas; Keywood, Charlotte; Shankar, Bavani; Lowe, David A.; Björklund, Anders; Widner, Håkan

    2015-01-01

    In advanced stages of Parkinson’s disease, serotonergic terminals take up l-DOPA and convert it to dopamine. Abnormally released dopamine may participate in the development of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesias. Simultaneous activation of 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors effectively blocks l-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in animal models of dopamine depletion, justifying a clinical study with eltoprazine, a 5-HT1A/B receptor agonist, against l-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in patients with Parkinson’s disease. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled and dose-finding phase I/IIa study was conducted. Single oral treatment with placebo or eltoprazine, at 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg, was tested in combination with a suprathreshold dose of l-DOPA (Sinemet®) in 22 patients with Parkinson’s disease (16 male/six female; 66.6 ± 8.8 years old) with l-DOPA-induced dyskinesias. A Wilcoxon Signed Ranked Test was used to compare each eltoprazine dose level to paired randomized placebo on the prespecified primary efficacy variables; area under the curve scores on Clinical Dyskinesia Rating Scale for 3 h post-dose and maximum change of Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale part III for 3 h post-dose. Secondary objectives included effects on maximum Clinical Dyskinesia Rating Scale score, area under the curve of Rush Dyskinesia Rating Scale score for 3 h post-dose, mood parameters measured by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale and Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale along with the pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability profile of eltoprazine. A mixed model repeated measures was used for post hoc analyses of the area under the curve and peak Clinical Dyskinesia Rating Scale scores. It was found that serum concentrations of eltoprazine increased in a dose-proportional manner. Following levodopa challenge, 5 mg eltoprazine caused a significant reduction of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesias on area under the curves of Clinical Dyskinesia Rating Scale [–1.02(1.49); P = 0.004] and Rush Dyskinesia

  18. Conflicting or complementary role of computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET)/CT in the assessment of thymic cancer and thymoma: our experience and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Scagliori, Elena; Evangelista, Laura; Panunzio, Annalori; Calabrese, Fiorella; Nannini, Nazarena; Polverosi, Roberta; Pomerri, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Background To evaluate the role of computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET)/CT in patients with thymic cancer and thymoma at initial staging. Methods We retrospectively reviewed CT and PET/CT scans of 26 patients with a thymic cancer (n = 9) or thymoma (n = 17). Chest CT findings documented were qualitative and quantitative. Both qualitative and semiquantitative data were recovered by PET/CT. The comparisons among histological entities, outcome, and qualitative data from CT and PET/CT were made by non-parametric analysis. Results PET/CT resulted positive in 15/17 patients with thymoma. CT was available in 5/9 (56%) patients with thymic cancer and in 3/17 with thymoma. All quantitative CT parameters were significantly higher in patients with thymic cancer than thymoma (maximum axial diameter: 45 vs. 20 mm, maximum longitudinal diameter: 69 vs. 21 mm and volume: 77.91 vs. 4.52 mL; all P < 0.05). Conversely, only metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis were significantly different in patients with thymic cancer than thymoma (126.53 vs. 6.03 cm3 and 246.05 vs. 20.32, respectively; both P < 0.05). After a median follow-up time of 17.45 months, four recurrences of disease occurred: three in patients with thymic cancer and one with a type B2 thymoma. CT volume in patients with recurrent disease was 102.19 mL versus a median value of 62.5 mL in six disease-free patients. MTV was higher in the recurrent than disease-free patient subset (143.3 vs. 81.13 cm3), although not statistically significant (P = 0.075). Conclusion Our preliminary results demonstrated that both morphological and metabolic volume could be useful from a diagnostic and prognostic point of view in thymic cancer and thymoma patients. A large multi-center clinical trial experience for confirming the findings of this study seems mandatory. PMID:26273398

  19. [CT pathologic correlative study of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Nishimura, K; Kitaichi, M; Izumi, T; Kanaoka, M; Itoh, H

    1989-01-01

    Though bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) was proposed as a new infiltrative lung disease in 1985, we think it has two radiologic problems. First, in spite of interstitial pneumonia, about half of chest radiographs of BOOP has been reported to show alveolar opacities. Second, because radiologic features of both some cases of BOOP and of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) show reticular shadows on chest radiographs, it is sometimes difficult to differentiate between two diseases. We correlated CT images with open lung biopsy specimens and evaluated CT's ability to differentiate BOOP from UIP. CT findings of all cases of BOOP were: (1) markedly increased dense infiltrates of various sizes which demarcated sharply from normal lung field. Air bronchogram was always present. (2) less dense images were seen which also stood out against the normal lung field. The former corresponded to air space consolidation formed by organized exudates and inflammatory cells within alveolar ducts and alveoli, while the latter indicated luminal and mural alveolitis. Both findings were sharply delineated from each other probably because of intervening interlobular septa. Conglomerated small cystic shadows and air bronchography within areas of intense lung density were seen in CT images of most of 28 patients with UIP. Those findings proved to correspond to macroscopic or microscopic honey combing which were not seen in our cases of BOOP. These radiologic and pathologic features of UIP were different. PMID:2724593

  20. Finding off-targets, biological pathways, and target diseases for chymase inhibitors via structure-based systems biology approach.

    PubMed

    Arooj, Mahreen; Sakkiah, Sugunadevi; Cao, Guang Ping; Kim, Songmi; Arulalapperumal, Venkatesh; Lee, Keun Woo

    2015-07-01

    Off-target binding connotes the binding of a small molecule of therapeutic significance to a protein target in addition to the primary target for which it was proposed. Progressively such off-targeting is emerging to be regular practice to reveal side effects. Chymase is an enzyme of hydrolase class that catalyzes hydrolysis of peptide bonds. A link between heart failure and chymase is ascribed, and a chymase inhibitor is in clinical phase II for treatment of heart failure. However, the underlying mechanisms of the off-target effects of human chymase inhibitors are still unclear. Here, we develop a robust computational strategy that is applicable to any enzyme system and that allows the prediction of drug effects on biological processes. Putative off-targets for chymase inhibitors were identified through various structural and functional similarity analyses along with molecular docking studies. Finally, literature survey was performed to incorporate these off-targets into biological pathways and to establish links between pathways and particular adverse effects. Off-targets of chymase inhibitors are linked to various biological pathways such as classical and lectin pathways of complement system, intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of coagulation cascade, and fibrinolytic system. Tissue kallikreins, granzyme M, neutrophil elastase, and mesotrypsin are also identified as off-targets. These off-targets and their associated pathways are elucidated for the effects of inflammation, cancer, hemorrhage, thrombosis, and central nervous system diseases (Alzheimer's disease). Prospectively, our approach is helpful not only to better understand the mechanisms of chymase inhibitors but also for drug repurposing exercises to find novel uses for these inhibitors.